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Sample records for wave electric fields

  1. Ionizing gas breakdown waves in strong electric fields.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingbeil, R.; Tidman, D. A.; Fernsler, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A previous analysis by Albright and Tidman (1972) of the structure of an ionizing potential wave driven through a dense gas by a strong electric field is extended to include atomic structure details of the background atoms and radiative effects, especially, photoionization. It is found that photoionization plays an important role in avalanche propagation. Velocities, electron densities, and temperatures are presented as a function of electric field for both negative and positive breakdown waves in nitrogen.

  2. Interaction of excitable waves emitted from two defects by pulsed electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiang-Xing; Zhang, Han; Qiao, Li-Yan; Liang, Hong; Sun, Wei-Gang

    2018-01-01

    In response to a pulsed electric field, spatial distributed heterogeneities in excitable media can serve as nucleation sites for the generation of intramural electrical waves, a phenomenon called as ;wave emission from heterogeneities; (WEH effect). Heterogeneities in cardiac tissue strongly influence each other in the WEH effect. We study the WEH effect in a medium possessing two defects. The role of two defects and their interaction by pulsed DC electric fields (DEF) and rotating electric fields (REF) are investigated. The direction of the applied electric field plays a major role not only in the minimum electrical field necessary to originate wave propagation, but also in the degree of influences of nearby defects. The distance between two defects, i.e. the density of defects, also play an important role in the WEH effect. Generally, the REF is better than the DEF when pulsed electric fields are applied. These results may contribute to the improved application of WEH, especially in older patients with fibrosis and scarring, which are accompanied by a higher incidence of conductivity discontinuities.

  3. Influence of bias electric field on elastic waves propagation in piezoelectric layered structures.

    PubMed

    Burkov, S I; Zolotova, O P; Sorokin, B P

    2013-08-01

    Theoretical and computer investigations of acoustic wave propagation in piezoelectric layered structures, subjected to the dc electric field influence have been fulfilled. Analysis of the dispersive parameters of elastic waves propagation in the BGO/fused silica and fused silica/LiNbO3 piezoelectric layered structures for a number of variants of dc electric field application has been executed. Transformation of bulk acoustic wave into SAW type mode under the dc electric field influence has been found. Possibility to control the permission or prohibition of the wave propagation by the dc electric field application and the appropriate choice of the layer and substrate materials has been discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurements of Electric Field in a Nanosecond Pulse Discharge by 4-WAVE Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratte, Edmond; Adamovich, Igor V.; Simeni Simeni, Marien; Frederickson, Kraig

    2017-06-01

    Picosecond four-wave mixing is used to measure temporally and Picosecond four-wave mixing is used to measure temporally and spatially resolved electric field in a nanosecond pulse dielectric discharge sustained in room air and in an atmospheric pressure hydrogen diffusion flame. Measurements of the electric field, and more precisely the reduced electric field (E/N) in the plasma is critical for determination rate coefficients of electron impact processes in the plasma, as well as for quantifying energy partition in the electric discharge among different molecular energy modes. The four-wave mixing measurements are performed using a collinear phase matching geometry, with nitrogen used as the probe species, at temporal resolution of about 2 ns . Absolute calibration is performed by measurement of a known electrostatic electric field. In the present experiments, the discharge is sustained between two stainless steel plate electrodes, each placed in a quartz sleeve, which greatly improves plasma uniformity. Our previous measurements of electric field in a nanosecond pulse dielectric barrier discharge by picosecond 4-wave mixing have been done in air at room temperature, in a discharge sustained between a razor edge high-voltage electrode and a plane grounded electrode (a quartz plate or a layer of distilled water). Electric field measurements in a flame, which is a high-temperature environment, are more challenging because the four-wave mixing signal is proportional to the to square root of the difference betwen the populations of N2 ground vibrational level (v=0) and first excited vibrational level (v=1). At high temperatures, the total number density is reduced, thus reducing absolute vibrational level populations of N2. Also, the signal is reduced further due to a wider distribution of N2 molecules over multiple rotational levels at higher temperatures, while the present four-wave mixing diagnostics is using spectrally narrow output of a ps laser and a high

  5. Manipulating Traveling Brain Waves with Electric Fields: From Theory to Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluckman, Bruce J.

    2004-03-01

    Activity waves in disinhibited neocortical slices have been used as a biological model for epileptic seizure propagation [1]. Such waves have been mathematically modeled with integro-differential equations [2] representing non-local reaction diffusion dynamics of an excitable medium with an excitability threshold. Stability and propagation speed of traveling pulse solutions depend strongly on the threshold in the following manner: propagation speed should decrease with increased threshold over a finite range, beyond which the waves become unstable. Because populations of neurons can be polarized with an applied electric field that effectively shifts their threshold for action potential initiation [3], we predicted, and have experimentally verified, that electric fields could be used globally or locally to speed up, slow down and even block wave propagation. [1] Telfeian and Conners, Epilepsia, 40, 1499-1506, 1999. [2] Pinto and Ermentrout, SIAM J. App. Math, 62, 206-225, 2001. [3] Gluckman, et. al. J Neurophysiol. 76, 4202-5, 1996.

  6. Wave function for harmonically confined electrons in time-dependent electric and magnetostatic fields.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Chen, Jin-Wang; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht

    2014-01-14

    We derive via the interaction "representation" the many-body wave function for harmonically confined electrons in the presence of a magnetostatic field and perturbed by a spatially homogeneous time-dependent electric field-the Generalized Kohn Theorem (GKT) wave function. In the absence of the harmonic confinement - the uniform electron gas - the GKT wave function reduces to the Kohn Theorem wave function. Without the magnetostatic field, the GKT wave function is the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function. We further prove the validity of the connection between the GKT wave function derived and the system in an accelerated frame of reference. Finally, we provide examples of the application of the GKT wave function.

  7. Control of wave propagation in a biological excitable medium by an external electric field.

    PubMed

    Sebestikova, Lenka; Slamova, Elena; Sevcikova, Hana

    2005-03-01

    We present an experimental evidence of effects of external electric fields (EFs) on the velocity of pulse waves propagating in a biological excitable medium. The excitable medium used is formed by a layer of starving cells of Dictyostelium discoideum through which the waves of increased concentration of cAMP propagate by reaction-diffusion mechanism. External dc EFs of low intensities (up to 5 V/cm) are shown to speed up the propagation of cAMP waves towards the positive electrode and slow it down towards the negative electrode. Electric fields were also found to support an emergence of new centers, emitting cAMP waves, in front of cAMP waves propagating towards the negative electrode.

  8. The Electric Field and Waves Instruments on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wygant, J. R.; Bonnell, J. W.; Goetz, K.; Ergun, R. E.; Mozer, F. S.; Bale, S. D.; Ludlam, M.; Turin, P.; Harvey, P. R.; Hochmann, R.; Harps, K.; Dalton, G.; McCauley, J.; Rachelson, W.; Gordon, D.; Donakowski, B.; Shultz, C.; Smith, C.; Diaz-Aguado, M.; Fischer, J.; Heavner, S.; Berg, P.; Malsapina, D. M.; Bolton, M. K.; Hudson, M.; Strangeway, R. J.; Baker, D. N.; Li, X.; Albert, J.; Foster, J. C.; Chaston, C. C.; Mann, I.; Donovan, E.; Cully, C. M.; Cattell, C. A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Kersten, K.; Brenneman, A.; Tao, J. B.

    2013-11-01

    The Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) Instruments on the two Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) spacecraft (recently renamed the Van Allen Probes) are designed to measure three dimensional quasi-static and low frequency electric fields and waves associated with the major mechanisms responsible for the acceleration of energetic charged particles in the inner magnetosphere of the Earth. For this measurement, the instrument uses two pairs of spherical double probe sensors at the ends of orthogonal centripetally deployed booms in the spin plane with tip-to-tip separations of 100 meters. The third component of the electric field is measured by two spherical sensors separated by ˜15 m, deployed at the ends of two stacer booms oppositely directed along the spin axis of the spacecraft. The instrument provides a continuous stream of measurements over the entire orbit of the low frequency electric field vector at 32 samples/s in a survey mode. This survey mode also includes measurements of spacecraft potential to provide information on thermal electron plasma variations and structure. Survey mode spectral information allows the continuous evaluation of the peak value and spectral power in electric, magnetic and density fluctuations from several Hz to 6.5 kHz. On-board cross-spectral data allows the calculation of field-aligned wave Poynting flux along the magnetic field. For higher frequency waveform information, two different programmable burst memories are used with nominal sampling rates of 512 samples/s and 16 k samples/s. The EFW burst modes provide targeted measurements over brief time intervals of 3-d electric fields, 3-d wave magnetic fields (from the EMFISIS magnetic search coil sensors), and spacecraft potential. In the burst modes all six sensor-spacecraft potential measurements are telemetered enabling interferometric timing of small-scale plasma structures. In the first burst mode, the instrument stores all or a substantial fraction of the high frequency

  9. Polarization resolved electric field measurements on plasma bullets in N2 using four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schans, Marc; Boehm, Patrick; Nijdam, Sander; Ijzerman, Wilbert; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets generated by kHz AC or pulsed DC voltages typically consist of discrete guided ionization waves called plasma bullets. In this work, the electric field of plasma bullets generated in a pulsed DC jet with N2 as feed gas is investigated using the four-wave mixing method. In this diagnostic two laser beams, where one is Stokes shifted from the other, non-linearly interact with the N2 molecules and the bullet's electric field. As a result of the interaction a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattered (CARS) beam and an infrared beam are generated from which the electric field can be determined. Compared to emission-based methods, this technique has the advantage of being able to also probe the electric field in regions around the plasma bullet where no photons are emitted. The four-wave mixing method and its analysis have been adapted to work with the non-uniform electric field of plasma bullets. In addition, an ex-situ calibration procedure using an electrode geometry different from the discharge geometry has been developed. An experimentally obtained radial profile of the axial electric field component of a plasma bullet in N2 is presented. The position of this profile is related to the location of the propagating bullet from temporally resolved images.

  10. Removal of pinned scroll waves in cardiac tissues by electric fields in a generic model of three-dimensional excitable media

    PubMed Central

    Pan, De-Bei; Gao, Xiang; Feng, Xia; Pan, Jun-Ting; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Spirals or scroll waves pinned to heterogeneities in cardiac tissues may cause lethal arrhythmias. To unpin these life-threatening spiral waves, methods of wave emission from heterogeneities (WEH) induced by low-voltage pulsed DC electric fields (PDCEFs) and circularly polarized electric fields (CPEFs) have been used in two-dimensional (2D) cardiac tissues. Nevertheless, the unpinning of scroll waves in three-dimensional (3D) cardiac systems is much more difficult than that of spiral waves in 2D cardiac systems, and there are few reports on the removal of pinned scroll waves in 3D cardiac tissues by electric fields. In this article, we investigate in detail the removal of pinned scroll waves in a generic model of 3D excitable media using PDCEF, AC electric field (ACEF) and CPEF, respectively. We find that spherical waves can be induced from the heterogeneities by these electric fields in initially quiescent excitable media. However, only CPEF can induce spherical waves with frequencies higher than that of the pinned scroll wave. Such higher-frequency spherical waves induced by CPEF can be used to drive the pinned scroll wave out of the cardiac systems. We hope this remarkable ability of CPEF can provide a better alternative to terminate arrhythmias caused by pinned scroll waves. PMID:26905367

  11. Removal of pinned scroll waves in cardiac tissues by electric fields in a generic model of three-dimensional excitable media.

    PubMed

    Pan, De-Bei; Gao, Xiang; Feng, Xia; Pan, Jun-Ting; Zhang, Hong

    2016-02-24

    Spirals or scroll waves pinned to heterogeneities in cardiac tissues may cause lethal arrhythmias. To unpin these life-threatening spiral waves, methods of wave emission from heterogeneities (WEH) induced by low-voltage pulsed DC electric fields (PDCEFs) and circularly polarized electric fields (CPEFs) have been used in two-dimensional (2D) cardiac tissues. Nevertheless, the unpinning of scroll waves in three-dimensional (3D) cardiac systems is much more difficult than that of spiral waves in 2D cardiac systems, and there are few reports on the removal of pinned scroll waves in 3D cardiac tissues by electric fields. In this article, we investigate in detail the removal of pinned scroll waves in a generic model of 3D excitable media using PDCEF, AC electric field (ACEF) and CPEF, respectively. We find that spherical waves can be induced from the heterogeneities by these electric fields in initially quiescent excitable media. However, only CPEF can induce spherical waves with frequencies higher than that of the pinned scroll wave. Such higher-frequency spherical waves induced by CPEF can be used to drive the pinned scroll wave out of the cardiac systems. We hope this remarkable ability of CPEF can provide a better alternative to terminate arrhythmias caused by pinned scroll waves.

  12. Self-consistent Model of Magnetospheric Electric Field, RC and EMIC Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fok, M.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are an important magnetospheric emission, which is excited near the magnetic equator with frequencies below the proton gyro-frequency. The source of bee energy for wave growth is provided by temperature anisotropy of ring current (RC) ions, which develops naturally during inward convection from the plasma sheet These waves strongly affect the dynamic s of resonant RC ions, thermal electrons and ions, and the outer radiation belt relativistic electrons, leading to non-adiabatic particle heating and/or pitch-angle scattering and loss to the atmosphere. The rate of ion and electron scattering/heating is strongly controlled by the Wave power spectral and spatial distributions, but unfortunately, the currently available observational information regarding EMIC wave power spectral density is poor. So combinations of reliable data and theoretical models should be utilized in order to obtain the power spectral density of EMIC waves over the entire magnetosphere throughout the different storm phases. In this study, we present the simulation results, which are based on two coupled RC models that our group has developed. The first model deals with the large-scale magnetosphere-ionosphere electrodynamic coupling, and provides a self-consistent description of RC ions/electrons and the magnetospheric electric field. The second model is based on a coupled system of two kinetic equations, one equation describes the RC ion dynamics and another equation describes the power spectral density evolution of EMIC waves, and self-consistently treats a micro-scale electrodynamic coupling of RC and EMIC waves. So far, these two models have been applied independently. However, the large-scale magnetosphere-ionosphere electrodynamics controls the convective patterns of both the RC ions and plasmasphere altering conditions for EMIC wave-particle interaction. In turn, the wave induced RC precipitation Changes the local field-aligned current

  13. Interplanetary and Interstellar Dust Observed by the Wind/WAVES Electric Field Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malaspina, David; Horanyi, M.; Zaslavsky, A.; Goetz, K.; Wilson, L. B., III; Kersten, K.

    2014-01-01

    Observations of hypervelocity dust particles impacting the Wind spacecraft are reported here for the first time using data from the WindWAVES electric field instrument. A unique combination of rotating spacecraft, amplitude-triggered high-cadence waveform collection, and electric field antenna configuration allow the first direct determination of dust impact direction by any spacecraft using electric field data. Dust flux and impact direction data indicate that the observed dust is approximately micron-sized with both interplanetary and interstellar populations. Nanometer radius dust is not detected by Wind during times when nanometer dust is observed on the STEREO spacecraft and both spacecraft are in close proximity. Determined impact directions suggest that interplanetary dust detected by electric field instruments at 1 AU is dominated by particles on bound trajectories crossing Earths orbit, rather than dust with hyperbolic orbits.

  14. Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Klepper, C Christopher; Martin, Elijah H; Isler, Ralph C

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (> 1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma,more » in front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher.« less

  15. The latitudinal structure of Pc 5 waves in space - Magnetic and electric field observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, H. J.; Kivelson, M. G.

    1979-01-01

    The occurrence frequency and spatial structure of Pc 5 magnetic pulsations in the dawnside of the plasma trough have been studied using data from the Ogo 5 satellite. The wave magnetic fields were obtained from the University of California, Los Angeles, flux-gate magnetometer measurements, and one component of the wave electric field was inferred from oscillations of the ion flux measured by the Lockheed light ion mass spectrometer. During portions of seven of the 19 passes comprising the survey, Pc 5 oscillations were observed in the ion flux but not in the magnetic field, and in each case the satellite was within 10 deg of the geomagnetic equator. Above 10 deg latitude, transverse magnetic and electric oscillations were both observed. The results are consistent with the model of a standing Alfven wave along a resonant field line with the geomagnetic equator as a node of the magnetic perturbation, that is, an odd mode.

  16. Unpinning of rotating spiral waves in cardiac tissues by circularly polarized electric fields

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xia; Gao, Xiang; Pan, De-Bei; Li, Bing-Wei; Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Spiral waves anchored to obstacles in cardiac tissues may cause lethal arrhythmia. To unpin these anchored spirals, comparing to high-voltage side-effect traditional therapies, wave emission from heterogeneities (WEH) induced by the uniform electric field (UEF) has provided a low-voltage alternative. Here we provide a new approach using WEH induced by the circularly polarized electric field (CPEF), which has higher success rate and larger application scope than UEF, even with a lower voltage. And we also study the distribution of the membrane potential near an obstacle induced by CPEF to analyze its mechanism of unpinning. We hope this promising approach may provide a better alternative to terminate arrhythmia. PMID:24777360

  17. Characterization of nanosecond pulse electrical field shock waves using imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimun, L. Chris; Ibey, Bennett L.; Roth, Caleb C.; Barnes, Ronald A.; Sardar, Dhiraj K.; Beier, Hope T.

    2015-03-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) cause the formation of small pores, termed nanopores, in the membrane of cells. Current nanoporation models treat nsPEF exposure as a purely electromagnetic phenomenon, but recent publications showing pressure transients, ROS production, temperature gradients, and pH waves suggest the stimulus may be physically and chemically multifactorial causing elicitation of diverse biological conditions and stressors. Our research group's goal is to quantify the breadth and participation of these stressors generated during nsPEF exposure and determine their relative importance to the observed cellular response. In this paper, we used advanced imaging techniques to identify a possible source of nsPEF-induced acoustic shock waves. nsPEFs were delivered in an aqueous media via a pair of 125 μm tungsten electrodes separated by 100 μm, mirroring our previously published cellular exposure experiments. To visualize any pressure transients emanating from the electrodes or surrounding medium, we used the Schlieren imaging technique. Resulting images and measurements confirmed that mechanical pressure waves and electrode-based stresses are formed during nsPEF, resulting in a clearer understanding of the whole exposure dosimetry. This information will be used to better quantify the impact of nsPEF-induced acoustic shock waves on cells, and has provided further evidence of non-electrical-field induced exposures for elicitation of bioieffects.

  18. The electric field standing wave effect in infrared transflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G.; Popp, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    We show that an electric field standing wave effect is responsible for the oscillations and the non-linear dependence of the absorbance on the layer thickness in thin layers on a reflective surface. This effect is connected to the occurrence of interference inside these layers. Consequently, the absorptance undergoes a maximum electric field intensity enhancement at spectral positions close to those where corresponding non-absorbing layers on a metal show minima in the reflectance. The effect leads to changes of peak maxima ratios with layer thickness and shows the same periodicity as oscillations in the peak positions. These peculiarities are fully based on and described by Maxwell's equations but cannot be understood and described if the strongly simplifying model centered on reflectance absorbance is employed.

  19. Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Klepper, C. C., E-mail: kleppercc@ornl.gov; Isler, R. C.; Biewer, T. M.

    2014-11-15

    An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (>∼1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma, inmore » front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher.« less

  20. Probing the plasma near high power wave launchers in fusion devices for static and dynamic electric fields (invited).

    PubMed

    Klepper, C C; Martin, E H; Isler, R C; Colas, L; Goniche, M; Hillairet, J; Panayotis, S; Pegourié, B; Jacquot, J; Lotte, Ph; Colledani, G; Biewer, T M; Caughman, J B; Ekedahl, A; Green, D L; Harris, J H; Hillis, D L; Shannon, S C; Litaudon, X

    2014-11-01

    An exploratory study was carried out in the long-pulse tokamak Tore Supra, to determine if electric fields in the plasma around high-power, RF wave launchers could be measured with non-intrusive, passive, optical emission spectroscopy. The focus was in particular on the use of the external electric field Stark effect. The feasibility was found to be strongly dependent on the spatial extent of the electric fields and overlap between regions of strong (>∼1 kV/cm) electric fields and regions of plasma particle recycling and plasma-induced, spectral line emission. Most amenable to the measurement was the RF electric field in edge plasma, in front of a lower hybrid heating and current drive launcher. Electric field strengths and direction, derived from fitting the acquired spectra to a model including time-dependent Stark effect and the tokamak-range magnetic field Zeeman-effect, were found to be in good agreement with full-wave modeling of the observed launcher.

  1. Electric control of wave vector filtering in a hybrid magnetic-electric-barrier nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Yong-Hong; Lu, Ke-Yu; He, Ya-Ping; Liu, Xu-Hui; Fu, Xi; Li, Ai-Hua

    2018-06-01

    We theoretically investigate how to manipulate the wave vector filtering effect by a traverse electric field for electrons across a hybrid magnetic-electric-barrier nanostructure, which can be experimentally realized by depositing a ferromagnetic stripe and a Schottky-metal stripe on top and bottom of a GaAs/Al x Ga1- x As heterostructure, respectively. The wave vector filtering effect is found to be related closely to the applied electric field. Moreover, the wave vector filtering efficiency can be manipulated by changing direction or adjusting strength of the traverse electric field. Therefore, such a nanostructure can be employed as an electrically controllable electron-momentum filter for nanoelectronics applications.

  2. Effects of shock waves, ultraviolet light, and electric fields from pulsed discharges in water on inactivation of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bing; Xin, Yanbin; Zhu, Xiaomei; Gao, Zhiying; Yan, Zhiyu; Ohshima, Takayuki

    2018-04-01

    In this work, the bacterial inactivation effects of shock waves, ultraviolet (UV) light, and electric field produced by high-voltage pulsed discharge in liquid with needle-plate configurations were studied. The contributions of each effect on the bacterial killing ratio in the discharge process were obtained individually by modifying reactor type and usage of glass, quartz, and black balloons. The results showed that the location from the discharge center axis significantly influenced the effects of shock waves and electric fields, although the effect of UV light was not affected by the location in the reactor. The effects of shock waves and electric fields were improved by decreasing the distance from the discharge center axis. Under this experimental condition, the effects of shock waves, UV light, and electric fields produced by discharges on bacterial inactivation were approximately 36.1%, 30.8%, 12.7%, respectively. Other contributions seemed to be due to activated species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Resonance localization and poloidal electric field due to cyclo- tron wave heating in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.Y.; Chan, V.S.; Harvey, R.W.

    1984-08-06

    The perpendicular heating in cyclotron waves tends to pile up the resonant particles toward the low magnetic field side with their banana tips localized to the resonant surface. A poloidal electric field with an E x B drift comparable to the ion vertical drift in a toroidal magnetic field may result. With the assumption of anomalous electron and neoclassical ion transport, density variations due to wave heating are discussed.

  4. Observations of field-aligned currents, waves, and electric fields at substorm onset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smits, D. P.; Hughes, W. J.; Cattell, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    1986-01-01

    Substorm onsets, identified Pi 2 pulsations observed on the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory Magnetometer Network, are studied using magnetometer and electric field data from ISEE 1 as well as magnetometer data from the geosynchronous satellites GOES 2 and 3. The mid-latitude magnetometer data provides the means of both timing and locating the substorm onset so that the spacecraft locations with respect to the substorm current systems are known. During two intervals, each containing several onsets or intensifications, ISEE 1 observed field-aligned current signatures beginning simultaneously with the mid-latitude Pi 2 pulsation. Close to the earth broadband bursts of wave noise were observed in the electric field data whenever field-aligned currents were detected. One onset occurred when ISEE 1 and GOES 2 were on the same field line but in opposite hemispheres. During this onset ISEE 1 and GOES 2 saw magnetic signatures which appear to be due to conjugate field-aligned currents flowing out of the western end of the westward auroral electrojets. The ISEE 1 signature is of a line current moving westward past the spacecraft. During the other interval, ISEE 1 was in the near-tail region near the midnight meridian. Plasma data confirms that the plasma sheet thinned and subsequently expanded at onset. Electric field data shows that the plasma moved in the opposite direction to the plasma sheet boundary as the boundary expanded which implies that there must have been an abundant source of hot plasma present. The plasma motion was towards the center of the plasma sheet and earthwards and consisted of a series of pulses rather than a steady flow.

  5. Electric field strength determination in filamentary DBDs by CARS-based four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Patrick; Kettlitz, Manfred; Brandenburg, Ronny; Hoeft, Hans; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2016-09-01

    The electric field strength is a basic parameter of non-thermal plasmas. Therefore, a profound knowledge of the electric field distribution is crucial. In this contribution a four wave mixing technique based on Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is used to measure electric field strengths in filamentary dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs). The discharges are operated with a pulsed voltage in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. Small amounts hydrogen (10 vol%) are admixed as tracer gas to evaluate the electric field strength in the 1 mm discharge gap. Absolute values of the electric field strength are determined by calibration of the CARS setup with high voltage amplitudes below the ignition threshold of the arrangement. Alteration of the electric field strength has been observed during the internal polarity reversal and the breakdown process. In this case the major advantage over emission based methods is that this technique can be used independently from emission, e.g. in the pre-phase and in between two consecutive, opposite discharge pulses where no emission occurs at all. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Forschergruppe FOR 1123 and Sonderforschungsbereich TRR 24 ``Fundamentals of complex plasmas''.

  6. Electric Field Imaging Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcutt, Terrence; Hughitt, Brian; Burke, Eric; Generazio, Edward

    2016-01-01

    NDE historically has focused technology development in propagating wave phenomena with little attention to the field of electrostatics and emanating electric fields. This work is intended to bring electrostatic imaging to the forefront of new inspection technologies, and new technologies in general. The specific goals are to specify the electric potential and electric field including the electric field spatial components emanating from, to, and throughout volumes containing objects or in free space.

