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Sample records for wave attenuation coefficients

  1. An inequality for longitudinal and transverse wave attenuation coefficients.

    PubMed

    Norris, Andrew N

    2017-01-01

    Total absorption, defined as the net flux of energy out of a bounded region averaged over one cycle for time harmonic motion, must be non-negative when there are no sources of energy within the region. This passivity condition places constraints on the non-dimensional absorption coefficients of longitudinal and transverse waves, γL and γT, in isotropic linearly viscoelastic materials. Typically, γL, γT are small, in which case the constraints imply that coefficients of attenuation per unit length, αL, αT, must satisfy the inequality αL/αT≥4cT(3)/3cL(3) where cL, cT are the wave speeds. This inequality, which as far as the author is aware, has not been presented before, provides a relative bound on wave speed in terms of attenuation, or vice versa. It also serves as a check on the consistency of ultrasonic measurements from the literature, with most but not all of the data considered passing the positive absorption test.

  2. Estimation of near-surface quality factors by constrained inversion of Rayleigh-wave attenuation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Yixian; Miller, Richard D.; Ivanov, Julian

    2012-07-01

    Quality factors (Q) of near-surface materials are as important as velocities of the materials in many applications. Only phase information of surface-wave data is utilized when high-frequency (≥ 2 Hz) surface-wave data are routinely inverted to determine near-surface shear (S)-wave velocities. Amplitude information of high-frequency surface-wave data can be used to determine quality factors of near-surface materials. Given S-wave velocity, compressional (P)-wave velocity, and Rayleigh-wave phase velocities, it is feasible to solve for S-wave quality factor QS and P-wave quality factor QP (for some specific velocity models) down to 30 m below the ground surface in many settings by inverting high-frequency Rayleigh-wave attenuation coefficients in a layered earth model. Amplitude of seismic data is an exponential function of attenuation coefficients. When calculating attenuation coefficients from changes in amplitude, this nonlinear nature would result in that small variations in amplitude cause huge changes in attenuation coefficients. This result suggests data (attenuation coefficients) that normally possess large errors could eventually transfer to a model (quality factors); therefore, constraints (or a priori information) on models are necessary. Because an inversion system to solve this problem is unstable, a regularization parameter must be introduced into an inversion algorithm to stabilize the inversion. These characteristics of the inversion problem allow us to solve the problem as a constrained and regularized linear system. Usually, a set of models that meet the defined constraints can be obtained by solving the system. Based on the linear nature of the inversion system, a smooth model can be selected from the set of models as a solution of the inversion using the L-curve method. This approach is a trade-off solution between data misfit and model length. Several real-world examples demonstrate the importance of constraints in finding acceptable realistic

  3. Measurement of attenuation coefficients of the fundamental and second harmonic waves in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuzeng; Jeong, Hyunjo; Cho, Sungjong; Li, Xiongbing

    2016-02-01

    Attenuation corrections in nonlinear acoustics play an important role in the study of nonlinear fluids, biomedical imaging, or solid material characterization. The measurement of attenuation coefficients in a nonlinear regime is not easy because they depend on the source pressure and requires accurate diffraction corrections. In this work, the attenuation coefficients of the fundamental and second harmonic waves which come from the absorption of water are measured in nonlinear ultrasonic experiments. Based on the quasilinear theory of the KZK equation, the nonlinear sound field equations are derived and the diffraction correction terms are extracted. The measured sound pressure amplitudes are adjusted first for diffraction corrections in order to reduce the impact on the measurement of attenuation coefficients from diffractions. The attenuation coefficients of the fundamental and second harmonics are calculated precisely from a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting process of the experiment data. The results show that attenuation coefficients in a nonlinear condition depend on both frequency and source pressure, which are much different from a linear regime. In a relatively lower drive pressure, the attenuation coefficients increase linearly with frequency. However, they present the characteristic of nonlinear growth in a high drive pressure. As the diffraction corrections are obtained based on the quasilinear theory, it is important to use an appropriate source pressure for accurate attenuation measurements.

  4. Iterative methods for solving coefficient inverse problems of wave tomography in models with attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharsky, Alexander V.; Romanov, Sergey Y.

    2017-02-01

    We develop efficient iterative methods for solving inverse problems of wave tomography in models incorporating both diffraction effects and attenuation. In the inverse problem the aim is to reconstruct the velocity structure and the function that characterizes the distribution of attenuation properties in the object studied. We prove mathematically and rigorously the differentiability of the residual functional in normed spaces, and derive the corresponding formula for the Fréchet derivative. The computation of the Fréchet derivative includes solving both the direct problem with the Neumann boundary condition and the reversed-time conjugate problem. We develop efficient methods for numerical computations where the approximate solution is found using the detector measurements of the wave field and its normal derivative. The wave field derivative values at detector locations are found by solving the exterior boundary value problem with the Dirichlet boundary conditions. We illustrate the efficiency of this approach by applying it to model problems. The algorithms developed are highly parallelizable and designed to be run on supercomputers. Among the most promising medical applications of our results is the development of ultrasonic tomographs for differential diagnosis of breast cancer.

  5. An explicit formula for the coherent SH waves' attenuation coefficient in random porous materials with low porosities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Ye, Wenjing

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the attenuation coefficient of coherent SH waves in random porous material with uniformly randomly distributed elliptical cavities of different aspect ratios is studied. Based on an analysis of the mechanism for attenuation, a simple macro model for the attenuation coefficient is proposed. The macro model says that the attenuation coefficient can be expressed as a function of the mean scattering cross section and the number density of cavities at low porosities. Then, large-scale numerical simulations using the pre-corrected Fast Fourier Transform (pFFT) algorithm accelerated Boundary Element Method (BEM) are conducted to specify this macro model. Finally, this macro model is compared with four theoretical models derived for composite/porous materials with circular inclusions at the porosity p=3.17% and 5%. Results show this macro model agree well with three of them. Compared to the existing theoretical models, the form of this macro model is simple and has a clear physical meaning. In addition, it is applicable to cases with relatively complex cavities.

  6. Wave intensity amplification and attenuation in non-linear flow: implications for the calculation of local reflection coefficients.

    PubMed

    Mynard, Jonathan; Penny, Daniel J; Smolich, Joseph J

    2008-12-05

    Local reflection coefficients (R) provide important insights into the influence of wave reflection on vascular haemodynamics. Using the relatively new time-domain method of wave intensity analysis, R has been calculated as the ratio of the peak intensities (R(PI)) or areas (R(CI)) of incident and reflected waves, or as the ratio of the changes in pressure caused by these waves (R(DeltaP)). While these methods have not yet been compared, it is likely that elastic non-linearities present in large arteries will lead to changes in the size of waves as they propagate and thus errors in the calculation of R(PI) and R(CI). To test this proposition, R(PI), R(CI) and R(DeltaP) were calculated in a non-linear computer model of a single vessel with various degrees of elastic non-linearity, determined by wave speed and pulse amplitude (DeltaP(+)), and a terminal admittance to produce reflections. Results obtained from this model demonstrated that under linear flow conditions (i.e. as DeltaP(+)-->0), R(DeltaP) is equivalent to the square-root of R(PI) and R(CI) (denoted by R(PI)(p) and R(CI)(p)). However for non-linear flow, pressure-increasing (compression) waves undergo amplification while pressure-reducing (expansion) waves undergo attenuation as they propagate. Consequently, significant errors related to the degree of elastic non-linearity arise in R(PI) and R(CI), and also R(PI)(p) and R(CI)(p), with greater errors associated with larger reflections. Conversely, R(Delta)(P) is unaffected by the degree of non-linearity and is thus more accurate than R(PI) and R(CI).

  7. Estimating Attenuation Coefficients and P-Wave Velocities of the Shallow San Jacinto Fault Zone from Betsy Gunshots Data Recorded by a Spatially Dense Array with 1108 Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozakin, Yaman; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    2016-04-01

    We estimate values of P wave velocity and P attenuation coefficients (QP) for the subsurface material at the Sage Brush Flat site along the Clark branch of the San Jacinto Fault Zone. The data are generated by 33 Betsy gunshots and recorded by a spatially dense array of 1108 vertical component geophones deployed in a rectangular grid that is approximately 600 m x 600 m. We automatically pick the arrival times of the seismic body waves from each explosion arriving at stations within 200 m. These measurements are used to derive an average velocity map with velocity values ranging from 500 m/s to 1250 m/s. We estimate the energy of the early P waves by squaring the amplitudes in a short window relative to the automatic picks. These energies are fitted to a decay function representing the geometrical spreading and intrinsic attenuation. By separating the stations into spatial bins and calculating attenuation values for each by linear regression, we construct a QP values map. Most of the QP values are in 5-20 range, which is consistent with other studies of shallow fault zone regions.

  8. Determination of Dimensionless Attenuation Coefficient in Shaped Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, C.; Steinetz, B.; Finkbeiner, J.; Raman, G.; Li, X.

    2003-01-01

    The value of dimensionless attenuation coefficient is an important factor when numerically predicting high-amplitude acoustic waves in shaped resonators. Both the magnitude of the pressure waveform and the quality factor rely heavily on this dimensionless parameter. Previous authors have stated the values used, but have not completely explained their methods. This work fully describes the methodology used to determine this important parameter. Over a range of frequencies encompassing the fundamental resonance, the pressure waves were experimentally measured at each end of the shaped resonators. At the corresponding dimensionless acceleration, the numerical code modeled the acoustic waveforms generated in the resonator using various dimensionless attenuation coefficients. The dimensionless attenuation coefficient that most closely matched the pressure amplitudes and quality factors of the experimental and numerical results was determined to be the value to be used in subsequent studies.

  9. Full wave-field reflection coefficient inversion.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Jan; Dosso, Stan E; Holland, Charles W

    2007-12-01

    This paper develops a Bayesian inversion for recovering multilayer geoacoustic (velocity, density, attenuation) profiles from a full wave-field (spherical-wave) seabed reflection response. The reflection data originate from acoustic time series windowed for a single bottom interaction, which are processed to yield reflection coefficient data as a function of frequency and angle. Replica data for inversion are computed using a wave number-integration model to calculate the full complex acoustic pressure field, which is processed to produce a commensurate seabed response function. To address the high computational cost of calculating short range acoustic fields, the inversion algorithms are parallelized and frequency averaging is replaced by range averaging in the forward model. The posterior probability density is interpreted in terms of optimal parameter estimates, marginal distributions, and credibility intervals. Inversion results for the full wave-field seabed response are compared to those obtained using plane-wave reflection coefficients. A realistic synthetic study indicates that the plane-wave assumption can fail, producing erroneous results with misleading uncertainty bounds, whereas excellent results are obtained with the full-wave reflection inversion.

  10. Effects of Wave Nonlinearity on Wave Attenuation by Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W. C.; Cox, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    The need to explore sustainable approaches to maintain coastal ecological systems has been widely recognized for decades and is increasingly important due to global climate change and patterns in coastal population growth. Submerged aquatic vegetation and emergent vegetation in estuaries and shorelines can provide ecosystem services, including wave-energy reduction and erosion control. Idealized models of wave-vegetation interaction often assume rigid, vertically uniform vegetation under the action of waves described by linear wave theory. A physical model experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of wave nonlinearity on the attenuation of random waves propagating through a stand of uniform, emergent vegetation in constant water depth. The experimental conditions spanned a relative water depth from near shallow to near deep water waves (0.45 < kh <1.49) and wave steepness from linear to nonlinear conditions (0.03 < ak < 0.18). The wave height to water depth ratios were in the range 0.12 < Hs/h < 0.34, and the Ursell parameter was in the range 2 < Ur < 68. Frictional losses from the side wall and friction were measured and removed from the wave attenuation in the vegetated cases to isolate the impact of vegetation. The normalized wave height attenuation decay for each case was fit to the decay equation of Dalrymple et al. (1984) to determine the damping factor, which was then used to calculate the bulk drag coefficients CD. This paper shows that the damping factor is dependent on the wave steepness ak across the range of relative water depths from shallow to deep water and that the damping factor can increase by a factor of two when the value of ak approximately doubles. In turn, this causes the drag coefficient CD to decrease on average by 23%. The drag coefficient can be modeled using the Keulegan-Carpenter number using the horizontal orbital wave velocity estimate from linear wave theory as the characteristic velocity scale. Alternatively, the Ursell

  11. Attenuation Coefficient Estimation of the Healthy Human Thyroid In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouyer, J.; Cueva, T.; Portal, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Lavarello, R.

    Previous studies have demonstrated that attenuation coefficients can be useful towards characterizing thyroid tissues. In this work, ultrasonic attenuation coefficients were estimated from healthy human thyroids in vivo using a clinical scanner. The selected subjects were five young, healthy volunteers (age: 26 ± 6 years old, gender: three females, two males) with no reported history of thyroid diseases, no palpable thyroid nodules, no smoking habits, and body mass index less than 30 kg/m2. Echographic examinations were conducted by a trained sonographer using a SonixTouch system (Ultrasonix Medical Corporation, Richmond, BC) equipped with an L14-5 linear transducer array (nominal center frequency of 10 MHz, transducer footprint of 3.8 cm). Radiofrequency data corresponding to the collected echographic images in both transverse and longitudinal views were digitized at a sampling rate of 40 MHz and processed with Matlab codes (MathWorks, Natick, MA) to estimate attenuation coefficients using the spectral log difference method. The estimation was performed using an analysis bandwidth spanning from 4.0 to 9.0 MHz. The average value of the estimated ultrasonic attenuation coefficients was equal to 1.34 ± 0.15 dB/(cm.MHz). The standard deviation of the estimated average attenuation coefficient across different volunteers suggests a non-negligible inter-subject variability in the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient of the human thyroid.

  12. Imaging Rayleigh wave attenuation with USArray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Xueyang; Dalton, Colleen A.; Jin, Ge; Gaherty, James B.; Shen, Yang

    2016-07-01

    The EarthScope USArray provides an opportunity to obtain detailed images of the continental upper mantle at an unprecedented scale. The majority of mantle models derived from USArray data to date contain spatial variations in seismic-wave speed; however, in many cases these data sets do not by themselves allow a non-unique interpretation. Joint interpretation of seismic attenuation and velocity models can improve upon the interpretations based only on velocity and provide important constraints on the temperature, composition, melt content, and volatile content of the mantle. The surface wave amplitudes that constrain upper-mantle attenuation are sensitive to factors in addition to attenuation, including the earthquake source excitation, focusing and defocusing by elastic structure, and local site amplification. Because of the difficulty of isolating attenuation from these other factors, little is known about the attenuation structure of the North American upper mantle. In this study, Rayleigh wave traveltime and amplitude in the period range 25-100 s are measured using an interstation cross-correlation technique, which takes advantage of waveform similarity at nearby stations. Several estimates of Rayleigh wave attenuation and site amplification are generated at each period, using different approaches to separate the effects of attenuation and local site amplification on amplitude. It is assumed that focusing and defocusing effects can be described by the Laplacian of the traveltime field. All approaches identify the same large-scale patterns in attenuation, including areas where the attenuation values are likely contaminated by unmodelled focusing and defocusing effects. Regionally averaged attenuation maps are constructed after removal of the contaminated attenuation values, and the variations in intrinsic shear attenuation that are suggested by these Rayleigh wave attenuation maps are explored.

  13. Stress wave attenuation in shock-damaged rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cangli; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1997-03-01

    The velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic stress waves in gabbroic rock samples (San Marcos, California) subjected to shock loading in the 2 GPa range were studied. Prom P wave velocity measurements we determined the damage parameter Dp and crack density ɛ of the samples and related these to the attenuation coefficient (quality factor) under dynamic strains of 2×10-7 and at a frequency of 2 MHz using the ultrasonic pulse-echo method. A fit to the data yields the P wave spatial attenuation coefficient at a frequency of 2 MHz, αp(Dp) = 1.1 + 28.2DP (decibels per centimeter). From the relation between the attenuation coefficient and quality factor, the quality factor Q is given by Q-1 = 0.011(1 + 25.6Dp)(1 - Dp)½. Using O'Connell-Budiansky theory relating crack density to velocity, the parameter in Walsh's theory was determined based on experimental data. An approximate method is also proposed to estimate the average half-length of cracks based on the attenuation measurements.

  14. Radiation and attenuation of waves in a random medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, A. R.

    1982-01-01

    The physical mechanisms of excess attenuation are analyzed on the basis of a one-dimensional time-independent model of propagation in a random medium. Attenuation is regarded as the rate of decrease in the mean intensity and the mean energy flux within a propagation range. A source function is assumed to be determinate, appropriate statistical properties are chosen for the sound speed, and specified statistical properties are found for the wave functions, i.e., the mean intensity and the mean energy flux. The medium is considered to be weakly homogeneous, and expansions are developed for the intensity and mean energy flux, along with an attenuation coefficient in two parts, the second of which defines the excess attenuation. The mean radiated power is defined, and backscattering by the random inhomogeneities in the medium is modeled as redistributing the mean intensity and energy flux, with a resultant decay which occurs more quickly than with randomness.

  15. Remote sensing of normalized diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Junfang; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Du, Keping

    2016-09-01

    The diffuse attenuation of downwelling irradiance, Kd (m-1), is an important property related to light penetration and availability in aquatic ecosystems. The standard Kd(490) product (the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm) of the global oceans from satellite remote sensing has been produced with an empirical algorithm, which limits its reliability and applicability in coastal regions. More importantly, as an apparent optical property (AOP), Kd is a function of the angular distribution of the light field (e.g., solar zenith angle). The empirically derived product thus contains ambiguities when compared with in situ measurements as there is no specification regarding the corresponding solar zenith angle associated with this Kd(490) product. To overcome these shortcomings, we refined the Kd product with a product termed as the normalized diffuse attenuation coefficient (nKd, m-1), that is equivalent to the Kd in the absence of the atmosphere and with the sun at zenith. Models were developed to get nKd from both in situ measurements and ocean color remote sensing. Evaluations using field measurements indicated that the semianalytically derived nKd product will not only remove the ambiguities when comparing Kd values of different light fields but will also improve the quality of such a product, therefore maximizing the value offered by satellite ocean color remote sensing.

  16. Attenuation of sound waves in drill strings

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, D.S. )

    1993-10-01

    During drilling of deep wells, digital data are often transmitted from sensors located near the drill bit to the surface. Development of a new communication system with increased data capacity is of paramount importance to the drilling industry. Since steel drill strings are used, transmission of these data by elastic carrier waves traveling within the drill pipe is possible, but the potential communication range is uncertain. The problem is complicated by the presence of heavy-threaded tool joints every 10 m, which form a periodic structure and produce classical patterns of passbands and stop bands in the wave spectra. In this article, field measurements of the attenuation characteristics of a drill string in the Long Valley Scientific Well in Mammoth Lakes, California are presented. Wave propagation distances approach 2 km. A theoretical model is discussed which predicts the location, width, and attenuation of the passbands. Mode conversion between extensional and bending waves, and spurious reflections due to deviations in the periodic spacings of the tool joints are believed to be the sources of this attenuation. It is estimated that attenuation levels can be dramatically reduced by rearranging the individual pipes in the drill string according to length. 7 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Bubbles attenuate elastic waves at seismic frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisato, Nicola; Quintal, Beatriz; Chapman, Samuel; Podladchikov, Yury; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The vertical migration of multiphase fluids in the crust can cause hazardous events such as eruptions, explosions, pollution and earthquakes. Although seismic tomography could potentially provide a detailed image of such fluid-saturated regions, the interpretation of the tomographic signals is often controversial and fails in providing a conclusive map of the subsurface saturation. Seismic tomography should be improved considering seismic wave attenuation (1/Q) and the dispersive elastic moduli which allow accounting for the energy lost by the propagating elastic wave. In particular, in saturated media a significant portion of the energy carried by the propagating wave is dissipated by the wave-induced-fluid-flow and the wave-induced-gas-exsolution-dissolution (WIGED) mechanisms. The WIGED mechanism describes how a propagating wave modifies the thermodynamic equillibrium between different fluid phases causing the exsolution and the dissolution of the gas in the liquid, which in turn causes a significant frequency dependent 1/Q and moduli dispersion. The WIGED theory was initially postulated for bubbly magmas but only recently was extended to bubbly water and experimentally demonstrated. Here we report these theory and laboratory experiments. Specifically, we present i) attenuation measurements performed by means of the Broad Band Attenuation Vessel on porous media saturated with water and different gases, and ii) numerical experiments validating the laboratory observations. Finally, we will extend the theory to fluids and to pressure-temperature conditions which are typical of phreatomagmatic and hydrocarbon domains and we will compare the propagation of seismic waves in bubble-free and bubble-bearing subsurface domains. With the present contribution we extend the knowledge about attenuation in rocks which are saturated with multiphase fluid demonstrating that the WIGED mechanism could be extremely important to image subsurface gas plumes.

  18. Measurement of Acoustic Attenuation and Absorption Coefficients using Thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Hugh; Rivens, Ian; Shaw, Adam; ter Haar, Gail

    2007-05-01

    Accurate knowledge of both the attenuation and the absorption coefficient of tissue are required when planning an optimal high intensity focused ultrasound treatment. A novel technique for simple measurement of this parameters has been developed in which a thin-film thermocouple (TFT) is placed between two layers of tissue of different thicknesses. The sample can be rotated about an axis through the junction of the TFT so that it can be insonated from either side leaving the tissue adjacent to the junction unchanged, but changing the overlying thickness. The attenuation and absorption coefficients can be calculated from the heating curves measured in the two orientations. Experiments have been carried out in both tissue mimicking material (TMM) and in ex vivo liver tissue. Weakly focused transducers, resonant at 1.05 MHz, 2.4 MHz and 3.55 MHz were used at free-field spatial peak intensities of 9-14 W/cm2. The temperature rise was measured as a function of time using a TFT. These thermocouples are not subject to the viscous heating artefact that is common to other thermocouple devices and so are advantageous for this purpose. Alignment was achieved with a 3D automated gantry system, which was controlled with specialised software. Timing and data acquisition were also controlled with this software. All experiments were carried out in degassed water. Results for TMM and degassed excised bovine liver are presented.

  19. Attenuation coefficient of usable solar radiation of the global oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Junfang; Lee, Zhongping; Ondrusek, Michael; Kahru, Mati

    2016-05-01

    Usable solar radiation (USR) represents spectrally integrated solar energy in the spectral range of 400-560 nm, a domain where photons penetrate the most in oceanic waters and thus contribute to photosynthesis and heating at deeper depths. Through purely numerical simulations, it was found that the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling USR (Kd(USR), m-1) is nearly a constant vertically in the upper water column for clear waters and most turbid waters. Subsequently an empirical model was developed to estimate Kd(USR) based on the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (Kd(490), m-1). We here evaluate this relationship using data collected from a wide range of oceanic and coastal environments and found that the relationship between Kd(490) and Kd(USR) developed via the numerical simulation is quite robust. We further refined this relationship to extend the applicability to "clearest" natural waters. This refined relationship was then used to produce sample distribution of Kd(USR) of global oceans. As expected, extremely low Kd(USR) (˜0.02 m-1) was observed in ocean gyres, while significantly higher Kd(USR) (˜5.2 m-1) was found in very turbid coastal regions. A useful application of Kd(USR) is to easily and accurately propagate surface USR to deeper depths, potentially to significantly improve the estimation of basin scale primary production and heat fluxes in the upper water column.

  20. Phase Aberration and Attenuation Effects on Acoustic Radiation Force-Based Shear Wave Generation.

    PubMed

    Carrascal, Carolina Amador; Aristizabal, Sara; Greenleaf, James F; Urban, Matthew W

    2016-02-01

    Elasticity is measured by shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) methods using acoustic radiation force to create the shear waves. Phase aberration and tissue attenuation can hamper the generation of shear waves for in vivo applications. In this study, the effects of phase aberration and attenuation in ultrasound focusing for creating shear waves were explored. This includes the effects of phase shifts and amplitude attenuation on shear wave characteristics such as shear wave amplitude, shear wave speed, shear wave center frequency, and bandwidth. Two samples of swine belly tissue were used to create phase aberration and attenuation experimentally. To explore the phase aberration and attenuation effects individually, tissue experiments were complemented with ultrasound beam simulations using fast object-oriented C++ ultrasound simulator (FOCUS) and shear wave simulations using finite-element-model (FEM) analysis. The ultrasound frequency used to generate shear waves was varied from 3.0 to 4.5 MHz. Results: The measured acoustic pressure and resulting shear wave amplitude decreased approximately 40%-90% with the introduction of the tissue samples. Acoustic intensity and shear wave displacement were correlated for both tissue samples, and the resulting Pearson's correlation coefficients were 0.99 and 0.97. Analysis of shear wave generation with tissue samples (phase aberration and attenuation case), measured phase screen, (only phase aberration case), and FOCUS/FEM model (only attenuation case) showed that tissue attenuation affected the shear wave generation more than tissue aberration. Decreasing the ultrasound frequency helped maintain a focused beam for creation of shear waves in the presence of both phase aberration and attenuation.

  1. Phase Aberration and Attenuation Effects on Acoustic Radiation Force-Based Shear Wave Generation

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Carolina; Aristizabal, Sara; Greenleaf, James F.; Urban, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue elasticity is measured by shear wave elasticity imaging methods using acoustic radiation force to create the shear waves. Phase aberration and tissue attenuation can hamper the generation of shear waves for in vivo applications. In this study effects of phase aberration and attenuation in ultrasound focusing for creating shear waves were explored. This includes the effects of phase shifts and amplitude attenuation on shear wave characteristics such as shear wave amplitude, shear wave speed, shear wave center frequency and bandwidth. Two samples of swine belly tissue were used to create phase aberration and attenuation experimentally. To explore the phase aberration and attenuation effects individually, tissue experiments were complemented with ultrasound beam simulations using FOCUS and shear wave simulations using Finite Element Model (FEM) analysis. The ultrasound frequency used to generate shear waves was varied from 3.0 to 4.5 MHz. Results The measured acoustic pressure and resulting shear wave amplitude decreased approximately 40% to 90% with the introduction of the tissue samples. Acoustic intensity and shear wave displacement were correlated for both tissue samples, the resulting Pearson’s correlation coefficients were 0.99 and 0.97. Analysis of shear wave generation with tissue samples (Phase Aberration and Attenuation case), measured phase screen (Only Phase Aberration case) and FOCUS/FEM model (Only Attenuation case) showed that tissue attenuation affected the shear wave generation more than tissue aberration. Decreasing the ultrasound frequency helped maintain a focused beam for creation of shear waves in the presence of both phase aberration and attenuation. PMID:26742131

  2. Wave attenuation in the shallows of San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacy, Jessica R.; MacVean, Lissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Waves propagating over broad, gently-sloped shallows decrease in height due to frictional dissipation at the bed. We quantified wave-height evolution across 7 km of mudflat in San Pablo Bay (northern San Francisco Bay), an environment where tidal mixing prevents the formation of fluid mud. Wave height was measured along a cross shore transect (elevation range−2mto+0.45mMLLW) in winter 2011 and summer 2012. Wave height decreased more than 50% across the transect. The exponential decay coefficient λ was inversely related to depth squared (λ=6×10−4h−2). The physical roughness length scale kb, estimated from near-bed turbulence measurements, was 3.5×10−3 m in winter and 1.1×10−2 m in summer. Estimated wave friction factor fw determined from wave-height data suggests that bottom friction dominates dissipation at high Rew but not at low Rew. Predictions of near-shore wave height based on offshore wave height and a rough formulation for fw were quite accurate, with errors about half as great as those based on the smooth formulation for fw. Researchers often assume that the wave boundary layer is smooth for settings with fine-grained sediments. At this site, use of a smooth fw results in an underestimate of wave shear stress by a factor of 2 for typical waves and as much as 5 for more energetic waves. It also inadequately captures the effectiveness of the mudflats in protecting the shoreline through wave attenuation.

  3. Attenuation coefficient of single-mode periodic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Baron, A; Mazoyer, S; Smigaj, W; Lalanne, P

    2011-10-07

    It is widely accepted that, on ensemble average, the transmission T of guided modes decays exponentially with the waveguide length L due to small imperfections, leading to the important figure of merit defined as the attenuation-rate coefficient α=-⟨ln(T)⟩/L. In this Letter, we evidence that the exponential-damping law is not valid in general for periodic monomode waveguides, especially as the group velocity decreases. This result, that contradicts common beliefs and experimental practices aiming at measuring α, is supported by a theoretical study of light transport in the limit of very small imperfections, and by numerical results obtained for two waveguide geometries that offer contrasted damping behaviors.

  4. Uranium soft x-ray total attenuation coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Oliver, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium total attenuation coefficients were measured continuously from 0.84 to 6.0 keV and at selected higher energies using a vacuum single crystal diffractometer and flow-proportional counter. Statistical fluctuations ranged from 0.5% to 2%. The overall accuracy was 3%. Prominent structure was measured within 20 eV of the M/sub 5/ (3.552 keV) and M/sub 4/ (3.728 keV) edges. Jump ratios were determined from log-log polynomial fits to data at energies apart from the near-edge regions. These data were compared with calculations based on a relativistic HFS central potential model and with previously tabulated data.

  5. Attenuation Coefficient of Single-Mode Periodic Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, A.; Mazoyer, S.; Smigaj, W.; Lalanne, P.

    2011-10-01

    It is widely accepted that, on ensemble average, the transmission T of guided modes decays exponentially with the waveguide length L due to small imperfections, leading to the important figure of merit defined as the attenuation-rate coefficient α=-⟨ln⁡(T)⟩/L. In this Letter, we evidence that the exponential-damping law is not valid in general for periodic monomode waveguides, especially as the group velocity decreases. This result, that contradicts common beliefs and experimental practices aiming at measuring α, is supported by a theoretical study of light transport in the limit of very small imperfections, and by numerical results obtained for two waveguide geometries that offer contrasted damping behaviors.

  6. A model for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Du, Ke-Ping; Arnone, Robert

    2005-02-01

    The diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance (Kd) is an important parameter for ocean studies. For the vast ocean the only feasible means to get fine-scale measurements of Kd is by ocean color remote sensing. At present, values of Kd from remote sensing are estimated using empirical algorithms. Such an approach is insufficient to provide an understanding regarding the variation of Kd and contains large uncertainties in the derived values. In this study a semianalytical model for Kd is developed based on the radiative transfer equation, with values of the model parameters derived from Hydrolight simulations using the averaged particle phase function. The model is further tested with data simulated using significantly different particle phase functions, and the modeled Kd are found matching Hydrolight Kd very well (˜2% average error and ˜12% maximum error). Such a model provides an improved interpretation about the variation of Kd and a basis to more accurately determine Kd (especially using data from remote sensing).

  7. Determining attenuation properties of interfering fast and slow ultrasonic waves in cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Amber M; Hoffman, Joseph J; Anderson, Christian C; Holland, Mark R; Nagatani, Yoshiki; Mizuno, Katsunori; Matsukawa, Mami; Miller, James G

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that interference between fast waves and slow waves can lead to observed negative dispersion in cancellous bone. In this study, the effects of overlapping fast and slow waves on measurements of the apparent attenuation as a function of propagation distance are investigated along with methods of analysis used to determine the attenuation properties. Two methods are applied to simulated data that were generated based on experimentally acquired signals taken from a bovine specimen. The first method uses a time-domain approach that was dictated by constraints imposed by the partial overlap of fast and slow waves. The second method uses a frequency-domain log-spectral subtraction technique on the separated fast and slow waves. Applying the time-domain analysis to the broadband data yields apparent attenuation behavior that is larger in the early stages of propagation and decreases as the wave travels deeper. In contrast, performing frequency-domain analysis on the separated fast waves and slow waves results in attenuation coefficients that are independent of propagation distance. Results suggest that features arising from the analysis of overlapping two-mode data may represent an alternate explanation for the previously reported apparent dependence on propagation distance of the attenuation coefficient of cancellous bone.

  8. Nonlinear attenuation of S-waves and Love waves within ambient rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, Norman H.; Erickson, Brittany A.

    2014-04-01

    obtain scaling relationships for nonlinear attenuation of S-waves and Love waves within sedimentary basins to assist numerical modeling. These relationships constrain the past peak ground velocity (PGV) of strong 3-4 s Love waves from San Andreas events within Greater Los Angeles, as well as the maximum PGV of future waves that can propagate without strong nonlinear attenuation. During each event, the shaking episode cracks the stiff, shallow rock. Over multiple events, this repeated damage in the upper few hundred meters leads to self-organization of the shear modulus. Dynamic strain is PGV divided by phase velocity, and dynamic stress is strain times the shear modulus. The frictional yield stress is proportional to depth times the effective coefficient of friction. At the eventual quasi-steady self-organized state, the shear modulus increases linearly with depth allowing inference of past typical PGV where rock over the damaged depth range barely reaches frictional failure. Still greater future PGV would cause frictional failure throughout the damaged zone, nonlinearly attenuating the wave. Assuming self-organization has taken place, estimated maximum past PGV within Greater Los Angeles Basins is 0.4-2.6 m s-1. The upper part of this range includes regions of accumulating sediments with low S-wave velocity that may have not yet compacted, rather than having been damaged by strong shaking. Published numerical models indicate that strong Love waves from the San Andreas Fault pass through Whittier Narrows. Within this corridor, deep drawdown of the water table from its currently shallow and preindustrial levels would nearly double PGV of Love waves reaching Downtown Los Angeles.

  9. The Attenuation of Correlation Coefficients: A Statistical Literacy Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trafimow, David

    2016-01-01

    Much of the science reported in the media depends on correlation coefficients. But the size of correlation coefficients depends, in part, on the reliability with which the correlated variables are measured. Understanding this is a statistical literacy issue.

  10. An approximation to the reflection coefficient of plane longitudinal waves based on the diffusive-viscous wave equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haixia; Gao, Jinghuai; Peng, Jigen

    2017-01-01

    The frequency-dependent seismic anomalies related to hydrocarbon reservoirs have lately attracted wide interest. The diffusive-viscous model was proposed to explain these anomalies. When an incident diffusive-viscous wave strikes a boundary between two different media, it is reflected and transmitted. The equation for the reflection coefficient is quite complex and laborious, so it does not provide an intuitive understanding of how different amplitude relates to the parameters of the media and how variation of a particular parameter affects the reflection coefficient. In this paper, we firstly derive a two-term (intercept-gradient) and three-term (intercept-gradient-curvature) approximation to the reflection coefficient of the plane diffusive-viscous wave without any assumptions. Then, we study the limitations of the obtained approximations by comparing the approximate value of the reflection coefficient with its exact value. Our results show that the two approximations match well with the exact solutions within the incident angle of 35°. Finally, we analyze the effects of diffusive and viscous attenuation parameters, velocity and density in the diffusive-viscous wave equation on the intercept, gradient and curvature terms in the approximations. The results show that the diffusive attenuation parameter has a big impact on them, while the viscous attenuation parameter is insensitive to them; the velocity and density have a significant influence on the normal reflections and they distinctly affect the intercept, gradient and curvature term at lower acoustic impedance.

  11. Smart structures for shock wave attenuation using ER inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Jung-Yup; Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Su

    2001-08-01

    This Paper demonstrates the possibility of shock wave attenuation propagating through a smart structure that incorporates ER insert. The wave transmission of ER inserted beam is theoretically derived using Mead & Markus model and the theoretical results are compared with the finite element analysis results. To experimentally verify the shock wave attenuation, ER insert in an aluminum plate is made and two piezoceramic disks are used as transmitter and receiver of the wave. The transmitter sends a sine pulse signal such that a component of shock wave travels through the plate structure and the receiver gets the transmitted wave signal. Wave propagation of the ER insert can be adjusted by changing the applied electric field on the ER insert. Details of the experiment are addressed and the possibility of shock wave attenuation is experimentally verified. This kind of smart structure can be used for warship and submarine hull structures to protect fragile and important equipment.

  12. Rogue waves in Lugiato-Lefever equation with variable coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kol, Guy; Kingni, Sifeu; Woafo, Paul

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we theoretically investigate the generation of optical rogue waves from a Lugiato-Lefever equation with variable coefficients by using the nonlinear Schrödinger equation-based constructive method. Exact explicit rogue-wave solutions of the Lugiato-Lefever equation with constant dispersion, detuning and dissipation are derived and presented. The bright rogue wave, intermediate rogue wave and the dark rogue wave are obtained by changing the value of one parameter in the exact explicit solutions corresponding to the external pump power of a continuous-wave laser.

  13. Attenuation coefficient determination of printed ABS and PLA samples in diagnostic radiology standard beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneziani, G. R.; Corrêa, E. L.; Potiens, M. P. A.; Campos, L. L.

    2016-07-01

    IAEA code of practice TRS-457 states that standard phantoms should offer the same primary attenuation and scatter production as relevant body section of a representative patient. Material cost, availability and dimensional stability must also be considered. The goal of this study is to determine the attenuation coefficient of printed ABS and PLA samples in standard X-ray beams, verifying if phantoms printed with these materials could be an easier-handle substitute for PMMA, enabling the creation of different designs in an easier and cheaper way. Results show that PMMA presents higher attenuation coefficient, followed by PLA and ABS, which means that thinner PMMA layer creates higher radiation attenuation.

  14. Correlation equation for the marine drag coefficient and wave steepness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, Richard J.; Emeis, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    This work questions, starting from dimensional considerations, the generality of the belief that the marine drag coefficient levels off with increasing wind speed. Dimensional analysis shows that the drag coefficient scales with the wave steepness as opposed to a wave-age scaling. A correlation equation is employed here that uses wave steepness scaling at low aspect ratios (inverse wave steepnesses) and a constant drag coefficient at high aspect ratios. Invoked in support of the correlation are measurements sourced from the literature and at the FINO1 platform in the North Sea. The correlation equation is then applied to measurements recorded from buoys during the passage of hurricanes Rita, Katrina (2005) and Ike (2008). Results show that the correlation equation anticipates the expected levelling off in deeper water, but a drag coefficient more consistent with a Charnock type relation is also possible in more shallower water. Some suggestions are made for proceeding with a higher-order analysis than that conducted here.

  15. Material grain size characterization method based on energy attenuation coefficient spectrum and support vector regression.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhou, Tong; Song, Yanan

    2016-07-01

    A grain size characterization method based on energy attenuation coefficient spectrum and support vector regression (SVR) is proposed. First, the spectra of the first and second back-wall echoes are cut into several frequency bands to calculate the energy attenuation coefficient spectrum. Second, the frequency band that is sensitive to grain size variation is determined. Finally, a statistical model between the energy attenuation coefficient in the sensitive frequency band and average grain size is established through SVR. Experimental verification is conducted on austenitic stainless steel. The average relative error of the predicted grain size is 5.65%, which is better than that of conventional methods.

  16. Two media method for gamma ray attenuation coefficient measurement of archaeological ceramic samples

    PubMed

    Cunha e Silva RM; Appoloni; Parreira; Espinoza-Quinones; Coimbra; Aragao

    2000-12-01

    This work reports the application of an alternative methodology for the linear attenuation coefficient determination of irregular shape samples, in such a way that it is not necessary to know the sample thickness. Based on this method, indigenous archaeological ceramic fragments from the region of Londrina, north of Parana State in Brazil, were studied. On the other hand, theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values were determined with the XCOM computer code. With the results obtained, it was concluded that the two media method works very well for the linear attenuation coefficient measurement of irregular-shaped ceramic samples, which makes it suitable, especially, for archaeometric studies.

  17. Coupling Coefficients In The Kinetic Theory of Rossby Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomere, T.

    Rossby waves serve as an example of wave systems where resonant energy exchange between different wave classes with comparable frequencies can occur. Energy ex- change in such systems can be described with a system of equations called multi- wave (multi-modal) kinetic equation. Multi-wave kinetic equations typically contain two sets of coefficients describing energy exchange intensity. Interaction coefficients describe interaction intensity within a particular set of resonant waves. The coupling coefficients limit energy exchange within specific types of interactions. The interaction coefficients solely depend on the dispersion relations of the interacting wave compo- nents whereas the coupling coefficients represent the structure of the non-linear parts of the wave equations. One of the simplest multi-wave kinetic equations describes slow evolution of the energy spectrum of baroclinic Rossby waves in a multi-layer model ocean. Explicit expressions for the coupling coefficients in the case of a N-layer ocean are obtained and their main properties are established. A part of the expressions is fairly general. It is demonstrated that several types of interactions vanish in the case of simple realistic vertical structures of the ocean. For example, it is well know that in the two-layer case the intensity of energetic changes within resonant sets containing solely baroclinic harmonics crucially depends on the ratio of the depths of the layers. In the case of equal depths, self-interactions of the baroclinic mode fully cease, be- cause the corresponding coupling coefficient vanishes. This property suggests that an improper choice of the model may result in a completely different evolution scenario of the whole system. The detailed analytic expressions for the coupling coefficients of the Rossby wave kinetic equation are derived for a three-layer model ocean. If the re- duced depths of the uppermost and the lowermost layers are equal, a number of differ- ent interaction

  18. A Frequency-Shift Method to Measure Shear-Wave Attenuation in Soft Tissues.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Simon; Kazemirad, Siavash; Cloutier, Guy

    2017-03-01

    In vivo quantification of shear-wave attenuation in soft tissues may help to better understand human tissue rheology and lead to new diagnostic strategies. Attenuation is difficult to measure in acoustic radiation force elastography because the shear-wave amplitude decreases due to a combination of diffraction and viscous attenuation. Diffraction correction requires assuming a cylindrical wavefront and an isotropic propagation medium, which may not be the case in some applications. In this paper, the frequency-shift method, used in ultrasound imaging and seismology, was adapted for shear-wave attenuation measurement in elastography. This method is not sensitive to diffraction effects. For a linear frequency dependence of the attenuation, a closed-form relation was obtained between the decrease in the peak frequency of the gamma-distributed wave amplitude spectrum and the attenuation coefficient of the propagation medium. The proposed method was tested against a plane-wave reference method in homogeneous agar-gelatin phantoms with 0%, 10%, and 20% oil concentrations, and hence different attenuations of 0.117, 0.202, and 0.292 [Formula: see text]/Hz, respectively. Applicability to biological tissues was demonstrated with two ex vivo porcine liver samples (0.79 and 1.35 [Formula: see text]/Hz) and an in vivo human muscle, measured along (0.43 [Formula: see text]/Hz) and across (1.77 [Formula: see text]/Hz) the tissue fibers. In all cases, the data supported the assumptions of a gamma-distributed spectrum for the source and linear frequency attenuation for the tissue. This method provides tissue attenuation, which is relevant diagnostic information to model viscosity, in addition to shear-wave velocity used to assess elasticity. Data processing is simple and could be performed automatically in real time for clinical applications.

  19. Signature of seismic wave attenuation during fracture network formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhoorn, Auke; Zhubayev, Alimzhan; Houben, Maartje; Hardebol, Nico; Smeulders, David

    2015-04-01

    Seismic waves are significantly affected by the presence of fractures and faults. Fractures alter the arrival time of a seismic wave and the amplitude of the seismic wave. Attenuation of a seismic wave is the reduction of wave amplitude due to the presence of e.g. fractures. Attenuation of acoustic compressional P- and shear S-waves have been measured in laboratory studies on different rock types. These studies generally show a decrease in attenuation with an increase in stress. This decrease in attenuation is attributed to progressive crack closure of pre-existing cracks. The stress-dependent decrease in attenuation reported in these studies all occur within the elastic deformation field, i.e. below yield stress levels and thus no additional cracks/micro-fractures have yet been formed. At stress levels just above the yield strength the first fractures start to form. With increasing stress, fractures nucleate, grow and coalesce until a connected network of fractures has developed at which failure of the rock sample occurs. The change in attenuation during the fracturing process however has seldom been investigated. In analogy to fracture closure, where attenuation generally decreases, fracture formation should cause again an increase in attenuation. Here we report an experimental study on shales from Whitby (UK), where s-wave attenuation was measured in the laboratory during an increase in stress towards fracture formation until complete failure of the shale samples. Before yield stress conditions, as expected an increase in stress caused a gradual decrease in attenuation. At the transition from elastic to inelastic deformation behaviour, the first microfractures start to form and attenuation starts to increase again. This reversal in attenuation behaviour could potentially be used as an indicator that failure of a rock mass under stress is imminent (imminence of seismicity). The measured seismic velocities do not depict the transition from elastic to inelastic

  20. Wave Height Attenuation in Heterogeneous Vegetation using Laboratory Observation and Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmar, P.; Wu, W.; Cox, D. T.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal vegetation is commonly accepted as a means of wave damping, but existing methodologies for predicting the wave height attenuation focus on homogeneous vegetation, primarily in periodic waves. In this project, quarter scale experiments were performed in conjunction with numerical modeling in FUNWAVE to evaluate random wave attenuation through two types of synthetic vegetation. The experiment was performed with two peak periods, three water depths, and two stem densities. For each combination of parameters, free surface time series were collected at 7 locations throughout the vegetation field and 1 location seaward of the vegetation. Each combination of wave conditions was evaluated for four different cases: Case 1 with no vegetation, Case 2 and 3 with short and long specimens, respectively, and Case 4 with mixed vegetation. The decay of the spectral wave heights were fit with the Dalrymple et al. (1984) and Kobayashi et al. (1993) equations. The decay equations provided reasonable predictions, with an average mean square error of 1.3%. We found that adding the coefficients obtained for the cases of the individual plants provided a reasonable prediction of the coefficient for the cases of the combined, heterogeneous vegetation. Use of a reduction factor on the sum of the two coefficients improved the predictions, giving an average mean square error of 2.1% between the predictions and the measured values. A phase resolved numerical model (FUNWAVE) was used to model wave attenuation for these tests using a bottom drag coefficient calibrated for each run. The numerical attenuation followed the same trends as the measured data, with an average mean square error of 1.7% when considering all of the observation locations throughout the vegetation field. Similar to the physical model study, we found that adding the calibrated model drag coefficients for the cases of the individual plants reasonably predicted the wave height attenuation for the cases of the combined

  1. Monitoring changes of optical attenuation coefficients of acupuncture points during laser acupuncture by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yimei; Yang, Hongqin; Wang, Yuhua; Zheng, Liqin; Xie, Shusen

    2010-11-01

    The physical properties of acupuncture point were important to discover the mechanism of acupuncture meridian. In this paper, we used an optical coherence tomography to monitor in vivo the changes of optical attenuation coefficients of Hegu acupuncture point and non-acupuncture point during laser irradiation on Yangxi acupuncture point. The optical attenuation coefficients of Hegu acupuncture point and non-acupuncture point were obtained by fitting the raw data according to the Beer-Lambert's law. The experimental results showed that the optical attenuation coefficient of Hegu acupuncture point decreased during the laser acupuncture, in contrast to a barely changed result in that of non-acupuncture point. The significant change of optical attenuation coefficient of Hegu acupuncture point indicated that there was a correlation between Hegu and Yangxi acupuncture points to some extent.

  2. Calculation of Diffusion Coefficients from Bounce Resonance with Magnetosonic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, X.; Li, X.; Lu, Q.; Dai, L.

    2015-12-01

    Theoretical bounce resonance diffusion coefficients for interactions between electrons and magnetosonic waves are calculated and validated using guiding-center test particle simulations. First, we compare the theoretical diffusion coefficients of Roberts and Schulz with test particle simulations and find perfect agreement. However, the theoretical diffusion coefficients of Roberts and Schulz assume waves to be present on the whole trajectories of particles; therefore, they are not directly applicable to magnetosonic waves, which are found to be confined to equatorial regions from observations. Second, we derive a new set of bounce-resonance diffusion coefficients, taking into consideration the equatorial confinement of magnetosonic waves. These new diffusion coefficients are also validated by test particle simulations. Using a previously published magnetosonic wave model, our results demonstrate that bounce-resonance diffusion mainly results in strong pitch angle scattering of energetic electrons even with a moderate wave amplitude of 50 pT. We conclude that bounce-resonance diffusion plays an important role in relativistic electron dynamics and should be incorporated into global radiation belt modeling.

  3. Performance characteristics of a wave attenuation for pulsed chemical lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonadonna, V.; Weisbach, M. F.; Tong, K.-O.; McClure, J. D.

    1981-06-01

    Parametric performance measurements are reported for a pulsed chemical laser wave attenuator. The attenuator utilizes the combined effects of flow channel area expansion, caustic water spray, and flow-through damping screens to suppress and control the pressure disturbances produced by the chemical heat release of the F2 + D2 chain reaction. Experimental results that illustrate the effects of different area expansion geometries, water spray configurations, and damping screen arrangements are presented. Capability to tune the attenuator system to provide short pressure wave clearing times is emphasized. An attenuator configuration is reported which gives a wave clearing time of 2 msec with a corresponding entropy-wave density nonuniformity of 0.001 for a 18.5/6/76.5 F2/O2/diluent gas mixture at a pulse repetition frequency of 100 Hz.

  4. Comparison of RNFL thickness and RPE-normalized RNFL attenuation coefficient for glaucoma diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeer, K. A.; van der Schoot, J.; Lemij, H. G.; de Boer, J. F.

    2013-03-01

    Recently, a method to determine the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) attenuation coefficient, based on normalization on the retinal pigment epithelium, was introduced. In contrast to conventional RNFL thickness measures, this novel measure represents a scattering property of the RNFL tissue. In this paper, we compare the RNFL thickness and the RNFL attenuation coefficient on 10 normal and 8 glaucomatous eyes by analyzing the correlation coefficient and the receiver operator curves (ROCs). The thickness and attenuation coefficient showed moderate correlation (r=0.82). Smaller correlation coefficients were found within normal (r=0.55) and glaucomatous (r=0.48) eyes. The full separation between normal and glaucomatous eyes based on the RNFL attenuation coefficient yielded an area under the ROC (AROC) of 1.0. The AROC for the RNFL thickness was 0.9875. No statistically significant difference between the two measures was found by comparing the AROC. RNFL attenuation coefficients may thus replace current RNFL thickness measurements or be combined with it to improve glaucoma diagnosis.

  5. Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Ozeke, Louis G; Mann, Ian R; Murphy, Kyle R; Jonathan Rae, I; Milling, David K

    2014-01-01

    We present analytic expressions for ULF wave-derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, as a function of L and Kp, which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models. The diffusion coefficients are derived from statistical representations of ULF wave power, electric field power mapped from ground magnetometer data, and compressional magnetic field power from in situ measurements. We show that the overall electric and magnetic diffusion coefficients are to a good approximation both independent of energy. We present example 1-D radial diffusion results from simulations driven by CRRES-observed time-dependent energy spectra at the outer boundary, under the action of radial diffusion driven by the new ULF wave radial diffusion coefficients and with empirical chorus wave loss terms (as a function of energy, Kp and L). There is excellent agreement between the differential flux produced by the 1-D, Kp-driven, radial diffusion model and CRRES observations of differential electron flux at 0.976 MeV—even though the model does not include the effects of local internal acceleration sources. Our results highlight not only the importance of correct specification of radial diffusion coefficients for developing accurate models but also show significant promise for belt specification based on relatively simple models driven by solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed or geomagnetic indices such as Kp. Key Points Analytic expressions for the radial diffusion coefficients are presented The coefficients do not dependent on energy or wave m value The electric field diffusion coefficient dominates over the magnetic PMID:26167440

  6. X-Ray Attenuation Coefficients from 10 Kev to 100 Mev,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1957-04-30

    fig. 1). A well- shielded detector measures the shells account for most of the absorption by this intensity of the trinsmitted beam, and any photon...narrow-beam measurements ----------------- 2 1.4. Combination of attenuation coefficients -------------------- 2 1.5. Energy absorption...thickness is increased measures the unlikely to be absorbed. Consequently, the ab- total probability of the interaction processes. sorption coefficient

  7. Attenuation of the Squared Canonical Correlation Coefficient under Varying Estimates of Score Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Celia M.

    2010-01-01

    Research pertaining to the distortion of the squared canonical correlation coefficient has traditionally been limited to the effects of sampling error and associated correction formulas. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of attenuation of the squared canonical correlation coefficient under varying conditions of score reliability.…

  8. Bubbles cause seismic wave attenuation: Laboratory measurements and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisato, Nicola; Quintal, Beatriz; Chapman, Samuel; Podladchikov, Yury; Grasselli, Giovanni; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Seismic wave attenuation (1/Q) is a key to uncover the saturation and, in general, to improve the monitoring and surveying of subsurface domains. Nevertheless, how fluids that saturate rocks absorb elastic energy (i.e. cause 1/Q) is still poorly understood, studied and incorporated in geophysical methods. One of the invoked mechanisms, wave induced fluid flow (WIFF), is reputed to cause significant attenuation. This mechanism is governed by the flow of viscous fluids into a porous rock, and causes attenuation as a function of the fluid diffusivity [m2/s] and the pressure gradient [Pa/m], which is generated by the propagation of the elastic wave. However, some published, and newly acquired laboratory data-sets reporting 1/Q in almost fully saturated sandstones are difficult to explain with WIFF theories as they are frequency-dependent and have maximum of attenuation at frequencies

  9. The role of the reflection coefficient in precision measurement of ultrasonic attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation measurements using contact, pulse-echo techniques are sensitive to surface roughness and couplant thickness variations. This can reduce considerable inaccuracies in the measurement of the attenuation coefficient for broadband pulses. Inaccuracies arise from variations in the reflection coefficient at the buffer-couplant-sample interface. The reflection coefficient is examined as a function of the surface roughness and corresponding couplant thickness variations. Interrelations with ultrasonic frequency are illustrated. Reliable attenuation measurements are obtained only when the frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient is incorporated in signal analysis. Data are given for nickel 200 samples and a silicon nitride ceramic bar having surface roughness variations in the 0.3 to 3.0 microns range for signal bandwidths in the 50 to 100 MHz range.

  10. Wave attenuation in thick graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mal, A. K.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The mechanics of wave attenuation in thick graphite/epoxy composites is examined in order to facilitate interpretation of the wave amplitudes recorded in ultrasonic experiments. The values of a small number of parameters are determined through comparison between calculated and measured waveforms for four specimens. The agreement between the measured and calculated waveforms are shown to be excellent in all four cases.

  11. Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients.

    PubMed

    Ozeke, Louis G; Mann, Ian R; Murphy, Kyle R; Jonathan Rae, I; Milling, David K

    2014-03-01

    We present analytic expressions for ULF wave-derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, as a function of L and Kp, which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models. The diffusion coefficients are derived from statistical representations of ULF wave power, electric field power mapped from ground magnetometer data, and compressional magnetic field power from in situ measurements. We show that the overall electric and magnetic diffusion coefficients are to a good approximation both independent of energy. We present example 1-D radial diffusion results from simulations driven by CRRES-observed time-dependent energy spectra at the outer boundary, under the action of radial diffusion driven by the new ULF wave radial diffusion coefficients and with empirical chorus wave loss terms (as a function of energy, Kp and L). There is excellent agreement between the differential flux produced by the 1-D, Kp-driven, radial diffusion model and CRRES observations of differential electron flux at 0.976 MeV-even though the model does not include the effects of local internal acceleration sources. Our results highlight not only the importance of correct specification of radial diffusion coefficients for developing accurate models but also show significant promise for belt specification based on relatively simple models driven by solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed or geomagnetic indices such as Kp.

  12. The remote sensing algorithm of spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiankun; He, Xianqiang; Mao, Zhihua; Gong, Fang

    2008-10-01

    Diffuse attenuation coefficient is an apparent optical property (AOP) which directly links to the inherent optical properties in ocean color remote sensing. So far, the study on the satellite retrieve algorithm of water diffuse attenuation coefficient has not been deeply-going, which is mainly discussed using the bands-ratio methods based on the in situ data. Only a few scientists apply the remote sensing data (such as SeaWiFS and MODIS) to retrieve the diffuse attenuation coefficient based on the model developed by Mueller (2002). In this paper, a quasi-analytical algorithm of spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients were developed based on the QAA algorithm of the inherent optical properties (IOPs) developed by Lee (2002). The model could retrieve multi-bands of the diffuse attenuation coefficients at 412 nm, 443 nm, 490 nm, 510 nm and 555nm wavelength. The in-situ optical dataset of South China Sea in 1999 was used to validate the model, and the results showed that the model had a good performance in the case I water in South China Sea, and the relative errors were 15.4%, 12.6%, 13.3%, 10.2%, 11.9%, 9.8% and 10.3% for the 412 nm, 443 nm, 490 nm, 510 nm, 520 nm, 555nm and 565 nm bands respectively. For the complex case II water, the model should be further localized and tested.

  13. Beam hardening: analytical considerations of the effective attenuation coefficient of X-ray tomography.

    PubMed

    Alles, J; Mudde, R F

    2007-07-01

    Polychromatic x-ray beams traveling though material are prone to beam hardening, i.e., the high energy part of the incident spectrum gets over represented when traveling farther into the material. This study discusses the concept of a mean attenuation coefficient in a formal way. The total energy fluence is one-to-one related to the traveled distance in case of a polychromatic beam moving through a given, inhomogeneous material. On the basis of this one-to-one relation, it is useful to define a mean attenuation coefficient and study its decrease with depth. Our results are based on a novel parametrization of the energy dependence of the attenuation coefficient that allows for closed form evaluation of certain spectral integrals. This approach underpins the ad hoc semianalytical expressions given in the literature. An analytical model for the average attenuation coefficient is proposed that uses a simple fit of the attenuation coefficient as a function of the photon energy as input. It is shown that a simple extension of this model gives a rather good description of beam hardening for x-rays traveling through water.

  14. Beam hardening: Analytical considerations of the effective attenuation coefficient of x-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Alles, J.; Mudde, R. F.

    2007-07-15

    Polychromatic x-ray beams traveling though material are prone to beam hardening, i.e., the high energy part of the incident spectrum gets over represented when traveling farther into the material. This study discusses the concept of a mean attenuation coefficient in a formal way. The total energy fluence is one-to-one related to the traveled distance in case of a polychromatic beam moving through a given, inhomogeneous material. On the basis of this one-to-one relation, it is useful to define a mean attenuation coefficient and study its decrease with depth. Our results are based on a novel parametrization of the energy dependence of the attenuation coefficient that allows for closed form evaluation of certain spectral integrals. This approach underpins the ad hoc semianalytical expressions given in the literature. An analytical model for the average attenuation coefficient is proposed that uses a simple fit of the attenuation coefficient as a function of the photon energy as input. It is shown that a simple extension of this model gives a rather good description of beam hardening for x-rays traveling through water.

  15. Analysis of dispersion and attenuation of surface waves in poroelastic media in the exploration-seismic frequency band

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Y.; Xu, Y.; Xia, J.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse dispersion and attenuation of surface waves at free surfaces of possible vacuum/poroelastic media: permeable-'open pore', impermeable-'closed pore' and partially permeable boundaries, which have not been previously reported in detail by researchers, under different surface-permeable, viscous-damping, elastic and fluid-flowing conditions. Our discussion is focused on their characteristics in the exploration-seismic frequency band (a few through 200 Hz) for near-surface applications. We find two surface-wave modes exist, R1 waves for all conditions, and R2 waves for closed-pore and partially permeable conditions. For R1 waves, velocities disperse most under partially permeable conditions and least under the open-pore condition. High-coupling damping coefficients move the main dispersion frequency range to high frequencies. There is an f1 frequency dependence as a constant-Q model for attenuation at high frequencies. R1 waves for the open pore are most sensitive to elastic modulus variation, but least sensitive to tortuosities variation. R1 waves for partially permeable surface radiate as non-physical waves (Im(k) < 0) at low frequencies. For R2 waves, velocities are slightly lower than the bulk slow P2 waves. At low frequencies, both velocity and attenuation are diffusive of f1/2 frequency dependence, as P2 waves. It is found that for partially permeable surfaces, the attenuation displays -f1 frequency dependence as frequency increasing. High surface permeability, low-coupling damping coefficients, low Poisson's ratios, and low tortuosities increase the slope of the -f1 dependence. When the attenuation coefficients reach 0, R2 waves for partially permeable surface begin to radiate as non-physical waves. ?? 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International ?? 2011 RAS.

  16. Studies on effective atomic numbers, electron densities and mass attenuation coefficients in Au alloys.

    PubMed

    Han, I; Demir, L

    2010-01-01

    The total mass attenuation coefficients (mu/rho) for pure Au and Au99Be1, Au88Ge12, Au95Zn5 alloys were measured at 59.5 and 88.0 keV photon energies. The samples were irradiated with 241Am and 109Cd radioactive point source using transmission arrangement. The gamma- rays were counted by a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Total atomic and electronic cross-sections (sigmat and sigmae), effective atomic and electron densities (Zeff and Nel) were determined using the obtained mass attenuation coefficients for investigated Au alloys. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients of each alloy were estimated using mixture rule.

  17. Attenuation of propagating spin wave induced by layered nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, K.; Vader, T. N.; Yamada, K.; Fukami, S.; Ishiwata, N.; Seo, S. M.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, K. J.; Ono, T.

    2012-03-01

    Spin wave attenuation in the layered [FeNi/Pt]6/FeNi thin films was investigated by the time-domain electrical measurement. The spin-wave waveform was detected with an asymmetric coplanar strip transmission line, as an induced voltage flowing into a fast oscilloscope. We report that the amplitude of a spin-wave packet was systematically changed by controlling the thickness of a platinum layer, up to a maximum change of 50%. The virtues of spin wave, ultrafast propagation velocity and non-reciprocal emission, are preserved in this manner. This means that the Pt layer can manipulate an arbitral power-level of spin-wave input signal (reliable attenuator).

  18. Investigation of photon attenuation coefficient of some building materials used in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, B.; Altinsoy, N.

    2015-03-30

    In this study, some building materials regularly used in Turkey, such as concrete, gas concrete, pumice and brick have been investigated in terms of mass attenuation coefficient at different gamma-ray energies. Measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry containing NaI(Tl) detector. Narrow beam gamma-ray transmission geometry was used for the attenuation measurements. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculation of XCOM code.

  19. Effect of external magnetic field on attenuation coefficient for magnetic substances.

    PubMed

    Kumar Gupta, Manoj; Dhaliwal, A S; Kahlon, K S

    2014-10-29

    The measurement of attenuation coefficient of some magnetic substances, to include diamagnetic: Cu, Zn, Ag, Te, Au, Pb, and Perspex; paramagnetic: Al, Ti, Mo, Dy, Ho, and Pt and ferromagnetic substances: Fe, Co, Ni, Gd, FeO, NiO, FeS, and Fe2O3, both in the presence and absence of an external magnetic field has been carried out using narrow beam transmission geometry by using gamma ray photons of incident energy 59.54keV from 100mCi, (241)Am point source. It was observed very keenly that the value of linear attenuation coefficient of various substances mentioned above decreased remarkably. It varied in the range of 1-2%, 2-6% and 6-9% for diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic substances respectively in the presence of an external magnetic field. Measured results elucidated it very clearly that linear attenuation coefficient at H=0T, 0.6T and 1.2T continued to decrease with a regular increase of magnetic field. It is also manifested that measurements of linear attenuation coefficient is not affected with the change in thickness of the given substance. Within error limits (1-3%) variations are observed with increases of thickness along with magnetic field. Further to it the obtained results of linear attenuation coefficient without magnetic field (H=0T) were compared with theoretical data tables of FFAST and WinXCOM. It was established that values obtained are well within the experimental errors. To the best of our knowledge no other study in relation to the effect of linear attenuation coefficient in the presence of magnetic field available as precedence.

  20. Measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by synchrotron radiation computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. C.; Longo, R.; Rigon, L.; Zanconati, F.; De Pellegrin, A.; Arfelli, F.; Dreossi, D.; Menk, R.-H.; Vallazza, E.; Xiao, T. Q.; Castelli, E.

    2010-09-01

    The measurement of the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues is of fundamental importance in the field of breast x-ray diagnostic imaging. Different groups have evaluated the linear attenuation coefficients of breast tissues by carrying out direct attenuation measurements in which the specimens were thin and selected as homogeneous as possible. Here, we use monochromatic and high-intensity synchrotron radiation computed tomography (SR CT) to evaluate the linear attenuation coefficients of surgical breast tissues in the energy range from 15 to 26.5 keV. X-ray detection is performed by a custom digital silicon micro-strip device, developed in the framework of the PICASSO INFN experiment. Twenty-three human surgical breast samples were selected for SR CT and histological study. Six of them underwent CT, both as fresh tissue and after formalin fixation, while the remaining 17 were imaged only as formalin-fixed tissues. Our results for fat and fibrous tissues are in good agreement with the published values. However, in contrast to the published data, our measurements show no significant differences between fibrous and tumor tissues. Moreover, our results for fresh and formalin-fixed tissues demonstrate a reduction of the linear attenuation coefficient for fibrous and tumor tissues after fixation.

  1. Attenuation of Seismic Waves at Regional Distances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-27

    States (SALMON, GASBUOG, RULISON and RIO BLANCA) and in the French Sahara ( SAPHIR and RUBIS). The hard-rook ITS calibration curve, when applied to these...so that two of the explosions, SAPHIR and RUBIS, had measure- able Lg-wave amplitudes. Figure 4 gives an example of Lg waves of SAPHIR recorded at...for RUBIS and SAPHIR . Station HLW is in Egypt, and SDB in Angola. Both shots were in granite. For the Nevada explosions SHOAL and PILEDRIVER, also in

  2. Determination of the Absorption Coefficient and Cloudiness Multiplicity Attenuation During the Gamma-Radiation Passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, K. N.; Borovikov, I. F.; Gaidamak, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents background value equivalent dose of gamma-radiation investigation in different weather: clear cloudy and overcast. The change of the dose rate of gamma radiation, depending on the weather and the ability cloudiness to shield gamma rays is shown. A new method for eliminating the consequences of accidents at nuclear power plants or plants using radioactive elements is proposed. A calculation method of cloudiness coefficient absorption and cloudiness gamma-radiation multiplicity attenuation is developed. The gamma- radiation multiplicity attenuation and the absorption coefficient of gamma radiation were calculated.

  3. Weibull approximation of LiDAR waveforms for estimating the beam attenuation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Montes-Hugo, Martin A; Vuorenkoski, Anni K; Dalgleish, Fraser R; Ouyang, Bing

    2016-10-03

    Tank experiments were performed at different water turbidities to examine relationships between the beam attenuation coefficient (c) and Weibull shape parameters derived from LiDAR waveforms measured with the Fine Structure Underwater LiDAR (FSUIL). Optical inversions were made at 532 nm, within a c range of 0.045-1.52 m-1, and based on a LiDAR system having two field-of-view (15 and 75.7 mrad) and two linear polarizations. Consistently, the Weibull scale parameter or P2 showed the strongest covariation with c and was a more accurate proxy with respect to the LiDAR attenuation coefficient.