  7. Influence of electrical boundary conditions on profiles of acoustic field and electric potential of shear-horizontal acoustic waves in potassium niobate plates.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, I E; Nedospasov, I A; Kolesov, V V; Qian, Z; Wang, B; Zhu, F

    2018-05-01

    The profiles of an acoustic field and electric potential of the forward and backward shear-horizontal (SH) acoustic waves of a higher order propagating in X-Y potassium niobate plate have been theoretically investigated. It has been shown that by changing electrical boundary conditions on a surface of piezoelectric plates, it is possible to change the distributions of an acoustic field and electric potential of the forward and backward acoustic waves. The dependencies of the distribution of a mechanical displacement and electrical potential over the plate thickness for electrically open and electrically shorted plates have been plotted. The influence of a layer with arbitrary conductivity placed on a one or on the both plate surfaces on the profiles under study, phase and group velocities of the forward and backward acoustic waves in X-Y potassium niobate has been also investigated. The obtained results can be useful for development of the method for control of a particle or electrical charge movement inside the piezoelectric plates, as well a sensor for definition of the thin film conductivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tunable terahertz wave-plate based on dual-frequency liquid crystal controlled by alternating electric field.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Ping; Chen, Sai; Fan, Fei; Cheng, Jie-Rong; Xu, Shi-Tong; Wang, Xiang-Hui; Chang, Sheng-Jiang

    2018-01-22

    In this work, the optically anisotropic property of dual-frequency liquid crystals (DFLC) in terahertz (THz) regime has been experimentally investigated, which indicates that the refractive index and birefringence of DFLC can be continuously modulated by both the alternating frequency and intensity of the alternating electric field. This tunability originates from the rotation of DFLC molecules induced by alternating electric fields. The results show that by modulating the alternating frequency from 1 kHz to 100 kHz under 30 kV/m electric field, the 600 μm thickness DFLC cell can play as a tunable quarter-wave plate above 0.68 THz, or a half-wave plate above 1.33 THz. Besides, it can be viewed as a tunable THz phase shifter from 0 to π. Therefore, due to its novel tuning mechanism, DFLC will be of great significance in dynamic manipulating on THz phase and polarization.

  9. Huygens' optical vector wave field synthesis via in-plane electric dipole metasurface.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeonsoo; Yun, Hansik; Choi, Chulsoo; Hong, Jongwoo; Kim, Hwi; Lee, Byoungho

    2018-04-16

    We investigate Huygens' optical vector wave field synthesis scheme for electric dipole metasurfaces with the capability of modulating in-plane polarization and complex amplitude and discuss the practical issues involved in realizing multi-modulation metasurfaces. The proposed Huygens' vector wave field synthesis scheme identifies the vector Airy disk as a synthetic unit element and creates a designed vector optical field by integrating polarization-controlled and complex-modulated Airy disks. The metasurface structure for the proposed vector field synthesis is analyzed in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio of the synthesized field distribution. The design of practical metasurface structures with true vector modulation capability is possible through the analysis of the light field modulation characteristics of various complex modulated geometric phase metasurfaces. It is shown that the regularization of meta-atoms is a key factor that needs to be considered in field synthesis, given that it is essential for a wide range of optical field synthetic applications, including holographic displays, microscopy, and optical lithography.

  10. An Evaluation of a Numerical Prediction Method for Electric Field Strength of Low Frequency Radio Waves based on Wave-Hop Ionospheric Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitauchi, H.; Nozaki, K.; Ito, H.; Kondo, T.; Tsuchiya, S.; Imamura, K.; Nagatsuma, T.; Ishii, M.

    2014-12-01

    We present our recent efforts on an evaluation of the numerical prediction method of electric field strength for ionospheric propagation of low frequency (LF) radio waves based on a wave-hop propagation theory described in Section 2.4 of Recommendation ITU-R P.684-6 (2012), "Prediction of field strength at frequencies below about 150 kHz," made by International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R). As part of the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE), we conduct on-board measurements of the electric field strengths and phases of LF 40 kHz and 60 kHz of radio signals (call sign JJY) continuously along both the ways between Tokyo, Japan and Syowa Station, the Japanese Antarctic station, at 69° 00' S, 39° 35' E on East Ongul Island, Lützow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica. The measurements are made by a newly developed, highly sensitive receiving system installed on board the Japanese Antarctic research vessel (RV) Shirase. We obtained new data sets of the electric field strength up to approximately 13,000-14,000 km propagation of LF JJY 40 kHz and 60 kHz radio waves by utilizing a newly developed, highly sensitive receiving system, comprised of an orthogonally crossed double-loop antenna and digital-signal-processing lock-in amplifiers, on board RV Shirase during the 55th JARE from November 2013 to April 2014. We have made comparisons between those on-board measurements and the numerical predictions of field strength for long-range propagation of low frequency radio waves based on a wave-hop propagation theory described in Section 2.4 of Recommendation ITU-R P.684-6 (2012) to show that our results qualitatively support the recommended wave-hop theory for the great-circle paths approximately 7,000-8,000 km and 13,000-14,000 km propagations.

  11. The electric field induced by a gravitational wave in a superconductor - A principle for a new gravitational wave antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Huei; Torr, Douglas G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of gravitational waves on a superconductor. It is found that the key properties of a superconductor, namely zero resistance and perfect diamagnetism, give rise to an important new effect, the presence of an induced electric field E in the interior of the superconductor. The E field reacts with the ions and superelectrons. It is argued that the induced E field might provide a significantly more sensitive means of detecting gravitational waves. It appears likely that existing resonant-mass superconducting antennas with L about 3m, Q about 10 to the 8th could be readily modified to detect E fields induced by GWs of dimensionless amplitude h about 10 to the -24th.

  12. Development of Electric Field and Plasma Wave Investigations for Future Space Weather Missions: ERG, SCOPE, and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaba, Y.; Kumamoto, A.; Ono, T.; Misawa, H.; Kojima, H.; Yagitani, S.; Kasahara, Y.; Ishisaka, K.

    2009-04-01

    The electric field and plasma wave investigation is important for the clarification of global plasma dynamics and energetic processes in the planetary Magnetospheric studies. We have several missions which will contribute those objectives. the small-sized radiation belt mission, ERG (Energization and Radiation in Geospace), the cross-scale formation flight mission, SCOPE, the BepiColombo mission to Mercury, and the small-sized and full-scale Jovian mission in future. Those will prevail the universal plasma mechanism and processes in the space laboratory. The main purposes of electric field and plasma wave observation for those missions are: (1) Examination of the theories of high-energy particle acceleration by plasma waves, (2) identification of the origin of electric fields in the magnetosphere associated with cross-scale coupling processes, (3) diagnosis of plasma density, temperature and composition, and (4) investigation of wave-particle interaction and mode conversion processes. Simultaneous observation of plasma waves and energetic particles with high resolution will enable us to investigate the wave-particle interaction based on quasi-linear theory and non-linear models. In this paper, we will summarize the current plan and efforts for those future activities. In order to achieve those objectives, the instrument including sensitive sensors (the long wire / stem antennae, the search-coil / loop antennae) and integrated receiver systems are now in development, including the direct identification of nonlinear wave-particle interactions associated will be tried by Wave-particle Correlator. And, as applications of those development, we will mention to the space interferometer and the radar sounder technologies.

  13. The role of electric field in microfluidic heating induced by standing surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Tengfei; Wang, Chaohui; Hu, Qiao; Wei, Shoupeng

    2018-06-01

    The heating mechanism of standing surface acoustic waves (SSAWs) on a LiNbO3 substrate has been experimentally studied. Three devices with different substrates were used to heat the drops with NaCl concentrations ranging from 0 to 1 g/l, respectively. The device with a glass substrate was used to shield acoustic waves. The device with an Au layer between the LiNbO3 substrate and the droplet was used to shield the alternating current field. The results show that the thermal effect induced by SSAWs on the LiNbO3 substrate is composed of the acoustothermal effect due to SSAWs and the electric field thermal effect (Joule heat) due to the alternating current field. The electric field thermal effect which is ignored in SSAW devices previously plays an important role in the thermal effect induced by SSAWs. These results provide a meaningful insight into the mechanism of SSAW-based heating, which is of great help to guide the effective use of the SSAW-based heating technique for various applications.

  14. Drift waves, intense parallel electric fields, and turbulence associated with asymmetric magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, R. E.; Chen, L.-J.; Wilder, F. D.; Ahmadi, N.; Eriksson, S.; Usanova, M. E.; Goodrich, K. A.; Holmes, J. C.; Sturner, A. P.; Malaspina, D. M.; Newman, D. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Argall, M. R.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Burch, J. L.; Webster, J. M.; Drake, J. F.; Price, L.; Cassak, P. A.; Swisdak, M.; Shay, M. A.; Graham, D. B.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Giles, B. L.; Dorelli, J. C.; Gershman, D.; Avanov, L.; Hesse, M.; Lavraud, B.; Le Contel, O.; Retino, A.; Phan, T. D.; Goldman, M. V.; Stawarz, J. E.; Schwartz, S. J.; Eastwood, J. P.; Hwang, K.-J.; Nakamura, R.; Wang, S.

    2017-04-01

    Observations of magnetic reconnection at Earth's magnetopause often display asymmetric structures that are accompanied by strong magnetic field (B) fluctuations and large-amplitude parallel electric fields (E||). The B turbulence is most intense at frequencies above the ion cyclotron frequency and below the lower hybrid frequency. The B fluctuations are consistent with a thin, oscillating current sheet that is corrugated along the electron flow direction (along the X line), which is a type of electromagnetic drift wave. Near the X line, electron flow is primarily due to a Hall electric field, which diverts ion flow in asymmetric reconnection and accompanies the instability. Importantly, the drift waves appear to drive strong parallel currents which, in turn, generate large-amplitude ( 100 mV/m) E|| in the form of nonlinear waves and structures. These observations suggest that turbulence may be common in asymmetric reconnection, penetrate into the electron diffusion region, and possibly influence the magnetic reconnection process.

  15. Wave function for time-dependent harmonically confined electrons in a time-dependent electric field.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Qi; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht

    2013-09-21

    The many-body wave function of a system of interacting particles confined by a time-dependent harmonic potential and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field is derived via the Feynman path-integral method. The wave function is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical driven equation of motion. The wave function reduces to that of the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function for the case of the time-independent harmonic confining potential.

  16. Electric potential and electric field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    2017-02-01

    The technology and methods for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field made be used for "illuminating" volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology (e-Sensor) and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasi-static generator), and current e-Sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-Sensor) are discussed. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. This new EFI capability is demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution creating a new field of study embracing areas of interest including electrostatic discharge (ESD) mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, dielectric morphology of structures, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  17. Nonequilibrium response of an electron-mediated charge density wave ordered material to a large dc electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, O. P.; Shvaika, A. M.; Devereaux, T. P.; Freericks, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Using the Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh formalism, we employ nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory to exactly solve for the nonlinear response of an electron-mediated charge-density-wave-ordered material. We examine both the dc current and the order parameter of the conduction electrons as the ordered system is driven by the electric field. Although the formalism we develop applies to all models, for concreteness, we examine the charge-density-wave phase of the Falicov-Kimball model, which displays a number of anomalous behaviors including the appearance of subgap density of states as the temperature increases. These subgap states should have a significant impact on transport properties, particularly the nonlinear response of the system to a large dc electric field.

  18. Propagation of large-amplitude waves on dielectric liquid sheets in a tangential electric field: exact solutions in three-dimensional geometry.

    PubMed

    Zubarev, Nikolay M; Zubareva, Olga V

    2010-10-01

    Nonlinear waves on sheets of dielectric liquid in the presence of an external tangential electric field are studied theoretically. It is shown that waves of arbitrary shape in three-dimensional geometry can propagate along (or against) the electric field direction without distortion, i.e., the equations of motion admit a wide class of exact traveling wave solutions. This unusual situation occurs for nonconducting ideal liquids with high dielectric constants in the case of a sufficiently strong field strength. Governing equations for evolution of plane symmetric waves on fluid sheets are derived using conformal variables. A dispersion relation for the evolution of small perturbations of the traveling wave solutions is obtained. It follows from this relation that, regardless of the wave shape, the amplitudes of small-scale perturbations do not increase with time and, hence, the traveling waves are stable. We also study the interaction of counterpropagating symmetric waves with small but finite amplitudes. The corresponding solution of the equations of motion describes the nonlinear superposition of the oppositely directed waves. The results obtained are applicable for the description of long waves on fluid sheets in a horizontal magnetic field.

  19. Method of electric field flow fractionation wherein the polarity of the electric field is periodically reversed

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Fred J.

    1992-01-01

    A novel method of electric field flow fractionation for separating solute molecules from a carrier solution is disclosed. The method of the invention utilizes an electric field that is periodically reversed in polarity, in a time-dependent, wave-like manner. The parameters of the waveform, including amplitude, frequency and wave shape may be varied to optimize separation of solute species. The waveform may further include discontinuities to enhance separation.

  20. Saturation of the Electric Field Transmitted to the Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Khazanov, George V.; Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    We reexamined the processes leading to saturation of the electric field, transmitted into the Earth's ionosphere from the solar wind, incorporating features of the coupled system previously ignored. We took into account that the electric field is transmitted into the ionosphere through a region of open field lines, and that the ionospheric conductivity in the polar cap and auroral zone may be different. Penetration of the electric field into the magnetosphere is linked with the generation of the Alfven wave, going out from the ionosphere into the solar wind and being coupled with the field-aligned currents at the boundary of the open field limes. The electric field of the outgoing Alfven wave reduces the original electric field and provides the saturation effect in the electric field and currents during strong geomagnetic disturbances, associated with increasing ionospheric conductivity. The electric field and field-aligned currents of this Alfven wave are dependent on the ionospheric and solar wind parameters and may significantly affect the electric field and field-aligned currents, generated in the polar ionosphere. Estimating the magnitude of the saturation effect in the electric field and field-aligned currents allows us to improve the correlation between solar wind parameters and resulting disturbances in the Earth's magnetosphere.

  1. Ponderomotive Force in the Presence of Electric Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Krivorutsky, E. N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents averaged equations of particle motion in an electromagnetic wave of arbitrary frequency with its wave vector directed along the ambient magnetic field. The particle is also subjected to an E cross B drift and a background electric field slowly changing in space and acting along the magnetic field line. The fields, wave amplitude, and the wave vector depend on the coordinate along the magnetic field line. The derivations of the ponderomotive forces are done by assuming that the drift velocity in the ambient magnetic field is comparable to the particle velocity. Such a scenario leads to new ponderomotive forces, dependent on the wave magnetic field intensity, and, as a result, to the additional energy exchange between the wave and the plasma particles. It is found that the parallel electric field can lead to the change of the particle-wave energy exchange rate comparable to that produced by the previously discussed ponderomotive forces.

  2. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The technology and techniques for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field may be used for (illuminating) volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology, electric field sensor (e-sensor), and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasistatic generator), and current e-sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-sensor) are discussed. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. This new EFI capability is demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution, creating a new field of study that embraces areas of interest including electrostatic discharge mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, dielectric morphology of structures, inspection of containers, inspection for hidden objects, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  3. Initial Results of DC Electric Fields, Associated Plasma Drifts, Magnetic Fields, and Plasma Waves Observed on the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; Klenzing, J.; Rowland, D.; Maynard, N.

    2010-01-01

    Initial results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. Compared to data obtained during more active solar conditions, the ambient DC electric fields and their associated E x B drifts are variable and somewhat weak, typically < 1 mV/m. Although average drift directions show similarities to those previously reported, eastward/outward during day and westward/downward at night, this pattern varies significantly with longitude and is not always present. Daytime vertical drifts near the magnetic equator are largest after sunrise, with smaller average velocities after noon. Little or no pre-reversal enhancement in the vertical drift near sunset is observed, attributable to the solar minimum conditions creating a much reduced neutral dynamo at the satellite altitude. The nighttime ionosphere is characterized by larger amplitude, structured electric fields, even where the plasma density appears nearly quiescent. Data from successive orbits reveal that the vertical drifts and plasma density are both clearly organized with longitude. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF oscillations corresponding to a variety of plasma waves

  4. Nonlinear electric field structures in the inner magnetosphere

    DOE PAGES

    Malaspina, D. M.; Andersson, L.; Ergun, R. E.; ...

    2014-08-28

    Recent observations by the Van Allen Probes spacecraft have demonstrated that a variety of electric field structures and nonlinear waves frequently occur in the inner terrestrial magnetosphere, including phase space holes, kinetic field-line resonances, nonlinear whistler-mode waves, and several types of double layer. However, it is nuclear whether such structures and waves have a significant impact on the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere, including the radiation belts and ring current. To make progress toward quantifying their importance, this study statistically evaluates the correlation of such structures and waves with plasma boundaries. A strong correlation is found. These statistical results, combinedmore » with observations of electric field activity at propagating plasma boundaries, are consistent with the identification of these boundaries as the source of free energy responsible for generating the electric field structures and nonlinear waves of interest. Therefore, the ability of these structures and waves to influence plasma in the inner magnetosphere is governed by the spatial extent and dynamics of macroscopic plasma boundaries in that region.« less

  5. The induced electric field due to a current transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Y.; Braunstein, A.; Frankental, S.

    2007-05-01

    Calculations and measurements of the electric fields, induced by a lightning strike, are important for understanding the phenomenon and developing effective protection systems. In this paper, a novel approach to the calculation of the electric fields due to lightning strikes, using a relativistic approach, is presented. This approach is based on a known current wave-pair model, representing the lightning current wave. The model presented is one that describes the lightning current wave, either at the first stage of the descending charge wave from the cloud or at the later stage of the return stroke. The electric fields computed are cylindrically symmetric. A simplified method for the calculation of the electric field is achieved by using special relativity theory and relativistic considerations. The proposed approach, described in this paper, is based on simple expressions (by applying Coulomb's law) compared with much more complicated partial differential equations based on Maxwell's equations. A straight forward method of calculating the electric field due to a lightning strike, modelled as a negative-positive (NP) wave-pair, is determined by using the special relativity theory in order to calculate the 'velocity field' and relativistic concepts for calculating the 'acceleration field'. These fields are the basic elements required for calculating the total field resulting from the current wave-pair model. Moreover, a modified simpler method using sub models is represented. The sub-models are filaments of either static charges or charges at constant velocity only. Combining these simple sub-models yields the total wave-pair model. The results fully agree with that obtained by solving Maxwell's equations for the discussed problem.

  6. Jet formation at the interaction of localized waves on the free surface of dielectric liquid in a tangential electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochurin, E. A.; Zubarev, N. M.

    2018-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of the free surface of finite depth non-conducting fluid with high dielectric constant subjected to a strong horizontal electric field is considered. Using the conformal transformation of the region occupied by the fluid into a strip, the process of interaction of counter-propagating waves is numerically simulated. The nonlinear solitary waves on the surface can separately propagate along or against the direction of electric field without distortion. At the same time, the shape of the oppositely traveling waves can be distorted as the result of their interaction. In the problem under study, the nonlinearity leads to increasing the wave amplitudes and the duration of their interaction. This effect is inversely proportional to the fluid depth. In the shallow water limit, the tendency to the formation of a vertical liquid jet is observed.

  7. Rydberg wave packets in static electric fields initiated with far infrared pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robicheaux, F.; Lankhuijzen, G. M.; Rella, C.; Noordam, L. D.

    1998-05-01

    We perform experimental and theoretical studies of transitions from bound atomic Rydberg Stark states in a static electric field to autoionizing states. The transitions are induced by a broadband, tunable free electron laser pulse (1-5 ps width). The systematics of the wave packet properties are investigated when the initial state is the lowest energy state or highest energy state of the n-manifold. We show that the recently proposed electron gun is realized for Rb giving an AC electron current with a 20 ps period.

  8. Endogenous Cortical Oscillations Constrain Neuromodulation by Weak Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Stephen L.; Iyengar, Apoorva K.; Foulser, A. Alban; Boyle, Michael R.; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation modality that may modulate cognition by enhancing endogenous neocortical oscillations with the application of sine-wave electric fields. Yet, the role of endogenous network activity in enabling and shaping the effects of tACS has remained unclear. Objective We combined optogenetic stimulation and multichannel slice electrophysiology to elucidate how the effect of weak sine-wave electric field depends on the ongoing cortical oscillatory activity. We hypothesized that the structure of the response to stimulation depended on matching the stimulation frequency to the endogenous cortical oscillation. Methods We studied the effect of weak sine-wave electric fields on oscillatory activity in mouse neocortical slices. Optogenetic control of the network activity enabled the generation of in vivo like cortical oscillations for studying the temporal relationship between network activity and sine-wave electric field stimulation. Results Weak electric fields enhanced endogenous oscillations but failed to induce a frequency shift of the ongoing oscillation for stimulation frequencies that were not matched to the endogenous oscillation. This constraint on the effect of electric field stimulation imposed by endogenous network dynamics was limited to the case of weak electric fields targeting in vivo-like network dynamics. Together, these results suggest that the key mechanism of tACS may be enhancing but not overriding of intrinsic network dynamics. Conclusion Our results contribute to understanding the inconsistent tACS results from human studies and propose that stimulation precisely adjusted in frequency to the endogenous oscillations is key to rational design of non-invasive brain stimulation paradigms. PMID:25129402

  9. A vector-free ECG interpretation with P, QRS & T waves as unbalanced transitions between stable configurations of the heart electric field during P-R, S-T & T-P segments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since cell membranes are weak sources of electrostatic fields, this ECG interpretation relies on the analogy between cells and electrets. It is here assumed that cell-bound electric fields unite, reach the body surface and the surrounding space and form the thoracic electric field that consists from two concentric structures: the thoracic wall and the heart. If ECG leads measure differences in electric potentials between skin electrodes, they give scalar values that define position of the electric field center along each lead. Repolarised heart muscle acts as a stable positive electric source, while depolarized heart muscle produces much weaker negative electric field. During T-P, P-R and S-T segments electric field is stable, only subtle changes are detectable by skin electrodes. Diastolic electric field forms after ventricular depolarization (T-P segments in the ECG recording). Telediastolic electric field forms after the atria have been depolarized (P-Q segments in the ECG recording). Systolic electric field forms after the ventricular depolarization (S-T segments in the ECG recording). The three ECG waves (P, QRS and T) can then be described as unbalanced transitions of the heart electric field from one stable configuration to the next and in that process the electric field center is temporarily displaced. In the initial phase of QRS, the rapidly diminishing septal electric field makes measured potentials dependent only on positive charges of the corresponding parts of the left and the right heart that lie within the lead axes. If more positive charges are near the "DOWN" electrode than near the "UP" electrode, a Q wave will be seen, otherwise an R wave is expected. Repolarization of the ventricular muscle is dampened by the early septal muscle repolarization that reduces deflection of T waves. Since the "UP" electrode of most leads is near the usually larger left ventricle muscle, T waves are in these leads positive, although of smaller amplitude and longer

  10. Ponderomotive lower hybrid wave growth in electric fields associated with electron beam injection and transverse ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bale, S. D.; Kellogg, P. J.; Erickson, K. N.; Monson, S. J.; Arnoldy, R. L.

    During electron beam injection, the Echo 7 rocket experiment observed large bursts of transversely accelerated ions. These ions seem to have been energized in the region of the beam or the payload return current. Electric field waveforms (<= 30 kHz) during gun operation show both low frequency fluctuations and broad band power. An analysis of the waveforms shows nonlinear mode coupling between waves near the ion cyclotron frequency and waves above the lower hybrid frequency.

  11. Electric Field Observations of Plasma Convection, Shear, Alfven Waves, and other Phenomena Observed on Sounding Rockets in the Cusp and Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R. F.

    2009-01-01

    On December 14,2002, a NASA Black Brant X sounding rocket was launched equatorward from Ny Alesund, Spitzbergen (79 N) into the dayside cusp and subsequently cut across the open/closed field line boundary, reaching an apogee of771 km. The launch occurred during Bz negative conditions with strong By negative that was changing during the flight. SuperDarn (CUTLASS) radar and subsequent model patterns reveal a strong westward/poleward convection, indicating that the rocket traversed a rotational reversal in the afternoon merging cell. The payload returned DC electric and magnetic fields, plasma waves, energetic particle, suprathermal electron and ion, and thermal plasma data. We provide an overview of the main observations and focus on the DC electric field results, comparing the measured E x B plasma drifts in detail with the CUTLASS radar observations of plasma drifts gathered simultaneously in the same volume. The in situ DC electric fields reveal steady poleward flows within the cusp with strong shears at the interface of the closed/open field lines and within the boundary layer. We use the observations to discuss ionospheric signatures of the open/closed character of the cusp/low latitude boundary layer as a function of the IMF. The electric field and plasma density data also reveal the presence of very strong plasma irregularities with a large range of scales (10 m to 10 km) that exist within the open field line cusp region yet disappear when the payload was equatorward of the cusp on closed field lines. These intense low frequency wave observations are consistent with strong scintillations observed on the ground at Ny Alesund during the flight. We present detailed wave characteristics and discuss them in terms of Alfven waves and static irregularities that pervade the cusp region at all altitudes.

  12. Determination of the electric field strength of filamentary DBDs by CARS-based four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, P.; Kettlitz, M.; Brandenburg, R.; Höft, H.; Czarnetzki, U.