  4. Model of attenuation of long waves under continuous ice layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanov, M. B.; Petrov, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work new mathematical model of long wave propagation on water surface with ice cover is proposed. The model of thin elastic plate is used to describe ice layer movement. Equation for ice cover contain additional term to takes into account dissipation effects in the ice cover to explain wave attenuation. Proposed model was reduced to one nonlinear evolution equation for water level perturbation. The expression for wave energy was obtained under assumption of long waves. Proposed model is numerically studied, energy of system is computed. Obtained results are compared with results of suggested before model that takes into account the flow law of Glen.

  5. Attenuation measurements of ultrasonic P-wave and S-wave in partially frozen unconsolidated sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, J.; Suzuki, M.; Kato, Y.; Rokugawa, S.; Kato, A.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic attenuation which controls both the amplitude decay of seismic waves and the accompanying frequency change is a signature of the wave-rock interaction. Seismic attenuation in rocks is a highly variable parameter, which depends on the confining pressure, porosity, degree of fluid saturation, and fluid type. Although seismic attenuation has been widely used to estimate physical conditions and rock properties in various fields, the loss mechanisms responsible for seismic attenuation often are unclear and controversial. To elucidate a plausible mechanism for seismic attenuation, the joint use of both P- and S-waves will provide more helpful information because these two types of waves respond differently to fluid and solid combinations. We have conducted ultrasonic P- and S-wave transmission measurements to examine the influence of ice-brine coexisting system grown in the pore space of unconsolidated sands on ultrasonic P- and S-waves. We observed the variations of a transmitted wave with a frequency content of 100-1000 kHz , changing its temperature from 20°C to -15°C. We use not only impulse-type signals but also sweep-type signals to prevent from the spectral leakage effect caused by the effect of windowing. We concern with attenuation at ultrasonic frequencies of 500-1000 kHz for P-waves and 100-400 kHz for S-waves. Our observation of the variation of the Poisson's ratio and the ratio of P- to S-wave attenuation with changing temperature indicates the possibilities of the joint use of both P- and S-waves to elucidate a plausible mechanism for seismic attenuation.

  6. Attenuation of acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, P. B.

    2006-02-01

    Two classes of natural solid media, glacial ice and salt domes, are under consideration as media in which to deploy instruments for detection of neutrinos with energy ≥1018 eV. Though insensitive to 1011 to 1016 eV neutrinos for which observatories (e.g., AMANDA and IceCube) that utilize optical Cherenkov radiation detectors are designed, radio and acoustic methods are suited for searches for the very low fluxes of neutrinos with energies >1017 eV. This is because owing to the very long attenuation lengths of radio and acoustic waves produced by interactions of such neutrinos in ice and salt, detection modules can be spaced at horizontal distances ˜1 km, in contrast to the 0.12 km distances between strings of IceCube modules. In this paper, I calculate the absorption and scattering coefficients as a function of frequency and grain size for acoustic waves in glacial ice and salt domes and show that experimental measurements on laboratory samples and in glacial ice and salt domes are consistent with theory. For South Pole ice with grain size ˜0.2 cm at depths ≤600 m, scattering lengths are calculated to be 2000 and 25 km at frequencies 10 and 30 kHz, respectively; for grain size ˜0.4 cm at 1500 m (the maximum depth to be instrumented acoustically), scattering lengths are calculated to be 250 and 3 km. These are within the range of frequencies where most of the energy of the acoustic wave is concentrated. The absorption length is calculated to be 9 ± 3 km at all frequencies above ˜100 Hz. For NaCl (rock salt) with grain size 0.75 cm, scattering lengths are calculated to be 120 and 1.4 km at 10 and 30 kHz, and absorption lengths are calculated to be 3 × 104 and 3300 km at 10 and 30 kHz. Existing measurements are consistent with theory. For ice, absorption is the limiting factor; for salt, scattering is the limiting factor. Both media would be suitable for detection of acoustic waves from ultrahigh-energy neutrino interactions.

  7. Local energy decay for linear wave equations with variable coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikehata, Ryo

    2005-06-01

    A uniform local energy decay result is derived to the linear wave equation with spatial variable coefficients. We deal with this equation in an exterior domain with a star-shaped complement. Our advantage is that we do not assume any compactness of the support on the initial data, and its proof is quite simple. This generalizes a previous famous result due to Morawetz [The decay of solutions of the exterior initial-boundary value problem for the wave equation, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 14 (1961) 561-568]. In order to prove local energy decay, we mainly apply two types of ideas due to Ikehata-Matsuyama [L2-behaviour of solutions to the linear heat and wave equations in exterior domains, Sci. Math. Japon. 55 (2002) 33-42] and Todorova-Yordanov [Critical exponent for a nonlinear wave equation with damping, J. Differential Equations 174 (2001) 464-489].

  8. Wave speed propagation measurements on highly attenuative heated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David G.; Ober, Curtis C.; Rodacy, Phil J.; Nelson, Ciji L.

    2015-09-19

    Ultrasonic wave propagation decreases as a material is heated. Two factors that can characterize material properties are changes in wave speed and energy loss from interactions within the media. Relatively small variations in velocity and attenuation can detect significant differences in microstructures. This paper discusses an overview of experimental techniques that document the changes within a highly attenuative material as it is either being heated or cooled from 25°C to 90°C. The experimental set-up utilizes ultrasonic probes in a through-transmission configuration. The waveforms are recorded and analyzed during thermal experiments. To complement the ultrasonic data, a Discontinuous-Galerkin Model (DGM) was also created which uses unstructured meshes and documents how waves travel in these anisotropic media. This numerical method solves particle motion travel using partial differential equations and outputs a wave trace per unit time. As a result, both experimental and analytical data are compared and presented.

  9. Pore-Scale Modeling of Pore Structure Effects on P-Wave Scattering Attenuation in Dry Rocks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianyang; Qiu, Hao; Wang, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Underground rocks usually have complex pore system with a variety of pore types and a wide range of pore size. The effects of pore structure on elastic wave attenuation cannot be neglected. We investigated the pore structure effects on P-wave scattering attenuation in dry rocks by pore-scale modeling based on the wave theory and the similarity principle. Our modeling results indicate that pore size, pore shape (such as aspect ratio), and pore density are important factors influencing P-wave scattering attenuation in porous rocks, and can explain the variation of scattering attenuation at the same porosity. From the perspective of scattering attenuation, porous rocks can safely suit to the long wavelength assumption when the ratio of wavelength to pore size is larger than 15. Under the long wavelength condition, the scattering attenuation coefficient increases as a power function as the pore density increases, and it increases exponentially with the increase in aspect ratio. For a certain porosity, rocks with smaller aspect ratio and/or larger pore size have stronger scattering attenuation. When the pore aspect ratio is larger than 0.5, the variation of scattering attenuation at the same porosity is dominantly caused by pore size and almost independent of the pore aspect ratio. These results lay a foundation for pore structure inversion from elastic wave responses in porous rocks. PMID:25961729

  10. Pore-scale modeling of pore structure effects on P-wave scattering attenuation in dry rocks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zizhen; Wang, Ruihe; Li, Tianyang; Qiu, Hao; Wang, Feifei

    2015-01-01

    Underground rocks usually have complex pore system with a variety of pore types and a wide range of pore size. The effects of pore structure on elastic wave attenuation cannot be neglected. We investigated the pore structure effects on P-wave scattering attenuation in dry rocks by pore-scale modeling based on the wave theory and the similarity principle. Our modeling results indicate that pore size, pore shape (such as aspect ratio), and pore density are important factors influencing P-wave scattering attenuation in porous rocks, and can explain the variation of scattering attenuation at the same porosity. From the perspective of scattering attenuation, porous rocks can safely suit to the long wavelength assumption when the ratio of wavelength to pore size is larger than 15. Under the long wavelength condition, the scattering attenuation coefficient increases as a power function as the pore density increases, and it increases exponentially with the increase in aspect ratio. For a certain porosity, rocks with smaller aspect ratio and/or larger pore size have stronger scattering attenuation. When the pore aspect ratio is larger than 0.5, the variation of scattering attenuation at the same porosity is dominantly caused by pore size and almost independent of the pore aspect ratio. These results lay a foundation for pore structure inversion from elastic wave responses in porous rocks.

  11. Attenuation of coda waves in northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzidimitriou, P. M.

    1993-03-01

    The single scattering model has been applied for the estimation of coda Q values for local earthquakes that occurred in northern Greece during the period 1983 1989 and recorded by the telemetered network of the Geophysical Laboratory of the University of Thessaloniki. Coda Q estimations were made for four frequency bands centered at 1.5 Hz, 3.0 Hz, 6.0 Hz and 12.0 Hz and for the lapse time windows 10 20 sec, 15 30 sec, 20 45 sec, 30 60 sec and 50 100 sec. The coda Q values obtained show a clear frequency dependence of the form Q c =Q 0 f n , while Q 0 and n depend on the lapse time window. Q 0 was found equal to 33 and n equal to 1.01 for the time window of 10 to 20 sec, while for the other windows Q 0 increased from 60 to 129, with n being stable, close to 0.75. This lapse time dependence is interpreted as due to a depth dependent attenuation. The high attenuation and the strong frequency dependence found are characteristic of an area with high seismicity, in agreement with studies in other seismic regions.

  12. Automated, Depth-resolved Estimation of the Attenuation Coefficient From Optical Coherence Tomography Data

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gennifer T.; Dwork, Nicholas; O’Connor, Daniel; Sikora, Uzair; Lurie, Kristen L.; Pauly, John M.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for automated, depth-resolved extraction of the attenuation coefficient from Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) data. In contrast to previous automated, depth-resolved methods, the Depth-Resolved Confocal (DRC) technique derives an invertible mapping between the measured OCT intensity data and the attenuation coefficient while considering the confocal function and sensitivity fall-off, which are critical to ensure accurate measurements of the attenuation coefficient in practical settings (e.g., clinical endoscopy). We also show that further improvement of the estimated attenuation coefficient is possible by formulating image denoising as a convex optimization problem that we term Intensity Weighted Horizontal Total Variation (iwhTV). The performance and accuracy of DRC alone and DRC+iwhTV are validated with simulated data, optical phantoms, and ex-vivo porcine tissue. Our results suggest that implementation of DRC+iwhTV represents a novel way to improve OCT contrast for better tissue characterization through quantitative imaging. PMID:26126286

  13. Fault-zone attenuation of high-frequency seismic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakeslee, Sam; Malin, Peter; Alvarez, Marcos

    1989-11-01

    We have developed a technique to measure seismic attenuation within an active fault-zone at seismogenic depths. Utilizing a pair of stations and pairs of earthquakes, spectral ratios are performed to isolate attenuation produced by wave-propagation within the fault-zone. This empirical approach eliminates common source, propagation, instrument and near-surface site effects. The technique was applied to a cluster of 19 earthquakes recorded by a pair of downhole instruments located within the San Andreas fault-zone, at Parkfield California. Over the 1-40 Hz bandwidth used in this analysis, amplitudes are found to decrease exponentially with frequency. Furthermore, the fault-zone propagation distance correlates with the severity of attenuation. Assuming a constant Q attenuation operator, the S-wave quality factor within the fault-zone at a depth of 5-6 kilometers is 31 (+7,-5). If fault-zones are low-Q environments, then near-source attenuation of high-frequency seismic waves may help to explain phenomenon such as fmax. Fault-zone Q may prove to be a valuable indicator of the mechanical behavior and rheology of fault-zones. Specific asperities can be monitored for precursory changes associated with the evolving stress-field within the fault-zone. The spatial and temporal resolution of the technique is fundamentally limited by the uncertainty in earthquake location and the interval time between earthquakes.

  14. Effect of ilmenite on the attenuation coefficient of gamma ray shielding cementious matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Faramawy, Nabil; Ramadan, Wageeh; El-Zakla, Tarek; Sayed, Magda; El-Dessouky, Mohamed; Sakr, Khaled

    2015-11-01

    The current work investigated the effect of the Portland cement mixed with different percentages of water and ilmenite ore on the attenuation of gamma radiation as shielding blocks. Different concentrations of ilmenite from 5% up to 20% with different grain size were mixed with cement. The properties of the investigated blocks, as compressive strength, wet and dry density, absorption and porosity percentages, were studied. The thermal stability of the studied samples and their X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were examined through thermogravimetric analysis and XRD respectively. In addition, the attenuation coefficients of the considered samples for gamma radiation were performed using gamma ray spectrometer. The results revealed that, the maximum linear attenuation coefficient (µ) and minimum transmission fraction were performed for cement mixed with 10% of ilmenite and with the size range 106-250 µm.

  15. Quantification of numerical aperture-dependence of the OCT attenuation coefficient (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinado, Liliana M.; Bloemen, Paul R.; Almasian, Mitra; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Faber, Dirk J.

    2016-03-01

    Despite the improvements in early cancer diagnosis, adequate diagnostic tools for early staging of bladder cancer tumors are lacking [1]. MEMS-probes based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) provide cross-sectional imaging with a high-spatial resolution at a high-imaging speed, improving visualization of cancerous tissue [2-3]. Additionally, studies show that the measurement of localized attenuation coefficient allows discrimination between healthy and cancerous tissue [4]. We have designed a new miniaturized MEMS-probe based on OCT that will optimize early diagnosis by improving functional visualization of suspicious lesions in bladder. During the optical design phase of the probe, we have studied the effect of the numerical aperture (NA) on the OCT signal attenuation. For this study, we have employed an InnerVision Santec OCT system with several numerical apertures (25mm, 40mm, 60mm, 100mm, 150mm and 200mm using achromatic lenses). The change in attenuation coefficient was studied using 15 dilutions of intralipid ranging between 6*10-5 volume% and 20 volume%. We obtained the attenuation coefficient from the OCT images at several fixed positions of the focuses using established OCT models (e.g. single scattering with known confocal point spread function (PSF) [5] and multiple scattering using the Extended Huygens Fresnel model [6]). As a result, a non-linear increase of the scattering coefficient as a function of intralipid concentration (due to dependent scattering) was obtained for all numerical apertures. For all intralipid samples, the measured attenuation coefficient decreased with a decrease in NA. Our results suggest a non-negligible influence of the NA on the measured attenuation coefficient. [1] Khochikar MV. Rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer. Indian J Urol 2011 Apr-Jun; 27(2): 218-225. [2] Sun J and Xie H. Review Article MEMS-Based Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography. IJO 2011, Article ID 825629, 12 pages. doi:10

  16. Shear Wave Attenuation in Unconsolidated Laboratory Sediments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    pressure) exponent of one-fourth for prediction of shear wave velocities in sands. This recommendation is based upon both in situ and laboratory...measurements. However, as we have seen from the data presented, there is consider- able scatter in the pressure exponent with values varying from...standard deviation of 0.98. Hamilton 5 4 takes % . -. ... .... . ...... .. ............ ...... 21 exception to this frequency exponent , pointing out

  17. Bubbles attenuate elastic waves at seismic frequencies: First experimental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisato, Nicola; Quintal, Beatriz; Chapman, Samuel; Podladchikov, Yury; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2015-05-01

    The migration of gases from deep to shallow reservoirs can cause damageable events. For instance, some gases can pollute the biosphere or trigger explosions and eruptions. Seismic tomography may be employed to map the accumulation of subsurface bubble-bearing fluids to help mitigating such hazards. Nevertheless, how gas bubbles modify seismic waves is still unclear. We show that saturated rocks strongly attenuate seismic waves when gas bubbles occupy part of the pore space. Laboratory measurements of elastic wave attenuation at frequencies <100 Hz are modeled with a dynamic gas dissolution theory demonstrating that the observed frequency-dependent attenuation is caused by wave-induced-gas-exsolution-dissolution (WIGED). This result is incorporated into a numerical model simulating the propagation of seismic waves in a subsurface domain containing CO2-gas bubbles. This simulation shows that WIGED can significantly modify the wavefield and illustrates how accounting for this physical mechanism can potentially improve the monitoring and surveying of gas bubble-bearing fluids in the subsurface.

  18. Developing a Short-Period, Fundamental-Mode Rayleigh-Wave Attenuation Model for Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Levshin, A. L.; Barmin, M. P.; Ritzwoller, M. H.

    2008-12-01

    measurements, we analyzed the attenuation behavior of the amplitudes using source- and receiver-specific terms calculated from a 3D velocity model of the region. Based on the results, we removed amplitudes that yielded negative average attenuation coefficients, and included an additional parameter in the inversion to account for the possible bias of the CMT moments. Using the high-quality amplitude measurements in a tomographic inversion, we obtained a fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave attenuation- coefficient model for periods between 12 and 22 s for Asia and surrounding regions. The inverted attenuation model is consistent with the geological features of Asia. We observe low attenuation in stable regions such as eastern Europe, the Siberian platforms, the Indian shield, the Arabian platform, the Yangtze craton, and others. High attenuation is observed in tectonically active regions such as the Himalayas, the Tian Shan, Pamir and Zagros mountains.

  19. Attenuation of 7 GHz surface acoustic waves on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongyao; Cahill, David G.

    2016-09-01

    We measured the attenuation of GHz frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on the Si (001) surface using an optical pump-probe technique at temperatures between 300 and 600 K. SAWs are generated and detected by a 700 nm Al grating fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. The grating for SAW generation is separated from the grating for SAW detection by ≈150 μ m . The amplitude of SAWs is attenuated by coupling to bulk waves created by the Al grating, diffraction due to the finite size of the source, and the intrinsic relaxational Akhiezer damping of elastic waves in Si. Thermal phonon relaxation time and Grüneisen parameters are fitted using temperature-dependent measurement. The f Q product of a hypothetical micromechanical oscillator limited by Akhiezer damping at this frequency is ˜3 ×1013 Hz.

  20. A novel protocol to measure the attenuation of electromagnetic waves through smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan-wu, Li; Hong-yong, Yuan; Yang, Lu; Xiaoxiang, Zhang; Ru-feng, Xu; Ming, Fu

    2016-06-01

    The electromagnetic properties of smoke from a structure fire are important in terms of their relation to the stability of wireless communication systems used in fire rescue. As it is hard to make a measurable electromagnetic environment for particles in the air, compressed and bulk samples are used instead to measure sand storms and smoke plumes. In this paper, an experiment system was designed to measure smoke particles in the air, in consideration of both smoke control and electromagnetic measurement. Several measures had been taken to create a fulfilled smoke environment. The simulated and measured transmission parameters of the electromagnetic testing area were approximate and the electromagnetic wave frequencies were set from 350 to 400 MHz. Repeated experiments have been conducted to test the stability of the results and they showed that there was no obvious attenuation until the smoke concentration was more than 10 dB m-1. It was found that the frequency around 355 and 360 MHz had a larger attenuation coefficient. The relationship between the attenuation coefficient and the smoke concentration was concluded to be linear. The results may help us understand the attenuation of electromagnetic waves within a smoke column.

  1. Emission-based estimation of lung attenuation coefficients for attenuation correction in time-of-flight PET/MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Zaidi, Habib

    2015-06-01

    In standard segmentation-based MRI-guided attenuation correction (MRAC) of PET data on hybrid PET/MRI systems, the inter/intra-patient variability of linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) is ignored owing to the assignment of a constant LAC to each tissue class. This can lead to PET quantification errors, especially in the lung regions. In this work, we aim to derive continuous and patient-specific lung LACs from time-of-flight (TOF) PET emission data using the maximum likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) algorithm. The MLAA algorithm was constrained for estimation of lung LACs only in the standard 4-class MR attenuation map using Gaussian lung tissue preference and Markov random field smoothness priors. MRAC maps were derived from segmentation of CT images of 19 TOF-PET/CT clinical studies into background air, lung, soft tissue and fat tissue classes, followed by assignment of predefined LACs of 0, 0.0224, 0.0864 and 0.0975 cm-1, respectively. The lung LACs of the resulting attenuation maps were then estimated from emission data using the proposed MLAA algorithm. PET quantification accuracy of MRAC and MLAA methods was evaluated against the reference CT-based AC method in the lungs, lesions located in/near the lungs and neighbouring tissues. The results show that the proposed MLAA algorithm is capable of retrieving lung density gradients and compensate fairly for respiratory-phase mismatch between PET and corresponding attenuation maps. It was found that the mean of the estimated lung LACs generally follow the trend of the reference CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) method. Quantitative analysis revealed that the MRAC method resulted in average relative errors of  -5.2   ±   7.1% and  -6.1   ±   6.7% in the lungs and lesions, respectively. These were reduced by the MLAA algorithm to  -0.8   ±   6.3% and  -3.3   ±   4.7%, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated

  2. Simultaneous evaluation of acoustic nonlinearity parameter and attenuation coefficients using the finite amplitude method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shuzeng; Li, Xiongbing; Jeong, Hyunjo Cho, Sungjong

    2015-07-15

    A novel method to determine acoustic parameters involved in measuring the nonlinearity parameter of fluids or solids is proposed. The approach is based on the measurement of fundamental and second harmonic pressures with a calibrated receiver, and on a nonlinear least squares data-fitting to multi-Gaussian beam (MGB) equations which explicitly define the attenuation and diffraction effects in the quasilinear regime. Results obtained in water validate the proposed method. The choice of suitable source pressure is discussed with regard to the quasilinear approximation involved. The attenuation coefficients are also acquired in nonlinear regime and their relations are discussed.

  3. Quantitative RNFL attenuation coefficient measurements by RPE-normalized OCT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeer, K. A.; van der Schoot, J.; Lemij, H. G.; de Boer, J. F.

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrate significantly different scattering coefficients of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) between normal and glaucoma subjects. In clinical care, SD-OCT is routinely used to assess the RNFL thickness for glaucoma management. In this way, the full OCT data set is conveniently reduced to an easy to interpret output, matching results from older (non- OCT) instruments. However, OCT provides more data, such as the signal strength itself, which is due to backscattering in the retinal layers. For quantitative analysis, this signal should be normalized to adjust for local differences in the intensity of the beam that reaches the retina. In this paper, we introduce a model that relates the OCT signal to the attenuation coefficient of the tissue. The average RNFL signal (within an A-line) was then normalized based on the observed RPE signal, resulting in normalized RNFL attenuation coefficient maps. These maps showed local defects matching those found in thickness data. The average (normalized) RNFL attenuation coefficient of a fixed band around the optic nerve head was significantly lower in glaucomatous eyes than in normal eyes (3.0mm-1 vs. 4.9mm-1, P<0.01, Mann-Whitney test).

  4. Evaluation of downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficient algorithms in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash; Sarma, Y. V. B.; Jones, Burton H.

    2016-05-01

    Despite the importance of the optical properties such as the downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficient for characterizing the upper water column, until recently no in situ optical measurements were published for the Red Sea. Kirby et al. used observations from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of the diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd(490)) in the Red Sea. To better understand optical variability and its utility in the Red Sea, it is imperative to comprehend the diffuse attenuation coefficient and its relationship with in situ properties. Two apparent optical properties, spectral remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) and the downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd), are calculated from vertical profile measurements of downwelling irradiance (Ed) and upwelling radiance (Lu). Kd characterizes light penetration into water column that is important for understanding both the physical and biogeochemical environment, including water quality and the health of ocean environment. Our study tests the performance of the existing Kd(490) algorithms in the Red Sea and compares them against direct in situ measurements within various subdivisions of the Red Sea. Most standard algorithms either overestimated or underestimated with the measured in situ values of Kd. Consequently, these algorithms provided poor retrieval of Kd(490) for the Red Sea. Random errors were high for all algorithms and the correlation coefficients (r2) with in situ measurements were quite low. Hence, these algorithms may not be suitable for the Red Sea. Overall, statistical analyses of the various algorithms indicated that the existing algorithms are inadequate for the Red Sea. The present study suggests that reparameterizing existing algorithms or developing new regional algorithms is required to improve retrieval of Kd(490) for the Red Sea.

  5. Attenuation of seismic waves obtained by coda waves analysis in the West Bohemia earthquake swarm region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachura, Martin; Fischer, Tomas

    2014-05-01

    Seismic waves are attenuated by number of factors, including geometrical spreading, scattering on heterogeneities and intrinsic loss due the anelasticity of medium. Contribution of the latter two processes can be derived from the tail part of the seismogram - coda (strictly speaking S-wave coda), as these factors influence the shape and amplitudes of coda. Numerous methods have been developed for estimation of attenuation properties from the decay rate of coda amplitudes. Most of them work with the S-wave coda, some are designed for the P-wave coda (only on teleseismic distances) or for the whole waveforms. We used methods to estimate the 1/Qc - attenuation of coda waves, methods to separate scattering and intrinsic loss - 1/Qsc, Qi and methods to estimate attenuation of direct P and S wave - 1/Qp, 1/Qs. In this study, we analyzed the S-wave coda of local earthquake data recorded in the West Bohemia/Vogtland area. This region is well known thanks to the repeated occurrence of earthquake swarms. We worked with data from the 2011 earthquake swarm, which started late August and lasted with decreasing intensity for another 4 months. During the first week of swarm thousands of events were detected with maximum magnitudes ML = 3.6. Amount of high quality data (including continuous datasets and catalogues with an abundance of well-located events) is available due to installation of WEBNET seismic network (13 permanent and 9 temporary stations) monitoring seismic activity in the area. Results of the single-scattering model show seismic attenuations decreasing with frequency, what is in agreement with observations worldwide. We also found decrease of attenuation with increasing hypocentral distance and increasing lapse time, which was interpreted as a decrease of attenuation with depth (coda waves on later lapse times are generated in bigger depths - in our case in upper lithosphere, where attenuations are small). We also noticed a decrease of frequency dependence of 1/Qc

  6. Elimination of cavitation-related attenuation in shock wave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankin, G. N.; Lautz, J. M.; Simmons, W. N.; Zhong, P.; Frank, S. T.; Szeri, A. J.

    2017-03-01

    In shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), acoustic pulses with a leading compression wave followed by a tensile wave are delivered into the patient's body using a water-filled coupling cushion. Cavitation-related acoustic energy loss in the coupling unit depends critically on water conditions, e.g. dissolved gas concentration and exchange flow rate. We have systematically investigated the attenuation mechanism in the coupling water via pressure measurements and cavitation characterization. In non-degassed water the bubble cluster became progressively dense (i.e., proliferated because of gas diffusion into bubbles and splitting of bubbles into many daughter bubbles) in shock waves delivered at 1 Hz leading to reduction in the tensile wave duration from a nominal value of 4.6 to 1.8 µs. To reduce cavitation in the coupling water along the beam path, we have used a continuous jet flow to remove residual daughter bubbles between consecutive shocks. As a result, stone fragmentation efficiency was increased from 16±4% to 30±5% (p = 0.002) after 250 shocks. Such a hydrodynamic approach for tensile wave attenuation in the coupling water may be used to provide a flexible means for a novel treatment strategy with tissue protection.

  7. Total attenuation coefficient of intralipid dilutions for discrete laser wavelengths between 405 and 1315 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreischuh, Tanja N.; Gurdev, Ljuan L.; Vankov, Orlin I.; Avramov, Lachezar A.; Stoyanov, Dimitar V.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental investigations on different aspects of optical tomography require the knowledge of the optical parameters of tissues and tissue-like phantoms in order to unambiguously interpret the experimental data and specify characteristic inhomogeneities in tissue diagnostics. The main optical parameters of interest are the absorption coefficient, the scattering, backscattering, and reduced-scattering coefficients, the total attenuation (extinction) coefficient and the anisotropy factor. In this work, we extend our investigations of the optical properties of tissuemimicking phantoms, such as Intralipid-20% fat emulsion, using an approach we have developed recently based on the peculiarities of laser radiation beams propagating through semi-infinite turbid media. The dependence of the total attenuation coefficient on the Intralipid concentration, for laser radiation wavelengths λ=405, 672, 850, and 1314 nm, is studied, by using a set of phantoms consisting of different dilutions of Intralipid in distilled water. The experimental results for the extinction are in agreement with our previous results and with empiric formulae found by other authors concerning the wavelength dependence of the scattering coefficient of Intralipid -10% and Intralipid - 20%. They are also in agreement with known data of the water absorptance. As a whole, the results obtained in this work confirm the consideration of the experimental phantoms as semi-infinite media. They also confirm and extend theoretical and experimental results obtained previously, and reveal advantages of using longer wavelengths for deeper diagnostics of tissues and mimic turbid media.

  8. Multiple irradiation sensing of the optical effective attenuation coefficient for spectral correction in handheld OA imaging.

    PubMed

    Held, K Gerrit; Jaeger, Michael; Rička, Jaro; Frenz, Martin; Akarçay, H Günhan

    2016-06-01

    Spectral optoacoustic (OA) imaging enables spatially-resolved measurement of blood oxygenation levels, based on the distinct optical absorption spectra of oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood. Wavelength-dependent optical attenuation in the bulk tissue, however, distorts the acquired OA spectrum and thus makes quantitative oxygenation measurements challenging. We demonstrate a correction for this spectral distortion without requiring a priori knowledge of the tissue optical properties, using the concept of multiple irradiation sensing: recording the OA signal amplitude of an absorbing structure (e.g. blood vessel), which serves as an intrinsic fluence detector, as function of irradiation position. This permits the reconstruction of the bulk effective optical attenuation coefficient μeff,λ . If performed at various irradiation wavelengths, a correction for the wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation is achieved, revealing accurate spectral information on the absorbing structures. Phantom studies were performed to show the potential of this technique for handheld clinical combined OA and ultrasound imaging.

  9. Acoustic speed and attenuation coefficient in sheep aorta measured at 5-9 MHz.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Katharine H; Poepping, Tamie L; McNeilly, Alan; Megson, Ian L; Hoskins, Peter R

    2006-06-01

    B-mode ultrasound (US) images from blood vessels in vivo differ significantly from vascular flow phantom images. Phantoms with acoustic properties more closely matched to those of in vivo arteries may give better images. A method was developed for measuring the speed and attenuation coefficient of US over the range 5 to 9 MHz in samples of sheep aorta using a pulse-echo technique. The times-of-flight method was used with envelope functions to identify the reference points. The method was tested with samples of tissue-mimicking material of known acoustic properties. The tissue samples were stored in Krebs physiologic buffer solution and measured over a range of temperatures. At 37 degrees C, the acoustic speed and attenuation coefficient as a function of frequency in MHz were 1600 +/- 50 ms(-1) and 1.5 +/- 4f(0.94 +/- 1.3) dB cm(-1), respectively.

  10. High-power microwave attenuator employing slow wave structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Shintake, Tsumoru; Nishiyama, Koji; Miura, Sadao

    2012-11-01

    Using present pulsed microwave amplifier, we can obtain RF peak power beyond one hundred MW. However, it is not easy to test such a high-power RF. To overcome this difficulty we developed a high-power microwave attenuator employing a slow wave structure. For example, the output power of RF pulse compressor for present electron linear accelerator reaches a few hundreds MW RF power, but the existing dummy loads can absorb only a few tens MW of RF power. The attenuator we developed has a kind of periodic structure and is made of metal only. We operated this attenuator using a high-power RF source, and found that it could be operated fewer than 50 pps RF output at 40 MW, 2.5 μs or 100 MW, 0.5 μs.

  11. Attenuation of the detonation wave in hydrogen-air mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bivol, G. Yu; Golovastov, S. V.; Golub, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    The deceleration and attenuation of a detonation wave in hydrogen-air mixture was experimentally studied in a cylindrical channel. Inner walls of the wide section of the channel were covered with an acoustically absorbing layer. Experiments were carried out in hydrogen-air mixture at atmospheric pressure. Initially detonation was formed as a result of a deflagration to detonation transition. The dependence of velocity and pressure at the front of the detonation or shock wave on the thickness of the acoustically absorbing material and mixture composition (equivalence ratio) was presented. The results demonstrate that increasing the thickness of the porous material on the walls lead to further attenuation of the detonation wave to the point where it is not re-initiated at the distance of 15 calibers from the porous section. It was found that the recovery of the detonation wave after the passage of the acoustically absorbing section can happen if the shock wave velocity does not drop below Chapman-Jouguet acoustic velocity.

  12. Laboratory Studies of Wave Attenuation through Artificial and Real Vegetation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    33  Figure 35. Securing S. alterniflora in coir mats (left...alterniflora sections in the flume (left) with completed bed (right). ............. 39  Figure 42. Wave spectral transformation through coir control...44  Figure 45. Decay coefficient for S. alterniflora (N = 162 stems/m2) versus unplanted coir

  13. Attenuation of shock waves in copper and stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, W.B.

    1986-06-01

    By using shock pins, data were gathered on the trajectories of shock waves in stainless steel (SS-304L) and oxygen-free-high-conductivity copper (OFHC-Cu). Shock pressures were generated in these materials by impacting the appropriate target with thin (approx.1.5 mm) flying plates. The flying plates in these experiments were accelerated to high velocities (approx.4 km/s) by high explosives. Six experiments were conducted, three using SS-304L as the target material and three experiments using OFHC-Cu as the target material. Peak shock pressures generated in the steel experiments were approximately 109, 130, and 147 GPa and in the copper experiments, the peak shock pressures were approximately 111, 132, and 143 GPa. In each experiment, an attenuation of the shock wave by a following release wave was clearly observed. An extensive effort using two characteristic codes (described in this work) to theoretically calculate the attenuation of the shock waves was made. The efficacy of several different constitutive equations to successfully model the experiments was studied by comparing the calculated shock trajectories to the experimental data. Based on such comparisons, the conclusion can be drawn that OFHC-Cu enters a melt phase at about 130 GPa on the principal Hugoniot. There was no sign of phase changes in the stainless-steel experiments. In order to match the observed attenuation of the shock waves in the SS-304L experiments, it was necessary to include strength effects in the calculations. It was found that the values for the parameters in the strength equations were dependent on the equation of state used in the modeling of the experiments. 66 refs., 194 figs., 77 tabs.

  14. Guided wave attenuation in coated pipes buried in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J. S.

    2016-02-01

    Long-range guided wave testing (GWT) is routinely used for the monitoring and detection of corrosion defects in above ground pipelines in various industries. The GWT test range in buried, coated pipelines is greatly reduced compared to aboveground pipelines due to energy leakage into the embedding soil. In this study, we aim to increase test ranges for buried pipelines. The effect of pipe coatings on the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave attenuation is investigated using a full-scale experimental apparatus and model predictions. Tests are performed on a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE)-coated 8" pipe, buried in loose and compacted sand over a frequency range of 10-35 kHz. The application of a low impedance coating is shown to effectively decouple the influence of the sand on the ultrasound leakage from the buried pipe. We demonstrate ultrasonic isolation of a buried pipe by coating the pipe with a Polyethylene (PE)-foam layer that has a smaller impedance than both pipe and sand and the ability to withstand the overburden load from the sand. The measured attenuation in the buried PE-foam-FBE-coated pipe is substantially reduced, in the range of 0.3-1.2 dBm-1 for loose and compacted sand conditions, compared to buried FBE-coated pipe without the PE-foam, where the measured attenuation is in the range of 1.7-4.7 dBm-1. The acoustic properties of the PE-foam are measured independently using ultrasonic interferometry technique and used in model predictions of guided wave propagation in a buried coated pipe. Good agreement is found between the attenuation measurements and model predictions. The attenuation exhibits periodic peaks in the frequency domain corresponding to the through-thickness resonance frequencies of the coating layer. The large reduction in guided wave attenuation for PE-coated pipes would lead to greatly increased GWT test ranges, so such coatings would be attractive for new pipeline installations.

  15. P-Wave to Rayleigh-wave conversion coefficients for wedge corners; model experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gangi, A.F.; Wesson, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    An analytic solution is not available for the diffraction of elastic waves by wedges; however, numerical solutions of finite-difference type are available for selected wedge angles. The P- to Rayleigh-wave conversion coefficients at wedge tips have been measured on two-dimensional seismic models for stress-free wedges with wedge angles, ??0, of 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120??. The conversion coefficients show two broad peaks and a minimum as a function of the angle between the wedge face and the direction of the incident P-wave. The minimum occurs for the P wave incident parallel to the wedge face and one maximum is near an incidence angle of 90?? to the wedge face. The amplitude of this maximum, relative to the other, decreases as the wedge angle increases. The asymmetry of the conversion coefficients, CPR(??; ??0), relative to parallel incidence (?? = 0) increases as the wedge angle increases. The locations of the maxima and the minimum as well as the asymmetry can be explained qualitatively. The conversion coefficients are measured with an accuracy of ??5% in those regions where there are no interfering waves. A comparison of the data for the 10?? wedge with the theoretical results for a half plane (0?? wedge) shows good correlation. ?? 1978.

  16. Comparison between the spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients and the IOP parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Zhihua; Zhou, Yan; Huang, Haiqing; Bai, Yan

    2009-01-01

    The spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients of downward irradiance (Kd) and upward radiance (Ku) are calculated from a profiler spectrometer measured data. Both Kd and Ku are the parameters of apparent optical properties (AOP) and need to be normalized according to the position of the Sun and sky conditions. Three kinds of sky indices are used to indicate the atmospheric conditions of clear, overcast and partly cloudy at the time of measurements. The values of normalized Kd can be compared with the sums of total absorption and backscattering coefficients. The total values from both measured data and the models fit the normalized Kd with the correlation coefficients of 0.85 and 0.81, respectively. The accuracy of Kd is also evaluated by the spectral root mean square error (RMSE) less than 0.15 m-1 in the spectral range from 450 to 700 nm.

  17. Wave speed propagation measurements on highly attenuative heated materials

    DOE PAGES

    Moore, David G.; Ober, Curtis C.; Rodacy, Phil J.; ...

    2015-09-19

    Ultrasonic wave propagation decreases as a material is heated. Two factors that can characterize material properties are changes in wave speed and energy loss from interactions within the media. Relatively small variations in velocity and attenuation can detect significant differences in microstructures. This paper discusses an overview of experimental techniques that document the changes within a highly attenuative material as it is either being heated or cooled from 25°C to 90°C. The experimental set-up utilizes ultrasonic probes in a through-transmission configuration. The waveforms are recorded and analyzed during thermal experiments. To complement the ultrasonic data, a Discontinuous-Galerkin Model (DGM) wasmore » also created which uses unstructured meshes and documents how waves travel in these anisotropic media. This numerical method solves particle motion travel using partial differential equations and outputs a wave trace per unit time. As a result, both experimental and analytical data are compared and presented.« less

  18. A heterogeneous nonlinear attenuating full-wave model of ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Pinton, Gianmarco F; Dahl, Jeremy; Rosenzweig, Stephen; Trahey, Gregg E

    2009-03-01

    A full-wave equation that describes nonlinear propagation in a heterogeneous attenuating medium is solved numerically with finite differences in the time domain (FDTD). Three-dimensional solutions of the equation are verified with water tank measurements of a commercial diagnostic ultrasound transducer and are shown to be in excellent agreement in terms of the fundamental and harmonic acoustic fields and the power spectrum at the focus. The linear and nonlinear components of the algorithm are also verified independently. In the linear nonattenuating regime solutions match results from Field II, a well established software package used in transducer modeling, to within 0.3 dB. Nonlinear plane wave propagation is shown to closely match results from the Galerkin method up to 4 times the fundamental frequency. In addition to thermoviscous attenuation we present a numerical solution of the relaxation attenuation laws that allows modeling of arbitrary frequency dependent attenuation, such as that observed in tissue. A perfectly matched layer (PML) is implemented at the boundaries with a numerical implementation that allows the PML to be used with high-order discretizations. A -78 dB reduction in the reflected amplitude is demonstrated. The numerical algorithm is used to simulate a diagnostic ultrasound pulse propagating through a histologically measured representation of human abdominal wall with spatial variation in the speed of sound, attenuation, nonlinearity, and density. An ultrasound image is created in silico using the same physical and algorithmic process used in an ultrasound scanner: a series of pulses are transmitted through heterogeneous scattering tissue and the received echoes are used in a delay-and-sum beam-forming algorithm to generate a images. The resulting harmonic image exhibits characteristic improvement in lesion boundary definition and contrast when compared with the fundamental image. We demonstrate a mechanism of harmonic image quality

  19. Extracting seismic attenuation coefficients from cross-correlations of ambient noise at linear triplets of stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Zigone, Dimitri

    2015-11-01

    We develop and apply an algorithm for deriving interstation seismic attenuation from cross-correlations of ambient noise recorded by linear arrays. Theoretical results on amplitude decay due to attenuation are used to form a linear least-square inversion for interstation QR values of Rayleigh surface waves propagating along linear arrays having three or more stations. The noise wave field is assumed stationary within each day and the interstation distances should be greater than the employed wavelength. The inversion uses differences of logarithmic amplitude decay curves measured at different stations from cross-correlation functions within a given frequency band. The background attenuation between noise sources and receivers is effectively cancelled with this method. The site amplification factors are assumed constant (or following similar patterns) in the frequency band of interest. The inversion scheme is validated with synthetic tests using ambient noise generated by ray-theory-based calculations with heterogeneous attenuation and homogenous velocity structure. The interstation attenuation and phase velocity dispersion curves are inverted from cross-correlations of the synthetic data. The method is then applied to triplets of stations from the regional southern California seismic network crossing the Mojave section of the San Andreas fault, and a dense linear array crossing the southern San Jacinto Fault zone. Bootstrap technique is used to derive empirical mean and confidence interval for the obtained inverse Q values. The results for the regional stations yield QR values around 25 for a frequency band 0.2-0.36 Hz. The results for the San Jacinto fault zone array give QR values of about 6-30 for frequencies in the range 15-25 Hz.

  20. Errors and uncertainties in the measurement of ultrasonic wave attenuation and phase velocity.

    PubMed

    Kalashnikov, Alexander N; Challis, Richard E

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the error generation mechanisms that affect the accuracy of measurements of ultrasonic wave attenuation coefficient and phase velocity as functions of frequency. In the first stage of the analysis we show that electronic system noise, expressed in the frequency domain, maps into errors in the attenuation and the phase velocity spectra in a highly nonlinear way; the condition for minimum error is when the total measured attenuation is around 1 Neper. The maximum measurable total attenuation has a practical limit of around 6 Nepers and the minimum measurable value is around 0.1 Neper. In the second part of the paper we consider electronic noise as the primary source of measurement error; errors in attenuation result from additive noise whereas errors in phase velocity result from both additive noise and system timing jitter. Quantization noise can be neglected if the amplitude of the additive noise is comparable with the quantization step, and coherent averaging is employed. Experimental results are presented which confirm the relationship between electronic noise and measurement errors. The analytical technique is applicable to the design of ultrasonic spectrometers, formal assessment of the accuracy of ultrasonic measurements, and the optimization of signal processing procedures to achieve a specified accuracy.

  1. Simultaneous reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution from TOF data, acquired with external transmission source.

    PubMed

    Panin, V Y; Aykac, M; Casey, M E

    2013-06-07

    The simultaneous PET data reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution is presented, where the attenuation image is constrained by exploiting an external transmission source. Data are acquired in time-of-flight (TOF) mode, allowing in principle for separation of emission and transmission data. Nevertheless, here all data are reconstructed at once, eliminating the need to trace the position of the transmission source in sinogram space. Contamination of emission data by the transmission source and vice versa is naturally modeled. Attenuated emission activity data also provide additional information about object attenuation coefficient values. The algorithm alternates between attenuation and emission activity image updates. We also proposed a method of estimation of spatial scatter distribution from the transmission source by incorporating knowledge about the expected range of attenuation map values. The reconstruction of experimental data from the Siemens mCT scanner suggests that simultaneous reconstruction improves attenuation map image quality, as compared to when data are separated. In the presented example, the attenuation map image noise was reduced and non-uniformity artifacts that occurred due to scatter estimation were suppressed. On the other hand, the use of transmission data stabilizes attenuation coefficient distribution reconstruction from TOF emission data alone. The example of improving emission images by refining a CT-based patient attenuation map is presented, revealing potential benefits of simultaneous CT and PET data reconstruction.

  2. Temporal Change in Coda Wave Attenuation Observed at Colima Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DOMINGUEZ, T.; FLORES, F.; REYES, G.

    2001-12-01

    The last eruptive processes of Colima volcano (November 1998- January 1999) was characterized by the occurrence of several seismic swarms. During the year previous to the eruption, the seismic activity developed in such a form that we could identified several stages in the evolution of the activity. By measuring the amplitude decay of coda waves we estimated coda attenuation Qc in the frequency range 2-10 Hz. We used Sato's (1977) single scattering model for coda windows of 10 to 15 seconds beginning at twice the S-wave travel time. We found a change in Q0 of approximately a 20-30% lower toward the end of the period. We also found that Qc was frequency dependent within this range. This dependence was progressively lower until the last month of activity just before the eruption. Studies of the same type that have been carried out in other volcanoes (Fehler, et al., 1998, Londoño, 1996) showed changes in the attenuation of the seismic waves related to volcanic eruptions. Changes of coda Q can be attributed to the change of density of the open microcracks in the rocks because of the pressure generated by the pushing of magma toward the surface which is also responsible for the inflation of the volcanic edifice.

  3. Stress wave attenuation in thin structures by ultrasonic through-transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. S.; Williams, J. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The steady state amplitude of the output of an ultrasonic through transmission measurement is analyzed and the result is given in closed form. Provided that the product of the input and output transduction ratios; the specimen-transducer reflection coefficient; the specimen-transducer phase shift parameter; and the material phase velocity are known, this analysis gives a means for determining the through-thickness attenuation of an individual thin sample. Multiple stress wave reflections are taken into account and so signal echoes do not represent a difficulty. An example is presented for a graphite fiber epoxy composite (Hercules AS/3501-6). A direct method for continuous or intermittent monitoring of through thickness attenuation of plate structures which may be subject to service structural degradation is provided.

  4. Stress-wave attenuation in thin structures by ultrasonic through-transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. S.; Williams, J. H., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The steady-state amplitude of the output of an ultrasonic through-transmission measurement is analyzed and the result is given in closed form. Provided that the product of the input and output transduction ratios, the specimen-transducer reflection coefficient, the specimen-transducer phase-shift parameter, and the material phase velocity are known, this analysis gives a means for determining the through-thickness attenuation of an individual thin sample. Multiple stress-wave reflections are taken into account, and so signal echoes do not represent a difficulty. An example is presented for a graphite fiber epoxy composite (Hercules AS/3501-6). Thus, the technique provides a direct method for continuous or intermittent monitoring of through-thickness attenuation of plate structures which may be subject to service structural degradation.

  5. Thin-film absorption coefficients by attenuated-total-reflection spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Holm, R T; Palik, E D

    1978-02-01

    The application of attenuated-total-reflection spectroscopy to the measurement of the absorption coefficient of thin films is presented. For low absorption the sensitivity of ATR is discussed in terms of the concept of an effective thickness. Both the case in which the refractive index of the film is higher and the case in which it is lower than that of the ATR trapezoid are considered. Experimental ATR data for antireflection-coating materials for laser windows is analyzed and compared with calorimetric data.

  6. Remote estimation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient in a moderately turbid estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, R.P.; Pennock, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Solutions of the radiative transfer equation are used to derive relationships of water reflectance to the diffuse attenuation coefficient (K) in moderately turbid water (K > 0.5 m-1). Data sets collected from the NOAA AVHRR and in situ observations from five different dates confirm the appropriateness of these relationships, in particular the logistic equation. Values of K calculated from the reflectance data agree to within 60% of the observed values, although the reflectance derived using a more comprehensive aerosol correction is sensitive to chlorophyll concentrations greater than 50 ??g L-1. Agreement between in situ and remote observations improves as the time interval between samples is narrowed. ?? 1991.

  7. Seismic Wave Attenuation and Yield Determination at Regional Distances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-25

    Rayleigh and 1-Hz Lg data for eastern North America, eastern South America, and the Indian Shield, respectively. If Q is assumed to be independent of...system, the Atlas Mountains, and the Cape Fold Belt, regions which have undergone Mesozoic or younger deformation. A seismically active region in an...seismic zone 56 VI. Attenuative body wave dispersion at La Cerdanya ( Eastern Pyrenees) 88 AeoesstI- For NTIS (;FA3& DTIC T’ ju t ,nic-,t Ion_ A;z1LbJ:Y

  8. Wave velocity dispersion and attenuation in media exhibiting internal oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frehner, Marcel; Steeb, Holger; Schmalholz, Stefan M.

    2010-05-01

    Understanding the dynamical and acoustical behavior of porous and heterogeneous rocks is of great importance in geophysics, e.g. earthquakes, and for various seismic engineering applications, e.g. hydrocarbon exploration. Within a heterogeneous medium oscillations with a characteristic resonance frequency, depending on the mass and internal length of the heterogeneity, can occur. When excited, heterogeneities can self-oscillate with their natural frequency. Another example of internal oscillations is the dynamical behavior of non-wetting fluid blobs or fluid patches in residually saturated pore spaces. Surface tension forces or capillary forces act as the restoring force that drives the oscillation. Whatever mechanism is involved, an oscillatory phenomena within a heterogeneous medium will have an effect on acoustic or seismic waves propagating through such a medium, i.e. wave velocity dispersion and frequency-dependent attenuation. We present two models for media exhibiting internal oscillations and discuss the frequency-dependent wave propagation mechanism. Both models give similar results: (1) The low-frequency (i.e. quasi-static) limit for the phase velocity is identical with the Gassmann-Wood limit and the high-frequency limit is larger than this value and (2) Around the resonance frequency a very strong phase velocity change and the largest attenuation occurs. (1) Model for a homogeneous medium exhibiting internal oscillations We present a continuum model for an acoustic medium exhibiting internal damped oscillations. The obvious application of this model is water containing oscillating gas bubbles, providing the material and model parameters for this study. Two physically based momentum interaction terms between the two inherent constituents are used: (1) A purely elastic term of oscillatory nature that scales with the volume of the bubbles and (2) A viscous term that scales with the specific surface of the bubble. The model is capable of taking into account

  9. Eliminating illumination effects by discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients' attenuation and accentuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Shan; Shehata, Mohamed; Badawy, Wael; Rahman, Choudhury A.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed a discrete cosine transform (DCT)-based attnuation and accentuation method to remove lighting effects on face images for faciliating face recognition task under varying lighting conditions. In the proposed method, logorithm transform is first used to convert a face image into logarithm domain. Then discrete cosine transform is applied to obtain DCT coefficients. The low-frequency DCT coefficients are attenuated since illumination variations mainly concentrate on the low-frequency band. The high-frequency coefficients are accentuated since when under poor illuminations, the high-frequency features become more important in recognition. The reconstructed log image by inverse DCT of the modified coefficients is used for the final recognition. Experiments are conducted on the Yale B database, the combination of Yale B and Extended Yale B databases and the CMU-PIE database. The proposed method does not require modeling and model fitting steps. It can be directly applied to single face image, without any prior information of 3D shape or light sources.

  10. [Characteristics of diffuse attenuation coefficient of underwater irradiance in the lakes in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze river ].

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Yun-Lin; Wang, Ming-Zhu; Liu, Xiao-Han

    2013-02-01

    Based on the underwater irradiance profile measurement and water samples collection in September, October 2007 in Lake Donghu, Lake Liangzi and Lake Honghu, and in April in 2010 in Lake Kuileihu, the diffuse attenuation coefficient and the dominant attenuation factors were analyzed. The ranges of diffuse attenuation coefficient and total suspended solid (TSS), organic suspended solid (OSS), inorganic suspended solid (ISS), chlorophyll a (Chla), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration varied less in Lake Donghu and Lake Kuileihu than in Lake liangzi and Lake Honghu. The regression analysis showed that ISS was the dominant affecting factor of transparency in Lake Donghu and Lake Kuileihu, but ISS and OSS jointly controlled the transparency in Lake Liangzi and Lake Honghu. The diffuse attenuation coefficient minimum occurred near 580 nm. At around 675 nm, the diffuse attenuation coefficient peak was due to phytoplankton absorption, especially at sites with high pigment concentration. The euphotic depth was less than the mean water depth in Lake Donghu, suggesting that the submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) can not grow in the present underwater light climate. However, the euphotic depth was larger than the mean water depth in other three lakes showing that the underwater light climate can meet the light requirements for the growth of SAV. The regression analysis showed that ISS was the dominant affecting factor of PAR attenuation in Lake Donghu and Lake Kuileihu, but ISS, OSS and Chla jointly controlled PAR attenuation in lake Liangzi and lake Honghu. The significant correlation between the beam attenuatin coefficient at 750 nm and PAR difffuse attenuation coefficient showed that the particles scattering significantly contributed to underwater irradiance attenuation.

  11. Linear attenuation coefficients of tissues from 1 keV to 150 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böke, Aysun

    2014-09-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients and three interaction processes have been computed for liver, kidney, muscle, fat and for a range of x-ray energies from 1 keV to 150 keV. Molecular photoelectric absorption cross sections were calculated from atomic cross section data. Total coherent (Rayleigh) and incoherent (Compton) scattering cross sections were obtained by numerical integration over combinations of F2m(x) with the Thomson formula and Sm(x) with the Klein-Nishina formula, respectively. For the coherent (Rayleigh) scattering cross section calculations, molecular form factors were obtained from recent experimental data in the literature for values of x<1 Å-1 and from the relativistic modified atomic form factors for values of x≥1 Å-1. With the inclusion of molecular interference effects in the coherent (Rayleigh) scattering, more accurate knowledge of the scatter from these tissues will be provided. The number of elements involved in tissue composition is 5 for liver, 47 for kidney, 44 for muscle and 3 for fat. The results are compared with previously published experimental and theoretical linear attenuation coefficients. In general, good agreement is obtained. The molecular form factors and scattering functions and cross sections are incorporated into a Monte Carlo program. The energy distributions of x-ray photons scattered from tissues have been simulated and the results are presented.

  12. Measurements of mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number and electron density of some amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kore, Prashant S.; Pawar, Pravina P.

    2014-05-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients of some amino acids, such as DL-aspartic acid-LR(C4H7NO4), L-glutamine (C4H10N2O3), creatine monohydrate LR(C4H9N3O2H2O), creatinine hydrochloride (C4H7N3O·HCl) L-asparagine monohydrate(C4H9N3O2H2O), L-methionine LR(C5H11NO2S), were measured at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275 and 1330 keV photon energies using a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up. The gamma-rays were detected using NaI (Tl) scintillation detection system with a resolution of 0.101785 at 662 keV. The attenuation coefficient data were then used to obtain the effective atomic numbers (Zeff), and effective electron densities (Neff) of amino acids. It was observed that the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron densities (Neff) initially decrease and tend to be almost constant as a function of gamma-ray energy. Zeff and Neff experimental values showed good agreement with the theoretical values with less than 1% error for amino acids.

  13. Lithium-doped hydroxyapatite nano-composites: Synthesis, characterization, gamma attenuation coefficient and dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badran, H.; Yahia, I. S.; Hamdy, Mohamed S.; Awwad, N. S.

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-hydroxyapatite (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt% Li-HAp) nano-composites were synthesized by sol-gel technique followed by microwave-hydrothermal treatment. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman techniques. Gamma attenuation coefficient and the dielectric properties for all composites were investigated. The crystallinity degree of Li-doped HAp was higher than that of un-doped HAp. Gamma attenuation coefficient values increased from 0.562 cm-1 for 0 wt% Li-HAp to 2.190 cm-1 for 40 wt% Li-HAp. The alternating current conductivity increased with increasing frequency. The concentration of Li affect the values of dielectric constant where Li doped HAp of low dielectric constant can have an advantage for healing in bone fractures. The calcium to phosphorus ratio decreased from 1.43 to 1.37 with the addition of lithium indicating the Ca deficiency in the studied composites. Our findings lead to the conclusion that Li-HAp is a new nano-composite useful for medical applications and could be doped with gamma shield materials.

  14. A Rayleigh-Wave Attenuation Method for Crack Depth Determination in Asphalt Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Alex; Gallo, Gonzalo E.

    2004-02-01

    It has been established through research on concrete structures that the attenuation of surface waves is sensitive to the presence of a surface-breaking obstructing its path. This is the basis for a non-destructive crack depth measurement technique to quantitatively establish the extent of damage on a pavement subject to of top-down cracking. A previously developed self-compensating technique was applied to asphalt concrete beams constructed with a variety of crack and notch configurations. In the study different notch geometries and the effect of crack width, by comparing results from saw-cut notches to those of narrow cracks, were examined. Two types of impact sources were used and the results obtained were compared to each other. The frequency-dependent signal transmission coefficient was measured at 30 and 50 mm spacing for both undamaged and cracked beams. A single relationship between signal attenuation and crack depth can be attained by normalizing the crack depth with respect to the wavelength. Although the frequency response of a beam is different to that of a slab, the viability of Rayleigh wave attenuation measurements in asphalt pavement surfaces was proved if certain corrections are considered. The method may provide a non-destructive means to determine the depth of cracks in asphalt, such as it does in concrete, with the future understanding of certain phenomena encountered in this work.

  15. Seismic attenuation due to wave-induced flow

    SciTech Connect

    Pride, S.R.; Berryman, J.G.; Harris, J.M.

    2003-10-09

    Analytical expressions for three P-wave attenuation mechanisms in sedimentary rocks are given a unified theoretical framework. Two of the models concern wave-induced flow due to heterogeneity in the elastic moduli at mesoscopic scales (scales greater than grain sizes but smaller than wavelengths). In the first model, the heterogeneity is due to lithological variations (e.g., mixtures of sands and clays) with a single fluid saturating all the pores. In the second model, a single uniform lithology is saturated in mesoscopic ''patches'' by two immiscible fluids (e.g., air and water). In the third model, the heterogeneity is at ''microscopic'' grain scales (broken grain contacts and/or micro-cracks in the grains) and the associated fluid response corresponds to ''squirt flow''. The model of squirt flow derived here reduces to proper limits as any of the fluid bulk modulus, crack porosity, and/or frequency is reduced to zero. It is shown that squirt flow is incapable of explaining the measured level of loss (10{sup -2} < Q{sup -1} < 10{sup -1}) within the seismic band of frequencies (1 to 10{sup 4} Hz); however, either of the two mesoscopic scale models easily produce enough attenuation to explain the field data.

  16. Attenuation of the LG wave across the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos, Andrea Christina

    Lg waveforms recorded by EarthScope's Transportable Array (TA) are used to estimate Lg Q in the contiguous United States. Shear-wave crustal attenuation is calculated based on Lg spectral amplitudes filtered at several narrow bandwidths with central frequencies of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 Hz. The two-station and reverse two-station techniques were used to calculate these Q values. 349 crustal earthquakes occurring from 2004 to 2015 and ranging from magnitude 3 to magnitude 6 were used in this study. The results show that the western U.S., an area ranging from 25°N to 50°N and from 125°W to 105°W is a primarily low Q (high attenuation) area, with isolated high Q (low attenuation) regions corresponding to the Colorado Plateau, the Rocky Mountains, the Columbia Plateau, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The central and eastern U.S., an area ranging from 105°W to 60°W, is found to be high Q overall, with isolated low Q areas along ft... Coastal Plain, the Reelfoot Rift, and the Wisconsin-Minnesota border region. A positive correlation between high heat flow, the presence of thick sediments, recent tectonic activity, and low Q is observed. Areas with low heat flow, thin sediment cover, and no recent tectonic activity were observed to have consistently high Q. Lg Q was found to have a power law type frequency dependence throughout the U.S., with an increase in central frequency resulting in an increase in Q. At higher frequencies, crustal attenuation is dominated by scattering. These new Lg tomography models are based on an unprecedented amount and coverage of data, providing improved accuracy and detail. This increase in detail can improve high frequency ground motion predictions of future large earthquakes for more accurate hazard assessment and improve overall understanding of the structure and assemblage of the contiguous United States.

  17. The calculation of mass attenuation coefficients of well-known thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds at wide energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermis, Elif Ebru

    2017-02-01

    The photon mass attenuation coefficients of LiF, BaSO4, CaCO3 and CaSO4 thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds at 100; 300; 500; 600; 800; 1,000; 1,500; 2,000; 3,000 and 5,000 keV gamma-ray energies were calculated. For this purpose, FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) program which is one of the well-known MC codes was used in this study. Furthermore, obtained results were analyzed by means of ROOT program. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) values were also used to compare the obtained theoretical values because the mass attenuation values of the used compounds could not found in the literature. Calculated mass attenuation coefficients were highly in accordance with the NIST values. As a consequence, FLUKA was successful in calculating the mass attenuation coefficients of the most used thermoluminescent compound.

  18. Crustal Lg-wave attenuation in and around Tibetan plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Xie, X.; Yao, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Based on regional Lg-wave data, we develop a broadband high-resolution attenuation model for Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding regions. We collect vertical component seismograms recorded at 146 stations form 232 crustal earthquakes to calculate the Lg-wave amplitude spectra. The spectra are sampled at 58 discrete frequencies distributed log evenly between 0.05 and 10.0 Hz. Both dual-station and single-station datasets are constructed for jointly inverting the Lg Q distribution and Lg wave excitation function. The maximum spatial resolution is approximately 0.8°×0.8° in well-covered areas and for frequencies between 0.5 and 2.0 Hz. The Lg Q image reveals the relations between attenuations and geological structures. The average Lg Q0 (1 Hz Q) is 280 for Tibetan Plateau (regions with elevations above 4,000 m ). The Q0 values change from the south to north by first decrease (the Himalaya: 386, Lhasa : 284, Qiangtang: 238, and Songpan-Ganze blocks: 217), and then increase ( East Kunlun: 289, West Kunlun: 330, and Qilianshan blocks: 315). The QLg distributions are consistent with the lower crust material flow around the Eastern Himalayan syntaxis and the rigid Sichuan basin. The regions surrounding the Tibetan plateau are characterized by high Q0 values (Tarim basin: 433, Altyn mountain: 517, Qaidam basin: 385, Alashan uplift: 452, Inner Mongolian platform: 444, Ordos: 395, and Sichuan basins: 456), except for Yungui Plateau which has a relatively low Q0 of 247. A statistical method is used to investigate the regional variations of the Lg Q frequency dependence. The Lg Q generally increases with the increase of frequencies but show complex frequency dependency, indicating the commonly used power-law Q model may not be appropriate within a broad frequency band. The Lg Q frequency dependence also shows regional variations.

  19. Statistics and Physics of Stratospheric Gravity Wave Attenuation over New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, C. G.; Smith, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    The DEEPWAVE field project took place over the New Zealand region during June and July of 2014 and was focused on observing orographic and non-orographic gravity waves from their source regions in the troposphere to attenuation regions in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. An important preliminary finding of this project is that many mountain wave events are attenuated in a 15-20km "valve layer" in the lower stratosphere, characterized by weak winds and non-linearity. This valve layer strongly attenuates about half of New Zealand mountain wave events, reducing wave momentum fluxes by as much as 90% and producing a maximum in momentum flux divergence. This work further characterizes this lower-stratospheric mountain wave attenuation and seeks to understand the physics of actual wave attenuation events "reproduced" within 6- and 2-km resolution realistic WRF simulations. Local attenuation diagnostics, such as Richardson Number, stratification, and the non-linearity ratio, are used to characterize the size and 3-D distribution of attenuation regions and to diagnose dissipation mechanisms. Potential vorticity (PV) is also used as a diagnostic to identify attenuation regions and also to trace the influences of these regions downstream. Preliminary work has revealed that mountain wave attenuation over New Zealand is spatially inhomogeneous, generates PV in dipoles, and that lateral shear instabilities cause lateral mixing 1000s of kilometers downstream of the attenuation regions.

  20. Effective atomic numbers and mass attenuation coefficients of some thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds for total photon interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Shivaramu; Amutha, R.; Ramprasath, V.

    1999-05-01

    Effective atomic numbers for total gamma-ray interaction with some selected thermoluminescent dosimetric compounds such as barium acetate, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium sulfate dihydrate, cadmium sulfate (anhydrous), cadmium sulfate, strontium sulfate, and lithium fluoride have been calculated in the 1-keV to 20-MeV energy region. Experimental mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers for these compounds at selected photon energies of 26.3, 33.2, 59.54, and 661.6 keV have been obtained from good geometry transmission measurements and compared with theoretical values. The effect of absorption edge on effective atomic numbers and its variation with energy, and nonvalidity of the Bragg`s mixture rule at incident photon energies closer to the absorption edges of constituent elements of compounds are discussed.

  1. Producing acoustic 'Frozen Waves': simulated experiments with diffraction/attenuation resistant beams in lossy media.

    PubMed

    Prego-Borges, José L; Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Recami, Erasmo; Costa, Eduardo Tavares

    2014-08-01

    The so-called Localized Waves (LW), and the "Frozen Waves" (FW), have raised significant attention in the areas of Optics and Ultrasound, because of their surprising energy localization properties. The LWs resist the effects of diffraction for large distances, and possess an interesting self-reconstruction -self-healing- property (after obstacles with size smaller than the antenna's); while the FWs, a sub-class of LWs, offer the possibility of arbitrarily modeling the longitudinal field intensity pattern inside a prefixed interval, for instance 0⩽z⩽L, of the wave propagation axis. More specifically, the FWs are localized fields "at rest", that is, with a static envelope (within which only the carrier wave propagates), and can be endowed moreover with a high transverse localization. In this paper we investigate, by simulated experiments, various cases of generation of ultrasonic FW fields, with the frequency of f0=1 MHz in a water-like medium, taking account of the effects of attenuation. We present results of FWs for distances up to L=80 mm, in attenuating media with absorption coefficient α in the range 70⩽α⩽170 dB/m. Such simulated FW fields are constructed by using a procedure developed by us, via appropriate finite superpositions of monochromatic ultrasonic Bessel beams. We pay due attention to the selection of the FW parameters, constrained by the rather tight restrictions imposed by experimental Acoustics, as well as to some practical implications of the transducer design. The energy localization properties of the Frozen Waves can find application even in many medical apparatus, such as bistouries or acoustic tweezers, as well as for treatment of diseased tissues (in particular, for the destruction of tumor cells, without affecting the surrounding tissues; also for kidney stone shuttering, etc.).

  2. A method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient (KdPAR)from paired temperature sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Read, Jordan S.; Rose, Kevin C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    A new method for estimating the diffuse attenuation coefficient for photosynthetically active radiation (KdPAR) from paired temperature sensors was derived. We show that during cases where the attenuation of penetrating shortwave solar radiation is the dominant source of temperature changes, time series measurements of water temperatures at multiple depths (z1 and z2) are related to one another by a linear scaling factor (a). KdPAR can then be estimated by the simple equation KdPAR ln(a)/(z2/z1). A suggested workflow is presented that outlines procedures for calculating KdPAR according to this paired temperature sensor (PTS) method. This method is best suited for conditions when radiative temperature gains are large relative to physical noise. These conditions occur frequently on water bodies with low wind and/or high KdPARs but can be used for other types of lakes during time periods of low wind and/or where spatially redundant measurements of temperatures are available. The optimal vertical placement of temperature sensors according to a priori knowledge of KdPAR is also described. This information can be used to inform the design of future sensor deployments using the PTS method or for campaigns where characterizing sub-daily changes in temperatures is important. The PTS method provides a novel method to characterize light attenuation in aquatic ecosystems without expensive radiometric equipment or the user subjectivity inherent in Secchi depth measurements. This method also can enable the estimation of KdPAR at higher frequencies than many manual monitoring programs allow.

  3. Determination of mass attenuation coefficients for threshold contrast evaluation in digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Johann; Semturs, Friedrich; Menhart, Susanne; Figl, Michael

    2010-04-01

    According to the 'European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening' (EPQC) image quality digital mammography units has to be evaluated at different breast thicknesses. At the standard thickness of 50 mm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) image quality is determined by the analysis of CDMAM contrast detail phantom images where threshold contrasts are calculated for different gold disc diameters. To extend these results to other breast thicknesses contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and threshold contrast (TC) visibilities have to be calculated for all required thicknesses. To calculate the latter the mass attenuation coefficient (MAC) of gold has to be known for all possible beam qualities in the tube voltage range between 26 and 32 kV. In this paper we first determined the threshold contrast visibility using the CDMAM phantom with the same beam quality at different current-time products (mAs). We can derive from Rose theory that CNR • CT • α = const, where α is the diameter of the gold cylinder. From this the corresponding attenuation coefficients can be calculated. This procedure was repeated for four different beam qualities (Mo/Mo 27kV, Rh/Rh 29kV, Rh/Rh 31 kV, and W/Rh 29 kV)). Next, we measured the aluminium half value layer (HVL) of all x-ray spectra relevant for mammography. Using a first order Taylor expansion of MAC as a function of HVL, all other desired MAC can be calculated. The MAC as a function of the HVL was derived to MAChvl = -286.97 * hvl+186.03 with R2 = 0.997, where MAChvl indicates the MAC for all specific x-ray spectrum defined by its aluminium half value layer. Based on this function all necessary MACs needed for quality assurance (QA) were calculated. The results were in good agreement with the data found in the protocol.

  4. Imaging the attenuation coefficients of magnetically constrained positron beams in matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Charles C.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes a method for tomographically imaging the linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) of positron beams in heterogeneous materials. A β+ ray emitter such as 68Ga, placed in a uniform 3T static magnetic field, generates a well-defined positron beam that maintains its spatial coherence over an attenuation of more than 10-3 while signaling its intensity via the annihilation radiation it generates. A positron emission tomography (PET) system embedded in the magnetic field measures the positron-electron annihilation distribution within objects illuminated by the beam. It's shown that this image can be decomposed into maps of the positron beam's flux and its material-dependent LACs without need for auxiliary measurements or transmission of the beam completely through the object. The initial implementation employs a hybrid PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner developed for medical applications. Mass thicknesses up to 0.55 g/cm2 at a spatial resolution of a few millimeters have been imaged.

  5. Diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance: An evaluation of remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Darecki, Miroslaw; Carder, Kendall L.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Stramski, Dariusz; Rhea, W. Joseph

    2005-02-01

    The propagation of downwelling irradiance at wavelength λ from surface to a depth (z) in the ocean is governed by the diffuse attenuation coefficient, ?(λ). There are two standard methods for the derivation of ?(λ) in remote sensing, which both are based on empirical relationships involving the blue-to-green ratio of ocean color. Recently, a semianalytical method to derive ?(λ) from reflectance has also been developed. In this study, using ?(490) and ?(443) as examples, we compare the ?(λ) values derived from the three methods using data collected in three different regions that cover oceanic and coastal waters, with ?(490) ranging from ˜0.04 to 4.0 m-1. The derived values are compared with the data calculated from in situ measurements of the vertical profiles of downwelling irradiance. The comparisons show that the two standard methods produced satisfactory estimates of ?(λ) in oceanic waters where attenuation is relatively low but resulted in significant errors in coastal waters. The newly developed semianalytical method appears to have no such limitation as it performed well for both oceanic and coastal waters. For all data in this study the average of absolute percentage difference between the in situ measured and the semianalytically derived ? is ˜14% for λ = 490 nm and ˜11% for λ = 443 nm.

  6. Attenuation of High-Frequency Seismic Waves in Eastern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahood, M.

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the frequency-dependent attenuation of the crust in Eastern Iran by analysis data from 132 local earthquakes having focal depths in the range of 5-25 km. We estimated the quality factor of coda waves ( Q c) and body waves ( Q p and Q s) in the frequency band of 1.5-24 Hz by applying the single backscattering theory of S-coda envelopes and the extended coda-normalization method, respectively. Considering records from recent earthquakes (Rigan M w 6.5, 2010/12/20, Goharan M w 6.2, 2013/5/11 and Sirch M w 5.5, 2013/1/21), the estimated values of Q c, Q p and Q s vary from 151 ± 49, 63 ± 6, and 93 ± 14 at 1.5 Hz to 1,994 ± 124, 945 ± 84 and 1,520 ± 123 at 24 Hz, respectively. The average frequency-dependent relationships ( Q = Q o f n ) estimated for the region are Q c = (108 ± 10) f (0.96±0.01), Q p = (50 ± 5) f (1.01±0.04), and Q s = (75 ± 6) f (1.03±0.06). These results evidenced a frequency dependence of the quality factors Q c, Q p, and Q s, as commonly observed in tectonically active zones characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity, and the low value of Q indicated an attenuative crust beneath the entire region.

  7. Nonautonomous rogue waves and 'catch' dynamics for the combined Hirota-LPD equation with variable coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fajun

    2016-05-01

    We study multi-rogue wave solutions of a Schro¨dinger equation with higher-order terms employing the generalized Darboux transformation. Some properties of the nonautonomous rogue waves are investigated analytically for the combined Hirota-Lakshmanan-Porsezian-Daniel (LPD) equation. We consider the controllable behaviors of this nonautonomous rogue wave solution with the nonlinearity management function and gain/loss coefficient. It is reported that there are possibilities to 'catch' rogue waves through manipulating nonlinear function and gain/loss coefficient. Our approach can provide many possibilities to manipulate rogue waves and present the potential applications for the rogue wave phenomena.

  8. Measurement of intrinsic and scattering attenuation of shear waves in two sedimentary basins and comparison to crystalline sites in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eulenfeld, Tom; Wegler, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    We developed an improved method for the separation of intrinsic and scattering attenuation of seismic shear waves by envelope inversion called Qopen. The method optimizes the fit between Green's functions for the acoustic, isotropic radiative transfer theory and observed energy densities of earthquakes. The inversion allows the determination of scattering and intrinsic attenuation, site corrections and spectral source energies for the investigated frequency bands. Source displacement spectrum and the seismic moment of the analysed events can be estimated from the obtained spectral source energies. We report intrinsic and scattering attenuation coefficients of shear waves near three geothermal reservoirs in Germany for frequencies between 1 and 70 Hz. The geothermal reservoirs are located in Insheim, Landau (both Upper Rhine Graben) and Unterhaching (Molasse basin). We compare these three sedimentary sites to two sites located in crystalline rock with respect to scattering and intrinsic attenuation. The inverse quality factor for intrinsic attenuation is constant in sediments for frequencies smaller than 10 Hz and decreasing for higher frequencies. For crystalline rock, it is on a lower level and strictly monotonic decreasing with frequency. Intrinsic attenuation dominates scattering except for the Upper Rhine Graben, where scattering is dominant for frequencies below 10 Hz. Observed source displacement spectra show a high-frequency fall-off greater than or equal to 3.

  9. Noninvasive monitoring of photodynamic therapy on skin neoplastic lesions using the optical attenuation coefficient measured by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulart, Viviane P.; dos Santos, Moisés O.; Latrive, Anne; Freitas, Anderson Z.; Correa, Luciana; Zezell, Denise M.

    2015-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become a promising alternative for treatment of skin lesions such as squamous cell carcinoma. We propose a method to monitor the effects of PDT in a noninvasive way by using the optical attenuation coefficient (OAC) calculated from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. We conducted a study on mice with chemically induced neoplastic lesions and performed PDT on these lesions using homemade photosensitizers. The response of neoplastic lesions to therapy was monitored using, at the same time, macroscopic clinical visualization, histopathological analysis, OCT imaging, and OCT-based attenuation coefficient measurement. Results with all four modalities demonstrated a positive response to treatment. The attenuation coefficient was found to be 1.4 higher in skin lesions than in healthy tissue and it decreased after therapy. This study shows that the OAC is a potential tool to noninvasively assess the evolution of skin neoplastic lesions with time after treatment.

  10. Blast wave attenuation by lightly destructable granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, V. V.; Lu, F. K.; Medin, S. A.; Mirova, O. A.; Parshikov, A. N.; Petukhov, V. A.; Volodin, V. V.

    Terrorist bombings are a dismal reality nowadays. One of the most effective ways for protection against blast overpressure is the use of lightly compacted materials such as sand [1] and aqueous foam [2] as a protective envelope or barrier. According to [1], shock wave attenuation in a mine tunnel (one-dimensional case) behind a destroyed object is given by q_e ≈ q {1}/{1 + 4(S/q)^{1/6} bρ _{mat} /L^{1/3} }where qe — effective charge, S — exposed area of the obstacle, q — TNT equivalent (grams), L — distance between charge and obstacle, b — obstacle thickness and ρ mat — material density. This empirical equation is applicable only in a one-dimensional case but not for a less confined environment. Another way of protecting a structure against blast is to coat the surface with a sacrificial layer. In [3] full-scale experiments were carried out to investigate the behaviour of a covering of aluminum foam under the effect of a blast wave.

  11. Seismic waves attenuation in the lithosphere of the northern Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrynina, Anna

    2013-04-01

    The seismic quality factor of the direct body waves (P- and S-waves) and coda and their frequency dependence (n) were estimated for the northern Basin and Range Province using traces of 66 local earthquakes and explosions recorded during 1988-1989 PASSCAL Basin and Range Passive Seismic Experiment. For calculation of Q-coda the single backscattering model by Aki was used. Q-coda values were estimated for six central frequencies (f): 0.3±0.1, 0.75±0.25, 1.5±0.5, 3.0±1.0, 6.0±2.0 and 12.0±4.0 Hz and for 18 lapse time windows (W) - from 10 to 95 sec with a step 5 sec. The Qp and Qs values were obtained by the method of the maximum amplitudes for the frequency bands 0.5-1.0, 1.0-2.0, 2.0-4.0 ? 4.0-8.0 Hz. Also we tired to evaluate the part of the intrinsic and scattering attenuation (Qi and Qsc respectively) in the total attenuation using Wennerberg's method. The Q-coda increases and the frequency parameter n and the attenuation coefficient δ decrease with increasing of frequency and lapse time windows. This fact shows that the upper part of the lithosphere is more heterogeneous compared to its lower layers. The deep variations of the frequency parameter n and the attenuation coefficient δ show the sharp change at the depth about 150 km - at the same depth the boundary of the low velocity anomaly is observed (Bensen et al., 2009; Wagner et al., 2012; Shen et al., 2012). The Qs and Qp values also increase with frequency: Qs varies from 42 (0.84 Hz) to 298 (5.52 Hz) and Qp - from 60 (0.84 Hz) to 279 (6.05 Hz). The following empirical relations of Q vs. f are deduced for P- and S-waves respectively: Qp(f)=69*f0.78 and Qs(f)=53*f1.08. The Q-values, describing the intrinsic and scattering attenuation, also show a significant dependence on frequency and lapse time windows: the empirical relations of Q vs. f are: Qi(f)=8*f1.2 and Qsc(f)=13*f1.1 (for W=10 sec) and Qi(f)=5*f1.2 and Qsc(f)=102*f1.0 (for W=95 sec) respectively. The comparison of the intrinsic and

  12. Broadband attenuation of Lamb waves through a periodic array of thin rectangular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Pennec, Yan; Marchal, Rémi; Bonello, Bernard; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram

    2014-10-01

    We study theoretically subwavelength physical phenomena, such as resonant transmission and broadband sound shielding for Lamb waves propagating in an acoustic metamaterial made of a thin plate drilled with one or two row(s) of rectangular holes. The resonances and antiresonances of periodically arranged rectangular junctions separated by holes are investigated as a function of the geometrical parameters of the junctions. With one and two row(s) of holes, high frequency specific features in the transmission coefficient are explained in terms of a coupling of incident waves with both Fabry-Perot oscillations inside the junctions and induced surface acoustic waves between the homogeneous part of the plate and the row of holes. With two rows of holes, low frequency peaks and dips appear in the transmission spectrum. The choice of the distance between the two rows of holes allows the realization of a broadband low frequency acoustic shielding with attenuation over 99% for symmetric waves in a wide low frequency range and over 90% for antisymmetric ones. The origin of the transmission gap is discussed in terms of localized modes of the "H" element made by the junctions, connecting the two homogeneous parts of the plate.

  13. Numerical Study of Shock Wave Attenuation Using Logarithmic Spiral Liquid Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Qian; Deiterding, Ralf; Eliasson, Veronica

    2016-11-01

    Research of shock wave attenuation has drawn much attention due to its military and civilian applications. One method to attenuate shock waves is to use water to block the shock wave propagation path and allow the shock wave to lose energy by breaking up the water sheet. We propose a way by holding a water sheet in logarithmic spiral shape, which has the ability of focusing the incident shock wave to its focal region. In addition, the shock wave will break up the bulk water and thus lose energy. The process of shock wave reflecting off and transmitting through the water sheet is numerically modeled using Euler equations and stiffened gas equation of state. In this study, the shock focusing ability of a logarithmic spiral water sheet is compared for various logarithmic spiral sheets. Further, the attenuation effect is quantified by the measurement of pressure impulse and peak pressure behind the transmitted and reflected shock waves.

  14. Fresnel Coefficients of Forward and Backward Waves Refracting at the Interface of Isotropic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisanov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    The Fresnel coefficients are derived for cross- and co-polarization states of plane electromagnetic wave incident at the interface between two isotropic media. The media can support forward or backward normal waves. Based on introduction of wave type identifiers, without application of the notion of the negative refractive index, phenomena of positive and negative refractions are considered in the general case.

  15. Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient of Downwelling Irradiance: An Evaluation of Remote Sensing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Darecki, Miroslaw; Carder, Kendall L.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Stramski, Dariusz; Rhea, W. Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The propagation of downwelling irradiance at wavelength lambda from surface to a depth (z) in the ocean is governed by the diffuse attenuation coefficient, K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda). There are two standard methods for the derivation of K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) in remote sensing, which both are based on empirical relationships involving the blue-to-green ratio of ocean color. Recently, a semianalytical method to derive K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) from reflectance has also been developed. In this study, using K(sup -)(sub d)(490) and K(sup -)(sub d)(443) as examples, we compare the K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) values derived from the three methods using data collected in three different regions that cover oceanic and coastal waters, with K(sup -)(sub d)(490) ranging from approximately 0.04 to 4.0 per meter. The derived values are compared with the data calculated from in situ measurements of the vertical profiles of downwelling irradiance. The comparisons show that the two standard methods produced satisfactory estimates of K(sup -)(sub d)(lambda) in oceanic waters where attenuation is relatively low but resulted in significant errors in coastal waters. The newly developed semianalytical method appears to have no such limitation as it performed well for both oceanic and coastal waters. For all data in this study the average of absolute percentage difference between the in situ measured and the semianalytically derived K(sup -)(sub d) is approximately 14% for lambda = 490 nm and approximately 11% for lambda = 443 nm.

  16. Frequency-dependent Lg-wave attenuation in northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega, Raquel; Ugalde, Arantza; Villaseñor, Antonio; Harnafi, Mimoun

    2015-11-01

    Frequency-dependent attenuation (Q- 1) in the crust of northern Morocco is estimated from Lg-wave spectral amplitude measurements every quarter octave in the frequency band 0.8 to 8 Hz. This study takes advantage of the improved broadband data coverage in the region provided by the deployment of the IberArray seismic network. Earthquake data consist of 71 crustal events with magnitudes 4 ≤ mb ≤ 5.5 recorded on 110 permanent and temporary seismic stations between January 2008 and December 2013 with hypocentral distances between 100 and 900 km. 1274 high-quality Lg waveforms provide dense path coverage of northern Morocco, crossing a region with a complex structure and heterogeneous tectonic setting as a result of continuous interactions between the African and Eurasian plates. We use two different methods: the coda normalization (CN) analysis, that allows removal of the source and site effects from the Lg spectra, and the spectral amplitude decay (SAD) method, that simultaneously inverts for source, site, and path attenuation terms. The CN and SAD methods return similar results, indicating that the Lg Q models are robust to differences in the methodologies. Larger errors and no significant frequency dependence are observed for frequencies lower than 1.5 Hz. For distances up to 400 km and the frequency band 1.5 ≤ ƒ (Hz) ≤ 4.5, the model functions Q(f) = (529- 22+ 23)(f/1.5)0.23 ± 0.06 and Q(f) = (457- 7+ 7)(f/1.5)0.44 ± 0.02 are obtained using the CN and SAD methods, respectively. A change in the frequency dependence is observed above 4.5 Hz for both methods which may be related to the influence of the Sn energy on the Lg window. The frequency-dependent Q- 1 estimates represent an average attenuation beneath a broad region including the Rif and Tell mountains, the Moroccan and Algerian mesetas, the Atlas Mountains and the Sahara Platform structural domains, and correlate well with areas of moderate seismicity where intermediate Q values have been obtained.

  17. Q c and Q S wave attenuation of South African earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Martin B. C.

    2016-04-01

    Quality factor Q, which describes the attenuation of seismic waves with distance, was determined for South Africa using data recorded by the South African National Seismograph Network. Because of an objective paucity of seismicity in South Africa and modernisation of the seismograph network only in 2007, I carried out a coda wave decay analysis on only 13 tectonic earthquakes and 7 mine-related events for the magnitude range 3.6 ≤ M L ≤ 4.4. Up to five seismograph stations were utilised to determine Q c for frequencies at 2, 4, 8 and 16 Hz resulting in 84 individual measurements. The constants Q 0 and α were determined for the attenuation relation Q c( f) = Q 0 f α . The result was Q 0 = 396 ± 29 and α = 0.72 ± 0.04 for a lapse time of 1.9*( t s - t 0) (time from origin time t 0 to the start of coda analysis window is 1.9 times the S-travel time, t s) and a coda window length of 80 s. This lapse time and coda window length were found to fit the most individual frequencies for a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 3 and a minimum absolute correlation coefficient for the envelope of 0.5. For a positive correlation coefficient, the envelope amplitude increases with time and Q c was not calculated. The derived Q c was verified using the spectral ratio method on a smaller data set consisting of nine earthquakes and one mine-related event recorded by up to four seismograph stations. Since the spectral ratio method requires absolute amplitudes in its calculations, site response tests were performed to select four appropriate stations without soil amplification and/or signal distortion. The result obtained for Q S was Q 0 = 391 ± 130 and α = 0.60 ± 0.16, which agrees well with the coda Q c result.

  18. Linear attenuation coefficient and buildup factor of MCP-96 alloy for dose accuracy, beam collimation, and radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Deidre N; Maqbool, Muhammad; Islam, Mohammed S

    2012-07-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients and buildup factor of MCP-96 alloy were determined for (60)Co, (54)Mn, and (137)Cs gamma emitters and a NaI detector. The thickness of the MCP-96 attenuator was varied from 1 to 4 cm. A collimated beam of gamma rays was allowed to pass through various thicknesses of the MCP-96 alloy. The attenuated beam was detected by a NaI detector, and data were recorded by a multichannel analyzer. The run was repeated without the collimator for broad-beam geometry. For each run, the attenuated beam intensity was normalized by the intensity of the unattenuated incident beam obtained by removing the attenuators. Linear attenuation coefficients were determined by plotting of the intensity of the collimated beam against the attenuator thickness. For every thickness of the alloy, the ratio of the attenuated to the unattenuated beam was found to be higher in broad-beam geometry as compared to the same ratio in narrow-beam geometry. We used the difference in these ratios in broad and narrow-beam geometries to calculate the buildup factor. The buildup factor was found to increase with beam energy and attenuator thickness. Variation in the source-to-detector distance gave a lower value of the buildup factor for a small and a large distance and a higher value for an intermediate distance. The buildup factor was found to be greater than 1 in all cases. We conclude that the buildup factor must be calculated and incorporated for dose correction and precision when the MCP-96 alloy is used for tissue compensation or radiation shielding and protection purposes.

  19. Attenuation coefficient of the light in skin of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, C. R.; Camargo, C. F. M.; Aureliano, D. P.; De Pretto, L. R.; Freitas, A. Z.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2015-06-01

    Optical properties of the biological tissue play an important role to a correct use of optical techniques for therapy and diagnosis. The mice skin presents morphological differences due to characteristics such as gender, body mass and age. Murine models are frequently used in pre-clinical trials in optical therapy and diagnosis. Therefore, the assessment of the skin tissue in animal models is needed for a proper understanding of how light interacts with skin. Noninvasive techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been used to obtain optical information of the tissue, as the attenuation coefficient, with the advantage of obtaining sectional images in real time. In this study, eight female BALB/c albino mice (twenty-four weeks old) and eight male C57BL/6 black mice (eight weeks old) were used to measure the attenuation coefficient of the light in the skin, utilizing the OCT technique, aiming to check for influence of the aging process. Two moments were assessed twenty-two weeks apart from each other. Our data show that the aging process significantly affects the light attenuation coefficient in mice skin. Twenty-two weeks after, statistical significant differences were observed between groups within a same strain. We conclude that light attenuation coefficient of mice skin may be influenced by factors such as disorganization of the dermis. Morphological aspects of skin should be taken into account in studies that involve optical strategies in murine models.

  20. Attenuation of intense sinusoidal waves in air-saturated, bulk porous materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, Herbert L.; Blackstock, David T.

    1987-01-01

    As intense, initially sinusoidal waves propagate in fluids, shocks form and excess attenuation of the wave occurs. Data are presented indicating that shock formation is not necessary for the occurrence of excess attenuation in nonlinear, lossy media, i.e., air-saturated, porous materials. An empirical equation is used to describe the excess attenuation of intense sinusoids in porous materials. The acoustic nonlinearity of and the excess attenuation in porous materials may be predicted directly from dc flow resistivity data. An empirical relationship is used to relate an acoustic nonlinearity parameter to the fundamental frequency and relative dc nonlinearity of two structurally different materials.

  1. Banded Structures in Electron Pitch Angle Diffusion Coefficients from Resonant Wave Particle Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, A. K.; Singhal, R. P.; Khazanov, G. V.; Avanov, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Electron pitch angle (D (alpha)) and momentum (D(pp)) diffusion coefficients have been calculated due to resonant interactions with electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) and whistler mode chorus waves. Calculations have been performed at two spatial locations L = 4.6 and 6.8 for electron energies 10 keV. Landau (n = 0) resonance and cyclotron harmonic resonances n = +/-1, +/-2,...+/-5 have been included in the calculations. It is found that diffusion coefficient versus pitch angle (alpha) profiles show large dips and oscillations or banded structures. The structures are more pronounced for ECH and lower band chorus (LBC) and particularly at location 4.6. Calculations of diffusion coefficients have also been performed for individual resonances. It is noticed that the main contribution of ECH waves in pitch angle diffusion coefficient is due to resonances n = +1 and n = +2. A major contribution to momentum diffusion coefficients appears from n = +2. However, the banded structures in D alpha and Dpp coefficients appear only in the profile of diffusion coefficients for n = +2. The contribution of other resonances to diffusion coefficients is found to be, in general, quite small or even negligible. For LBC and upper band chorus waves, the banded structures appear only in Landau resonance. The Dpp diffusion coefficient for ECH waves is one to two orders smaller than D alpha coefficients. For chorus waves, Dpp coefficients are about an order of magnitude smaller than D alpha coefficients for the case n does not = 0. In case of Landau resonance, the values of Dpp coefficient are generally larger than the values of D alpha coefficients particularly at lower energies. As an aid to the interpretation of results, we have also determined the resonant frequencies. For ECH waves, resonant frequencies have been estimated for wave normal angle 89 deg and harmonic resonances n = +1, +2, and +3, whereas for whistler mode waves, the frequencies have been calculated for angle

  2. Laboratory and field investigations of wave attenuation by live marsh vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wave attenuation by live marsh vegetation was investigated experimentally in this study. Laboratory experiments were conducted in a 20.6 m long, 0.69 m wide and 1.22 m deep wave flume under regular and random waves. The vegetation species used are Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus, which ...

  3. On Wave-Ice Interaction in the Arctic Marginal Ice Zone: Dispersion, Attenuation, and Ice Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    transfer ) equation: D Dt =� 3 This describes the conservation of wave action (spectral density divided by frequency) where... energy as waves interact with ice. These mechanisms are typically split into two broad categories: 1) conservative (Sice,c) and (2) non-conservative...many individual mechanisms of wave ice interaction and thus, like attenuation, is bulk property. Whereas the mechanisms described above are

  4. Measurement of the dispersion and attenuation of cylindrical ultrasonic guided waves in long bone.

    PubMed

    Ta, Dean; Wang, Weiqi; Wang, YuanYuan; Le, Lawrence H; Zhou, Yuqing

    2009-04-01

    Osteoporotic bones are likely to have less cortical bone than healthy bones. The velocities of guided waves propagating in a long cylindrical bone are very sensitive to bone properties and cortical thickness (CTh). This work studies the dispersion and attenuation of ultrasonic guided waves propagating in long cylindrical bone. A hollow cylinder filled with a viscous liquid was used to model the long bone and then to calculate the theoretical phase and group velocities, as well as the attenuation of the waves. The generation and selection of guided wave modes were based on theoretical dispersive curves. The phase velocity and attenuation of cylindrical guided wave modes, such as L(0,1), L(0,2) and L(0,3), were measured in bovine tibia using angled beam transducers at various propagation distances ranging from 75 to 160 mm. The results showed that the phase velocity of the L(0,2) guided wave mode decreased with an increase in CTh. The attenuation of the low cylindrical guided wave modes was a nonlinear function that increased with propagation distance and mode order. The L(0,2) mode had a different attenuation for each CTh. The experimental results were in good agreement with the predicted values. Cylindrical guided waves of low-frequency and low-order have been shown to demonstrate more dispersion and less attenuation and should, therefore, be used to evaluate long bone.

  5. A New Approach for Quantitative Evaluation of Ultrasonic Wave Attenuation in Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Qing-Qing; Li, Ran; Xia, Hong

    2017-02-01

    When ultrasonic waves propagate in composite materials, the propagation behaviors result from the combination effects of various factors, such as material anisotropy and viscoelastic property, internal microstructure and defects, incident wave characteristics and interface condition between composite components. It is essential to make it clear how these factors affect the ultrasonic wave propagation and attenuation characteristics, and how they mutually interact on each other. In the present paper, based on a newly developed time-domain finite element analysis code, PZflex, a unique approach for clarifying the detailed influence mechanism of aforementioned factors is proposed, in which each attenuation component can be extracted from the overall attenuation and analyzed respectively. By taking into consideration the interrelation between each individual attenuation component, the variation behaviors of each component and internal dynamic stress distribution against material anisotropy and matrix viscosity are separately and quantitatively evaluated. From the detailed analysis results of each attenuation component, the energy dissipation at interface is a major component in ultrasonic wave attenuation characteristics, which can provide a maximum contribution rate of 68.2 % to the overall attenuation, and each attenuation component is closely related to the material anisotropy and viscoelasticity. The results clarify the correlation between ultrasonic wave propagation characteristics and material viscoelastic properties, which will be useful in the further development of ultrasonic technology in defect detection.

  6. Measurements of seismic wave attenuation for frequencies between 0.1 and 100 Hz in a Paterson Rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madonna, C.; Tisato, N.; Delle Piane, C.; Saenger, E. H.

    2012-04-01

    The study of wave attenuation in partially saturated porous rocks over a broad frequency range provides valuable information about reservoir fluid systems, which are inherently composed of multiple phase fluid. Following an original idea initiated by Luigi, we designed and set up a specific instrument, the Seismic Wave Attenuation Module (SWAM), to experimentally measure the bulk attenuation on partially saturated rocks at frequencies between 0.01 and 100 Hz, using natural rock samples under in situ conditions. We present its bench-top calibration, a series of data collected from different kind of rocks at different confing pressure and the numerical simulations, supporting the obtained results. We employ the sub-resonance test. Assuming that the rock behaves as a linear time invariant (LTI) system, the attenuation factor 1/Q (Q is the quality factor) is equal to the tangent of the phase shift between the stress and the strain signal. The new attenuation measurement equipment is calibrated in a gas apparatus (Paterson rig) using aluminum as elastic standard and Plexiglas as a viscoelastic standard. Measurements were performed on 25.4 mm diameter, 60 mm long samples. Berea sandstone samples with 20% porosity, and ~500 mD permeability have been measured at different saturation conditions. Attenuation measurements show dependence upon saturation. Moreover, measurements on two well-characterized shale samples have been performed. The two shales have significantly different quality factors; which result to be dependent on both the saturation state of the samples and the propagation direction of the oscillatory signal with respect to the sedimentary bedding. The attenuation coefficient parallel to bedding is less than that vertical to bedding. Thanks to Luigi's initiative and inspiration two generations of his Ph.D. students are now able to jointly present these new challenging experimental results.

  7. Seismic-wave attenuation associated with crustal faults in the new madrid seismic zone.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, R M; Mooney, W D

    1990-04-20

    The attenuation of upper crustal seismic waves that are refracted with a velocity of about 6 kilometers per second varies greatly among profiles in the area of the New Madrid seismic zone in the central Mississippi Valley. The waves that have the strongest attenuation pass through the seismic trend along the axis of the Reelfoot rift in the area of the Blytheville arch. Defocusing of the waves in a low-velocity zone and/or seismic scattering and absorption could cause the attenuation; these effects are most likely associated with the highly deformed rocks along the arch. Consequently, strong seismic-wave attenuation may be a useful criterion for identifying seismogenic fault zones.

  8. Effects of elastic focusing on global models of Rayleigh wave attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Xueyang; Dalton, Colleen A.; Ritsema, Jeroen

    2016-11-01

    Rayleigh wave amplitudes are the primary data set used for imaging shear attenuation in the upper mantle on a global scale. In addition to attenuation, surface-wave amplitudes are influenced by excitation at the earthquake source, focusing and scattering by elastic heterogeneity, and local structure at the receiver and the instrument response. The challenge of isolating the signal of attenuation from these other effects limits both the resolution of global attenuation models and the level of consistency between different global attenuation studies. While the source and receiver terms can be estimated using relatively simple approaches, focusing effects on amplitude are a large component of the amplitude signal and are sensitive to multiscale velocity anomalies. In this study we investigate how different theoretical treatments for focusing effects on Rayleigh wave amplitude influence the retrieved attenuation models. A new data set of fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave phase and amplitude at periods of 50 and 100 sis analysed. The amplitudes due to focusing effects are predicted using the great-circle ray approximation (GCRA), exact ray theory (ERT), and finite-frequency theory (FFT). Phase-velocity maps expanded to spherical-harmonic degree 20 and degree 40 are used for the predictions. After correction for focusing effects, the amplitude data are inverted for global attenuation maps and frequency-dependent source and receiver correction factors. The degree-12 attenuation maps, based on different corrections for focusing effects, all contain the same large-scale features, though the magnitude of the attenuation variations depends on the focusing correction. The variance reduction of the amplitudes strongly depends on the predicted focusing amplitudes, with the highest variance reduction for the ray-based approaches at 50 s and for FFT at 100 s. Although failure to account for focusing effects introduces artefacts into the attenuation models at higher spherical

  9. Propagation and attenuation characteristics of azimuthal symmetric surface waves in un-magnetized plasma column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenqiu; Wang, Gang; Xiang, Dong; Su, Xiaobao

    2016-11-01

    Phase and attenuation properties of azimuthal symmetric surface waves are investigated analytically in an un-magnetized cylindrical plasma column based on the transcendental dispersion relation. A novel method of calculating the wave power deposition in terms of complex electric conductivity is proposed. Electron density distribution is obtained theoretically through charged particle balance theory. It is shown that the effect of the electron temperature on the dispersion curve can be neglected when kzα < 1. Both the phase/attenuation characteristics and wave energy deposition properties of the azimuthal symmetric surface wave have an evident dependence on the electron density and the electron collision frequency.

  10. Correlation coefficient measurement of the mode-locked laser tones using four-wave mixing.

    PubMed

    Anthur, Aravind P; Panapakkam, Vivek; Vujicic, Vidak; Merghem, Kamel; Lelarge, Francois; Ramdane, Abderrahim; Barry, Liam P

    2016-06-01

    We use four-wave mixing to measure the correlation coefficient of comb tones in a quantum-dash mode-locked laser under passive and active locked regimes. We study the uncertainty in the measurement of the correlation coefficient of the proposed method.

  11. Comment on "Resolving the wave vector and the refractive index from the coefficient of reflectance".

    PubMed

    Perez-Molina, Manuel; Carretero, Luis

    2008-08-15

    In a recent Letter, the reflectance coefficient was used to resolve the sign choice of the wave vector and refractive index in active media. We argue that such a coefficient loses its physical meaning for active media (at real frequencies) when the field amplification is limited only by gain saturation. In this case, the amplitude reflectance coefficient leads to fictitious noncausal reflected fields when the backward Fourier transform is used.

  12. Anomalous shear wave attenuation in the shallow crust beneath the Coso volcanic region, California

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.; Ho-Liu, P.; Rinn, D.; Kanamori, H.

    1988-04-10

    We use seismograms of local earthquakes to image relative shear wave attenuation structure in the shallow crust beneath the region containing the Coso volcanic-geothermal area of eastern California. SV and P wave amplitudes were measured from vertical component seismograms of earthquakes that occurred in the Coso-southern Sierra Nevada region from July 1983 to 1985. Seismograms of 16 small earthquakes show SV amplitudes which are greatly diminished at some azimuths and takeoff angles, indicating strong lateral variations in S wave attenuation in the area. Three-dimensional images of the relative S wave attenuation structure are obtained from forward modeling and a back projection inversion of the amplitude data. The results indicate regions within a 20 by 30 by 10 km volume of the shallow crust (one shallower than 5 km) that severely attenuate SV waves passing through them. These anomalies lie beneath the Indian Wells Valley 30 km south of the Coso volcanic field, and are coincident with the epicentral locations of recent earthquake swarms. No anomalous attenuation is seen beneath the Coso volcanic field above about 5 km depth. Geologic relations and the coincidence of anomalous slow P wave velocities suggest that the attenuation anomalies may be related to magmatism along the eastern Sierra front. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  13. P-wave attenuation anisotropy in TI media and its application in fracture parameters inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yi-Yuan; Hu, Tian-Yue; He, Chuan; Tan, Yu-Yang

    2016-12-01

    The existence of aligned fractures in fluid-saturated rocks leads to obvious attenuation anisotropy and velocity anisotropy. Attenuation anisotropy analysis can be applied to estimate fracture density and scale, which provide important information for reservoir identification. This paper derives P-wave attenuation anisotropy in the ATI media where the symmetry axis is in the arbitrary direction theoretically and modifies the spectral ratio method to measure attenuation anisotropy in the ATI media, thus avoiding a large measurement error when applied to wide azimuth or full azimuth data. Fracture dip and azimuth can be estimated through attenuation anisotropy analysis. For small-scale fractures, fracture scale and fracture density can be determined with enhanced convergence if velocity and attenuation information are both used. We also apply the modified spectralratio method to microseismic field data from an oilfield in East China and extract the fracture dip through attenuation anisotropy analysis. The result agrees with the microseismic monitoring.

  14. Calibration of a turbidity meter for making estimates of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in field experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    Management of water resources such as a reservoir requires using analytical models which describe such parameters as the suspended sediment field. To select or develop an appropriate model requires making many measurements to describe the distribution of this parameter in the water column. One potential method for making those measurements expeditiously is to measure light transmission or turbidity and relate that parameter to total suspended solids concentrations. An instrument which may be used for this purpose was calibrated by generating curves of transmission measurements plotted against measured values of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients. Results of these experiments indicate that field measurements made with this instrument using curves generated in this study should correlate with total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in the water column within 20 percent.

  15. Rain attenuation statistics over millimeter wave bands in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Sujan; Choi, Dong-You

    2017-01-01

    Rain induced degradations are significant for terrestrial microwave links operating at frequencies higher than 10 GHz. Paper presents analyses done on rain attenuation and rainfall data for three years between 2013 till 2015, in 3.2 km experimental link of 38 GHz and 0.1 km link at 75 GHz. The less link distance is maintained for 75 GHz operating frequency in order to have better recording of propagation effect as such attenuation induced by rain. OTT Parsivel is used for collection of rain rate database which show rain rate of about 50 mm/h and attenuation values of 20.89 and 28.55 dB are obtained at 0.01% of the time for vertical polarization under 38 and 75 GHz respectively. Prediction models, namely, ITU-R P. 530-16, Da Silva Mello, Moupfouma, Abdulrahman, Lin and differential equation approach are analyzed. This studies help to identify most suitable rain attenuation model for higher microwave bands. While applying ITU-R P. 530-16, the relative error margin of about 3%, 38% and 42% along with 80, 70, 61% were obtained in 0.1%, 0.01% and 0.001% of the time for vertical polarization under 38 and 75 GHz respectively. Interestingly, ITU-R P. 530-16 shows relatively closer estimation to measured rain attenuation at 75 GHz with relatively less error probabilities and additionally, Abdulrahman and ITU-R P. 530-16 results in better estimation to the measured rain attenuation at 38 GHz link. The performance of prominent rain attenuation models are judged with different error matrices as recommended by ITU-R P. 311-15. Furthermore, the efficacy of frequency scaling technique of rain attenuation between links distribution are also discussed. This study shall be useful for making good considerations in rain attenuation predictions for terrestrial link operating at higher frequencies.

  16. Attenuation of Lamb waves in the vicinity of a forbidden band in a phononic crystal.

    PubMed

    Bavencoffe, Maxime; Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine; Morvan, Bruno; Izbicki, Jean-Louis

    2009-09-01

    When a Lamb wave propagates on a plate engraved by a periodic grating, it may exhibit attenuation. This attenuation is related to a coupling of this incident mode with other propagating modes. As the propagation takes place in a periodic medium, the dispersion curves of the modes are of interest because they exhibit passbands and stopbands related to the geometry of the waveguide. The goal of this work is to quantitatively establish the relation between the value of the attenuation of the propagating waves and the width of the forbidden bands appearing inside the Brillouin zone. This study is performed by using a finite element method (ATILA code).

  17. Development of a cryogenic FTIR system for measuring very small attenuation coefficients of infrared materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaji, Sayumi; Sarugaku, Yuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kondo, Sohei; Arasaki, Takayuki; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2016-07-01

    We have been working on a long-term project for developing a variety of infrared immersion gratings for near- to mid-infrared wavelengths. The transmittance of material is essential to realize high-efficiency immersion gratings for astronomical applications. For a typical grating, the attenuation coefficient αatt must be <0.01 cm-1 for the absolute diffraction efficiency of >70%. However, as there are few reports of αatt < 0.01 cm-1 for infrared optical materials in the literatures, we performed high-accuracy measurements of αatt for a variety of infrared materials applicable to immersion gratings. We have already reported αatt at room temperature for single-crystal Si, single-crystal Ge, CVD-ZnS, CVDZnSe, and high-resistivity single-crystal CdZnTe (Ikeda et al. 2009[7], Kaji et al. 2014[10], and Sarugaku et al. 2016[9]). Next, we proceeded with the measurements of αatt at cryogenic temperatures of 20-80 K range, which is the typical operational temperatures of infrared instruments, and for which the shifts of the band gap and/or the sharpness of the lattice absorption lines from the corresponding room temperature values are expected. Thus, we developed a new cryogenic FTIR system that enables high-accuracy measurements at cryogenic temperatures. The system has a mechanism with which two sample cells and a reference cell can be easily and quickly switched without any vacuum leak or temperature change. Our preliminary measurement of Ge using this cryogenic FTIR system found that both the cut-on and cut-off wavelengths shift to the shorter (from 2.0 to 1.7 μm) and longer (from 10.6 to 10.9 μm) wavelengths, respectively, when the temperature is decreased from room temperature to the cryogenic temperature (<28 K). We plan to complete cryogenic measurements for a variety of infrared materials by the end of 2016.

  18. Improved Algorithms for Accurate Retrieval of UV - Visible Diffuse Attenuation Coefficients in Optically Complex, Inshore Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Fang; Fichot, Cedric G.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Miller, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical processes driven by high-energy ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in inshore, estuarine, and coastal waters play an important role in global bio geochemical cycles and biological systems. A key to modeling photochemical processes in these optically complex waters is an accurate description of the vertical distribution of UVR in the water column which can be obtained using the diffuse attenuation coefficients of down welling irradiance (Kd()). The Sea UV Sea UVc algorithms (Fichot et al., 2008) can accurately retrieve Kd ( 320, 340, 380,412, 443 and 490 nm) in oceanic and coastal waters using multispectral remote sensing reflectances (Rrs(), Sea WiFS bands). However, SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms are currently not optimized for use in optically complex, inshore waters, where they tend to severely underestimate Kd(). Here, a new training data set of optical properties collected in optically complex, inshore waters was used to re-parameterize the published SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms, resulting in improved Kd() retrievals for turbid, estuarine waters. Although the updated SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms perform best in optically complex waters, the published SeaUVSeaUVc models still perform well in most coastal and oceanic waters. Therefore, we propose a composite set of SeaUVSeaUVc algorithms, optimized for Kd() retrieval in almost all marine systems, ranging from oceanic to inshore waters. The composite algorithm set can retrieve Kd from ocean color with good accuracy across this wide range of water types (e.g., within 13 mean relative error for Kd(340)). A validation step using three independent, in situ data sets indicates that the composite SeaUVSeaUVc can generate accurate Kd values from 320 490 nm using satellite imagery on a global scale. Taking advantage of the inherent benefits of our statistical methods, we pooled the validation data with the training set, obtaining an optimized composite model for estimating Kd() in UV wavelengths for almost all marine waters. This

  19. Attenuation of high-frequency body waves in the crust of the Central External Dinarides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasović, Iva; Ruščić, Marija; Herak, Davorka; Herak, Marijan

    2015-10-01

    The Central External Dinarides are known as a tectonically complex region of moderate seismicity where several strong earthquakes occurred in the last century. In order to gain insight into the attenuation of seismic waves in the area, the extended coda normalization method was applied to band-pass-filtered seismograms of local earthquakes recorded at seven seismological broadband stations. Obtained results indicate strong attenuation of direct body waves: Q 0,P = Q P(1 Hz) is found between 21 and 120 and Q 0,S = Q S(1 Hz) is between 46 and 113, whereas the exponent n in the power law of frequency dependence of the quality factor is found in the range of 0.63-1.52 and 0.65-0.97 for n P and n S, respectively. P-waves are, on the average, attenuated more than S-waves. The three island stations (Dugi Otok (DUGI), Žirje (ZIRJ), Hvar (HVAR)) are distinguished by the strong low-frequency P-wave attenuation and more pronounced frequency dependence of the Q P factor ( Q 0,S/ Q 0,P > 1.7, Q 0,P < 60, n P > n S). The remaining four inland stations (Udbina (UDBI), Morići (MORI), Kijevo (KIJV), Čačvina (CACV)) all exhibit similar qualitative attenuation properties for P- and S-waves ( n P ≈ n S ≈ 1 and Q 0,S ≈ Q 0,P), although individual values of the Q-factors vary notably within this group. Low-frequency attenuation of direct S-waves in the crust is stronger than mean attenuation of scattered coda waves in the lithosphere, especially for long coda lapse times. The results are also qualitatively in agreement with the thermal regime in the area.

  20. Laboratory measurements of wave attenuation through model and live vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surge and waves generated by hurricanes and tropical storms often cause severe damage and loss of life in coastal areas. It is widely recognized that wetlands along coastal fringes reduce storm surge and waves. Yet, the potential role and primary mechanisms of wave mitigation by wetland vegetation a...

  1. Shear wave velocity, seismic attenuation, and thermal structure of the continental upper mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Artemieva, I.M.; Billien, M.; Leveque, J.-J.; Mooney, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    Seismic velocity and attenuation anomalies in the mantle are commonly interpreted in terms of temperature variations on the basis of laboratory studies of elastic and anelastic properties of rocks. In order to evaluate the relative contributions of thermal and non-thermal effects on anomalies of attenuation of seismic shear waves, QS-1, and seismic velocity, VS, we compare global maps of the thermal structure of the continental upper mantle with global QS-1 and Vs maps as determined from Rayleigh waves at periods between 40 and 150 S. We limit the comparison to three continental mantle depths (50, 100 and 150 km), where model resolution is relatively high. The available data set does not indicate that, at a global scale, seismic anomalies in the upper mantle are controlled solely by temperature variations. Continental maps have correlation coefficients of <0.56 between VS and T and of <0.47 between QS and T at any depth. Such low correlation coefficients can partially be attributed to modelling arrefacts; however, they also suggest that not all of the VS and QS anomalies in the continental upper mantle can be explained by T variations. Global maps show that, by the sign of the anomaly, VS and QS usually inversely correlate with lithospheric temperatures: most cratonic regions show high VS and QS and low T, while most active regions have seismic and thermal anomalies of the opposite sign. The strongest inverse correlation is found at a depth of 100 km, where the attenuation model is best resolved. Significantly, at this depth, the contours of near-zero QS anomalies approximately correspond to the 1000 ??C isotherm, in agreement with laboratory measurements that show a pronounced increase in seismic attenuation in upper mantle rocks at 1000-1100 ??C. East-west profiles of VS, QS and T where continental data coverage is best (50??N latitude for North America and 60??N latitude for Eurasia) further demonstrate that temperature plays a dominant, but non-unique, role in

  2. Surface Wave Attenuation in the Tibetan Plateau from Ambient Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-31

    attenuations extracted from our noise-based methods are comparable with those from earthquakes . A preliminary attenuation map of Chinese continent...is obtained based on earthquake data. Internal scattering can be important in contaminating the amplitude of the main arrivals, which need to be...Comparison of amplitude decays obtained from earthquakes (red dots) and ambient noise (blue crosses) at two periods (10 and 20 s

  3. Anomalous shear wave attenuation in the shallow crust beneath the Coso volcanic regionn, California ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanders, C.; Ho-Liu, P.; Rinn, D.; Hiroo, Kanamori

    1988-01-01

    We use seismograms of local earthquakes to image relative shear wave attenuation structure in the shallow crust beneath the region containing the Coso volcanic-geothermal area of E California. Seismograms of 16 small earthquakes show SV amplitudes which are greatly diminished at some azimuths and takeoff angles, indicating strong lateral variations in S wave attenuation in the area. 3-D images of the relative S wave attenuation structure are obtained from forward modeling and a back projection inversion of the amplitude data. The results indicate regions within a 20 by 30 by 10 km volume of the shallow crust (one shallower than 5 km) that severely attenuate SV waves passing through them. These anomalies lie beneath the Indian Wells Valley, 30 km S of the Coso volcanic field, and are coincident with the epicentral locations of recent earthquake swarms. No anomalous attenuation is seen beneath the Coso volcanic field above about 5 km depth. Geologic relations and the coincidence of anomalously slow P wave velocities suggest that the attenuation anomalies may be related to magmatism along the E Sierra front.-from Authors

  4. Transionospheric attenuation of 100 kHz radio waves inferred from satellite and ground based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullekrug, Martin; Parrot, Michel; Ash, Matthew; Astin, Ivan; Williams, Paul; Talhi, R.

    2009-03-01

    Around fifty LORAN (LOng RAnge Navigation) transmitters in the northern hemisphere currently launch continuously pulsed 100 kHz radio waves into the Earth's atmosphere for marine navigation. It is discovered that the 100 kHz radio waves from the LORAN transmissions can be detected by the DEMETER satellite at an altitude of ~660 km above the transmitters. These novel electric field measurements in space enable the determination of the nocturnal transionospheric attenuation by comparison with ground based electric field measurements. The electric field measurements on the satellite indicate that the nocturnal transionospheric attenuation of 100 kHz radio waves from LORAN transmissions is equivalent to a nocturnal subionospheric attenuation of the 100 kHz radio waves at a distance of ~7-9 Mm. The radio waves exhibit an average subionospheric attenuation of ~5 dB/Mm and it is concluded that the nocturnal transionospheric attenuation of 100 kHz radio waves is ~35-45 dB. This result enables future space missions to quantify the intensity of lightning discharges associated with transient luminous events and terrestrial γ-ray flashes.

  5. Understanding the power reflection and transmission coefficients of a plane wave at a planar interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qian; Jiang, Yikun; Lin, Haoze

    2017-03-01

    In most textbooks, after discussing the partial transmission and reflection of a plane wave at a planar interface, the power (energy) reflection and transmission coefficients are introduced by calculating the normal-to-interface components of the Poynting vectors for the incident, reflected and transmitted waves, separately. Ambiguity arises among students since, for the Poynting vector to be interpreted as the energy flux density, on the incident (reflected) side, the electric and magnetic fields involved must be the total fields, namely, the sum of incident and reflected fields, instead of the partial fields which are just the incident (reflected) fields. The interpretation of the cross product of partial fields as energy flux has not been obviously justified in most textbooks. Besides, the plane wave is actually an idealisation that is only ever found in textbooks, then what do the reflection and transmission coefficients evaluated for a plane wave really mean for a real beam of limited extent? To provide a clearer physical picture, we exemplify a light beam of finite transverse extent by a fundamental Gaussian beam and simulate its reflection and transmission at a planar interface. Due to its finite transverse extent, we can then insert the incident fields or reflected fields as total fields into the expression of the Poynting vector to evaluate the energy flux and then power reflection and transmission coefficients. We demonstrate that the power reflection and transmission coefficients of a beam of finite extent turn out to be the weighted sum of the corresponding coefficients for all constituent plane wave components that form the beam. The power reflection and transmission coefficients of a single plane wave serve, in turn, as the asymptotes for the corresponding coefficients of a light beam as its width expands infinitely.

  6. Anisotropic changes in P-wave velocity and attenuation during deformation and fluid infiltration of granite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanchits, S.A.; Lockner, D.A.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    Fluid infiltration and pore fluid pressure changes are known to have a significant effect on the occurrence of earthquakes. Yet, for most damaging earthquakes, with nucleation zones below a few kilometers depth, direct measurements of fluid pressure variations are not available. Instead, pore fluid pressures are inferred primarily from seismic-wave propagation characteristics such as Vp/Vs ratio, attenuation, and reflectivity contacts. We present laboratory measurements of changes in P-wave velocity and attenuation during the injection of water into a granite sample as it was loaded to failure. A cylindrical sample of Westerly granite was deformed at constant confining and pore pressures of 50 and 1 MPa, respectively. Axial load was increased in discrete steps by controlling axial displacement. Anisotropic P-wave velocity and attenuation fields were determined during the experiment using an array of 13 piezoelectric transducers. At the final loading steps (86% and 95% of peak stress), both spatial and temporal changes in P-wave velocity and peak-to-peak amplitudes of P and S waves were observed. P-wave velocity anisotropy reached a maximum of 26%. Transient increases in attenuation of up to 483 dB/m were also observed and were associated with diffusion of water into the sample. We show that velocity and attenuation of P waves are sensitive to the process of opening of microcracks and the subsequent resaturation of these cracks as water diffuses in from the surrounding region. Symmetry of the orientation of newly formed microcracks results in anisotropic velocity and attenuation fields that systematically evolve in response to changes in stress and influx of water. With proper scaling, these measurements provide constraints on the magnitude and duration of velocity and attenuation transients that can be expected to accompany the nucleation of earthquakes in the Earth's crust.

  7. Frequency-Dependent Attenuation of Blasting Vibration Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junru; Lu, Wenbo; Yan, Peng; Chen, Ming; Wang, Gaohui

    2016-10-01

    The dominant frequency, in addition to the peak particle velocity, is a critical factor for assessing adverse effects of the blasting vibration on surrounding structures; however, it has not been fully considered in blasting design. Therefore, the dominant frequency-dependent attenuation mechanism of blast-induced vibration is investigated in the present research. Starting with blasting vibration induced by a spherical charge propagating in an infinite viscoelastic medium, a modified expression of the vibration amplitude spectrum was derived to reveal the frequency dependency of attenuation. Then, ground vibration induced by more complex and more commonly used cylindrical charge that propagates in a semi-infinite viscoelastic medium was analyzed by numerical simulation. Results demonstrate that the absorptive property of the medium results in the frequency attenuation versus distance, whereas a rapid drop or fluctuation occurs during the attenuation of ground vibration. Fluctuation usually appears at moderate to far field, and the dominant frequency generally decreases to half the original value when rapid drop occurs. The decay rate discrepancy between different frequency components and the multimodal structure of vibration spectrum lead to the unsmooth frequency-dependent attenuation. The above research is verified by two field experiments. Furthermore, according to frequency-based vibration standards, frequency drop and fluctuation should be considered when evaluating blast safety. An optimized piecewise assessment is proposed for more accurate evaluation: With the frequency drop point as the breakpoint, the assessment is divided into two independent sections along the propagating path.

  8. Rigid polyurethane foam as an efficient material for shock wave attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komissarov, P. V.; Borisov, A. A.; Sokolov, G. N.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    A new method for reducing parameters of blast waves generated by explosions of HE charges on ground is presented. Most of the traditional techniques reduce the wave parameters at a certain distance from the charge, i.e. as a matter of fact the damping device interacts with a completely formed shock wave. The proposed approach is to use rigid polyurethane foam coating immediately the explosive charge. A distributed structure of such a foam block that provides most efficient shock wave attenuation is suggested. Results of experimental shock wave investigations recorded in tests in which HE charges have been exploded with damping devices and without it are compared.

  9. Propagation and attenuation of inhomogeneous waves in double-porosity dual-permeability materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M. D.

    2016-11-01

    This study considers the propagation of harmonic plane waves in a double-porosity dual-permeability solid saturated with single viscous fluid. Christoffel system is obtained to explain the existence of three longitudinal waves and a transverse wave in the medium considered. Each wave is identified with a complex velocity, which is resolved for inhomogeneous propagation to calculate the phase velocity and attenuation of the wave. Pore-fluid pressures are expressed in terms of velocities of solid particles corresponding to the propagation of three longitudinal waves. Then, transfer rate of pore-fluid between two porosities induced by each longitudinal wave is calculated as a function of its complex velocity. Numerical example is solved to study the dispersion in phase velocity and attenuation for each of the four waves. Effects of pore-fluid viscosity, wave-inhomogeneity and composition of double porosity on inhomogeneous propagation are analysed graphically. Transfer rate of pore-fluid, induced by each of the three longitudinal waves, is calculated as a periodic waveform. Variations in the fluid-flow profile are exhibited for different values of pore-fluid viscosity, skeleton permeability, wave-frequency and wave-inhomogeneity.

  10. Propagation and attenuation of inhomogeneous waves in double-porosity dual-permeability materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M. D.

    2017-02-01

    This study considers the propagation of harmonic plane waves in a double-porosity dual-permeability solid saturated with single viscous fluid. Christoffel system is obtained to explain the existence of three longitudinal waves and a transverse wave in the medium considered. Each wave is identified with a complex velocity, which is resolved for inhomogeneous propagation to calculate the phase velocity and attenuation of the wave. Pore-fluid pressures are expressed in terms of velocities of solid particles corresponding to the propagation of three longitudinal waves. Then, transfer rate of pore-fluid between two porosities induced by each longitudinal wave is calculated as a function of its complex velocity. Numerical example is solved to study the dispersion in phase velocity and attenuation for each of the four waves. Effects of pore-fluid viscosity, wave-inhomogeneity and composition of double porosity on inhomogeneous propagation are analysed graphically. Transfer rate of pore-fluid, induced by each of the three longitudinal waves, is calculated as a periodic waveform. Variations in the fluid-flow profile are exhibited for different values of pore-fluid viscosity, skeleton permeability, wave-frequency and wave-inhomogeneity.

  11. Noise robust target identification based on the wave-coefficients-2dimension case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaomin; Lai, Yingxin; Xia, Mingyao

    2016-12-01

    To correctly identify a remote target in a noisy environment is very challenging. Usually, the accuracy of target recognition degrades under the condition of a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Radar target identification based on wave-coefficients (WCs) is proposed and seems to be promising. We introduce the WCs of two-dimensional (2D) targets in this paper. The main problem of WC based target identification is that the extraction of wave-coefficients is an ill-posed problem. Thus the recognition results yielded in the presence of noise is not reliable. The regularization algorithm is exploited to extract the wave-coefficients, the regularization parameter is determined by the L-curve method. Simulation results using 4 2D targets show that the proposed scheme is effective and high target recognition rate is achieved in cases of low SNR scenarios.

  12. Inspection of notch depths in thin structures using transmission coefficients of laser-generated Lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Ume, I Charles

    2015-12-01

    The non-contact feature of the Laser/EMAT ultrasonic (LEU) technique is attractive for its NDT applications. However, it is challenging to apply it in thin structures because of the difficulties in the signal interpretations. In this work, the LEU technique is used to inspect the notch depths in thin steel plates. A Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT)-based algorithm is developed to calculate the transmission coefficients of laser-generated Lamb waves. The effect of varying notch depths on Lamb waves' transmission coefficients is investigated both numerically and experimentally. The transmission coefficients of laser-generated Lamb waves calculated using CWT have been used successfully to predict the notch depths in thin structures.

  13. Wave attenuation as a measure of muscle quality as measured by magnetic resonance elastography: initial results.

    PubMed

    Domire, Zachary J; McCullough, Matthew B; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan

    2009-03-11

    Advances in imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) have allowed researchers to gain insights into muscle function in vivo. MRE has been used to examine healthy and diseased muscle by calculating shear modulus. However, additional information can be measured from visualizing a mechanical wave as it passes through a tissue. One such measurable quantity is wave attenuation. The purpose of this study was to determine if a simple measure of wave attenuation could be used to distinguish between healthy and diseased muscle. Twenty seven subjects (14 healthy controls, 7 hyperthyroid myopathy patients, 6 myositis patients) participated in this study. Wave amplitude was determined along a linear profile through the center of the muscle, and an exponential decay curve was fit to the data. This measure was able to find significant differences in attenuation between healthy and diseased muscle. Furthermore, four hyperthyroid myopathy subjects who were tested following treatment all showed improvement by this measure. A likely reason for patients with hyperthyroid myopathy and myositis behaving similarly is that this measurement may reflect similar changes in the muscle extracellular matrix. In addition to modulus, attenuation seems to be an important parameter to measure in skeletal muscle. Further research is needed to investigate other potential measures of attenuation as well as examining other potential measures that can be found from visualizing wave propagation. Future studies should also include muscle biopsies to confirm that the changes seen are as a result of changes in extracellular matrix structure.

  14. Experimental investigation of wave attenuation through model and live vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hurricanes and tropical storms often cause severe damage and loss of life in coastal areas. It is widely recognized that wetlands along coastal fringes reduce storm surge and waves. Yet, the potential role and primary mechanisms of wave mitigation by wetland vegetation are not fully understood. K...

  15. Broadband measurements of the frequency dependence of attenuation coefficient and velocity in amniotic fluid, urine and human serum albumin solutions.

    PubMed

    Verma, Prashant K; Humphrey, Victor F; Duck, Francis A

    2005-10-01

    The frequency dependence of attenuation coefficient in amniotic fluid, urine and 4.5% and 20% human serum albumin solutions over the frequency range 5 MHz to 25 MHz was measured at both room temperature and physiological temperature using a variable path length technique. A 15 MHz (13 mm diameter) transducer was used to produce a broadband single-cycle pulse and a 4 mm diameter bilaminar polyvinylidene difluoride membrane hydrophone was used to detect the attenuated pulse. Standard time-of-flight measurement techniques were used to measure the acoustic velocity in the same fluid samples. At physiological temperature, the attenuation coefficients in amniotic fluid, urine and 4.5% and 20% human albumin solution were found to be 0.0053 f(1.65), 0.0047 f(1.67), 0.019 f(1.57) and 0.167 f(1.27) dB cm(-1), respectively, where f is in MHz. The velocities in amniotic fluid, urine and 4.5% human albumin solution at physiological temperature were found to be 1541.1 m s(-1) +/- 1.3 m s(-1), 1551.3 m s(-1) +/- 1.3 ms(-1) and 1547.3 m s(-1) +/- 1.0 m s(-1), respectively. The results provide unique data over the diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasonic frequency range that can be used as input data for theoretical models that attempt to simulate nonlinear pressure fields and temperature rises from medical ultrasonic transducers.

  16. Diffusion coefficients from resonant interactions with electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, A. K.; Singhal, R. P.

    2009-11-15

    Pitch-angle diffusion coefficients have been calculated for resonant interaction with electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves using quasilinear diffusion theory. Unlike previous calculations, the parallel group velocity has been included in this study. Further, ECH wave intensity is expressed as a function of wave frequency and wave normal angle with respect to ambient magnetic field. It is found that observed wave electric field amplitudes in Earth's magnetosphere are sufficient to set electrons on strong diffusion in the energy ranges of a few hundred eV. However, the required amplitudes are larger than the observed values for keV electrons and higher by about a factor of 3 compared to past calculations. Required electric field amplitudes are smaller at larger radial distances. It is concluded that ECH waves are responsible for diffuse auroral precipitation of electrons with energies less than about 500 eV.

  17. Using wave intensity analysis to determine local reflection coefficient in flexible tubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Parker, Kim H; Khir, Ashraf W

    2016-09-06

    It has been shown that reflected waves affect the shape and magnitude of the arterial pressure waveform, and that reflected waves have physiological and clinical prognostic values. In general the reflection coefficient is defined as the ratio of the energy of the reflected to the incident wave. Since pressure has the units of energy per unit volume, arterial reflection coefficient are traditionally defined as the ratio of reflected to the incident pressure. We demonstrate that this approach maybe prone to inaccuracies when applied locally. One of the main objectives of this work is to examine the possibility of using wave intensity, which has units of energy flux per unit area, to determine the reflection coefficient. We used an in vitro experimental setting with a single inlet tube joined to a second tube with different properties to form a single reflection site. The second tube was long enough to ensure that reflections from its outlet did not obscure the interactions of the initial wave. We generated an approximately half sinusoidal wave at the inlet of the tube and took measurements of pressure and flow along the tube. We calculated the reflection coefficient using wave intensity (RdI and RdI(0.5)) and wave energy (RI and RI(0.5)) as well as the measured pressure (RdP) and compared these results with the reflection coefficient calculated theoretically based on the mechanical properties of the tubes. The experimental results show that the reflection coefficients determined by all the techniques we studied increased or decreased with distance from the reflection site, depending on the type of reflection. In our experiments, RdP, RdI(0.5) and RI(0.5) are the most reliable parameters to measure the mean reflection coefficient, whilst RdI and RI provide the best measure of the local reflection coefficient, closest to the reflection site. Additional work with bifurcations, tapered tubes and in vivo experiments are needed to further understand, validate the method

  18. Rogue wave solutions to the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj R; Huang, Tingwen

    2013-06-01

    A similarity transformation is utilized to reduce the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with variable coefficients to the standard NLS equation with constant coefficients, whose rogue wave solutions are then transformed back into the solutions of the original equation. In this way, Ma breathers, the first- and second-order rogue wave solutions of the generalized equation, are constructed. Properties of a few specific solutions and controllability of their characteristics are discussed. The results obtained may raise the possibility of performing relevant experiments and achieving potential applications.

  19. Seismic wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in UAE carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunsami, Abdulwaheed Remi

    Interpreting the seismic property of fluids in hydrocarbon reservoirs at low frequency scale has been a cherished goal of petroleum geophysics research for decades. Lately, there has been tremendous interest in understanding attenuation as a result of fluid flow in porous media. Although interesting, the emerging experimental and theoretical information still remain ambiguous and are practically not utilized for reasons not too obscure. Attenuation is frequency dependent and hard to measure in the laboratory at low frequency. This thesis describes and reports the results of an experimental study of low frequency attenuation and velocity dispersion on a selected carbonate reservoir samples in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). For the low frequency measurements, stress-strain method was used to measure the moduli from which the velocity is derived. Attenuation was measured as the phase difference between the applied stress and the strain. For the ultrasonic component, the pulse propagation method was employed. To study the fluid effect especially at reservoir in situ conditions, the measurements were made dry and saturated with liquid butane and brine at differential pressures of up to 5000 psi with pore pressure held constant at 500 psi. Similarly to what has been documented in the literatures for sandstone, attenuation of the bulk compressibility mode dominates the losses in these dry and somewhat partially saturated carbonate samples with butane and brine. Overall, the observed attenuation cannot be simply said to be frequency dependent within this low seismic band. While attenuation seems to be practically constant in the low frequency band for sample 3H, such conclusion cannot be made for sample 7H. For the velocities, significant dispersion is observed and Gassmann generally fails to match the measured velocities. Only the squirt model fairly fits the velocities, but not at all pressures. Although the observed dispersion is larger than Biot's prediction, the fact

  20. The thermal structure of cratonic lithosphere from global Rayleigh wave attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Colleen A.; Bao, Xueyang; Ma, Zhitu

    2017-01-01

    The resolution of and level of agreement between different attenuation models have historically been limited by complexities associated with extracting attenuation from seismic-wave amplitudes, which are also affected by the source, the receiver, and propagation through velocity heterogeneities. For intermediate- and long-period Rayleigh waves, removing the amplitude signal due to focusing and defocusing effects is the greatest challenge. In this paper, three independent data sets of fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave amplitude are analyzed to investigate how three factors contribute to discrepancies between the attenuation models: uncertainties in the amplitude measurements themselves, variable path coverage, and the treatment of focusing effects. Regionalized pure-path and fully two-dimensional attenuation models are derived and compared. The approach for determining attenuation models from real data is guided by an analysis of amplitudes measured from synthetic spectral-element waveforms, for which the input Earth model is perfectly known. The results show that differences in the amplitude measurements introduce only very minor differences between the attenuation models; path coverage and the removal of focusing effects are more important. The pure-path attenuation values exhibit a clear dependence on tectonic region at shorter periods that disappears at long periods, in agreement with pure-path phase-velocity results obtained by inverting Rayleigh wave phase delays. The 2-D attenuation maps are highly correlated with each other to spherical-harmonic degree 16 and can resolve smaller features than the previous generation of global attenuation models. Anomalously low attenuation is nearly perfectly associated with continental cratons. Variations in lithospheric thickness are determined by forward modeling the global attenuation variations as a thermal boundary layer of variable thickness. Temperature profiles that satisfy the attenuation values systematically

  1. A Nonlinear Theory for Predicting the Effects of Unsteady Laminar, Turbulent, or Transitional Boundary Layers on the Attenuation of Shock Waves in a Shock Tube with Experimental Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimpi, Robert L.; Cohen, Nathaniel B.