    2016-10-01

    It is demonstrated that a four-wave mixing technique based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) can determine the electric field strength of a pulsed-driven filamentary dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) of 1 mm gap, using hydrogen as a tracer medium in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. The measurements are presented for a hydrogen admixture of 10%, but even 5% H2 admixture delivers sufficient infrared signals. The lasers do not affect the discharge by photoionization or by other radiation-induced processes. The absolute values of the electric field strength can be determined by the calibration of the CARS setup with high voltage amplitudes below the ignition threshold of the arrangement. This procedure also enables the determination of the applied breakdown voltage. The alteration of the electric field is observed during the internal polarity reversal and the breakdown process. One advantage of the CARS technique over emission-based methods is that it can be used independently of emission, e.g. in the pre-phase and in between two consecutive discharges, where no emission occurs at all.

  13. Analysis of DE-1 PWI electric field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weimer, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    The measurement of low frequency electric field oscillations may be accomplished with the Plasma Wave Instrument (PWI) on DE 1. Oscillations at a frequency around 1 Hz are below the range of the conventional plasma wave receivers, but they can be detected by using a special processing of the quasi-static electric field data. With this processing it is also possible to determine if the electric field oscillations are predominately parallel or perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The quasi-static electric field in the DE 1 spin/orbit plane is measured with a long-wire 'double probe'. This antenna is perpendicular to the satellite spin axis, which in turn is approximately perpendicular to the geomagnetic field in the polar magnetosphere. The electric field data are digitally sampled at a frequency of 16 Hz. The measured electric field signal, which has had phase reversals introduced by the rotating antenna, is multiplied by the sine of the rotation angle between the antenna and the magnetic field. This is called the 'perpendicular' signal. The measured time series is also multiplied with the cosine of the angle to produce a separate 'parallel' signal. These two separate time series are then processed to determine the frequency power spectrum.

  14. Wire Probe Antenna (WPT) and Electric Field Detector (EFD0 of Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) aboard ARASE: Specifications and Evaluation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, S.; Kasaba, Y.; Ishisaka, K.; Kasahara, Y.; Imachi, T.; Yagitani, S.; Kojima, H.; Kurita, S.; Shoji, M.; Hori, T.; Shinbori, A.; Teramoto, M.; Miyoshi, Y.; Nakagawa, T.; Takahashi, N.; Nishimura, Y.; Matsuoka, A.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kumamoto, A.; Nomura, R.

    2017-12-01

    This paper summarizes the specifications and the evaluation results of Wire Probe Antenna (WPT) and Electric Field Detector (EFD), which are the key parts of Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) aboard the Arase satellite, in their initial operations and the beginning phase of the full observations. WPT consists of the two dipole antennas as electric field sensors with 32m tip-to-tip length, with a sphere probe (6 cm diameter) attached at each end of wires (length: 15-m). They are extended orthogonally in the spin plane which is roughly perpendicular to the Sun. It enables the PWE to measure the E-field from DC to 10 MHz. This system is almost compatible to the WPT of the Plasma Wave Investigation (PWI) aboard BepiColombo Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter, except the material of the spherical probe (ERG: Aluminium alloy, MMO: Titanium-alloy). This paper shows the extended length evaluated by the Lorentz force (spacecraft velocity x B-field) and the antenna impedance as the basic information of the E-field measurement capability of the PWE E-field receivers, with the evaluation for the possible degradation of the probe surface coated by TiAlN as BepiColombo. EFD is the 2-channel low frequency electric receiver as a part of EWO (EFD/WFC/OFA), for the measurement of 2ch electric field in the spin-plane with the sampling rate of 512 Hz (dynamic range: +-200 mV/m, +-3 V/m) and the 4ch spacecraft potential with the sampling rate of 128 Hz (dynamic range: +-100 V), respectively, with the bias control capability fed to the WPT probes. The electric field in DC - 232Hz provides the capability to detect (1) the fundamental information of the plasma dynamics and accelerations and (2) the characteristics of MHD and ion waves with their Poynting vectors with the data measured by MGF and PWE/WFC-B connected to PWE/SCM. The spacecraft potential provides the electron density information with UHR frequency. This paper also introduces the data sets and their calibration status.

  15. Projector Augmented-Wave formulation of response to strain and electric field perturbation within the density-functional perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Alexandre; Torrent, Marc; Caracas, Razvan

    2015-03-01

    A formulation of the response of a system to strain and electric field perturbations in the pseudopotential-based density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) has been proposed by D.R Hamman and co-workers. It uses an elegant formalism based on the expression of DFT total energy in reduced coordinates, the key quantity being the metric tensor and its first and second derivatives. We propose to extend this formulation to the Projector Augmented-Wave approach (PAW). In this context, we express the full elastic tensor including the clamped-atom tensor, the atomic-relaxation contributions (internal stresses) and the response to electric field change (piezoelectric tensor and effective charges). With this we are able to compute the elastic tensor for all materials (metals and insulators) within a fully analytical formulation. The comparison with finite differences calculations on simple systems shows an excellent agreement. This formalism has been implemented in the plane-wave based DFT ABINIT code. We apply it to the computation of elastic properties and seismic-wave velocities of iron with impurity elements. By analogy with the materials contained in meteorites, tested impurities are light elements (H, O, C, S, Si).

  16. Electrostatic wave heating and possible formation of self-generated high electric fields in a magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascali, D.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Miracoli, R.; Castro, G.; Gambino, N.; Ciavola, G.

    2011-10-01

    A plasma reactor operates at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of INFN, Catania, and it has been used as a test-bench for the investigation of innovative mechanisms of plasma ignition based on electrostatic waves (ES-W), obtained via the inner plasma EM-to-ES wave conversion. Evidences of Bernstein wave (BW) generation will be shown. The Langmuir probe measurements have revealed a strong increase of the ion saturation current, where the BW are generated or absorbed, this being a signature of possible high energy ion flows. The results are interpreted through the Bernstein wave heating theory, which predicts the formation of high speed rotating layers of the plasma (a dense plasma ring is in fact observed). High intensity inner plasma self-generated electric fields (on the order of several tens of kV/cm) come out by our calculations.

  17. Helicons in uniform fields. I. Wave diagnostics with hodograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.

    2018-03-01

    The wave equation for whistler waves is well known and has been solved in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates, yielding plane waves and cylindrical waves. In space plasmas, waves are usually assumed to be plane waves; in small laboratory plasmas, they are often assumed to be cylindrical "helicon" eigenmodes. Experimental observations fall in between both models. Real waves are usually bounded and may rotate like helicons. Such helicons are studied experimentally in a large laboratory plasma which is essentially a uniform, unbounded plasma. The waves are excited by loop antennas whose properties determine the field rotation and transverse dimensions. Both m = 0 and m = 1 helicon modes are produced and analyzed by measuring the wave magnetic field in three dimensional space and time. From Ampère's law and Ohm's law, the current density and electric field vectors are obtained. Hodograms for these vectors are produced. The sign ambiguity of the hodogram normal with respect to the direction of wave propagation is demonstrated. In general, electric and magnetic hodograms differ but both together yield the wave vector direction unambiguously. Vector fields of the hodogram normal yield the phase flow including phase rotation for helicons. Some helicons can have locally a linear polarization which is identified by the hodogram ellipticity. Alternatively the amplitude oscillation in time yields a measure for the wave polarization. It is shown that wave interference produces linear polarization. These observations emphasize that single point hodogram measurements are inadequate to determine the wave topology unless assuming plane waves. Observations of linear polarization indicate wave packets but not plane waves. A simple qualitative diagnostics for the wave polarization is the measurement of the magnetic field magnitude in time. Circular polarization has a constant amplitude; linear polarization results in amplitude modulations.

  18. Can Neural Activity Propagate by Endogenous Electrical Field?

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Chen; Shivacharan, Rajat S.; Zhang, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that synaptic transmissions and gap junctions are the major governing mechanisms for signal traveling in the neural system. Yet, a group of neural waves, either physiological or pathological, share the same speed of ∼0.1 m/s without synaptic transmission or gap junctions, and this speed is not consistent with axonal conduction or ionic diffusion. The only explanation left is an electrical field effect. We tested the hypothesis that endogenous electric fields are sufficient to explain the propagation with in silico and in vitro experiments. Simulation results show that field effects alone can indeed mediate propagation across layers of neurons with speeds of 0.12 ± 0.09 m/s with pathological kinetics, and 0.11 ± 0.03 m/s with physiologic kinetics, both generating weak field amplitudes of ∼2–6 mV/mm. Further, the model predicted that propagation speed values are inversely proportional to the cell-to-cell distances, but do not significantly change with extracellular resistivity, membrane capacitance, or membrane resistance. In vitro recordings in mice hippocampi produced similar speeds (0.10 ± 0.03 m/s) and field amplitudes (2.5–5 mV/mm), and by applying a blocking field, the propagation speed was greatly reduced. Finally, osmolarity experiments confirmed the model's prediction that cell-to-cell distance inversely affects propagation speed. Together, these results show that despite their weak amplitude, electric fields can be solely responsible for spike propagation at ∼0.1 m/s. This phenomenon could be important to explain the slow propagation of epileptic activity and other normal propagations at similar speeds. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural activity (waves or spikes) can propagate using well documented mechanisms such as synaptic transmission, gap junctions, or diffusion. However, the purpose of this paper is to provide an explanation for experimental data showing that neural signals can propagate by means other than synaptic

  19. Antiferromagnetic Spin Wave Field-Effect Transistor

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Ran; Daniels, Matthew W.; Zhu, Jian-Gang; ...

    2016-04-06

    In a collinear antiferromagnet with easy-axis anisotropy, symmetry dictates that the spin wave modes must be doubly degenerate. Theses two modes, distinguished by their opposite polarization and available only in antiferromagnets, give rise to a novel degree of freedom to encode and process information. We show that the spin wave polarization can be manipulated by an electric field induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and magnetic anisotropy. We propose a prototype spin wave field effect transistor which realizes a gate-tunable magnonic analog of the Faraday effect, and demonstrate its application in THz signal modulation. In conclusion, our findings open up the exciting possibilitymore » of digital data processing utilizing antiferromagnetic spin waves and enable the direct projection of optical computing concepts onto the mesoscopic scale.« less

  20. Electric toothbrushes induce electric current in fixed dental appliances by creating magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Ishii, Nozomu; Sano, Natsuki; Ogura, Hideo; Terada, Kazuto

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic fields can represent a health problem, especially low frequency electromagnetic fields sometimes induced by electric current in metallic objects worn or used in or on the body (as opposed to high frequency electromagnetic fields that produce heat). Electric toothbrushes are widely used because of their convenience, but the electric motors that power them may produce electromagnetic waves. In this study, we showed that electric toothbrushes generate low frequency (1-2000 Hz) magnetic fields and induce electric current in dental appliances (e. g. orthodontic and prosthetic appliances and dental implants). Current induced by electric toothbrushes might be dependent on the quantity and types of metals used, and the shape of the appliances. Furthermore, these induced currents in dental appliances could impact upon human oral health, producing pain and discomfort.

  1. Acceleration of auroral electrons in parallel electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, R. L.; Walker, D. N.; Arnoldy, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Rocket observations of auroral electrons are compared with the predictions of a number of theoretical acceleration mechanisms that involve an electric field parallel to the earth's magnetic field. The theoretical models are discussed in terms of required plasma sources, the location of the acceleration region, and properties of necessary wave-particle scattering mechanisms. We have been unable to find any steady state scatter-free electric field configuration that predicts electron flux distributions in agreement with the observations. The addition of a fluctuating electric field or wave-particle scattering several thousand kilometers above the rocket can modify the theoretical flux distributions so that they agree with measurements. The presence of very narrow energy peaks in the flux contours implies a characteristic temperature of several tens of electron volts or less for the source of field-aligned auroral electrons and a temperature of several hundred electron volts or less for the relatively isotropic 'monoenergetic' auroral electrons. The temperature of the field-aligned electrons is more representative of the magnetosheath or possibly the ionosphere as a source region than of the plasma sheet.

  2. Bifunctional metamaterials with simultaneous and independent manipulation of thermal and electric fields.

    PubMed

    Lan, Chuwen; Bi, Ke; Fu, Xiaojian; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-10-03

    Metamaterials offer a powerful way to manipulate a variety of physical fields ranging from wave fields (electromagnetic field, acoustic field, elastic wave, etc.), static fields (static magnetic field, static electric field) to diffusive fields (thermal field, diffusive mass). However, the relevant reports and studies are usually limited to a single physical field or functionality. In this study, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated a bifunctional metamaterial which could manipulate thermal and electric fields simultaneously and independently. Specifically, a composite with independently controllable thermal and electric conductivity was introduced, on the basis of which a bifunctional device capable of shielding thermal flux and concentrating electric current simultaneously was designed, fabricated and characterized. This work provides an encouraging example of metamaterials transcending their natural limitations, which offers a promising future in building a broad platform for the manipulation of multi-physics fields.

  3. THz-wave sensing via pump and signal wave detection interacted with evanescent THz waves.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Takuya; Kaneko, Naoya; Suizu, Koji; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Omatsu, Takashige

    2013-09-15

    We report a novel sensing technique that uses an evanescent terahertz (THz) wave, without detecting the THz wave directly. When a THz wave generated by Cherenkov phase matching via difference frequency generation undergoes total internal reflection, the evanescent THz wave is subject to a phase change and an amplitude decrease. The reflected THz wave, under the influence of the sample, interferes with the propagating THz wave and the changing electric field of the THz wave interacts with the electric field of the pump waves. We demonstrate a sensing technique for detecting changes in the electric field of near-infrared light, transcribed from changes in the electric field of a THz wave.

  4. On Alfvenic Waves and Stochastic Ion Heating with 1Re Observations of Strong Field-aligned Currents, Electric Fields, and O+ ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, Victoria; Chandler, Michael; Singh, Nagendra

    2008-01-01

    The role that the cleft/cusp has in ionosphere/magnetosphere coupling makes it a very dynamic region having similar fundamental processes to those within the auroral regions. With Polar passing through the cusp at 1 Re in the Spring of 1996, we observe a strong correlation between ion heating and broadband ELF (BBELF) emissions. This commonly observed relationship led to the study of the coupling of large field-aligned currents, burst electric fields, and the thermal O+ ions. We demonstrate the role of these measurements to Alfvenic waves and stochastic ion heating. Finally we will show the properties of the resulting density cavities.

  5. Electric field determination in the plasma-antenna boundary of a lower-hybrid wave launcher in Tore Supra through dynamic Stark-effect spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Martin, Elijah H.; Goniche, M.; Klepper, C. Christopher; ...

    2015-04-22

    Interaction of radio-frequency (RF) waves with the plasma in the near-field of a high-power wave launcher is now seen to be important, both in understanding the channeling of these waves through the plasma boundary and in avoiding power losses in the edge. In a recent Letter a direct non-intrusive measurement of a near antenna RF electric field in the range of lower hybrid (LH) frequencies (more » $$E_{LH}$$) was announced (Phys. Rev. Lett., 110:215005, 2013). The measurement was achieved through the fitting of Balmer series deuterium spectral lines utilizing a time dependent (dynamic) Stark effect model. In this article, the processing of the spectral data is discussed in detail and applied to a larger range of measurements and the accuracy and limitations of the experimental technique is investigated. We find through an analysis of numerous Tore Supra pulses that good quantitative agreement exists between the measured and full-wave modeled $$E_{LH}$$ when the launched power exceeds 0.5MW. For low power the measurement becomes formidable utilizing the implemented passive spectroscopic technique because the spectral noise overwhelms the effect of the RF electric field on the line profile. Additionally, effects of the ponderomotive force are suspected at sufficiently high power.« less

  6. Electric field determination in the plasma-antenna boundary of a lower-hybrid wave launcher in Tore Supra through dynamic Stark-effect spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, E. H.; Goniche, M.; Klepper, C. C.; Hillairet, J.; Isler, R. C.; Bottereau, C.; Colas, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Panayotis, S.; Pegourie, B.; Lotte, Ph; Colledani, G.; Caughman, J. B.; Harris, J. H.; Hillis, D. L.; Shannon, S. C.; Clairet, F.; Litaudon, X.

    2015-06-01

    Interaction of radio-frequency (RF) waves with the plasma in the near-field of a high-power wave launcher is now seen to be an important topic, both in understanding the channeling of these waves through the plasma boundary and in avoiding power losses in the edge. In a recent Letter, a direct non-intrusive measurement of a near antenna RF electric field in the range of lower hybrid (LH) frequencies (ELH) was announced (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 215005). This measurement was achieved through the fitting of Balmer series deuterium spectral lines utilizing a time dependent (dynamic) Stark effect model. In this article, the analysis of the spectral data is discussed in detail and applied to a larger range of measurements and the accuracy and limitations of the experimental technique are investigated. It was found through an analysis of numerous Tore Supra discharges that good quantitative agreement exists between the measured and full-wave modeled ELH when the launched power exceeds 0.5 MW. For low power the measurement becomes inaccurate utilizing the implemented passive spectroscopic technique because the spectral noise overwhelms the effect of the RF electric field on the line profile. Additionally, effects of the ponderomotive force are suspected at sufficiently high power.

  7. Horizontal electric fields from lightning return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, E. M.; Medelius, P. J.; Rubinstein, M.; Uman, M. A.; Johnson, J.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment to measure simultaneously the wideband horizontal and vertical electric fields from lightning return strokes is described. Typical wave shapes of the measured horizontal and vertical fields are presented, and the horizontal fields are characterized. The measured horizontal fields are compared with calculated horizontal fields obtained by applying the wavetilt formula to the vertical fields. The limitations and sources of error in the measurement technique are discussed.

  8. Coupling behaviors of graphene/SiO2/Si structure with external electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Koichi; Kirimoto, Kenta; Sun, Yong

    2017-02-01

    A traveling electric field in surface acoustic wave was introduced into the graphene/SiO2/Si sample in the temperature range of 15 K to 300 K. The coupling behaviors between the sample and the electric field were analyzed using two parameters, the intensity attenuation and time delay of the traveling-wave. The attenuation originates from Joule heat of the moving carriers, and the delay of the traveling-wave was due to electrical resistances of the fixed charge and the moving carriers with low mobility in the sample. The attenuation of the external electric field was observed in both Si crystal and graphene films in the temperature range. A large attenuation around 190 K, which depends on the strength of external electric field, was confirmed for the Si crystal. But, no significant temperature and field dependences of the attenuation in the graphene films were detected. On the other hand, the delay of the traveling-wave due to ionic scattering at low temperature side was observed in the Si crystal, but cannot be detected in the films of the mono-, bi- and penta-layer graphene with high conductivities. Also, it was indicated in this study that skin depth of the graphene film was less than thickness of two graphene atomic layers in the temperature range.

  9. Self-Consistent Model of Magnetospheric Electric Field, Ring Current, Plasmasphere, and Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves: Initial Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fok, M.-C.; Ridley, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Further development of our self-consistent model of interacting ring current (RC) ions and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves is presented. This model incorporates large scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and treats self-consistently not only EMIC waves and RC ions, but also the magnetospheric electric field, RC, and plasmasphere. Initial simulations indicate that the region beyond geostationary orbit should be included in the simulation of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Additionally, a self-consistent description, based on first principles, of the ionospheric conductance is required. These initial simulations further show that in order to model the EMIC wave distribution and wave spectral properties accurately, the plasmasphere should also be simulated self-consistently, since its fine structure requires as much care as that of the RC. Finally, an effect of the finite time needed to reestablish a new potential pattern throughout the ionosphere and to communicate between the ionosphere and the equatorial magnetosphere cannot be ignored.

  10. Electric field measurements in a near atmospheric pressure nanosecond pulse discharge with picosecond electric field induced second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M.; Chng, Tat Loon; Dogariu, Arthur; Miles, Richard B.

    2018-02-01

    We present an optical electric field measurement method for use in high pressure plasma discharges. The method is based upon the field induced second harmonic generation technique and can be used for localized electric field measurements with sub-nanosecond resolution in any gaseous species. When an external electric field is present, a dipole is induced in the typically centrosymmetric medium, allowing for second harmonic generation with signal intensities which scale by the square of the electric field. Calibrations have been carried out in 100 Torr room air, and a minimum sensitivity of 450 V/cm is demonstrated. Measurements were performed with nanosecond or faster temporal resolution in a 100 Torr room air environment both with and without a plasma present. It was shown that with no plasma present, the field follows the applied voltage to gap ratio, as measured using the back current shunt method. When the electric field is strong enough to exceed the breakdown threshold, the measured field was shown to exceed the anticipated voltage to gap ratio which is taken as an indication of the ionization wave front as it sweeps through the plasma volume.

  11. THOR Field and Wave Processor - FWP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucek, Jan; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Balikhin, Michael; Zaslavsky, Arnaud; Nakamura, Rumi; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Uhlir, Ludek; Lan, Radek; Yearby, Keith; Morawski, Marek; Winkler, Marek

    2016-04-01

    If selected, Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) will become the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Fields and Waves Processor (FWP) is an integrated electronics unit for all electromagnetic field measurements performed by THOR. FWP will interface with all fields sensors: electric field antennas of the EFI instrument, the MAG fluxgate magnetometer and search-coil magnetometer (SCM) and perform data digitization and on-board processing. FWP box will house multiple data acquisition sub-units and signal analyzers all sharing a common power supply and data processing unit and thus a single data and power interface to the spacecraft. Integrating all the electromagnetic field measurements in a single unit will improve the consistency of field measurement and accuracy of time synchronization. The feasibility of making highly sensitive electric and magnetic field measurements in space has been demonstrated by Cluster (among other spacecraft) and THOR instrumentation complemented by a thorough electromagnetic cleanliness program will further improve on this heritage. Taking advantage of the capabilities of modern electronics, FWP will provide simultaneous synchronized waveform and spectral data products at high time resolution from the numerous THOR sensors, taking advantage of the large telemetry bandwidth of THOR. FWP will also implement a plasma a resonance sounder and a digital plasma quasi-thermal noise analyzer designed to provide high cadence measurements of plasma density and temperature complementary to data from particle instruments. FWP will be interfaced with the particle instrument data processing unit (PPU) via a dedicated digital link which will enable performing on board correlation between waves and particles, quantifying the transfer of energy between waves and particles. The FWP instrument shall be designed and built by an international consortium of scientific institutes from Czech Republic, Poland, France, UK, Sweden

  12. Asymmetry in the Farley-Buneman dispersion relation caused by parallel electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Victoriya V.; Makarevich, Roman A.

    2016-11-01

    An implicit assumption utilized in studies of E region plasma waves generated by the Farley-Buneman instability (FBI) is that the FBI dispersion relation and its solutions for the growth rate and phase velocity are perfectly symmetric with respect to the reversal of the wave propagation component parallel to the magnetic field. In the present study, a recently derived general dispersion relation that describes fundamental plasma instabilities in the lower ionosphere including FBI is considered and it is demonstrated that the dispersion relation is symmetric only for background electric fields that are perfectly perpendicular to the magnetic field. It is shown that parallel electric fields result in significant differences between the growth rates and phase velocities for propagation of parallel components of opposite signs. These differences are evaluated using numerical solutions of the general dispersion relation and shown to exhibit an approximately linear relationship with the parallel electric field near the E region peak altitude of 110 km. An analytic expression for the differences is also derived from an approximate version of the dispersion relation, with comparisons between numerical and analytic results agreeing near 110 km. It is further demonstrated that parallel electric fields do not change the overall symmetry when the full 3-D wave propagation vector is reversed, with no symmetry seen when either the perpendicular or parallel component is reversed. The present results indicate that moderate-to-strong parallel electric fields of 0.1-1.0 mV/m can result in experimentally measurable differences between the characteristics of plasma waves with parallel propagation components of opposite polarity.

  13. High dynamic range electric field sensor for electromagnetic pulse detection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Yun; Wang, Alan X; Lee, Beom Suk; Zhang, Xingyu; Chen, Ray T

    2011-08-29

    We design a high dynamic range electric field sensor based on domain inverted electro-optic (E-O) polymer Y-fed directional coupler for electromagnetic wave detection. This electrode-less, all optical, wideband electrical field sensor is fabricated using standard processing for E-O polymer photonic devices. Experimental results demonstrate effective detection of electric field from 16.7V/m to 750KV/m at a frequency of 1GHz, and spurious free measurement range of 70dB.

  14. Electric Field Effects in Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis under Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unuvar, C.; Frederick, D. M.; Shaw, B. D.; Munir, Z. A.

    2003-01-01

    Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) has been used to form many materials. SHS generally involves mixing reactants together (e.g., metal powders) and igniting the mixture such that a combustion (deflagration) wave passes though the mixture. The imposition of an electric field (AC or DC) across SHS reactants has been shown to have a marked effect on the dynamics of wave propagation and on the nature, composition, and homogeneity of the product . The use of an electric field with SHS has been termed "field-assisted SHS". Combustion wave velocities and temperatures are directly affected by the field, which is typically perpendicular to the average wave velocity. The degree of activation by the field (e.g., combustion rate) is related to the current density distribution within the sample, and is therefore related to the temperature-dependent spatial distribution of the effective electrical conductivity of reactants and products. Furthermore, the field can influence other important SHS-related phenomena including capillary flow, mass-transport in porous media, and Marangoni flows. These phenomena are influenced by gravity in conventional SHS processes (i.e., without electric fields). As a result the influence of the field on SHS under reduced gravity is expected to be different than under normal gravity. It is also known that heat loss rates from samples, which can depend significantly on gravity, can influence final products in SHS. This research program is focused on studying field-assisted SHS under reduced gravity conditions. The broad objective of this research program is to understand the role of an electric field in SHS reactions under conditions where gravity-related effects are suppressed. The research will allow increased understanding of fundamental aspects of field-assisted SHS processes as well as synthesis of materials that cannot be formed in normal gravity.