    1961-01-01

    The linearized attenuation theory of NACA Technical Note 3375 is modified in the following manner: (a) an unsteady compressible local skin-friction coefficient is employed rather than the equivalent steady-flow incompressible coefficient; (b) a nonlinear approach is used to permit application of the theory to large attenuations; and (c) transition effects are considered. Curves are presented for predicting attenuation for a shock pressure ratio up to 20 and a range of shock-tube Reynolds numbers. Comparison of theory and experimental data for shock-wave strengths between 1.5 and 10 over a wide range of Reynolds numbers shows good agreement with the nonlinear theory evaluated for a transition Reynolds number of 2.5 X 10(exp 5).

  2. Comparison of fractional wave equations for power law attenuation in ultrasound and elastography.

    PubMed

    Holm, Sverre; Näsholm, Sven Peter

    2014-04-01

    A set of wave equations with fractional loss operators in time and space are analyzed. The fractional Szabo equation, the power law wave equation and the causal fractional Laplacian wave equation are all found to be low-frequency approximations of the fractional Kelvin-Voigt wave equation and the more general fractional Zener wave equation. The latter two equations are based on fractional constitutive equations, whereas the former wave equations have been derived from the desire to model power law attenuation in applications like medical ultrasound. This has consequences for use in modeling and simulation, especially for applications that do not satisfy the low-frequency approximation, such as shear wave elastography. In such applications, the wave equations based on constitutive equations are the viable ones.

  3. Statistical results describing the bandwidth and coherence coefficient of whistler mode waves using THEMIS waveform data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Lu, Q.; Tao, X.; Wang, S.

    2014-11-01

    The bandwidths and coherence coefficients of lower band whistler mode waves are analyzed using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) waveform data for rising tones, falling tones, and hiss-like emissions separately. We also evaluate their dependences on the spatial location, electron density, the ratio of plasma frequency to local electron gyrofrequency (fpe/fce), and the wave amplitude. Our results show that the bandwidth normalized by the local electron gyrofrequency (fce) of rising and falling tones is very narrow (~0.01 fce), smaller than that of the hiss-like emissions (~0.025 fce). Meanwhile, the normalized bandwidth of discrete emissions gradually decreases with increasing wave amplitude, whereas that of hiss-like emissions increases slowly. The coherence coefficient of rising and falling tones is extremely large (~1), while the coherence coefficient of hiss-like emissions is smaller but is still larger than 0.5. For all categories of whistler mode waves, the normalized bandwidth increases at larger L shells. Furthermore, the normalized bandwidth is positively correlated with local fpe/fce but is inversely correlated with the electron density. Interactions between radiation belt electrons and whistler mode waves have been widely described by quasi-linear diffusion theory. Our results suggest that although quasi-linear theory is not entirely applicable for modeling electron interactions with rising and falling tones due to their narrow bandwidth and high coherence coefficient, it is suitable to treat wave-particle interactions between electrons and low-amplitude hiss-like emissions. Moreover, the correlations between the normalized bandwidth of chorus waves (especially the discrete emissions) and other parameters may provide insights for the generation mechanism of chorus waves.

  4. Linking multiple relaxation, power-law attenuation, and fractional wave equations.

    PubMed

    Näsholm, Sven Peter; Holm, Sverre

    2011-11-01

    The acoustic wave attenuation is described by an experimentally established frequency power law in a variety of complex media, e.g., biological tissue, polymers, rocks, and rubber. Recent papers present a variety of acoustical fractional derivative wave equations that have the ability to model power-law attenuation. On the other hand, a multiple relaxation model is widely recognized as a physically based description of the acoustic loss mechanisms as developed by Nachman et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 1584-1595 (1990)]. Through assumption of a continuum of relaxation mechanisms, each with an effective compressibility described by a distribution related to the Mittag-Leffler function, this paper shows that the wave equation corresponding to the multiple relaxation approach is identical to a given fractional derivative wave equation. This work therefore provides a physically based motivation for use of fractional wave equations in acoustic modeling.

  5. Resonant attenuation of surface acoustic waves by a disordered monolayer of microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliason, J. K.; Vega-Flick, A.; Hiraiwa, M.; Khanolkar, A.; Gan, T.; Boechler, N.; Fang, N.; Nelson, K. A.; Maznev, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    Attenuation of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by a disordered monolayer of polystyrene microspheres is investigated. Surface acoustic wave packets are generated by a pair of crossed laser pulses in a glass substrate coated with a thin aluminum film and detected via the diffraction of a probe laser beam. When a 170 μm-wide strip of micron-sized spheres is placed on the substrate between the excitation and detection spots, strong resonant attenuation of SAWs near 240 MHz is observed. The attenuation is caused by the interaction of SAWs with a contact resonance of the microspheres, as confirmed by acoustic dispersion measurements on the microsphere-coated area. Frequency-selective attenuation of SAWs by such a locally resonant metamaterial may lead to reconfigurable SAW devices and sensors, which can be easily manufactured via self-assembly techniques.

  6. Experimental study of the stress effect on attenuation of normally incident P-wave through coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Junjun; Wang, Enyuan; Chen, Liang; Li, Xuelong; Xu, Zhaoyong; Li, Guoai

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate the stress effect on normally incident P-wave attenuation through coal specimens. Laboratory tests were carried out using a Split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system, and a modified method was proposed to determine the quality factor (Q) of P-waves through coal specimens. Larger quality factor denotes less energy attenuated during P-wave propagating through coal. Experimental results indicate that the quality factor and stress (σ) within coal specimens are positively correlated. The P-wave propagation through coal specimens causes crack closure at the beginning of the coal fracture process in SHPB tests, an innovative model was thus proposed to describe the relationship between the crack closure length and the dynamic stress induced by P-wave. Finally, the stress effect on P-wave attenuation through coal was quantitatively represented by a power function Q = a(c-bσ)- 6, and the material constants a, b, and c were determined as 1.227, 1.314, and 0.005, respectively. The results obtained in this study would be helpful for engineers to estimate seismic energy attenuation and coal mass instability in coal mines.

  7. A novel random void model and its application in predicting void content of composites based on ultrasonic attenuation coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li; Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Jun; Mu, Yunfei; Li, Ximeng

    2011-06-01

    A novel two-dimensional random void model (RVM) based on random medium theory and a statistical method is proposed to describe random voids in composite materials. The spatial autocorrelation function and statistical parameters are used to describe the large-scale heterogeneity from the composite matrix and the small-scale heterogeneities of elastic fluctuations from random voids, the values of which are determined by statistical data from microscopic observations of void morphology. A RVM for CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced polymer) composite specimens with void content of 0.03-4.62% is presented. It is found that the geometric morphology of voids from the RVM presents good matches to the microscopic images. Calculations of ultrasonic attenuation coefficients from the RVM at 5 MHz are much closer to the experiments than those from the previous deterministic model. Furthermore, the RVM can also cover abnormal coefficients from unusually large voids, which unpredictably occur during the composite preparation and have a detrimental effect on the strength and mechanical properties of the components. The significant enhancements in description of void morphology and quantitative correlation between void content and ultrasonic attenuation coefficient make this method a good candidate for predicting void content of composite materials non-destructively.

  8. Photon attenuation coefficients of Heavy-Metal Oxide glasses by MCNP code, XCOM program and experimental data: A comparison study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Khayatt, A. M.; Ali, A. M.; Singh, Vishwanath P.

    2014-01-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients, μ/ρ, total interaction cross-section, σt, and mean free path (MFP) of some Heavy Metal Oxides (HMO) glasses, with potential applications as gamma ray shielding materials, have been investigated using the MCNP-4C code. Appreciable variations are noted for all parameters by changing the photon energy and the chemical composition of HMO glasses. The numerical simulations parameters are compared with experimental data wherever possible. Comparisons are also made with predictions from the XCOM program in the energy region from 1 keV to 100 MeV. Good agreement noticed indicates that the chosen Monte Carlo method may be employed to make additional calculations on the photon attenuation characteristics of different glass systems, a capability particularly useful in cases where no analogous experimental data exist.

  9. Detailed Study of Seismic Wave Attenuation in Carbonate Rocks: Application on Abu Dhabi Oil Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaala, F.; Ali, M. Y.; Matsushima, J.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wave attenuation is a promising attribute for the petroleum exploration, thanks to its high sensitivity to physical properties of subsurface. It can be used to enhance the seismic imaging and improve the geophysical interpretation which is crucial for reservoir characterization. However getting an accurate attenuation profile is not an easy task, this is due to complex mechanism of this parameter, although that many studies were carried out to understand it. The degree of difficulty increases for the media composed of carbonate rocks, known to be highly heterogeneous and with complex lithology. That is why few attenuation studies were done successfully in carbonate rocks. The main objectives of this study are, Getting an accurate and high resolution attenuation profiles from several oil fields. The resolution is very important target for us, because many reservoirs in Abu Dhabi oil fields are tight.Separation between different modes of wave attenuation (scattering and intrinsic attenuations).Correlation between the attenuation profiles and other logs (Porosity, resistivity, oil saturation…), in order to establish a relationship which can be used to detect the reservoir properties from the attenuation profiles.Comparison of attenuation estimated from VSP and sonic waveforms. Provide spatial distribution of attenuation in Abu Dhabi oil fields.To reach these objectives we implemented a robust processing flow and new methodology to estimate the attenuation from the downgoing waves of the compressional VSP data and waveforms acquired from several wells drilled in Abu Dhabi. The subsurface geology of this area is primarily composed of carbonate rocks and it is known to be highly fractured which complicates more the situation, then we separated successfully the intrinsic attenuation from the scattering. The results show that the scattering is significant and cannot be ignored. We found also a very interesting correlation between the attenuation profiles and the

  10. Measurements of attenuation coefficient for evaluating the hardness of a cataract lens by a high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chih-Chung; Chen, Ruimin; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Zhou, Qifa; Humayun, Mark S.; Shung, K. Kirk

    2009-10-01

    A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Phacoemulsification is the mostly common surgical method for treating cataracts, and determining that the optimal phacoemulsification energy is dependent on measuring the hardness of the lens. This study explored the use of an ultrasound needle transducer for invasive measurements of ultrasound attenuation coefficient to evaluate the hardness of the cataract lens. A 47 MHz high-frequency needle transducer with a diameter of 0.9 mm was fabricated by a polarized PMN-33%PT single crystal in the present study. The attenuation coefficients at different stages of an artificial porcine cataract lens were measured using the spectral shift approach. The hardness of the cataract lens was also evaluated by mechanical measurement of its elastic properties. The results demonstrated that the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient was increased from 0.048 ± 0.02 to 0.520 ± 0.06 dB mm-1 MHz-1 corresponding to an increase in Young's modulus from 6 ± 0.4 to 96 ± 6.2 kPa as the cataract further developed. In order to evaluate the feasibility of combining needle transducer and phacoemulsification probe for real-time measurement during cataract surgery, the needle transducer was mounted on the phacoemulsification probe for a vibration test. The results indicated that there was no apparent damage to the tip of the needle transducer and the pulse-echo test showed that a good performance in sensitivity was maintained after the vibration test.

  11. Measurement of alkali-silica reaction progression by ultrasonic waves attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Saint-Pierre, Francois; Rivard, Patrice . E-mail: Patrice.Rivard@Usherbrooke.ca; Ballivy, Gerard

    2007-06-15

    Development of non-destructive methods, developed specifically for assessing the damage induced by alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete structures, is needed in order to carry out a systematic evaluation of the concrete condition. The aim of this study is to monitor the evolution of the ASR-damage in laboratory with concrete samples with ultrasonic pulse velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic waves methods. For this study, results of both methods were compared with expansion and mass variation. One reactive concrete mixture was made with reactive aggregate, and one other mixture, incorporating non-reactive aggregate, was made as a control. Specimens were kept at 38 deg. C in a 1 mol l{sup -1} NaOH solution to accelerate the reaction. Attenuation of transmitted ultrasonic waves appeared to be more appropriate for the evaluation of ASR-damage compared with pulse velocity. The attenuation of accelerated reactive concrete cylinders increased by 90% after 1 year while it increased by 40% for the non-reactive concrete used as a control. Major part of the attenuation increase in the non-reactive concrete is due to liquid absorption. This work suggests that in-situ non-destructive techniques based on ultrasonic wave attenuation, like ultrasonic attenuation tomography, should be developed in order to evaluate the development of ASR in concrete structures. Petrographic examination confirmed that damage to concrete is associated with ASR.

  12. Study of mass attenuation coefficients and effective atomic numbers of bismuth-ground granulated blast furnace slag concretes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Sukhpal

    2016-05-01

    Five samples of Bismuth-Ground granulated blast furnace slag (Bi-GGBFS) concretes were prepared using composition (0.6 cement + x Bi2O3 + (0.4-x) GGBFS, x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25) by keeping constant water (W) cement (C) ratio. Mass attenuation coefficients (μm) of these prepared samples were calculated using a computer program winXCOM at different gamma ray energies, whereas effective atomic numbers (Zeff) is calculated using mathematical formulas. The radiation shielding properties of Bi-GGBFS concrete has been compared with standard radiation shielding concretes.

  13. Dynamic aspects of apparent attenuation and wave localization in layered media

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haney, M.M.; Van Wijk, K.

    2008-01-01

    We present a theory for multiply-scattered waves in layered media which takes into account wave interference. The inclusion of interference in the theory leads to a new description of the phenomenon of wave localization and its impact on the apparent attenuation of seismic waves. We use the theory to estimate the localization length at a CO2 sequestration site in New Mexico at sonic frequencies (2 kHz) by performing numerical simulations with a model taken from well logs. Near this frequency, we find a localization length of roughly 180 m, leading to a localization-induced quality factor Q of 360.

  14. Scaling laws of reflection coefficients of quantum waves at a Cantor-like potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Ogawana, Taichi

    2017-03-01

    We reconsider a one-dimensional scattering problem in the Schrödinger equation with a Cantor-like potential. The reflection coefficient obeys a scaling law for sufficiently large wave number k . The scaling law is expressed with a universal function characterized by a multifractal.

  15. Ground-level spectral distribution of solar direct-normal irradiance and marine aerosol attenuation coefficients at Reunion Island

    SciTech Connect

    Vaxelaire, P.; Leveau, J.; Baldy, S. ); Menguy, G. )

    1991-01-01

    The ground-level spectral distribution of direct solar irradiance at Reunion Island was measured for six bands covering the spectrum of solar radiation. The measurements, distributed over one year, were made under clear sky conditions with a pyrheliometer (Eppley, NIP) and six large pass-band flat filters. Good stability of spectral irradiances as a function of solar height allows us to propose approximate relationships which significantly characterize the irradiance into each spectral band. Measurements at Reunion vary significantly from data obtained with the same apparatus in a northern hemisphere continental area (Lyon). The determination of aerosol attenuation coefficients, for different spectral bands, allows the establish of a mean curve, for these coefficients as a function of wavelength, characteristic for marine aerosols.

  16. Multi-frequency characterization of the speed of sound and attenuation coefficient for longitudinal transmission of freshly excised human skulls.

    PubMed

    Pichardo, Samuel; Sin, Vivian W; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2011-01-07

    For medical applications of ultrasound inside the brain, it is necessary to understand the relationship between the apparent density of skull bone and its corresponding speed of sound and attenuation coefficient. Although there have been previous studies exploring this phenomenon, there is still a need to extend the measurements to cover more of the clinically relevant frequency range. The results of measurements of the longitudinal speed of sound and attenuation coefficient are presented for specimens of human calvaria. The study was performed for the frequencies of 0.27, 0.836, 1.402, 1.965 and 2.525 MHz. Specimens were obtained from fresh cadavers through a protocol with the Division of Anatomy of the University of Toronto. The protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Board of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. The specimens were mounted in polycarbonate supports that were marked for stereoscopic positioning. Computer tomography (CT) scans of the skulls mounted on their supports were performed, and a three-dimensional skull surface was reconstructed. This surface was used to guide a positioning system to ensure the normal sound incidence of an acoustic signal. This signal was produced by a focused device with a diameter of 5 cm and a focal length of 10 cm. Measurements of delay in time of flight were carried out using a needle hydrophone. Measurements of effective transmitted energy were carried out using a radiation force method with a 10 µg resolution scale. Preliminary functions of speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, both of which are related to apparent density, were established using a multi-layer propagation model that takes into account speed of sound, density and thickness of the layer. An optimization process was executed from a large set of random functions and the best functions were chosen for those ones that closest reproduced the experimental observations. The final functions were obtained after a second pass of the optimization

  17. Multi-frequency characterization of the speed of sound and attenuation coefficient for longitudinal transmission of freshly excised human skulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichardo, Samuel; Sin, Vivian W.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2011-01-01

    For medical applications of ultrasound inside the brain, it is necessary to understand the relationship between the apparent density of skull bone and its corresponding speed of sound and attenuation coefficient. Although there have been previous studies exploring this phenomenon, there is still a need to extend the measurements to cover more of the clinically relevant frequency range. The results of measurements of the longitudinal speed of sound and attenuation coefficient are presented for specimens of human calvaria. The study was performed for the frequencies of 0.27, 0.836, 1.402, 1.965 and 2.525 MHz. Specimens were obtained from fresh cadavers through a protocol with the Division of Anatomy of the University of Toronto. The protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Board of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. The specimens were mounted in polycarbonate supports that were marked for stereoscopic positioning. Computer tomography (CT) scans of the skulls mounted on their supports were performed, and a three-dimensional skull surface was reconstructed. This surface was used to guide a positioning system to ensure the normal sound incidence of an acoustic signal. This signal was produced by a focused device with a diameter of 5 cm and a focal length of 10 cm. Measurements of delay in time of flight were carried out using a needle hydrophone. Measurements of effective transmitted energy were carried out using a radiation force method with a 10 µg resolution scale. Preliminary functions of speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, both of which are related to apparent density, were established using a multi-layer propagation model that takes into account speed of sound, density and thickness of the layer. An optimization process was executed from a large set of random functions and the best functions were chosen for those ones that closest reproduced the experimental observations. The final functions were obtained after a second pass of the optimization

  18. Multiple attenuation to reflection seismic data using Radon filter and Wave Equation Multiple Rejection (WEMR) method

    SciTech Connect

    Erlangga, Mokhammad Puput

    2015-04-16

    Separation between signal and noise, incoherent or coherent, is important in seismic data processing. Although we have processed the seismic data, the coherent noise is still mixing with the primary signal. Multiple reflections are a kind of coherent noise. In this research, we processed seismic data to attenuate multiple reflections in the both synthetic and real seismic data of Mentawai. There are several methods to attenuate multiple reflection, one of them is Radon filter method that discriminates between primary reflection and multiple reflection in the τ-p domain based on move out difference between primary reflection and multiple reflection. However, in case where the move out difference is too small, the Radon filter method is not enough to attenuate the multiple reflections. The Radon filter also produces the artifacts on the gathers data. Except the Radon filter method, we also use the Wave Equation Multiple Elimination (WEMR) method to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. The WEMR method can attenuate the long period multiple reflection based on wave equation inversion. Refer to the inversion of wave equation and the magnitude of the seismic wave amplitude that observed on the free surface, we get the water bottom reflectivity which is used to eliminate the multiple reflections. The WEMR method does not depend on the move out difference to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. Therefore, the WEMR method can be applied to the seismic data which has small move out difference as the Mentawai seismic data. The small move out difference on the Mentawai seismic data is caused by the restrictiveness of far offset, which is only 705 meter. We compared the real free multiple stacking data after processing with Radon filter and WEMR process. The conclusion is the WEMR method can more attenuate the long period multiple reflection than the Radon filter method on the real (Mentawai) seismic data.

  19. Assessment of natural radiation exposure levels and mass attenuation coefficients of lime and gypsum samples used in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Damla, Nevzat; Cevik, Uğur; Kobya, Ali Ihsan; Celik, Ahmet; Celik, Necati

    2010-11-01

    The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in lime and gypsum samples used as building materials in Turkey were measured using gamma spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were found to be 38±16, 20±9, and 156±54 Bq kg(-1) for lime and found to be 17±6, 13±5, and 429±24 Bq kg(-1) for gypsum, respectively. The radiological hazards due to the natural radioactivity in the samples were inferred from calculations of radium equivalent activities (Raeq), indoor absorbed dose rate in the air, the annual effective dose, and gamma and alpha indices. These radiological parameters were evaluated and compared with the internationally recommended limits. The experimental mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of the samples were determined in the energy range 81-1,332 keV. The experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values obtained using XCOM. It is found that the calculated values and the experimental results are in good agreement.

  20. Estimating the Underwater Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient with a Low-Cost Instrument: The KdUINO DIY Buoy

    PubMed Central

    Bardaji, Raul; Sánchez, Albert-Miquel; Simon, Carine; Wernand, Marcel R.; Piera, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    A critical parameter to assess the environmental status of water bodies is the transparency of the water, as it is strongly affected by different water quality related components (such as the presence of phytoplankton, organic matter and sediment concentrations). One parameter to assess the water transparency is the diffuse attenuation coefficient. However, the number of subsurface irradiance measurements obtained with conventional instrumentation is relatively low, due to instrument costs and the logistic requirements to provide regular and autonomous observations. In recent years, the citizen science concept has increased the number of environmental observations, both in time and space. The recent technological advances in embedded systems and sensors also enable volunteers (citizens) to create their own devices (known as Do-It-Yourself or DIY technologies). In this paper, a DIY instrument to measure irradiance at different depths and automatically calculate the diffuse attenuation Kd coefficient is presented. The instrument, named KdUINO, is based on an encapsulated low-cost photonic sensor and Arduino (an open-hardware platform for the data acquisition). The whole instrument has been successfully operated and the data validated comparing the KdUINO measurements with the commercial instruments. Workshops have been organized with high school students to validate its feasibility. PMID:26999132

  1. Prediction of broadband attenuation computed using band-averaged mass extinction coefficients and band-averaged transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, W. M.

    1991-09-01

    A common method of estimating the attenuation capabilities of military smokes/obscurants is to use a band-averaged mass-extinction coefficient with concentration-length values in the Beer-Bouguer transmission law. This approach ignores the effects of source spectra, sensor response, and normal atmospheric attenuation on broadband transmittance characteristics, which can significantly affect broadband transmittance. The differences that can occur in predicting relative transmittance as a function of concentration length by using band-averaged mass-extinction coefficients as opposed to more properly computing the band-averaged transmittance are discussed in this paper. Two examples are provided to illustrate the differences in results. The first example considers 3- to 5-micron and 8- to 14-micron band transmission through natural fogs. The second example considers 3- to 5-micron and 8- to 12-micron transmission through phosphorus-derived smoke (a common military obscurant) produced at 17 percent and at 90 percent relative humidity. Major differences are found in the values of concentration lengths predicted by the two methods when the transmittance relative to an unobscured atmosphere falls below about 20 percent. These results can affect conclusions concerning the detection of targets in smokes screens, smoke concentration lengths required to obscure a target, and radiative transport through polluted atmospheres.

  2. Estimation of the Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient KdPAR Using MERIS Satellite Reflections for European Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saulquin, Bertand; Hamdi, Anouar; Populus, Jacques; Loutier, Romain; Demaria, Julien; Mangin, Antoine; D'Andon, Odile Fanton

    2010-12-01

    Accurate estimations of the diffuse attenuation coefficient is critical to understand physical processes such as the heat transfer in the upper layer of the ocean and also biological processes such as phytoplankton photosynthesis in the ocean euphotic zone. Light availability in the water column and the seabed determine the euphotic zone and constraints the type and distribution of the algae species. The EuSeaMap project's aim is to characterize at a resolution of 250m the European infralitoral benthic zone, according to biology, physic and geology criteriums and using observations and models. Satellite observations of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of the downwelling spectral irradiance at wavelength 490 nm (Kd490) or the diffuse attenuation coefficient for the downwelling photosynthetically available radiation (KdPAR) is an effective method to provide large scale maps of these parameters at high spatial and temporal resolution. Several empirical and semi-analytical models are commonly used to derive the Kd490 and KdPAR maps from ocean colour satellite sensors such as the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MERIS), the Sea- viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Most of these existing empirical or semi- analytical models have been calibrated on open ocean waters and provide good results in these areas, but tend to underestimate the attenuation of light in coastal waters, our area of interest. We propose here a new estimation of the euphotic depth and the KdPAR for coastal European waters using MERIS reflectances at the resolution of 1km and 250 m. First, a semi-analytical model is used to estimate the Kd490, and in a second step, two relationships have been developed between the KdPAR and the Kd490 for respectively clear and turbid waters. Satellite-derived fields of Kd490 and the deduced KdPAR are validated using matchups collected over the world. Distribution maps of seabed

  3. Millimeter Wave Scatter and Attenuation Measurements on Snow Slabs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Equitemperature Snow. (edges were intact during tests ) 46 19. Typical Sample of Melt-Freeze Snow With Cusped Surface 47 20. Backscatter Coefficient...generated inside the building. ’The loading platform afforded an additional I-m separation of the test path from the ground, further reducing the...properties were assumed to remain un- changed during a daily test period. The snow was characterized each day before the electromagnetic measurements were

  4. Region specific optimization of continuous linear attenuation coefficients based on UTE (RESOLUTE): application to PET/MR brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Ladefoged, Claes N; Benoit, Didier; Law, Ian; Holm, Søren; Kjær, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Hansen, Adam E; Andersen, Flemming L

    2015-10-21

    The reconstruction of PET brain data in a PET/MR hybrid scanner is challenging in the absence of transmission sources, where MR images are used for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). The main challenge of MR-AC is to separate bone and air, as neither have a signal in traditional MR images, and to assign the correct linear attenuation coefficient to bone. The ultra-short echo time (UTE) MR sequence was proposed as a basis for MR-AC as this sequence shows a small signal in bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a new clinically feasible MR-AC method with patient specific continuous-valued linear attenuation coefficients in bone that provides accurate reconstructed PET image data. A total of 164 [(18)F]FDG PET/MR patients were included in this study, of which 10 were used for training. MR-AC was based on either standard CT (reference), UTE or our method (RESOLUTE). The reconstructed PET images were evaluated in the whole brain, as well as regionally in the brain using a ROI-based analysis. Our method segments air, brain, cerebral spinal fluid, and soft tissue voxels on the unprocessed UTE TE images, and uses a mapping of R(*)2 values to CT Hounsfield Units (HU) to measure the density in bone voxels. The average error of our method in the brain was 0.1% and less than 1.2% in any region of the brain. On average 95% of the brain was within  ±10% of PETCT, compared to 72% when using UTE. The proposed method is clinically feasible, reducing both the global and local errors on the reconstructed PET images, as well as limiting the number and extent of the outliers.

  5. Region specific optimization of continuous linear attenuation coefficients based on UTE (RESOLUTE): application to PET/MR brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladefoged, Claes N.; Benoit, Didier; Law, Ian; Holm, Søren; Kjær, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Hansen, Adam E.; Andersen, Flemming L.

    2015-10-01

    The reconstruction of PET brain data in a PET/MR hybrid scanner is challenging in the absence of transmission sources, where MR images are used for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). The main challenge of MR-AC is to separate bone and air, as neither have a signal in traditional MR images, and to assign the correct linear attenuation coefficient to bone. The ultra-short echo time (UTE) MR sequence was proposed as a basis for MR-AC as this sequence shows a small signal in bone. The purpose of this study was to develop a new clinically feasible MR-AC method with patient specific continuous-valued linear attenuation coefficients in bone that provides accurate reconstructed PET image data. A total of 164 [18F]FDG PET/MR patients were included in this study, of which 10 were used for training. MR-AC was based on either standard CT (reference), UTE or our method (RESOLUTE). The reconstructed PET images were evaluated in the whole brain, as well as regionally in the brain using a ROI-based analysis. Our method segments air, brain, cerebral spinal fluid, and soft tissue voxels on the unprocessed UTE TE images, and uses a mapping of R2* values to CT Hounsfield Units (HU) to measure the density in bone voxels. The average error of our method in the brain was 0.1% and less than 1.2% in any region of the brain. On average 95% of the brain was within  ±10% of PETCT, compared to 72% when using UTE. The proposed method is clinically feasible, reducing both the global and local errors on the reconstructed PET images, as well as limiting the number and extent of the outliers.

  6. A contrast source method for nonlinear acoustic wave fields in media with spatially inhomogeneous attenuation.

    PubMed

    Demi, L; van Dongen, K W A; Verweij, M D

    2011-03-01

    Experimental data reveals that attenuation is an important phenomenon in medical ultrasound. Attenuation is particularly important for medical applications based on nonlinear acoustics, since higher harmonics experience higher attenuation than the fundamental. Here, a method is presented to accurately solve the wave equation for nonlinear acoustic media with spatially inhomogeneous attenuation. Losses are modeled by a spatially dependent compliance relaxation function, which is included in the Westervelt equation. Introduction of absorption in the form of a causal relaxation function automatically results in the appearance of dispersion. The appearance of inhomogeneities implies the presence of a spatially inhomogeneous contrast source in the presented full-wave method leading to inclusion of forward and backward scattering. The contrast source problem is solved iteratively using a Neumann scheme, similar to the iterative nonlinear contrast source (INCS) method. The presented method is directionally independent and capable of dealing with weakly to moderately nonlinear, large scale, three-dimensional wave fields occurring in diagnostic ultrasound. Convergence of the method has been investigated and results for homogeneous, lossy, linear media show full agreement with the exact results. Moreover, the performance of the method is demonstrated through simulations involving steered and unsteered beams in nonlinear media with spatially homogeneous and inhomogeneous attenuation.

  7. Waveform inversion of seismic velocities and attenuation from low-frequency waves in cylindrical bars

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xiao Ming )

    1993-10-01

    A new technique for laboratory measurement of seismic wave velocities and attenuation in the frequency range of 10--150 kHz consists of measuring extensional waveforms using two cylindrical bars of the same material but unequal length. Based on the dispersion equation of the bar and rough estimates of compressional and shear velocities of the bar material, the waveform measured within the shorter bar is theoretically continued to the length of the longer bar to match with the waveform measured there. An inversion is then performed to minimize the phase difference between the two waveforms. The velocities are obtained when the phase difference reaches a minimum, at which the two waveforms attain the optimum phase match. After the phase match, a further inversion is performed to minimize the amplitude difference between the two waveforms to derive the extensional wave attenuation within the bar. By this inversion procedure, wave velocities and attenuation can be jointly determined at frequencies much lower than those of the ultrasonic measurements. By using the technique, compressional and shear velocities and extensional attenuation values in a lucite material and in dry Sierra White granite were measured. The results from the present technique are consistent with the results from other techniques (resonant bar and ultrasonic), if the effect of intrinsic attenuation is accounted for.

  8. Q-structure beneath the north and central Indian Ocean from the inversion of observed Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D. D.

    The fundamental-mode Love and Rayleigh waves generated by 57 earthquakes which occurred in the north and central Indian Ocean (extending to 40°S) and recorded at Indian seismograph and other WWSSN stations such as HOW, SHL, VIS, MDR, HYB, KOD, CHG, TRD, POO, BOM, GOA, NDI, NIL and QUE are analysed. Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients are estimated at periods of 15-100 s using the spectral amplitude of these waves for 98 different paths across the Bay of Bengal Fan, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. The large standard deviations observed in the surface wave attenuation coefficients may be a result of regional variation of the attenuative properties of the crust and upper mantle beneath these regions. Love wave attenuation coefficients are found to vary from 0.000 03 to 0.000 45 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 03 to 0.000 85 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.000 35 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Similarly, Rayleigh wave attenuation coefficients vary from 0.000 03 to 0.0004 km -1 for the Bay of Bengal Fan; from 0.000 06 to 0.0007 km -1 for the Arabian Fan; and from 0.000 03 to 0.0007 km -1 for the north and central Indian Ocean. Backus and Gilbert inversion theory is applied to these surface wave attenuation data to obtain average Q-1 models for the crust and upper mantle beneath the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Fan, and the north and central Indian Ocean. Inversion of Love and Rayleigh wave attenuation data shows a high-attenuation zone centred at a depth of > 120 km ( Qβ ≈ 125) for the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, a high-attenuation zone ( Qβ ≈ 40-70) occurs at a depth of 60-160 km for the Arabian Fan at 100-160 km ( Qβ ≈ 115) for the Indian Ocean off Ninetyeast Ridge, and at 80-160 km ( Qβ ≈ 80) for the Indian Ocean across the Ninetyeast Ridge. The Qβ-1 models show a lithosphere thickness of 120 km beneath the Bay of Bengal Fan. Similarly, lithosphere thickness of 70, 100 and

  9. Air-ground interface: Surface waves, surface impedance and acoustic-to-seismic coupling coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Gilles; Embleton, Tony

    1990-01-01

    In atmospheric acoustics, the subject of surface waves has been an area of discussion for many years. The existence of an acoustic surface wave is now well established theoretically. The mathematical solution for spherical wave propagation above an impedance boundary includes the possibility of a contribution that possesses all the standard properties for a surface wave. Surface waves exist when the surface is sufficiently porous, relative to its acoustical resistance, that it can influence the airborne particle velocity near the surface and reduce the phase velocity of sound waves in air at the surface. This traps some of the sound energy in the air to remain near the surface as it propagates. Above porous grounds, the existence of surface waves has eluded direct experimental confirmation (pulse experiments have failed to show a separate arrival expected from the reduced phase speed) and indirect evidence for its existence has appeared contradictory. The experimental evidence for the existence of an acoustical surface wave above porous boundaries is reviewed. Recent measurements including pulse experiments are also described. A few years ago the acoustic impedance of a grass-covered surface was measured in the frequency range 30 to 300 Hz. Here, further measurements on the same site are discussed. These measurements include core samples, a shallow refractive survey to determine the seismic velocities, and measurements of the acoustic-to-seismic coupling coefficient.

  10. Study of transmission line attenuation in broad band millimeter wave frequency range

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, Hitesh Kumar B.; Austin, M. E.; Ellis, R. F.

    2013-10-15

    Broad band millimeter wave transmission lines are used in fusion plasma diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission (ECE), electron cyclotron absorption, reflectometry and interferometry systems. In particular, the ECE diagnostic for ITER will require efficient transmission over an ultra wide band, 100 to 1000 GHz. A circular corrugated waveguide transmission line is a prospective candidate to transmit such wide band with low attenuation. To evaluate this system, experiments of transmission line attenuation were performed and compared with theoretical loss calculations. A millimeter wave Michelson interferometer and a liquid nitrogen black body source are used to perform all the experiments. Atmospheric water vapor lines and continuum absorption within this band are reported. Ohmic attenuation in corrugated waveguide is very low; however, there is Bragg scattering and higher order mode conversion that can cause significant attenuation in this transmission line. The attenuation due to miter bends, gaps, joints, and curvature are estimated. The measured attenuation of 15 m length with seven miter bends and eighteen joints is 1 dB at low frequency (300 GHz) and 10 dB at high frequency (900 GHz), respectively.

  11. Inversion of Surface Waves for Path Structure and Attenuation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Dispersion curves from inversion model #2 . . . . . 26 12. Inverted Q-model and actual Q-model . . . . . . . 30 13. Surface waves from SAPHIRE , February... SAPHIRE seismograms: (a) SHI, (b) AAE .. . . . . . . . . 33 is Inverted Qg(z) structures from SAPHIRE seismograms: (a) SHI, (5) AAE ..... .. . . . . .35...from the Hoggar explosion SAPHIRE , recorded at AAE and SHI. We were able to retrieve stable dispersion curve estimates in the range 10-50 seconds from

  12. Seismic Wave Attenuation Estimated from Tectonic Tremor and Radiated Energy in Tremor for Various Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, S.; Baltay, A.; Ide, S.; Beroza, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    Ground motion prediction is an essential component of earthquake hazard assessment. Seismic wave attenuation with distance is an important, yet difficult to constrain, factor for such estimation. Using the empirical method of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), seismic wave attenuation with distance, which includes both the effect of anelastic attenuation and scattering, can be estimated from the distance decay of peak ground velocity (PGV) or peak ground acceleration (PGA) of ordinary earthquakes; however, in some regions where plate-boundary earthquakes are infrequent, such as Cascadia and Nankai, there are fewer data with which to constrain the empirical parameters. In both of those subduction zones, tectonic tremor occurs often. In this study, we use tectonic tremor to estimate the seismic wave attenuation with distance, and in turn use the attenuation results to estimate the radiated seismic energy of tremor. Our primary interest is in the variations among subduction zones. Ground motion attenuation and the distribution of released seismic energy from tremors are two important subduction zone characteristics. Therefore, it is very interesting to see whether there are variations of these parameters in different subduction zones, or regionally within the same subduction zone. It is also useful to estimate how much energy is released by tectonic tremor from accumulated energy to help understand subduction dynamics and the difference between ordinary earthquakes and tremor. We use the tectonic tremor catalog of Ide (2012) in Nankai, Cascadia, Mexico and southern Chile. We measured PGV and PGA of individual tremor bursts at each station. We assume a simple GMPE relationship and estimate seismic attenuation and relative site amplification factors from the data. In the Nankai subduction zone, there are almost no earthquakes on the plate interface, but intra-slab earthquakes occur frequently. Both the seismic wave attenuation with distance and the site

  13. Magnesium oxide doping reduces acoustic wave attenuation in lithium metatantalate and lithium metaniobate crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, W.; Damon, R.; Kedzie, R.; Kestigian, M.; Smith, A.; Worley, J.

    1970-01-01

    Single crystals of lithium metatantalate and lithium metaniobate, grown from melts having different stoichiometries and different amounts of magnesium oxide, show that doping lowers temperature-independent portion of attenuation of acoustic waves. Doped crystals possess optical properties well suited for electro-optical and photoelastic applications.

  14. Anelastic Attenuation and Elastic Scattering of Seismic Waves in the Los Angeles Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X.; Jordan, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    The accuracy of earthquake simulations needed for physics-based seismic hazard analysis depends on good information about crustal structure. For low-frequency (f < 0.3 Hz) simulations, the most important structural parameters are the seismic wave velocities, but as the frequencies increase, seismic wave attenuation becomes more important. We compare attenuation models that have been recently used in the CyberShake hazard model (Graves et al., 2011) and other simulation studies for the Los Angeles region (Olsen et al., 2009; Taborda & Bielak, 2013) with constraints from local earthquake data out to 10 Hz, which include those from Hauksson & Shearer's (2006) attenuation tomography as well as our own measurements. We show that the velocity-attenuation scaling relationship for shear waves employed by CyberShake (QS = 50VS, where VS is in km/s) provides a good approximation to the average crustal structure at f = 0.3 Hz, but it does not capture the lateral variations in QS at shallow depths. Moreover, this frequency-independent model is inconsistent with the high QS values observed throughout most of the crust at f > 1 Hz. The data indicate a frequency-dependent attenuation of the form QS ~ f γ, where 0.5 ≤ γ ≤ 0.8. Anomalously low QS factors are observed at very shallow depths, which can be explained by a combination of anelastic attenuation and elastic scattering. The scattering parameters are roughly consistent with small-scale, near-surface heterogeneities observed in well-logs and seismic reflection surveys in the Los Angeles basin. High-frequency scattering may also play a role in explaining Hauksson & Shearer's (2006) observation that the QP/QS ratio is anomalously low (~ unity). We summarize the observations in a new attenuation and scattering model for the CyberShake region that is laterally heterogeneous and frequency dependent.

  15. Amplitude-frequency dependencies of wave attenuation in single-crystal quartz: Experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashinskii, E. I.

    2008-11-01

    The experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of strain amplitude and frequency on the compressional and shear wave attenuation in quartz samples of three types: the intact quartz, fractured quartz, and smoky quartz. The measurements were performed using the reflection method on a pulse frequency of 1 MHz with changing strain in the range 0.3 ≤ ɛ ≤ 2.0 μstrain under a confining pressure of 10 MPa and at ambient temperature. The essential difference in amplitude-frequency characteristics of wave attenuation in three quartz types has been detected. The intact quartz shows the more "simple" behavior in comparison with the fractured and smoky quartz. The attenuation (the inverse quality factor Q) depends on strain amplitude as Q-1(ɛ) ˜ ɛ-n, where n ≅ 0.005-0.085, with the greatest decrease in the smoky and fractured quartz reaching of about 15%. Relaxation spectra of attenuation are presented in the frequency range from 0.4 to 1.4 MHz. The dependence Qp-1(f) ˜ f-1.2 characterizes the intact and fractured quartz, whereas the smoky quartz has the relaxation peak. The dependence Qs-1(f) ˜ f-0.84 presents S wave relaxation spectrum in the intact quartz; in the fractured and smoky quartz, the attenuation peaks take place. The strain amplitude variation exerts influence on the relaxation strength, the peak frequency, and the width of the relaxation peak. Such behavior of attenuation can be explained by a joint action of viscoelastic and microplastic mechanisms. These results can be considered as a contribution for providing the experimental background to the theory of attenuation in rocks. They can also be used in solving applied problems in material science, seismic prospecting, etc.

  16. Electromagnetic wave attenuation measurements in a ring-shaped inductively coupled air plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaolong, Wei; Haojun, Xu; Min, Lin; Chen, Su; Jianhai, Li

    2015-05-28

    An aerocraft with the surface, inlet and radome covered large-area inductive coupled plasma (ICP) can attenuate its radar echo effectively. The shape, thickness, and electron density (N{sub e}) distribution of ICP are critical to electromagnetic wave attenuation. In the paper, an air all-quartz ICP generator in size of 20 × 20 × 7 cm{sup 3} without magnetic confinement is designed. The discharge results show that the ICP is amorphous in E-mode and ring-shaped in H-mode. The structure of ICP stratifies into core region and edge halo in H-mode, and its width and thickness changes from power and pressure. Such phenomena are explained by the distribution of RF magnetic field, the diffusion of negative ions plasma and the variation of skin depth. In addition, the theoretical analysis shows that the N{sub e} achieves nearly uniform within the electronegative core and sharply steepens in the edge. The N{sub e} of core region is diagnosed by microwave interferometer under varied conditions (pressure in range of 10–50 Pa, power in 300–700 W). Furthermore, the electromagnetic wave attenuation measurements were carried out with the air ICP in the frequencies of 4–5 GHz. The results show that the interspaced ICP is still effective to wave attenuation, and the wave attenuation increases with the power and pressure. The measured attenuation is approximately in accordance with the calculation data of finite-different time-domain simulations.

  17. Measurements of the thermal coefficient of optical attenuation at different depth regions of in vivo human skins using optical coherence tomography: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Su, Ya; Yao, X Steve; Li, Zhihong; Meng, Zhuo; Liu, Tiegen; Wang, Longzhi

    2015-02-01

    We present detailed measurement results of optical attenuation's thermal coefficients (referenced to the temperature of the skin surface) in different depth regions of in vivo human forearm skins using optical coherence tomography (OCT). We first design a temperature control module with an integrated optical probe to precisely control the surface temperature of a section of human skin. We propose a method of using the correlation map to identify regions in the skin having strong correlations with the surface temperature of the skin and find that the attenuation coefficient in these regions closely follows the variation of the surface temperature without any hysteresis. We observe a negative thermal coefficient of attenuation in the epidermis. While in dermis, the slope signs of the thermal coefficient of attenuation are different at different depth regions for a particular subject, however, the depth regions with a positive (or negative) slope are different in different subjects. We further find that the magnitude of the thermal coefficient of attenuation coefficient is greater in epidermis than in dermis. We believe the knowledge of such thermal properties of skins is important for several noninvasive diagnostic applications, such as OCT glucose monitoring, and the method demonstrated in this paper is effective in studying the optical and biological properties in different regions of skin.

  18. Measurement of the speed and attenuation of the Biot slow wave using a large ultrasonic transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzidi, Youcef; Schmitt, Douglas R.

    2009-08-01

    Two compressional wave modes, a fast P1 and a slow P2, propagate through fluid-saturated porous and permeable media. This contribution focuses on new experimental tests of existing theories describing wave propagation in such media. Updated observations of this P2 mode are obtained through a water-loaded, porous sintered glass bead plate with a novel pair of ultrasonic transducers consisting of a large transmitter and a near-point receiver. The properties of the porous plate are measured in independent laboratory experiments. Waveforms are acquired as a function of the angle of incidence over the range from -50° to +50° with respect to the normal. The porous plate is fully characterized, and the physical properties are used to calculate the wave speeds and attenuations of the P1, the P2, and the shear S waves. Comparisons of theory and observation are further facilitated by numerically modeling the observed waveforms. This modeling method incorporates the frequency and angle of incidence-dependent reflectivity, transmissivity, and transducer edge effects; the modeled waveforms match well those observed. Taken together, this study provides further support for existing poroelastic bulk wave propagation and boundary condition theory. However, observed transmitted P1 and S mode amplitudes could not be adequately described unless the attenuation of the medium's frame was also included. The observed P2 amplitudes could be explained without any knowledge of the solid frame attenuation.

  19. Influence of reef geometry on wave attenuation on a Brazilian coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Mirella B. S. F.; Araújo, Moacyr; Araújo, Tereza C. M.; Siegle, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    This study presents data from field experiments that focus on the influence of coral reef geometry on wave transformation in the Metropolitan Area of Recife (MAR) on the northeast coast of Brazil. First, a detailed bathymetric survey was conducted, revealing a submerged reef bank, measuring 18 km long by 1 km wide, parallel to the coastline with a quasi-horizontal top that varies from 0.5 m to 4 m in depth at low tide. Cluster similarity between 180 reef profiles indicates that in 75% of the area, the reef geometry has a configuration similar to a platform reef, whereas in 25% of the area it resembles a fringing reef. Measurements of wave pressure fluctuations were made at two stations (experiments E1 and E2) across the reef profile. The results indicate that wave height was tidally modulated at both experimental sites. Up to 67% (E1) and 99.9% (E2) of the incident wave height is attenuated by the reef top at low tide. This tidal modulation is most apparent at E2 due to reef geometry. At this location, the reef top is only approximately 0.5 m deep during mean low spring water, and almost all incident waves break on the outer reef edge. At E1, the reef top depth is 4 m, and waves with height ratios smaller than the critical breaking limit are free to pass onto the reef and are primarily attenuated by bottom friction. These results highlight the importance of reef geometry in controlling wave characteristics of the MAR beaches and demonstrate its effect on the morphology of the adjacent coast. Implications of differences in wave attenuation and the level of protection provided by the reefs to the adjacent shoreline are discussed.

  20. Drag coefficient comparisons between observed and model simulated directional wave spectra under hurricane conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yalin; Rogers, W. Erick

    2016-06-01

    In this study, Donelan, M.A., Babanin, A.V., Young, I.R., Banner, M.L., 2006. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 36, 1672-1688 source function is used to calculate drag coefficients from both the scanning radar altimeter (SRA) measured two dimensional wave spectra obtained during hurricane Ivan in 2004 and the WAVEWATCH III simulated wave spectra. The drag coefficients disagree between the SRA and model spectra mainly in the right/left rear quadrant of the hurricane where the observed spectra appear to be bimodal while the model spectra are single peaked with more energy in the swell frequencies and less energy in the wind sea frequencies. These results suggest that WAVEWATCH III is currently not capable of providing sensible stress calculations in the rear quadrants of the hurricane.

  1. Simple expressions of the reflection and transmission coefficients of fundamental Lamb waves by a rectangular notch.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byungsoo; Roh, Yongrae

    2011-08-01

    The scattering of Lamb waves by a two-dimensional rectangular notch is investigated for rapid inspection of defects in a structure. To derive the reflection and transmission coefficients of the scattered waves in a simple way, the scattering caused by the notch is analyzed through the composition of individual scattering processes. Linear equations corresponding to the reflection and transmission coefficients are constructed along with scattering graphs. For an illustration of the efficacy of the presented method, the scattering of fundamental symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are inspected according to the depth and width of a notch in a plate. Validity of these expressions is demonstrated by the comparison of the theoretical analysis results with those from the finite element analysis.

  2. Analysis of coherent surface wave dispersion and attenuation for non-destructive testing of concrete.

    PubMed

    Chekroun, M; Le Marrec, L; Abraham, O; Durand, O; Villain, G

    2009-12-01

    Rayleigh waves measurements are used to characterise cover concrete and mortar in the frequency range 60-180 kHz. At these frequencies, the wavelength is comparable to the size of the aggregates, and waves propagate in a multiple scattering regime. Acquired signals are then difficult to interpret due to an important incoherent part. The method proposed here is the study of the coherent waves, obtained by averaging signals over several configurations of disorder. Coherent waves give information on an equivalent homogeneous medium. To acquire a large amount of measurements with accuracy, an optimised piezoelectric source is used with a laser interferometer for reception. Adapted signal processing technique are presented to evaluate the coherent phase and group velocities and also the coherent attenuation parameter. The sensitivity of these three parameters with the properties of concrete is discussed, as well as the necessity to use coherent waves to obtain accurate results.

  3. Calculation of electromechanical coupling coefficient of Lamb waves in multilayered plates.

    PubMed

    Fan, Li; Zhang, Shu-Yi; Zheng, Kai; Lin, Wei; Gao, Hui-Dong

    2006-12-22

    Two methods have been always used to calculate the electromechanical coupling coefficient of a Lamb wave in a multilayered plate: one is an approximate method using the acoustic velocity difference under different electric boundary conditions and the other is the Green's function method. The Green's function method is more accurate but more complicated, because an 8N-order matrix is used for calculating the electromechanical coupling coefficient of the Lamb wave in an N-layered plate, which induces great computation loads and some calculation deviations. In this paper, a transfer matrix method is used for calculating the electromechanical coupling coefficient of Lamb waves in a multilayered plate, in which only an 8-order matrix is needed regardless of the number of layers of the plate. The results show that the transfer matrix method can obtain the same accuracy as those by the Green's function method, but the computation load and deviation are greatly decreased by avoiding the use of a high order matrix used in the Green's function method.

  4. Temporal change in coda wave attenuation observed during an eruption of Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Fehler, M.; Roberts, P.; Fairbanks, T.

    1988-05-10

    During the past few years there have been numerous reports of changes in coda wave attenuation occurring before major earthquakes. These observations are important because they may provide insight into stress-related structural changes taking place in the focal region prior to the occurrence of large earthquakes. The results of these studies led us to suspect that temporal changes in coda wave attenuation might also accompany volcanic eruptions. By measuring power decay envelopes for earthquakes at Mount St. Helens recorded before, during, and after an eruption that took place during September 3--6, 1981, we found that coda Q/sup -1/ for frequencies between 6 and 30 Hz was 20--30% higher before the eruption than after. The change is attributed to an increase in the density of open microcracks in the rock associated with inflation of the volcano prior to the eruption. Q/sup -1/ was found to be only weakly dependent on frequency and displayed a slight peak near 10 Hz. The weak frequency dependence is attributed to the dominance of intrinsic attenuation over scattering attenuation, since it is generally accepted that intrinsic attenuation is constant with frequency, whereas scattering attenuation decreases strongly at higher frequencies. The weak frequency dependence of Q/sup -1/ at Mount St. Helens contrasts with results reported for studies in nonvolcanic regions. The peak in Q/sup -1/ near 10 Hz at Mount St. Helens is attributed to the scale length of heterogeneity responsible for generating backscattered waves. Results for nonvolcanic regions have shown this peak to occur near 0.5 Hz. Thus a smaller scale length of heterogeneity is required to explain the 10-Hz peak at Mount St. Helens. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  5. Images of soft materials: a 3D visualization of interior of the sample in terms of attenuation coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golosio, B.; Brunetti, A.; Cesareo, R.; Amendolia, S. R.; Rao, D. V.; Seltzer, S. M.

    2001-06-01

    Images of soft materials are obtained using image intensifier based X-ray system (Rao et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 437 (1999) 141). The interior of the soft material is visualized using the novel software in order to know the distribution of attenuation coefficient in terms of density. The novel software is based mainly on graphical library and applicable to several operating systems without any change. It can be applied to several applications starting from biomedical to industries, for example, quality control. The results for walnut and brew tooth are presented as a set of images from the internal parts of the sample. A description of the principal parameters required for tomographic visualization is given and some results based on this technique are reported and discussed.

  6. Multi-Mission Remote Sensing of Suspended Particulate Matter and Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient in the Yangtze Estuarine and Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X.; Salama, S.; Shen, F.

    2016-08-01

    During the Dragon-3 project (ID: 10555) period, we developed and improved the atmospheric correction algorithms (AC) and retrieval models of suspended sediment concentration ( ) and diffuse attenuation coefficient ( ) for the Yangtze estuarine and coastal waters. The developed models were validated by measurements with consistently stable and fairly accurate estimations, reproducing reasonable distribution maps of and over the study area. Spatial-temporal variations of were presented and the mechanisms of the sediment transport were discussed. We further examined the compatibility of the developed AC algorithms and retrieval model and the consistency of satellite products for multi-sensor such as MODIS/Terra/Aqua, MERIS/Envisat, MERSI/ FY-3 and GOCI. The inter-comparison of multi- sensor suggested that different satellite products can be combined to increase revisit frequency and complement a temporal gap of time series satellites that may exist between on-orbit and off- orbit, facilitating a better monitor on the spatial- temporal dynamics of .

  7. Imaging Rayleigh Wave Attenuation and Phase Velocity beneath North America with USArray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, X.; Dalton, C. A.; Jin, G.; Gaherty, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    The EarthScope USArray provides an opportunity to obtain detailed images of the continental upper mantle of United States at a novel scale. The majority of mantle models derived from USArray data contain spatial variations in velocity; however, little is known about the attenuation structure of the North American upper mantle. Joint interpretation of seismic attenuation and velocity models can improve upon the interpretations based only on velocity, and provide important constraints on the temperature, composition, melt content, and volatile content of the mantle. In this study, Rayleigh wave travel time and amplitude are measured using an interstation cross-correlation version of the Generalized Seismological Data Functional algorithm, which takes advantage of waveform similarity at nearby stations. Our data are from 670 large teleseismic earthquakes that occurred from 2006 to 2014 and were recorded by 1,764 Transportable Array stations. More than 4.8 million measurements at periods between 20 and 100 s are collected into our database. Isolating the signal of attenuation in the amplitude observations is challenging because amplitudes are sensitive to a number of factors in addition to attenuation, such as focusing/defocusing and local site amplification. We generate several Rayleigh wave attenuation maps at each period, using several different approaches to account for source and receiver effects on amplitude. This suite of attenuation maps allows us to distinguish between the robust features in the maps and the features that are sensitive to the treatment of source and receiver effects. We apply Helmholtz surface-wave tomography (Lin et al., 2012) to determine velocity and attenuation maps. A significant contrast in velocity and attenuation is observed in the transition between the western and central United States along the Rocky Mountain front. We find low Q values in the western US, along the eastern coast, and the Gulf plain. These areas are also

  8. The attenuation of Love waves and toroidal oscillations of the earth.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    An attempt has been made to invert a large set of attenuation data for Love waves and toroidal oscillations in the earth, using a recent method by Backus and Gilbert. The difficulty in finding an acceptable model of internal friction which explains the data, under the assumption that the internal friction is independent of frequency, casts doubt on the validity of this assumption. A frequency-dependent model of internal friction is presented which is in good agreement with the seismic data and with recent experimental measurements of attenuation in rocks.

  9. Numerical wave modelling for seismo-acoustic noise sources: wave model accuracy issues and evidence for variable seismic attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardhuin, F.; Lavanant, T.; Obrebski, M. J.; Marié, L.; Royer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Nonlinear wave-wave interactions generate noise that numerical ocean wave models may simulate. The accuracy of the noise source predicted by the theory of Longuet-Higgins (1950) and Hasselmann (1963) depends on the realism of the directional wave distribution, which is generally not very well known. Numerical noise models developed by Kedar et al. (2008) and Ardhuin et al. (2010) also suffer from poorly known seismic wave propagation and attenuation properties. Here, several seismic and ocean pressure records are used here to assess the effects of wave modelling errors on the magnitude of noise sources. Measurements within 200~m from the sea surface are dominated by acoustic-gravity modes, for which bottom effects are negligible. These data show that directional wave spectra are well enough reproduced to estimate seismo-acoustic noise sources at frequencies below 0.3~Hz, whith an underestimation of the noise level by about 50%. In larger water depths, the comparison of a numerical noise model with hydrophone records from two open-ocean sites near Hawaii and Kerguelen islands reveal that a) deep ocean acoustic noise at frequencies 0.1 to 1 Hz is consistent with the Rayleigh wave theory, and is well predicted up to 0.4~Hz. b) In particular, evidence of the vertical modes expected theoretically is given by the local maxima in the noise spectrum. c) noise above 0.6 Hz is not well modeled probably due to a poor estimate of the directional properties of high frequency wind-waves, d) the noise level is strongly influenced by bottom properties, in particular the presence of sediments. Further, for continental coastal seismic stations, an accurate model of noise level variability near the noise spectral peak requires an accurate modelling of coastal reflection (Ardhuin and Roland JGR 2012). In cases where noise sources are confined to a small area (e.g. Obrebski et al. GRL 2012), the source amplitude may be factored out, allowing an estimate of seismic attenuation rates

  10. Strong Lg-wave attenuation in the Middle East continental collision orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lian-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Bi

    2016-04-01

    Using Lg-wave Q tomography, we construct a broadband crustal attenuation model for the Middle East. The QLg images reveal a relationship between attenuation and geological structures. Strong attenuation is found in the continental collision orogenic belt that extends from the Turkish and Iranian plateau to the Pamir plateau. We investigate the frequency dependence of QLg in different geologic formations. The results illustrate that QLg values generally increase with increasing frequency but exhibit complex relationships both with frequency and between regions. An average QLg value between 0.2 and 2.0 Hz, QLg (0.2-2.0 Hz), may be a critical index for crustal attenuation and is used to infer the regional geology. Low-QLg anomalies are present in the eastern Turkish plateau and correlate well with low Pn-velocities and Cenozoic volcanic activity, thus indicating possible partial melting within the crust in this region. Very strong attenuation is also observed in central Iran, the Afghanistan block, and the southern Caspian Sea. This in line with the previously observed high crustal temperature, high-conductivity layers, and thick marine sediments in these areas, suggests the high Lg attenuation is caused by abnormally high tectonic and thermal activities.

  11. Determination of power-law attenuation coefficient and dispersion spectra in multi-wall carbon nanotube composites using Kramers-Kronig relations.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Joel; Mack, Richard A; Gladden, Joseph R; Mantena, P Raju

    2009-07-01

    Using a broadband through-transmission technique, the attenuation coefficient and phase velocity spectra have been measured for a set of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-nylon composites (from pure nylon to 20% MWCNT by weight) in the ultrasonic frequency band from 4 to 14 MHz. The samples were found to be effectively homogeneous on spatial scales from the low end of ultrasonic wavelengths investigated and up (>0.2 mm). Using Kramers-Kronig relations, the attenuation and dispersion data were found to be consistent with a power-law attenuation model with a range of exponents from y=1.12 to y=1.19 over the measurement bandwidth. The attenuation coefficients of the respective samples are found to decrease with increasing MWCNT content and a similar trend holds also for the dispersion. In contrast, the mean phase velocities for the samples rise with increasing MWCNT content indicating an increase in the mechanical moduli.

  12. New consistency tests for high-accuracy measurements of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by the X-ray extended-range technique

    SciTech Connect

    Chantler, C.T.; Islam, M.T.; Rae, N.A.; Tran, C.Q.; Glover, J.L.; Barnea, Z.

    2012-09-25

    An extension of the X-ray extended-range technique is described for measuring X-ray mass attenuation coefficients by introducing absolute measurement of a number of foils - the multiple independent foil technique. Illustrating the technique with the results of measurements for gold in the 38-50 keV energy range, it is shown that its use enables selection of the most uniform and well defined of available foils, leading to more accurate measurements; it allows one to test the consistency of independently measured absolute values of the mass attenuation coefficient with those obtained by the thickness transfer method; and it tests the linearity of the response of the counter and counting chain throughout the range of X-ray intensities encountered in a given experiment. In light of the results for gold, the strategy to be ideally employed in measuring absolute X-ray mass attenuation coefficients, X-ray absorption fine structure and related quantities is discussed.

  13. An observation related to directional attenuation of SKS waves propagating in anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Xue, Mei

    2015-04-01

    Azimuthal anisotropy of attenuation is a physical phenomenon related to the directional change of attenuation. This study examines the frequency properties and directional attenuation of SKS waves. The directional frequency-dependent characteristics of SKS waves are investigated in the frequency band of 0.02-0.5 Hz using data from 53 permanent seismic stations located throughout the northern Yangtze Craton, the southern North China Craton and adjacent areas. In addition to normal splitting behavior, the analysis reveals that many SKS splitting measurements exhibit a lemniscate shape, reflecting frequency differences along fast and slow polarization directions. Frequency analysis shows that spectral ratios between fast/slow components of the lemniscate-type splitting results fluctuate strongly in a higher frequency band of 0.2-0.5 Hz, and fluctuate less within the main frequency band of 0.02-0.2 Hz. For each station, the ratio of the peak amplitude of the fast/slow components can be represented as a cotangential function of event backazimuth multiplying with a constant = 0.42 ± 0.10. This transformation shows that the regional average angles consistently fall within the relatively narrow range of -46.5 ± 3° with respect to the north, suggesting that a regional tectonic controlling factor dictates the relatively uniform directional attenuation of SKS waves within the frequency band of 0.02-0.2 Hz. Further analysis is performed by projecting the SKS waves onto the components along and perpendicular to the regional average angles. The calculation also shows that, in the 0.02-0.2 Hz band, the relationship between amplitude ratio and event backazimuth matches a cotangential functions with the same best matching angles and constant a < 1. Synthetic calculations demonstrate that although different filters influence the splitting parameters, attenuation anisotropy cannot be explained by elastic anisotropic media, including multilayer anisotropy and anisotropy with a

  14. The propagation and attenuation of complex acoustic waves in treated circular and annular ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reethof, G.

    1976-01-01

    The propagation of plane waves and higher order acoustic modes in a circular multisectioned duct was studied. A unique source array consisting of two concentric rings of sources, providing phase and amplitude control in the radial, as well as circumferential direction, was developed to generate plane waves and both spinning and nonspinning higher order modes. Measurements of attenuation and radial mode shapes were taken with finite length liners between the hard wall sections of an anechoically terminated duct. Materials tested as liners included a glass fiber material and both sintered fiber metals and perforated sheet metals with a honeycomb backing. The fundamental acoustic properties of these materials were studied with emphasis on the attenuation of sound by the liners and the determination of local versus extended reaction behavior for the boundary condition. The experimental results were compared with a mathematical model for the multisectioned duct.

  15. Dislocation damping and anisotropic seismic wave attenuation in Earth's upper mantle.

    PubMed

    Farla, Robert J M; Jackson, Ian; Fitz Gerald, John D; Faul, Ulrich H; Zimmerman, Mark E

    2012-04-20

    Crystal defects form during tectonic deformation and are reactivated by the shear stress associated with passing seismic waves. Although these defects, known as dislocations, potentially contribute to the attenuation of seismic waves in Earth's upper mantle, evidence for dislocation damping from laboratory studies has been circumstantial. We experimentally determined the shear modulus and associated strain-energy dissipation in pre-deformed synthetic olivine aggregates under high pressures and temperatures. Enhanced high-temperature background dissipation occurred in specimens pre-deformed by dislocation creep in either compression or torsion, the enhancement being greater for prior deformation in torsion. These observations suggest the possibility of anisotropic attenuation in relatively coarse-grained rocks where olivine is or was deformed at relatively high stress by dislocation creep in Earth's upper mantle.

  16. Seismic‐wave attenuation determined from tectonic tremor in multiple subduction zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yabe, Suguru; Baltay, Annemarie S.; Ide, Satoshi; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Tectonic tremor provides a new source of observations that can be used to constrain the seismic attenuation parameter for ground‐motion prediction and hazard mapping. Traditionally, recorded earthquakes of magnitude ∼3–8 are used to develop ground‐motion prediction equations; however, typical earthquake records may be sparse in areas of high hazard. In this study, we constrain the distance decay of seismic waves using measurements of the amplitude decay of tectonic tremor, which is plentiful in some regions. Tectonic tremor occurs in the frequency band of interest for ground‐motion prediction (i.e., ∼2–8  Hz) and is located on the subducting plate interface, at the lower boundary of where future large earthquakes are expected. We empirically fit the distance decay of peak ground velocity from tremor to determine the attenuation parameter in four subduction zones: Nankai, Japan; Cascadia, United States–Canada; Jalisco, Mexico; and southern Chile. With the large amount of data available from tremor, we show that in the upper plate, the lower crust is less attenuating than the upper crust. We apply the same analysis to intraslab events in Nankai and show the possibility that waves traveling from deeper intraslab events experience more attenuation than those from the shallower tremor due to ray paths that pass through the subducting and highly attenuating oceanic crust. This suggests that high pore‐fluid pressure is present in the tremor source region. These differences imply that the attenuation parameter determined from intraslab earthquakes may underestimate ground motion for future large earthquakes on the plate interface.

  17. Alfvén waves and current relaxation: attenuation at high frequencies and large resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, F. E. M.

    2012-06-01

    The dispersion relations of Alfvén waves propagating in a resistive plasma are explored by assuming a finite relaxation time for the current density. It is shown that the proposed approach is consistent with the hydromagnetic approximation. An extension for the equation governing the space and time evolution of Alfvén waves is provided. New results are found at high values of the wave frequency ω: for a small resistivity, the wavelength increases as the cube of the equilibrium magnetic field but decreases with the cube of ω for a large resistivity, the wave attenuation does not depend on ω, saturating to a finite value which is fully determined by the relaxation time of the current density. A transition frequency, ωt, between two sharply distinct regimes of the perturbation is identified: for ω < ωt, the disturbance propagates in the resistive plasma as an attenuated oscillation; for ω > ωt the wave ceases very rapidly to oscillate (in space), its amplitude saturating to a finite value. The results presented here may be relevant for investigations of some transient phenomena in plasma physics such as the reconnection of magnetic field lines.

  18. Wave field synthesis of a sound field described by spherical harmonics expansion coefficients.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Jens; Spors, Sascha

    2012-03-01

    Near-field compensated higher order Ambisonics (NFC-HOA) and wave field synthesis (WFS) constitute the two best-known analytic sound field synthesis methods. While WFS is typically used for the synthesis of virtual sound scenes, NFC-HOA is typically employed in order to synthesize sound fields that have been captured with appropriate microphone arrays. Such recorded sound fields are essentially represented by the coefficients of the underlying surface spherical harmonics expansion. A sound field described by such coefficients cannot be straightforwardly synthesized in WFS. This is a consequence of the fact that, unlike in NFC-HOA, it is critical in WFS to carefully select those loudspeakers that contribute to the synthesis of a given sound source in a sound field under consideration. In order to enable such a secondary source selection, it is proposed to employ the well-known concept of decomposing the sound field under consideration into a continuum of plane waves, for which the secondary source selection is straightforward. The plane wave representation is projected onto the horizontal plane and a closed form expression of the secondary source driving signals for horizontal WFS systems of arbitrary convex shape is derived.

  19. Development of Surface Wave Dispersion and Attenuation Maps and Improved Methods for Measuring Surface Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-30

    use a similar technique with a narrower kernel that they believe to be more representative of realistic surface waves. Spetzler et al. (2001, 2002...Nor and KNET. We measured surface wave spectral amplitudes from the calculations using the same techniques used to measure observed surface waves...The Born approximation techniques discussed in section 3 provide a straightforward, but approximate, way to incorporate scattering and diffraction

  20. Towards a quantitative, measurement-based estimate of the uncertainty in photon mass attenuation coefficients at radiation therapy energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, E. S. M.; Spencer, B.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, a quantitative estimate is derived for the uncertainty in the XCOM photon mass attenuation coefficients in the energy range of interest to external beam radiation therapy—i.e. 100 keV (orthovoltage) to 25 MeV—using direct comparisons of experimental data against Monte Carlo models and theoretical XCOM data. Two independent datasets are used. The first dataset is from our recent transmission measurements and the corresponding EGSnrc calculations (Ali et al 2012 Med. Phys. 39 5990-6003) for 10-30 MV photon beams from the research linac at the National Research Council Canada. The attenuators are graphite and lead, with a total of 140 data points and an experimental uncertainty of ˜0.5% (k = 1). An optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor that minimizes the discrepancies between measurements and calculations is used to deduce cross section uncertainty. The second dataset is from the aggregate of cross section measurements in the literature for graphite and lead (49 experiments, 288 data points). The dataset is compared to the sum of the XCOM data plus the IAEA photonuclear data. Again, an optimum energy-independent cross section scaling factor is used to deduce the cross section uncertainty. Using the average result from the two datasets, the energy-independent cross section uncertainty estimate is 0.5% (68% confidence) and 0.7% (95% confidence). The potential for energy-dependent errors is discussed. Photon cross section uncertainty is shown to be smaller than the current qualitative ‘envelope of uncertainty’ of the order of 1-2%, as given by Hubbell (1999 Phys. Med. Biol 44 R1-22).

  1. Microwave photonic notch filter with complex coefficient based on four wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dong; Cao, Ye; Tong, Zheng-rong; Yang, Jing-peng

    2016-11-01

    A microwave photonic notch filter with a complex coefficient is proposed and demonstrated based on four wave mixing (FWM). FWM effect of two single-frequency laser beams occurs in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), and multi-wavelength optical signals are generated and used to generate the multi-tap of microwave photonic filter (MPF). The complex coefficient is generated by using a Fourier-domain optical processor (FD-OP) to control the amplitude and phase of the optical carrier and phase modulation sidebands. The results show that this filter can be changed from bandpass filter to notch filter by controlling the FD-OP. The center frequency of the notch filter can be continuously tuned from 5.853 GHz to 29.311 GHz with free spectral range ( FSR) of 11.729 GHz. The shape of the frequency response keeps unchanged when the phase is tuned.

  2. Oil droplets transport due to irregular waves: Development of large-scale spreading coefficients.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C; Ozgokmen, Tamay; King, Thomas; Lee, Kenneth; Lu, Youyu; Zhao, Lin

    2016-03-15

    The movement of oil droplets due to waves and buoyancy was investigated by assuming an irregular sea state following a JONSWAP spectrum and four buoyancy values. A technique known as Wheeler stretching was used to model the movement of particles under the moving water surface. In each simulation, 500 particles were released and were tracked for a real time of 4.0 h. A Monte Carlo approach was used to obtain ensemble properties. It was found that small eddy diffusivities that decrease rapidly with depth generated the largest horizontal spreading of the plume. It was also found that large eddy diffusivities that decrease slowly with depth generated the smallest horizontal spreading coefficient of the plume. The increase in buoyancy resulted in a decrease in the horizontal spreading coefficient, which suggests that two-dimensional (horizontal) models that predict the transport of surface oil could be overestimating the spreading of oil.

  3. Seismic Attenuation of Teleseismic Body Waves in Cascadia, Measured on the Amphibious Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilon, Z.; Abers, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Fundamental questions remain about the nature of the asthenosphere, including its dynamical relationship to overlying lithosphere, melt content, and entrainment in subduction zones. We examine the evolution of this low-velocity, highly attenuating layer using data from the Cascadia Initiative's Amphibious Array, which provides unprecedented coverage of an oceanic plate from ridge crest to trench to sub-arc. Our study extends the suite of measurements achievable with OBS data, augmenting traditional travel time analysis with integrated attenuation data that are a powerful tool for imaging melt/fluids and the variation of asthenospheric character with age. Cooling models, coupled with experimentally-derived anelastic scaling relationships, indicate that thermal gradients should cause appreciable decrease in attenuation of teleseismic body waves with increasing age. This long-wavelength cooling trend may be perturbed by highly attenuating melt or volatiles concentrated at the ridge axis or beneath the Cascades arc, depending on melt fraction and pore geometry. Attenuation beyond the trench should be a strong function of the fate of asthenospheric entrainment beneath subducted plates, with implications for mass transfer to the deep mantle as well as recent models of sub-slab anisotropy. The Amphibious Array, with <70 km spacing of OBS and on-land broadband seismometers deployed between 2011 and 2015, provides a dataset of ~1 x 105 arrivals from ~700 Mw>6.0 teleseismic earthquakes. We use a spectral ratio method to compute differential attenuation (Δt*) from body wave teleseisms recorded at OBS and land stations, allowing us to estimate path-integrated quality factor in the upper mantle. Preliminary results reveal variations of ~3 s in differential travel time and >0.5 s in ΔtS* across the 0-10 Ma oceanic plate, demonstrating the strong thermal control on anelasticity. Large values of Δt* observed east of the trench may indicate entrainment of highly attenuating

  4. Study of the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jianbing Zhang, Xianmei Yu, Limin Zhao, Xiang

    2014-02-12

    Part of the energy of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves may be absorbed by the α particles via the so-called perpendicular landau damping mechanism, which depends on various parameters of fusion reactors and the LH waves. In this article, we calculate the absorption coefficient γ{sub α} of LH waves due to α particles. Results show that, the γ{sub α} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ∥} while deceases with increasing the frequency of LH waves ω{sub LH} over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption, and there is a peak value of γ{sub α} when n{sub e}≈8×10{sup 19}m{sup −3} for ITER-like scenario. The thermal corrections to the cold plasma dispersion relation will change the damping rate to a certain extent under some specific conditions. We have also evaluated the fraction of LH power absorbed by the alpha particles, η ≈ 0.47% and 4.1% for an LH frequency of 5 GHz and 3.7 GHz respectively for ITER-like scenario. This work gives the effective reference for the choice of parameters of future fusion reactors.

  5. Validation of quantitative attenuation and backscattering coefficient measurements by optical coherence tomography in the concentration-dependent and multiple scattering regime.

    PubMed

    Almasian, Mitra; Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Faber, Dirk J

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to quantitatively measure optical properties of tissue such as the attenuation coefficient and backscattering coefficient. However, to obtain reliable values for strong scattering tissues, accurate consideration of the effects of multiple scattering and the nonlinear relation between the scattering coefficient and scatterer concentration (concentration-dependent scattering) is required. We present a comprehensive model for the OCT signal in which we quantitatively account for both effects, as well as our system parameters (confocal point spread function and sensitivity roll-off). We verify our model with experimental data from controlled phantoms of monodisperse silica beads (scattering coefficients between 1 and 30  mm(−1) and scattering anisotropy between 0.4 and 0.9). The optical properties of the phantoms are calculated using Mie theory combined with the Percus–Yevick structure factor to account for concentration-dependent scattering. We demonstrate excellent agreement between the OCT attenuation and backscattering coefficient predicted by our model and experimentally derived values. We conclude that this model enables us to accurately model OCT-derived parameters (i.e., attenuation and backscattering coefficients) in the concentration-dependent and multiple scattering regime for spherical monodisperse samples.

  6. Explicit use of the Biot coefficient in predicting shear-wave velocity of water-saturated sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Predicting the shear-wave (S-wave) velocity is important in seismic modelling, amplitude analysis with offset, and other exploration and engineering applications. Under the low-frequency approximation, the classical Biot-Gassmann theory relates the Biot coefficient to the bulk modulus of water-saturated sediments. If the Biot coefficient under in situ conditions can be estimated, the shear modulus or the S-wave velocity can be calculated. The Biot coefficient derived from the compressional-wave (P-wave) velocity of water-saturated sediments often differs from and is less than that estimated from the S-wave velocity, owing to the interactions between the pore fluid and the grain contacts. By correcting the Biot coefficients derived from P-wave velocities of water-saturated sediments measured at various differential pressures, an accurate method of predicting S-wave velocities is proposed. Numerical results indicate that the predicted S-wave velocities for consolidated and unconsolidated sediments agreewell with measured velocities. ?? 2006 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  7. Meso-scale Computational Investigation of Shock-Wave Attenuation by Trailing Release Wave in Different Grades of Polyurea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, Mica; Snipes, J. S.; Ramaswami, S.; Yavari, R.; Ramasubramanian, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several years, considerable research efforts have been made toward investigating polyurea, a segmented thermoplastic elastomer, and particularly its shock-mitigation capacity, i.e., an ability to attenuate and disperse shock-waves. These research efforts have clearly established that the shock-mitigation capacity of polyurea is closely related to its chemistry, processing route, and the resulting microstructure. Polyurea typically possesses a nano-segregated microstructure consisting of (high glass transition temperature, T g) hydrogen-bonded discrete hard domains and a (low T g) contiguous soft matrix. While the effect of polyurea microstructure on its shock-mitigation capacity is well-established, it is not presently clear what microstructure-dependent phenomena and processes control its shock-mitigation capacity. To help identify these phenomena and processes, meso-scale simulations of the formation of nano-segregated microstructure and its interaction with a leading shock-wave and a trailing release-wave is analyzed in the present work. The results obtained revealed that shock-induced hard-domain densification makes an important contribution to the superior shock-mitigation capacity of polyurea, and that the extent of densification is a sensitive function of the polyurea soft-segment molecular weight. In particular, the ability of release-waves to capture and neutralize shock-waves has been found to depend strongly on the extent of shock-induced hard-domain densification and, thus, on the polyurea soft-segment molecular weight.

  8. Transmission, attenuation and reflection of shear waves in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Erik H; Genin, Guy M; Bayly, Philip V

    2012-11-07

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are caused by acceleration of the skull or exposure to explosive blast, but the processes by which mechanical loads lead to neurological injury remain poorly understood. We adapted motion-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging methods to measure the motion of the human brain in vivo as the skull was exposed to harmonic pressure excitation (45, 60 and 80 Hz). We analysed displacement fields to quantify the transmission, attenuation and reflection of distortional (shear) waves as well as viscoelastic material properties. Results suggest that internal membranes, such as the falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli, play a key role in reflecting and focusing shear waves within the brain. The skull acts as a low-pass filter over the range of frequencies studied. Transmissibility of pressure waves through the skull decreases and shear wave attenuation increases with increasing frequency. The skull and brain function mechanically as an integral structure that insulates internal anatomic features; these results are valuable for building and validating mathematical models of this complex and important structural system.

  9. MODIS-based retrieval of suspended sediment concentration and diffuse attenuation coefficient in Chinese estuarine and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoletsky, Leonid; Yang, Xianping; Shen, Fang

    2014-11-01

    Radiative transfer modelling in atmosphere, water, and on the air-water surface was used to create an algorithm and computer code for satellite monitoring Chinese estuarine and coastal waters. The atmospheric part of the algorithm is based on the Reference Evaluation of Solar Transmittance (REST) model for calculation of optical properties of the atmosphere from the top of the atmosphere to the target; for modelling optical properties from target towards satellite's sensor, an optical reciprocity principle has been used. An algorithm uses estimates derived from three different sources: 1) the MODIS-based software; 2) radiative transfer equations, and 3) well-known empirical relationships between measured parameters and optical depths and transmittances for such atmospheric components as molecules, aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, precipitable water vapor and uniformly mixed gases. Using this model allowed us to derive a reliable relationship relating an important parameter, the diffuse-to-global solar incoming irradiance ratio, to the aerosol optical thickness, solar zenith angle and wavelength. The surface and underwater parts of the algorithm contained theoretical and semi-empirical relationships between inherent (such as absorption, scattering and backscattering coefficients) and apparent (remote-sensing reflectance and diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd) optical properties, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measured in the Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent coastal area. The first false colour maps of SSC and Kd demonstrated a well accordance with the multi-year field observations in the region, and suggest promise for use of this algorithm for the regular monitoring of Chinese and worldwide natural waters.

  10. Spatial variations of P wave attenuation in the mantle beneath North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Yong Keun; Ritsema, Jeroen; Goes, Saskia

    2009-06-01

    We estimate the spatial variation of the seismic parameter t* using teleseismic (epicentral distance = 30°-85°) P wave spectra of about 200 deep (focal depths > 200 km) earthquakes recorded by 378 broadband seismometers in the United States and Canada. Relative P wave spectral ratios up to 1 Hz for about 63,000 station pairs with high signal-to-noise ratio and impulsive P waveforms are inverted for t*P by least squares inversion. The continental-scale t*P pattern correlates to the age of geological terrains and the seismic, heat flow, gravity, and magnetic variations across North America. Predominantly low values of t*P are obtained in stable central North America (SNA), and high t*P values are obtained for stations in the tectonically active western part of the continent (TNA). This variation is similar to that observed previously in short-period amplitude anomalies, spectral ratio variations, and ScS reverberations. On average, we resolve a contrast in t*P between SNA and TNA of about 0.2 s. We resolve regional variations in t*P, which correlate with tectonics. Relatively low t*P is associated with currently active subduction below Alaska. Relatively high t*P is found in SNA below the Appalachians and the Gulf Coast. The consistency between t*P and tectonics suggests that the observed variations in t*P are, on the scale of around 200-500 km, predominantly due to intrinsic attenuation. The similar patterns in t*P and predicted values for a recent global attenuation model confirm this further. The compatibility with the t*P computed for attenuation estimated via a thermal interpretation of shear wave velocity anomalies illustrates that variations in seismic velocity are predominantly due to physical effects with a strong attenuation signature, most likely temperature or a combination of temperature and water content.

  11. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold in the 38-50-keV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, M T; Rae, N A; Glover, J L; Barnea, Z; de Jonge, M D; Tran, C Q; Wang, J; Chantler, C T

    2010-11-12

    We used synchrotron x rays to measure the x-ray mass attenuation coefficients of gold at nine energies from 38 to 50 keV with accuracies of 0.1%. Our results are much more accurate than previous measurements in this energy range. A comparison of our measurements with calculated mass attenuation coefficients shows that our measurements fall almost exactly midway between the XCOM and FFAST calculated theoretical values, which differ from one another in this energy region by about 4%, even though the range includes no absorption edge. The consistency and accuracy of these measurements open the way to investigations of the x-ray attenuation in the region of the L absorption edge of gold.

  12. Geoacoustic inversion in range-dependent ocean environments using a plane wave reflection coefficient approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotts, S. A.; Knobles, D. P.; Koch, R. A.; Grant, D. E.; Focke, K. C.; Cook, A. J.

    2004-03-01

    A new, efficient, versatile ray-based model is presented that performs geoacoustic inversions in range-dependent ocean waveguides faster than alternative forward models for which the computation time becomes extremely long, especially for broadband inversions. The water propagation is approximately separated from the seabed interaction using predetermined bathymetry and a possibly range-dependent water sound speed profile. The geometrical optics approximation is used to calculate eigenrays between sources and receivers, including bottom reflecting paths. Modeled broadband pressure fields are obtained by computing the plane wave reflection coefficient at specific angles and frequencies and by then linking this result with the bottom reflected eigenrays. Each perturbation of the seabed requires a recalculation of the plane wave reflection coefficient, but not a recalculation of the eigenrays, resulting in a highly efficient method. Range-independent problems are treated as a limiting case of the approach. The method is first described and then demonstrated with a few simple range-independent theoretical models. The versatility of addressing range-dependence in the bottom seabed is demonstrated with a simulated data set. Finally, the new model is applied to inversion from a measured data set, taken with impulsive sources, for both range-independent and range-dependent continental shelf environments.

  13. Crustal attenuation characteristics of S-waves beneath the Eastern Tohoku region, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, Muhammad Adeel

    2016-10-01

    An inversion method was applied to crustal earthquakes dataset to find S-wave attenuation characteristics beneath the Eastern Tohoku region of Japan. Accelerograms from 85 shallow crustal earthquakes up to 25 km depth and magnitude range between 3.5 and 5.5 were analyzed to estimate the seismic quality factor Q s. A homogeneous attenuation model Q s for the wave propagation path was evaluated from spectral amplitudes, at 24 different frequencies between 0.5 and 20 Hz by using generalized inversion technique. To do this, non-parametric attenuation functions were calculated to observe spectral amplitude decay with hypocentral distance. Then, these functions were parameterized to estimate Q s. It was found that in Eastern Tohoku region, the Q s frequency dependence can be approximated with the function 33 f 1.22 within a frequency range between 0.5 and 20 Hz. However, the frequency dependence of Q s in the frequency range between 0.5 and 6 Hz is best approximated by Q s ( f) = 36 f 0.94 showing relatively weaker frequency dependence as compared to the relation Q s ( f) = 6 f 2.09 for the frequency range between 6 and 15 Hz. These results could be used to estimate source and site parameters for seismic hazard assessment in the region.

  14. Wave-speed dispersion associated with an attenuation obeying a frequency power law.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    An attenuation scaling as a power of frequency, |ω|(β), over an infinite bandwidth is neither analytic nor square-integrable, thus calling into question the application of the Kramers-Krönig dispersion relations for determining the frequency dependence of the associated phase speed. In this paper, three different approaches are developed, all of which return the dispersion formula for the wavenumber, K(ω). The first analysis relies on the properties of generalized functions and the causality requirement that the impulse response, k(t), the inverse Fourier transform of -iK(ω), must vanish for t < 0. Second, a wave equation is introduced that yields the phase-speed dispersion associated with a frequency-power-law attenuation. Finally, it is shown that, with minor modification, the Kramers-Krönig dispersion relations with no subtractions (the Plemelj formulas) do in fact hold for an attenuation scaling as |ω|(β), yielding the same dispersion formula as the other two derivations. From this dispersion formula, admissible values of the exponent β are established. Physically, the inadmissible values of β, which include all the integers, correspond to attenuation-dispersion pairs whose Fourier components cannot combine in such a way as to make the impulse response, k(t), vanish for t < 0. There is no upper or lower limit on the value that β may take.

  15. Estimation of the intrinsic absorption and scattering attenuation in Northeastern Venezuela (Southeastern Caribbean) using coda waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ugalde, A.; Pujades, L.G.; Canas, J.A.; Villasenor, A.

    1998-01-01

    Northeastern Venezuela has been studied in terms of coda wave attenuation using seismograms from local earthquakes recorded by a temporary short-period seismic network. The studied area has been separated into two subregions in order to investigate lateral variations in the attenuation parameters. Coda-Q-1 (Q(c)-1) has been obtained using the single-scattering theory. The contribution of the intrinsic absorption (Q(i)-1) and scattering (Q(s)-1) to total attenuation (Q(t)-1) has been estimated by means of a multiple lapse time window method, based on the hypothesis of multiple isotropic scattering with uniform distribution of scatterers. Results show significant spatial variations of attenuation: the estimates for intermediate depth events and for shallow events present major differences. This fact may be related to different tectonic characteristics that may be due to the presence of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, because the intermediate depth seismic zone may be coincident with the southern continuation of the subducting slab under the arc.

  16. A Split of Direction of Propagation and Attenuation of P Waves in the Po Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daminelli, R.; Tento, A.; Marcellini, A.

    2013-12-01

    On July 17, 2011 a ML 4.8 earthquake occurred in the PO valley at a 48 km epicentral distance from a seismic station located at Palazzo Te (Mantova). The station is situated on deep quaternary sediments: the uppermost layers are mainly composed of clay and silty clay with interbedded sands; the Robertson index is 1.4wave particle motion, that appears rather difficult to explain if we assume the homogeneity of the P waves (that means attenuation is scalar). Note that the degree of nonlinearity is very low given that the maximum strain can be roughly estimated as 10-5 on the basis of maximum ground velocity of the P wave train considered and the Vp. On the contrary we show that P wave particle motion can be fully (and easily) described by a Homogeneous Isotropic Linear Viscoelastic model (HILV). HILV, as in the 2009 Borcherdt formulation adopted here, allows two different directions of propagation and attenuation; in other words attenuation becomes a vector that is not necessarily parallel to the propagation vector. The results evidence that the incidence angle and the inhomogeneity angle (it is the angle between propagation and attenuation vectors and it is closely related to Q factor) are in good agreement with the geological conditions of the site. Finally, we observed that these results are very similar to the ones obtained when we analyzed two explosions recorded by a seismic station in Milano, also situated in the Po valley at some 140 km from Mantova (Marcellini & Tento, 2011). Borcherdt, R.D. (2009) 'Viscoelastic Waves in Layered Media', Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 305 pp. Marcellini, A. and A. Tento (2011) ' Explosive Sources Prove the Validity of Homogeneous Isotropic Linear Viscoelastic Models', BSSA, Vol. 101, No. 4, pp. 1576-1583.

  17. Attenuation of second sound in superfluid 3He-A1

    PubMed

    Sato; Coleman; de Vegvar PG; Kojima; Okuda

    2000-02-14

    The attenuation of second sound (spin-entropy) wave in the superfluid A1 phase has been measured in magnetic fields up to 11 T and to sufficiently high frequency to observe the bulk attenuation proportional to the square of frequency. The measured attenuation coefficient is compared with the existing theories of hydrodynamics and dissipative coefficients. The resulting "excess" attenuation is discussed in terms of the temperature dependent spin diffusion coefficient in the superfluid.

  18. Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

    2013-09-01

    This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

  19. Apparent Attenuation and Dispersion Arising in Seismic Body-Wave Velocity Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirgin, Armand

    2016-07-01

    The fact that seismologists often make measurements, using natural seismic solicitations, of properties of the Earth on rather large scales (laterally and in terms of depth) has led to interrogations as to whether attenuation of body waves is dispersive and even significant. The present study, whose aim is to clarify these complicated issues, via a controlled thought measurement, concerns the retrieval of a single, real body wave velocity of a simple geophysical configuration (involving two homogeneous, isotropic, non-dissipative media, one occupying the layer, the other the substratum), from its simulated response to pulsed plane wave probe radiation. This inverse problem is solved, at all frequencies within the bandwidth of the pulse. Due to discordance between the models associated with the assumed and trial responses, the imaginary part of the retrieved velocity turns out to be non-nil even when both the layer and substratum are non-lossy, and, in fact, to be all the greater, the larger is the discordance. The reason for this cannot be due to intrinsic attenuation, scattering, or geometrical spreading since these phenomena are absent in the chosen thought experiment, but rather to uncertainty in the measurement model.

  20. Plate-type elastic metamaterials for low-frequency broadband elastic wave attenuation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinggang; Zhu, Ling; Chen, Tianning

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate the low-frequency broadband elastic wave attenuation and vibration suppression by using plate-type elastic metamaterial, which is constituted of periodic double-sides stepped resonators deposited on a two-dimensional phononic plate with steel matrix. The dispersion relations, the power transmission spectra, and the displacement fields of the eigenmodes are calculated by using the finite element method. In contrast to the typical phononic plates consisting of periodic stepped resonators deposited on a homogeneous steel plate, the proposed elastic metamaterial can yield large band gap in the low-frequency range, resulting in the low-frequency broadband elastic wave attenuation. The formation mechanisms of the band gap as well as the effects of material and geometrical parameters on the band gap are further explored numerically. Numerical results show that, the formation mechanism of opening the low-frequency band gap is attributed to the coupling between the local resonant Lamb modes of two-dimensional phononic plate and the resonant modes of the stepped resonators. The band gap can be significantly modulated by the material and geometrical parameters. The properties of broadband gaps of the proposed subwavelength scale elastic metamaterials can potentially be applied to vibration and noise reduction in the audio regime as well as broadband elastic wave confinement and modulation in ultrasonic region.

  1. Traveling waves in trimer granular lattice II: Asymptotic prediction of weakly attenuated pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiffer, A.; Jayaprakash, K. R.; Starosvetsky, Y.

    2017-02-01

    In the present study we consider the impulsive response of perfectly aligned, uncompressed, tri-atomic (trimer) granular lattice. In this study, we demonstrate that under particular choice of the system parameters - impulsively loaded, trimer granular lattice can support formation of highly localized, weakly attenuated pulses. These pulses are manifested by the completely non-symmetric wave profiles and can be attributed to the special family of solitary like waves forming in the non-homogenous, periodic trimer granular lattice in the state of acoustic vacuum. Using the recently developed analytical procedure based on the singular, multi-scale perturbation analysis, we derive a simplified reduced order model predicting the special regions in the space of the system parameters corresponding to the formation of the weakly attenuated pulses. Predictions of the asymptotical model are found to be in very good agreement with the results of numerical simulations of the full trimer granular lattice. From a practical point of view, these results can have important implications in complex, structural optimization problems of wave manipulation in the repetitive granular metamaterials.

  2. Teleseismic Body Wave Attenuation in the Upper Mantle beneath the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafferky, S.; Schmandt, B.

    2014-12-01

    EarthScope seismic data provide opportunities to examine mantle properties on a continental scale as the Transportable Array (TA) nears the end of its traverse across the contiguous United States. We use P- and S-wave amplitude spectra from all >M5.7 deep earthquakes recorded by the TA to examine seismic attenuation patterns in the upper mantle. More than 2 million inter-station P-wave spectral ratios were inverted for maps of relative tP* variations across the U.S. in multiple frequency bands between 0.08 - 2 Hz. We plan to have corresponding S-wave results by meeting time. Maps of tP* are strongly correlated (>0.8) for frequency bands of 0.08 - 2 Hz, 0.25 - 2 Hz, 0.08 - 1 Hz, and 0.25 - 1 Hz. The broader the frequency band examined (e.g. 0.08 - 2 Hz), the lower the magnitude in variations of tP*; however, those broader frequency bands still exhibited geographic patterns similar to the narrow frequency bands. We compare our maps' tP* with seismic velocity models and constraints on crustal scattering to assess the physical origin of apparent attenuation. In the tectonically active and high heat flow domain of the western U.S., tP* variations are moderately correlated with thermal variations predicted by tomography studies of seismic velocity. However, contrast in tP* between western Cordillera and the cratonic interior is weaker than predicted by tomography. Additionally some areas of high attenuation are correlated with Precambrian tectonic boundaries within the Laurentian craton. The weak contrast between the western and eastern U.S. and correlations with Precambrian tectonics suggest that elastic scattering due to small-scale (~10 - 100 km) heterogeneity or compositional variations in the lithosphere are major contributors to tP* estimates from deep earthquake spectral ratios. Moderate correlation of tP* with estimates of mantle temperature within the western U.S. suggests deep earthquake spectral ratios do carry some evidence of intrinsic attenuation, but

  3. Numerical upscaling in 2-D heterogeneous poroelastic rocks: Anisotropic attenuation and dispersion of seismic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, J. Germán.; Caspari, Eva; Müller, Tobias M.; Milani, Marco; Barbosa, Nicolás. D.; Holliger, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    The presence of stiffness contrasts at scales larger than the typical pore sizes but smaller than the predominant seismic wavelengths can produce seismic attenuation and velocity dispersion in fluid-saturated porous rocks. This energy dissipation mechanism is caused by wave-induced fluid pressure diffusion among the different components of the probed geological formations. In many cases, heterogeneities have elongated shapes and preferential orientations, which implies that the overall response of the medium is anisotropic. In this work, we propose a numerical upscaling procedure that permits to quantify seismic attenuation and phase velocity considering fluid pressure diffusion effects as well as generic anisotropy at the sample's scale. The methodology is based on a set of three relaxation tests performed on a 2-D synthetic rock sample representative of the medium of interest. It provides a complex-valued frequency-dependent equivalent stiffness matrix through a least squares procedure. We also derive an approach for computing various poroelastic fields associated with the considered sample in response to the propagation of a seismic wave with arbitrary incidence angle. Using this approach, we provide an energy-based estimation of seismic attenuation. A comprehensive numerical analysis indicates that the methodology is suitable for handling complex media and different levels of overall anisotropy. Comparisons with the energy-based estimations demonstrate that the dynamic-equivalent viscoelastic medium assumption made by the numerical upscaling procedure is reasonable even in the presence of high levels of overall anisotropy. This work also highlights the usefulness of poroelastic fields for the physical interpretation of seismic wave phenomena in strongly heterogeneous and complex media.

  4. Shear wave velocity and attenuation in the upper layer of ocean bottoms from long-range acoustic field measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ji-Xun; Zhang, Xue-Zhen

    2012-12-01

    Several physics-based seabed geoacoustic models (including the Biot theory) predict that compressional wave attenuation α(2) in sandy marine sediments approximately follows quadratic frequency dependence at low frequencies, i.e., α(2)≈kf(n) (dB/m), n=2. A recent paper on broadband geoacoustic inversions from low frequency (LF) field measurements, made at 20 locations around the world, has indicated that the frequency exponent of the effective sound attenuation n≈1.80 in a frequency band of 50-1000 Hz [Zhou et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 2847-2866 (2009)]. Carey and Pierce hypothesize that the discrepancy is due to the inversion models' neglect of shear wave effects [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, EL271-EL277 (2008)]. The broadband geoacoustic inversions assume that the seabottom is an equivalent fluid and sound waves interact with the bottom at small grazing angles. The shear wave velocity and attenuation in the upper layer of ocean bottoms are estimated from the LF field-inverted effective bottom attenuations using a near-grazing bottom reflection expression for the equivalent fluid model, derived by Zhang and Tindle [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 3391-3396 (1995)]. The resultant shear wave velocity and attenuation are consistent with the SAX99 measurement at 25 Hz and 1000 Hz. The results are helpful for the analysis of shear wave effects on long-range sound propagation in shallow water.

  5. Velocity and attenuation of ultrasound waves under cyclic loading of low-carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunev, Alexey; Nadezhkin, Mikhail; Zuev, Lev

    2016-11-01

    The results of the research of ultrasound wave velocity and attenuation in low-carbon steel during low-cycle fatigue tests have been presented in this work. It has been found that the dependencies of acoustic parameters on the number of cycles have three stages. The first stage is connected with dislocation density growth in a specimen. The transition from the second stage to the third one can be used as a criterion of fatigue wear of metalworks and implemented for nondestructive ultrasound lifetime estimation.

  6. Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of bladder biopsies using optical coherence tomography for grading urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauberg, Evelyne C. C.; de Bruin, Daniël M.; Faber, Dirk J.; de Reijke, Theo M.; Visser, Mike; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2010-11-01

    Real-time grading of bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC) is clinically important, but the current standard for grading (histopathology) cannot provide this information. Based on optical coherence tomography (OCT)-measured optical attenuation (μt), the grade of bladder UC could potentially be assessed in real time. We evaluate ex vivo whether μt differs between different grades of UC and benign bladder tissue. Human bladder tissue specimens are examined ex vivo by 850-nm OCT using dynamic focusing. Three observers independently determine the μt from the OCT images, and three pathologists independently review the corresponding histology slides. For both methods, a consensus diagnosis is made. We include 76 OCT scans from 54 bladder samples obtained in 20 procedures on 18 patients. The median (interquartile range) μt of benign tissue is 5.75 mm-1 (4.77 to 6.14) versus 5.52 mm-1 (3.47 to 5.90), 4.85 mm-1 (4.25 to 6.50), and 5.62 mm-1 (5.01 to 6.29) for grade 1, 2, and 3 UC, respectively (p = 0.732). Interobserver agreement of histopathology is ``substantial'' [Kappa 0.62, 95% confidence interval (IC) 0.54 to 0.70] compared to ``almost perfect'' [interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.87, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.92] for OCT. Quantitative OCT analysis (by μt) does not detect morphological UC changes. This may be due to factors typical for an ex-vivo experimental setting.

  7. Phase velocities and attenuations of shear, Lamb, and Rayleigh waves in plate-like tissues submerged in a fluid (L).

    PubMed

    Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Bernal, Miguel; Greenleaf, James F

    2011-12-01

    In the past several decades, the fields of ultrasound and magnetic resonance elastography have shown promising results in noninvasive estimates of mechanical properties of soft tissues. These techniques often rely on measuring shear wave velocity due to an external or internal source of force and relating the velocity to viscoelasticity of the tissue. The mathematical relationship between the measured velocity and material properties of the myocardial wall, arteries, and other organs with non-negligible boundary conditions is often complicated and computationally expensive. A simple relationship between the Lamb-Rayleigh dispersion and the shear wave dispersion is derived for both the velocity and attenuation. The relationship shows that the shear wave velocity is around 20% higher than the Lamb-Rayleigh velocity and that the shear wave attenuation is about 20% lower than the Lamb-Rayleigh attenuation. Results of numerical simulations in the frequency range 0-500 Hz are presented.

  8. Electrocardiogram voltage attenuation and shortening of the duration of P-waves, QRS complexes, and QT intervals.

    PubMed

    Madias, John E

    2013-01-01

    Multiple pathologies in concert may lead to attenuation of the electrocardiogram (ECG) voltage. A case of a patient illustrating the above is presented, who showed marked attenuation of the ECG voltage. Automated values of the amplitude of the ECG QRS complexes, P-waves, and T-waves (in mm), duration of the QRS complexes, P-waves, and QT intervals (in ms), in 2 ECGs were compared. The patient was a 64-year-old woman who developed in the setting of a fatal illness, pleural and pericardial effusions, pneumomediastinum, pneumoperitoneum, subcutaneous emphysema in the neck and chest, peripheral edema with weight gain of 43.4 lbs, marked hypoalbuminemia, abnormal liver tests, and renal failure. All the above pathologies led to a marked attenuation of the ECG voltage, and shortening of the mean P-wave, QRS complexes, and QTc interval durations. The postulated mechanism of the observed ECG phenomena is discussed.

  9. Anomalous attenuation of the positive temperature coefficient of resistivity in a carbon-black-filled polymer composite with electrically conductive in situ microfibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiang-Bin; Li, Zhong-Ming; Dai, Kun; Yang, Ming-Bo

    2006-07-01

    The positive temperature coefficient of resistivity (PTCR) of in situ microfibrillar carbon black/poly (ethylene terephthalate)/polyethylene composite attenuates dramatically after a sufficient time of isothermal treatment without oxygen above the melting region of polyethylene. The inhomogeneous surface microstructure and the large size of the microfibrils are the key factors controlling PTCR attenuation, through which a model is proposed to explain this anomalous phenomenon. An effective approach is accordingly developed to prepare recyclable semicrystalline thermoplastic based electrically conductive polymer composite with steady conductivity in wide temperature range.

  10. Influence of spin wave attenuation on a ferromagnetic nanowire-based magnonic Bragg mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, L. C.

    2017-03-01

    A theoretical study of classical spin waves propagating in axially magnetized, lossy ferromagnetic nanowires is considered, resulting in a model for a magnonic Bragg mirror based on an axially periodic arrangement of identical nanowire segments. While the system shows evidence of one-dimensional magnonic band gaps, with widths increasing as the inter-nanowire exchange coupling strength decreases, spin wave attenuation effects can be quite dramatic for magnetic damping constants within the range 0.001-0.1. In fact, calculated reflectance spectra for nanowire structures with a damping constant on the order of 0.01 exhibit relatively intense Bragg peaks only when the nanowire segment length is no more than an order of magnitude larger than the exchange length.

  11. Measurement of acoustic absorption coefficient with phase-conjugate ultrasonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smagin, N. V.; Krutyansky, L. M.; Brysev, A. P.; Bunkin, F. V.

    2011-07-01

    Experimental results on measurements of the acoustic absorption coefficient in test objects that were obtained with two methods, i.e., a standard insert-substitution method and a modification thereof using phase-conjugate waves, are given. Samples of gelatin and biological tissue in vitro (porcine muscle fibers) were used as test objects. Gelatin objects were manufactured that were both homogeneous and with inhomogeneities in the form of a rough surface or inclusions (air bubbles) distributed over the volume. A rough surface leads mainly to phase distortions of a probe beam, while bubble inclusions cause additional field scattering. For all homogeneous samples, both compared methods produce identical results. In the case of inhomogeneous samples including biological tissues, absorption measurement by a standard method may lead to significant errors. It is demonstrated that the use of properties of phase-conjugate waves provides an opportunity to eliminate almost completely the measurement error connected with phase distortions and reduce the error in the case of a medium with scatterers.

  12. Differential shear wave attenuation and its lateral variation in the North Atlantic region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehan, Anne F.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    A digital data base of over 150 seismograms and a spectral radio technique are used to measure SS-S differential attenuation in the North Atlantic region. Differential attenuation is positively correlated with SS-S travel time residual, and both differential attentuation and travel time residual decrease with increasing seafloor age. Models are developed for seismic Q in which lateral variations include contributions from the asthenospheric low-Q zone as well as from lithospheric cooling. The Q models obtained under this assumption are in good agreement with those obtained from surface wave studies and are therefore preferred over those models with lateral variations confined to the upper 125 km. Systematic long-wavelength (1000-7000 km) variations in differential attenuation, corrected for seafloor age, are evident along the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These variations can be qualitatively correlated with long-wavelength variations in SS-S differential travel time residuals and are attributed to along-axis differences in upper mantle temperature.

  13. Estimation of Coda Wave Attenuation for the National Capital Region, Delhi, India Using Local Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, William K.; Prakash, Rajesh; Suresh, G.; Shukla, A. K.; Yanger Walling, M.; Srivastava, J. P.

    2009-03-01

    Attenuation of seismic waves is very essential for the study of earthquake source parameters and also for ground-motion simulations, and this is important for the seismic hazard estimation of a region. The digital data acquired by 16 short-period seismic stations of the Delhi Telemetric Network for 55 earthquakes of magnitude 1.5 to 4.2, which occurred within an epicentral distance of 100 km in an area around Delhi, have been used to estimate the coda attenuation Q c . Using the Single Backscattering Model, the seismograms have been analyzed at 10 central frequencies. The frequency dependence average attenuation relationship Q c = 142 f 1.04 has been attained. Four Lapse-Time windows from 20 to 50 seconds duration with a difference of 10 seconds have been analyzed to study the lapse time dependence of Q c . The Q c values show that frequency dependence (exponent n) remains similar at all the lapse time window lengths. While the change in Q 0 values is significant, change in Q 0 with larger lapsetime reflects the rate of homogeneity at the depth. The variation of Q c indicates a definitive trend from west to east in accordance with the geology of the region.

  14. Investigation of the Maule, Chile rupture zone using seismic attenuation tomography and shear wave splitting methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torpey, Megan Elizabeth

    The Maule, Chile 2010 Mw 8.8 earthquake afforded the opportunity to study the rupture zone (33°S-38°S) in detail using aftershocks recorded by the rapid-response IRIS CHAMP seismic network. We used measurements of differential S to P seismic attenuation to characterize the attenuation structure of the South American crust and upper mantle wedge. We implemented an evolving time window to determine Qs-1 values using a spectral ratio method and incorporated these measurements into a bounded linear inequality least squares inversion to solve for Qs -1 in a 3D volume. On a large-scale, we observe an east-dipping low attenuation feature, consistent with the location of the Nazca oceanic slab, and image progressively greater attenuation as we move towards the surface of our model. A dramatic feature in our model is a large, low-attenuation body in the same location where Hicks et al. (2014) resolved a high P wave velocity anomaly in their velocity tomography model. We calculated the shear wave splitting intensity of the Maule rupture zone by implementing the multichannel method of Chevrot (2000) which calculates the splitting intensity of teleseismic SK(K)S phases and splitting parameters, ϕ and deltat. The results we obtained show an overall fast direction with a strong component of trench parallel splitting and very few trench normal splits. The fast directions do not parallel the Nazca APM, but are instead dominated by splits rotated 40°-50° counter-clockwise from Nazca APM. Based on these data, we see little evidence for sub-slab entrained mantle flow and invoke the trench-parallel retrograde flow model as an explanation for our measurements. We developed an extended splitting intensity method to allow for use of the upgoing S phase from Maule aftershocks, utilizing the initial event polarization. For this local dataset, we observe three dominant fast directions oriented N20°W, N40°E, and N10°W-20°E and a subset of fast directions trending N60°-90°E which

  15. Finite Difference Numerical Modeling of Gravito-Acoustic Wave Propagation in a Windy and Attenuating Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissaud, Q.; Garcia, R.; Martin, R.; Komatitsch, D.

    2015-12-01

    The acoustic and gravity waves propagating in the planetary atmospheres have been studied intensively as markers of specific phenomena (tectonic events, explosions) or as contributors to the atmosphere dynamics. To get a better understanding of the physic behind these dynamic processes, both acoustic and gravity waves propagation should be modeled in an attenuating and windy 3D atmosphere from the ground to the upper thermosphere. Thus, In order to provide an efficient numerical tool at the regional or the global scale a high order finite difference time domain (FDTD) approach is proposed that relies on the linearized compressible Navier-Stokes equations (Landau 1959) with non constant physical parameters (density, viscosities and speed of sound) and background velocities (wind). One significant benefit from this code is its versatility. Indeed, it handles both acoustic and gravity waves in the same simulation that enables one to observe correlations between the two. Simulations will also be performed on 2D/3D realistic cases such as tsunamis in a full MSISE-00 atmosphere and gravity-wave generation through atmospheric explosions. Computations are validated by comparison to well-known analytical solutions based on dispersion relations in specific benchmark cases (atmospheric explosion and bottom displacement forcing).

  16. Stable harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier with distributed wall losses and attenuating severs

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Y. S.; Cheng, J. H.; Chen, L. K.; Hung, C. W.; Lo, C. Y.; Liao, C. W.

    2008-02-15

    Harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifiers (gyro-TWTs) provide magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. However, spurious oscillations may reduce the amplification of the gyro-TWT. Most distributed-loss structures are stabilized in gyro-TWTs that operate at low beam currents. Attenuating severs are added to the interaction circuit of a distributed-loss gyro-TWT to prevent high beam currents that result in mode competition. This study proposes a Ka-band harmonic multiplying gyro-TWT, using distributed wall losses and attenuating severs, to improve the stability of the amplification and the performance of the amplifier. Simulation results reveal that the absolute instabilities are effectively suppressed by wall losses of the lossy and severed sections, especially in the low-k{sub z} and high-order modes. Meanwhile, the severed section, dividing an interaction circuit into several short sections, reduces the effective interaction lengths of the absolute instabilities. The stable harmonic multiplying gyro-TWT is predicted to yield a peak output power of 230 kW at 33.65 GHz with an efficiency of 30%, a saturated gain of 40 dB, and a 3 dB bandwidth of 0.8 GHz for a 60 kV, 13 A electron beam with an axial velocity spread of {delta}v{sub z}/v{sub z}=8%. The power/gain scaling and phase relation between the drive and the output waves are elucidated.

  17. Quantifying Regional Body Wave Attenuation in a Seismic Prone Zone of Northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Nilutpal; Biswas, Rajib

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated the body wave attenuation parameter in Kopili region of northeast India. Using the modified algorithm of coda normalization method, we delineated frequency-dependent attenuation for both P and S waves. Taking more than 300 seismograms as input, we comprehensively studied microearthquake spectra in the frequency range of 1.5-12 Hz. The estimated values of {Q}_{P}^{-1} and {Q}_{S}^{-1} show strong frequency dependence. Based on this, we formulated empirical relationships corresponding to {Q}_{P}^{-1} and {Q}_{S}^{-1} for the study region. The relationships emerge to be {Q}_{P}^{-1} = ( {23.8 ± 6} ) × 10^{-3} {f}^{{( {-1.2 ± 0.008} )}} and {Q}_{S}^{-1} = ( {10.2 ± 2} ) × 10^{-3} {f}^{{( {-1.3 ± 0.02} )}} , respectively. The ratio {Q}_{P}^{-1} /{Q}_{S}^{-1} is found to be larger than unity for the entire frequency band which implies profound seismic activity and macroscale heterogeneity prevailing in the region. The study may act as the building block towards determination of source parameter and hazard-related studies in the region.

  18. Seismic tomography of compressional wave attenuation structure for Kı¯lauea Volcano, Hawai`i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guoqing; Shearer, Peter M.; Amelung, Falk; Okubo, Paul G.

    2015-04-01

    We present a frequency-independent three-dimensional (3-D) compressional wave attenuation model (indicated by the reciprocal of quality factor Qp) for Kı¯lauea Volcano in Hawai`i. We apply the simul2000 tomographic algorithm to the attenuation operator t* values for the inversion of Qp perturbations through a recent 3-D seismic velocity model and earthquake location catalog. The t* values are measured from amplitude spectra of 26708 P wave arrivals of 1036 events recorded by 61 seismic stations at the Hawaiian Volcanology Observatory. The 3-D Qp model has a uniform horizontal grid spacing of 3 km, and the vertical node intervals range between 2 and 10 km down to 35 km depth. In general, the resolved Qp values increase with depth, and there is a correlation between seismic activity and low-Qp values. The area beneath the summit caldera is dominated by low-Qp anomalies throughout the entire resolved depth range. The Southwest Rift Zone and the East Rift Zone exhibit very high Qp values at about 9 km depth, whereas the shallow depths are characterized with low-Qp anomalies comparable with those in the summit area. The seismic zones and fault systems generally display relatively high Qp values relative to the summit. The newly developed Qp model provides an important complement to the existing velocity models for exploring the magmatic system and evaluating and interpreting intrinsic physical properties of the rocks in the study area.

  19. Structure-preserving spectral element method in attenuating seismic wave modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wenjun; Zhang, Huai

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the extension of the conformal symplectic method to solve the damped acoustic wave equation and the elastic wave equations in the framework of the spectral element method. The conformal symplectic method is a variation of conventional symplectic methods to treat non-conservative time evolution problems which has superior behaviors in long-time stability and dissipation preservation. To construct the conformal symplectic method, we first reformulate the damped acoustic wave equation and the elastic wave equations in their equivalent conformal multi-symplectic structures, which naturally reveal the intrinsic properties of the original systems, especially, the dissipation laws. We thereafter separate each structures into a conservative Hamiltonian system and a purely dissipative ordinary differential equation system. Based on the splitting methodology, we solve the two subsystems respectively. The dissipative one is cheaply solved by its analytic solution. While for the conservative system, we combine a fourth-order symplectic Nyström method in time and the spectral element method in space to cover the circumstances in realistic geological structures involving complex free-surface topography. The Strang composition method is adopted thereby to concatenate the corresponding two parts of solutions and generate the completed numerical scheme, which is conformal symplectic and can therefore guarantee the numerical stability and dissipation preservation after a large time modeling. Additionally, a relative larger Courant number than that of the traditional Newmark scheme is found in the numerical experiments in conjunction with a spatial sampling of approximately 5 points per wavelength. A benchmark test for the damped acoustic wave equation validates the effectiveness of our proposed method in precisely capturing dissipation rate. The classical Lamb problem is used to demonstrate the ability of modeling Rayleigh-wave propagation. More comprehensive

  20. Mass attenuation coefficient of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using 16.59 - 25.26 keV photon energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fahmi; Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz

    2015-04-01

    The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated using ≤ 104 µm particle size at three different fabrication methods; binderless, steam pre-treated and tannin-added. The mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboards were measured using x-ray fluorescent (XRF) photon from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin metal plates that provided photon energy between 16.59 to 25.26 keV. The results were compared to theoretical values for water calculated using photon cross-section database (XCOM).The results showed that all Rhizophora spp. particleboards having mass attenuation coefficient close to calculated XCOM for water. Tannin-added Rizophora spp. particleboard was nearest to calculated XCOM for water with χ2 value of 13.008 followed by binderless Rizophora spp. (25.859) and pre-treated Rizophora spp. (91.941).

  1. Variability of crustal attenuation in the northeastern United States from Lg waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jinghua; Kim, Won-Young; Richards, Paul G.

    1996-11-01

    High-quality, digital seismograms from eight pairs of collocated earthquakes in the northeastern United States were analyzed to determine accurate source spectrum corner frequencies. This was accomplished by applying the empirical Green's function method to regional Pg and Lg (or Sg) phases recorded by vertical component seismographs of the U.S. National Seismographic Network (USNSN) and the Lamont-Doherty Cooperative Seismographic Network (LCSN) stations. The frequency band used was 0.5-16 Hz for USNSN and 1-30 Hz for LCSN records. The source spectrum corner frequencies for the eight larger earthquakes of the event pairs (magnitudes between mb(Lg) = 2.5 - 4.1) range from about 4.3 to 16.3 Hz. Based on the comer frequencies obtained independently from the empirical Green's function analysis, Sg or Lg wave displacement amplitude spectra up to 30 Hz were used to determine the crustal average Q factors along 87 event-station paths. These paths crossed diverse tectonic features in the northeastern United States and were in the epicentral distance range of 41 to 1394 km. We found that within the northeastern United States, the crustal average QLg we obtained was frequency dependent and showed spatial variability which correlated fairly well with the major tectonic features in the region. Our attenuation measurements indicated low Lg attenuation in the Adirondack Mountains with exposed Precambrian Grenville basement with QLg = 905 f0.40, high Lg attenuation in the central Appalachian Province with QLg = 561-586 f0.46-0.47, and an intermediate Lg attenuation in northern New England Appalachians with Q = 705 f0.41.

  2. Measurement of weld penetration depths in thin structures using transmission coefficients of laser-generated Lamb waves and neural network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Ume, I Charles

    2017-02-28

    The Laser/EMAT ultrasonic (LEU) technique has shown the capability to measure weld penetration depths in thick structures based on ray-tracing of laser-generated bulk and surface waves. The ray-tracing method is not applicable to laser-generated Lamb waves when the LEU technique is used to measure weld penetration depths in thin structures. In this work, transmission coefficients of Lamb waves present in the LEU signals are investigated against varying weld penetration depths. An artificial neural network is developed to use transmission coefficients of sensitive Lamb waves and LEU signal energy to predict weld penetration depths accurately. The developed method is very attractive because it allows a quick inspection of weld penetration depths in thin structures.

  3. Ultrasonic attenuation in pearlitic steel.

    PubMed

    Du, Hualong; Turner, Joseph A

    2014-03-01

    Expressions for the attenuation coefficients of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves are developed for steel with pearlitic microstructure. This type of lamellar duplex microstructure influences attenuation because of the lamellar spacing. In addition, longitudinal attenuation measurements were conducted using an unfocused transducer with 10 MHz central frequency on the cross section of a quenched railroad wheel sample. The dependence of longitudinal attenuation on the pearlite microstructure is observed from the changes of longitudinal attenuation from the quenched tread surface to deeper locations. The results show that the attenuation value is lowest and relatively constant within the quench depth, then increases linearly. The experimental results demonstrate a reasonable agreement with results from the theoretical model. Ultrasonic attenuation provides an important non-destructive method to evaluate duplex microstructure within grains which can be implemented for quality control in conjunction with other manufacturing processes.

  4. High-resolution 3-D P wave attenuation structure of the New Madrid Seismic Zone using local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisrat, Shishay T.; DeShon, Heather R.; Pesicek, Jeremy; Thurber, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D), high-resolution P wave seismic attenuation model for the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) is determined using P wave path attenuation (t*) values of small-magnitude earthquakes (MD < 3.9). Events were recorded at 89 broadband and short-period seismometers of the Cooperative New Madrid Seismic Zone Network and 40 short-period seismometers of the Portable Array for Numerical Data Acquisition experiment. The amplitude spectra of all the earthquakes are simultaneously inverted for source, path (t*), and site parameters. The t* values are inverted for QP using local earthquake tomography methods and a known 3-D P wave velocity model for the region. The four major seismicity arms of the NMSZ exhibit reduced QP (higher attenuation) than the surrounding crust. The highest attenuation anomalies coincide with areas of previously reported high swarm activity attributed to fluid-rich fractures along the southeast extension of the Reelfoot fault. The QP results are consistent with previous attenuation studies in the region, which showed that active fault zones and fractured crust in the NMSZ are highly attenuating.

  5. Seismic wave attenuation and dispersion due to wave-induced fluid flow in rocks with strong permeability fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Germán Rubino, J; Monachesi, Leonardo B; Müller, Tobias M; Guarracino, Luis; Holliger, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    Oscillatory fluid movements in heterogeneous porous rocks induced by seismic waves cause dissipation of wave field energy. The resulting seismic signature depends not only on the rock compressibility distribution, but also on a statistically averaged permeability. This so-called equivalent seismic permeability does not, however, coincide with the respective equivalent flow permeability. While this issue has been analyzed for one-dimensional (1D) media, the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cases remain unexplored. In this work, this topic is analyzed for 2D random medium realizations having strong permeability fluctuations. With this objective, oscillatory compressibility simulations based on the quasi-static poroelasticity equations are performed. Numerical analysis shows that strong permeability fluctuations diminish the magnitude of attenuation and velocity dispersion due to fluid flow, while the frequency range where these effects are significant gets broader. By comparing the acoustic responses obtained using different permeability averages, it is also shown that at very low frequencies the equivalent seismic permeability is similar to the equivalent flow permeability, while for very high frequencies this parameter approaches the arithmetic average of the permeability field. These seemingly generic findings have potentially important implications with regard to the estimation of equivalent flow permeability from seismic data.

  6. Attenuation, source parameters and site effects of SH waves in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shun-Chiang; Wen, Kuo-Liang

    2016-04-01

    Generalized inversion technique (GIT) (Castro et al., 1990) was used to derive SH-wave in the frequency range 0.2-25 Hz (interval 0.1 Hz). The inversion results can find attenuation characteristics, earthquake source parameters and site amplification functions. The characteristics of the site amplification are referred to horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) Fourier spectral ratios of microtremor for a referent rock site. The SH-wave from 28 earthquakes with magnitude ranging from ML 5 to 7, of 1319 earthquake records at 146 TSMIP strong motion stations in Jianan Plain, southwestern Taiwan are used in this analysis. The SH-wave quality factor Q(f) is estimated as 52.83f0.77 for 0.2<= f < =25 Hz. The stress drops can be found from source spectra by using the omega-square model. The results of site amplification are similar to horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio of the microtremor which have clearly and similar predominant peaks.

  7. A method based on reflection theory to test the attenuation performance of an absorption coat to 8mm waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuanyu

    2016-09-01

    A testing method has been set up to evaluate the attenuation performance of an absorption coat to 8mm waves, which is based on a set of detecting system included by an 8mm wave emitter, a millimeter power meter, a point to point collimator and a reflecting plate. The power meter was aimed at the 8 mm wave emitter along the reflection optical path instead of the direction observation between incident and reflected millimeter wave. Some Al, Fe and aluminum alloy sample plates were made and painted by the dope which was complexed with chopped carbon fibers. A naked metal plate was first used to adjust the transmission path of the millimeter wave. Then the power meter was adjusted to phase locking after preheating, and the millimeter wave power was sampled as the background value. Then the other painted plates were tested under the same conditions. When the concentration of chopped carbon fibers is 0.5mg/ml and the thickness of the absorption coat is 0.5mm, the attenuation percentages of Al, Fe and aluminum alloy painted plates respectively is 54.29%, 58.31% and 41.12%. By the result, the reflection testing method may be widely used to measure the reflection capacity or attenuation performance of various surfaces to millimeter waves.

  8. Frequency dependent attenuation characteristics of coda waves in the Northwestern Himalayan (India) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sushil; Singh, Priyamvada; Singh, Pitam; Biswal, Shubhasmita; Parija, Mahesh Prasad

    2016-03-01

    Digital seismogram data of 82 earthquakes from the Northwestern Himalayan (India) region recorded at different stations during 2004-2006 were analyzed to study the seismic coda wave attenuation characteristics in this region. We used 132 seismic observations from local earthquakes with a hypocentral distance <240 km and a magnitude range of 1.2-4.9 to study the coda QC using the single isotropic scattering model. These earthquakes were recorded at 20 temporary seismic stations installed in the Northwestern Himalayas (India) by the Wadia institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun. The QC values were estimated at 10 central frequencies: 1.5, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 Hz using starting lapse-times of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 s and coda window-lengths of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 s. The QC fits the frequency dependent power-law, QC =Q0fn . For a 10 s lapse time with a 10-s coda window length QC = 47.42f1.012 and for a 50 s lapse time with a 50 s coda window length, QC = 204.1f0.934 . Q0 (QC at 1 Hz) varied from ∼47 for a 10 s lapse time and a 10 s window length, to ∼204 for a 50 s lapse time and a 50 s window length. An average frequency dependent power law fit for the study region may be given as QC = 116.716f0.9943 . The exponent of the frequency dependence law n ranged from 1.08 to 0.9, which correlates well with values obtained in other seismically and tectonically active and heterogeneous regions of the world. In our study region, QC increases both with respect to lapse time and frequency, i.e., the attenuation decreases as the quality factor is inversely proportional to attenuation. The low QC values or high attenuation at lower frequencies and high QC values or low attenuation at higher frequencies suggest that the heterogeneity decreases with increasing depth in our study region.

  9. Seismic modelling study of P-wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in patchy-saturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaobo; Dong, Liangguo; Zhao, Qun

    2014-12-01

    Seismic wave propagation in patchy-saturated porous media is studied by numerical simulation in time domain at the seismic frequency band (1-1000 Hz). The models consist of hundreds of representative elementary volumes (REVs), where the REV is partially saturated with water and gas pockets. Seismic modelling experiments are implemented in a traditional way, with ‘periodic’ boundary conditions applied to get rid of undrained boundary conditions at the outer edges of the REVs. The characteristics of confining pressure, induced pore pressure, solid particle velocities and Darcy filtration velocities are analysed. The snapshots show that strong pore pressure gradients are generated across the interface between gas and water phases, and significant fluid flow occurs. The conversion of a fast P-wave into a dissipating slow P-wave takes place at seismic frequencies, and the converted slow P-wave diffuses strongly in both gas- and water-saturated phases. These numerical results can help us to understand the loss mechanism at seismic frequencies. Then, P-wave attenuation and velocity dispersion of a heterogeneous REV are calculated during traditional seismic modelling at seismic frequencies. The numerical results show good agreement with theoretical predictions obtained from patchy saturation theory. Furthermore, the effects of different fluid distributions on P-wave attenuation and velocity dispersion are analysed numerically. A series of experiments are implemented by considering large, small and random gas-patchy inclusions. The decrease of gas pocket size makes the peak frequency move towards high frequencies. Random distribution of gas patches may affect both the peak attenuation and peak frequencies. Seismic attenuation caused by Biot global flow, elastic scattering and wave-induced fluid flow (WIFF) associated with patchy saturation are computed numerically. The results show that the contribution of Biot’s global flow and scattering to the overall attenuation

  10. High S-wave attenuation anomalies and ringlike seismogenic structures in the lithosphere beneath Altai: Possible precursors of large earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopnichev, Yu. F.; Sokolova, I. N.

    2016-12-01

    This paper addresses inhomogeneities in the short-period S-wave attenuation field in the lithosphere beneath Altai. A technique based on the analysis of the amplitude ratios of Sn and Pn waves is used. High S-wave attenuation areas are identified in the West Altai, which are related to the source zones of recent large earthquakes, viz., the 1990 Zaisan earthquake and the 2003 Chuya earthquake. Associated with the Chuya earthquake, a large ringlike seismogenic structure had been formed since 1976. It is also found that ringlike seismogenic structures are confined to high S-wave attenuation areas unrelated to large historical earthquakes. It is supposed that processes paving the way for strong earthquakes are taking place in these areas. The magnitudes of probable earthquakes are estimated using the earlier derived correlation dependences of the sizes of ringlike seismogenic structures and the threshold values of magnitudes on the energy of principal earthquakes with prevailing focal mechanisms taken into consideration. The sources of some earthquakes are likely to occur near to the planned gas pipeline route from Western Siberia to China, which should be taken into account. The relationship of anomalies in the S-wave attenuation field and the ringlike seismogenic structures to a high content of deep-seated fluids in the lithosphere is discussed.

  11. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients of Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboards for X-ray in the 16.63-25.30 keV energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tousi, E. T.; Bauk, S.; Hashim, R.; Jaafar, M. S.; Abuarra, A.; Aldroobi, K. S. A.; Al-Jarrah, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The roots of Eremurus spp. were used as a bio-adhesive in the fabrication of Rhizophora spp. particleboards. The mass attenuation coefficients of Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboard of six samples with two different weight percentages of the Eremurus spp. root (6% and 12%) and three various Rhizophora spp. particle sizes (≤149 μm, 149-500 μm and 500-1000 μm) were determined by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) photons in 16.63 keV and 25.30 keV of the photon energy range. The results were compared with theoretically calculated mass attenuations using the XCOM computer program for younger-age (breast 1: 75% muscle+25% fat), middle-age (breast 2: 50% muscle+50% fat), and old-age (breast 3: 25% muscle+75% fat) breasts. The results indicated that Eremurus-Rhizophora spp. particleboard is the appropriate suitable phantom in the diagnostic energy region. The mass attenuation coefficient in the low weight percentage of the bio-adhesive and the large Rhizophora spp. particle size were found very close to breast 1. Moreover the mass attenuation coefficient of the sample with high weight percentage of the bio-adhesive and small Rhizophora spp. particle size was found very close to water as a standard material phantom. In addition, the viscosity of dissolved Eremurus spp. root in water could be considerably higher than that of formaldehyde-based adhesives, which affects on some properties such as high strength and high binding.

  12. The generalized scattering coefficient method for plane wave scattering in layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Li, Chao; Wang, Huai-Yu; Zhou, Yun-Song

    2017-02-01

    The generalized scattering coefficient (GSC) method is pedagogically derived and employed to study the scattering of plane waves in homogeneous and inhomogeneous layered structures. The numerical stabilities and accuracies of this method and other commonly used numerical methods are discussed and compared. For homogeneous layered structures, concise scattering formulas with clear physical interpretations and strong numerical stability are obtained by introducing the GSCs. For inhomogeneous layered structures, three numerical methods are employed: the staircase approximation method, the power series expansion method, and the differential equation based on the GSCs. We investigate the accuracies and convergence behaviors of these methods by comparing their predictions to the exact results. The conclusions are as follows. The staircase approximation method has a slow convergence in spite of its simple and intuitive implementation, and a fine stratification within the inhomogeneous layer is required for obtaining accurate results. The expansion method results are sensitive to the expansion order, and the treatment becomes very complicated for relatively complex configurations, which restricts its applicability. By contrast, the GSC-based differential equation possesses a simple implementation while providing fast and accurate results.

  13. Differential shear-wave attenuation (deltat) across the East Pacific Rise

    SciTech Connect

    Schlue, J.W.

    1981-08-01

    SS phases from earthquakes on fracture zones near the Easter Island Cordillera and the West Chile Rise which are recorded in the United States have reflection points on either side of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) near the equator. The east-west records from seven WWSSN stations of seven events in this region were used to obtain spectral amplitudes of horizontally polarized S and SS waves. SS-to-S amplitude ratios were formed, and differential attenuation (deltat) computed within the frequency band 0.01 to 0.11 Hz. The values of deltat vary between -0.1 sec and +35.8 sec for the 23 station-event paris used. However, the change in deltat with distance from the axis of the EPR does not reflect the smooth variation expected using a model of a simple cooling slab.

  14. Differential shear-wave attenuation (δt*) across the East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlue, J. W.

    SS phases from earthquakes on fracture zones near the Easter Island Cordillera and the West Chile Rise which are recorded in the United States have reflection points on either side of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) near the equator. The east-west records from seven WWSSN stations of seven events in this region were used to obtain spectral amplitudes of horizontally polarized S and SS waves. SS-to-S amplitude ratios were formed, and differential attenuation (δt*) computed within the frequency band 0.01 to 0.11 Hz. The values of δt* vary between -0.1 sec and +35.8 sec for the 23 station-event pairs used. However, the change in δt* with distance from the axis of the EPR does not reflect the smooth variation expected using a model of a simple cooling slab.

  15. Stability of coda wave attenuation during the Loma Prieta, California, earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beroza, Gregory C.; Cole, Alex T.; Ellsworth, William L.

    1995-03-01

    The Loma Prieta, California, earthquake occurred in a densely instrumented region with a history of microearthquake recording beginning more than a decade before the October 1989 mainshock. This affords an unprecedented opportunity to detect changes in seismic wave propagation in the Earth's crust associated with a major earthquake. In this study we use pairs of nearly identical earthquakes (doublets) to search for temporal changes of coda attenuation in the vicinity of the Loma Prieta earthquake. We analyze 21 earthquake doublets recorded from 1978 to 1991 that span the preseismic, coseismic, and postseismic intervals and measure the change in coda Q using a running window ratio of the doublet spectral amplitudes in three frequency bands from 2 to 15 Hz. This method provides an estimate of changes in coda Q that is insensitive to other factors that influence coda amplitudes.