  15. Scattering of cylindrical electric field waves from an elliptical dielectric cylindrical shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanik, E. A.

    1982-12-01

    This thesis examines the scattering of cylindrical waves by large dielectric scatterers of elliptic cross section. The solution method was the method of moments using a Galerkin approach. Sinusoidal basis and testing functions were used resulting in a higher convergence rate. The higher rate of convergence made it possible for the program to run on the Aeronautical Systems Division's CYBER computers without any special storage methods. This report includes discussion on moment methods, solution of integral equations, and the relationship between the electric field and the source region or self cell singularity. Since the program produced unacceptable run times, no results are contained herein. The importance of this work is the evaluation of the practicality of moment methods using standard techniques. The long run times for a mid-sized scatterer demonstrate the impracticality of moment methods for dielectrics using standard techniques.

  16. Electric field studies: TLE-induced waveforms and ground conductivity impact on electric field propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, Thomas; Garcia, Geraldine; Blanc, Elisabeth

    2010-05-01

    We review in this paper main results obtained from electric field (from VLF to HF) measurement campaigns realized by CEA in the framework of the Eurosprite program [Neubert et al., 2005, 2008] from 2003 to 2009 in France in different configurations. Two main topics have been studied: sprite or elve induced phenomena (radiation or perturbation) and wave propagation. Using a network of 4 stations, VLF radiations from sprite have been successfully located at 10 km from the sprite parent lightning, in agreement with possible sprite location, generally displaced from the parent lightning. The MF (300 kHz - 3 MHz) source bursts were identified simultaneously with the occurrence of sprites observed with cameras [Farges et al., 2004; Neubert et al., 2008]. These observations are compared to recent broadband measurements, assumed to be due to relativistic electron beam radiation related to sprites [Fullekrug et al., 2009]. Recently, in 2009, with a new instrumentation, an ELF tail has been clearly measured after the lightning waveform, while sprites were observed at about 500 km from our station. This ELF tail is usually observed at distances higher than thousand km and is associated to sprite generation. This opens the capacity to measure the charge moment of the parent-lightning, using such measurement close to the source. Farges et al. [2007] showed that just after a lightning return stroke, a strong transient attenuation is very frequently observed in the MF waves of radio transmissions. They showed that this perturbation is due to heating of the lower ionosphere by the lightning-induced EMP during few milliseconds. These perturbations are then the MF radio signature of the lightning EMP effects on the lower ionosphere, in the same way as elves correspond to their optical signature. The experiment also provided the electric field waveforms directly associated to elves, while lightning were not detected by Météorage. Many of them present a double peak feature. The

  17. Quantitative Imaging of Microwave Electric Fields through Near-Field Scanning Microwave Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, S. K.; Vlahacos, C. P.; Steinhauer, D. E.; Thanawalla, A.; Feenstra, B. J.; Wellstood, F. C.; Anlage, Steven M.; Newman, H. S.

    1998-03-01

    The ability to non-destructively image electric field patterns generated by operating microwave devices (e.g. filters, antennas, circulators, etc.) would greatly aid in the design and testing of these structures. Such detailed information can be used to reconcile discrepancies between simulated behavior and experimental data (such as scattering parameters). The near-field scanning microwave microscope we present uses a coaxial probe to provide a simple, broadband method of imaging electric fields.(S. M. Anlage, et al.) IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 7, 3686 (1997).^,(See http://www.csr.umd.edu/research/hifreq/micr_microscopy.html) The signal that is measured is related to the incident electric flux normal to the face of the center conductor of the probe, allowing different components of the field to be measured by orienting the probe appropriately. By using a simple model of the system, we can also convert raw data to absolute electric field. Detailed images of standing waves on copper microstrip will be shown and compared to theory.

  18. Ocean wave electric generators

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, H.R.

    This patent describes an apparatus for generating electricity from ocean waves. It consists of: 1.) a hollow buoyant duck positioned in the path of waves including a core about the center axis of which the duck rotates, a lower chamber portion having liquid therein and an upper chamber portion having air therein. The air is alternately compressed and expanded by the liquid in the chamber during the rotational motion of the duck caused by waves. A turbine mounted in the upper portion of the duck is driven by the compressed and expanded air. A generator is coupled to the turbinemore » and operated to produce electrical energy and an air bulb; 2.) a spine having a transverse axial shaft anchoring the spine to the ocean floor. The upper portion of the spine engages the duck to maintain the duck in position. The spine has a curved configuration to concentrate and direct wave energy. The spine configuration acts as a scoop to increase the height of wave peaks and as a foil to increase the depth of wave troughs.« less

  19. THOR Fields and Wave Processor - FWP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucek, Jan; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Ahlen, Lennart; Balikhin, Michael; Carr, Christopher; Dekkali, Moustapha; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Lan, Radek; Magnes, Werner; Morawski, Marek; Nakamura, Rumi; Uhlir, Ludek; Yearby, Keith; Winkler, Marek; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    If selected, Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) will become the first spacecraft mission dedicated to the study of plasma turbulence. The Fields and Waves Processor (FWP) is an integrated electronics unit for all electromagnetic field measurements performed by THOR. FWP will interface with all THOR fields sensors: electric field antennas of the EFI instrument, the MAG fluxgate magnetometer, and search-coil magnetometer (SCM), and perform signal digitization and on-board data processing. FWP box will house multiple data acquisition sub-units and signal analyzers all sharing a common power supply and data processing unit and thus a single data and power interface to the spacecraft. Integrating all the electromagnetic field measurements in a single unit will improve the consistency of field measurement and accuracy of time synchronization. The scientific value of highly sensitive electric and magnetic field measurements in space has been demonstrated by Cluster (among other spacecraft) and THOR instrumentation will further improve on this heritage. Large dynamic range of the instruments will be complemented by a thorough electromagnetic cleanliness program, which will prevent perturbation of field measurements by interference from payload and platform subsystems. Taking advantage of the capabilities of modern electronics and the large telemetry bandwidth of THOR, FWP will provide multi-component electromagnetic field waveforms and spectral data products at a high time resolution. Fully synchronized sampling of many signals will allow to resolve wave phase information and estimate wavelength via interferometric correlations between EFI probes. FWP will also implement a plasma resonance sounder and a digital plasma quasi-thermal noise analyzer designed to provide high cadence measurements of plasma density and temperature complementary to data from particle instruments. FWP will rapidly transmit information about magnetic field vector and spacecraft potential to the

  20. Magnetospheric electric fields and auroral oval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laakso, Harri; Pedersen, Arne; Craven, John D.; Frank, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    DC electric field variations in a synchronous orbit (GEOS 2) during four substorms in the time sector 19 to 01 LT were investigated. Simultaneously, the imaging photometer on board DE 1 provided auroral images that are also utilized. Substorm onset is defined here as a sudden appearance of large electric fields. During the growth phase, the orientation of the electric field begins to oscillate some 30 min prior to onset. About 10 min before the onset GEOS 2 starts moving into a more tenuous plasma, probably due to a thinning of the current sheet. The onset is followed by a period of 10 to 15 min during which large electric fields occur. This interval can be divided into two intervals. During the first interval, which lasts 4 to 8 min, very large fields of 8 to 20 mV/m are observed, while the second interval contains relatively large fields (2 to 5 mV/m). A few min after the onset, the spacecraft returns to a plasma region of higher electron fluxes which are usually larger than before substorm. Some 30 min after onset, enhanced activity, lasting about 10 min, appears in the electric field. One of the events selected offers a good opportunity to study the formation and development of the Westward Traveling Surge (WST). During the traversal of the leading edge of the WTS (approximately 8 min) a stable wave mode at 5.7 mHz is detected.

  1. Initial Results from the Vector Electric Field Investigation on the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Rowland, D.; Acuna, M.; Le, G.; Farrell, W.; Holzworth, R.; Wilson, G.; Burke, W.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Initial results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. The DC electric field detector has revealed zonal and meridional electric fields that undergo a diurnal variation, typically displaying eastward and outward-directed fields during the day and westward and downward-directed fields at night. In general, the measured DC electric field amplitudes are in the 0.5-2 mV/m range, corresponding to I3 x B drifts of the order of 30-150 m/s. What is surprising is the high degree of large-scale (10's to 100's of km) structure in the DC electric field, particularly at night, regardless of whether well-defined spread-F plasma density depletions are present. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. On some occasions, localized regions of low frequency (< 8 Hz) magnetic field broadband irregularities have been detected, suggestive of filamentary currents, although there is no one-to-one correspondence of these waves with the observed plasma density depletions, at least within the data examined thus far. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF waves corresponding to a variety of plasma waves, in particular banded ELF hiss, whistlers, and lower hybrid wave turbulence

  2. Stability of wave processes in a rotating electrically conducting fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peregudin, S. I.; Peregudina, E. S.; Kholodova, S. E.

    2018-05-01

    The paper puts forward a mathematical model of dynamics of spatial large-scale motions in a rotating layer of electrically conducting incompressible perfect fluid of variable depth with due account of dissipative effects. The resulting boundary-value problem is reduced to a vector system of partial differential equations for any values of the Reynolds number. Theoretical analysis of the so-obtained analytical solution reveals the effect of the magnetic field diffusion on the stability of the wave mode — namely, with the removed external magnetic field, the diffusion of the magnetic field promotes its damping. Besides, a criterion of stability of a wave mode is obtained.

  3. New Method for Solving Inductive Electric Fields in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhamäki, H.

    2005-12-01

    We present a new method for calculating inductive electric fields in the ionosphere. It is well established that on large scales the ionospheric electric field is a potential field. This is understandable, since the temporal variations of large scale current systems are generally quite slow, in the timescales of several minutes, so inductive effects should be small. However, studies of Alfven wave reflection have indicated that in some situations inductive phenomena could well play a significant role in the reflection process, and thus modify the nature of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling. The input to our calculation method are the time series of the potential part of the ionospheric electric field together with the Hall and Pedersen conductances. The output is the time series of the induced rotational part of the ionospheric electric field. The calculation method works in the time-domain and can be used with non-uniform, time-dependent conductances. In addition no particular symmetry requirements are imposed on the input potential electric field. The presented method makes use of special non-local vector basis functions called Cartesian Elementary Current Systems (CECS). This vector basis offers a convenient way of representing curl-free and divergence-free parts of 2-dimensional vector fields and makes it possible to solve the induction problem using simple linear algebra. The new calculation method is validated by comparing it with previously published results for Alfven wave reflection from uniformly conducting ionosphere.

  4. First electric field measurements from the plasma environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Tomas; Eriksson, Anders; Odelstad, Elias; André, Mats; Dickeli, Guillaume; Kullen, Anita; Lindqvist, Per-Arne

    2017-04-01

    We present the first electric field measurements from the plasma environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, performed by the Rosetta dual Langmuir probe instrument LAP. For two time intervals, measurements of the electric field from cometocentric distances of 149 and 348 km are presented together with estimates of the spacecraft potential, which can be used as an indicator of plasma density changes. Persistent wave activity around the local water ion lower hybrid frequency (determined from the magnetic field measurements from the fluxgate magnetometer MAG) is observed. The largest amplitudes are observed at sharp plasma gradients. We discuss the probability that these waves are excited by the lower hybrid drift instability (LHDI), and conclude that the necessary requirements for the LHDI to be operating are fulfilled. We also present first statistical results of the electric field measurements, showing that the wave activity is concentrated to certain regions of the comet, and varies with heliocentric distance. We also discuss the possible effects the waves have on the ambient plasma, and suggest that they may explain hot plasma populations.

  5. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Dynamic Applications & Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Ed

    2017-01-01

    The technology and methods for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field made be used for volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology (e-Sensor) and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasi-static generator), and current e- Sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-Sensor) are discussed. Critical design elements of current linear and real-time two-dimensional (2D) measurement systems are highlighted, and the development of a three dimensional (3D) EFI system is presented. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. Recent work demonstrates that phonons may be used to create and annihilate electric dipoles within structures. Phonon induced dipoles are ephemeral and their polarization, strength, and location may be quantitatively characterized by EFI providing a new subsurface Phonon-EFI imaging technology. Results from real-time imaging of combustion and ion flow, and their measurement complications, will be discussed. Extensions to environment, Space and subterranean applications will be presented, and initial results for quantitative characterizing material properties are shown. A wearable EFI system has been developed by using fundamental EFI concepts. These new EFI capabilities are demonstrated to characterize electric charge distribution creating a new field of study embracing areas of interest including electrostatic discharge (ESD) mitigation, manufacturing quality control, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, combustion science, on-orbit space potential, container inspection, remote characterization of electronic circuits and level of activation, dielectric morphology of

  6. The Vector Electric Field Investigation on the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Acuna, M.; Kujawski, J.; Fourre, R.; Uribe, P.; Hunsaker, F.; Rowland, D.; Le, G.; Farrell, W.; Maynard, N.; hide

    2008-01-01

    We provide an overview of the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. VEFI is a NASA/GSFC instrument funded by the Air Force Research Laboratory whose main objectives are to: 1) investigate the role of the ambient electric fields in initiating nighttime ionospheric density depletions and turbulence; 2) determine the quasi-DC electric fields associated with abrupt, large amplitude, density depletions, and 3) quantify the spectrum of the wave electric fields and plasma densities (irregularities) associated with density depletions typically referred to as equatorial spread-F. The VEFI instrument includes a vector electric field double probe detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux-gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics. The heart of the instrument is the set of detectors designed to measure DC and AC electric fields using 6 identical booms that provide 3 axis, 20-m tip-to-tip orthogonal double probes. Each probe extends a 10 cm diameter sphere containing an embedded preamplifier. VEFI also includes a burst memory that enables snapshots of data from 1-8 channels of selected instruments to be sampled at rates of up to 32 kHz each. The bursts may be triggered by the detection of density depletions, intense electric field wave activity in a given band, lightning detector pulses, or an event at a pre-determined time or location. All VEFI instrument components are working exceptionally well. A description of the instrument, its sensors, and their sampling frequencies and sensitivities will be presented. Representative measurements will be shown.

  7. Theoretical relationship between elastic wave velocity and electrical resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Sub; Yoon, Hyung-Koo

    2015-05-01

    Elastic wave velocity and electrical resistivity have been commonly applied to estimate stratum structures and obtain subsurface soil design parameters. Both elastic wave velocity and electrical resistivity are related to the void ratio; the objective of this study is therefore to suggest a theoretical relationship between the two physical parameters. Gassmann theory and Archie's equation are applied to propose a new theoretical equation, which relates the compressional wave velocity to shear wave velocity and electrical resistivity. The piezo disk element (PDE) and bender element (BE) are used to measure the compressional and shear wave velocities, respectively. In addition, the electrical resistivity is obtained by using the electrical resistivity probe (ERP). The elastic wave velocity and electrical resistivity are recorded in several types of soils including sand, silty sand, silty clay, silt, and clay-sand mixture. The appropriate input parameters are determined based on the error norm in order to increase the reliability of the proposed relationship. The predicted compressional wave velocities from the shear wave velocity and electrical resistivity are similar to the measured compressional velocities. This study demonstrates that the new theoretical relationship may be effectively used to predict the unknown geophysical property from the measured values.

  8. Circadian locomotor activity of Musca flies: Recording method and effects of 10 Hz square-wave electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, W.; Hellrung, W.; Johnsson, A.

    1996-05-01

    Musca domestica flies that were exposed to a uniform vertical 10 Hz electric square-wave field of 1 kVm{sup {minus}1} changed the period length of their circadian locomotor activity rhythm. Under constant conditions, the clock of short-period flies was slowed down by the field, whereas the clock of long-period flies either was affected only scarcely (experiments at about 19 C) or ran faster (experiments at 25 C). It the field was applied for only 12 h daily, then 30--40% of the flies were synchronized. Thus, the field could function as a weak Zeitgeber (synchronizer). If the field was increased to 10more » kVm{sup {minus}1}, then 50--70% of the flies were synchronized. Flies avoided becoming active around the onset of the 12 h period of exposure to a 10 Hz field. The results of these experiments are discussed with respect to similar experiments by Wever on the effects of exposure to a 10 Hz field on the circadian system of man.« less

  9. Ephemeral Electric Potential and Electric Field Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices of the various embodiments provide for the minimization of the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic leakage electrical currents enabling true measurements of electric potentials and electric fields. In an embodiment, an ephemeral electric potential and electric field sensor system may have at least one electric field sensor and a rotator coupled to the electric field sensor and be configured to rotate the electric field sensor at a quasi-static frequency. In an embodiment, ephemeral electric potential and electric field measurements may be taken by rotating at least one electric field sensor at a quasi-static frequency, receiving electrical potential measurements from the electric field sensor when the electric field sensor is rotating at the quasi-static frequency, and generating and outputting images based at least in part on the received electrical potential measurements.

  10. The Vector Electric Field Instrument on the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Kujawski, J.; Uribe, P.; Bromund, K.; Fourre, R.; Acuna, M.; Le, G.; Farrell, W.; Holzworth, R.; McCarthy, M.; hide

    2008-01-01

    We provide an overview of the Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. VEFI is a NASA GSFC instrument designed 1) to investigate the role of the ambient electric fields in initiating nighttime ionospheric density depletions and turbulence; 2) to determine the electric fields associated with abrupt, large amplitude, density depletions and 3) to quantify the spectrum of the wave electric fields and plasma densities (irregularities) associated with density depletions or Equatorial Spread-F. The VEFI instrument includes a vector electric field double probe detector, a Langmuir trigger probe, a flux gate magnetometer, a lightning detector and associated electronics. The heart of the instrument is the set of double probe detectors designed to measure DC and AC electric fields using 6 identical, mutually orthogonal, deployable 9.5 m booms tipped with 10 cm diameter spheres containing embedded preamplifiers. A description of the instrument and its sensors will be presented. If available, representative measurements will be provided.

  11. The influence of an external electric field on the propagation of light waves in cholesteric liquid crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenova, E. V.; Karetnikov, A. A.; Kovshik, A. P.; Krainyukov, E. S.; Svanidze, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    The specific features of light transmission in a cholesteric liquid crystal (LC) cell with a director rotated by 90° have been investigated. In this structure, where a light wave is incident at a large angle with respect to the LC surface, the light is reflected (refracted) in the LC layer near the opposite boundary. It is shown that the application of an electric field changes the character of extraordinary wave refraction, as a result of which light starts passing through a cell. The transmission threshold voltage is determined, and its dependence on the angle of incidence of light is obtained. The dependence of the transmitted-light intensity on the voltage across the cell is obtained as well. The same dependences are also derived by numerical calculations with allowance for the turning points and extinction.

  12. Electromagnetic wave energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave energy is converted into electric power with an array of mutually insulated electromagnetic wave absorber elements each responsive to an electric field component of the wave as it impinges thereon. Each element includes a portion tapered in the direction of wave propagation to provide a relatively wideband response spectrum. Each element includes an output for deriving a voltage replica of the electric field variations intercepted by it. Adjacent elements are positioned relative to each other so that an electric field subsists between adjacent elements in response to the impinging wave. The electric field results in a voltage difference between adjacent elements that is fed to a rectifier to derive dc output power.

  13. Alfven Wave Reflection Model of Field-Aligned Currents at Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Khazanov, George V.; Slavin, James

    2010-01-01

    An Alfven Wave Reflection (AWR) model is proposed that provides closure for strong field-aligned currents (FACs) driven by the magnetopause reconnection in the magnetospheres of planets having no significant ionospheric and surface electrical conductance. The model is based on properties of the Alfven waves, generated at high altitudes and reflected from the low-conductivity surface of the planet. When magnetospheric convection is very slow, the incident and reflected Alfven waves propagate along approximately the same path. In this case, the net field-aligned currents will be small. However, as the convection speed increases. the reflected wave is displaced relatively to the incident wave so that the incident and reflected waves no longer compensate each other. In this case, the net field-aligned current may be large despite the lack of significant ionospheric and surface conductivity. Our estimate shows that for typical solar wind conditions at Mercury, the magnitude of Region 1-type FACs in Mercury's magnetosphere may reach hundreds of kilo-Amperes. This AWR model of field-aligned currents may provide a solution to the long-standing problem of the closure of FACs in the Mercury's magnetosphere. c2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Electric currents and voltage drops along auroral field lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is presented of the current state of knowledge concerning Birkeland currents and the parallel electric field, with discussions focusing on the Birkeland primary region 1 sheets, the region 2 sheets which parallel them and appear to close in the partial ring current, the cusp currents (which may be correlated with the interplanetary B(y) component), and the Harang filament. The energy required by the parallel electric field and the associated particle acceleration processes appears to be derived from the Birkeland currents, for which evidence is adduced from particles, inverted V spectra, rising ion beams and expanded loss cones. Conics may on the other hand signify acceleration by electrostatic ion cyclotron waves associated with beams accelerated by the parallel electric field.

  15. Rogue wave in coupled electric transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, J. K.; Bai, Y. L.

    2018-03-01

    Distributed electrical transmission lines that consist of a large number of identical sections have been theoretically studied in the present paper. The rogue wave is analyzed and predicted using the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE). The results indicate that, in the continuum limit, the voltage for the transmission line is described in some cases by the NLSE that is obtained using the traditional perturbation technique. The dependences of the characteristics of the rouge wave parameters on the coupled electric transmission line are shown in the paper. As is well known, rogue waves can be found for a large number of oceanic disasters, and such waves may be disastrous. However, the results of the present paper for coupled electric transmission lines may be useful.

  16. A high-performance electric field detector for space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badoni, D.; Ammendola, R.; Bertello, I.; Cipollone, P.; Conti, L.; De Santis, C.; Diego, P.; Masciantonio, G.; Picozza, P.; Sparvoli, R.; Ubertini, P.; Vannaroni, G.

    2018-04-01

    We present the prototype of an Electric Field Detector (EFD) for space applications, that has been developed in the framework of the Chinese-Italian collaboration on the CSES (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite) forthcoming missions. In particular CSES-1 will be placed in orbit in the early 2018. The detector consists of spherical probes designed to be installed at the tips of four booms deployed from a 3-axes stabilized satellite. The instrument has been conceived for space-borne measurements of electromagnetic phenomena such as ionospheric waves, lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling and anthropogenic electromagnetic emissions. The detector allows to measure electric fields in a wide band of frequencies extending from quasi-DC up to about 4 MHz , with a sensitivity of the order of 1 μV / m in the ULF band. With these bandwidth and sensitivity, the described electric field detector represents a very performing and updated device for electric field measurements in space.

  17. Correlation between magnetic and electric field perturbations in the field-aligned current regions deduced from DE 2 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishii, M.; Sugiura, M.; Iyemori, T.; Slavin, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The satellite-observed high correlations between magnetic and electric field perturbations in the high-latitude field-aligned current regions are investigated by examining the dependence of the relationship between Delta-B and E on spatial scale, using the electric and magnetic field data obtained by DE 2 in the polar regions. The results are compared with the Pedersen conductivity inferred from the international reference ionosphere model and the Alfven wave velocity calculated from the in situ ion density and magnetic field measurements.

  18. The University of Iowa Helios solar wind plasma wave experiment /E 5a/. [using spectrum analyzer-electric field antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Anderson, R. R.; Odem, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    This document describes the University of Iowa solar wind plasma wave experiment for the Helios missions (Experiment 5a). The objective of this experiment is the investigation of naturally occurring plasma instabilities and electromagnetic waves in the solar wind. To carry out this investigation, the experiment consists primarily of a 16-channel spectrum analyzer connected to the electric field antennas. The spectrum analyzer covers the frequency range from 20 Hz to 200 kHz and has an amplitude dynamic range which extends from .3 microvolts/m to 30 mV/m per channel. This spectrum analyzer, the antenna potential measurements, the shock alarm system and the supporting electronics are discussed in detail.

  19. Two Step Acceleration Process of Electrons in the Outer Van Allen Radiation Belt by Time Domain Electric Field Bursts and Large Amplitude Chorus Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Lejosne, S.

    2014-12-01

    A huge number of different non-linear structures (double layers, electron holes, non-linear whistlers, etc) have been observed by the electric field experiment on the Van Allen Probes in conjunction with relativistic electron acceleration in the Earth's outer radiation belt. These structures, found as short duration (~0.1 msec) quasi-periodic bursts of electric field in the high time resolution electric field waveform, have been called Time Domain Structures (TDS). They can quite effectively interact with radiation belt electrons. Due to the trapping of electrons into these non-linear structures, they are accelerated up to ~10 keV and their pitch angles are changed, especially for low energies (˜1 keV). Large amplitude electric field perturbations cause non-linear resonant trapping of electrons into the effective potential of the TDS and these electrons are then accelerated in the non-homogeneous magnetic field. These locally accelerated electrons create the "seed population" of several keV electrons that can be accelerated by coherent, large amplitude, upper band whistler waves to MeV energies in this two step acceleration process. All the elements of this chain acceleration mechanism have been observed by the Van Allen Probes.

  20. Penetration of Large Scale Electric Field to Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. H.; Fok, M. C. H.; Sibeck, D. G.; Wygant, J. R.; Spence, H. E.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G. D.; Funsten, H. O.