  16. Spatiotemporal Rogue Waves for the Variable-Coefficient (3+1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue-Yue; Dai, Chao-Qing

    2012-08-01

    With the help of the similarity transformation connected the variable-coefficient (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we firstly obtain first-order and second-order rogue wave solutions. Then, we investigate the controllable behaviors of these rogue waves in the hyperbolic dispersion decreasing profile. Our results indicate that the integral relation between the accumulated time T and the real time t is the basis to realize the control and manipulation of propagation behaviors of rogue waves, such as sustainment and restraint. We can modulate the value To to achieve the sustained and restrained spatiotemporal rogue waves. Moreover, the controllability for position of sustainment and restraint for spatiotemporal rogue waves can also be realized by setting different values of X0.

  17. Experimental Measurements Of Seismic Wave Speeds And Attenuation In CO2 Saturated Porous Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njiekak, G.; Yam, H.; Kofman, R. S.; Chowdhury, M.; Schmitt, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Due to the sensitivity of seismic waves to pore fluid contents, time lapse seismology is regarded as a promising monitoring method for geological CO2 sequestration projects and is employed in all industrial scale projects (Sleipner, Weyburn, In Salah). Therefore, understanding the effect of CO2 as a pore fluid on the overall rock seismic response is critical, and it is particularly interesting as CO2 can be in gas, liquid, or supercritical phases even at the relatively modest pore pressures and temperatures in the uppermost kilometer of the earth's crust. To address this issue, ultrasonic P- and S-wave pulse transmission experiments were carried out on fully CO2 saturated samples of a synthetic porous ceramic, Berea and Fontainebleau sandstones, and carbonates under a variety of temperatures and pressures representative of conditions expected in volcanic edifices and geological sequestration projects. The synthetic sample was chosen because of its lack of microcracks, which can complicate the acoustic behavior of real rocks. Although this sample is extremely porous (58%) and is not reflective of real reservoir rocks, its large porosity allows the overall rock behavior to be more susceptible to the changes in the physical properties of the pore fluid; this could provide an extreme end member understanding on the rock physics involved with CO2 as the pore fluid. Laboratory results show waveform variations (velocity, amplitude, attenuation) in response to CO2's varying phase state. For the ceramic rod, CO2 phase changes (gas to liquid and gas to supercritical fluid) are marked by a drop in velocities of 4-5% likely due to the increased density of the liquid or the supercritical fluid relative to the gas. Wave attenuation increases with pore pressure and with frequency. The measured elastic wave velocities showed good agreement with Biot's model in this highly porous sample. The real sandstones, in contrast, display more complicated behaviour at the point of the phase

  18. The Attenuation of a Detonation Wave by an Aircraft Engine Axial Turbine Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale; Envia, Edmane; Turner, Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    A Constant Volume Combustion Cycle Engine concept consisting of a Pulse Detonation Combustor (PDC) followed by a conventional axial turbine was simulated numerically to determine the attenuation and reflection of a notional PDC pulse by the turbine. The multi-stage, time-accurate, turbomachinery solver TURBO was used to perform the calculation. The solution domain consisted of one notional detonation tube coupled to 5 vane passages and 8 rotor passages representing 1/8th of the annulus. The detonation tube was implemented as an initial value problem with the thermodynamic state of the tube contents, when the detonation wave is about to exit, provided by a 1D code. Pressure time history data from the numerical simulation was compared to experimental data from a similar configuration to verify that the simulation is giving reasonable results. Analysis of the pressure data showed a spectrally averaged attenuation of about 15 dB across the turbine stage. An evaluation of turbine performance is also presented.

  19. The Influence of Water on Seismic Wave Attenuation in the Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, E. C.; Jackson, I.; Faul, U.; Berry, A.

    2014-12-01

    Trace amounts of water, present as protons structurally bound in olivine crystal defects, are inferred to significantly enhance the low-strain solid-state viscoelastic relaxation responsible for attenuation and dispersion of seismic waves in the upper mantle. This inferrence is supported by recent observation of water weakening at moderate compressive strains in synthetic, water-undersaturated aggregates (Faul et al., in preparation). In these fine-grained olivine polycrystals of Fo90 composition, doped with 0.02wt% TiO2, "water" is incorporated in the remarkably stable Ti-clinohumite defect. Such synthetic olivine specimens reproduce the infrared spectra of natural mantle olivines (Berry et al., 2005), and present the advantage of being melt-free and of low dislocation density. The water contents in such synthetic polycrystalline olivine aggregates, which can be quantitatively measured by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), range up to 90 ppm, and are thus representative of water-undersaturated conditions in the upper mantle. We will report here the outcome of torsional-oscillation tests,in which attenuation and shear modulus were measured at seismic frequencies (mHz-Hz) and various temperatures up to 1300C on Pt-encapsulated, Ti-doped olivine specimens, enclosed within a mild-steel jacket.

  20. Attenuation of stress waves in single and multi-layered structures. [mitigation of elastic and plastic stress waves during spacecraft landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J. C. S.; Tsui, C. Y.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were made of the attenuation of the stress waves during passage through single and multilayer structures. The investigation included studies on elastic and plastic stress wave propagation in the composites and those on shock mitigating material characteristics such as dynamic stress-strain relations and energy absorbing properties. The results of the studies are applied to methods for reducing the stresses imposed on a spacecraft during planetary or ocean landings.

  1. Numerical and Experimental Investigation on the Attenuation of Electromagnetic Waves in Unmagnetized Plasmas Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Min; Xu, Haojun; Wei, Xiaolong; Liang, Hua; Song, Huimin; Sun, Quan; Zhang, Yanhua

    2015-10-01

    The attenuation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in unmagnetized plasma generated by an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) actuator has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A numerical study is conducted to investigate the propagation of EM waves in multilayer plasma structures which cover a square flat plate. Experimentally, an ICP actuator with dimensions of 20 cm×20 cm×4 cm is designed to produce a steady plasma slab. The attenuation of EM waves in the plasma generated by the ICP actuator is measured by a reflectivity arch test method at incident waves of 2.3 GHz and 10.1 GHz, respectively. A contrastive analysis of calculated and measured results of these incident wave frequencies is presented, which suggests that the experiment accords well with our theory. As expected, the plasma slab generated by the ICP actuator can effectively attenuate the EM waves, which may have great potential application prospects in aircraft stealth. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51276197, 11472306 and 11402301)

  2. A Simultaneous Multi-phase Approach to Determine P-wave and S-wave Attenuation of the Crust and Upper Mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E; Walter, W R; Matzel, E M

    2009-02-26

    We have generalized the methodology of our regional amplitude tomography from the Lg phase to the four primary regional phases (Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg). Differences in the geometrical spreading, source term, site term, and travel paths are accounted for, while event source parameters such as seismic moment are consistent among phases. In the process, we have developed the first regional attenuation model that uses the amplitudes of four regional phases to determine a comprehensive P-wave and S-wave attenuation model of the crust and upper mantle. When applied to an area encompassing the Middle East, eastern Europe, western Asia, south Asia, and northeast Africa for the 1-2 Hz passband, we find large differences in the attenuation of the lithosphere across the region. The tectonic Tethys collision zone has high attenuation, while stable outlying regions have low attenuation. While crust and mantle Q variations are often consistent, we do find several notable areas where they differ considerably, but are appropriate given the region's tectonic history. Lastly, the relative values of Qp and Qs indicate that scattering Q is likely the dominant source of attenuation in the crust at these frequencies.

  3. Comparison of hyperspectral measurements of the attenuation and scattering coefficients spectra with modeling results in the north-eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipelgas, Liis; Raudsepp, Urmas

    2015-11-01

    The spectral variations in the attenuation and scattering coefficients measured with a hyperspectral ac-spectra (Wetlabs) instrument were analyzed from a dataset collected in the vicinity of commercial harbors on the Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea. In total, the measured TSM concentration varied from 0.4 to 30 mg L-1 and the concentration of Chl a varied from values below the detection limit (0.05) to 23 mg m-3. The reliability of the power law describing the particle attenuation cp (λ) and scattering bp(λ) coefficients was evaluated by means of a determination coefficient (R2). The power law described the particle attenuation spectra with high accuracy (R2 > 0.67), giving the dataset an average cp (λ) slope of 1.3. In the case of particle scattering coefficients, the power law did not represent the whole dataset. Depending on a particular spectrum, the R2 varied from 0 to 1.0 and the slope varied from 1.15 to -0.56. Decomposition of bp(λ) into dominant modes using principal component analyses resulted in the first principal mode accounting for the power law dependence of bp(λ), i.e. the "mineral-type" spectrum, and the second and third mode representing the characteristic bp(λ) of dominant algal particles, i.e. the "algae-type" spectrum. From our dataset we estimated that if Chl a concentration is above 10 mg m-3 or below 5 mg m-3 then most likely the "algae-type" or the "mineral-type" spectrum is dominant, respectively. There was strong linear relationship (R2 > 0.92) between TSM concentration and cp(555) and bp(555),irrespective of the dominant shape of the particle scattering spectra. The estimated TSM-specific attenuation and scattering coefficients at 555 nm were 0.8 m2 g-1 and 0.68 m2 g-1, respectively. Corresponding values for water samples with a dominant "mineral-type" spectrum were 0.85 m2 g-1 and 0.73 m2 g-1, respectively and for water samples with a dominant "algae-type" spectrum were 0.64 m2 g-1 and 0.52 m2 g-1, respectively.

  4. Determining the mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number, and electron density of raw wood and binderless particleboards of Rhizophora spp. by using Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marashdeh, Mohammad W.; Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F.; Abdel Munem, Eid M.; Tajuddin, A. A.; Ariffin, Alawiah; Al-Omari, Saleh

    Rhizophora spp. wood has the potential to serve as a solid water or tissue equivalent phantom for photon and electron beam dosimetry. In this study, the effective atomic number (Zeff) and effective electron density (Neff) of raw wood and binderless Rhizophora spp. particleboards in four different particle sizes were determined in the 10-60 keV energy region. The mass attenuation coefficients used in the calculations were obtained using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) simulation code. The MCNP5 calculations of the attenuation parameters for the Rhizophora spp. samples were plotted graphically against photon energy and discussed in terms of their relative differences compared with those of water and breast tissue. Moreover, the validity of the MCNP5 code was examined by comparing the calculated attenuation parameters with the theoretical values obtained by the XCOM program based on the mixture rule. The results indicated that the MCNP5 process can be followed to determine the attenuation of gamma rays with several photon energies in other materials.

  5. Diffraction, attenuation, and source corrections for nonlinear Rayleigh wave ultrasonic measurements.

    PubMed

    Torello, David; Thiele, Sebastian; Matlack, Kathryn H; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin; Jacobs, Laurence J

    2015-02-01

    This research considers the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and the nonlinearity of generating sources on measurements of nonlinear ultrasonic Rayleigh wave propagation. A new theoretical framework for correcting measurements made with air-coupled and contact piezoelectric receivers for the aforementioned effects is provided based on analytical models and experimental considerations. A method for extracting the nonlinearity parameter β11 is proposed based on a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting algorithm that is tailored for Rayleigh wave measurements. Quantitative experiments are conducted to confirm the predictions for the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric source and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the curve-fitting procedure. These experiments are conducted on aluminum 2024 and 7075 specimens and a β11(7075)/β11(2024) measure of 1.363 agrees well with previous literature and earlier work. The proposed work is also applied to a set of 2205 duplex stainless steel specimens that underwent various degrees of heat-treatment over 24h, and the results improve upon conclusions drawn from previous analysis.

  6. Attenuation of standing waves in a large water tank using arrays of large tethered encapsulated bubbles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kevin M; Wilson, Preston S; Wochner, Mark S

    2014-04-01

    The use of bubble resonance effects to attenuate low-frequency underwater sound was investigated experimentally in a large water tank. A compact electromechanical sound source was used to excite standing wave fields at frequencies ranging between 50 and 200 Hz in the tank. The source was then surrounded by a stationary array of tethered encapsulated air bubbles, and reduction in standing wave amplitude by as much as 26 dB was observed. The bubbles consisted of either thin-shelled latex balloons with approximately 5 cm radii or thicker-shelled vinyl boat fenders with 6.9 cm radii. The effects of changing the material and thickness of the bubble shells were found to be in qualitative agreement with predictions from Church's model for sound propagation in a liquid containing encapsulated bubbles [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 1510-1521 (1995)]. Although demonstrated here for low frequency noise abatement within a tank, which is useful for quieting acoustic test facilities and large tanks used for marine life husbandry, the eventual aim of this work is to use stationary arrays of large tethered encapsulated bubbles to abate low frequency underwater noise from anthropogenic sources in the marine environment.

  7. Some Remarks on the Microscopic Physics of Seismic Wave Attenuation and Tidal Dissipation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karato, S.

    2009-12-01

    There are a number of questions on the Q of planetary bodies. They include: (1) Seismic Q of Earth’s interior varies from one region to another. What is the cause for lateral and depth variation of seismic Q? Is it due to the variation in temperature, grain-size, partial melting and/or water content? (2) What is the relationship between seismic Q and long-term rheology? (3) The Moon’s seismic Q is large (>1000) at least for waves passing the shallow part. However, the tidal Q reflecting energy dissipation in the deep part of the Moon is small (~50). If the Moon is a “dry” body, why is tidal Q of the Moon so small? (4) Exo-solar planets are usually found close to their parent stars. But these planets likely have undergone orbital evolution that is controlled by tidal energy dissipation. What controls the magnitude of tidal dissipation in these planets? I will provide a brief review to address some of these questions with a focus on the microscopic physics of anelastic energy dissipation. The most important message from recent lab studies is that solid materials show large energy dissipation (Q of ~100 or less) at modestly high temperatures (T/Tm>0.5, Tm: melting temperature). This implies that the majority of seismic wave attenuation is likely attributed to solid-state processes and energy loss in many of the exo-solar planets might be due to small rocky cores. Some details of solid-state mechanisms of energy dissipation in solids will be reviewed including the influence of frequency, temperature, grain-size, strain amplitude and some impurities such as hydrogen. A common observation among many solids so far studied at high T/Tm is power-law frequency dependence of Q with a modest frequency exponent (~0.3+/-0.1) with a gradual change to the Maxwell body (viscous) behavior at lower frequencies. The transition frequency to the Maxwell body behavior is also dependent on strain amplitude, causing larger energy dissipation at higher strain amplitudes. These

  8. Global ULF wave analysis of radial diffusion coefficients using a global MHD model for the 17 March 2015 storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhao; Hudson, Mary; Paral, Jan; Wiltberger, Michael; Turner, Drew

    2016-07-01

    The 17-18 March 2015 storm is the largest geomagnetic storm in the Van Allen Probes era to date. The Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry global MHD model has been run for this event using ARTEMIS data as solar wind input. The ULF wave power spectral density of the azimuthal electric field and compressional magnetic field is analyzed in the 0.5-8.3 mHz range. The lowest three azimuthal modes account for 70% of the total power during quiet times. However, during high activity, they are not exclusively dominant. The calculation of the radial diffusion coefficient is presented. We conclude that the electric field radial diffusion coefficient is dominant over the magnetic field coefficient by one to two orders of magnitude. This result contrasts with the dominant magnetic field diffusion coefficient used in most 3-D diffusion models.

  9. 2-D Coda and Direct Wave Attenuation Tomography in Northern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Morasca, P; Mayeda, K; Gok, R; Phillips, W S; Malagnini, L

    2007-10-17

    A 1-D coda method was proposed by Mayeda et al. (2003) in order to obtain stable seismic source moment-rate spectra using narrowband coda envelope measurements. That study took advantage of the averaging nature of coda waves to derive stable amplitude measurements taking into account all propagation, site, and Sto-coda transfer function effects. Recently this methodology was applied to micro earthquake data sets from three sub-regions of northern Italy (i.e., western Alps, northern Apennines and eastern Alps). Since the study regions were small, ranging between local-to-near-regional distances, the simple 1-D path assumptions used in the coda method worked very well. The lateral complexity of this region would suggest, however, that a 2-D path correction might provide even better results if the datasets were combined, especially when paths traverse larger distances and complicated regions. The structural heterogeneity of northern Italy makes the region ideal to test the extent to which coda variance can be reduced further by using a 2-D Q tomography technique. The approach we use has been developed by Phillips et al. (2005) and is an extension of previous amplitude ratio techniques to remove source effects from the inversion. The method requires some assumptions such as isotropic source radiation which is generally true for coda waves. Our results are compared against direct Swave inversions for 1/Q and results from both share very similar attenuation features that coincide with known geologic structures. We compare our results with those derived from direct waves as well as some recent results from northern California obtained by Mayeda et al. (2005) which tested the same tomographic methodology applied in this study to invert for 1/Q. We find that 2-D coda path corrections for this region significantly improve upon the 1-D corrections, in contrast to California where only a marginal improvement was observed. We attribute this difference to stronger lateral

  10. CodaNorm: A software package for the body-wave attenuation calculation by the coda-normalization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predein, Peter A.; Dobrynina, Anna A.; Tubanov, Tsyren A.; German, Eugeny I.

    The presented software package CodaNorm is an open source seismological software and allows the estimation of the seismic quality factor (QP, QS), its frequency dependence (n) and attenuation decrement (γ) for body P- and S-waves by the coda-normalization method for different frequency ranges selected by a user. Obtained data about the seismic wave attenuation are necessary to correct the decay shake model from the earthquakes on the traces from the seismically active zones in the main urban areas, as well as for the further calculation of synthetic accelerograms and the evaluation of the parameters of the vibration for the possible strong earthquakes and etc. The software package CodaNorm was applied for the estimation of the attenuation of the body P- and S-waves in the area of the South and Central Baikal (Baikal rift system, Southern Siberia, Russia) using 185 regional earthquakes with magnitude Ml =2-5. The calculations were carried out for eight traces crossing the rift system in different directions and for the frequency range from 0.5 to 16 Hz. In the low frequency area the coincidence of the values of the seismic quality factor for P- and S-waves (QP and QS, respectively) is observed while for the high frequencies (8-16 Hz) the ratio between quality factors is QS ≈ 1.7QP. Such difference is the evidence of different absorption of longitudinal and transverse waves by geological medium. The comparison of the attenuation parameters for different azimuthal traces showed that higher attenuation is observed for the traces crossing the rift system in normal direction to the main tectonic structures. This fact may reflects the differences between the local elastic properties of the crust of the Baikal rift system and the high heterogeneity of the medium.

  11. Analysis of the Attenuation Characteristics of an Elastic Wave Due to the Wave-Induced Fluid Flow in Fractured Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ding; Wang, Li-Ji; Zhang, Mei-Gen

    2014-04-01

    A theoretical model is presented to describe the elastic wave propagation characteristics in porous media of periodically arranged fractures. The effects of fracture geometric parameters on a compressional wave (p-wave) are considered through analysis of the wave induced fluid flow (WIFF) process between the fractures and the background media. The diffusion equation in porous media is used to reveal how the entire diffusion process affects the wave propagation. When the thickness proportion of fractures tends to 0 and 1, the WIFF does not take place almost between fractures and background matrix porosity, and therefore the media elasticity modulus is perfectly elastic. When the fracture thickness fraction achieves a certain value, the peak of the attenuation curve reaches the maximum value at a particular frequency, which is controlled by the fluid mass conservation and stress continuity conditions on each fracture boundary. That is, the inter-coupling of fluid diffusion between the adjacent layers is important for waves attenuation. Physically speaking, the dissipation of a wave is associated with the fluid flux essentially.

  12. Measurement of the mass attenuation coefficient from 81 keV to 1333 keV for elemental materials Al, Cu and Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjorgieva, Slavica; Barandovski, Lambe

    2016-03-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) for 3 high purity elemental materials Al, Cu and Pb were measured in the γ-ray energy range from 81 keV up to 1333 keV using 22Na, 60Co 133Ba and 133Cs as sources of gamma radiation. Well shielded detector (NaI (Tl) semiconductor detector) was used to measure the intensity of the transmitted beam. The measurements were made under condition of good geometry, assuring that any photon absorbed or deflected appreciably does not reach the detector. The measured values are compared with the theoretical ones obtained by Seltzer (1993).

  13. Mass attenuation coefficient of the Earth, Moon and Mars samples over 1keV-100GeV energy range.

    PubMed

    Camargo Moreira, Anderson; Roberto Appoloni, Carlos

    2006-09-01

    This work presents the calculation of the mass attenuation coefficient (micro) of lunar, Martian and terrestrial samples in function of the energy. WinXCOM software was employed to determine the micro values for the samples in the range from 1 keV to 100 GeV. The obtained values were practically the same for energies larger than 100 keV, but marked differences among the samples were observed for energies below 25 keV, which is the energy range of interest for the XRF system used in space probes.

  14. Relationships between Water Attenuation Coefficients Derived from Active and Passive Remote Sensing: A Case Study from Two Coastal Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-14

    surface (p0 ) (Table 1). Far from the sea surface, the Kd distribution is mainly driven by variations on the absorption co- efficient [8]. Attenuation...directions) and variations associated with the transmitter beam width. In this case, a __... Kd, and the lidar volume backscattering can be modeled...551)) that are sensitive to variations on particle size distribution. Unlike Rl, R2 is based on a particle size distribution proxy developed with

  15. Teleseismic P wave spectra from USArray and implications for upper mantle attenuation and scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafferky, Samantha; Schmandt, Brandon

    2015-10-01

    Teleseismic P wave amplitude spectra from deep earthquakes recorded by USArray are inverted for maps of upper mantle Δt* for multiple frequency bands within 0.08-2 Hz. All frequency bands show high Δt* regions in the southwestern U.S., southern Rocky Mountains, and Appalachian margin. Low Δt* is more common across the cratonic interior. Inversions with narrower frequency bands yield similar patterns, but greater Δt* magnitudes. Even the two standard deviation Δt* magnitude for the widest band is ˜2-7 times greater than predicted by global QS tomography or an anelastic olivine thermal model, suggesting that much of the Δt* signal is nonthermal in origin. Nonthermal contributions are further indicated by only a moderate correlation between Δt* and P travel times. Some geographic variations, such as high Δt* in parts of the cratonic interior with high mantle velocities and low heat flow, demonstrate that the influence of temperature is regionally overwhelmed. Transverse spectra are used to investigate the importance of scattering because they would receive no P energy in the absence of 3-D heterogeneity or anisotropy. Transverse to vertical (T/Z) spectral ratios for stations with high Δt* are higher and exhibit steeper increases with frequency compared to T/Z spectra for low Δt* stations. The large magnitude of Δt* estimates and the T/Z spectra are consistent with major contributions to Δt* from scattering. A weak positive correlation between intrinsic attenuation and apparent attenuation due to scattering may contribute to Δt* magnitude and the moderate correlation of Δt* with travel times.

  16. Numerical and experimental study on the wave attenuation in bone--FDTD simulation of ultrasound propagation in cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Nagatani, Yoshiki; Mizuno, Katsunori; Saeki, Takashi; Matsukawa, Mami; Sakaguchi, Takefumi; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2008-11-01

    In cancellous bone, longitudinal waves often separate into fast and slow waves depending on the alignment of bone trabeculae in the propagation path. This interesting phenomenon becomes an effective tool for the diagnosis of osteoporosis because wave propagation behavior depends on the bone structure. Since the fast wave mainly propagates in trabeculae, this wave is considered to reflect the structure of trabeculae. For a new diagnosis method using the information of this fast wave, therefore, it is necessary to understand the generation mechanism and propagation behavior precisely. In this study, the generation process of fast wave was examined by numerical simulations using elastic finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and experimental measurements. As simulation models, three-dimensional X-ray computer tomography (CT) data of actual bone samples were used. Simulation and experimental results showed that the attenuation of fast wave was always higher in the early state of propagation, and they gradually decreased as the wave propagated in bone. This phenomenon is supposed to come from the complicated propagating paths of fast waves in cancellous bone.

  17. The Velocity and Attenuation of Acoustic Emission Waves in SiC/SiC Composites Loaded in Tension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of acoustic waves produced by microfracture events and from pencil lead breaks was studied for two different silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites. The two composite systems both consisted of Hi-Nicalon (trademark) fibers and carbon interfaces but had different matrix compositions that led to considerable differences in damage accumulation and acoustic response. This behavior was primarily due to an order of magnitude difference in the interfacial shear stress for the two composite systems. Load/unload/reload tensile tests were performed and measurements were made over the entire stress range in order to determine the stress-dependence of acoustic activity for increasing damage states. It was found that using the extensional wave velocities from acoustic emission (AE) events produced from pencil lead breaks performed outside of the transducers enabled accurate measurements of the stiffness of the composite. The extensional wave velocities changed as a function of the damage state and the stress where the measurement was taken. Attenuation for AE waveforms from the pencil lead breaks occurred only for the composite possessing the lower interfacial shear stress and only at significantly high stresses. At zero stress after unloading from a peak stress, no attenuation occurred for this composite because of crack closure. For the high interfacial stress composite no attenuation was discernable at peak or zero stress over the entire stress-range of the composite. From these observations, it is believed that attenuation of AE waveforms is dependent on the magnitude of matrix crack opening.

  18. Vibration and wave propagation attenuation for metamaterials by periodic piezoelectric arrays with high-order resonant circuit shunts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wanlu; Wu, You; Zuo, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Beam or plate metamaterials with periodic piezoelectric arrays have attracted more and more attention in recent years for wave propagation attenuation and the corresponding vibration reduction. Conventional designs use resistive shunt (R-shunt) and resistor-inductor shunt (RL-shunt). An innovative metamaterial with a high-order resonant shunt circuit is proposed and investigated for vibration and wave propagation attenuation in this paper. The proposed high-order resonant shunt circuit can introduce two local resonances in series around the tuning frequency to broaden the attenuation bandwidth, or can create two separate resonances to achieve two separate bandgaps. Finite element modeling of the beam metamaterial with wave propagation and vibration in the transverse direction is established. Simulations have been conducted to compare the vibration attenuation performances among R-shunt, RL-shunt, and the proposed high-order shunt. An impedance-based method has been presented for the parameter design of electrical components in the proposed high-order shunt for bandgaps at two desired frequencies.

  19. Seismic Wave Amplification, Attenuation, and Scattering at the UZ-16 Borehole, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, L.; Smith, K.

    2006-12-01

    The UE#25 UZ-16 borehole array at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (designated site for the nation's high-level nuclear waste repository), provides a prime opportunity to investigate near surface effects on seismic waveforms as a function of depth. The borehole 3-component geophone array consists of 96 depth levels of 4.5 Hz sensors from about 30 m to 500 m depth below the surface. Currently we are recording at 18 approximately equally spaced depth levels and the array was recently augmented with three 3-component matching surface sensors (totaling 63 16-bit 200 sps data channels). The time stamped continuous digital data stream is telemetered in real-time to the Nevada Seismological Laboratory where it is visually inspected and event data is subset and integrated with regional network data when necessary; system check calibrations have been performed on all recorded sensors. Therefore, we have high resolution time-depth local and regional earthquake waveform histories from 500 m to the surface within the Yucca Mountain block. Due to the thick cover of Miocene volcanic tuffs at Yucca Mountain, the borehole does not penetrate into the underlying Paleozoic basement but samples tuff horizons of varying thicknesses and properties. Ground motion design criteria for the repository and surface facilities are based, in part, on characterizing the near surface velocities and the amplification, intrinsic attenuation, and scattering of seismic waves from local earthquakes. We present results from several investigations of local earthquake recordings including spectral ratios and attenuation as a function of depth and characterize scattering in the tuff layers. Preliminary results indicate differences in spectral ratios depending on component, with E-W components indicating higher ratios relative to N-S and Z components as compared to the bottom most geophone, most likely due to the structural fabric of Yucca Mountain. Also, most observed amplification from spectral ratios (from about 3

  20. Regional Body-Wave Attenuation Using a Coda Source Normalization Method: Application to MEDNET Records of Earthquakes in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Scognamiglio, L

    2007-02-01

    We develop a new methodology to determine apparent attenuation for the regional seismic phases Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg using coda-derived source spectra. The local-to-regional coda methodology (Mayeda, 1993; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Mayeda et al., 2003) is a very stable way to obtain source spectra from sparse networks using as few as one station, even if direct waves are clipped. We develop a two-step process to isolate the frequency-dependent Q. First, we correct the observed direct wave amplitudes for an assumed geometrical spreading. Next, an apparent Q, combining path and site attenuation, is determined from the difference between the spreading-corrected amplitude and the independently determined source spectra derived from the coda methodology. We apply the technique to 50 earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 4.0 in central Italy as recorded by MEDNET broadband stations around the Mediterranean at local-to-regional distances. This is an ideal test region due to its high attenuation, complex propagation, and availability of many moderate sized earthquakes. We find that a power law attenuation of the form Q(f) = Q{sub 0}f{sup Y} fit all the phases quite well over the 0.5 to 8 Hz band. At most stations, the measured apparent Q values are quite repeatable from event to event. Finding the attenuation function in this manner guarantees a close match between inferred source spectra from direct waves and coda techniques. This is important if coda and direct wave amplitudes are to produce consistent seismic results.

  1. Influence of acoustoelastic coefficient on wave time of flight in stress measurement in piezoelectric self-excited system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwaśniewki, Janusz; Dominik, Ireneusz; Lalik, Krzysztof; Holewa, Karolina

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the Self-excited Acoustical System (SAS) in elastic construction stress change measurement. The system is based on the acoustical autoresonance phenomena and enables an indirect measurement of the construction effort level. The essence of the SAS system is to use a piezoelectric vibration emitter and a piezoelectric vibration receiver placed at a distance, which are coupled with a proper power amplifier, and which are operating in a closed loop with a positive feedback. This causes the excitation of the system. The change of the velocity of wave propagation, which is associated with the change of the resonance frequency in the system is caused by the stress change in the examined material. A variable, which determines the change of the acoustic wave velocity, is called an acoustoelastic coefficient β. Such a coefficient allows to determine the absolute stress value in the tested material.

  2. Solitons and integrability for a (2+1)-dimensional generalized variable-coefficient shallow water wave equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Le; Gao, Yi-Tian; Jia, Shu-Liang; Lan, Zhong-Zhou; Deng, Gao-Fu; Su, Jing-Jing

    2017-01-01

    Under investigation in this paper is a (2+1)-dimensional generalized variable-coefficient shallow water wave equation which can be reduced to several integrable equations, such as the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation and the Calogero-Bogoyavlenskii-Schiff (CBS) equation. Bilinear forms, Bäcklund transformation, Lax pair and infinite conservation laws are derived based on the binary Bell polynomials. N-soliton solutions are constructed via the Hirota method. Propagation and interaction of the solitons are illustrated graphically: (i) variable coefficients affect the shape of the N-soliton interaction in the scaled space and time coordinates; (ii) positions of the solitons depend on the sign of wave numbers after each interaction; (iii) interaction of the solitons is elastic, i.e. the amplitude, velocity and shape of each soliton remain invariant after each interaction except for a phase shift.

  3. Feasibility of using P- and S-wave Attenuation for Monitoring of Bacterial Clogging in Unconsolidated Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Accumulation of bacterial biopolymers in porous media is known to decrease permeability by several orders of magnitude, referred to as bioclogging, thereby altering the hydraulic flow systems of porous media. Successful microbial bioclogging treatments require geophysical monitoring techniques to provide appropriate spatial and temporal information on bacterial growth and activities in the subsurface; such monitoring datasets can be used to evaluate the status of plugged reservoir sections and optimize re-treatment if the plug degrades. This study investigated the variations of P- and S-wave attenuation of porous media for monitoring in-situ accumulation of bacterial biopolymers in sediments. Column experiments, where Leuconostoc mesenterorides were stimulated to produce the insoluble polysaccharide biopolymer (referred to as dextran) in a sand pack, were performed while monitoring changes in permeability as well as P- and S-wave responses. P-wave responses at ultrasonic and sub-ultrasonic frequency ranges (i.e., hundreds of kHz and tens of kHz) and S-wave responses at several kHz were acquired using ultrasonic transducers and bender elements during accumulation of the biopolymer. The permeability of the sand pack was reduced by more than one order of magnitude while the insoluble biopolymer, dextran, produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides occupied ~10% pore volume. The amplitude of the P-wave signals decreased at the both ultrasonic (hundreds of kHz) and sub-ultrasonic (tens of kHz) frequency ranges; and the spectral ratio calculations confirmed an increase in P-wave attenuation (1/QP) in the both frequency ranges. The amplitude of the S-wave signals significantly increased during the increase in S-wave velocity, possibly due to the increased shear stiffness of the medium. However, the spectral ratio calculation suggested an increase in S-wave attenuation (1/QS) in the several kHz band. The observed changes in permeability and P- and S-wave attenuation were

  4. Experimental study on the determination of the shear-wave reflection coefficient at the solid-liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Ediguer E.; Adamowski, Julio C.; Buiochi, Flávio

    2012-05-01

    This work implements the ultrasonic shear-wave reflectance method for viscosity measurements. A modeconversion device was used for the dynamic viscosity measurement of mineral oil, SAE 40 automotive oil and glycerin samples at room temperature and 1 MHz. A novel signals processing technique that calculates the reflection coefficient magnitude in a frequency band, instead of a single frequency, was employed, showing an important improvement on the measurement accuracy.

  5. Body wave attenuation characteristics in the crust of Alborz region and North Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhi, M.; Hamzehloo, H.

    2016-11-01

    Attenuation of P and S waves has been investigated in Alborz and north central part of Iran using the data recorded by two permanent and one temporary networks during October 20, 2009, to December 22, 2010. The dataset consists of 14,000 waveforms from 380 local earthquakes (2 < M L < 5.6). The extended coda normalization method (CNM) was used to estimate quality factor of P (Q P) and S waves (Q S) at seven frequency bands (0.375, 0.75, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24 Hz). The Q P and Q S values have been estimated at lapse times from 40 to 100 s. It has been observed that the estimated values of Q P and Q S are time independent; therefore, the mean values of Q P and Q S at different lapse times have been considered. The frequency dependence of quality factor was determined by using a power-law relationship. The frequency-dependent relationship for Q P was estimated in the form of (62 ± 7)f (1.03 ± 0.07) and (48 ± 5)f (0.95 ± 0.07) in Alborz region and North Central Iran, respectively. These relations for Q S for Alborz region and North Central Iran have estimated as (83 ± 8)f (0.99 ± 0.07) and (68 ± 5)f (0.96 ± 0.05), respectively. The observed low Q values could be the results of thermoelastic effects and/or existing fracture. The estimated frequency-dependent relationships are comparable with tectonically active regions.

  6. Influence of plasma parameters on the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Zhang, X. Yu, L.; Zhao, X.

    2014-12-15

    In tokamaks, fusion generated α particles may absorb lower hybrid (LH) wave energy, thus reducing the LH current drive efficiency. The absorption coefficient γ{sub α} of LH waves due to α particles changing with some typical parameters is calculated in this paper. Results show that γ{sub α} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ‖}, while decreases with the frequency of LH waves ω over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption. The absorption coefficient γ{sub α} increases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} ≤ 8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, while decreases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} becomes larger, and there is a peak value of γ{sub α} when n{sub e} ≈ 8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −1} for the ITER-like scenario. The influence of spectral broadening in parametric decay instabilities on the absorption coefficient is evaluated. The value of γ{sub α} with n{sub ‖} being 2.5 is almost two times larger than that with n{sub ‖} being 2.0 and is even lager in the case of 2.9, which will obviously increase the absorption of the LH power by alpha particles.

  7. Theoretical Analysis of Electromechanical Coupling Coefficient of Lamb Waves in ZnO/Si Multilayered Piezoelectric Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung-Yu Chen,

    2010-07-01

    Lamb wave devices have been widely used in electro-acoustic and microfluidic devices. In order to improve their performances, the phase velocity dispersion and electromechanical coupling coefficient (ECC) of the Lamb wave should be calculated exactly during designing. Accordingly, this paper aims at analyzing exactly Lamb waves in multilayered piezoelectric plates with distinct electrode arrangements. First, the formulae of effective permittivity were derived based on the transfer matrix method and further was employed to calculate the phase velocity dispersion. The ZnO/Si multilayered plate was taken as the calculation example. The ECCs under distinct electrical boundary conditions were calculated by the Green’s function method. Finally, the influences of the silicon thickness on the phase velocity dispersion and ECC are further discussed. Results show that the coupling coefficients deeply depends on the electrode arrangement, and the S0 mode with the electrode arrangements of type D is a better due to its larger velocity and higher coupling coefficient. Moreover, the ECC can be enlarged by reducing the nonpiezoelectric membrane thickness.

  8. Theoretical Analysis of Electromechanical Coupling Coefficient of Lamb Waves in ZnO/Si Multilayered Piezoelectric Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yung-Yu

    2010-07-01

    Lamb wave devices have been widely used in electro-acoustic and microfluidic devices. In order to improve their performances, the phase velocity dispersion and electromechanical coupling coefficient (ECC) of the Lamb wave should be calculated exactly during designing. Accordingly, this paper aims at analyzing exactly Lamb waves in multilayered piezoelectric plates with distinct electrode arrangements. First, the formulae of effective permittivity were derived based on the transfer matrix method and further was employed to calculate the phase velocity dispersion. The ZnO/Si multilayered plate was taken as the calculation example. The ECCs under distinct electrical boundary conditions were calculated by the Green's function method. Finally, the influences of the silicon thickness on the phase velocity dispersion and ECC are further discussed. Results show that the coupling coefficients deeply depends on the electrode arrangement, and the S0 mode with the electrode arrangements of type D is a better due to its larger velocity and higher coupling coefficient. Moreover, the ECC can be enlarged by reducing the nonpiezoelectric membrane thickness.

  9. A new optimization method for a class of time fractional convection-diffusion-wave equations with variable coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahaghin, M. Sh.; Hassani, H.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we consider a class of time fractional convection-diffusion-wave equations (TFCDWE) with variable coefficients involving fractional derivatives in the Caputo sense. We also propose an optimization method based on the generalized polynomials (GPs) for solving TFCDWE. Our objective in the proposed method is to expand the solution of the problem under consideration in terms of GPs with unknown free coefficients and control parameters. Furthermore, we derive some operational matrices of the ordinary and fractional derivatives for these basis functions. Finally, we obtain the free coefficients and control parameters optimally by minimizing the error of the approximate solution. Some numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. The obtained results show that the proposed method is very efficient and accurate.

  10. Determination of the acoustoelastic coefficient for surface acoustic waves using dynamic acoustoelastography: an alternative to static strain.

    PubMed

    Ellwood, R; Stratoudaki, T; Sharples, S D; Clark, M; Somekh, M G

    2014-03-01

    The third-order elastic constants of a material are believed to be sensitive to residual stress, fatigue, and creep damage. The acoustoelastic coefficient is directly related to these third-order elastic constants. Several techniques have been developed to monitor the acoustoelastic coefficient using ultrasound. In this article, two techniques to impose stress on a sample are compared, one using the classical method of applying a static strain using a bending jig and the other applying a dynamic stress due to the presence of an acoustic wave. Results on aluminum samples are compared. Both techniques are found to produce similar values for the acoustoelastic coefficient. The dynamic strain technique however has the advantages that it can be applied to large, real world components, in situ, while ensuring the measurement takes place in the nondestructive, elastic regime.

  11. Alfvén waves in the auroral region, their Poynting flux, and reflection coefficient as estimated from Swarm observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaeheung; Lühr, Hermann; Knudsen, David J.; Burchill, Jonathan K.; Kwak, Young-Sil

    2017-02-01

    The European Space Agency's Swarm constellation can measure electric field, magnetic field, and plasma density on board multiple satellites at altitudes of about 500 km. Based on the data set at high latitudes, we estimate Poynting flux and ionospheric reflection coefficients of Alfvén waves with scale sizes of about 10-100 km. The reflection coefficients are generally higher surrounding the cusp and auroral regions than in the polar cap and higher in the summer than in the winter hemisphere. In the summer (winter) hemisphere the reflection coefficients generally peak on the dayside (nightside). Distributions of the reflection coefficients are not controlled by those of in situ plasma density. Poynting flux of the Alfvén waves maximizes surrounding the cusp and near-midnight auroral region with magnitudes approaching 1 mW/m2, which are consistent with previous magnetospheric observations. The observed Poynting flux is downward on average for both hemispheres, and the magnitudes do not exhibit clear hemispheric asymmetry.

  12. P wave attenuation of the Yellowstone Caldera from three-dimensional inversion of spectral decay using explosion source seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clawson, Steven R.; Smith, Robert B.; Benz, Harley M.

    1989-06-01

    Using explosion source, seismic refraction data, recorded in the 1978 and 1980 Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic experiments, a three-dimensional inversion of differential P wave attenuation was used to assess the relative variations in Q-1 in and around the volcanically active, 45 km by 70 km, Yellowstone caldera, northwestern Wyoming. Differential attenuation was derived from spectral decay of upper crustal Pg phases, observed from six explosions and recorded at 90 temporary stations. Because of the relatively short time windows used to determine the spectral content, a maximum entropy technique was employed to estimate the spectra that yielded an optimally small variance. Differential P wave attenuation was calculated from least squares determinations of the spectral ratios corrected for source and path effects. The observed differential attenuation parameters were then inverted using a weighted least squares technique for a discretized, 70×105 km, three-dimensional surface and upper crustal Q-1 model of the Yellowstone caldera and surrounding region. Results showed that the surface layer, to depths of 2 km within the Yellowstone caldera, is characterized by relatively high attenuation with low Q values less than 30, compared to values of 38 to 50 outside the caldera. The higher attenuation in the caldera's surface layer is thought to be associated with Quaternary lake sediments, highly altered rhyolites, and the possible influence of steam in areas of hydrothermal activity. In the crystalline upper crust, at depths of 2 km to 12 km, Q values of 40 to 70 were observed in areas of thick sedimentary fill northwest of the caldera and in areas of hydrothermal activity. Within the caldera, upper crustal attenuation generally corresponded to Q of 200 in areas that are interpreted to be associated with hot but now solidified granitic material. In comparison, relatively high attenuation, Q = 40, was observed in the upper crust of the northeastern Yellowstone

  13. Complex Contact-Based Dynamics of Microsphere Monolayers Revealed by Resonant Attenuation of Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraiwa, M.; Abi Ghanem, M.; Wallen, S. P.; Khanolkar, A.; Maznev, A. A.; Boechler, N.

    2016-05-01

    Contact-based vibrations play an essential role in the dynamics of granular materials. Significant insights into vibrational granular dynamics have previously been obtained with reduced-dimensional systems containing macroscale particles. We study contact-based vibrations of a two-dimensional monolayer of micron-sized spheres on a solid substrate that forms a microscale granular crystal. Measurements of the resonant attenuation of laser-generated surface acoustic waves reveal three collective vibrational modes that involve displacements and rotations of the microspheres, as well as interparticle and particle-substrate interactions. To identify the modes, we tune the interparticle stiffness, which shifts the frequency of the horizontal-rotational resonances while leaving the vertical resonance unaffected. From the measured contact resonance frequencies we determine both particle-substrate and interparticle contact stiffnesses and find that the former is an order of magnitude larger than the latter. This study paves the way for investigating complex contact-based dynamics of microscale granular crystals and yields a new approach to studying micro- to nanoscale contact mechanics in multiparticle networks.

  14. Gulf of Mexico hurricane wave simulations using SWAN: Bulk formula based drag coefficient sensitivity for Hurricane Ike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Weisberg, R. H.; Zheng, L.

    2012-12-01

    Effects of wind input parameterizations to hurricane wave estimation are examined by using an unstructured grid, third generation wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) forced by real Hurricane Ike wind field impacting the Gulf of Mexico in 2008. Experiments illustrate the default and recommended setting of wind input parameterization tend to overestimate the maximum significant wave heights about 2m in the middle of Gulf of Mexico when comparing with mooring observed data. The overestimation can be relieved by adjusting the cap value of drag coefficient or by substituting the high-wind-speed bulk formula for default low-to-moderate one. Since the significant cushion effects of coastal areas with 20m ~ 30m water depth, the overestimated waves have limited negative effects to shallower waters along beach line. Thus previous wave model results depends on low-to-moderate wind speed bulk formulas maybe still reliable in water areas shallower than 20m, but tend to overestimation in deeper waters for high wind speed conditions like hurricanes.

  15. Attenuation of elastic waves in bentonite and monitoring of radioactive waste repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, A.; Tisato, N.; Grasselli, G.

    2016-04-01

    Deep geological repositories, isolated from the geosphere by an engineered bentonite barrier, are currently considered the safest solution for high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) disposal. As the physical conditions and properties of the bentonite barrier are anticipated to change with time, seismic tomography was suggested as a viable technique to monitor the physical state and integrity of the barrier and to timely detect any unforeseen failure. To do so, the seismic monitoring system needs to be optimized, and this can be achieved by conducting numerical simulations of wave propagation in the repository geometry. Previous studies treated bentonite as an elastic medium, whereas recent experimental investigations indicate its pronounced viscoelastic behaviour. The aims of this contribution are (i) to numerically estimate the effective attenuation of bentonite as a function of temperature T and water content Wc, so that synthetic data can accurately reproduce experimental traces and (ii) assess the feasibility and limitation of the HLRW repository monitoring by simulating the propagation of sonic waves in a realistic repository geometry. A finite difference method was utilized to simulate the wave propagation in experimental and repository setups. First, the input of the viscoelastic model was varied to achieve a match between experimental and numerical traces. The routine was repeated for several values of Wc and T, so that quality factors Qp(Wc, T) and Qs(Wc, T) were obtained. Then, the full-scale monitoring procedure was simulated for six scenarios, representing the evolution of bentonite's physical state. The estimated Qp and Qs exhibited a minimum at Wc = 20 per cent and higher sensitivity to Wc, rather than T, suggesting that pronounced inelasticity of the clay has to be taken into account in geophysical modelling and analysis. The repository-model traces confirm that active seismic monitoring is, in principle, capable of depicting physical changes in the

  16. Accurate and efficient modeling of global seismic wave propagation for an attenuative Earth model including the center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyokuni, Genti; Takenaka, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    We propose a method for modeling global seismic wave propagation through an attenuative Earth model including the center. This method enables accurate and efficient computations since it is based on the 2.5-D approach, which solves wave equations only on a 2-D cross section of the whole Earth and can correctly model 3-D geometrical spreading. We extend a numerical scheme for the elastic waves in spherical coordinates using the finite-difference method (FDM), to solve the viscoelastodynamic equation. For computation of realistic seismic wave propagation, incorporation of anelastic attenuation is crucial. Since the nature of Earth material is both elastic solid and viscous fluid, we should solve stress-strain relations of viscoelastic material, including attenuative structures. These relations represent the stress as a convolution integral in time, which has had difficulty treating viscoelasticity in time-domain computation such as the FDM. However, we now have a method using so-called memory variables, invented in the 1980s, followed by improvements in Cartesian coordinates. Arbitrary values of the quality factor (Q) can be incorporated into the wave equation via an array of Zener bodies. We also introduce the multi-domain, an FD grid of several layers with different grid spacings, into our FDM scheme. This allows wider lateral grid spacings with depth, so as not to perturb the FD stability criterion around the Earth center. In addition, we propose a technique to avoid the singularity problem of the wave equation in spherical coordinates at the Earth center. We develop a scheme to calculate wavefield variables on this point, based on linear interpolation for the velocity-stress, staggered-grid FDM. This scheme is validated through a comparison of synthetic seismograms with those obtained by the Direct Solution Method for a spherically symmetric Earth model, showing excellent accuracy for our FDM scheme. As a numerical example, we apply the method to simulate seismic

  17. Methods for improving electromechanical coupling coefficient in two dimensional electric field excited AlN Lamb wave resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chengliang; Soon, Bo Woon; Zhu, Yao; Wang, Nan; Loke, Samuel Pei Hao; Mu, Xiaojing; Tao, Jifang; Gu, Alex Yuandong

    2015-06-01

    An AlN piezoelectric Lamb-wave resonator, which is excited by two dimensional electric field, is reported in this paper. Rhombus-shape electrodes are arranged on AlN thin film in a checkered formation. When out-of-phase alternating currents are applied to adjacent checkers, two dimensional acoustic Lamb waves are excited in the piezoelectric layer along orthogonal directions, achieving high electromechanical coupling coefficient, which is comparable to film bulk acoustic resonators. The electromechanical coupling coefficient of the 285.3 MHz resonator presented in this paper is 5.33%, which is the highest among AlN based Lamb-wave resonators reported in literature. Moreover, the spurious signal within a wide frequency range is significantly suppressed to be 90% lower than that of the resonance mode. By varying the electrode dimension and inter-electrode distance, resonators having different resonant frequencies can be fabricated on a single wafer, making single-chip broadband filters, duplexers, and multiplexers possible.

  18. Element analysis and calculation of the attenuation coefficients for gold, bronze and water matrixes using MCNP, WinXCom and experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfandiari, M.; Shirmardi, S. P.; Medhat, M. E.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, element analysis and the mass attenuation coefficient for matrixes of gold, bronze and water with various impurities and the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) are evaluated and calculated by the MCNP simulation code for photons emitted from Barium-133, Americium-241 and sources with energies between 1 and 100 keV. The MCNP data are compared with the experimental data and WinXCom code simulated results by Medhat. The results showed that the obtained results of bronze and gold matrix are in good agreement with the other methods for energies above 40 and 60 keV, respectively. However for water matrixes with various impurities, there is a good agreement between the three methods MCNP, WinXCom and the experimental one in low and high energies.

  19. The vertical distribution of the beam attenuation coefficient and its correlation to the particulate organic carbon in the north South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wansong; Wang, Difeng; Gong, Fang; Bai, Yan; Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Qiankun; Chen, Peng

    2016-10-01

    The beam attenuation coefficient (c), an inherent optical property of water, can provide information about the particulate matter in the water. In this study, the vertical distribution of the particulate beam attenuation coefficient at 660 nm (cp(660)) and its correlation to the particulate organic carbon (POC) and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentrations in the north South China Sea (NSCS), was investigated based on the in situ data from two cruises covering the summer and autumn seasons during 2009-2010year. The results showed that in summer, the profiles of cp(660) at the near shore stations were generally well vertical mixed, except at the bottom layer where cp(660) sharply increased due to sediment resuspension. However, in the slope and basin, the profiles of cp(660) had the peak value in the subsurface layer, and the depth of maximum increased with the increasing of the water depth. The subsurface maximum of the cp(660) was corresponding to the subsurface maximum Chl-a in the shelf and basin in the NSCS in summer. In autumn, the depth profile of cp(660) was also well mixed in the near shore, similar as it in summer. In the basin, unlike the subsurface maximum in summer, cp(660) had the decreasing trend with the increasing of depth in most stations in autumn. The spatial distribution pattern of the surface cp(660) was similar in the two seasons, with high values in near shore and low values in the shelf and basin. This was mainly attributed to the river and terrigenous organic materials. There were good correlations between cp(660) and POC in both seasons, except some near shore stations with high sediment resuspension. That made the possibility of estimating the POC profile using the cp(660), and further calculating the vertical structure with satellite-derived surface POC.

  20. A simple optical model to estimate diffuse attenuation coefficient of photosynthetically active radiation in an extremely turbid lake from surface reflectance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunlin; Liu, Xiaohan; Yin, Yan; Wang, Mingzhu; Qin, Boqiang

    2012-08-27

    Accurate estimation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient is critical for our understanding and modelling of key physical, chemical, and biological processes in water bodies. For extremely turbid, shallow, Lake Taihu in China, we synchronously monitored the diffuse attenuation coefficient of photosynthetically active radiation (Kd(PAR)) and the remote sensing reflectance at 134 sites. Kd(PAR)) varied greatly among different sites from 1.62 to 14.68 m(-1) with a mean value of 5.62 ± 2.99 m(-1). A simple optical model from near-infrared remote sensing reflectance of MODIS channels 2 (859 nm) and 15 (748 nm) was calibrated, and validated, to estimate Kd(PAR). With the simple optical model, the root mean square error and mean relative error were 0.95 m(-1) and 17.0% respectively at 748 nm, and 0.98 m(-1) and 17.6% at 859 nm, based on an independent validation data set. Our results showed a good precision of estimation for Kd(PAR) using the new simple optical model, contrasting with the poor estimations derived from existing empirical and semi-analytical models developed in clear, open ocean waters or slightly turbid coastal waters. Although at 748 nm the model had slightly higher precision than at 859 nm, the spatial resolution at 859 nm was four times that at 748 nm. Therefore, we propose a new model based on the MODIS-derived normalized water-leaving radiances at a wavelength of 859 nm, for accurate retrieval of Kd(PAR) in extremely turbid, shallow lakes with Kd(PAR) larger than 1.5 m(-1).

  1. Absorption and Attenuation Coefficients Using the WET Labs ac-s in the Mid-Atlantic Bight: Field Measurements and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohi, Nobuaki; Makinen, Carla P.; Mitchell, Richard; Moisan, Tiffany A.

    2008-01-01

    Ocean color algorithms are based on the parameterization of apparent optical properties as a function of inherent optical properties. WET Labs underwater absorption and attenuation meters (ac-9 and ac-s) measure both the spectral beam attenuation [c (lambda)] and absorption coefficient [a (lambda)]. The ac-s reports in a continuous range of 390-750 nm with a band pass of 4 nm, totaling approximately 83 distinct wavelengths, while the ac-9 reports at 9 wavelengths. We performed the ac-s field measurements at nine stations in the Mid-Atlantic Bight from water calibrations to data analysis. Onboard the ship, the ac-s was calibrated daily using Milli Q-water. Corrections for the in situ temperature and salinity effects on optical properties of water were applied. Corrections for incomplete recovery of the scattered light in the ac-s absorption tube were performed. The fine scale of spectral and vertical distributions of c (lambda) and a (lambda) were described from the ac-s. The significant relationships between a (674) and that of spectrophotometric analysis and chlorophyll a concentration of discrete water samples were observed.

  2. Effects of CO2 on P-wave attenuation in porous media with micro-cracks: A synthetic modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekanem, A. M.; Li, X. Y.; Chapman, M.; Main, I. G.

    2016-12-01

    The presence of CO2 in hydrocarbon reservoirs can cause significant changes in seismic wave properties. In turn these properties can be used to map CO2 saturation in hydrocarbon reservoirs or aquifers - either from natural sources or by injection from the surface. We present the results of a synthetic modelling study of the effects of supercritical CO2 saturation on P-wave attenuation in a medium consisting of four horizontal layers, including a target aquifer. The target aquifer is modelled fully by an effective medium containing pores saturated with brine and/or CO2 and randomly-aligned microcracks at different densities. The other layers are modelled solely by their bulk seismic velocities and densities. We first compute synthetic seismograms for a reference case where the third layer is completely isotropic with no cracks, no pores and no fluid saturation. We then calculate synthetic seismograms for finite crack densities of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 at varying degrees of CO2 saturation in the third layer. The results of our analysis indicate that attenuation is sensitive both to CO2 saturation and the crack density. For a given crack density, attenuation increases gradually with decreasing percentage of CO2 saturation and reaches a maximum at around 10% saturation. The induced attenuation increases with crack density and with offset. These observations hold out the potential of using seismic attenuation as an additional diagnostic in the characterisation of rock formations for a variety of applications, including hydrocarbon exploration and production, subsurface storage of CO2 or geothermal energy extraction.

  3. Invariance of Hypersonic Normal Force Coefficients with Reynolds Number and Determination of Inviscid Wave Drag from Laminar Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, Richard; Penland, Jim A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations have been made and reported that the experimental normal force coefficients at a constant angle of attack were constant with a variation of more than 2 orders of magnitude of Reynolds number at a free-stream Mach number M(sub infinity) of 8.00 and more than 1 order of magnitude variation at M(sub infinity) = 6.00 on the same body-wing hypersonic cruise configuration. These data were recorded under laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layer conditions with both hot-wall and cold-wall models. This report presents experimental data on 25 configurations of 17 models of both simple and complex geometry taken at M(sub infinity) = 6.00, 6.86, and 8.00 in 4 different hypersonic facilities. Aerodynamic calculations were made by computational fluid dynamics (CID) and engineering methods to analyze these data. The conclusions were that the normal force coefficients at a given altitude are constant with Reynolds numbers at hypersonic speeds and that the axial force coefficients recorded under laminar boundary-layer conditions at several Reynolds numbers may be plotted against the laminar parameter (the reciprocal of the Reynolds number to the one-half power) and extrapolated to the ordinate axis to determine the inviscid-wave-drag coefficient at the intercept.

  4. Evaluation of Quasi-Linear Diffusion Coefficients for Whistler Mode Waves in a Plasma with Arbitrary Density Ratio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-22

    Refraction Since sin 2 Ogm < sin 2 0r, < 1, the separating curve crosses [12] The standard wave coefficients [Stix, 1962] for a cold zero at w, with...o/ slwa ,tehg-est 00 "q *Mk= *peak=*okK 6.37x10 6.37x10 7.08x 10-’ 0 Qgm Q./2 1)..0 ogm fne/2 Q.. 0 ogm 0.2. Figure 4. The function A11(w) (dashed

  5. An energy-based approach to estimate seismic attenuation due to wave-induced fluid flow in heterogeneous poroelastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solazzi, Santiago G.; Rubino, J. Germán; Müller, Tobias M.; Milani, Marco; Guarracino, Luis; Holliger, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    Wave-induced fluid flow (WIFF) due to the presence of mesoscopic heterogeneities is considered as one of the main seismic attenuation mechanisms in the shallower parts of the Earth's crust. For this reason, several models have been developed to quantify seismic attenuation in the presence of heterogeneities of varying complexity, ranging from periodically layered media to rocks containing fractures and highly irregular distributions of fluid patches. Most of these models are based on Biot's theory of poroelasticity and make use of the assumption that the upscaled counterpart of a heterogeneous poroelastic medium can be represented by a homogeneous viscoelastic solid. Under this dynamic-equivalent viscoelastic medium (DEVM) assumption, attenuation is quantified in terms of the ratio of the imaginary and real parts of a frequency-dependent, complex-valued viscoelastic modulus. Laboratory measurements on fluid-saturated rock samples also rely on this DEVM assumption when inferring attenuation from the phase shift between the applied stress and the resulting strain. However, whether it is correct to use an effective viscoelastic medium to represent the attenuation arising from WIFF at mesoscopic scales in heterogeneous poroelastic media remains largely unexplored. In this work, we present an alternative approach to estimate seismic attenuation due to WIFF. It is fully rooted in the framework of poroelasticity and is based on the quantification of the dissipated power and stored strain energy resulting from numerical oscillatory relaxation tests. We employ this methodology to compare different definitions of the inverse quality factor for a set of pertinent scenarios, including patchy saturation and fractured rocks. This numerical analysis allows us to verify the correctness of the DEVM assumption in the presence of different kinds of heterogeneities. The proposed methodology has the key advantage of providing the local contributions of energy dissipation to the overall

  6. On the characterization of vector rogue waves in two-dimensional two coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with distributed coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, Kannan; Senthilvelan, Murugaian; Kraenkel, Roberto André

    2016-10-01

    We construct vector rogue wave solutions of the two-dimensional two coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with distributed coefficients, namely diffraction, nonlinearity and gain parameters through similarity transformation technique. We transform the two-dimensional two coupled variable coefficients nonlinear Schrödinger equations into Manakov equation with a constraint that connects diffraction and gain parameters with nonlinearity parameter. We investigate the characteristics of the constructed vector rogue wave solutions with four different forms of diffraction parameters. We report some interesting patterns that occur in the rogue wave structures. Further, we construct vector dark rogue wave solutions of the two-dimensional two coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with distributed coefficients and report some novel characteristics that we observe in the vector dark rogue wave solutions.

  7. Weighted L-estimates for dissipative wave equations with variable coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorova, Grozdena; Yordanov, Borislav

    We establish weighted L-estimates for the wave equation with variable damping u-Δu+au=0 in R, where a(x)⩾a(1 with a>0 and α∈[0,1). In particular, we show that the energy of solutions decays at a polynomial rate t if a(x)˜a| for large |x|. We derive these results by strengthening significantly the multiplier method. This approach can be adapted to other hyperbolic equations with damping.

  8. The Use of Ultrasonic Seismic Wave Attenuation (Q) for Better Subsurface Imaging, Energy Exploration, and Tracking of Sequestrated Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, D.; Purcell, C. C.; Mur, A. J.; Haljasmaa, I.; Soong, Y.; Harbert, W.

    2012-12-01

    Parameters related to seismic and ultrasonic elastic waves traveling through a porous rock material with compliant pores, cracks and isometric pores are subject to variations which are dependent on the physical properties of the rock such as density, porosity, permeability, frame work moduli, fluid moduli, micro structural variation, and effective pressure. Our goal is to understand these variations through experiments completed using Berea sandstone, rhyolites, coal, and carbonate samples. Understanding these lithologies are relevant to enhanced oil recovery, enhanced geothermal, and CO2 storage activities. Working in the COREFLOW laboratory at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) we performed several experiments on these rock types with various different pore filling fluids, effective pressures, and temperatures. We measured P, S1 and S2 ultrasonic velocities using an New England Research (NER) Autolab 1500 device and calculated the lame parameters (Bulk modulus (K), Young's modulus (E), Lamè's first parameter (λ), Shear modulus (G), Poisson's ratio ( ), P-wave modulus (M)). Using an aluminum reference core and the P, S1, and S2 ultrasonic waveform data collected, we employed the spectral ratio method to estimate Q. This method uses the ratio of the amplitude-frequency spectrum (obtained via fast Fourier Transform and processed using Matlab) of the rock core compared with the amplitude-frequency spectrum of the aluminum reference core to calculate the quality factor (Q). The quality factor is a dimensionless value that represents the attenuation of a seismic wave as it travels through a rock. Seismic attenuation is dependent on wave velocity, the path length or time the wave is in the rock, and of course the physical properties of the rock through which the wave travels. Effective pressures used in our experiments varied between 0.01 MPa and 50 MPa and temperatures varied between 21 C to 80 C which

  9. The contribution of activated processes to Q. [stress corrosion cracking in seismic wave attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spetzler, H. A.; Getting, I. C.; Swanson, P. L.

    1980-01-01

    The possible role of activated processes in seismic attenuation is investigated. In this study, a solid is modeled by a parallel and series configuration of dashpots and springs. The contribution of stress and temperature activated processes to the long term dissipative behavior of this system is analyzed. Data from brittle rock deformation experiments suggest that one such process, stress corrosion cracking, may make a significant contribution to the attenuation factor, Q, especially for long period oscillations under significant tectonic stress.

  10. Designing mid-wave infrared (MWIR) thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) in chalcogenide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, Benn; Sisken, Laura; Smith, Charmayne; Richardson, Kathleen

    2016-05-01

    Seventeen infrared-transmitting GeAsSe chalcogenide glasses were fabricated to determine the role of chemistry and structure on mid-wave infrared (MWIR) optical properties. The refractive index and thermoptic coefficients of samples were measured at λ = 4.515 μm using an IR-modified Metricon prism coupler, located at University of Central Florida. Thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) values were shown to range from approximately -40 ppm/°C to +65 ppm/°C, and refractive index was shown to vary between approximately 2.5000 and 2.8000. Trends in refractive index and dn/dT were found to be related to the atomic structures present within the glassy network, as opposed to the atomic percentage of any individual constituent. A linear correlation was found between the quantity (n-3•dn/dT) and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the glass, suggesting the ability to compositionally design chalcogenide glass compositions with zero dn/dT, regardless of refractive index or dispersion performance. The tunability of these novel glasses offer increased thermal and mechanical stability as compared to the current commercial zero dn/dT options such as AMTIR-5 from Amorphous Materials Inc. For IR imaging systems designed to achieve passive athermalization, utilizing chalcogenide glasses with their tunable ranges of dn/dT (including zero) can be key to addressing system size, weight, and power (SWaP) limitations.

  11. Imaging textural variation in the acoustoelastic coefficient of aluminum using surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Ellwood, R; Stratoudaki, T; Sharples, S D; Clark, M; Somekh, M G

    2015-11-01

    Much interest has arisen in nonlinear acoustic techniques because of their reported sensitivity to variations in residual stress, fatigue life, and creep damage when compared to traditional linear ultrasonic techniques. However, there is also evidence that the nonlinear acoustic properties are also sensitive to material microstructure. As many industrially relevant materials have a polycrystalline structure, this could potentially complicate the monitoring of material processes when using nonlinear acoustics. Variations in the nonlinear acoustoelastic coefficient on the same length scale as the microstructure of a polycrystalline sample of aluminum are investigated in this paper. This is achieved by the development of a measurement protocol that allows imaging of the acoustoelastic response of a material across a samples surface at the same time as imaging the microstructure. The development, validation, and limitations of this technique are discussed. The nonlinear acoustic response is found to vary spatially by a large factor (>20) between different grains. A relationship is observed when the spatial variation of the acoustoelastic coefficient is compared to the variation in material microstructure.

  12. Study of Spectral Attenuation Laws of Seismic Waves for Michoacán state, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez Rosas, R.; Aguirre, J.; Mijares Arellano, H.

    2009-12-01

    Several attenuation relationships have been developed for Mexico, mostly after the earthquake of September 19, 1985, an event that gave great impetus to the development of engineering seismology in Mexico. Since 1985, the number of seismic stations in the country has increased significantly, especially between the Coast of Guerrero and Mexico City. This is due to the infamous large amplifications observed in the lake area of Mexico City with respect to hard ground sites. Some studies have analyzed how seismic waves are attenuated or amplified from the Pacific Coast toward the inland. The attenuation relationship used for seismic hazard assessment in Mexico is that of Ordaz (1989), which uses data from the Guerrero acceleration network. Another recent study is that of García et al. (2005), which uses more recent data from intraplate earthquakes recorded at the Guerrero acceleration network. It is important to note that, since these relations were derived for only part of the Mexican subduction zone and for certain types of seismic sources, caution should be exercised when using them for earthquake risk studies in other regions of Mexico. In the present work, we study the state of Michoacán, one of the most important seimogenic zones in Mexico. Three kinds of sources exist in the state, producing tectonic earthquakes, volcanic earthquakes, and events due to local faults in the region. For this reason, it is of vital importance to study the propagation of seismic waves within Michoacán state, and in this paper in particular we study their attenuation. We installed a temporary network consisting of 7 accelerograph stations across the state, at the following locations: Faro de Brucerías, Aguililla, Apatzingán, Taretán, Pátzcuaro, Morelia, and Maravatío. The stations form a line that is perpendicular to the coastline and has a total length of 366 km, while the distance between neighboring stations varies from 60 to 80 km. Among all the seismic events recorded at

  13. Frequency scaling of slant-path atmospheric attenuation in the absence of rain for millimeter-wave links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas-Vegas, María. José; Riera, José Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Broadband satellite communications systems, either used for broadcast or fixed satellite services, have grown continuously in recent years. This has led to the use of higher frequency bands, from the Ku (14/11 GHz) to the Ka band (30/20 GHz) in the last decade, and with the expectation of using the Q/V band (50/40 GHz) and even the W band (75-110 GHz) in the future. As frequency increases, radio wave propagation effects in the slant-path within the troposphere are becoming more and more relevant. The objective of this research is the proposal of frequency scaling approximations for the total attenuation in the absence of rain, a condition that occurs during the highest percentages of time, usually more than 95% in temperate climates. There is a strong relationship between total attenuation at different frequencies, as it arises from the same physical phenomena, namely, the presence of oxygen, water vapor, and clouds in the slant path. This strong relationship allows frequency scaling estimations to be proposed. In particular, polynomials for instantaneous frequency scaling of total attenuation under these conditions have been calculated for a set of frequencies in the range 10-100 GHz, based on atmospheric profiles of 60 sites from all over the world and physical models of attenuation. Global polynomials are provided for the 72 combinations of nine significant frequencies, which can be used to estimate attenuation at a frequency band from its known value at a different one. Refined expressions have also been calculated for different climatic zones, providing more precise estimations.

  14. Attenuation and Shock Waves in Linear Hereditary Viscoelastic Media; Strick-Mainardi, Jeffreys-Lomnitz-Strick and Andrade Creep Compliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanyga, Andrzej

    2014-09-01

    Dispersion, attenuation and wavefronts in a class of linear viscoelastic media proposed by Strick and Mainardi (Geophys J R Astr Soc 69:415-429, 1982) and a related class of models due to Lomnitz, Jeffreys and Strick are studied by a new method due to the author. Unlike the previously studied explicit models of relaxation modulus or creep compliance, these two classes support propagation of discontinuities. Due to an extension made by Strick, either of these two classes of models comprise both viscoelastic solids and fluids. We also discuss the Andrade viscoelastic media. The Andrade media do not support discontinuity waves and exhibit the pedestal effect.

  15. A method to overcome the diffraction limit in infrared microscopy using standing waves in an attenuated total reflection configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendaoui, Nordine; Mani, Aladin; Liu, Ning; Tofail, Syed M.; Silien, Christophe; Peremans, André

    2017-01-01

    A method is proposed to overcome the diffraction limit of spatial resolution in infrared microscopy. To achieve this, standing waves in an attenuated total reflection configuration were generated to spatially modulate the absorbance of adsorbate vibrational transitions. A numerical simulation was undertaken. It showed that chemical imaging with a spatial resolution of approximately 100 nm is achievable in the case of self-assembled patterns (ofoctdecyltrichlorosilane [CH3-(CH2)17-SiCl3]), when probing the methyl modes located near 3.5 micrometres.

  16. Bottom attenuation estimation using sound intensity fluctuations due to mode coupling by nonlinear internal waves in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Grigorev, Valery A; Katsnelson, Boris G; Lynch, James F

    2016-11-01

    Analyses of fluctuations of low frequency signals (300 ± 30 Hz) propagating in shallow water in the presence of nonlinear internal waves (NIWs) in the Shallow Water 2006 experiment are carried out. Signals were received by a vertical line array at a distance of ∼20 km from the source. A NIW train was moving totally inside of the acoustic track, and the angle between the wave front of the NIW and the acoustic track in the horizontal plane was ∼10°. It is shown that the spectrum of the sound intensity fluctuations contains peaks corresponding to the coupling of pairs of propagating modes. Analysis of spectra at different hydrophone depths, and also summed over depth allows the authors to estimate attenuation in the bottom sediments.

  17. Attenuation distance of low frequency waves upstream of the pre-dawn bow shock: GEOTAIL and ISEE 3 comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiyama, T.; Terasawa, T.; Kawano, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Kokubun, S.; Frank, L. A.; Ackerson, K.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1995-01-01

    We have made a statistical study of the spatial distribution of low frequency waves (approx. 0.01-0.1 Hz) in the region upstream of the pre-dawn to dawn side bow shock (-50 Re less than X less than 15 Re) using both GEOTAIL and international sun earth explorer 3 (ISEE-3) magnetometer data. We have found that the wave amplitude dependence on D and X(sub s), where D is the distance from the bow shock and X(sub s) the x-coordinate position of shock foot point of the IMF, can be described by a functional form of A exp (X(sub s)/L(sub X)-D/L(sub D), with the characteristic attenuation distances, L(sub X) = 62 +/- 12 Re and L(sub D) = 59 +/- 38 Re.

  18. Shallow S wave attenuation and actively degassing magma beneath Taal Volcano, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Lacson, Rudy; Maeda, Yuta; Figueroa, Melquiades S.; Yamashina, Tadashi

    2014-10-01

    Taal Volcano, Philippines, is one of the world's most dangerous volcanoes given its history of explosive eruptions and its close proximity to populated areas. A real-time broadband seismic network was recently deployed and has detected volcano-tectonic events beneath Taal. Our source location analysis of these volcano-tectonic events, using onset arrival times and high-frequency seismic amplitudes, points to the existence of a region of strong attenuation near the ground surface beneath the east flank of Volcano Island in Taal Lake. This region is beneath the active fumarolic area and above sources of pressure contributing inflation and deflation, and it coincides with a region of high electrical conductivity. The high-attenuation region matches that inferred from an active-seismic survey conducted at Taal in 1993. These features strongly suggest that the high-attenuation region represents an actively degassing magma body near the surface that has existed for more than 20 years.

  19. Modulation instability and two types of non-autonomous rogue waves for the variable-coefficient AB system in fluid mechanics and nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Qi, Feng-Hua; Tang, Bing; Shi, Yu-Ying

    2016-12-01

    Under investigation in this paper is a variable-coefficient AB (vcAB) system, which describes marginally unstable baroclinic wave packets in geophysical fluids and ultra-short pulses in nonlinear optics. The modulation instability analysis of solutions with variable coefficients in the presence of a small perturbation is studied. The modified Darboux transformation (mDT) of the vcAB system is constructed via a gauge transformation. The first-order non-autonomous rogue wave solutions of the vcAB system are presented based on the mDT. It is found that the wave amplitude of B exhibits two types of structures, i.e. the double-peak structure appears if the plane-wave solution parameter ω is equal to zero, while selecting ω≠0 yields a single-peak one. Effects of the variable coefficients on the rogue waves are graphically discussed in detail. The periodic rogue wave and composite rogue wave are obtained with different inhomogeneous parameters. Additionally, the nonlinear tunneling of the rogue waves through a conventional hyperbolic nonlinear well and barrier are investigated.

  20. Energy spectrum based calculation of the half and the tenth value layers for brachytherapy sources using a semiempirical parametrized mass attenuation coefficient formulism

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Ning J.

    2008-06-15

    As different types of radionuclides (e.g., {sup 131}Cs source) are introduced for clinical use in brachytherapy, the question is raised regarding whether a relatively simple method exists for the derivation of values of the half value layer (HVL) or the tenth value layer (TVL). For the radionuclide that has been clinically used for years, such as {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd, the sources have been manufactured and marketed by several vendors with different designs and structures. Because of the nature of emission of low energy photons for these radionuclides, energy spectra of the sources are very dependent on their individual designs. Though values of the HVL or the TVL in certain commonly used shielding materials are relatively small for these low energy photon emitting sources, the question remains how the variations in energy spectra affect the HVL (or TVL) values and whether these values can be calculated with a relatively simple method. A more fundamental question is whether a method can be established to derive the HVL (TVL) values for any brachytherapy sources and for different materials in a relatively straightforward fashion. This study was undertaken to answer these questions. Based on energy spectra, a well established semiempirical mass attenuation coefficient computing scheme was utilized to derive the HVL (TVL) values of different materials for different types of brachytherapy sources. The method presented in this study may be useful to estimate HVL (TVL) values of different materials for brachytherapy sources of different designs and containing different radionuclides.

  1. Energy spectrum based calculation of the half and the tenth value layers for brachytherapy sources using a semiempirical parametrized mass attenuation coefficient formulism.

    PubMed

    Yue, Ning J

    2008-06-01

    As different types of radionuclides (e.g., 131Cs source) are introduced for clinical use in brachytherapy, the question is raised regarding whether a relatively simple method exists for the derivation of values of the half value layer (HVL) or the tenth value layer (TVL). For the radionuclide that has been clinically used for years, such as 125I and 103Pd, the sources have been manufactured and marketed by several vendors with different designs and structures. Because of the nature of emission of low energy photons for these radionuclides, energy spectra of the sources are very dependent on their individual designs. Though values of the HVL or the TVL in certain commonly used shielding materials are relatively small for these low energy photon emitting sources, the question remains how the variations in energy spectra affect the HVL (or TVL) values and whether these values can be calculated with a relatively simple method. A more fundamental question is whether a method can be established to derive the HVL (TVL) values for any brachytherapy sources and for different materials in a relatively straightforward fashion. This study was undertaken to answer these questions. Based on energy spectra, a well established semiempirical mass attenuation coefficient computing scheme was utilized to derive the HVL (TVL) values of different materials for different types of brachytherapy sources. The method presented in this study may be useful to estimate HVL (TVL) values of different materials for brachytherapy sources of different designs and containing different radionuclides.

  2. Seismic-wave attenuation and yield determination at regional distances. Final report, 1 May 1987-30 April 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, B.J.; Nuttli, O.W.; Xie, J.K.; Al-Shukri, H.; Correig, A.

    1989-05-25

    Work was completed on yield determination at the Soviet test site on Novaya Zemlya. Magnitudes and yields, determined for 30 explosions using Lg amplitudes recorded in northwestern Europe, ranged between 2.5 and 4900 kt, the largest since April 1976 being about 145 kt. Studies were completed on seismic wave attenuation of surface waves at intermediate periods and of Lg waves at 1 Hz in several regions of the world. Limits were determined for the degree of frequency dependence of Q (sub beta) which can occur in the crust in stable and tectonically active regions. A stochastic convolution model was proposed for Lg coda at distances > 200 km which considers the effects of dispersion scattering and mode conversions at those distances. A back-projection tomographic method was developed to regionalize large-scale lateral variations of coda Q for Lg waves which traverse long continental paths. A seismically active region in the New Madrid seismic zone was found to be characterized by lower than normal Q values. In the western United States, Q values in the upper mantle vary laterally, becoming smaller from east to west. Crust of the Basin and Range province has a low-Q upper crust overlying a lower crust with higher Q values.

  3. Propagation of Biot slow waves in heterogeneous pipe networks: Effect of the pipe radius distribution on the effective wave velocity and attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabé, Y.

    2009-11-01

    This paper extends a previous study of the harmonic (or AC) flow of a compressible fluid through a single, elastic, thick-wall pipe. The model previously developed is used to investigate propagation of pore-scale Biot slow waves through heterogeneous one-, two- and three-dimensional networks of pipes. A novel method is applied to the results of the network simulations to numerically determine the dispersion equation of the upscaled Biot slow waves and investigate its dependence on pore-scale heterogeneity. As a function of frequency, the phase velocity of the macroscale Biot slow waves displays an S-shaped curve, increasing from zero at low frequencies (i.e., nonpropagative regime) to C? at high frequencies (i.e., propagative regime with C? lower than the sound velocity in the fluid). The transition between these two regimes is marked by the inflection point at the frequency ωB (where ωB is inversely proportional to the length scale Λ characteristic of fluid flow and permeability). The high-frequency phase velocity C? depends on the dimensionality of the network considered and decreases with increasing heterogeneity. The wave attenuation (as measured by the inverse quality factor) also presents an S-shaped curve, decreasing from 2 (i.e., critical damping) to zero, with the same inflection point at ωB. This behavior is approximately independent on the pore radius distribution, provided that ωB (or the corresponding fluid flow length scale Λ) is held constant. A mechanism based on wave scattering and interferences of forward and backward traveling (pore-scale) Biot slow waves is proposed to explain the observations.

  4. Toward a Rayleigh Wave Attenuation Model for Asia and Surrounding Regions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Yangtze Craton, and others. High attenuation is observed in tectonically active regions such as the Himalayas, the Tian Shan, Pamir and Zagros ...active regions such as the Himalayas, the Tian Shan, Pamir, and Zagros mountains. We estimated variance reductions achieved with our tomographic

  5. High performance AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with large electromechanical coupling coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenbo; He, Xingli; Ye, Zhi E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk; Wang, Xiaozhi; Mayrhofer, Patrick M.; Gillinger, Manuel; Bittner, Achim; Schmid, Ulrich

    2014-09-29

    AlN and AlScN thin films with 27% scandium (Sc) were synthesized by DC magnetron sputtering deposition and used to fabricate surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. Compared with AlN-based devices, the AlScN SAW devices exhibit much better transmission properties. Scandium doping results in electromechanical coupling coefficient, K{sup 2}, in the range of 2.0% ∼ 2.2% for a wide normalized thickness range, more than a 300% increase compared to that of AlN-based SAW devices, thus demonstrating the potential applications of AlScN in high frequency resonators, sensors, and high efficiency energy harvesting devices. The coupling coefficients of the present AlScN based SAW devices are much higher than that of the theoretical calculation based on some assumptions for AlScN piezoelectric material properties, implying there is a need for in-depth investigations on the material properties of AlScN.

  6. Pulse echo and combined resonance techniques: a full set of LGT acoustic wave constants and temperature coefficients.

    PubMed

    Sturtevant, Blake T; Davulis, Peter M; da Cunha, Mauricio Pereira

    2009-04-01

    This work reports on the determination of langatate elastic and piezoelectric constants and their associated temperature coefficients employing 2 independent methods, the pulse echo overlap (PEO) and a combined resonance technique (CRT) to measure bulk acoustic wave (BAW) phase velocities. Details on the measurement techniques are provided and discussed, including the analysis of the couplant material in the PEO technique used to couple signal to the sample, which showed to be an order of magnitude more relevant than the experimental errors involved in the data extraction. At room temperature, elastic and piezoelectric constants were extracted by the PEO and the CRT methods and showed results consistent to within a few percent for the elastic constants. Both raw acquired data and optimized constants, based on minimization routines applied to all the modes involved in the measurements, are provided and discussed. Comparison between the elastic constants and their temperature behavior with the literature reveals the recent efforts toward the consistent growth and characterization of LGT, in spite of significant variations (between 1 and 30%) among the constants extracted by different groups at room temperature. The density, dielectric permittivity constants, and respective temperature coefficients used in this work have also been independently determined based on samples from the same crystal boule. The temperature behavior of the BAW modes was extracted using the CRT technique, which has the advantage of not relying on temperature dependent acoustic couplants. Finally, the extracted temperature coefficients for the elastic and piezoelectric constants between room temperature and 120 degrees C are reported and discussed in this work.

  7. Using the pressure transmission coefficient of a transmitted wave to evaluate some of the mechanical properties of refractory metals.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Arshed Abdulhamed; Haris, Sallehuddin Mohamed; Nuawi, Mohd Zaki

    2015-01-01

    Refractory metals have attracted increasing interest in recent years because of their use in many high-temperature applications. However, the characteristics of these metals calculated using loaded tests (such as tensile strength tests) differ considerably from those calculated using one of the most famous methods in NDT which is called time of flying of the wave (TOF).The present study presents two solutions based on calculating the pressure transmission coefficient (PTC) of the transmitted wave between the test sample and magnesium metal. The first is based on the development of a highly accurate algorithm that lowers the cost by determining the acoustic impedance of the test specimen to calculating mechanical properties. Up to 26 theoretical tests were done (10 of these tests for refractory materials) according to their known mechanical properties to verify the accuracy of the algorithm. The convergence in results ranged from 92% to 99%. The second solution was designed to solve the same problem for specimens with a thickness of less than 1mm. Eight experimental tests were done (five using refractory materials) to verify the accuracy of the second solution, with the convergence in the results ranging from 94% to 97%. The relationships of the Vrms measured from the oscilloscope with the PTC and with the Fourier transform spectrum were derived. The results of this research were closer to the standard mechanical properties for refractory metals compared with several recent acoustic tests.

  8. Pn wave geometrical spreading and attenuation in Northeast China and the Korean Peninsula constrained by observations from North Korean nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lian-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Bi; Tian, Bao-Feng; Chen, Qi-Fu; Hao, Tian-Yao; Yao, Zhen-Xing

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the geometric spreading and attenuation of seismic Pn waves in Northeast China and the Korean Peninsula. A high-quality broadband Pn wave data set generated by North Korean nuclear tests is used to constrain the parameters of a frequency-dependent log-quadratic geometric spreading function and a power law Pn Q model. The geometric spreading function and apparent Pn wave Q are obtained for Northeast China and the Korean Peninsula between 2.0 and 10.0 Hz. Using the two-station amplitude ratios of the Pn spectra and correcting them with the known spreading function, we remove the contributions of the source and crust from the apparent Pn Q and retrieve the P wave attenuation information along the pure upper mantle path. We then use both Pn amplitudes and amplitude ratios in a tomographic approach to obtain the upper mantle P wave attenuation in the studied area. The Pn wave spectra observed in China are compared with those recorded in Japan, and the result reveals that the high-frequency Pn signal across the oceanic path attenuated faster compared with those through the continental path.

  9. Study on the electromechanical coupling coefficient of Rayleigh-type surface acoustic waves in semi-infinite piezoelectrics/non-piezoelectrics superlattices.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi; Zhang, Yinhong; Lin, Shuyu; Fu, Zhiqiang

    2014-02-01

    The electromechanical coupling coefficient of Rayleigh-type surface acoustic waves in semi-infinite piezoelectrics/non-piezoelectrics superlattices is investigated by the transfer matrix method. Research results show the high electromechanical coupling coefficient can be obtained in these systems. The optimization design of it is also discussed fully. It is significantly influenced by electrical boundary conditions on interfaces, thickness ratios of piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric layers, and material parameters (such as velocities of pure longitudinal and transversal bulk waves in non-piezoelectric layers). In order to obtain higher electromechanical coupling coefficient, shorted interfaces, non-piezoelectric materials with large velocities of longitudinal and transversal bulk waves, and proper thickness ratios should be chosen.

  10. Preparation and electromagnetic waves attenuation performances of infrared-interfering composite smog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang-cui; Liu, Qing-hai; Dai, Meng-yan; Shi, Wei-dong; Fang, Guo-feng; Zhang, Tong

    2016-10-01

    The infrared-interfering composite smog material is prepared by a heating and agitating device in aqueous solutions and then sprayed into a cloud chamber for six minutes to form smog using gas-water mixing spray system. The attenuation performances of the smog to visible light, 1.06μm laser, 3-5μm infrared and 8-14μm infrared are evaluated, and compared with those of other testing materials. The results show that the sprayed smog have the best attenuation performances and the longest interfering time to visible light, 1.06μm laser, 3-5μm infrared and 8-14μm infrared. Therefore, the infrared-interfering composite smog material in the form of aqueous solution is the new smoke obscurant materials that are environment-friendly and possess broad application prospects in some aspects such as visible light, laser and infrared countermeasures.

  11. Modeling Attenuation and Phase of Radio Waves in Air at Frequencies Below 1000 GHz

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    center frequency for each line; (2) an empirical 1 water vapor continuum spectrum: and (3) a liquid water attenuation term for haze and cloud conditions...INTRODUCTION penetrate a somewhat opaque atmosphere (haze, The physical properties of the neutral atmosphere fog, clouds , dust, smoke, light rain) under...responsible-a kind of ’invisible’ hydrogen-bonded dimers and/or clusters of selec- cloud (Nilsson, 19791. tive size distributions (10-30 H 20 molecules

  12. Communication: Singularity-free hybrid functional with a Gaussian-attenuating exact exchange in a plane-wave basis.

    PubMed

    Song, Jong-Won; Giorgi, Giacomo; Yamashita, Koichi; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2013-06-28

    Integrable singularity in the exact exchange calculations in hybrid functionals is an old and well-known problem in plane-wave basis. Recently, we developed a hybrid functional named Gaussian-attenuating Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (Gau-PBE), which uses a Gaussian function as a modified Coulomb potential for the exact exchange. We found that the modified Coulomb potential of Gaussian function enables the exact exchange calculation in plane-wave basis to be singularity-free and, as a result, the Gau-PBE functional shows faster energy convergence on k and q grids for the exact exchange calculations. Also, a tight comparison (same k and q meshes) between Gau-PBE and two other hybrid functionals, i.e., PBE0 and HSE06, indicates Gau-PBE functional as the least computational time consuming. The Gau-PBE functional employed in conjunction with a plane wave basis provides bandgaps with higher accuracy than the PBE0 and HSE06 in agreement with bandgaps previously calculated using Gaussian-type-orbitals.

  13. Time-domain comparisons of power law attenuation in causal and noncausal time-fractional wave equations.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; McGough, Robert J

    2016-05-01

    The attenuation of ultrasound propagating in human tissue follows a power law with respect to frequency that is modeled by several different causal and noncausal fractional partial differential equations. To demonstrate some of the similarities and differences that are observed in three related time-fractional partial differential equations, time-domain Green's functions are calculated numerically for the power law wave equation, the Szabo wave equation, and for the Caputo wave equation. These Green's functions are evaluated for water with a power law exponent of y = 2, breast with a power law exponent of y = 1.5, and liver with a power law exponent of y = 1.139. Simulation results show that the noncausal features of the numerically calculated time-domain response are only evident very close to the source and that these causal and noncausal time-domain Green's functions converge to the same result away from the source. When noncausal time-domain Green's functions are convolved with a short pulse, no evidence of noncausal behavior remains in the time-domain, which suggests that these causal and noncausal time-fractional models are equally effective for these numerical calculations.

  14. Application of the phase time and transmission coefficients to the study of transverse elastic waves in quasiperiodic systems with planar defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aynaou, H.; Velasco, V. R.; Nougaoui, A.; El Boudouti, E. H.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Bria, D.

    2003-07-01

    We study the transverse elastic waves in quasiperiodic structures by means of the transmission/reflection phase times and the corresponding transmission/reflection coefficients. We see that these concepts are powerful tools to study multilayer systems, besides the frequency spectrum. We study how the presence of planar defects in quasiperiodic Fibonacci and Rudin-Shapiro sequences strongly modify the phase times and transmission coefficient, and not only the frequency spectrum of the systems.

  15. Regional Wave Attenuation and Seismic Moment from the Inversion of NORESS Spectra.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-31

    earthquake moment versus NORESS local magnitude for L9 03.1.9). The solid line is the best-fittng straight line to L~ ogM 0 . !!43 4 1f 4 -"rP f ti " % ’%’ d ...Blake US Dept of Energy/DP 331 Forrestal Bailding 1000 Independence Ave. Washington, D . C. 20585 Dr. S. Bratt Science Applications Int’l Cbrp. 10210...407B 299 REGIONA NAVE ATTENUATION AND SEISMIC WOENT FROM THE 112 INVERSION OF NORESS (U) SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORP SAN DIEGO CA T J

  16. Measuring sea ice permeability as a function of the attenuation and phase velocity shift of an acoustic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudier, E. J.; Bahoura, M.

    2012-12-01

    Sea ice is a two-phase porous medium consisting of a solid matrix of pure ice and a salty liquid phase. At spring when ice permeability increases, it has been observed that pressure gradients induced at the ice-water interface upstream and downstream of pressure ridge keels can cause sea water and brine to be forced through the ice water boundary. It suggests that salt and heat fluxes through the bottom ice layers may be a major factor controlling the decay of an ice sheet. Knowing how water flows through the ice matrix is fundamental to a modeling of ocean-ice heat exchanges integrating the advective import/export of latent heat that result from melting/freezing within the ice. Permeability is the measurement of the ease with which fluids flow through a porous medium, however one of the most tricky to measure without altering the porosity of the sampled medium. To further complicate the challenge, horizontal and vertical permeability of the ice, referred as ice anisotropy, is significant. Acoustic wave propagation through porous media have been theorized to relate the acoustic velocity and attenuation to the physical properties of the tested material. It is a non-invasive technique, and as such could provide more reliable measurements of sea ice permeability than anything presently used. Simulations combining the Biot's and squirt flow mechanisms are performed to investigate the effect of permeability on the attenuation and phase velocity as a function of frequency. We first present the attenuation dispersion curves for an isotropic sea ice, then low-frequency and high-frequency limits are determined. Optimal frequency range and resolution requirements are evaluated for testing.

  17. Modelling of wave propagation and attenuation in the Osaka sedimentary basin, western Japan, during the 2013 Awaji Island earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Kimiyuki; Sekiguchi, Haruko; Iwata, Tomotaka; Yoshimi, Masayuki; Hayashida, Takumi; Saomoto, Hidetaka; Horikawa, Haruo

    2016-03-01

    On 2013 April 13, an inland earthquake of Mw 5.8 occurred in Awaji Island, which forms the western boundary of the Osaka sedimentary basin in western Japan. The strong ground motion data were collected from more than 100 stations within the basin and it was found that in the Osaka Plain, the pseudo velocity response spectra at a period of around 6.5 s were significantly larger than at other stations of similar epicentral distance outside the basin. The ground motion lasted longer than 3 min in the Osaka Plain where its bedrock depth spatially varies from approximately 1 to 2 km. We modelled long-period (higher than 2 s) ground motions excited by this earthquake, using the finite difference method assuming a point source, to validate the present velocity structure model and to obtain better constraint of the attenuation factor of the sedimentary part of the basin. The effect of attenuation in the simulation was included in the form of Q(f) = Q0(f/f0), where Q0 at a reference frequency f0 was given by a function of the S-wave velocity, Q0 = αVS. We searched for appropriate Q0 values by changing α for a fixed value of f0 = 0.2 Hz. It was found that values of α from 0.2 to 0.5 fitted the observations reasonably well, but that the value of α = 0.3 performed best. Good agreement between the observed and simulated velocity waveforms was obtained for most stations within the Osaka Basin in terms of both amplitude and ground motion duration. However, underestimation of the pseudo velocity response spectra in the period range of 5-7 s was recognized in the central part of the Osaka Plain, which was caused by the inadequate modelling of later phases or wave packets in this period range observed approximately 2 min after the direct S-wave arrival. We analysed this observed later phase and concluded that it was a Love wave originating from the direction of the east coast of Awaji Island.

  18. Preparation, characterization and millimetre wave attenuation performance of carbon fibers coated with nickel-wolfram-phosphorus and nickel-cobalt-wolfram- phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Mingquan; Li, Zhitao; Wang, Chen; Han, Aijun

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • SEM, XRD, EDS and MMW attenuation performances of alloys coated CFs were studied. • Resistivity and P content in alloys were main factors on MMW attenuation property. • The weight gain of coated CFs has effects on the MMW attenuation performance. - Abstract: Carbon fibers (CFs) coated with Ni–X–P (X = W, Co–W or none) alloys were prepared by electroless plating. The morphology, crystal structure, and element composition of alloy-coated CFs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, energy-dispersive spectrometry and microwave attenuation. The results showed that CFs were coated with a layer of alloy particles. P content in Ni–Co–W–P or Ni–W–P alloys was lower than that in Ni–P alloy, and coating alloy Ni–P was amorphous. After W or Co introduction, coating alloys exhibited crystal characteristics. MMW-attenuation performance analysis showed that the 3 mm wave attenuation performance of CFs/Ni–Co–W–P, CFs/Ni–W–P and CFs/Ni–P increased by 7.27 dBm, 4.88 dBm and 3.55 dBm, and the 8 mm wave attenuation effects increased by 11.61 dBm, 6.11 dBm, and 4.06 dBm respectively, compared with those of CFs. MMW-attenuation performance is attributable to the sample bulk resistivity and P content in the alloy. Moreover, an optimal weight gain value existed for the MMW-attenuation performance of alloy-coated CFs.

  19. Shear wave attenuation estimated from the spectral decay rate in the vicinity of the Petropavlovsk station, Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A. A.; Guseva, E. M.

    2016-07-01

    The parameters of S-wave attenuation (the total effect of absorption and scattering) near the Petropavlovsk (PET) station in Kamchatka were estimated by means of the spectral method through an original procedure. The spectral method typically analyzes the changes with distance of the shape of spectra of the acceleration records assuming that the acceleration spectrum at the earthquake source is flat. In reality, this assumption is violated: the source acceleration spectra often have a high-frequency cutoff (the source-controlled f max) which limits the spectral working bandwidth. Ignoring this phenomenon not only leads to a broad scatter of the individual estimates but also causes systematic errors in the form of overestimation of losses. In the approach applied in the present study, we primarily estimated the frequency of the mentioned high-frequency cutoff and then constructed the loss estimates only within the frequency range where the source spectrum is approximately flat. The shape of the source spectrum was preliminarily assessed by the approximate loss compensation technique. For this purpose, we used the tentative attenuation estimates which are close to the final ones. The difference in the logarithms of the spectral amplitudes at the edges of the working bandwidth is the input for calculating the attenuation. We used the digital accelerograms from the PET station, with 80 samples per second digitization rate, and based on them, we calculated the averaged spectrum of the S-waves as the root mean square along two horizontal components. Our analysis incorporates 384 spectra from the local earthquakes with M = 4-6.5 at the hypocentral distances ranging from 80 to 220 km. By applying the nonlinear least-square method, we found the following parameters of the loss model: the Q-factor Q 0 = 156 ± 33 at frequency f = 1 Hz for the distance interval r = 0-100 km; the exponent in the power-law relationship describing the growth of the Q-factor with frequency,

  20. Wave simulation in 2D heterogeneous transversely isotropic porous media with fractional attenuation: A Cartesian grid approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Emilie; Chiavassa, Guillaume; Lombard, Bruno

    2014-10-01

    A time-domain numerical modeling of transversely isotropic Biot poroelastic waves is proposed in two dimensions. The viscous dissipation occurring in the pores is described using the dynamic permeability model developed by Johnson-Koplik-Dashen (JKD). Some of the coefficients in the Biot-JKD model are proportional to the square root of the frequency. In the time-domain, these coefficients introduce shifted fractional derivatives of order 1/2, involving a convolution product. Based on a diffusive representation, the convolution kernel is replaced by a finite number of memory variables that satisfy local-in-time ordinary differential equations, resulting in the Biot-DA (diffusive approximation) model. The properties of both the Biot-JKD and the Biot-DA models are analyzed: hyperbolicity, decrease of energy, dispersion. To determine the coefficients of the diffusive approximation, two approaches are analyzed: Gaussian quadratures and optimization methods in the frequency range of interest. The nonlinear optimization is shown to be the better way of determination. A splitting strategy is then applied to approximate numerically the Biot-DA equations. The propagative part is discretized using a fourth-order ADER scheme on a Cartesian grid, whereas the diffusive part is solved exactly. An immersed interface method is implemented to take into account heterogeneous media on a Cartesian grid and to discretize the jump conditions at interfaces. Numerical experiments are presented. Comparisons with analytical solutions show the efficiency and the accuracy of the approach, and some numerical experiments are performed to investigate wave phenomena in complex media, such as multiple scattering across a set of random scatterers.

  1. Video and Field Observations of Wave Attenuation in a Muddy Surf Zone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Southern Brazil—Rio Grande to Chui. RS. Land and Ocean Interaction in Coastal Zone (LOICZ) Meeting. Sao Paulo. SP. Brazil, pp . 231-247. Calliari, L.J...Coastal Sediments󈧋, New Orleans, MS. pp . 1-11. Calliari. L. Winterwerp, J.. Fernandes, E., Vinzon, S.. Cuchiara, D.. Holland. K., Sperle. M., 2009...Shargfi, Z.. 2008. Water waves propagating over mud. International Conference on Coastal Engineering. Hamburg, Germany, pp . 314-323. Dean. R

  2. Separation attenuation in swept shock wave-boundary-layer interactions using different microvortex generator geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martis, R. R.; Misra, A.

    2017-03-01

    A numerical study is conducted to determine the effectiveness of six different microvortex generator geometries in controlling swept shock wave/boundary-layer interactions. The geometries considered are base ramp, base ramp with declining angle of 45°, blunt ramp, split ramp, thick vanes, and ramped vanes. Microvortex generators with a gap were found to be better suited for delaying the separation. Thick vanes showed the largest delay in separation among the devices studied.

  3. Mass attenuation coefficients of Clear-Pb[reg sign] for photons from [sup 125]I, [sup 103]Pd, [sup 99m]Tc, [sup 192]Ir, [sup 137]Cs, and [sup 60]Co

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, M.J. . Dept. of Radiation Oncology); Waid, D.S. . Radiation Oncology Dept.); Wierzbicki, J.G. . Cancer Treatment Center)

    1999-11-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients, [mu]/[rho], for Clear-Pb[reg sign] for photon energies ranging from 10 keV to 10 MeV were determined using Monte Carlo methods and simple equations used to manipulate elemental mass attenuation coefficients. It was determined that the effectiveness of Clear-Pb[reg sign] as a radiation shielding material was greater than plain acrylic for all photon energies, especially those less than 150 keV, and for deep penetration problems where the differences in [mu]/[rho] between Clear-Pb[reg sign] as a shielding material when compared with acrylic was determined for the following commonly used radionuclides: [sup 125]I, [sup 103]Pd, [sup 99m]Tc, [sup 192]Ir, [sup 137]Cs, and [sup 60]Co.

  4. Mass attenuation coefficients of Clear-Pb{reg_sign} for photons from {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 60}Co

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, M.J.; Waid, D.S.; Wierzbicki, J.G.

    1999-11-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients, {mu}/{rho}, for Clear-Pb{reg_sign} for photon energies ranging from 10 keV to 10 MeV were determined using Monte Carlo methods and simple equations used to manipulate elemental mass attenuation coefficients. It was determined that the effectiveness of Clear-Pb{reg_sign} as a radiation shielding material was greater than plain acrylic for all photon energies, especially those less than 150 keV, and for deep penetration problems where the differences in {mu}/{rho} between Clear-Pb{reg_sign} as a shielding material when compared with acrylic was determined for the following commonly used radionuclides: {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 60}Co.

  5. Mass attenuation coefficient of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using 16.59 – 25.26 keV photon energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul; Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz; Bauk, Sabar; Hashim, Rokiah

    2015-04-29

    The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated using ≤ 104 µm particle size at three different fabrication methods; binderless, steam pre-treated and tannin-added. The mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboards were measured using x-ray fluorescent (XRF) photon from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin metal plates that provided photon energy between 16.59 to 25.26 keV. The results were compared to theoretical values for water calculated using photon cross-section database (XCOM).The results showed that all Rhizophora spp. particleboards having mass attenuation coefficient close to calculated XCOM for water. Tannin-added Rizophora spp. particleboard was nearest to calculated XCOM for water with χ2 value of 13.008 followed by binderless Rizophora spp. (25.859) and pre-treated Rizophora spp. (91.941)

  6. Investigation of mass attenuation coefficient of almond gum bonded Rhizophora spp. particleboard as equivalent human tissue using XRF technique in the 16.6-25.3 keV photon energy.

    PubMed

    Ababneh, Baker; Tajuddin, Abd Aziz; Hashim, Rokiah; Shuaib, Ibrahim Lutfi

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports the novel use of almond gum as a binder in manufacturing Rhizophora spp. particleboard. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was employed for analysis under photon energy range of 16.6-25.3 keV. Results showed that almond gum-bonded Rhizophora spp. particleboard can be used as tissue-equivalent phantom in diagnostic radiation. The calculated mass attenuation coefficients of the particleboards were consistent with the values of water calculated using XCOM program for the same photon energies, with p values of 0.056, 0.069, and 0.077 for samples A8, C0, and C8, respectively. However, no direct relationship was found between the percentage of adhesive and the mass attenuation coefficient. The results positively supported the use of almond gum as a binding agent in the fabrication of particleboards, which can be used as a phantom material in dosimetric and quality control applications.

  7. Properties of sound attenuation around a two-dimensional underwater vehicle with a large cavitation number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Peng-Cheng; Pan, Guang

    2015-06-01

    Due to the high speed of underwater vehicles, cavitation is generated inevitably along with the sound attenuation when the sound signal traverses through the cavity region around the underwater vehicle. The linear wave propagation is studied to obtain the influence of bubbly liquid on the acoustic wave propagation in the cavity region. The sound attenuation coefficient and the sound speed formula of the bubbly liquid are presented. Based on the sound attenuation coefficients with various vapor volume fractions, the attenuation of sound intensity is calculated under large cavitation number conditions. The result shows that the sound intensity attenuation is fairly small in a certain condition. Consequently, the intensity attenuation can be neglected in engineering. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51279165 and 51479170) and the National Defense Basic Scientific Research Program of China (Grant No. B2720133014).

  8. Electromagnetic Waves Attenuation due to Rain: A Prediction Model for Terrestrial or L.O.S SHF and EHF Radio Communication Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moupfouma, Fidèle

    2009-06-01

    Because of the interest raised for SHF and EHF radio communications, the attenuation of electromagnetic waves by rain will always constitute a major concern for telecommunication engineers and scientists. The rain attenuation prediction models exposed in literature calculate the attenuation related to a given rain rate or else to a given percentage of time. The new model proposed in this paper, predicts with a good accuracy the percentage of time for which any given rain attenuation will be exceeded on terrestrial SHF, EHF radiowaves links, provided the rain rate R001 (mm/h) that represents rain rate value exceeded for 0.01% of time in the locality of interest is available. R001 (mm/h) data being available for most of the localities across the world in ITU-R data base, we may conclude that this new model proposed here, can be broadly and successfully used.

  9. Self-intermediate scattering function of strongly interacting three-dimensional lattice gases: time- and wave-vector-dependent tracer diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed

    Skarpalezos, Loukas; Argyrakis, Panos; Vikhrenko, Vyacheslav S

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the self-intermediate scattering function (SISF) in a three-dimensional (3D) cubic lattice fluid (interacting lattice gas) with attractive nearest-neighbor interparticle interactions at a temperature slightly above the critical one by means of Monte Carlo simulations. A special representation of SISF as an exponent of the mean tracer diffusion coefficient multiplied by the geometrical factor and time is considered to highlight memory effects that are included in time and wave-vector dependence of the diffusion coefficient. An analytical expression for the diffusion coefficient is suggested to reproduce the simulation data. It is shown that the particles' mean-square displacement is equal to the time integral of the diffusion coefficient. We make a comparison with the previously considered 2D system on a square lattice. The main difference with the two-dimensional case is that the time dependence of particular characteristics of the tracer diffusion coefficient in the 3D case cannot be described by exponentially decreasing functions, but requires using stretched exponentials with rather small values of exponents, of the order of 0.2. The hydrodynamic values of the tracer diffusion coefficient (in the limit of large times and small wave vectors) defined through SIFS simulation results agree well with the results of its direct determination by the mean-square displacement of the particles in the entire range of concentrations and temperatures.

  10. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form factor of tin over the energy range of 29-60keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, Martin D.; Tran, Chanh Q.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi; Dhal, Bipin B.; Paterson, David; Kanter, Elliot P.; Southworth, Stephen H.; Young, Linda; Beno, Mark A.; Linton, Jennifer A.; Jennings, Guy

    2007-03-01

    We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [C. T. Chantler , Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of tin in the x-ray energy range of 29-60keV to 0.04-3% accuracy, and typically in the range 0.1-0.2% . Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct a number of potential experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for tin and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of x-ray absorption fine structure, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray absorption near-edge structure. The imaginary component of the atomic form factor f2 is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-2% persist between calculated and observed values.

  11. Role of vegetation on the attenuation of forces on structures due to Cnoidal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, V.; Norayanan, L.; Murali, K.

    2009-04-01

    The evaluation of forces on structures in the marine environment due to ocean waves is absolutely essential in the planning and development of mitigation measures against natural coastal hazards and dictates their design. Further, studies on the forces on coastal structures due to regular and random waves are well entrenched in literature, whereas, that due to shallow water waves are rather scanty. The recent tsunami has added a new dimension on the role of vegetation on the forces on structures. Due the propagation of tsunami, a number of signature studies have revealed that structures fronted by vegetation have suffered minimum damage compared to that in its absence and as also reported by Yanagisawa (2008). In the present paper, the results from an experimental study to investigate the effect of vegetation on a typical structure located onshore over a slope of 1:30 are reported. The tests were carried out in a wave flume of length 72m, width 2m and 2.7m depth. The water depth at the toe of the slope was 1m. Slender flexible cylindrical members that represent plantation along the coast have been adopted for the tests. Experiments were carried out for different G/B ratios of 0, 0.5,1 and 1.5. (Where G is the distance between front face of vegetation/ green belt and the rear face of the building and B is width of the building). Experiments were repeated for three widths of Green belts (BG) and for each of the green belt, two different diameters of the cylinders of 10mm and 3.0mm were used. The forces on structure were measured with load cells in the presence and absence of the green belt. The Cnoidal waves covering a range of Ursell parameter between 18 and 700 were employed for the experiments. The different vegetal and flow parameters in a non-dimensional form have been identified. The variation of non-dimensionalised force over the slope in the presence and absence of vegetation as a function of the Ursell parameter, Relative rigidity and Reduced velocity for

  12. Role of vegetation on the attenuation of forces on structures due to cnoidal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    The evaluation of forces on structures in the marine environment due to ocean waves is absolutely essential in the planning and development of mitigation measures against natural coastal hazards and dictates their design. Further, studies on the forces on coastal structures due to regular and random waves are well entrenched in literature, whereas, that due to shallow water waves are rather scanty. The recent tsunami has added a new dimension on the role of vegetation on the forces on structures. Due the propagation of tsunami, a number of signature studies have revealed that structures fronted by vegetation have suffered minimum damage compared to that in its absence and as also reported by Yanagisawa (2008). In the present paper, the results from an experimental study to investigate the effect of vegetation on a typical structure located onshore over a slope of 1:30 are reported. The tests were carried out in a wave flume of length 72m, width 2m and 2.7m depth. The water depth at the toe of the slope was 1m. Slender flexible cylindrical members that represent plantation along the coast have been adopted for the tests. Experiments were carried out for different G/B ratios of 0, 0.5,1 and 1.5. (Where G is the distance between front face of vegetation/ green belt and the rear face of the building and B is width of the building). Experiments were repeated for three widths of Green belts (BG) and for each of the green belt, two different diameters of the cylinders of 10mm and 3.0mm were used. The forces on structure were measured with load cells in the presence and absence of the green belt. The Cnoidal waves covering a range of Ursell parameter between 18 and 700 were employed for the experiments. The different vegetal and flow parameters in a non-dimensional form have been identified. The variation of non-dimensionalised force over the slope in the presence and absence of vegetation as a function of the Ursell parameter, Relative rigidity and Reduced velocity for

  13. Simulation of stress waves in attenuating drill strings, including piezoelectric sources and sensors

    PubMed

    Carcione; Poletto

    2000-07-01

    A key element in drill steering and prediction of lithology ahead-of-the-bit is the transmission of while-drilling information from the bottom of the well to the rig operator and the geophysicists. Mud-pulse telemetry, based on pressure pulses along the drilling mud and extensional waves through the drill string, is the most used technique. The last method, properly designed, could transmit data rates up to 100 bits per second, against the 1 or 2 bits per second achieved with pressure pulses. In this work, a time-domain algorithm is developed for the propagation of one-dimensional axial, torsional, and flexural stress waves, including transducer sources and sensors. In addition, the equations include relaxation mechanisms simulating the viscoelastic behavior of the steel, dielectric losses, and any other losses, such as those produced by the presence of the drilling mud, the casing, and the formation. Moreover, the algorithm simulates the passbands and stopbands due to the presence of the coupling joints and pulse distortion and delay due to nonuniform cross-section areas. Acoustic and electric pulses, generated at one location in the string, can be propagated and detected at any other location by piezoelectric and acoustic sensors, such as PCB accelerometers, clamp-on ammeters, force, and strain transducers.

  14. To the Theory of Thermoelastic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkov, S. O.

    2016-12-01

    A solution of linearized systems of equations of the dynamic elasticity theory and of the heat conductivity equation is derived. It is shown that in this case, the velocity of longitudinal sound waves csl is a function of the temperature T and depends strongly on T . The attenuation coefficient γ (k) of these waves is calculated and the dependence obtained is graphically illustrated.

  15. Modulational instability, nonautonomous breathers and rogue waves for a variable-coefficient derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the inhomogeneous plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lei Li, Min; Qi, Feng-Hua; Xu, Tao

    2015-03-15

    Under investigation in this paper is a variable-coefficient derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (vc-DNLS) equation modeling the nonlinear Alfvén waves in the inhomogeneous plasmas. The modulation instability is examined for this inhomogeneous nonlinear model. The nonautonomous breather and rogue wave solutions of the vc-DNLS equation are obtained via the modified Darboux transformation. It is found that the velocity and amplitude of the breather can be controlled by the inhomogeneous magnetic field and nonuniform density. Such novel phenomena as breather amplification and nonlinear Talbot effect-like property are demonstrated with the proper choices of the inhomogeneous parameters. Furthermore, dynamics of the fundamental rogue wave, periodical rogue wave, and composite rogue wave are graphically discussed. The trajectories and amplitudes of the rogue waves can be manipulated by the inhomogeneous magnetic field and nonuniform density. In addition, the nonlinear tunneling of the rogue waves and breathers is studied. As an application, a sample model is treated with our results, and the graphical illustrations exhibit the compressing, expanding, and fluctuating phenomena of the Alfvén rogue waves.

  16. Extracellular Space Attenuates the Effect of Gap Junctional Remodeling on Wave Propagation: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Cabo, Candido; Boyden, Penelope A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Ionic channels and gap junctions are remodeled in cells from the 5-day epicardial border zone (EBZ) of the healing canine infarct. The main objective of the study was to determine the effect of gap junctional conductance (Gj) remodeling and Cx43 redistribution to the lateral membrane on conduction velocity (θ) and anisotropic ratio, and how gap junctional remodeling is modulated by the extracellular space. We first implemented subcellular monodomain and two-domain computer models of normal epicardium (NZ) to understand how extracellular space modulates the relationship between Gj and θ in NZ. We found that the extracellular space flattens the Gj-θ relationship, thus θ becomes less sensitive to changes in Gj. We then investigated the functional consequences of Gj remodeling and Cx43 distribution in subcellular computer models of cells of the outer pathway (IZo) and central pathway (IZc) of reentrant circuits. In IZo cells, side-to-side (transverse) Gj is 10% the value in NZ cells. Such Gj remodeling causes a 45% decrease in transverse θ (θT). Inclusion of an extracellular space reduces the decrease in θT to 31%. In IZc cells, Cx43 redistribution along the lateral membrane results in a 29% increase in θT. That increase in θT is a consequence of the decrease in access resistance to the Cx43 plaques that occur with the Cx43 redistribution. Extracellular space reduces the increase in θT to 10%. In conclusion: 1), The extracellular space included in normal epicardial simulations flattens the Gj-θ relationship with θ becoming less sensitive to changes in Gj. 2), The extracellular space attenuates the effects of gap junction epicardial border zone remodeling (i.e., Gj reduction and Cx43 lateralization) on θT. PMID:19383455

  17. Second-order rogue wave breathers in the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with quadratic potential modulated by a spatially-varying diffraction coefficient.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj; Zhang, Yiqi

    2015-02-09

    Nonlinear Schrödinger equation with simple quadratic potential modulated by a spatially-varying diffraction coefficient is investigated theoretically. Second-order rogue wave breather solutions of the model are constructed by using the similarity transformation. A modal quantum number is introduced, useful for classifying and controlling the solutions. From the solutions obtained, the behavior of second order Kuznetsov-Ma breathers (KMBs), Akhmediev breathers (ABs), and Peregrine solitons is analyzed in particular, by selecting different modulation frequencies and quantum modal parameter. We show how to generate interesting second order breathers and related hybrid rogue waves. The emergence of true rogue waves - single giant waves that are generated in the interaction of KMBs, ABs, and Peregrine solitons - is explicitly displayed in our analytical solutions.

  18. Attenuation of low-frequency electromagnetic wave in the thin sheath enveloping a high-speed vehicle upon re-entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, DongLin; Li, XiaoPing; Liu, YanMing; Xie, Kai; Bai, BoWen

    2017-02-01

    Low-frequency (LF) electromagnetic (EM) waves are suggested as potentially solving "radio blackout" caused by a plasma sheath enveloping a high-speed vehicle on re-entry. However, the traditional plasma absorption theory neglects the fact that the plasma sheath is electrically small compared to LF EM wavelengths. To understand clearly the attenuation of such waves through the plasma sheath, different attenuation mechanisms for the electric field (SE) and magnetic field (SH) were studied using the equivalent circuit approach. Analytical expressions were derived by modeling the plasma sheath as a spherical shell, and numerical simulations were performed to validate the effectiveness of the expressions. SE and SH are calculated for various plasma parameter settings; the EM wave attenuations obtained from plasma absorption theory are used for comparison. Results show that, instead of SE and SH being equal in the plasma absorption theory, SE and SH are no longer the same for electrically small sizes. Whereas |SH| is close to that from plasma absorption theory, |SE| is much higher. Further analysis shows that |SH| is a function of the ratio of electron density (ne) and collision frequency (ve) and increases with increasing ne/ve. Numerical simulations with radio-attenuation-measurement-C-like vehicle's plasma sheath parameters are performed and the results show that the magnetic field attenuation in the front part of the vehicle is much lower than in the rear. So it is suggested to place the magnetic loop antenna in the very front part of the vehicle. Finally, SH at different frequencies are calculated using plasma sheath parameter values simulating the re-entry phase of a radio-attenuation measurement-C vehicle and results show that such a vehicle might overcome radio blackout during the entire re-entry phase if systems operating below 3 MHz and above the L-band are combined with a lower-frequency system working below Earth's ionosphere and a higher-frequency system

  19. Full Wave Analysis of RF Signal Attenuation in a Lossy Cave using a High Order Time Domain Vector Finite Element Method

    SciTech Connect

    Pingenot, J; Rieben, R; White, D

    2004-12-06

    We present a computational study of signal propagation and attenuation of a 200 MHz dipole antenna in a cave environment. The cave is modeled as a straight and lossy random rough wall. To simulate a broad frequency band, the full wave Maxwell equations are solved directly in the time domain via a high order vector finite element discretization using the massively parallel CEM code EMSolve. The simulation is performed for a series of random meshes in order to generate statistical data for the propagation and attenuation properties of the cave environment. Results for the power spectral density and phase of the electric field vector components are presented and discussed.

  20. A wave based method to predict the absorption, reflection and transmission coefficient of two-dimensional rigid frame porous structures with periodic inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Deckers, Elke; Claeys, Claus; Atak, Onur; Groby, Jean-Philippe; Dazel, Olivier; Desmet, Wim

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an extension to the Wave Based Method to predict the absorption, reflection and transmission coefficients of a porous material with an embedded periodic set of inclusions. The porous unit cell is described using the Multi-Level methodology and by embedding Bloch–Floquet periodicity conditions in the weighted residual scheme. The dynamic pressure field in the semi-infinite acoustic domains is approximated using a novel wave function set that fulfils the Helmholtz equation, the Bloch–Floquet periodicity conditions and the Sommerfeld radiation condition. The method is meshless and computationally efficient, which makes it well suited for optimisation studies.

  1. Travelling Wave Solutions for the Burgers Equation and the Korteweg-de Vries Equation with Variable Coefficients Using the Generalized (Ǵ/G)-Expansion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayed, Elsayed M. E.; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud A. M.

    2010-12-01

    In this article, a generalized (Ǵ/G)-expansion method is used to find exact travelling wave solutions of the Burgers equation and the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with variable coefficients. As a result, hyperbolic, trigonometric, and rational function solutions with parameters are obtained. When these parameters are taking special values, the solitary wave solutions are derived from the hyperbolic function solution. It is shown that the proposed method is direct, effective, and can be applied to many other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  2. A wave based method to predict the absorption, reflection and transmission coefficient of two-dimensional rigid frame porous structures with periodic inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckers, Elke; Claeys, Claus; Atak, Onur; Groby, Jean-Philippe; Dazel, Olivier; Desmet, Wim

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an extension to the Wave Based Method to predict the absorption, reflection and transmission coefficients of a porous material with an embedded periodic set of inclusions. The porous unit cell is described using the Multi-Level methodology and by embedding Bloch-Floquet periodicity conditions in the weighted residual scheme. The dynamic pressure field in the semi-infinite acoustic domains is approximated using a novel wave function set that fulfils the Helmholtz equation, the Bloch-Floquet periodicity conditions and the Sommerfeld radiation condition. The method is meshless and computationally efficient, which makes it well suited for optimisation studies.

  3. Determination of self attenuation coefficient and relative TL efficiency of CaSO 4 :Dy, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs - An alternate approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakshi, A. K.; Chatterjee, S.; Palani Selvam, T.; Joshi, V. J.; Chougaonkar, M. P.

    2011-10-01

    Self attenuation of TL and relative TL efficiency of polytetra fluoro ethylene (PTFE) embedded CaSO 4:Dy disc, LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS) disc and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N) chip were determined in the present study for photons of energy 10-34 keV. The relative TL efficiency was determined using an alternative approach in which ratio of experimental response and corrected theoretical response was used instead of measuring the absolute TL emission in photon counting mode. For CaSO 4:Dy disc, it was found that with increasing the proportion of CaSO 4:Dy phosphor in the disc, the light attenuation coefficient increases. The light attenuation coefficient of MTS disc and MCP-N chip was found to be 23.4 and 45.5 cm -1, respectively. The relative TL efficiency in the photon energy range of 10-34 keV for MTS discs and MCP-N chips, evaluated in the present study matches well with the reported values in the literature.

  4. Multi-resonant piezoelectric shunting induced by digital controllers for subwavelength elastic wave attenuation in smart metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Cheng, Jianqing; Chen, Jingwei; He, Yunze

    2017-02-01

    Instead of analog electronic circuits and components, digital controllers that are capable of active multi-resonant piezoelectric shunting are applied to elastic metamaterials integrated with piezoelectric patches. Thanks to recently introduced digital control techniques, shunting strategies are possible now with transfer functions that can hardly be realized with analog circuits. As an example, the ‘pole-zero’ method is developed to design single- or multi-resonant bandgaps by adjusting poles and zeros in the transfer function of piezoelectric shunting directly. Large simultaneous attenuations in up to three frequency bands at deep subwavelength scale (with normalized frequency as low as 0.077) are achieved. The underlying physical mechanism is attributable to the negative group velocity of the flexural wave within bandgaps. As digital controllers can be readily adapted via wireless broadcasting, the bandgaps can be tuned easily unlike the electric components in analog shunting circuits, which must be tuned one by one manually. The theoretical results are verified experimentally with the measured vibration transmission properties, where large insulations of up to 20 dB in low-frequency ranges are observed.

  5. Rogue wave solutions for the higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients by generalized Darboux transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Qiang; Chen, Jian

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study a higher-order variable coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, which plays an important role in the control of the ultrashort optical pulse propagation in nonlinear optical systems. Then, we construct a generalized Darboux transformation (GDT) for the higher-order variable coefficient NLS equation. The Nth order rogue wave solution is obtained by the iterative rule and it can be expressed by the determinant form. As application, we calculate rogue waves (RWs) from first- to fourth-order in accordance with different kinds of parameters. In particular, the dynamical properties and spatial-temporal structures of RWs are discussed and compared with Hirota equation through some figures.

  6. The Numerical Synthesis and Inversion of Acoustic Fields Using the Hankel Transform with Application to the Estimation of the Plane Wave Reflection Coefficient of the Ocean Bottom.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    r 2) it is not expected that these issues will pose serious problems. It appears that the %7 grid is of fundamental importance in the Hankel... invesion of pressue field data to obtain the parameters of the bottom. In this contwt it is of interest to geophysiciut and others who wih to...RECEIVER HEIGHT COMPENSATION A(k,) Figure V.1.1 The invesion procedure to estimate the plane wave reflection coefficient from the mul field Senerated

  7. Modeling the variations of reflection coefficient of Earth's lower ionosphere using very low frequency radio wave data by artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Keyvan; Khakian Ghomi, Mehdi; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Marbouti, Marjan; Tan, Le Minh

    2016-08-01

    The ionized atmosphere lying from 50 to 600 km above surface, known as ionosphere, contains high amount of electrons and ions. Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio waves with frequencies between 3 and 30 kHz are reflected from the lower ionosphere specifically D-region. A lot of applications in long range communications and navigation systems have been inspired by this characteristic of ionosphere. There are several factors which affect the ionization rate in this region, such as: time of day (presence of sun in the sky), solar zenith angle (seasons) and solar activities. Due to nonlinear response of ionospheric reflection coefficient to these factors, finding an accurate relation between these parameters and reflection coefficient is an arduous task. In order to model these kinds of nonlinear functionalities, some numerical methods are employed. One of these methods is artificial neural network (ANN). In this paper, the VLF radio wave data of 4 sudden ionospheric disturbance (SID) stations are given to a multi-layer perceptron ANN in order to simulate the variations of reflection coefficient of D region ionosphere. After training, validation and testing the ANN, outputs of ANN and observed values are plotted together for 2 random cases of each station. By evaluating the results using 2 parameters of pearson correlation coefficient and root mean square error, a satisfying agreement was found between ANN outputs and real observed data.

  8. S-wave attenuation in northeastern Sonora, Mexico, near the faults that ruptured during the earthquake of 3 May 1887 Mw 7.5.

    PubMed

    Villalobos-Escobar, Gina P; Castro, Raúl R

    2014-01-01

    We used a new data set of relocated earthquakes recorded by the Seismic Network of Northeastern Sonora, Mexico (RESNES) to characterize the attenuation of S-waves in the fault zone of the 1887 Sonora earthquake (M w 7.5). We determined spectral attenuation functions for hypocentral distances (r) between 10 and 140 km using a nonparametric approach and found that in this fault zone the spectral amplitudes decay slower with distance at low frequencies (f < 4 Hz) compared to those reported in previous studies in the region using more distant recordings. The attenuation functions obtained for 23 frequencies (0.4 ≤ f ≤ 63.1 Hz) permit us estimating the average quality factor Q S  = (141 ± 1.1 )f ((0.74 ± 0.04)) and a geometrical spreading term G(r) = 1/r (0.21). The values of Q estimated for S-wave paths traveling along the fault system that rupture during the 1887 event, in the north-south direction, are considerably lower than the average Q estimated using source-station paths from multiple stations and directions. These results indicate that near the fault zone S waves attenuate considerably more than at regional scale, particularly at low frequencies. This may be the result of strong scattering near the faults due to the fractured upper crust and higher intrinsic attenuation due to stress concentration near the faults.

  9. Prospects for in vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients using postprocessing dual-energy CT imaging on a commercial scanner: Comparison of analytic and polyenergetic statistical reconstruction algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Joshua D.; Whiting, Bruce R.; O’Sullivan, Joseph A.; Politte, David G.; Klahr, Paul H.; Yu, Yaduo; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate patient-specific photon cross-section information is needed to support more accurate model-based dose calculation for low energy photon-emitting modalities in medicine such as brachytherapy and kilovoltage x-ray imaging procedures. A postprocessing dual-energy CT (pDECT) technique for noninvasive in vivo estimation of photon linear attenuation coefficients has been experimentally implemented on a commercial CT scanner and its accuracy assessed in idealized phantom geometries. Methods: Eight test materials of known composition and density were used to compare pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients to NIST reference values over an energy range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. As statistical image reconstruction (SIR) has been shown to reconstruct images with less random and systematic error than conventional filtered backprojection (FBP), the pDECT technique was implemented with both an in-house polyenergetic SIR algorithm, alternating minimization (AM), as well as a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm. Improvement from increased spectral separation was also investigated by filtering the high-energy beam with an additional 0.5 mm of tin. The law of propagated uncertainty was employed to assess the sensitivity of the pDECT process to errors in reconstructed images. Results: Mean pDECT-estimated linear attenuation coefficients for the eight test materials agreed within 1% of NIST reference values for energies from 1 MeV down to 30 keV, with mean errors rising to between 3% and 6% at 10 keV, indicating that the method is unbiased when measurement and calibration phantom geometries are matched. Reconstruction with FBP and AM algorithms conferred similar mean pDECT accuracy. However, single-voxel pDECT estimates reconstructed on a 1 × 1 × 3 mm3 grid are shown to be highly sensitive to reconstructed image uncertainty; in some cases pDECT attenuation coefficient estimates exhibited standard deviations on the order of 20% around the mean

  10. Solitons, breathers and rogue waves for a sixth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation in an ocean or optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Shu-Liang; Gao, Yi-Tian; Zhao, Chen; Lan, Zhong-Zhou; Feng, Yu-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Under investigation in this paper is a sixth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation in an ocean or optical fiber. Through the Darboux transformation (DT) and generalized DT, we obtain the multi-soliton solutions, breathers and rogue waves. Choosing different values of α( x), β( x), γ( x) and δ( x), which are the coefficients of the third-, fourth-, fifth- and sixth-order dispersions, respectively, we investigate their effects on those solutions, where x is the scaled propagation variable. When α( x), β( x), γ( x) and δ( x) are chosen as the linear, parabolic and periodic functions, we obtain the parabolic, cubic and quasi-periodic solitons, respectively. Head-on and overtaking interactions between the two solitons are presented, and the interactions are elastic. Besides, with certain values of the spectral parameter λ, a shock region between the two solitons appears, and the interaction is inelastic. Interactions between two kinds of the breathers are also studied, and we find that the interaction regions are similar to those of the second-order rogue waves. Rogue waves are split into some first-order rogue waves when α( x), β( x), γ( x) and δ( x) are the periodic or odd-numbered functions.

  11. Effects of heterogeneities on the propagation, scattering and attenuation of seismic waves and the characterization of seismic source. Final report, 1 December 1982-30 November 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Aki, K.; Cormier, V.F.; Toksoz, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    During this reporting period, work was completed on testing alternative measures of body-wave magnitude. It was found that alternative measures of body waves magnitude often exhibit as much scatter as classical measures of magnitude, although coda magnitudes usually have slightly less scatter than spectral and classical magnitudes. In the cases investigated, these differences were usually not statistically significant. Another completed task was an investigation of the intrinsic attenuation of the Earth's mantle selected paths from the Sea of Okhotsk to Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) and Global Digital Seismic Network (GDSN) Stations in North America. It was concluded that the intrinsic attenuation in the mantle beneath eastern North America is both depth and frequency dependent and that spectral and time domain studies of attenuation can be reconciled in the frequency band up to 2 Hz. The focus of the project was then divided between source problems related to scattering and seismic wave propagation in three-dimensional, heterogeneous media. A significant result was that short period and broadband waveforms can improve the depth-resolution-determined earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, forming a powerful discriminant. Scattering was studied theoretically and observationally. The significant result of that work is that the Earth's lithosphere must possess multiple scales of heterogeneity in order to explain both the amplitude and phase fluctuations at large arrays as well as the shapes of local S coda.

  12. Measurement of heat-transfer coefficients in shock wave-turbulent boundary layer interaction regions with a multi-layered thin film heat transfer gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, M.; Sakurai, A.; Aso, S.

    1986-01-01

    A thin film heat transfer gauge is applied to the measurement of heat transfer coefficients in the interaction regions of incident shock waves and fully developed turbulent boundary layers. It was developed to measure heat flux with high spatial resolution and fast response for wind tunnels with long flow duration. To measure the heat transfer coefficients in the interaction region in detail, experiments were performed under the conditions of Mach number = 4, total pressure = 1.2 MPa, 0.59 to approximately 0.65. Reynolds number = 1.3 to approximately 1.5 x 10 to the 7th power and incident shock angles from 17.8 to 22.8 degrees. The results show that the heat transfer coefficient changes complicatedly in the interaction region. At the beginning the interaction region, the heat transfer coefficient decreases at first, reaches its minimum value at the point where the pressure begins to increase, and then increases sharply. When the boundary layer begins to separate, even a small separation bubble causes significant changes in the heat transfer coefficient, while the pressure does not show any changes which suggests that the boundary layer begins to separate.

  13. The Influence of Water on Seismic Wave Speeds and Attenuation in the Upper Mantle: an update from the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, C. J., II; David, E. C.; Jackson, I.; Faul, U.; Berry, A.

    2015-12-01

    A fine-grained synthetic olivine (Fo90) polycrystal, doped with ~0.04 wt. % TiO2, has been prepared with ~70 wt. ppm H2O accommodated in the remarkably stable Ti-clinohumite defect typical of natural olivines from the Earth's generally water-undersaturated upper mantle (Berry et al., 2005). A precision-ground specimen of this material, sleeved in Pt tubing within a mild-steel jacket, was tested in torsional forced oscillation at seismic frequencies (mHz-Hz) and temperatures to 1200 °C, under 200 MPa confining pressure. The shear modulus was observed to decrease systematically with increasing oscillation period and temperature, accompanied by monotonically increasing dissipation, which are characteristic of absorption band or high-temperature-background behaviour. In a previous preliminary report, the new data were compared with the model of Jackson and Faul (Phys. Earth Planet. Interiors, 2010) for a suite of essentially anhydrous Ti-free olivine polycrystals, evaluated at the 25 μm grain size of the hydrous titaniferous olivine specimen, showing that the latter is vastly more dissipative than its anhydrous equivalent (by an order of magnitude at 1200 °C) and correspondingly lower in shear modulus. The results of additional experiments now better constrain the mechanical behaviour of the enclosing Pt sleeve and allow direct comparison with data for an anhydrous titaniferous olivine of comparable grain size. The latest results confirm a very strong influence of water on seismic wave attenuation, even under the water-undersaturated conditions expected to prevail in the Earth's upper mantle.

  14. Dynamics of solitary-wave structures in one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation with distributed coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kengne, Emmanuel; Lakhssassi, Ahmed

    2015-10-01

    Motivated by recent experimental investigations in the context of matter wave solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), we consider the 1+1 Gross-Pitaevskii equation with complex time-varying harmonic potential, and time-varying cubic and quintic nonlinearities. By performing a modified lens-type transformation for the one-dimensional GP equation, we present one and/or two parameter exact analytical solutions which describe the propagation of bright, kink, and dark solitary waves on the vanishing continuous wave (cw) background. Based on exact analytical solutions of the GP equation, we investigate analytically the dynamics of matter-wave solitons in the BEC systems. Our studies show that the solitons' amplitude depends on both the scattering length and the feeding/loss term of the potential while their motion depends on the external trapping potential and solution parameters.