    2015-12-01

    The direct penetration of large scale global electric field to the inner magnetosphere is a critical element in controlling how the background thermal plasma populates within the radiation belts. These plasma populations provide the source of particles and free energy needed for the generation and growth of various plasma waves that, at critical points of resonances in time and phase space, can scatter or energize radiation belt particles to regulate the flux level of the relativistic electrons in the system. At high geomagnetic activity levels, the distribution of large scale electric fields serves as an important indicator of how prevalence of strong wave-particle interactions extend over local times and radial distances. To understand the complex relationship between the global electric fields and thermal plasmas, particularly due to the ionospheric dynamo and the magnetospheric convection effects, and their relations to the geomagnetic activities, we analyze the electric field and cold plasma measurements from Van Allen Probes over more than two years period and simulate a geomagnetic storm event using Coupled Inner Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Model (CIMI). Our statistical analysis of the measurements from Van Allan Probes and CIMI simulations of the March 17, 2013 storm event indicate that: (1) Global dawn-dusk electric field can penetrate the inner magnetosphere inside the inner belt below L~2. (2) Stronger convections occurred in the dusk and midnight sectors than those in the noon and dawn sectors. (3) Strong convections at multiple locations exist at all activity levels but more complex at higher activity levels. (4) At the high activity levels, strongest convections occur in the midnight sectors at larger distances from the Earth and in the dusk sector at closer distances. (5) Two plasma populations of distinct ion temperature isotropies divided at L-Shell ~2, indicating distinct heating mechanisms between inner and outer radiation belts. (6) CIMI

  1. DC and Wave Electric Fields and Other Plasma Parameters Observed on Two Sounding Rockets in the Dark Cusp during IMF Bz North and South Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R. F.; Acuna, M.; Bounds, S.; Farrell, W.; Freudenreich, W.; Lepping, R.; Vondrak, R.; Maynard, N. C.; Moen, J.; Egeland, A.

    1999-01-01

    Two Black Brant IX sounding rockets were launched into the dark, dayside cusp near magnetic noon on December 2 and 3, 1997, from Ny Alesund, Spitzbergen at 79 deg N reaching altitudes of about 450 km. Real-time ground-based and Wind IMF data were used to determine the launch conditions. The first launch, with Bz north conditions, crossed into and back out of an open field region with merging poleward of the projected trajectory. The second flight, into Bz south conditions, was timed to coincide with an enhancement in the merging rate from a increase in the negative Bz, while the DMSP Fl 3 satellite was situated slightly to the north of the rocket trajectory. Each payload returned DC electric and magnetic fields, plasma waves, energetic particles, photometer data, and thermal plasma data. Data from both flights will be shown, with an emphasis on the DC electric field results. In particular, the data gathered on December 2, 1997 will be used to discuss ionospheric signatures of merging and the open/closed character of the the cusp/low latitude boundary layer. In contrast, the data gathered on December 3, 1997 shows evidence of pulsed electric field structures which will be examined in the context of cusp plasma entry processes. Both data sets returned a rich variety of plasma waves, as well as optical emissions and thermal plasma data.

  2. DC and Wave Electric Fields and Other Plasma Parameters Observed on Two Sounding Rockets in the Dark Cusp During IMF Bz North and South Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R. F.; Acuna, M.; Bounds, S.; Farrell, W.; Freudenreich, H.; Lepping, R.; Vondrak, R.; Maynard, N. C.; Moen, J.; Egeland, A.

    1997-01-01

    Two Black Brant IX sounding rockets were launched into the dark, dayside cusp near magnetic noon on December 2 and 3, 1997, from Ny Alesund, Spitzbergen at 79 N reaching altitudes of approximately 450 km. Real-time ground-based and Wind IMF data were used to determine the launch conditions. The first launch, with Bz north conditions, crossed into and back out of an open field region with merging poleward of the projected trajectory. The second flight, into Bz south conditions, was timed to coincide with an enhancement in the merging rate from a increase in the negative Bz, while the DMSP F13 satellite was situated slightly to the north of the rocket trajectory. Each payload returned DC electric and magnetic fields, plasma waves, energetic particles, photometer data, and thermal plasma data. Data from both flights will be shown, with an emphasis on the DC electric field results. In particular, the data gathered on December 2, 1997 will be used to discuss ionospheric signatures of merging and the open/closed character of the the cusp/low latitude boundary layer. In contrast, the data gathered on December 3, 1997 shows evidence of pulsed electric field structures which will be examined in the context of cusp plasma entry processes. Both data sets returned a rich variety of plasma waves, as well as optical emissions and thermal plasma data.

  3. Generation of ULF waves by electric or magnetic dipoles. [propagation from earth surface to ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harker, K. J.

    1975-01-01

    The generation of ULF waves by ground-based magnetic and electric dipoles is studied with a simplified model consisting of three adjoining homogeneous regions representing the groud, the vacuum (free space) region, and the ionosphere. The system is assumed to be immersed in a homogeneous magnetic field with an arbitrary tilt angle. By the use of Fourier techniques and the method of stationary phase, analytic expressions are obtained for the field strength of the compressional Alfven waves in the ionosphere. Expressions are also obtained for the strength of the torsional Alfven wave in the ionosphere and the ULF magnetic field at ground level. Numerical results are obtained for the compressional Alfven-wave field strength in the ionosphere with a nonvertical geomagnetic field and for the ULF magnetic field at ground level for a vertical geomagnetic field.

  4. Detection of a diabetic sural nerve from the magnetic field after electric stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayami, Takehito; Iramina, Keiji; Hyodo, Akira; Chen, Xian; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we proposed a new diagnostic technique for diabetic neuropathy using biomagnetic measurement. Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. To examine the injury, the skin potential around the nerve is often measured after electric stimulation. However, measuring the magnetic field may reveal precise condition of the injury. To evaluate the effect of measuring the magnetic field, a simulation study was performed. A diabetic sural nerve was simulated as a bundle of myelinated nerve fibers. Each fiber was modeled as an electric cable of Ranvier's nodes. Anatomical data were used to determine the number of nerve fibers and distribution of nerve fiber diameters. The electric potential and the magnetic field on the skin after electric stimulation were computed to the boundary element method. Biphasic time courses were obtained as the electric potential and the magnetic flux density at measurement points. In diabetic nerves, the longer interpeak latency of the electric potential wave and the shorter interpeak latency of the magnetic flux wave were obtained. Measuring both the electric potential and the magnetic flux density seemed to provide a noninvasive and objective marker for diabetic neuropathy.

  5. Non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion in one dimension in electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, H. Z.; Su, S. L.; Zhou, Y. H.; Yi, X. X.

    2018-04-01

    Quantum Brownian motion is the random motion of quantum particles suspended in a field (or an effective field) resulting from their collision with fast-moving modes in the field. It provides us with a fundamental model to understand various physical features concerning open systems in chemistry, condensed-matter physics, biophysics, and optomechanics. In this paper, without either the Born-Markovian or rotating-wave approximation, we derive a master equation for a charged-Brownian particle in one dimension coupled with a thermal reservoir in electric fields. The effect of the reservoir and the electric fields is manifested as time-dependent coefficients and coherent terms, respectively, in the master equation. The two-photon correlation between the Brownian particle and the reservoir can induce nontrivial squeezing dynamics to the particle. We derive a current equation including the source from the driving fields, transient current from the system flowing into the environment, and the two-photon current caused by the non-rotating-wave term. The presented results then are compared with that given by the rotating-wave approximation in the weak-coupling limit, and these results are extended to a more general quantum network involving an arbitrary number of coupled-Brownian particles. The presented formalism might open a way to better understand exactly the non-Markovian quantum network.

  6. DC and Wave Electric Fields and Other Plasma Parameters Observed on Two Sounding Rockets in the Dark Cusp during IMF BZ North and South Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R. F.; Bounds, S.; Acuna, M.; Maynard, N. C.; Moen, J.; Egeland, A.; Holtet, J.; Maseide, K.; Sandholt, P. E.; Soraas, F.

    1999-01-01

    Two Black Brant IX sounding rockets were launched into the dark, dayside cusp near magnetic noon on December 2 and 3, 1997, from Ny Alesund, Spitzbergen at 79degN reaching altitudes of approximately 450 km. Real-time ground-based and Wind (interplanetary magnetic field) IMF data were used to determine the launch conditions. The first launch, with Bz north conditions, crossed into and back out of an open field region with merging poleward of the projected trajectory. The second flight, into Bz south conditions, was timed to coincide with an enhancement in the merging rate from a increase in the negative Bz, while the (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) DMSP F13 satellite was situated slightly to the north of the rocket trajectory. Each payload returned DC electric and magnetic fields, plasma waves, energetic particles, photometer data, and thermal plasma data. Data from both flights will be shown, with an emphasis on the DC electric field results. In particular, the data gathered on December 2, 1997 will be used to discuss ionospheric signatures of merging and the open/closed character of the the cusp/low latitude boundary layer. In contrast, the data gathered on December 3, 1997 shows evidence of pulsed electric field structures which will be examined in the context of cusp plasma entry processes. Both data sets returned a rich variety of plasma waves, as well as optical emissions and thermal plasma data.

  7. Electrically tunable terahertz wave modulator based on complementary metamaterial and graphene

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xun-jun, E-mail: hexunjun@hrbust.edu.cn; Li, Teng-yue; Wang, Lei

    2014-05-07

    In this paper, we design and numerically demonstrate an electrically controllable light-matter interaction in a hybrid material/metamaterial system consisting of an artificially constructed cross cut-wire complementary metamaterial and an atomically thin graphene layer to realize terahertz (THz) wave modulator. By applying a bias voltage between the metamaterial and the graphene layer, this modulator can dynamically control the amplitude and phase of the transmitted wave near 1.43 THz. Moreover, the distributions of current density show that this large modulation depth can be attributed to the resonant electric field parallel to the graphene sheet. Therefore, the modulator performance indicates the enormous potentialmore » of graphene for developing sophisticated THz communication systems.« less

  8. Simulation of electrostatic ion instabilities in the presence of parallel currents and transverse electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Ganguli, G.; Lee, Y. C.; Palmadesso, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    A spatially two-dimensional electrostatic PIC simulation code was used to study the stability of a plasma equilibrium characterized by a localized transverse dc electric field and a field-aligned drift for L is much less than Lx, where Lx is the simulation length in the x direction and L is the scale length associated with the dc electric field. It is found that the dc electric field and the field-aligned current can together play a synergistic role to enable the excitation of electrostatic waves even when the threshold values of the field aligned drift and the E x B drift are individually subcritical. The simulation results show that the growing ion waves are associated with small vortices in the linear stage, which evolve to the nonlinear stage dominated by larger vortices with lower frequencies.

  9. Nonlinear wave chaos: statistics of second harmonic fields.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Min; Ott, Edward; Antonsen, Thomas M; Anlage, Steven M

    2017-10-01

    Concepts from the field of wave chaos have been shown to successfully predict the statistical properties of linear electromagnetic fields in electrically large enclosures. The Random Coupling Model (RCM) describes these properties by incorporating both universal features described by Random Matrix Theory and the system-specific features of particular system realizations. In an effort to extend this approach to the nonlinear domain, we add an active nonlinear frequency-doubling circuit to an otherwise linear wave chaotic system, and we measure the statistical properties of the resulting second harmonic fields. We develop an RCM-based model of this system as two linear chaotic cavities coupled by means of a nonlinear transfer function. The harmonic field strengths are predicted to be the product of two statistical quantities and the nonlinearity characteristics. Statistical results from measurement-based calculation, RCM-based simulation, and direct experimental measurements are compared and show good agreement over many decades of power.

  10. Gravitational wave-Gauge field oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. R.; Devulder, C.; Maksimova, N. A.

    2016-09-01

    Gravitational waves propagating through a stationary gauge field transform into gauge field waves and back again. When multiple families of flavor-space locked gauge fields are present, the gravitational and gauge field waves exhibit novel dynamics. At high frequencies, the system behaves like coupled oscillators in which the gravitational wave is the central pacemaker. Due to energy conservation and exchange among the oscillators, the wave amplitudes lie on a multidimensional sphere, reminiscent of neutrino flavor oscillations. This phenomenon has implications for cosmological scenarios based on flavor-space locked gauge fields.

  11. Microscopic origin of electric-field-induced modulation of Curie temperature in cobalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Fuyuki; Yamada, Kihiro T.; Koyama, Tomohiro; Ishibashi, Mio; Shiota, Yoichi; Moriyama, Takahiro; Chiba, Daichi; Ono, Teruo

    2018-07-01

    The Curie temperature T C is one of the most fundamental physical properties of ferromagnetic materials and can be described by the Weiss molecular field theory with the exchange interaction of neighboring atoms. Here, we demonstrate the electrical control of exchange coupling in cobalt films through direct magnetization measurements. We find that the reduction in magnetization with temperature, which is caused by thermal spin wave excitation and scales with Bloch’s law, clearly depends on the applied electric field. Furthermore, we confirm that the correlation between the electric-field-induced modulation of T C and that of exchange coupling follows the Weiss molecular field theory.

  12. All-Electrical Measurement of Interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction Using Collective Spin-Wave Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Min; Jang, Chaun; Min, Byoung-Chul; Lee, Seo-Won; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Chang, Joonyeon

    2016-01-13

    Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI), which arises from the broken inversion symmetry and spin-orbit coupling, is of prime interest as it leads to a stabilization of chiral magnetic order and provides an efficient manipulation of magnetic nanostructures. Here, we report all-electrical measurement of DMI using propagating spin wave spectroscopy based on the collective spin wave with a well-defined wave vector. We observe a substantial frequency shift of spin waves depending on the spin chirality in Pt/Co/MgO structures. After subtracting the contribution from other sources to the frequency shift, it is possible to quantify the DMI energy in Pt/Co/MgO systems. The result reveals that the DMI in Pt/Co/MgO originates from the interfaces, and the sign of DMI corresponds to the inversion asymmetry of the film structures. The electrical excitation and detection of spin waves and the influence of interfacial DMI on the collective spin-wave dynamics will pave the way to the emerging field of spin-wave logic devices.

  13. Spacecraft Observations of a ULF Wave Injected Onto Field Lines by SPEAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badman, S. V.; Wright, D. M.; Yeoman, T. K.; Clausen, L. B.; Fear, R. C.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Lucek, E. A.

    2008-12-01

    SPEAR (Space Exploration by Active Radar) is an ionospheric heating facility situated on Svalbard which is capable of exciting ULF waves on local magnetic field lines. Field-guided ULF waves can interact with the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) and produce parallel electric fields, which then accelerate electrons along the field line. Detection and study of these waves thus provides information on the properties of the IAR and auroral acceleration processes. We examine an interval from 1 February 2006 when SPEAR was transmitting with a 5 min on-off cycle. During this interval the Cluster spacecraft passed over the heater site. We discuss signatures of the SPEAR-generated wave identified in the Cluster field and electron measurements. One feature of interest is the periodic enhancement of electron fluxes in two broad energy bands (~10-100 eV and ~100-1000 eV) which occur out of phase with each other in the two different energy bands.

  14. Ultrafast traveling wave dominates the electric organ discharge of Apteronotus leptorhynchus: an inverse modelling study.

    PubMed

    Shifman, Aaron R; Longtin, André; Lewis, John E

    2015-10-30

    Identifying and understanding the current sources that give rise to bioelectric fields is a fundamental problem in the biological sciences. It is very difficult, for example, to attribute the time-varying features of an electroencephalogram recorded from the head surface to the neural activity of specific brain areas; model systems can provide important insight into such problems. Some species of fish actively generate an oscillating (c. 1000 Hz) quasi-dipole electric field to communicate and sense their environment in the dark. A specialized electric organ comprises neuron-like cells whose collective signal underlies this electric field. As a step towards understanding the detailed biophysics of signal generation in these fish, we use an anatomically-detailed finite-element modelling approach to reverse-engineer the electric organ signal over one oscillation cycle. We find that the spatiotemporal profile of current along the electric organ constitutes a travelling wave that is well-described by two spatial Fourier components varying in time. The conduction velocity of this wave is faster than action potential conduction in any known neuronal axon (>200 m/s), suggesting that the spatiotemporal features of high-frequency electric organ discharges are not constrained by the conduction velocities of spinal neuron pathways.

  15. Ultrafast traveling wave dominates the electric organ discharge of Apteronotus leptorhynchus: an inverse modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Shifman, Aaron R.; Longtin, André; Lewis, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and understanding the current sources that give rise to bioelectric fields is a fundamental problem in the biological sciences. It is very difficult, for example, to attribute the time-varying features of an electroencephalogram recorded from the head surface to the neural activity of specific brain areas; model systems can provide important insight into such problems. Some species of fish actively generate an oscillating (c. 1000 Hz) quasi-dipole electric field to communicate and sense their environment in the dark. A specialized electric organ comprises neuron-like cells whose collective signal underlies this electric field. As a step towards understanding the detailed biophysics of signal generation in these fish, we use an anatomically-detailed finite-element modelling approach to reverse-engineer the electric organ signal over one oscillation cycle. We find that the spatiotemporal profile of current along the electric organ constitutes a travelling wave that is well-described by two spatial Fourier components varying in time. The conduction velocity of this wave is faster than action potential conduction in any known neuronal axon (>200 m/s), suggesting that the spatiotemporal features of high-frequency electric organ discharges are not constrained by the conduction velocities of spinal neuron pathways. PMID:26514932

  16. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Dynamic Applications: 2017 Research Award Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Ed

    2017-01-01

    The technology and methods for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field may be used for illuminating volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology (e-Sensor) and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasi-static generator), and current e- Sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-Sensor) are discussed. Critical design elements of current linear and real-time two-dimensional (2D) measurement systems are highlighted, and the development of a three dimensional (3D) EFI system is presented. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. Recent work demonstrates that phonons may be used to create and annihilate electric dipoles within structures. Phonon induced dipoles are ephemeral and their polarization, strength, and location may be quantitatively characterized by EFI providing a new subsurface Phonon-EFI imaging technology. Initial results from real-time imaging of combustion and ion flow, and their measurement complications, will be discussed. These new EFI capabilities are demonstrated to characterize electric charge distribution creating a new field of study embracing areas of interest including electrostatic discharge (ESD) mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, combustion science, on-orbit space potential, container inspection, remote characterization of electronic circuits and level of activation, dielectric morphology of structures, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, atmospheric science, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  17. Remote sensing of mesospheric electric fields using MF radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meek, C. E.; Manson, A. H.; Martynenko, S. I.; Rozumenko, V. T.; Tyrnov, O. F.

    2004-07-01

    revealed. The probability of the absence of local large mesospheric electric fields amounts to approximately 25% for Ukraine and approximately 30% for Canada. A comparison of the Ukrainian and Canadian data indicates the possible existence of a latitudinal dependence in mean large mesospheric electric field features. Hence, the large electric fields are an additional source of electron heating that must be taken into account in studying a disturbed lower ionosphere and radio wave propagation within it.

  18. KINETIC-J: A computational kernel for solving the linearized Vlasov equation applied to calculations of the kinetic, configuration space plasma current for time harmonic wave electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, David L.; Berry, Lee A.; Simpson, Adam B.; Younkin, Timothy R.

    2018-04-01

    We present the KINETIC-J code, a computational kernel for evaluating the linearized Vlasov equation with application to calculating the kinetic plasma response (current) to an applied time harmonic wave electric field. This code addresses the need for a configuration space evaluation of the plasma current to enable kinetic full-wave solvers for waves in hot plasmas to move beyond the limitations of the traditional Fourier spectral methods. We benchmark the kernel via comparison with the standard k →-space forms of the hot plasma conductivity tensor.

  19. Electric-field control of spin waves in multiferroic BiFeO3: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, Rogério; Rovillain, P.; Gallais, Y.; Sacuto, A.; Méasson, M. A.; Colson, D.; Forget, A.; Bibes, M.; Barthélémy, A.; Cazayous, M.

    2011-03-01

    Our recent experiment demonstrated gigantic (30%) electric-field tuning of magnon frequencies in multiferroic BiFeO3. We demonstrate that the origin of this effect is related to two linear magnetoelectric interactions that couple the component of electric field perpendicular to the ferroelectric vector to a quadratic form of the Néel vector. We calculate the magnon spectra due to each of these interactions and show that only one of them is consistent with experimental data. At high electric fields, this interaction induces a phase transition to a homogeneous state, and the multi-magnon spectra will fuse into two magnon frequencies. We discuss the possible microscopic mechanisms responsible for this novel interaction and the prospect for applications in magnonics. We acknowledge support from NSERC-Discovery (Canada) and the Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (France).

  20. Study of diffusion of wave packets in a square lattice under external fields along the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brito, P. E.; Nazareno, H. N.

    2012-09-01

    The object of the present work is to analyze the effect of nonlinearity on wave packet propagation in a square lattice subject to a magnetic and an electric field in the Hall configuration, by using the Discrete Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation (DNLSE). In previous works we have shown that without the nonlinear term, the presence of the magnetic field induces the formation of vortices that remain stationary, while a wave packet is introduced in the system. As for the effect of an applied electric field, it was shown that the vortices propagate in a direction perpendicular to the electric field, similar behavior as presented in the classical treatment, we provide a quantum mechanics explanation for that. We have performed the calculations considering first the action of the magnetic field as well as the nonlinearity. The results indicate that for low values of the nonlinear parameter U the vortices remain stationary while preserving the form. For greater values of the parameter the picture gets distorted, the more so, the greater the nonlinearity. As for the inclusion of the electric field, we note that for small U, the wave packet propagates perpendicular to the applied field, until for greater values of U the wave gets partially localized in a definite region of the lattice. That is, for strong nonlinearity the wave packet gets partially trapped, while the tail of it can propagate through the lattice. Note that this tail propagation is responsible for the over-diffusion for long times of the wave packet under the action of an electric field. We have produced short films that show clearly the time evolution of the wave packet, which can add to the understanding of the dynamics.

  1. Propagation of electromagnetic waves parallel to the magnetic field in the nightside Venus ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huba, J. D.; Rowland, H. L.

    1993-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves parallel to the magnetic field in the nightside Venus ionosphere is presented in a theoretical and numerical analysis. The model assumes a source of electromagnetic radiation in the Venus atmosphere, such as that produced by lightning. Specifically addressed is wave propagation in the altitude range z = 130-160 km at the four frequencies detectable by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Electric Field Detector: 100 Hz, 730 Hz, 5.4 kHz, and 30 kHz. Parameterizations of the wave intensities, peak electron density, and Poynting flux as a function of magnetic field are presented. The waves are found to propagate most easily in conditions of low electron density and high magnetic field. The results of the model are consistent with observational data.

  2. Electroporation of Mammalian Cells by Nanosecond Electric Field Oscillations and its Inhibition by the Electric Field Reversal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-08

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) March 2013 to July 2015 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electroporation of mammalian cells by nanosecond electric field...NEFO was a damped sine wave with 140 ns first phase duration at 50% height; the peak amplitude of phases 2- 4 decreased to 35%, 12%, and 7% of the...first phase. This waveform was rectified to produce unipolar NEFO by cutting off phases 2 and 4 . Membrane permeabilization was quantified in CHO and

  3. One-dimensional nonlinear instability study of a slightly viscoelastic, perfectly conducting liquid jet under a radial electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang; Yin, Xie-Yuan; Yin, Xie-Zhen

    2016-05-01

    A one-dimensional electrified viscoelastic model is built to study the nonlinear behavior of a slightly viscoelastic, perfectly conducting liquid jet under a radial electric field. The equations are solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme together with a boundary element method. The electrified viscoelastic jet is found to evolve into a beads-on-string structure in the presence of the radial electric field. Although the radial electric field greatly enhances the linear instability of the jet, its influence on the decay of the filament thickness is limited during the nonlinear evolution of the jet. On the other hand, the radial electric field induces axial non-uniformity of the first normal stress difference within the filament. The first normal stress difference in the center region of the filament may be greatly decreased by the radial electric field. The regions with/without satellite droplets are illuminated on the χ (the electrical Bond number)-k (the dimensionless wave number) plane. Satellite droplets may be formed for larger wave numbers at larger radial electric fields.

  4. Analysis of Electric Field Propagation in Anisotropically Absorbing and Reflecting Waveplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnio, B. N.; Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2018-04-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for half-wave plates (HWPs) and quarter-wave plates (QWPs) based on uniaxial crystals. This general analysis describes the behavior of anisotropically absorbing and reflecting waveplates across the electromagnetic spectrum, which allows for correction to the commonly used equations determined assuming isotropic absorptions and reflections. This analysis is crucial to the design and implementation of HWPs and QWPs in the terahertz regime, where uniaxial crystals used for waveplates are highly birefringent and anisotropically absorbing. The derived HWP equations describe the rotation of linearly polarized light by an arbitrary angle, whereas the QWP analysis focuses on manipulating a linearly polarized electric field to obtain any ellipticity. The HWP and QWP losses are characterized by determining equations for the total electric field magnitude transmitted through these phase-retarding elements.

  5. Modeling Electric Field Influences on Plasmaspheric Refilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Kozyra, J. U.; Khazanov, G. V.; Craven, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    We have a new model of ion transport that we have applied to the problem of plasmaspheric flux tube refilling after a geomagnetic disturbance. This model solves the Fokker-Planck kinetic equation by applying discrete difference numerical schemes to the various operators. Features of the model include a time-varying ionospheric source, self-consistent Coulomb collisions, field-aligned electric field, hot plasma interactions, and ion cyclotron wave heating. We see refilling rates similar to those of earlier observations and models, except when the electric field is included. In this case, the refilling rates can be quite different that previously predicted. Depending on the populations included and the values of relevant parameters, trap zone densities can increase or decrease. In particular, the inclusion of hot populations near the equatorial region (specifically warm pancake distributions and ring current ions) can dramatically alter the refilling rate. Results are compared with observations as well as previous hydrodynamic and kinetic particle model simulations.

  6. Stability of two layers dielectric-electrolyte microflow subjected to an alternating external electric field.

    PubMed

    Demekhin, Evgeny A; Ganchenko, Georgy S; Gorbacheva, Ekaterina V; Amiroudine, Sakir

    2018-04-16

    The stability of the electroosmotic flow of the two-phase system electrolyte-dielectric with a free interface in the microchannel under an external electric field is examined theoretically. The mathematical model includes the Nernst-Plank equations for the ion concentrations. The linear stability of the 1D nonstationary solution with respect to the small, periodic perturbations along the channel, is studied. Two types of instability have been highlighted. The first is known as the long-wave instability and is connected with the distortion of the free charge on the interface. In the long-wave area, the results are in good agreement with the ones obtained theoretically and experimentally in the literature. The second type of instability is a short-wave and mostly connected with the disturbance of the electrolyte conductivity. The short-wave type of instability has not been found previously in the literature and constitutes the basis and the strength of the present work. It is revealed that with the increase of the external electric field frequency, the 1D flow is stabilized. The dependence of the flow on the other parameters of the system is qualitatively the same as for the constant electric field. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Nonlinear whistler waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasko, I.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Bonnell, J. W.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Artemyev, A.; Drake, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Chorus waves observed in the Earth inner magnetosphere sometimes exhibit significantly distorted (nonharmonic) parallel electric field waveform. In spectrograms these waveform features show up as overtones of chorus wave. In this work we show that the chorus wave parallel electric field is distorted due to finite temperature of electrons. The distortion of the parallel electric field is described analytically and reproduced in the numerical fluid simulations. Due to this effect the chorus energy is transferred to higher frequencies making possible efficient scattering of low ( a few keV) energy electrons.

  8. High-latitude distributions of plasma waves and spatial irregularities from DE 2 alternating current electric field observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.; Liebrecht, M. C.; Maynard, N. C.; Pfaff, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    The high-latitude spatial distributions of average signal intensities in 12 frequency channels between 4 Hz and 512 kHz as measured by the ac electric field spectrometers on the DE-2 spacecraft are analyzed for 18 mo of measurements. In MLT-INL (magnetic local time-invariant latitude) there are three distinct distributions that can be identified with 4-512 Hz signals from spatial irregularities and Alfven waves, 256-Hz to 4.1-kHz signals from ELF hiss, and 4.1-64 kHz signals from VLF auroral hiss, respectively. Overlap between ELF hiss and spatial irregularity signals occurs in the 256-512 Hz band. VLF hiss signals extend downward in frequency into the 1.0-4.1 kHz band and upward into the frequency range 128-512 kHz. The distinctly different spatial distribution patterns for the three bands, 4-256 Hz, 512-1204 Hz, and 4.1-64 kHz, indicate a lack of any causal relationships between VLF hiss, ELF hiss, and lower-frequency signals from spatial irregularities and Alfven waves.

  9. Electric Field Feature of Moving Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, You Jun

    2001-05-01

    A new fundamental relationship of electric field with magnetic field has been inferred from the fundamental experimental laws and theories of classical electromagnetics. It can be described as moving magnetic field has or gives electric feature. When a field with magnetic induction of B moves in the velocity of V, it will show electric field character, the electric field intensity E is E = B x V and the direction of E is in the direction of the vector B x V. It is improper to use the time-varying electromagnetics theories as the fundamental theory of the electromagnetics and group the electromagnetic field into static kind and time-varying kind for the static is relative to motional not only time-varying. The relationship of time variation of magnetic field induction or magnetic flux with electric field caused by magnetic field is fellowship not causality. Thus time-varying magnetic field can cause electric field is not a nature principle. Sometime the time variation of magnetic flux is equal to the negative electromotive force or the time variation of magnetic field induction is equal to the negative curl of electric field caused by magnetic field motion, but not always. And not all motion of magnetic field can cause time variation of magnetic field. Therefore Faraday-Lenz`s law can only be used as mathematics tool to calculate the quantity relation of the electricity with the magnetism in some case like the magnetic field moving in uniform medium. Faraday-Lenz`s law is unsuitable to be used in moving uniform magnetic field or there is magnetic shield. Key word: Motional magnetic field, Magnetic induction, Electric field intensity, Velocity, Faraday-Lenz’s law

  10. Wave properties near the subsolar magnetopause - Pc 3-4 energy coupling for northward interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, P.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Wygant, J. R.; Cattell, C. A.; Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Anderson, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    Strong slow mode waves in the Pc 3-4 frequency range are found in the magnetosheath close to the magnetopause. We have studied these waves at one of the ISEE subsolar magnetopause crossings using the magnetic field, electric field, and plasma measurements. We use the pressure balance at the magnetopause to calibrate the Fast Plasma Experiment data versus the magnetometer data. When we perform such a calibration and renormalization, we find that the slow mode structures are not in pressure balance and small scale fluctuations in the total pressure still remain in the Pc 3-4 range. Energy in the total pressure fluctuations can be transmitted through the magnetopause by boundary motions. The Poynting flux calculated from the electric and magnetic field measurements suggests that a net Poynting flux is transmitted into the magnetopause. The two independent measurements show a similar energy transmission coefficient. The transmitted energy flux is about 18 percent of the magnetic energy flux of the waves in the magnetosheath. Part of this transmitted energy is lost in the sheath transition layer before it enters the closed field line region. The waves reaching the boundary layer decay rapidly. Little wave power is transmitted into the magnetosphere.

  11. Benchmark Modeling of the Near-Field and Far-Field Wave Effects of Wave Energy Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E; Haller, Merrick C; Ozkan-Haller, H Tuba

    2013-01-26

    This project is an industry-led partnership between Columbia Power Technologies and Oregon State University that will perform benchmark laboratory experiments and numerical modeling of the near-field and far-field impacts of wave scattering from an array of wave energy devices. These benchmark experimental observations will help to fill a gaping hole in our present knowledge of the near-field effects of multiple, floating wave energy converters and are a critical requirement for estimating the potential far-field environmental effects of wave energy arrays. The experiments will be performed at the Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (Oregon State University) and will utilize an array ofmore » newly developed Buoys' that are realistic, lab-scale floating power converters. The array of Buoys will be subjected to realistic, directional wave forcing (1:33 scale) that will approximate the expected conditions (waves and water depths) to be found off the Central Oregon Coast. Experimental observations will include comprehensive in-situ wave and current measurements as well as a suite of novel optical measurements. These new optical capabilities will include imaging of the 3D wave scattering using a binocular stereo camera system, as well as 3D device motion tracking using a newly acquired LED system. These observing systems will capture the 3D motion history of individual Buoys as well as resolve the 3D scattered wave field; thus resolving the constructive and destructive wave interference patterns produced by the array at high resolution. These data combined with the device motion tracking will provide necessary information for array design in order to balance array performance with the mitigation of far-field impacts. As a benchmark data set, these data will be an important resource for testing of models for wave/buoy interactions, buoy performance, and far-field effects on wave and current patterns due to the presence of arrays. Under the proposed project we will

  12. C/NOFS Satellite Electric Field and Plasma Density Observations of Plasma Instabilities Below the Equatorial F-Peak -- Evidence for Approximately 500 km-Scale Spread-F "Precursor" Waves Driven by Zonal Shear Flow and km-Scale, Narrow-Banded Irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, C.; Valladares, C.

    2011-01-01

    As solar activity has increased, the ionosphere F-peak has been elevated on numerous occasions above the C/NOFS satellite perigee of 400km. In particular, during the month of April, 2011, the satellite consistently journeyed below the F-peak whenever the orbit was in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly after sunset. During these passes, data from the electric field and plasma density probes on the satellite have revealed two types of instabilities which had not previously been observed in the C/NOFS data set (to our knowledge): The first is evidence for 400-500km-scale bottomside "undulations" that appear in the density and electric field data. In one case, these large scale waves are associated with a strong shear in the zonal E x B flow, as evidenced by variations in the meridional (outward) electric fields observed above and below the F-peak. These undulations are devoid of smaller scale structures in the early evening, yet appear at later local times along the same orbit associated with fully-developed spread-F with smaller scale structures. This suggests that they may be precursor waves for spread-F, driven by a collisional shear instability, following ideas advanced previously by researchers using data from the Jicamarca radar. A second new result (for C/NOFS) is the appearance of km-scale irregularities that are a common feature in the electric field and plasma density data that also appear when the satellite is below the F -peak at night. The vector electric field instrument on C/NOFS clearly shows that the electric field component of these waves is strongest in the zonal direction. These waves are strongly correlated with simultaneous observations of plasma density oscillations and appear both with, and without, evidence of larger-scale spread-F depletions. These km-scale, quasi-coherent waves strongly resemble the bottomside, sinusoidal irregularities reported in the Atmosphere Explorer satellite data set by Valladares et al. [JGR, 88, 8025, 1983

  13. Large magnetic to electric field contrast in azimuthally polarized vortex beams generated by a metasurface (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veysi, Mehdi; Guclu, Caner; Capolino, Filippo

    2015-09-01

    We investigate azimuthally E-polarized vortex beams with enhanced longitudinal magnetic field. Ideally, such beams possess strong longitudinal magnetic field on the beam axis where there is no electric field. First we formulate the electric field vector and the longitudinal magnetic field of an azimuthally E-polarized beam as an interference of right- and left-hand circularly polarized Laguerre Gaussian (LG) beams carrying the orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of -1 and +1, respectively. Then we propose a metasurface design that is capable of converting a linearly polarized Gaussian beam into an azimuthally E-polarized vortex beam with longitudinal magnetic field. The metasurface is composed of a rectangular array of double-layer double split-ring slot elements, though other geometries could be adopted as well. The element is specifically designed to have nearly a 180° transmission phase difference between the two polarization components along two orthogonal axes, similar to the optical axes of a half-wave plate. By locally rotating the optical axes of each metasurface element, the transmission phase profile of the circularly polarized waves over the metasurface can be tailored. Upon focusing of the generated vortex beam through a lens with a numerical aperture of 0.7, a 41-fold enhancement of the magnetic to electric field ratio is achieved on the beam axis with respect to that of a plane wave. Generation of beams with large magnetic field to electric field contrast can find applications in future spectroscopy systems based on magnetic dipole transitions, which are usually much weaker than electric dipole transitions.

  14. Analysis of Surface Electric Field Measurements from an Array of Electric Field Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, G.; Thayer, J. P.; Deierling, W.

    2016-12-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has operated an distributed array of over 30 electric field mills over the past 18 years, providing a unique data set of surface electric field measurements over a very long timespan. In addition to the electric field instruments there are many meteorological towers around KSC that monitor the local meteorological conditions. Utilizing these datasets we have investigated and found unique spatial and temporal signatures in the electric field data that are attributed to local meteorological effects and the global electric circuit. The local and global scale influences on the atmospheric electric field will be discussed including the generation of space charge from the ocean surf, local cloud cover, and a local enhancement in the electric field that is seen at sunrise.

  15. Introducing time-dependent molecular fields: a new derivation of the wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Michael

    2018-02-01

    This article is part of a series of articles trying to establish the concept molecular field. The theory that induced us to introduce this novel concept is based on the Born-Huang expansion as applied to the Schroedinger equation that describes the interaction of a molecular system with an external electric field. Assuming the molecular system is made up of two coupled adiabatic states the theory leads from a single spatial curl equation, two space-time curl equations and one single space-time divergent equation to a pair of decoupled wave equations usually encountered within the theory of fields. In the present study, just like in the previous study [see Baer et al., Mol. Phys. 114, 227 (2016)] the wave equations are derived for an electric field having two features: (a) its intensity is high enough; (b) its duration is short enough. Although not all the findings are new the derivation, in the present case, is new, straightforward, fluent and much friendlier as compared to the previous one and therefore should be presented again. For this situation the study reveals that the just described interaction creates two fields that coexist within a molecule: one is a novel vectorial field formed via the interaction of the electric field with the Born-Huang non-adiabatic coupling terms (NACTs) and the other is an ordinary, scalar, electric field essentially identical to the original electric field. Section 4 devoted to the visualization of the outcomes via two intersecting Jahn-Teller cones which contain NACTs that become singular at the intersection point of these cones. Finally, the fact that eventually we are facing a kind of a cosmic situation may bring us to speculate that singular NACTs are a result of cosmic phenomena. Thus, if indeed this singularity is somehow connected to reality then, like other singularities in physics, it is formed at (or immediately after) the Big Bang and consequently, guarantees the formation of molecules.

  16. Electric field measurement in the dielectric tube of helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sretenović, Goran B.; Guaitella, Olivier; Sobota, Ana; Krstić, Ivan B.; Kovačević, Vesna V.; Obradović, Bratislav M.; Kuraica, Milorad M.

    2017-03-01

    The results of the electric field measurements in the capillary of the helium plasma jet are presented in this article. Distributions of the electric field for the streamers are determined for different gas flow rates. It is found that electric field strength in front of the ionization wave decreases as it approaches to the exit of the tube. The values obtained under presented experimental conditions are in the range of 5-11 kV/cm. It was found that the increase in gas flow above 1500 SCCM could induce substantial changes in the discharge operation. This is reflected through the formation of the brighter discharge region and appearance of the electric field maxima. Furthermore, using the measured values of the electric field strength in the streamer head, it was possible to estimate electron densities in the streamer channel. Maximal density of 4 × 1011 cm-3 is obtained in the vicinity of the grounded ring electrode. Similar behaviors of the electron density distributions to the distributions of the electric field strength are found under the studied experimental conditions.

  17. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Song; Huang, Shiyong; Zhou, Meng; Ni, Binbin; Deng, Xiaohua

    2018-03-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplitude of a guide field exceeds 0.3 times the asymptotic magnetic field B0, the traditional bipolar Hall electric field is clearly replaced by a tripolar electric field, which consists of a newly emerged electric field and the bipolar Hall electric field. The newly emerged electric field is a convective electric field about one ion inertial length away from the neutral sheet. It arises from the disappearance of the Hall electric field due to the substantial modification of the magnetic field and electric current by the imposed guide field. The peak magnitude of this new electric field increases linearly with the increment of guide field strength. Possible applications of these results to space observations are also discussed.

  18. Evidence of Ubiquitous Large-Amplitude Alfven waves in the Global Field-Aligned Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhotin, I.; Mann, I.; Lysak, R. L.; Knudsen, D. J.; Burchill, J. K.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Rae, J.; Forsyth, C.; Murphy, K. R.; Miles, D.; Ozeke, L.; Balasis, G.

    2017-12-01

    Large-amplitude non-stationarities have been observed during an analysis of a quiescent field-aligned current system crossing using the multi-satellite Swarm constellation. Using simultaneous electric and magnetic field measurements it has been determined that these non-stationarities, reaching tens to hundreds of nanoteslas, are Alfvenic in nature. Evidence suggests that these large-amplitude Alfven waves are a ubiquitous, fundamentally inherent feature of and exist in a continuum with larger-scale field-aligned currents, and both can be explained using the same physical paradigm of reflected Alfven waves.

  19. Effects of pulsed electrical field processing on microbial survival, quality change and nutritional characteristics of blueberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole fresh blueberries were treated using a parallel pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment chamber and a sanitizer solution (60 ppm peracetic acid [PAA]) as PEF treatment medium with square wave bipolar pulses at 2 kV/cm electric field strength, 1us pulse width, and 100 pulses per second for 2, 4, ...

  20. Electric field control of magnon-induced magnetization dynamics in multiferroics

    PubMed Central

    Risinggård, Vetle; Kulagina, Iryna; Linder, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    We consider theoretically the effect of an inhomogeneous magnetoelectric coupling on the magnon-induced dynamics of a ferromagnet. The magnon-mediated magnetoelectric torque affects both the homogeneous magnetization and magnon-driven domain wall motion. In the domains, we predict a reorientation of the magnetization, controllable by the applied electric field, which is almost an order of magnitude larger than that observed in other physical systems via the same mechanism. The applied electric field can also be used to tune the domain wall speed and direction of motion in a linear fashion, producing domain wall velocities several times the zero field velocity. These results show that multiferroic systems offer a promising arena to achieve low-dissipation magnetization rotation and domain wall motion by exciting spin-waves. PMID:27554064

  1. Electric field control of magnon-induced magnetization dynamics in multiferroics.

    PubMed

    Risinggård, Vetle; Kulagina, Iryna; Linder, Jacob

    2016-08-24

    We consider theoretically the effect of an inhomogeneous magnetoelectric coupling on the magnon-induced dynamics of a ferromagnet. The magnon-mediated magnetoelectric torque affects both the homogeneous magnetization and magnon-driven domain wall motion. In the domains, we predict a reorientation of the magnetization, controllable by the applied electric field, which is almost an order of magnitude larger than that observed in other physical systems via the same mechanism. The applied electric field can also be used to tune the domain wall speed and direction of motion in a linear fashion, producing domain wall velocities several times the zero field velocity. These results show that multiferroic systems offer a promising arena to achieve low-dissipation magnetization rotation and domain wall motion by exciting spin-waves.

  2. Sub-nanosecond resolution electric field measurements during ns pulse breakdown in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeni Simeni, Marien; Goldberg, Ben; Gulko, Ilya; Frederickson, Kraig; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2018-01-01

    Electric field during ns pulse discharge breakdown in ambient air has been measured by ps four-wave mixing, with temporal resolution of 0.2 ns. The measurements have been performed in a diffuse plasma generated in a dielectric barrier discharge, in plane-to-plane geometry. Absolute calibration of the electric field in the plasma is provided by the Laplacian field measured before breakdown. Sub-nanosecond time resolution is obtained by using a 150 ps duration laser pulse, as well as by monitoring the timing of individual laser shots relative to the voltage pulse, and post-processing four-wave mixing signal waveforms saved for each laser shot, placing them in the appropriate ‘time bins’. The experimental data are compared with the analytic solution for time-resolved electric field in the plasma during pulse breakdown, showing good agreement on ns time scale. Qualitative interpretation of the data illustrates the effects of charge separation, charge accumulation/neutralization on the dielectric surfaces, electron attachment, and secondary breakdown. Comparison of the present data with more advanced kinetic modeling is expected to provide additional quantitative insight into air plasma kinetics on ~ 0.1-100 ns scales.

  3. Finite element method (FEM) model of the mechanical stress on phospholipid membranes from shock waves produced in nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Ronald; Roth, Caleb C.; Shadaram, Mehdi; Beier, Hope; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2015-03-01

    The underlying mechanism(s) responsible for nanoporation of phospholipid membranes by nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsEP) remains unknown. The passage of a high electric field through a conductive medium creates two primary contributing factors that may induce poration: the electric field interaction at the membrane and the shockwave produced from electrostriction of a polar submersion medium exposed to an electric field. Previous work has focused on the electric field interaction at the cell membrane, through such models as the transport lattice method. Our objective is to model the shock wave cell membrane interaction induced from the density perturbation formed at the rising edge of a high voltage pulse in a polar liquid resulting in a shock wave propagating away from the electrode toward the cell membrane. Utilizing previous data from cell membrane mechanical parameters, and nsEP generated shockwave parameters, an acoustic shock wave model based on the Helmholtz equation for sound pressure was developed and coupled to a cell membrane model with finite-element modeling in COMSOL. The acoustic structure interaction model was developed to illustrate the harmonic membrane displacements and stresses resulting from shockwave and membrane interaction based on Hooke's law. Poration is predicted by utilizing membrane mechanical breakdown parameters including cortical stress limits and hydrostatic pressure gradients.

  4. Optical properties of an elliptic quantum ring: Eccentricity and electric field effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, Doina; Stan, Cristina; Niculescu, Ecaterina C.

    2018-04-01

    We have theoretically studied the electronic and optical properties of a GaAs/AlGaAs elliptic quantum ring under in-plane electric field. The effects of an eccentric internal barrier -placed along the electric field direction, chosen as x-axis- and incident light polarization are particularly taken into account. The one-electron energy spectrum and wave functions are found using the adiabatic approximation and the finite element method within the effective-mass model. We show that it is possible to repair the structural distortion by applying an appropriate in-plane electric field, and the compensation is almost complete for all electronic states under study. For both concentric and eccentric quantum ring the intraband optical properties are very sensitive to the electric field and probe laser polarization. As expected, in the systems with eccentricity distortions the energy spectrum, as well as the optical response, strongly depends on the direction of the externally applied electric field, an effect that can be used as a signature of ring eccentricity. We demonstrated the possibility of generating second harmonic response at double resonance condition for incident light polarized along the x-axis if the electric field or/and eccentric barrier break the inversion symmetry. Also, strong third harmonic signal can be generated at triple resonance condition for a specific interval of electric field values when using y-polarized light.

  5. Effect of parallel electric fields on the ponderomotive stabilization of MHD instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Litwin, C.; Hershkowitz, N.

    The contribution of the wave electric field component E/sub parallel/, parallel to the magnetic field, to the ponderomotive stabilization of curvature driven instabilities is evaluated and compared to the transverse component contribution. For the experimental density range, in which the stability is primarily determined by the m = 1 magnetosonic wave, this contribution is found to be the dominant and stabilizing when the electron temperature is neglected. For sufficiently high electron temperatures the dominant fast wave is found to be axially evanescent. In the same limit, E/sub parallel/ becomes radially oscillating. It is concluded that the increased electron temperature nearmore » the plasma surface reduces the magnitude of ponderomotive effects.« less

  6. Instability of surface electron cyclotron TM-modes influenced by non-monochromatic alternating electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Girka, I. O., E-mail: igorgirka@karazin.ua; Girka, V. O.; Sydora, R. D.

    2016-06-15

    The influence of non-monochromaticity of an external alternating electric field on excitation of TM eigenmodes at harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency is considered here. These TM-modes propagate along the plasma interface in a metal waveguide. An external static constant magnetic field is oriented perpendicularly to the plasma interface. The problem is solved theoretically using the kinetic Vlasov-Boltzmann equation for description of plasma particles motion and the Maxwell equations for description of the electromagnetic mode fields. The external alternating electric field is supposed to be a superposition of two waves, whose amplitudes are different and their frequencies correlate as 2:1.more » An infinite set of equations for electric field harmonics of these modes is derived with the aid of nonlinear boundary conditions. This set is solved using the wave packet approach consisting of the main harmonic frequency and two nearest satellite temporal harmonics. Analytical studies of the obtained set of equations allow one to find two different regimes of parametric instability, namely, enhancement and suppression of the instability. Numerical analysis of the instability is carried out for the three first electron cyclotron harmonics.« less

  7. Elastic guided wave propagation in electrical cables.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Carlos; Talavera, Juan A; Muñoz, Antonio

    2007-07-01

    This article analyzes the propagation modes of ultrasound waves inside an electrical cable in order to assess its behavior as an acoustic transmission channel. A theoretical model for propagation of elastic waves in electric power cables is presented. The power cables are represented as viscoelastic-layered cylindrical structures with a copper core and a dielectric cover. The model equations then have been applied and numerically resolved for this and other known structures such as solid and hollow cylinders. The results are compared with available data from other models. Several experimental measures were carried out and were compared with results from the numerical simulations. Experimental and simulated results showed a significant difference between elastic wave attenuation inside standard versus bare, low-voltage power cables.

  8. The Galileo plasma wave investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Shaw, R. R.; Roux, A.; Gendrin, R.; Kennel, C. F.; Scarf, F. L.; Shawhan, S. D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the Galileo plasma wave investigation is to study plasma waves and radio emissions in the magnetosphere of Jupiter. The plasma wave instrument uses an electric dipole antenna to detect electric fields, and two search coil magnetic antennas to detect magnetic fields. The frequency range covered is 5 Hz to 5.6 MHz for electric fields and 5 Hz to 160 kHz for magnetic fields. Low time-resolution survey spectrums are provided by three on-board spectrum analyzers. In the normal mode of operation the frequency resolution is about 10 percent, and the time resolution for a complete set of electric and magnetic field measurements is 37.33 s. High time-resolution spectrums are provided by a wideband receiver. The wideband receiver provides waveform measurements over bandwidths of 1, 10, and 80 kHz. Compared to previous measurements at Jupiter this instrument has several new capabilities. These new capabilities include (1) both electric and magnetic field measurements to distinguish electrostatic and electromagnetic waves, (2) direction finding measurements to determine source locations, and (3) increased bandwidth for the wideband measurements.

  9. Dynamic Stark spectroscopic measurements of microwave electric fields inside the plasma near a high-power antenna.

    PubMed

    Klepper, C C; Isler, R C; Hillairet, J; Martin, E H; Colas, L; Ekedahl, A; Goniche, M; Harris, J H; Hillis, D L; Panayotis, S; Pegourié, B; Lotte, Ph; Colledani, G; Martin, V

    2013-05-24

    Fully dynamic Stark effect visible spectroscopy was used for the first time to directly measure the local rf electric field in the boundary plasma near a high-power antenna in high-performance, magnetically confined, fusion energy experiment. The measurement was performed in the superconducting tokamak Tore Supra, in the near field of a 1–3 MW, lower-hybrid, 3.7 GHz wave-launch antenna, and combined with modeling of neutral atom transport to estimate the local rf electric field amplitude (as low as 1–2 kV/cm) and direction in this region. The measurement was then shown to be consistent with the predicted values from a 2D full-wave propagation model. Notably the measurement confirmed that the electric field direction deviates substantially from the direction in which it is launched by the waveguides as it penetrates only a few cm radially inward into the plasma from the waveguides, consistent with the model.

  10. New method for solving inductive electric fields in the non-uniformly conducting ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhamäki, H.; Amm, O.; Viljanen, A.

    2006-10-01

    We present a new calculation method for solving inductive electric fields in the ionosphere. The time series of the potential part of the ionospheric electric field, together with the Hall and Pedersen conductances serves as the input to this method. The output is the time series of the induced rotational part of the ionospheric electric field. The calculation method works in the time-domain and can be used with non-uniform, time-dependent conductances. In addition, no particular symmetry requirements are imposed on the input potential electric field. The presented method makes use of special non-local vector basis functions called the Cartesian Elementary Current Systems (CECS). This vector basis offers a convenient way of representing curl-free and divergence-free parts of 2-dimensional vector fields and makes it possible to solve the induction problem using simple linear algebra. The new calculation method is validated by comparing it with previously published results for Alfvén wave reflection from a uniformly conducting ionosphere.