  15. Circumferentially segmented duct lines optimized for axisymmetric and standing wave sources. [reducing noise from turbofan engines galerkin method acoustic attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    Optimum and off-optimum properties of circumferentially segmented duct liners are compared with those of uniform liners to identify any potential benefits of circumferentially segmented liners. High- and low-order spinning-mode sources are considered in the study. The solution for the segmented liner is obtained by a multimodal expansion of the segmented-liner eigenmodes in terms of a series of hardwall duct models. The coefficients in the hard-wall series are obtained by using Galerkin's method. Results show that for some frequencies and duct lengths, circumferentially segmented liners scatter energy equally between a higher and lower order circumferential wave number. Studies for higher order spinning-mode sources show that an optimized segmented liner with a hard-wall/soft-wal admittance variation representing an optimum configuration gives better performance than an optimized uniform liner. Overall, the greatest benefit of the segmented liner over the uniform liner occurs under off-optimum conditions. The optimized segmented liner gives more effective broadband performance than the optimized uniform liner.

  16. The amplitude of the cross-covariance function of solar oscillations as a diagnostic tool for wave attenuation and geometrical spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Kaori; Fournier, Damien; Birch, Aaron C.; Gizon, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    Context. In time-distance helioseismology, wave travel times are measured from the two-point cross-covariance function of solar oscillations and are used to image the solar convection zone in three dimensions. There is, however, also information in the amplitude of the cross-covariance function, for example, about seismic wave attenuation. Aims: We develop a convenient procedure to measure the amplitude of the cross-covariance function of solar oscillations. Methods: In this procedure, the amplitude of the cross-covariance function is linearly related to the cross-covariance function and can be measured even for high levels of noise. Results: As an example application, we measure the amplitude perturbations of the seismic waves that propagate through the sunspot in active region NOAA 9787. We can recover the amplitude variations due to the scattering and attenuation of the waves by the sunspot and associated finite-wavelength effects. Conclusions: The proposed definition of cross-covariance amplitude is robust to noise, can be used to relate measured amplitudes to 3D perturbations in the solar interior under the Born approximation, and provides independent information from the travel times.

  17. Kinetic description of a free electron laser with an electromagnetic-wave wiggler and ion-channel guiding by using the Einstein coefficient technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdian, H.; AbasiRostami, S.; Hasanbeigi, A.

    2016-04-01

    A theoretical study of electron trajectories and gain in a free electron laser (FEL) with an electromagnetic-wave wiggler and ion-channel guiding is presented based on the Einstein coefficient method. The laser gain in the low-gain regime is obtained for the case of a cold tenuous relativistic electron beam, where the beam plasma frequency is much less than the radiation frequency propagating in this configuration. The resulting gain equation is analyzed numerically over a wide range of system parameters.

  18. Full Wave Analysis of RF Signal Attenuation in a Lossy Rough Surface Cave using a High Order Time Domain Vector Finite Element Method

    SciTech Connect

    Pingenot, J; Rieben, R; White, D; Dudley, D

    2005-10-31

    We present a computational study of signal propagation and attenuation of a 200 MHz planar loop antenna in a cave environment. The cave is modeled as a straight and lossy random rough wall. To simulate a broad frequency band, the full wave Maxwell equations are solved directly in the time domain via a high order vector finite element discretization using the massively parallel CEM code EMSolve. The numerical technique is first verified against theoretical results for a planar loop antenna in a smooth lossy cave. The simulation is then performed for a series of random rough surface meshes in order to generate statistical data for the propagation and attenuation properties of the antenna in a cave environment. Results for the mean and variance of the power spectral density of the electric field are presented and discussed.

  19. Complex inner core boundary from frequency characteristics of the reflection coefficients of PKiKP waves observed by Hi-net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Tkalčić, Hrvoje

    2015-12-01

    Frequency-dependent reflection coefficients of P waves at the inner core boundary (ICB) are estimated from the spectral ratios of PKiKP and PcP waves observed by the high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net) in Japan. The corresponding PKiKP reflection locations at the ICB are distributed beneath the western Pacific. At frequencies where noise levels are sufficiently low, spectra of reflection coefficients show four distinct sets of characteristics: a flat spectrum, a spectrum with a significant spectral hole at approximately 1 or 3 Hz, a spectrum with a strong peak at approximately 2 or 3 Hz, and a spectrum containing both a sharp peak and a significant hole. The variety in observed spectra suggests complex lateral variations in ICB properties. To explain the measured differences in frequency characteristics of ICB reflection coefficients, we conduct 2D finite difference simulations of seismic wavefields near the ICB. The models tested in our simulations include a liquid layer and a solid layer above the ICB, as well as sinusoidal and spike-shaped ICB topography with varying heights and scale lengths. We find that the existence of a layer above the ICB can be excluded as a possible explanation for the observed spectra. Furthermore, we find that an ICB topographic model with wavelengths and heights of several kilometers is too extreme to explain our measurements. However, restricting the ICB topography to wavelengths and heights of 1.0-1.5 km can explain the observed frequency-related phenomena. The existence of laterally varying topography may be a sign of lateral variations in inner core solidification.

  20. Comment on: "Traveling wave solutions for fifth-order KdV type equations with time-dependent coefficients" [Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat 19 (2014) 404-408

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Tanmay

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that previously reported traveling wave solutions for the fifth order KdV type equations with time dependent coefficients (Triki and Wazwaz, 2014) are incorrect. We present the corrected traveling wave solutions for fifth order KdV type equations using sine-cosine method. In addition, we provide traveling wave solutions for the Kawahara equation and Kaup-Kupershmidt equation as an application.

  1. Novel Logistic Regression Model of Chest CT Attenuation Coefficient Distributions for the Automated Detection of Abnormal (Emphysema or ILD) versus Normal Lung

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kung-Sik; Jiao, Feiran; Mikulski, Marek A.; Gerke, Alicia; Guo, Junfeng; Newell, John D; Hoffman, Eric A.; Thompson, Brad; Lee, Chang Hyun; Fuortes, Laurence J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives We evaluated the role of automated quantitative computed tomography (CT) scan interpretation algorithm in detecting Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) and/or emphysema in a sample of elderly subjects with mild lung disease.ypothesized that the quantification and distributions of CT attenuation values on lung CT, over a subset of Hounsfield Units (HU) range [−1000 HU, 0 HU], can differentiate early or mild disease from normal lung. Materials and Methods We compared results of quantitative spiral rapid end-exhalation (functional residual capacity; FRC) and end-inhalation (total lung capacity; TLC) CT scan analyses in 52 subjects with radiographic evidence of mild fibrotic lung disease to 17 normal subjects. Several CT value distributions were explored, including (i) that from the peripheral lung taken at TLC (with peels at 15 or 65mm), (ii) the ratio of (i) to that from the core of lung, and (iii) the ratio of (ii) to its FRC counterpart. We developed a fused-lasso logistic regression model that can automatically identify sub-intervals of [−1000 HU, 0 HU] over which a CT value distribution provides optimal discrimination between abnormal and normal scans. Results The fused-lasso logistic regression model based on (ii) with 15 mm peel identified the relative frequency of CT values over [−1000, −900] and that over [−450,−200] HU as a means of discriminating abnormal versus normal, resulting in a zero out-sample false positive rate and 15%false negative rate of that was lowered to 12% by pooling information. Conclusions We demonstrated the potential usefulness of this novel quantitative imaging analysis method in discriminating ILD and/or emphysema from normal lungs. PMID:26776294

  2. Wave fields and spectra of Rayleigh waves in poroelastic media in the exploration seismic frequency band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Xu, Yixian; Xia, Jianghai

    2012-12-01

    A better understanding of the influences of different surface fluid drainage conditions on the propagation and attenuation of surface waves as the stipulated frequency is varied is a key issue to apply surface wave method to detect subsurface hydrological properties. Our study develops three-dimensional dynamical Green's functions in poroelastic media for Rayleigh waves of possible free surface conditions: permeable - "open pore," impermeable - "closed pore," and partially permeable boundaries. The full transient response of wave fields and spectra due to a stress impulse wavelet on the surface are investigated in the exploration seismic frequency band for typical surface drainage conditions, viscous coupling-damping, solid frame properties and porous fluid flowing configuration. Our numerical results show that, due to the slow dilatational wave - P2 wave, two types of Rayleigh waves, designated as R1 and R2 waves, exist along the surface. R1 wave possesses high energy as classic Rayleigh waves in pure elastic media for each porous materials. A surface fluid drainage condition is a significant factor to influence dispersion and attenuation, especially attenuation of R1 waves. R2 wave for closed pore and partially permeable surfaces is only observed for a low coupling-damping coefficient. The non-physical wave for partially surface conditions causes the R1 wave radiates into the R2 wave in the negative attenuation frequency range. It makes weaker R1 wave and stronger R2 wave to closed pore surface. Moreover, it is observed that wave fields and spectra of R1 wave are sensitive to frame elastic moduli change for an open pore surface, and to pore fluid flow condition change for closed pore and partially permeable surface.

  3. A range-dependent propagation model based on a combination of ray theory and plane-wave reflection coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovem, Jens M.; Knobles, D. P.

    2002-11-01

    The paper describes a range-dependent propagation model based on a combination of range-dependent ray tracing and plane-wave bottom responses. The ray-tracing module of the model determines all the eigenrays between any source/receiver pairs and stores the ray histories. The received wave field is then synthesized by adding the contributions of all the eigenrays, taking into account the reflections from the bottom and the surface. The model can treat arbitrarily varying bottom topography and a layered elastic bottom as long as the layers are parallel. In the current version, the bottom is modeled with a sedimentary layer over an elastic half space, but more complicated structures are easily implemented. The new model has been tested against other models on several benchmark problems and also applied in the analysis and modeling of up-slope and down-slope propagation data recorded on a 52-element center-tapered array that was deployed at two locations about 70 miles east of Jacksonville, FL. The paper presents the results of these tests with an assessment of the potential use in connection with geo-acoustic inversion of range-dependent and elastic scenarios. [Work supported by Applied Research Laboratories, The University of Texas.

  4. On the relative scattering of P- and S-waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, P. E.; Phinney, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Using a single-scattering approximation, equations for the scattering attenuation coefficients of P-body and S-body waves are derived. The results are discussed in the light of the energy-renormalization approaches of Wu (1980, 1982) and Sato (1982) to seismic wave scattering. Practical methods for calculating the scattering attenuation coefficients for various earth models are emphasized. The conversions of P-waves to S-waves and S-waves to P-waves are included in the theory. The earth models are assumed to be randomly inhomogeneous, with their properties known only through their average-wavenumber power spectra. The power spectra are approximated with piecewise constant functions, each segment of which contributes to the net frequency-dependent scattering attenuation coefficient. The smallest and largest wavenumbers of a segment can be plotted along with the wavevectors of the incident and scattered waves on a wavenumber diagram. This diagram gives a geometric interpretation for the frequency behavior associated with each spectral segment, including a transition peak that is due entirely to the wavenumber limits of the segment. For regions of the earth where the inhomogeneity spectra are concentrated in a band of wavenumbers, it should be possible to observe such a peak in the apparent attenuation of seismic waves. Both the frequency and distance limits on the accuracy of the theoretical results are given.

  5. Attenuated direct and scattered wave propagation on simulated land mobile satellite service paths in the presence of trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Richard L.; Estus, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Measurements were made of direct path with no trees, attenuated direct, and tree scattered signal levels at 1.3 GHz. Signals were received in two small groves of mixed hardwood trees. In the groves studied, average total signal levels were about 13 dB below adjacent no-trees locations, with attenuated direct signal levels about 14.6 dB below the no-trees case and scattered signals about 17.3 dB below the no-trees case. A simple model for land mobile satellite service (LMSS) propagation in groves of trees is proposed. The model assumes a constant scattered signal contribution at 17 dB below no-trees levels added to an attenuated direct signal which varies, depending on the number and density of trees in the direct path. When total signal levels are strong, the attenuated direct signal dominates. When total signal levels are more than 15 dB below no-trees levels, the scattered signals dominate.

  6. On quasi-periodic wave solutions and asymptotic behaviors to a (2 + 1)-dimensional generalized variable-coefficient Sawada-Kotera equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jian-Min; Tian, Shou-Fu; Xu, Mei-Juan; Ma, Pan-Li

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a (2 + 1)-dimensional generalized variable-coefficient Sawada-Kotera (gvcSK) equation is investigated, which describes many nonlinear phenomena in fluid dynamics and plasma physics. Based on the properties of binary Bell polynomials, we present a Hirota’s bilinear equation to the gvcSK equation. By virtue of the Hirota’s bilinear equation, we obtain the N-soliton solutions and the quasi-periodic wave solutions of the gvcSK equation, which can be reduced to the ones of several integrable equations such as Sawada-Kotera, modified Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Sawada-Kotera, isospectral BKP equations and etc. Furthermore, we obtain the relationship between the soliton solutions and periodic solutions by considering the asymptotic properties of the periodic solutions.

  7. Attenuation Distance of Low Frequency Waves Upstream of the Pre-Dawn Bow Shock: GEOTAIL snd ISEE-3 Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiyama, T.; Terasawa, T.; Kawano, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Kokubun, S.; Frank, L.; Ackerson, K.; Tsurutani, B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical study of the spatial distribution of low frequency waves in the region upstream of the pre-dawn to dawn side bow shock using both GEOTAIL and ISEE-3 magnetometer data.

  8. Anomalies in Giant Quantum Attenuation of Sound Waves in Bismuth at High Magnetic Fields. I. Temperature and Frequency Dependences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mase, Shoichi; Fukami, Takeshi; Mori, Masatoshi; Akinaga, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Toshinobu; Shiraishi, Naotaka

    1980-04-01

    A reinvestigation has been made of an anomaly in the temperature dependence of the ultrasonic attenuation in bismuth, which is observed when an electron Landau level and a hole Landau level approach simultaneously to the Fermi level at high magnetic fields and at low temperatures. It has been found that in the most anomalous case the anomaly in the temperature dependence accompanies an anomalous frequency dependence and these are quite sensitive to physical imperfections in bismuth. On the basis if Kuramoto’s theory of sound attenuation which is taking account of the short-range electron-hole correlation, the experimental results are analyzed, and it is suggested that one more additional term is required to explain the present anomalous data.

  9. The upper mantle structure of the central Rio Grande rift region from teleseismic P and S wave travel time delays and attenuation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, P.D.; Davis, P.M.; Baldridge, W.S.; Olsen, K.H.; Glahn, A.; Achauer, U.; Spence, W.

    1996-01-01

    The lithosphere beneath a continental rift should be significantly modified due to extension. To image the lithosphere beneath the Rio Grande rift (RGR), we analyzed teleseismic travel time delays of both P and S wave arrivals and solved for the attenuation of P and S waves for four seismic experiments spanning the Rio Grande rift. Two tomographic inversions of the P wave travel time data are given: an Aki-Christofferson-Husebye (ACH) block model inversion and a downward projection inversion. The tomographic inversions reveal a NE-SW to NNE-SSW trending feature at depths of 35 to 145 km with a velocity reduction of 7 to 8% relative to mantle velocities beneath the Great Plains. This region correlates with the transition zone between the Colorado Plateau and the Rio Grande rift and is bounded on the NW by the Jemez lineament, a N52??E trending zone of late Miocene to Holocene volcanism. S wave delays plotted against P wave delays are fit with a straight line giving a slope of 3.0??0.4. This correlation and the absolute velocity reduction imply that temperatures in the lithosphere are close to the solidus, consistent with, but not requiring, the presence of partial melt in the mantle beneath the Rio Grande rift. The attenuation data could imply the presence of partial melt. We compare our results with other geophysical and geologic data. We propose that any north-south trending thermal (velocity) anomaly that may have existed in the upper mantle during earlier (Oligocene to late Miocene) phases of rifting and that may have correlated with the axis of the rift has diminished with time and has been overprinted with more recent structure. The anomalously low-velocity body presently underlying the transition zone between the core of the Colorado Plateau and the rift may reflect processes resulting from the modern (Pliocene to present) regional stress field (oriented WNW-ESE), possibly heralding future extension across the Jemez lineament and transition zone.

  10. Influence of attenuation on acoustic emission signals in carbon fiber reinforced polymer panels.

    PubMed

    Asamene, Kassahun; Hudson, Larry; Sundaresan, Mannur

    2015-05-01

    Influence of attenuation on acoustic emission (AE) signals in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) crossply and quasi-isotropic panels is examined in this paper. Attenuation coefficients of the fundamental antisymmetric (A0) and symmetric (S0) wave modes were determined experimentally along different directions for the two types of CFRP panels. In the frequency range from 100 kHz to 500 kHz, the A0 mode undergoes significantly greater changes due to material related attenuation compared to the S0 mode. Moderate to strong changes in the attenuation levels were noted with propagation directions. Such mode and frequency dependent attenuation introduces major changes in the characteristics of AE signals depending on the position of the AE sensor relative to the source. Results from finite element simulations of a microscopic damage event in the composite laminates are used to illustrate attenuation related changes in modal and frequency components of AE signals.

  11. Diffracted and head waves associated with waves on nonseparable surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barger, Raymond L.

    1992-01-01

    A theory is presented for computing waves radiated from waves on a smooth surface. With the assumption that attention of the surface wave is due only to radiation and not to dissipation in the surface material, the radiation coefficient is derived in terms of the attenuation factor. The excitation coefficient is determined by the reciprocity condition. Formulas for the shape and the spreading of the radiated wave are derived, and some sample calculations are presented. An investigation of resonant phase matching for nonseparable surfaces is presented with a sample calculation. A discussion of how such calculations might be related to resonant frequencies of nonseparable thin shell structures is included. A description is given of nonseparable surfaces that can be modeled in the vector that facilitates use of the appropriate formulas of differential geometry.

  12. Dispersion and attenuation on the Brillouin sound waves of a lubricant: Di(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate under high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Yoshitaka; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    The Brillouin spectra of di(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate, which is a liquid lubricant known as DOS, were measured at up to 5 GPa at 25 °C and up to 2.5 GPa at 80 °C. At 25 °C, the Brillouin frequency linewidth (acoustic attenuation) has a large maximum at 0.1 MPa, and at 80 °C, it has a large broad maximum at 0.8 GPa. The Brillouin frequency shift (sound velocity) and linewidth obtained indicate that the large dispersion of the sound velocities of DOS occurs from 0.1 MPa at 25 °C and from 0.8 GPa at 80 °C. The origins of this attenuation and dispersion are discussed on the basis of the theory for a viscoelastic liquid. It is proposed that the large acoustic attenuation and dispersion of DOS are due to the production of higher-rank structures with nano-order domains in a polymeric liquid by pressurization. The results show that DOS is strongly viscoelastic above 0.8 GPa at 80 °C, but it is not viscous below 0.8 GPa at 80 °C, with the disappearance of the frequency dispersion. The result obtained is used to explain a limiting shear stress observed in a traction oil. Above a given sliding speed, the oil reaches the region of temperature and pressure in which its viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate and conveys a constant torque above some high shear rate. Then, the oil flows as a plastic solid at a limiting shear stress. These findings regarding the dynamical properties of DOS under high pressures are very useful for the production and analysis of lubricants and traction oils.

  13. Effects of atmospheric turbulence on microwave and millimeter wave satellite communications systems. [attenuation statistics and antenna design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devasirvatham, D. M. J.; Hodge, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    A model of the microwave and millimeter wave link in the presence of atmospheric turbulence is presented with emphasis on satellite communications systems. The analysis is based on standard methods of statistical theory. The results are directly usable by the design engineer.

  14. Une méthode de calcul des coefficients de réflexion et de transmission d'une houle bidimensionnelle en milieu confinéA new method for the calculation of transmission and reflection coefficients for water waves in a small basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclos, Gaëlle; Clément, Alain H.

    2003-03-01

    This paper presents a method to estimate reflected and transmitted wave amplitude spectra in a bounded domain such as a wave tank, when available data signals must be shortened due to interferences and wall effects. This paper extends the well known Goda and Suzuki two-probe method to three probes. The paper also suggests solutions to compute reliable transmission and reflection coefficients in spite of problems linked to higher harmonics and to the interference between different wave trains propagating in the tank. To cite this article: G. Duclos, A.H. Clément, C. R. Mecanique 331 (2003).

  15. Effects of Heterogeneities on the Propagation, Scattering and Attenuation of Seismic Waves and the Characterization of Seismic Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    applications of the Gaussian beam method. The Gaussian beam method is a variation of both the asymptotic ray method [Cerveny et . al .. 1977] and the...Popov [1981], Popov [1981. 19821 and Cerveny et . al . [1982]. These studies were based on th«? scalar wave equation The elastic case was first derived...for which the examples are given, and follows the results of Cerveny et . al . [1982], Cerveny and Psencik [1983a]. and Cerveny [1983]. Before solving

  16. Velocity and attenuation of shear waves in the phantom of a muscle-soft tissue matrix with embedded stretched fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudenko, O. V.; Tsyuryupa, S. N.; Sarvazyan, A. P.

    2016-09-01

    We develop a theory of the elasticity moduli and dissipative properties of a composite material: a phantom simulating muscle tissue anisotropy. The model used in the experiments was made of a waterlike polymer with embedded elastic filaments imitating muscle fiber. In contrast to the earlier developed phenomenological theory of the anisotropic properties of muscle tissue, here we obtain the relationship of the moduli with characteristic sizes and moduli making up the composite. We introduce the effective elasticity moduli and viscosity tensor components, which depend on stretching of the fibers. We measure the propagation velocity of shear waves and the shear viscosity of the model for regulated tension. Waves were excited by pulsed radiation pressure generated by modulated focused ultrasound. We show that with increased stretching of fibers imitating muscle contraction, an increase in both elasticity and viscosity takes place, and this effect depends on the wave propagation direction. The results of theoretical and experimental studies support our hypothesis on the protective function of stretched skeletal muscle, which protects bones and joints from trauma.

  17. T-wave amplitude attenuation/augmentation in patients with changing edematous states: implications for patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Madias, John E

    2007-01-01

    Since peripheral edema impacts the entire electrocardiographic curve, it was hypothesized that it would also affect T waves. The amplitude of T waves were measured in all electrocardiographic leads and a sum (SigmaT) was calculated in 28 patients with and 28 patients without peripheral edema (controls). For patients with peripheral edema, SigmaT on admission was 21.9+/-10.6 mm and SigmaT at peak weight was 8.3+/-6.3 mm (P=.0005). For patients with peripheral edema who subsequently lost weight, SigmaT at peak weight was 7.2+/-6.1 mm and SigmaT at the lowest weight was 14.1+/-12.2 (P=.006). For controls, SigmaT from admission and SigmaT from discharge were 24.4+/-16.9 mm and 24.7+/-15.7 mm (P=.82), respectively. Percent change (Delta%SigmaT) from admission to peak weight correlated with Delta% in weight (r=0.58; P=.001) and Delta% in the sum of QRS complexes (SigmaQRS) (r=0.71; P=.00005). Delta%SigmaT from peak weight to the lowest weight correlated with the corresponding Delta%SigmaQRS (r=0.65; P=.02). Changes in T waves with development and alleviation of peripheral edema mirror the changes shown by the QRS complexes and may be useful in the treatment of patients with congestive heart failure or other edematous states.

  18. RADIO FREQUENCY ATTENUATOR

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, S.

    1963-11-12

    A high peak power level r-f attenuator that is readily and easily insertable along a coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer annular conductor without breaking the ends thereof is presented. Spaced first and second flares in the outer conductor face each other with a slidable cylindrical outer conductor portion therebetween. Dielectric means, such as water, contact the cable between the flares to attenuate the radio-frequency energy received thereby. The cylindrical outer conductor portion is slidable to adjust the voltage standing wave ratio to a low level, and one of the flares is slidable to adjust the attenuation level. An integral dielectric container is also provided. (AFC)

  19. Ground Motion Attenuation and Shear-Wave Splitting Analyses for the November 2011 M5.7 Prague, Oklahoma Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumy, D. F.; Cochran, E. S.; Keranen, K. M.; Neighbors, C.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    During November 2011, three M≥5.0 earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks occurred on and near the Wilzetta fault, a structurally complex ~200 km long, Pennsylvanian-aged fault near Prague, Oklahoma, in close proximity to several active wastewater injection wells. All three M≥5.0 earthquakes had strike-slip mechanisms consistent with rupture on three independent focal planes, suggesting activation of three different strands of the Wilzetta fault. Wastewater injection can cause a buildup of pore fluid pressure along the fault, which decreases the fault strength and may induce earthquakes. Based on the proximity of earthquakes to active fluid injection wells, the unilateral progression of aftershocks away from the initial M5.0 event, and shallow earthquake depths, Keranen et al. [2013] concluded that fluid injection was responsible for inducing the first M5.0 event. Furthermore, Sumy et al. [2014] found that the initial M5.0 event increased the Coulomb stress in the region of the M5.7 mainshock, triggering a cascade of earthquakes along the Wilzetta fault. Thus, while nearby wastewater injection directly induced the initial M5.0 event, this earthquake triggered successive failure along the Wilzetta fault; however, it remains unclear if the additional ruptured fault strands are also influenced by fluid injection. In this study, we explore instrumental ground motions and shear-wave splitting of the November 2011 Prague, Oklahoma sequence, in order to construct ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and understand the local stress regime, respectively. We examine ~1,000 earthquakes recorded by a total of 47 seismometers, located within ~150 km of the Wilzetta fault. With respect to GMPEs, initial results suggest that the ground motions are smaller than similar magnitude earthquakes of natural/tectonic origins, and these lower intensities may be a result of lower stress drops [e.g. Hough, 2014]. With respect to shear-wave splitting, we examine quality graded

  20. Calculation Of Pneumatic Attenuation In Pressure Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.

    1991-01-01

    Errors caused by attenuation of air-pressure waves in narrow tubes calculated by method based on fundamental equations of flow. Changes in ambient pressure transmitted along narrow tube to sensor. Attenuation of high-frequency components of pressure wave calculated from wave equation derived from Navier-Stokes equations of viscous flow in tube. Developed to understand and compensate for frictional attenuation in narrow tubes used to connect aircraft pressure sensors with pressure taps on affected surfaces.

  1. Power transmission coefficients for multi-step index optical fibres.

    PubMed

    Aldabaldetreku, Gotzon; Zubia, Joseba; Durana, Gaizka; Arrue, Jon

    2006-02-20

    The aim of the present paper is to provide a single analytical expression of the power transmission coefficient for leaky rays in multi-step index (MSI) fibres. This expression is valid for all tunnelling and refracting rays and allows us to evaluate numerically the power attenuation along an MSI fibre of an arbitrary number of layers. We validate our analysis by comparing the results obtained for limit cases of MSI fibres with those corresponding to step-index (SI) and graded-index (GI) fibres. We also make a similar comparison between this theoretical expression and the use of the WKB solutions of the scalar wave equation.

  2. Ultrasonic Attenuation in Zircaloy-4

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, M.P.; Banchik, A.D.; Lopez Pumarega, M.I.; Ruzzante, J.E.

    2005-04-09

    In this work the relationship between Zircaloy-4 grain size and ultrasonic attenuation behavior was studied for longitudinal waves in the frequency range of 10-90 MHz. The attenuation was analyzed as a function of frequency for samples with different mechanical and heat treatments having recrystallized and Widmanstatten structures with different grain size. The attenuation behavior was analyzed by different scattering models, depending on grain size, wavelength and frequency.

  3. Reflection Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses and provides an example of reflectivity approximation to determine whether reflection will occur. Provides a method to show thin-film interference on a projection screen. Also applies the reflectivity concepts to electromagnetic wave systems. (MVL)

  4. An ice-sheet-wide framework for englacial attenuation from ice-penetrating radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. M.; Bamber, J. L.; Williams, C. N.; Paden, J. D.; Siegert, M. J.; Huybrechts, P.; Gagliardini, O.; Gillet-Chaulet, F.

    2016-07-01

    Radar inference of the bulk properties of glacier beds, most notably identifying basal melting, is, in general, derived from the basal reflection coefficient. On the scale of an ice sheet, unambiguous determination of basal reflection is primarily limited by uncertainty in the englacial attenuation of the radio wave, which is an Arrhenius function of temperature. Existing bed-returned power algorithms for deriving attenuation assume that the attenuation rate is regionally constant, which is not feasible at an ice-sheet-wide scale. Here we introduce a new semi-empirical framework for deriving englacial attenuation, and, to demonstrate its efficacy, we apply it to the Greenland Ice Sheet. A central feature is the use of a prior Arrhenius temperature model to estimate the spatial variation in englacial attenuation as a first guess input for the radar algorithm. We demonstrate regions of solution convergence for two input temperature fields and for independently analysed field campaigns. The coverage achieved is a trade-off with uncertainty and we propose that the algorithm can be "tuned" for discrimination of basal melt (attenuation loss uncertainty ˜ 5 dB). This is supported by our physically realistic ( ˜ 20 dB) range for the basal reflection coefficient. Finally, we show that the attenuation solution can be used to predict the temperature bias of thermomechanical ice sheet models and is in agreement with known model temperature biases at the Dye 3 ice core.

  5. Active high-resolution seismic tomography of compressional wave velocity and attenuation structure at Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California Cascade Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, John R.; Zucca, John J.

    1988-12-01

    We determine compressional wave velocity and attenuation structures for the upper crust beneath Medicine Lake volcano in northeast California using a high-resolution active source seismic tomography method. Medicine Lake volcano is a basalt through rhyolite shield volcano of the Cascade Range, lying east of the range axis. The Pg wave from eight explosive sources which has traveled upward through the target volume to a dense array of 140 seismographs provides 1- to 2-km resolution in the upper 5 to 7 km of the crust beneath the volcano. The experiment tests the hypothesis that Cascade Range volcanoes of this type are underlain only by small silicic magma chambers. We image a low-velocity low-Q region not larger than a few tens of cubic kilometers in volume beneath the summit caldera, supporting the hypothesis. A shallower high-velocity high-density feature, previously known to be present, is imaged for the first time in full plan view; it is east-west elongate, paralleling a topographic lineament between Medicine Lake volcano and Mount Shasta. This lineament is interpreted to be the result of an old crustal weakness now affecting the emplacement of magma, both on direct ascent from the lower crust and mantle and in migration from the shallow silicic chamber to summit vents. Differences between this high-velocity feature and the equivalent feature at Newbeny volcano, a volcano in central Oregon resembling Medicine Lake volcano, may partly explain the scarcity of surface hydrothermal features at Medicine Lake volcano. A major low-velocity low-Q feature beneath the southeast flank of the volcano, in an area with no Holocene vents, is interpreted as tephra, flows, and sediments from the volcano deeply ponded on the downthrown side of the Gillem fault, a normal fault mapped at the surface north of the volcano. A high-Q normal-velocity feature beneath the north rim of the summit caldera may be a small, possibly hot, subsolidus intrusion. A high-velocity low-Q region

  6. Multiple-frequency tomography with shear waves and Love waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yue

    coefficients between velocity and attenuation heterogeneities beneath the Central and Eastern U.S. suggest one physical source, most likely temperature, dominant variations. The smaller correlation coefficients and larger deltalnQS-deltaln VS slopes under the Western U.S. suggest an influence of non-thermal factors such as the existence of water and partial melt. The benefits of the methodological improvements are investigated. Amplitude data help to sharpen the edges of narrow velocity heterogeneities in the shallow upper mantle. The focusing effect dominates over the attenuation effect in interpreting amplitude anomalies. The addition of Love-wave phase delays helps to improve the resolution of both velocity and attenuation, and the effect is noticeable even in the lower mantle.

  7. Inverse problems of ultrasound tomography in models with attenuation.

    PubMed

    Goncharsky, Alexander V; Romanov, Sergey Y

    2014-04-21

    We develop efficient methods for solving inverse problems of ultrasound tomography in models with attenuation. We treat the inverse problem as a coefficient inverse problem for unknown coordinate-dependent functions that characterize both the speed cross section and the coefficients of the wave equation describing attenuation in the diagnosed region. We derive exact formulas for the gradient of the residual functional in models with attenuation, and develop efficient algorithms for minimizing the gradient of the residual by solving the conjugate problem. These algorithms are easy to parallelize when implemented on supercomputers, allowing the computation time to be reduced by a factor of several hundred compared to a PC. The numerical analysis of model problems shows that it is possible to reconstruct not only the speed cross section, but also the properties of the attenuating medium. We investigate the choice of the initial approximation for iterative algorithms used to solve inverse problems. The algorithms considered are primarily meant for the development of ultrasound tomographs for differential diagnosis of breast cancer.

  8. Homomorphic processing of the tube wave generated during acoustic logging

    SciTech Connect

    Ellefsen, K.J. ); Cheng, C.H. . Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences); Burns, D.R.

    1993-10-01

    The authors have developed a new method to process the tube wave, which is generated during acoustic logging, to obtain estimates for its wavenumber, attenuation coefficient, amplitude, and phase at every frequency. To improve the accuracy of the estimates, the method can use data from multiple sources and data collected at successive depths in the borehole. This new method has several advantages over other methods that are currently used to process acoustic logging data: the new method can obtain accurate estimates of the wavenumber and amplitude from only a few receivers; the receivers can be irregularly spaced; and no spurious estimates are generated. Nonetheless, this new method has one disadvantage compared to others: it can only estimate the parameters for one, high-amplitude wave like the tube wave. Also, like all other existing methods, the new method obtains only reasonable estimates for the attenuation coefficient when data from many receivers are processed.

  9. Full-wave description of the lower hybrid reflection of whistler waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzichev, I. V. Shklyar, D. R.

    2013-10-15

    A quasi-electrostatic whistler wave propagating in the direction of increasing lower hybrid resonance (LHR) frequency experiences reflection from the region in which its frequency becomes lower than the LHR frequency. This phenomenon is usually described in the framework of geometrical optics. For a wave propagating along a magnetospheric trajectory, the LHR reflection frequently takes place in the ionospheric region in which electron-neutral collisions are essential and lead to wave attenuation. In this case, the wave approach to the description of the LHR reflection is most consistent. This work is aimed at developing such an approach. The coefficients of the wave reflection are calculated for different plasma parameters. The relation between the problem under consideration and the problem of exit of whistler-mode waves to the ground is considered.

  10. Viscosity measurement based on shear-wave laser speckle contrast analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yi; Li, Sinan; Eckersley, Robert J.; Elson, Daniel S.; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2013-12-01

    Tissue viscosity is correlated with tissue pathological changes and provides information for tissue characterization. In this study, we report an optical method to track continuous shear-wave propagation at centimeter depths in an optically turbid medium. Shear-wave attenuation coefficients were measured at multiple frequencies using shear-wave laser speckle contrast analysis (SW-LASCA) to quantitatively estimate tissue viscosity using the Voigt model. Shear waves were generated within tissue-mimicking phantoms by an amplitude-modulated ultrasound (modulation frequency: 100 to 600 Hz) and tracked by time-resolved laser speckle contrast difference received on a charged-coupled device camera. Averaged contrast difference over a selected time window was related to shear-wave amplitude and used to calculate the shear-wave attenuation coefficient. Phantoms of varying viscosities (0.1 and 0.3 Pa s) were studied. Attenuation coefficients for different shear-wave frequencies (100 to 600 Hz) were calculated. Derived viscosity values had a maximum standard deviation of 9%, and these values were consistent with the independent measurements reported in a previous study using nonoptical methods.

  11. A parametric analysis of waves propagating in a porous solid saturated by a three-phase fluid.

    PubMed

    Santos, Juan E; Savioli, Gabriela B

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a model for the propagation of waves in a poroelastic solid saturated by a three-phase viscous, compressible fluid. The constitutive relations and the equations of motion are stated first. Then a plane wave analysis determines the phase velocities and attenuation coefficients of the four compressional waves and one shear wave that propagate in this type of medium. A procedure to compute the elastic constants in the constitutive relations is defined next. Assuming the knowledge of the shear modulus of the dry matrix, the other elastic constants in the stress-strain relations are determined by employing ideal gedanken experiments generalizing those of Biot's theory for single-phase fluids. These experiments yield expressions for the elastic constants in terms of the properties of the individual solid and fluids phases. Finally the phase velocities and attenuation coefficients of all waves are computed for a sample of Berea sandstone saturated by oil, gas, and water.

  12. Ultrasonic attenuation peak in steel and aluminum alloy during rotating bending fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Ogi, Hirotsugu; Hamaguchi, Takayuki; Hirao, Masahiko

    2000-04-01

    Using electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR), the authors studied the evolution of the surface shear wave attenuation and phase velocity in a 0.45 pct C steel and a 5052 aluminum alloy exposed to rotating bending fatigue. In the EMAR method, they used electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) for the contactless measurements of the axial shear wave, which is a surface shear wave that propagates along a cylindrical surface in the circumferential direction, with an axial polarization. There has been no precious report of continuous and contactless monitoring of the surface wave attenuation and velocity being performed without interrupting the fatigue. The attenuation coefficient always showed sharp peaks around 90 pct of the fatigue life, independent of the fatigue-stress amplitude. To interpret this phenomenon, the authors made crack-growth observations using replicas and measurements of recovery of attenuation and velocity by stopping the cyclic loading before and after the peak. From these results, they concluded that the evolution of the ultrasonic properties is caused by a drastic change in dislocation mobility being accompanied by the crack growth at the final stage of the fatigue life.

  13. Shear waves in vegetal tissues at ultrasonic frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fariñas, M. D.; Sancho-Knapik, D.; Peguero-Pina, J. J.; Gil-Pelegrín, E.; Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, T. E.

    2013-03-01

    Shear waves are investigated in leaves of two plant species using air-coupled ultrasound. Magnitude and phase spectra of the transmission coefficient around the first two orders of the thickness resonances (normal and oblique incidence) have been measured. A bilayer acoustic model for plant leaves (comprising the palisade parenchyma and the spongy mesophyll) is proposed to extract, from measured spectra, properties of these tissues like: velocity and attenuation of longitudinal and shear waves and hence Young modulus, rigidity modulus, and Poisson's ratio. Elastic moduli values are typical of cellular solids and both, shear and longitudinal waves exhibit classical viscoelastic losses. Influence of leaf water content is also analyzed.

  14. The influence of porosity on ultrasound attenuation in carbon fiber reinforced plastic composites using the laser-ultrasound spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabutov, A. A.; Podymova, N. B.; Belyaev, I. O.

    2013-11-01

    Wideband acoustic spectroscopy with a laser ultrasound source for quantitative analysis of the effect of porosity on the attenuation coefficient of longitudinal acoustic waves in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite materials was experimentally implemented. The samples under study had different bulk-porosity levels (up to 10%), which were determined using X-ray computer tomography. A resonance ultrasound attenuation peak associated with the one-dimensional periodicity of the layered composite structure was observed for all samples. The absolute value of the resonance-peak maximum and its width depend on the local concentration of microscopic isolated pores and extended delaminations in the sample structure. The obtained empirical relationships between these parameters of the frequency dependence of the ultrasound attenuation coefficient and the type of inhomogeneities and their volume concentration can be used for rapid evaluation of the structural quality of CFRP composites.

  15. Optimal ultrasonic array focusing in attenuative media.

    PubMed

    Ganguli, A; Gao, R X; Liang, K; Jundt, J

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a parametric study on the efficiency of ultrasound focusing in an attenuative medium, using phased arrays. Specifically, an analytical model of ultrasound wave focusing in a homogeneous, isotropic and attenuative fluid with point sources is presented. Calculations based on the model have shown that in an attenuative medium, an optimum frequency exists for the best focusing performance for a particular size of aperture and focal distance. The effect of different f numbers on the focusing performance in the attenuative medium is further investigated. The information obtained from the analytical model provides insights into the design and installation of a phased transducer array for energy efficient wave focusing.

  16. Prediction of spectral acceleration response ordinates based on PGA attenuation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graizer, V.; Kalkan, E.

    2009-01-01

    Developed herein is a new peak ground acceleration (PGA)-based predictive model for 5% damped pseudospectral acceleration (SA) ordinates of free-field horizontal component of ground motion from shallow-crustal earthquakes. The predictive model of ground motion spectral shape (i.e., normalized spectrum) is generated as a continuous function of few parameters. The proposed model eliminates the classical exhausted matrix of estimator coefficients, and provides significant ease in its implementation. It is structured on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) database with a number of additions from recent Californian events including 2003 San Simeon and 2004 Parkfield earthquakes. A unique feature of the model is its new functional form explicitly integrating PGA as a scaling factor. The spectral shape model is parameterized within an approximation function using moment magnitude, closest distance to the fault (fault distance) and VS30 (average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m) as independent variables. Mean values of its estimator coefficients were computed by fitting an approximation function to spectral shape of each record using robust nonlinear optimization. Proposed spectral shape model is independent of the PGA attenuation, allowing utilization of various PGA attenuation relations to estimate the response spectrum of earthquake recordings.

  17. Investigation of the influence of reflection on the attenuation of cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Klinge, Sandra; Hackl, Klaus; Gilbert, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    The model proposed in this paper is based on the fact that the reflection might have a significant contribution to the attenuation of the acoustic waves propagating through the cancellous bone. The numerical implementation of the mentioned effect is realized by the development of a new representative volume element that includes an infinitesimally thin 'transient' layer on the contact surface of the bone and the marrow. This layer serves to model the amplitude transformation of the incident wave by the transition through media with different acoustic impedances and to take into account the energy loss due to the reflection. The proposed representative volume element together with the multiscale finite element is used to simulate the wave propagation and to evaluate the attenuation coefficient for samples with different effective densities in the dependence of the applied excitation frequency. The obtained numerical values show a very good agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, the model enables the determination of the upper and the lower bound for the attenuation coefficient.

  18. Numerical simulation of non-invasive determination of the propagation coefficient in arterial system using two measurements sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdessalem, K. B.; Sahtout, W.; Flaud, P.; Gazah, H.; Fakhfakh, Z.

    2007-11-01

    Literature shows a lack of works based on non-invasive methods for computing the propagation coefficient γ, a complex number related to dynamic vascular properties. Its imaginary part is inversely related to the wave speed C through the relationship C=ω/Im(γ), while its real part a, called attenuation, represents loss of pulse energy per unit of length. In this work an expression is derived giving the propagation coefficient when assuming a pulsatile flow through a viscoelastic vessel. The effects of physical and geometrical parameters of the tube are then studied. In particular, the effects of increasing the reflection coefficient, on the determination of the propagation coefficient are investigated in a first step. In a second step, we simulate a variation of tube length under physiological conditions. The method developed here is based on the knowledge of instantaneous velocity and radius values at only two sites. It takes into account the presence of a reflection site of unknown reflection coefficient, localised in the distal end of the vessel. The values of wave speed and attenuation obtained with this method are in a good agreement with the theory. This method has the advantage to be usable for small portions of the arterial tree.

  19. Travelling wave modes of a plane layered anelastic earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odom, Robert I.

    2016-08-01

    Incorporation of attenuation into the normal mode sum representations of seismic signals is commonly effected by applying perturbation theory. This is fine for weak attenuation, but problematic for stronger attenuation. In this work, modes of the anelastic medium are represented as complex superpositions of elastic eigenfunctions. For the P-SV system, a generalized eigenvalue equation for the complex eigenwavenumbers and complex coefficients used to construct the anelastic eigenfunctions is derived. The generalized eigenvalue problem for the P-SV problem is exactly linear in the eigenwavenumber at the expense of doubling the dimension. The SH problem is exactly linear in the square of the eigenwavenumber. This is in contrast to a similar standing wave problem for the earth free oscillations. Attenuation is commonly incorporated into synthetic seismogram calculations by introduction of complex frequency-dependent elastic moduli. The moduli depend nonlinearly on the frequency. The independent variable in the standing wave free oscillation problem is the frequency, which makes the eigenvalue problem nonlinear. The choice of the wavenumber as the independent variable for the travelling wave problem leads to a linear problem. The Earth model may be transversely isotropic. Compressional waves and both polarizations of shear waves (SV, SH) are treated.

  20. Fast and slow wave detection in bovine cancellous bone in vitro using bandlimited deconvolution and Prony's method.

    PubMed

    Wear, Keith; Nagatani, Yoshiki; Mizuno, Katsunori; Matsukawa, Mami

    2014-10-01

    Fast and slow waves were detected in a bovine cancellous bone sample for thicknesses ranging from 7 to 12 mm using bandlimited deconvolution and the modified least-squares Prony's method with curve fitting (MLSP + CF). Bandlimited deconvolution consistently isolated two waves with linear-with-frequency attenuation coefficients as evidenced by high correlation coefficients between attenuation coefficient and frequency: 0.997 ± 0.002 (fast wave) and 0.986 ± 0.013 (slow wave) (mean ± standard deviation). Average root-mean-squared (RMS) differences between the two algorithms for phase velocities were 5 m/s (fast wave, 350 kHz) and 13 m/s (slow wave, 750 kHz). Average RMS differences for signal loss were 1.6 dB (fast wave, 350 kHz) and 0.4 dB (slow wave, 750 kHz). Phase velocities for thickness = 10 mm were 1726 m/s (fast wave, 350 kHz) and 1455 m/s (slow wave, 750 kHz). Results show support for the model of two waves with linear-with frequency attenuation, successful isolation of fast and slow waves, good agreement between bandlimited deconvolution and MLSP + CF as well as with a Bayesian algorithm, and potential variations of fast and/or slow wave properties with bone sample thickness.

  1. Seismic Attenuation Inversion with t* Using tstarTomog.

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Leiph

    2014-09-01

    Seismic attenuation is defined as the loss of the seismic wave amplitude as the wave propagates excluding losses strictly due to geometric spreading. Information gleaned from seismic waves can be utilized to solve for the attenuation properties of the earth. One method of solving for earth attenuation properties is called t*. This report will start by introducing the basic theory behind t* and delve into inverse theory as it pertains to how the algorithm called tstarTomog inverts for attenuation properties using t* observations. This report also describes how to use the tstarTomog package to go from observed data to a 3-D model of attenuation structure in the earth.

  2. Simultaneous estimation of attenuation and structure parameters of aggregated red blood cells from backscatter measurements.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Emilie; Yu, François T H; Cloutier, Guy

    2008-04-01

    The analysis of the ultrasonic frequency-dependent backscatter coefficient of aggregating red blood cells reveals information about blood structural properties. The difficulty in applying this technique in vivo is due to the frequency-dependent attenuation caused by intervening tissue layers that distorts the spectral content of backscattering properties from blood microstructures. An optimization method is proposed to simultaneously estimate tissue attenuation and blood structure factor. With in vitro experiments, the method gave satisfactory estimates with relative errors below 22% for attenuations between 0.101 and 0.317 dBcmMHz, signal-to-noise ratios>28 dB and kR<2.7 (k being the wave number and R the aggregate radius).

  3. Noncontact measurement of ultrasonic attenuation during rotating fatigue test of steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogi, Hirotsugu; Hirao, Masahiko; Minoura, Kiyoshi

    1997-04-01

    Acoustic resonance technique has been applied to monitor the fatigue damage process of steel pipes exposed to rotating bending fatigue. The technique incorporates a superheterodyne spectrometer and an electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). The EMAT was newly developed for this purpose, and uses the magnetostrictive mechanism of ferromagnetic metals and excites and detects axial shear waves traveling around the sample pipe with axial polarization. Noncontact ultrasonic spectroscopy permits the accurate determination of the resonant frequency and the attenuation coefficient throughout the fatigue life. The attenuation coefficient shows a sharp peak around 80%-90% of the life. The evolution is interpreted as reflecting dislocation multiplication, depinning, and formation of cell structures, which is supported by transmission electron microscopy observations.

  4. Ultrasonic attenuation peak in steel and aluminum alloy during rotating bending fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogi, Hirotsugu; Hamaguchi, Takayuki; Hirao, Masahiko

    2000-04-01

    Using electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR), we studied the evolution of the surface shearwave attenuation and phase velocity in a 0.45 pct C steel and a 5052 aluminum alloy exposed to rotating bending fatigue. In the EMAR method, we used electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) for the contactless measurements of the axial shear wave, which is a surface shear wave that propagates along a cylindrical surface in the circumferential direction, with an axial polarization. There has been no previous report of continuous and contactless monitoring of the surface wave attenuation and velocity being performed without interrupting the fatigue. The attenuation coefficient always showed sharp peaks around 90 pct of the fatigue life, independent of the fatigue-stress amplitude. To interpret this phenomenon, we made crack-growth observations using replicas and measurements of recovery of attenuation and velocity by stopping the cyclic loading before and after the peak. From these results, we concluded that the evolution of the ultrasonic properties is caused by a drastic change in dislocation mobility being accompanied by the crack growth at the final stage of the fatigue life.

  5. Measurements of ultrasound velocity and attenuation in numerical anisotropic porous media compared to Biot's and multiple scattering models.

    PubMed

    Mézière, Fabien; Muller, Marie; Bossy, Emmanuel; Derode, Arnaud

    2014-07-01

    This article quantitatively investigates ultrasound propagation in numerical anisotropic porous media with finite-difference simulations in 3D. The propagation media consist of clusters of ellipsoidal scatterers randomly distributed in water, mimicking the anisotropic structure of cancellous bone. Velocities and attenuation coefficients of the ensemble-averaged transmitted wave (also known as the coherent wave) are measured in various configurations. As in real cancellous bone, one or two longitudinal modes emerge, depending on the micro-structure. The results are confronted with two standard theoretical approaches: Biot's theory, usually invoked in porous media, and the Independent Scattering Approximation (ISA), a classical first-order approach of multiple scattering theory. On the one hand, when only one longitudinal wave is observed, it is found that at porosities higher than 90% the ISA successfully predicts the attenuation coefficient (unlike Biot's theory), as well as the existence of negative dispersion. On the other hand, the ISA is not well suited to study two-wave propagation, unlike Biot's model, at least as far as wave speeds are concerned. No free fitting parameters were used for the application of Biot's theory. Finally we investigate the phase-shift between waves in the fluid and the solid structure, and compare them to Biot's predictions of in-phase and out-of-phase motions.

  6. Cure monitoring using ultrasonic guided waves in wires.

    PubMed

    Vogt, T; Lowe, M; Cawley, P

    2003-09-01

    The possibility of using ultrasonic guided waves for monitoring the cure process of epoxy resins is investigated. The two techniques presented use a wire waveguide which is partly embedded in the resin. The first technique is based on the measurement of attenuation due to leakage of bulk waves into the resin surrounding the waveguide. The second technique measures the reflection of the guided wave that occurs at the point where the waveguide enters the resin. Both the attenuation and the reflection coefficient change significantly during cure, and the numerical methods to relate these to the material properties of the curing resin are presented in this paper. The results from the modeling are experimentally verified and show good agreement. The applicability of each testing method is discussed, and typical cure-monitoring curves are presented.

  7. Cure monitoring using ultrasonic guided waves in wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, T.; Lowe, M.; Cawley, P.

    2003-09-01

    The possibility of using ultrasonic guided waves for monitoring the cure process of epoxy resins is investigated. The two techniques presented use a wire waveguide which is partly embedded in the resin. The first technique is based on the measurement of attenuation due to leakage of bulk waves into the resin surrounding the waveguide. The second technique measures the reflection of the guided wave that occurs at the point where the waveguide enters the resin. Both the attenuation and the reflection coefficient change significantly during cure, and the numerical methods to relate these to the material properties of the curing resin are presented in this paper. The results from the modeling are experimentally verified and show good agreement. The applicability of each testing method is discussed, and typical cure-monitoring curves are presented.

  8. Micromechanics of Seismic Wave Propagation in Granular Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihei, Kurt Toshimi

    1992-09-01

    This thesis investigates the details of seismic wave propagation in granular rocks by examining the micromechanical processes which take place at the grain level. Grain contacts are identified as the primary sites of attenuation in dry and fluid-saturated rocks. In many sedimentary rocks such as sandstones and limestones, the process of diagenesis leaves the grains only partially cemented together. When viewed at the micron scale, grain contacts are non-welded interfaces similar in nature to large scale joints and faults. Using a lumped properties approximation, the macroscopic properties of partially cemented grain contacts are modeled using a displacement-discontinuity boundary condition. This model is used to estimate the magnitude and the frequency dependence of the grain contact scattering attenuation for an idealized grain packing geometry. Ultrasonic P- and S-wave group velocity and attenuation measurements on sintered glass beads, alundum, and Berea sandstones were performed to determine the effects of stress, frequency, and pore fluid properties in granular materials with sintered and partially sintered grain contacts. P - and S-wave attenuation displayed the same overall trends for tests with n-decane, water, silicone oil, and glycerol. The magnitudes of the attenuation coefficients were, in general, higher for S-waves. The experimental measurements reveal that viscosity-dependent attenuation dominates in material with sintered grain contacts. Viscosity-dependent attenuation is also observed in Berea sandstone but only at hydrostatic stresses in excess of 15 MPa where the grain contacts are highly stiffened. Fluid surface chemistry-related attenuation was observed in Berea sandstone loaded uniaxially. These measurements suggest that attenuation in fluid-saturated rocks with partially cemented grain contacts is dependent on both the fluid properties and the state of stress at the grain contacts. A numerical method for simulating seismic wave propagation in

  9. A linear model approach for ultrasonic inverse problems with attenuation and dispersion.

    PubMed

    Carcreff, Ewen; Bourguignon, Sébastien; Idier, Jérôme; Simon, Laurent

    2014-07-01

    Ultrasonic inverse problems such as spike train deconvolution, synthetic aperture focusing, or tomography attempt to reconstruct spatial properties of an object (discontinuities, delaminations, flaws, etc.) from noisy and incomplete measurements. They require an accurate description of the data acquisition process. Dealing with frequency-dependent attenuation and dispersion is therefore crucial because both phenomena modify the wave shape as the travel distance increases. In an inversion context, this paper proposes to exploit a linear model of ultrasonic data taking into account attenuation and dispersion. The propagation distance is discretized to build a finite set of radiation impulse responses. Attenuation is modeled with a frequency power law and then dispersion is computed to yield physically consistent responses. Using experimental data acquired from attenuative materials, this model outperforms the standard attenuation-free model and other models of the literature. Because of model linearity, robust estimation methods can be implemented. When matched filtering is employed for single echo detection, the model that we propose yields precise estimation of the attenuation coefficient and of the sound velocity. A thickness estimation problem is also addressed through spike deconvolution, for which the proposed model also achieves accurate results.

  10. Second virial coefficient of one dimensional gas

    SciTech Connect

    Mijatovic, M.

    1982-08-01

    The second virial coefficient of a one dimensional gas is calculated using the expressions for the scattering amplitude. The scattering amplitude is chosen in the form of rational function of wave vector.

  11. Ultrasound fields in attenuating media.

    PubMed

    Lerch, R; Friedrich, W

    1986-10-01

    For medical ultrasonic imaging and for nondestructive testing, the attenuation of pressure waves and the resulting shift in wave velocity are important features in commonly used transmission media such as biological tissue. An algorithm for the numerical evaluation of pressure field distributions generated by ultrasonic transducers is presented. The attenuation and dispersion of the sound transmission medium are taken into consideration. The sound fields are computed numerically for continuous wave as well as pulse excitation. The transducer has plane or gently curved geometry and is embedded in a plane rigid baffle. The numerically determined pressure fields are presented as 3D plots, as gray-scale images for a fixed time stamp (like a snapshot), or as isobars regarding the maximum values over time for each local point in the area under investigation. The algorithm described here can be utilized as a tool for design of ultrasound transducers, especially array antennas.

  12. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E; Poole, L; Cherdak, A; Houghton, W

    1980-05-15

    An instrument has been developed that directly measures the multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. The design incorporates methods for compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in background light level. When used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.

  13. An empirical method to estimate the viscosity of mineral oil by means of ultrasonic attenuation.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyeong; Gottlieb, Emanuel; Augenstein, Donald; Brown, Gregor; Tittmann, Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an empirical method for measuring the viscosity of mineral oil. In a built-in pipeline application, conventional ultrasonic methods using shear reflectance or rheological and acoustical phenomena may fail because of attenuated shear wave propagation and an unpredictable spreading loss caused by protective housings and comparable main flows. The empirical method utilizing longitudinal waves eliminates the unknown spreading loss from attenuation measurements on the object fluid by removing the normalized spreading loss per focal length with the measurement of a reference fluid of a known acoustic absorption coefficient. The ultrasonic attenuation of fresh water as the reference fluid and mineral oil as the object fluid were measured along with the sound speed and effective frequency. The empirical equation for the spreading loss in the reference fluid is determined by high-order polynomial fitting. To estimate the shear viscosity of the mineral oil, a linear fit is applied to the total loss difference between the two fluids, whose slope (the absorption coefficient) is combined with an assumed shear-to-volume viscosity relation. The empirical method predicted the viscosities of two types of the mineral oil with a maximum statistical uncertainty of 8.8% and a maximum systematic error of 12.5% compared with directly measured viscosity using a glass-type viscometer. The validity of this method was examined by comparison with the results from theoretical far-field spreading.

  14. Prediction of CT Substitutes from MR Images Based on Local Diffeomorphic Mapping for Brain PET Attenuation Correction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao; Yang, Wei; Lu, Lijun; Lu, Zhentai; Zhong, Liming; Huang, Meiyan; Feng, Yanqiu; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2016-10-01

    Attenuation correction is important for PET reconstruction. In PET/MR, MR intensities are not directly related to attenuation coefficients that are needed in PET imaging. The attenuation coefficient map can be derived from CT images. Therefore, prediction of CT substitutes from MR images is desired for attenuation correction in PET/MR.

  15. On the excess attenuation of sound in the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1975-01-01

    The attenuation suffered by an acoustic plane wave propagating from an elevated source to the ground, in excess of absorption losses, was studied. Reported discrepancies between attenuation measurements made in the field and theories which only account for absorption losses are discussed. It was concluded that the scattering of sound by turbulence results in a nonnegligible contribution to the total attenuation.

  16. Attenuation of short strongly nonlinear stress pulses in dissipative granular chains.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Nesterenko, V F

    2015-06-01

    Attenuation of short, strongly nonlinear stress pulses in chains of spheres and cylinders was investigated experimentally and numerically for two ratios of their masses keeping their contacts identical. The chain with mass ratio 0.98 supports solitary waves and another one (with mass ratio 0.55) supports nonstationary pulses, which preserve their identity only on relatively short distances, but attenuate on longer distances because of radiation of small amplitude tails generated by oscillating small mass particles. Pulse attenuation in experiments in the chain with mass ratio 0.55 was faster at the same number of the particles from the entrance than in the chain with mass ratio 0.98. It is in quantitative agreement with results of numerical calculations with effective damping coefficient 6 kg/s. This level of damping was critical for eliminating the gap openings between particles in the system with mass ratio 0.55 present at lower or no damping. With increase of dissipation numerical results show that the chain with mass ratio 0.98 provides faster attenuation than the chain with mass ratio 0.55 due to the fact that the former system supports the narrower pulse with the larger difference between velocities of neighboring particles. The investigated chains demonstrated similar behavior at large damping coefficient 100 kg/s.

  17. High-frequency Rayleigh-wave method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Chen, C.; Liu, J.; Ivanov, J.; Zeng, C.

    2009-01-01

    High-frequency (???2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave data acquired with a multichannel recording system have been utilized to determine shear (S)-wave velocities in near-surface geophysics since the early 1980s. This overview article discusses the main research results of high-frequency surface-wave techniques achieved by research groups at the Kansas Geological Survey and China University of Geosciences in the last 15 years. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method is a non-invasive acoustic approach to estimate near-surface S-wave velocity. The differences between MASW results and direct borehole measurements are approximately 15% or less and random. Studies show that simultaneous inversion with higher modes and the fundamental mode can increase model resolution and an investigation depth. The other important seismic property, quality factor (Q), can also be estimated with the MASW method by inverting attenuation coefficients of Rayleigh waves. An inverted model (S-wave velocity or Q) obtained using a damped least-squares method can be assessed by an optimal damping vector in a vicinity of the inverted model determined by an objective function, which is the trace of a weighted sum of model-resolution and model-covariance matrices. Current developments include modeling high-frequency Rayleigh-waves in near-surface media, which builds a foundation for shallow seismic or Rayleigh-wave inversion in the time-offset domain; imaging dispersive energy with high resolution in the frequency-velocity domain and possibly with data in an arbitrary acquisition geometry, which opens a door for 3D surface-wave techniques; and successfully separating surface-wave modes, which provides a valuable tool to perform S-wave velocity profiling with high-horizontal resolution. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.

  18. Wave transformation over coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Ian R.

    1989-07-01

    Ocean wave attenuation on coral reefs is discussed using data obtained from a preliminary field experiment and from the Seasat altimeter. Marked attenuation of the waves is observed, the rate being consistent with existing theories of bottom friction and wave breaking decay. In addition, there is a significant broadening of the spectrum during propagation across reefs. Three-dimensional effects, such as refraction and defraction, can also lead to substantial wave height reduction for significant distances adjacent to coral reefs. As a result, a matrix of such reefs provides significantly more wave attenuation than may initially be expected.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of shear wave propagation in excised tissue.

    PubMed

    Bishop, J; Poole, G; Leitch, M; Plewes, D B

    1998-01-01

    The propagation of shear waves in ex vivo tissue samples, agar/gel phantoms, and human volunteers was investigated. A moving coil apparatus was constructed to generate low acoustic frequency shear perturbations of 50 to 400 Hz. Oscillating gradients phase-locked with the shear stimulus were used to generate a series of phase contrast images of the shear waves at different time-points throughout the wave cycle. Quantitative measurements of wave velocity and attenuation were obtained to evaluate the effects of temperature, frequency, and tissue anisotropy. Results of these experiments demonstrate significant variation in shear wave behavior with tissue type, whereas frequency and anisotropic behavior was mixed. Temperature-dependent behavior related mainly to the presence of fat. Propagation velocities ranged from 1 to 5 m/sec, and attenuation coefficients of from 1 to 3 nepers/unit wavelength, depending on tissue type. These results confirm the potential of elastic imaging attributable to the intrinsic variability of elastic properties observed in normal tissue, although some difficulty may be experienced in clinical implementation because of viscous attenuation in fat.

  20. Thermal attenuation and dispersion of sound in a periodic emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide; Izuyama, Takeo

    1992-10-01

    We investigate the attenuation and dispersion of sound waves in suspensions and emulsions caused by the thermal-transport process. They combine to constitute the effective compressibility of the system. We begin with an attempt to justify the Isakovich formula for calculating the effective compressibility. The formula is then rewritten in terms of the interfacial heat flux. Isakovich's analysis is simply an independent-particle approximation. It is the purpose of this paper to consider the effect of interparticle interactions. The effective compressibility is calculated for an array of spherical particles or droplets centered at the points of a periodic lattice, immersed in a fluid of different species. Ewald's method of fast-convergent lattice sums in electrostatics is extended to a technique for the heat-conduction problem in a periodic emulsion. The computation for cubic lattices reveals that the interparticle interactions act to reduce, in the lower-frequency range, both the attenuation coefficient and the departure of the sound velocity from its high-frequency limit. The striking feature is that a drastic change in attenuation occurs when the thermal conductivity of the particle is substantially larger than that of the ambient fluid.

  1. The Physics of the Gas Attenuator for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D.D.; Bionta, R.M.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; Kishiyama, K.I.; McMahon, D.; Roeben, M.D.; Shen, S.; Stefan, P.M.; /SLAC

    2011-02-07

    A systematic assessment of a variety of physics issues affecting the performance of the LCLS X-ray beam attenuator is presented. Detailed analysis of the gas flow in the gas attenuator and in the apertures is performed. A lot of attention is directed towards the gas ionization and heating by intense X-ray pulses. The role of these phenomena in possible deviations of the attenuation coefficient from its 'dialed in' value is evaluated and found small in most cases. Other sources of systematic and statistical errors are also discussed. The regimes where the errors may reach a few percent correspond to the lower X-ray energies (less than 2 keV) and highest beam intensities. Other effects discussed include chemical interaction of the gas with apertures, shock formation in the transonic flow in the apertures of the attenuator, generation of electromagnetic wakes in the gas, and head-to-tail variation of the attenuation caused by the ionization of gas or solid. Possible experimental tests of the consistency of the physics assumptions used in the concept of the gas attenuator are discussed. Interaction of X-rays with the solid attenuator (that will be used at higher X-ray energies, from 2.5 to 8 keV) is considered and thermo-mechanical effects caused by the beam heating are evaluated. Wave-front distortions induced by non-uniform heating of both the solid and the gas are found to be small. An overall conclusion drawn from the analysis presented is that the attenuator will be a reliable and highly versatile device, provided that some caution is exercised in its use for highest beam intensities at lowest X-ray energies.

  2. The Seismic Attenuation Structure of the East Pacific Rise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-27

    and J. J. Zucca, Active high-resolution seismic tomography of compressional wave velocity and attenuation at Medicine Lake volcano , northern California...Kanamori, R. W. Clayton, Three- dimensional attenuation structure of Kilauea -East rift zone, Hawaii, J. Geophys. Res., submitted, 1990. Holt, M., Underwater...zones of anomalously high S-wave attenuation in the upper crust near Ruapehu and Ngauruhoe volcanoes , New Zealand, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 10, 125

  3. Numerical study of wave propagation in porous media with the use of the grid-characteristic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasov, I. E.; Leviant, V. B.; Petrov, I. B.

    2016-09-01

    Elastic wave propagation in a porous medium is numerically studied by applying the grid-characteristic method. On the basis of direct measurements of reflected and transmitted wave amplitudes, the reflection and decay coefficients are investigated as depending on the degree of porosity (percentage of the pore volume) and on the type of the filling substance (solid, liquid, or nothing). The reflection and decay coefficients are shown to be closely related to the porosity of the medium, which can be used in geological applications (estimation of porosity) and engineering applications (acoustic response attenuation).

  4. Study on laser and infrared attenuation performance of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang-cui; Liu, Qing-hai; Dai, Meng-yan; Cheng, Xiang; Fang, Guo-feng; Zhang, Tong; Liu, Haifeng

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, the weapon systems of laser and infrared (IR) imaging guidance have been widely used in modern warfare because of their high precision and strong anti-interference. However, military smoke, a rapid and effective passive jamming method, can effectively counteract the attack of precision-guided weapons by their scattering and absorbing effects. The traditional smoke has good visible light (0.4-0.76μm) obscurant performance, but hardly any effects to other electromagnetic wave bands while the weapon systems of laser and IR imaging guidance usually work in broad band, including the near-infrared (1-