  11. MMS Observations of Parallel Electric Fields During a Quasi-Perpendicular Bow Shock Crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, K.; Schwartz, S. J.; Ergun, R.; Wilder, F. D.; Holmes, J.; Burch, J. L.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Le Contel, O.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C.; Torbert, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    Previous observations of the terrestrial bow shock have frequently shown large-amplitude fluctuations in the parallel electric field. These parallel electric fields are seen as both nonlinear solitary structures, such as double layers and electron phase-space holes, and short-wavelength waves, which can reach amplitudes greater than 100 mV/m. The Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) Mission has crossed the Earth's bow shock more than 200 times. The parallel electric field signatures observed in these crossings are seen in very discrete packets and evolve over time scales of less than a second, indicating the presence of a wealth of kinetic-scale activity. The high time resolution of the Fast Particle Instrument (FPI) available on MMS offers greater detail of the kinetic-scale physics that occur at bow shocks than ever before, allowing greater insight into the overall effect of these observed electric fields. We present a characterization of these parallel electric fields found in a single bow shock event and how it reflects the kinetic-scale activity that can occur at the terrestrial bow shock.

  12. Solitons induced by alternating electric fields in surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeżewski, W.; Kuczyński, W.; Hoffmann, J.

    2011-04-01

    Propagation of solitary waves activated in thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells under external, sinusoidally alternating electric fields is investigated using the electro-optic technique. It is shown that solitons give contributions only to the loss component of the response spectrum, within rather narrow ranges of frequencies and in sufficiently strong fields. The limit frequency, at which the amplitude of the velocity of the solitary waves is greatest, is found to be related to material constants of liquid crystals. Measuring this threshold frequency provides the capability to determine the elastic constant of surface stabilized liquid crystalline materials in the bookshelf or chevron layer geometries.

  13. Magnetospheric electric fields and currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauk, B. H.; Zanetti, L. J.

    1987-01-01

    The progress made in the years 1983-1986 in understanding the character and operation of magnetospheric electric fields and electric currents is discussed, with emphasis placed on the connection with the interior regions. Special attention is given to determinations of global electric-field configurations, measurements of the response of magnetospheric particle populations to the electric-field configurations, and observations of the magnetospheric currents at high altitude and during northward IMF. Global simulations of current distributions are discussed, and the sources of global electric fields and currents are examined. The topics discussed in the area of impulsive and small-scale phenomena include substorm current systems, impulsive electric fields and associated currents, and field-aligned electrodynamics. A key finding of these studies is that the electric fields and currents are interrelated and cannot be viewed as separate entities.

  14. Electric-field control of a hydrogenic donor's spin in a semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Amrit; Pryor, Craig E.; Flatté, Michael E.

    2009-03-01

    The orbital wave function of an electron bound to a single donor in a semiconductor can be modulated by an applied AC electric field, which affects the electron spin dynamics via the spin-orbit interaction. Numerical calculations of the spin dynamics of a single hydrogenic donor (Si) using a real-space multi-band k.p formalism show that in addition to breaking the high symmetry of the hydrogenic donor state, the g-tensor has a strong nonlinear dependence on the applied fields. By explicitly integrating the time dependent Schr"odinger equation it is seen that Rabi oscillations can be obtained for electric fields modulated at sub-harmonics of the Larmor frequency. The Rabi frequencies obtained from sub-harmonic modulation depend on the magnitudes of the AC and DC components of the electric field. For a purely AC field, the highest Rabi frequency is obtained when E is driven at the 2nd sub-harmonic of the Larmor frequency. Apart from suggesting ways to measure g-tensor anisotropies and nonlinearities, these results also suggest the possibility of direct frequency domain measurements of Rabi frequencies.

  15. Torsional Alfvén Waves in a Dipolar Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataf, H. C.; Tigrine, Z.; Cardin, P.; Schaeffer, N.

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of torsional Alfvén waves in the Earth's core (Gillet et al, 2010) is a strong motivation for investigating the properties of these waves. Here, we report on the first experimental study of such waves. Alfvén waves are difficult to excite and observe in liquid metals because of their high magnetic diffusivity. Nevertheless, we obtained clear signatures of such diffusive waves in our DTS experiment. In this setup, some 40 liters of liquid sodium are contained between a ro = 210 mm-radius stainless steel outer shell, and a ri = 74 mm-radius copper inner sphere. Both spherical boundaries can rotate independently around a common vertical axis. The inner sphere shells a strong permanent magnet, which produces a nearly dipolar magnetic field whose intensity falls from 175 mT at ri to 8 mT at ro in the equatorial plane. We excite Alfvén waves in the liquid sodium by applying a sudden jerk of the inner sphere. To study the effect of global rotation, which leads to the formation of geostrophic torsional Alfvén waves, we spin the experiment at rotation rates fo = fi up to 15 Hz. The Alfvén wave produces a clear azimuthal magnetic signal on magnetometers installed in a sleeve inside the fluid. We also probe the associated azimuthal velocity field using ultrasound Doppler velocimetry. Electric potentials at the surface of the outer sphere turn out to be very revealing as well. In parallel, we use the XSHELLS magnetohydrodynamics spherical code to model torsional Alfvén waves in the experimental conditions, and beyond. We explore both linear and non-linear regimes. We observe a strong excitation of inertial waves in the equatorial plane, where the wave transits from a region of strong magnetic field to a region dominated by rotation (see figure of meridian map of azimuthal velocity). These novel observations should help deciphering the dynamics of Alfvén waves in planetary cores.

  16. The development of the time dependence of the nuclear EMP electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, C

    The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) electric field calculated with the legacy code CHAP is compared with the field given by an integral solution of Maxwell's equations, also known as the Jefimenko equation, to aid our current understanding on the factors that affect the time dependence of the EMP. For a fair comparison the CHAP current density is used as a source in the Jefimenko equation. At first, the comparison is simplified by neglecting the conduction current and replacing the standard atmosphere with a constant density air slab. The simplicity of the resultant current density aids in determining the factors thatmore » affect the rise, peak and tail of the EMP electric field versus time. The three dimensional nature of the radiating source, i.e. sources off the line-of-sight, and the time dependence of the derivative of the current density with respect to time are found to play significant roles in shaping the EMP electric field time dependence. These results are found to hold even when the conduction current and the standard atmosphere are properly accounted for. Comparison of the CHAP electric field with the Jefimenko electric field offers a direct validation of the high-frequency/outgoing wave approximation.« less

  17. Field-aligned currents, convection electric fields, and ULF-ELF waves in the cusp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saflekos, N. A.; Potemra, T. A.; Kintner, P. M., Jr.; Green, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    Nearly simultaneous observations from the Triad and Hawkeye satellites over the Southern Hemisphere, at low altitudes near the noon meridian and close to the usual polar cusp latitudes, show that in and near the polar cusp there exist several relationships between field-aligned currents (FACs), convection electric fields, ULF-ELF magnetic noise, broadband electrostatic noise and interplanetary magnetic fields. The most important findings are (1) the FACs directed into the ionosphere in the noon-to-dusk local time sector and directed away from the ionosphere in the noon-to-dawn local time sector and identified as region-1 permanent FACs (Iijima and Potemra, 1976a) and are located equatorward of the regions of antisunward (westward) convection; (2) the observations are consistent with a two-cell convection pattern symmetric in one case (throat positioned at noon) and asymmetric in another (throat located in a sector on the forenoon side in juxtaposition to the region of strong convection on the afternoon side); and (3) fine-structure FACs are responsible for the generation of ULF-ELF noise in the polar cusp.

  18. Transient features in nanosecond pulsed electric fields differentially modulate mitochondria and viability.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Stephen J; Chen, Yeong-Jer; Sain, Nova M; Schoenbach, Karl H; Xiao, Shu

    2012-01-01

    It is hypothesized that high frequency components of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs), determined by transient pulse features, are important for maximizing electric field interactions with intracellular structures. For monopolar square wave pulses, these transient features are determined by the rapid rise and fall of the pulsed electric fields. To determine effects on mitochondria membranes and plasma membranes, N1-S1 hepatocellular carcinoma cells were exposed to single 600 ns pulses with varying electric fields (0-80 kV/cm) and short (15 ns) or long (150 ns) rise and fall times. Plasma membrane effects were evaluated using Fluo-4 to determine calcium influx, the only measurable source of increases in intracellular calcium. Mitochondria membrane effects were evaluated using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE) to determine mitochondria membrane potentials (ΔΨm). Single pulses with short rise and fall times caused electric field-dependent increases in calcium influx, dissipation of ΔΨm and cell death. Pulses with long rise and fall times exhibited electric field-dependent increases in calcium influx, but diminished effects on dissipation of ΔΨm and viability. Results indicate that high frequency components have significant differential impact on mitochondria membranes, which determines cell death, but lesser variances on plasma membranes, which allows calcium influxes, a primary determinant for dissipation of ΔΨm and cell death.

  19. Two-dimensional solitary waves and periodic waves on coupled nonlinear electrical transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Heng; Zheng, Shuhua

    2017-06-01

    By using the dynamical system approach, the exact travelling wave solutions for a system of coupled nonlinear electrical transmission lines are studied. Based on this method, the bifurcations of phase portraits of a dynamical system are given. The two-dimensional solitary wave solutions and periodic wave solutions on coupled nonlinear transmission lines are obtained. With the aid of Maple, the numerical simulations are conducted for solitary wave solutions and periodic wave solutions to the model equation. The results presented in this paper improve upon previous studies.

  20. The dynamics of current carriers in standing Alfvén waves: Parallel electric fields in the auroral acceleration region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Andrew N.; Allan, W.; Ruderman, Michael S.; Elphic, R. C.

    2002-07-01

    The acceleration of current carriers in an Alfvén wave current system is considered. The model incorporates a dipole magnetic field geometry, and we present an analytical solution of the two-fluid equations by successive approximations. The leading solution corresponds to the familiar single-fluid toroidal oscillations. The next order describes the nonlinear dynamics of electrons responsible for carrying a few μAm-2 field aligned current into the ionosphere. The solution shows how most of the electron acceleration in the magnetosphere occurs within 1 RE of the ionosphere, and that a parallel electric field of the order of 1 mVm-1 is responsible for energising the electrons to 1 keV. The limitations of the electron fluid approximation are considered, and a qualitative solution including electron beams and a modified E∥ is developed in accord with observations. We find that the electron acceleration can be nonlinear, (ve∥∇∥)ve∥ > ωve∥, as a result of our nonuniform equilibrium field geometry even when ve∥ is less than the Alfvén speed. Our calculation also elucidates the processes through which E∥ is generated and supported.

  1. Underwater electrical wire explosion: Shock wave from melting being overtaken by shock wave from vaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liuxia; Qian, Dun; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Xinxin

    2018-05-01

    The shock waves generated by an underwater electrical wire explosion were investigated. A microsecond time-scale pulsed current source was used to trigger the electrical explosion of copper wires with a length of 5 cm and a diameter of 200 μm. The energy-storage capacitor was charged to a relatively low energy so that the energy deposited onto the wire was not large enough to fully vaporize the whole wire. Two shock waves were recorded with a piezoelectric gauge that was located at a position of 100 mm from the exploding wire. The first and weak shock wave was confirmed to be the contribution from wire melting, while the second and stronger shock wave was the contribution from wire vaporization. The phenomenon whereby the first shock wave generated by melting being overtaken by the shock wave due to vaporization was observed.

  2. Determining Thunderstorm Electric Fields using Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, B.; Scholten, O.; Trinh, G. T. N.; Ebert, U.; Rutjes, C.

    2017-12-01

    We report on a novel non-intrusive way to investigate electric fields in thunderclouds.Energetic cosmic rays penetrating the atmosphere create a particle avalanche called an extensive air shower. The front of the shower is a plasma cloud that contains 10^6 or more free electrons and positrons moving towards the Earth's surface at the speed of light. The electric fields that exists in thunderclouds induces electric currents in the plasma cloud that emit radio waves. The radio footprint for intensity, linear and circular polarization thus contains the finger print of the atmospheric electric fields along the path of the air shower.Here we report on the analysis of many cosmic-ray radio footprints as have been measured at LOFAR, a dense array of simple radio antennas (several thousands of dual-polarized antennas) primarily developed for radio-astronomy observations. We show that this method can be used to determine the charge structure in thunderclouds and discuss the accuracy of the method. We have observed seasonal dependencies.

  3. Effect of electron-to-ion mass ratio on radial electric field generation in tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhenqian; Dong, Jiaqi; Sheng, Zhengmao

    Generation of coherent radial electric fields in plasma by drift-wave turbulence driven by plasma inhomogeneities is ab initio studied using gyro-kinetic particle simulation for conditions of operational tokamaks. In particular, the effect of the electron-to-ion mass ratio epsilon on the entire evolution of the plasma is considered. In conclusion, it is found that the electric field can be increased, and the turbulence-induced particle transport reduced, by making epsilon smaller, in agreement with many existing experimental observations.

  4. Effect of electron-to-ion mass ratio on radial electric field generation in tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Zhenqian; Dong, Jiaqi; Sheng, Zhengmao; ...

    2017-11-21

    Generation of coherent radial electric fields in plasma by drift-wave turbulence driven by plasma inhomogeneities is ab initio studied using gyro-kinetic particle simulation for conditions of operational tokamaks. In particular, the effect of the electron-to-ion mass ratio epsilon on the entire evolution of the plasma is considered. In conclusion, it is found that the electric field can be increased, and the turbulence-induced particle transport reduced, by making epsilon smaller, in agreement with many existing experimental observations.

  5. How enzymes can capture and transmit free energy from an oscillating electric field.

    PubMed

    Westerhoff, H V; Tsong, T Y; Chock, P B; Chen, Y D; Astumian, R D

    1986-07-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that free energy from an alternating electric field can drive the active transport of Rb+ by way of the Na+, K+-ATPase. In the present work, it is shown why many transmembrane enzymes can be expected to absorb free energy from an oscillating electric field and transduce that to chemical or transport work. In the theoretical analysis it turned out to be sufficient that (i) the catalytic process be accompanied by either net or cyclic charge translocation across the membrane and (ii) the stability of the enzyme states involved be asymmetric. Calculations based on a four-state model reveal that free-energy transduction occurs with sinusoidal, square-wave, and positive-only oscillating electric fields and for cases that exhibit either linear or exponential field-dependent rate constants. The results suggest that in addition to oscillating electric field-driven transport, the proposed mechanism can also be used to explain, in part, the "missing" free energy term in the cases in which ATP synthesis has been observed with insufficient transmembrane proton electrochemical potential difference.

  6. How enzymes can capture and transmit free energy from an oscillating electric field.

    PubMed Central

    Westerhoff, H V; Tsong, T Y; Chock, P B; Chen, Y D; Astumian, R D

    1986-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that free energy from an alternating electric field can drive the active transport of Rb+ by way of the Na+, K+-ATPase. In the present work, it is shown why many transmembrane enzymes can be expected to absorb free energy from an oscillating electric field and transduce that to chemical or transport work. In the theoretical analysis it turned out to be sufficient that (i) the catalytic process be accompanied by either net or cyclic charge translocation across the membrane and (ii) the stability of the enzyme states involved be asymmetric. Calculations based on a four-state model reveal that free-energy transduction occurs with sinusoidal, square-wave, and positive-only oscillating electric fields and for cases that exhibit either linear or exponential field-dependent rate constants. The results suggest that in addition to oscillating electric field-driven transport, the proposed mechanism can also be used to explain, in part, the "missing" free energy term in the cases in which ATP synthesis has been observed with insufficient transmembrane proton electrochemical potential difference. PMID:2941758

  7. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2001-07-17

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  8. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2003-02-11

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase-shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in the direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  9. Simple wave drivers: electric toothbrush, shaver and razor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kağan Temiz, Burak; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2018-05-01

    This study was conducted to develop simple and low-cost wave drivers that can be used in experiments on string waves. These wave drivers were made using a toothbrush (Oral-B Vitality), an electric shaver (Braun 7505) and a razor (Gillette Fusion Proglide Power). A common feature of all of these product is that they have vibration motors. In the experiments, string waves were generated by transferring these vibrations to a stretched string. By changing the tightness and length of the string, standing waves were generated, and various harmonics were observed.

  10. The Electric Field of a Weakly Electric Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasnow, Brian K.

    Freshwater fish of the genus Apteronotus (family Gymnotidae) generate a weak, high frequency electric field (<100 mV/cm, 0.5-10 kHz) which permeates their local environment. These nocturnal fish are acutely sensitive to perturbations in their electric field caused by other electric fish, and nearby objects whose impedance is different from the surrounding water. This thesis presents high temporal and spatial resolution maps of the electric potential and field on and near Apteronotus. The fish's electric field is a complicated and highly stable function of space and time. Its characteristics, such as spectral composition, timing, and rate of attenuation, are examined in terms of physical constraints, and their possible functional roles in electroreception. Temporal jitter of the periodic field is less than 1 musec. However, electrocyte activity is not globally synchronous along the fish's electric organ. The propagation of electrocyte activation down the fish's body produces a rotation of the electric field vector in the caudal part of the fish. This may assist the fish in identifying nonsymmetrical objects, and could also confuse electrosensory predators that try to locate Apteronotus by following its fieldlines. The propagation also results in a complex spatiotemporal pattern of the EOD potential near the fish. Visualizing the potential on the same and different fish over timescales of several months suggests that it is stable and could serve as a unique signature for individual fish. Measurements of the electric field were used to calculate the effects of simple objects on the fish's electric field. The shape of the perturbation or "electric image" on the fish's skin is relatively independent of a simple object's size, conductivity, and rostrocaudal location, and therefore could unambiguously determine object distance. The range of electrolocation may depend on both the size of objects and their rostrocaudal location. Only objects with very large dielectric

  11. Ocean Wave Simulation Based on Wind Field

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ocean wave simulation has a wide range of applications in movies, video games and training systems. Wind force is the main energy resource for generating ocean waves, which are the result of the interaction between wind and the ocean surface. While numerous methods to handle simulating oceans and other fluid phenomena have undergone rapid development during the past years in the field of computer graphic, few of them consider to construct ocean surface height field from the perspective of wind force driving ocean waves. We introduce wind force to the construction of the ocean surface height field through applying wind field data and wind-driven wave particles. Continual and realistic ocean waves result from the overlap of wind-driven wave particles, and a strategy was proposed to control these discrete wave particles and simulate an endless ocean surface. The results showed that the new method is capable of obtaining a realistic ocean scene under the influence of wind fields at real time rates. PMID:26808718

  12. Ocean Wave Simulation Based on Wind Field.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongyi; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Ocean wave simulation has a wide range of applications in movies, video games and training systems. Wind force is the main energy resource for generating ocean waves, which are the result of the interaction between wind and the ocean surface. While numerous methods to handle simulating oceans and other fluid phenomena have undergone rapid development during the past years in the field of computer graphic, few of them consider to construct ocean surface height field from the perspective of wind force driving ocean waves. We introduce wind force to the construction of the ocean surface height field through applying wind field data and wind-driven wave particles. Continual and realistic ocean waves result from the overlap of wind-driven wave particles, and a strategy was proposed to control these discrete wave particles and simulate an endless ocean surface. The results showed that the new method is capable of obtaining a realistic ocean scene under the influence of wind fields at real time rates.

  13. Cryosurgery with pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Charlotte S; Rubinsky, Boris

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that combining the minimally invasive surgical techniques of cryosurgery and pulsed electric fields will eliminate some of the major disadvantages of these techniques while retaining their advantages. Cryosurgery, tissue ablation by freezing, is a well-established minimally invasive surgical technique. One disadvantage of cryosurgery concerns the mechanism of cell death; cells at high subzero temperature on the outer rim of the frozen lesion can survive. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) are another minimally invasive surgical technique in which high strength and very rapid electric pulses are delivered across cells to permeabilize the cell membrane for applications such as gene delivery, electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation. The very short time scale of the electric pulses is disadvantageous because it does not facilitate real time control over the procedure. We hypothesize that applying the electric pulses during the cryosurgical procedure in such a way that the electric field vector is parallel to the heat flux vector will have the effect of confining the electric fields to the frozen/cold region of tissue, thereby ablating the cells that survive freezing while facilitating controlled use of the PEF in the cold confined region. A finite element analysis of the electric field and heat conduction equations during simultaneous tissue treatment with cryosurgery and PEF (cryosurgery/PEF) was used to study the effect of tissue freezing on electric fields. The study yielded motivating results. Because of decreased electrical conductivity in the frozen/cooled tissue, it experienced temperature induced magnified electric fields in comparison to PEF delivered to the unfrozen tissue control. This suggests that freezing/cooling confines and magnifies the electric fields to those regions; a targeting capability unattainable in traditional PEF. This analysis shows how temperature induced magnified and focused PEFs could be used to

  14. Cryosurgery with Pulsed Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Charlotte S.; Rubinsky, Boris

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that combining the minimally invasive surgical techniques of cryosurgery and pulsed electric fields will eliminate some of the major disadvantages of these techniques while retaining their advantages. Cryosurgery, tissue ablation by freezing, is a well-established minimally invasive surgical technique. One disadvantage of cryosurgery concerns the mechanism of cell death; cells at high subzero temperature on the outer rim of the frozen lesion can survive. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) are another minimally invasive surgical technique in which high strength and very rapid electric pulses are delivered across cells to permeabilize the cell membrane for applications such as gene delivery, electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation. The very short time scale of the electric pulses is disadvantageous because it does not facilitate real time control over the procedure. We hypothesize that applying the electric pulses during the cryosurgical procedure in such a way that the electric field vector is parallel to the heat flux vector will have the effect of confining the electric fields to the frozen/cold region of tissue, thereby ablating the cells that survive freezing while facilitating controlled use of the PEF in the cold confined region. A finite element analysis of the electric field and heat conduction equations during simultaneous tissue treatment with cryosurgery and PEF (cryosurgery/PEF) was used to study the effect of tissue freezing on electric fields. The study yielded motivating results. Because of decreased electrical conductivity in the frozen/cooled tissue, it experienced temperature induced magnified electric fields in comparison to PEF delivered to the unfrozen tissue control. This suggests that freezing/cooling confines and magnifies the electric fields to those regions; a targeting capability unattainable in traditional PEF. This analysis shows how temperature induced magnified and focused PEFs could be used to

  15. Separation of Electric Fields Into Potential and Inductive Parts, and Implications for Radial Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, A. A.; Ilie, R.; Elkington, S. R.; Albert, J.; Huie, W.

    2017-12-01

    It has been traditional to separate radiation belt radial-diffusion coefficients into two contributions: an "electrostatic" diffusion coefficient, which is assumed to be due to a potential (non-inductive) electric field, and an "electromagnetic" diffusion coefficient , which is assumed to be due to the combined effect of an inductive electric field and the corresponding time-dependent magnetic field. One difficulty in implementing this separation when using magnetospheric fields obtained from measurements, or from MHD simulations, is that only the total electric field is given; the separation of the electric field into potential and inductive parts is not readily available. In this work we separate the electric field using a numerical method based on the Helmholtz decomposition of the total motional electric field calculated by the BATS-R-US MHD code. The inner boundary for the electric potential is based on the Ridley Ionospheric Model solution and we assume floating boundary conditions in the solar wind. Using different idealized solar wind drivers, including a solar wind density that is oscillating at a single frequency or with a broad spectrum of frequencies, we calculate potential and inductive electric fields, electric and magnetic power spectral densities, and corresponding radial diffusion coefficients. Simulations driven by idealized solar wind conditions show a clear separation of the potential and inductive contributions to the power spectral densities and diffusion coefficients. Simulations with more realistic solar wind drivers are underway to better assess the use of electrostatic and electromagnetic diffusion coefficients in understanding ULF wave-particle interactions in Earth's radiation belts.

  16. Computational Investigation of Helical Traveling Wave Tube Transverse RF Field Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Dayton, James A.

    1998-01-01

    In a previous study using a fully three-dimensional (3D) helical slow-wave circuit cold- test model it was found, contrary to classical helical circuit analyses, that transverse FF electric fields have significant amplitudes compared with the longitudinal component. The RF fields obtained using this helical cold-test model have been scaled to correspond to those of an actual TWT. At the output of the tube, RF field forces reach 61%, 26% and 132% for radial, azimuthal and longitudinal components, respectively, compared to radial space charge forces indicating the importance of considering them in the design of electron beam focusing.

  17. Long-wave analysis and control of the viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability with electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimpeanu, Radu; Anderson, Thomas; Petropoulos, Peter; Papageorgiou, Demetrios

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the electrostatic stabilization of a viscous thin film wetting the underside of a solid surface in the presence of a horizontally acting electric field. The competition between gravity, surface tension and the nonlocal effect of the applied electric field is captured analytically in the form of a nonlinear evolution equation. A semi-spectral solution strategy is employed to resolve the dynamics of the resulting partial differential equation. Furthermore, we conduct direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations and assess the accuracy of the obtained solutions when varying the electric field strength from zero up to the point when complete stabilization at the target finite wavelengths occurs. We employ DNS to examine the limitations of the asymptotically derived behavior in the context of increasing liquid film heights, with agreement found to be excellent even beyond the target lengthscales. Regimes in which the thin film assumption is no longer valid and droplet pinch-off occurs are then analyzed. Finally, the asymptotic and computational approaches are used in conjunction to identify efficient active control mechanisms allowing the manipulation of the fluid interface in light of engineering applications at small scales, such as mixing.

  18. Plasma heating, electric fields and plasma flow by electron beam ionospheric injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.; Erickson, K. N.

    1990-01-01

    The electric fields and the floating potentials of a Plasma Diagnostics Payload (PDP) located near a powerful electron beam injected from a large sounding rocket into the auroral zone ionosphere have been studied. As the PDP drifted away from the beam laterally, it surveyed a region of hot plasma extending nearly to 60 m radius. Large polarization electric fields transverse to B were imbedded in this hot plasma, which displayed large ELF wave variations and also an average pattern which has led to a model of the plasma flow about the negative line potential of the beam resembling a hydrodynamic vortex in a uniform flow field. Most of the present results are derived from the ECHO 6 sounding rocket mission.

  19. Response of the Shockley surface state to an external electrical field: A density-functional theory study of Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berland, K.; Einstein, T. L.; Hyldgaard, P.

    2012-01-01

    The response of the Cu(111) Shockley surface state to an external electrical field is characterized by combining a density-functional theory calculation for a slab geometry with an analysis of the Kohn-Sham wave functions. Our analysis is facilitated by a decoupling of the Kohn-Sham states via a rotation in Hilbert space. We find that the surface state displays isotropic dispersion, quadratic until the Fermi wave vector but with a significant quartic contribution beyond. We calculate the shift in energetic position and effective mass of the surface state for an electrical field perpendicular to the Cu(111) surface; the response is linear over a broad range of field strengths. We find that charge transfer occurs beyond the outermost copper atoms and that accumulation of electrons is responsible for a quarter of the screening of the electrical field. This allows us to provide well converged determinations of the field-induced changes in the surface state for a moderate number of layers in the slab geometry.

  20. Geometrical enhancement of the electric field: Application of fractional calculus in nanoplasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, E.; Iomin, A.

    2011-12-01

    We developed an analytical approach, for a wave propagation in metal-dielectric nanostructures in the quasi-static limit. This consideration establishes a link between fractional geometry of the nanostructure and fractional integro-differentiation. The method is based on fractional calculus and permits to obtain analytical expressions for the electric-field enhancement.

  1. All electrical propagating spin wave spectroscopy with broadband wavevector capability

    SciTech Connect

    Ciubotaru, F., E-mail: Florin.Ciubotaru@imec.be; KU Leuven, Departement Electrotechniek; Devolder, T.

    2016-07-04

    We developed an all electrical experiment to perform the broadband phase-resolved spectroscopy of propagating spin waves in micrometer sized thin magnetic stripes. The magnetostatic surface spin waves are excited and detected by scaled down to 125 nm wide inductive antennas, which award ultra broadband wavevector capability. The wavevector selection can be done by applying an excitation frequency above the ferromagnetic resonance. Wavevector demultiplexing is done at the spin wave detector thanks to the rotation of the spin wave phase upon propagation. A simple model accounts for the main features of the apparatus transfer functions. Our approach opens an avenue for themore » all electrical study of wavevector-dependent spin wave properties including dispersion spectra or non-reciprocal propagation.« less

  2. Measurements of electric fields in the solar wind: Interpretation difficulties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertkov, A. D.

    1995-06-01

    The traditionally measured electric fields in the solar wind plasma (about 1-10 mV/m) are not the natural, primordial ones but are the result of plasma-vehicle interaction. The theory of this interaction is not complete now and current interpretation of the measurements can fail. The state of fully ionized plasma depends on the entropy of the creating source and on the process in which plasma is involved. The increasing twofold of a moving volume in the solar wind (with energy transfer across its surface which is comparable with its whole internal energy) is a more rapid process than the relaxation for the pressure. The presumptive source of the solar wind creation - the induction electric field of the solar origin - has very low entropy. The state of plasma must be very far from the state of thermodynamic equilibrium. The internal energy of plasma can be contained mainly in plasma waves, resonant plasma oscillations, and electric currents. The primordial microscopic oscillating electric fields could be about 1 V/m. It can be checked by special measurements, not ruining the natural plasma state. The tool should be a dielectrical microelectroscope outside the distortion zone of the spacecraft, having been observed from the latter.

  3. Measurements of electric fields in the solar wind: Interpretation difficulties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chertkov, A. D.

    1995-01-01

    The traditionally measured electric fields in the solar wind plasma (about 1-10 mV/m) are not the natural, primordial ones but are the result of plasma-vehicle interaction. The theory of this interaction is not complete now and current interpretation of the measurements can fail. The state of fully ionized plasma depends on the entropy of the creating source and on the process in which plasma is involved. The increasing twofold of a moving volume in the solar wind (with energy transfer across its surface which is comparable with its whole internal energy) is a more rapid process than the relaxation for the pressure. The presumptive source of the solar wind creation - the induction electric field of the solar origin - has very low entropy. The state of plasma must be very far from the state of thermodynamic equilibrium. The internal energy of plasma can be contained mainly in plasma waves, resonant plasma oscillations, and electric currents. The primordial microscopic oscillating electric fields could be about 1 V/m. It can be checked by special measurements, not ruining the natural plasma state. The tool should be a dielectrical microelectroscope outside the distortion zone of the spacecraft, having been observed from the latter.

  4. Shock wave compression and self-generated electric field repolarization in ferroelectric ceramics Pb0.99[(Zr0.90Sn0.10)0.96Ti0.04]0.98Nb0.02O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dongdong; Du, Jinmei; Gu, Yan; Feng, Yujun

    2012-03-01

    The shock wave induced depoling current of Pb0.99[(Zr0.90Sn0.10)0.96Ti0.04]0.98Nb0.02O3 ceramics was investigated with a system composed of a resistive load and an unpoled ceramic. Disparity in the depoling current was explained by considering the drawing charge effect of unpoled ceramic. The drawing effect for poled ceramics was analysed by developing a model incorporating a time- and electric-field-dependent repolarization. This model predicts that the high-impedance current eventually becomes higher than the short-circuit current, which is consistent with the experimental results in the literature. This work indicates that both the repolarization of uncompressed ceramics caused by the self-generated electric field and depolarization of compressed ceramics caused by the shock wave govern the output current.

  5. Modelling far field pacing for terminating spiral waves pinned to ischaemic heterogeneities in cardiac tissue

    PubMed Central

    Boccia, E.; Luther, S.

    2017-01-01

    In cardiac tissue, electrical spiral waves pinned to a heterogeneity can be unpinned (and eventually terminated) using electric far field pulses and recruiting the heterogeneity as a virtual electrode. While for isotropic media the process of unpinning is much better understood, the case of an anisotropic substrate with different conductivities in different directions still needs intensive investigation. To study the impact of anisotropy on the unpinning process, we present numerical simulations based on the bidomain formulation of the phase I of the Luo and Rudy action potential model modified due to the occurrence of acute myocardial ischaemia. Simulating a rotating spiral wave pinned to an ischaemic heterogeneity, we compare the success of sequences of far field pulses in the isotropic and the anisotropic case for spirals still in transient or in steady rotation states. Our results clearly indicate that the range of pacing parameters resulting in successful termination of pinned spiral waves is larger in anisotropic tissue than in an isotropic medium. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Mathematical methods in medicine: neuroscience, cardiology and pathology’. PMID:28507234

  6. Modelling far field pacing for terminating spiral waves pinned to ischaemic heterogeneities in cardiac tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccia, E.; Luther, S.; Parlitz, U.

    2017-05-01

    In cardiac tissue, electrical spiral waves pinned to a heterogeneity can be unpinned (and eventually terminated) using electric far field pulses and recruiting the heterogeneity as a virtual electrode. While for isotropic media the process of unpinning is much better understood, the case of an anisotropic substrate with different conductivities in different directions still needs intensive investigation. To study the impact of anisotropy on the unpinning process, we present numerical simulations based on the bidomain formulation of the phase I of the Luo and Rudy action potential model modified due to the occurrence of acute myocardial ischaemia. Simulating a rotating spiral wave pinned to an ischaemic heterogeneity, we compare the success of sequences of far field pulses in the isotropic and the anisotropic case for spirals still in transient or in steady rotation states. Our results clearly indicate that the range of pacing parameters resulting in successful termination of pinned spiral waves is larger in anisotropic tissue than in an isotropic medium. This article is part of the themed issue `Mathematical methods in medicine: neuroscience, cardiology and pathology'.

  7. Development of Electric Field Investigations for Future Missions in Japan: from Mercury, through Earth, toward Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaba, Yasumasa

    The electric field from DC to several 10s MHz is important for the clarification of global plasma dynamics, energetic processes, and wave-particle interactions in the planetary Magnetospheres by in-situ and remote sensing studies. We have developped the instruments for several missions, i.e., (1) BepiColombo Mercury Mag-netospheric Orbiter (MMO) to Mercury [just in FM development], (2) the small-sized radiation belt mission, ERG (Energization and Radiation in Geospace) [in EM design], (3) the cross-scale formation flight mission, SCOPE [in ceonceptual design], and (4) the future Jovian mission, EJSM, including JAXA Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter (JMO) and other elementss [in con-ceptual design]. Those will prevail the universal plasma mechanism and processes in the space laboratory. The common purposes of electric field, plasma waves, and radio waves observa-tion in those missions are: (a) Examination of the theories of high-energy particle acceleration by plasma waves, (b) identification of the origin of electric fields in the magnetosphere asso-ciated with cross-scale coupling processes, (c) diagnosis of plasma density, temperature and composition, and (d) investigation of wave-particle interaction and mode conversion processes. In order to achieve those objectives, the instrument including rigid antenna, wire antenna, and integrated receiver systems are now in development. Some of them were already used on the sounding rocket experiments (S310-23 launched by ISAS/JAXA) in 2007, and will also be used soon. As the applications of those development, we also try to adopt them to the space interferometer and the radar sounder. In this paper, we will summarize the current plan and efforts for those future activities.

  8. Terahertz Radiation from Laser Created Plasma by Applying a Transverse Static Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Takuya; Katahira, Koji; Yugami, Noboru; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Sakagami, Hitoshi; Nagatomo, Hideo

    2016-10-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation, which is emitted in narrow cone in the forward direction from laser created plasma has been observed by N.Yugami et al.. Additionally, Löffler et al. have observed that a significantly increased THz emission intensity in the forward direction when the transverse static electric field is applied to the plasma. The purpose of our study is to derive the mechanism of the THz radiation from laser created plasma by applying the transverse static electric field. To study the radiation mechanism, we conducted 2D-PIC simulation. With the static electric field of 10 kV/cm and gas density of 1020 cm-3, we obtain 1.2 THz single cycle pulse radiation, whose intensity is 1.3 ×105 W/cm2. The magnetic field called ``picket fence mode'' is generated in the laser created plasma. At the boundary surface between the plasma and vacuum, the magnetic field is canceled because eddy current flows. We conclude that the temporal behavior of the magnetic field at the boundary surface radiates the THz wave.

  9. Tunable phase transition in single-layer TiSe2 via electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Zhuang, Houlong L.

    2018-06-01

    Phase transition represents an intriguing physical phenomenon that exists in a number of single-layer transition-metal dichalcogenides. This phenomenon often occurs below a critical temperature and breaks the long-range crystalline order leading to a reconstructed superstructure called the charge-density wave (CDW) structure, which can therefore be recovered by external stimuli such as temperature. Alternatively, we show here that another external stimulation, electric field can also result in the phase transition between the regular and CDW structures of a single-layer transition-metal dichalcogenide. We used single-layer TiSe2 as an example to elucidate the mechanism of the CDW followed by calculations of the electronic structure using a hybrid density functional. We found that applying electric field can tune the phase transition between the 1T and CDW phases of single-layer TiSe2. Our work opens up a route of tuning the phase transition of single-layer materials via electric field.

  10. Effects of convection electric field on upwelling and escape of ionospheric O(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cladis, J. B.; Chiu, Yam T.; Peterson, William K.

    1992-01-01

    A Monte Carlo code is used to explore the full effects of the convection electric field on distributions of upflowing O(+) ions from the cusp/cleft ionosphere. Trajectories of individual ions/neutrals are computed as they undergo multiple charge-exchange collisions. In the ion state, the trajectories are computed in realistic models of the magnetic field and the convection, corotation, and ambipolar electric fields. The effects of ion-ion collisions are included, and the trajectories are computed with and without simultaneous stochastic heating perpendicular to the magnetic field by a realistic model of broadband, low frequency waves. In the neutral state, ballistic trajectories in the gravitational field are computed. The initial conditions of the ions, in addition to ambipolar electric field and the number densities and temperatures of O(+), H(+), and electrons as a function of height in the cusp/cleft region were obtained from the results of Gombosi and Killeen (1987), who used a hydrodynamic code to simulate the time-dependent frictional-heating effects in a magnetic tube during its motion though the convection throat. The distribution of the ion fluxes as a function of height are constructed from the case histories.

  11. Rotationally Vibrating Electric-Field Mill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2008-01-01

    A proposed instrument for measuring a static electric field would be based partly on a conventional rotating-split-cylinder or rotating-split-sphere electric-field mill. However, the design of the proposed instrument would overcome the difficulty, encountered in conventional rotational field mills, of transferring measurement signals and power via either electrical or fiber-optic rotary couplings that must be aligned and installed in conjunction with rotary bearings. Instead of being made to rotate in one direction at a steady speed as in a conventional rotational field mill, a split-cylinder or split-sphere electrode assembly in the proposed instrument would be set into rotational vibration like that of a metronome. The rotational vibration, synchronized with appropriate rapid electronic switching of electrical connections between electric-current-measuring circuitry and the split-cylinder or split-sphere electrodes, would result in an electrical measurement effect equivalent to that of a conventional rotational field mill. A version of the proposed instrument is described.

  12. Transmission of the convection electric field to the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, T.

    2003-12-01

    from the waveguide into the conducting ionosphere and the magnetosphere. It is shown that the attenuation of the TM0 mode is not significant even for the nighttime condition, when compared to the geometrical attenuation due to the finite size of the polar electric field. Furthermore, it is shown that the ionospheric electric field carried by the TM0 mode is transmitted by Alfven waves upward into the inner magnetosphere along the magnetic field lines, supplying energy for the convection in the inner magnetosphere. It should be stressed that the ionosphere never creates electromagnetic energy but acts as a transmission line for the convection electric field. We conclude that the Earth-ionosphere waveguide connected with the magnetospheric transmission line explains both the instantaneous propagation of the electric field and currents in the ionosphere and of the convection electric field into the inner magnetosphere.

  13. Statistical properties of nonlinear one-dimensional wave fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalikov, D.

    2005-06-01

    A numerical model for long-term simulation of gravity surface waves is described. The model is designed as a component of a coupled Wave Boundary Layer/Sea Waves model, for investigation of small-scale dynamic and thermodynamic interactions between the ocean and atmosphere. Statistical properties of nonlinear wave fields are investigated on a basis of direct hydrodynamical modeling of 1-D potential periodic surface waves. The method is based on a nonstationary conformal surface-following coordinate transformation; this approach reduces the principal equations of potential waves to two simple evolutionary equations for the elevation and the velocity potential on the surface. The numerical scheme is based on a Fourier transform method. High accuracy was confirmed by validation of the nonstationary model against known solutions, and by comparison between the results obtained with different resolutions in the horizontal. The scheme allows reproduction of the propagation of steep Stokes waves for thousands of periods with very high accuracy. The method here developed is applied to simulation of the evolution of wave fields with large number of modes for many periods of dominant waves. The statistical characteristics of nonlinear wave fields for waves of different steepness were investigated: spectra, curtosis and skewness, dispersion relation, life time. The prime result is that wave field may be presented as a superposition of linear waves is valid only for small amplitudes. It is shown as well, that nonlinear wave fields are rather a superposition of Stokes waves not linear waves. Potential flow, free surface, conformal mapping, numerical modeling of waves, gravity waves, Stokes waves, breaking waves, freak waves, wind-wave interaction.

  14. On guided circumferential waves in soft electroactive tubes under radially inhomogeneous biasing fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bin; Su, Yipin; Chen, Weiqiu; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2017-02-01

    Soft electroactive (EA) tube actuators and many other cylindrical devices have been proposed recently in literature, which show great advantages over those made from conventional hard solid materials. However, their practical applications may be limited because these soft EA devices are prone to various failure modes. In this paper, we present an analysis of the guided circumferential elastic waves in soft EA tube actuators, which has potential applications in the in-situ nondestructive evaluation (NDE) or online structural health monitoring (SHM) to detect structural defects or fatigue cracks in soft EA tube actuators and in the self-sensing of soft EA tube actuators based on the concept of guided circumferential elastic waves. Both circumferential SH and Lamb-type waves in an incompressible soft EA cylindrical tube under inhomogeneous biasing fields are considered. The biasing fields, induced by the application of an electric voltage difference to the electrodes on the inner and outer cylindrical surfaces of the EA tube in addition to an axial pre-stretch, are inhomogeneous in the radial direction. Dorfmann and Ogden's theory of nonlinear electroelasticity and the associated linear theory for small incremental motion constitute the basis of our analysis. By means of the state-space formalism for the incremental wave motion along with the approximate laminate technique, dispersion relations are derived in a particularly efficient way. For a neo-Hookean ideal dielectric model, the proposed approach is first validated numerically. Numerical examples are then given to show that the guided circumferential wave propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the inhomogeneous biasing fields and the geometrical parameters. Some particular phenomena such as the frequency veering and the nonlinear dependence of the phase velocity on the radial electric voltage are discussed. Our numerical findings demonstrate that it is feasible to use guided circumferential

  15. Electric fields and vector potentials of thin cylindrical antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ronold W. P.

    1990-09-01

    The vector potential and electric field generated by the current in a center-driven or parasitic dipole antenna that extends from z = -h to z = h are investigated for each of the several components of the current. These include sin k(h - absolute value of z), sin k (absolute value of z) - sin kh, cos kz - cos kh, and cos kz/2 - cos kh/2. Of special interest are the interactions among the variously spaced elements in parallel nonstaggered arrays. These depend on the mutual vector potentials. It is shown that at a radial distance rho approximately = h and in the range z = -h to h, the vector potentials due to all four components become alike and have an approximately plane-wave form. Simple approximate formulas for the electric fields and vector potentials generated by each of the four distributions are derived and compared with the exact results. The application of the new formulas to large arrays is discussed.

  16. Tunnel effect wave energy detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Waltman, Steven B. (Inventor); Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for measuring gravitational and inertial forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on an object or fluid in space provide an electric tunneling current through a gap between an electrode and that object or fluid in space and vary that gap with any selected one of such forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on that object or fluid. These methods and apparatus sense a corresponding variation in an electric property of that gap and determine the latter force, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy in response to that corresponding variation, and thereby sense or measure such parameters as acceleration, position, particle mass, velocity, magnetic field strength, presence or direction, or wave or radiant energy intensity, presence or direction.

  17. Electric Field Fluctuations in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Dayton; Limmer, David; Chandler, David

    2013-03-01

    Charge transfer in solution, such as autoionization and ion pair dissociation in water, is governed by rare electric field fluctuations of the solvent. Knowing the statistics of such fluctuations can help explain the dynamics of these rare events. Trajectories short enough to be tractable by computer simulation are virtually certain not to sample the large fluctuations that promote rare events. Here, we employ importance sampling techniques with classical molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water to study statistics of electric field fluctuations far from their means. We find that the distributions of electric fields located on individual water molecules are not in general gaussian. Near the mean this non-gaussianity is due to the internal charge distribution of the water molecule. Further from the mean, however, there is a previously unreported Bjerrum-like defect that stabilizes certain large fluctuations out of equilibrium. As expected, differences in electric fields acting between molecules are gaussian to a remarkable degree. By studying these differences, though, we are able to determine what configurations result not only in large electric fields, but also in electric fields with long spatial correlations that may be needed to promote charge separation.

  18. Electric field prediction for a human body-electric machine system.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Maria G; Papadopoulos, Peter J; Dimitropoulou, Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    A system consisting of an electric machine and a human body is studied and the resulting electric field is predicted. A 3-phase induction machine operating at full load is modeled considering its geometry, windings, and materials. A human model is also constructed approximating its geometry and the electric properties of tissues. Using the finite element technique the electric field distribution in the human body is determined for a distance of 1 and 5 m from the machine and its effects are studied. Particularly, electric field potential variations are determined at specific points inside the human body and for these points the electric field intensity is computed and compared to the limit values for exposure according to international standards.

  19. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  20. Model to Test Electric Field Comparisons in a Composite Fairing Cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trout, Dawn; Burford, Janessa

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of radio frequency transmission in vehicle fairings is important to sensitive spacecraft. This study shows cumulative distribution function (CDF) comparisons of composite . a fairing electromagnetic field data obtained by computational electromagnetic 3D full wave modeling and laboratory testing. This work is an extension of the bare aluminum fairing perfect electric conductor (PEC) model. Test and model data correlation is shown.

  1. Model to Test Electric Field Comparisons in a Composite Fairing Cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trout, Dawn H.; Burford, Janessa

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of radio frequency transmission in vehicle fairings is important to sensitive spacecraft. This study shows cumulative distribution function (CDF) comparisons of composite a fairing electromagnetic field data obtained by computational electromagnetic 3D full wave modeling and laboratory testing. This work is an extension of the bare aluminum fairing perfect electric conductor (PEC) model. Test and model data correlation is shown.

  2. A two dimension model of the uterine electrical wave propagation.

    PubMed

    Rihana, S; Lefrançois, E; Marque, C

    2007-01-01

    The uterus, usually quiescent during pregnancy, exhibits forceful contractions at term leading to delivery. These contractions are caused by the synchronized propagation of electrical waves from the pacemaker cells to its neighbors inducing the whole coordinated contraction of the uterus wall leading to labor. In a previous work, we simulate the electrical activity of a single uterine cell by a set of ordinary differential equations. Then, this model has been used to simulate the electrical activity propagation. In the present work, the uterine cell tissue is assumed to have uniform and isotropic propagation, and constant electrical membrane properties. The stability of the numerical solution imposes the choice of a critical temporal step. A wave starts at a pacemaker cell; this electrical activity is initiated by the injection of an external stimulation current to the cell membrane. We observe synchronous wave propagation for axial resistance values around 0.5 GOmega or less and propoagation blocking for values greater than 0.7 GOmega. We compute the conduction velocity of the excitation, for different axial resistance values, and obtain a velocity about 10 cm/sec, approaching the one described by the literature for the rat at end of term.

  3. Fast torsional waves and strong magnetic field within the Earth's core.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Nicolas; Jault, Dominique; Canet, Elisabeth; Fournier, Alexandre

    2010-05-06

    The magnetic field inside the Earth's fluid and electrically conducting outer core cannot be directly probed. The root-mean-squared (r.m.s.) intensity for the resolved part of the radial magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary is 0.3 mT, but further assumptions are needed to infer the strength of the field inside the core. Recent diagnostics obtained from numerical geodynamo models indicate that the magnitude of the dipole field at the surface of a fluid dynamo is about ten times weaker than the r.m.s. field strength in its interior, which would yield an intensity of the order of several millitesla within the Earth's core. However, a 60-year signal found in the variation in the length of day has long been associated with magneto-hydrodynamic torsional waves carried by a much weaker internal field. According to these studies, the r.m.s. strength of the field in the cylindrical radial direction (calculated for all length scales) is only 0.2 mT, a figure even smaller than the r.m.s. strength of the large-scale (spherical harmonic degree n field visible at the core-mantle boundary. Here we reconcile numerical geodynamo models with studies of geostrophic motions in the Earth's core that rely on geomagnetic data. From an ensemble inversion of core flow models, we find a torsional wave recurring every six years, the angular momentum of which accounts well for both the phase and the amplitude of the six-year signal for change in length of day detected over the second half of the twentieth century. It takes about four years for the wave to propagate throughout the fluid outer core, and this travel time translates into a slowness for Alfvén waves that corresponds to a r.m.s. field strength in the cylindrical radial direction of approximately 2 mT. Assuming isotropy, this yields a r.m.s. field strength of 4 mT inside the Earth's core.

  4. Variational calculations of subbands in a quantum well with uniform electric field - Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, Doyeol; Chuang, S. L.

    1986-01-01

    Variational calculations of subband eigenstates in an infinite quantum well with an applied electric field using Gram-Schmidt orthogonalized trial wave functions are presented. The results agree very well with the exact numerical solutions even up to 1200 kV/cm. It is also shown that, for increasing electric fields, the energy of the ground state decreases, while that of higher subband states increases slightly up to 1000 kV/cm and then decreases for a well size of 100 A.

  5. Electric current generation in photorefractive bismuth silicon oxide without application of external electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchhave, Preben; Kukhtarev, Nickolai; Kukhtareva, Tatiana; Edwards, Matthew E.; Reagan, Michael A.; Lyuksyutov, Sergei F.

    2003-10-01

    A holographic radial diffraction grating (HRDG) is an efficient optical element for splitting single laser beam on three 0, -1st, and +1st- diffraction order beams. The rotation of the grating at certain velocity allows a window for quality control over the frequency detuning between -1st, and +1st diffracted beams. The running interference fringes produced by the beams and projected on photorefractive crystal induce running holographic gratings in the crystal. This simple configuration is an effective tool for the study of such phenomena as space charge waves [1], domains motion [2], and electric current generation [3]. Specifics of photorefractive mechanism in cubic photorefractive crystals (BSO, BTO) normally require a use of external electric field to produce reasonable degree of refractive index modulation to observe associated with it phenomena. In this work we provide a direct experimental observation of the electric current generated in photorefractive BSO using running grating technique without an applied electric field. Moving interference fringes modulate a photoconductivity and an electric field in photorefractive crystal thus creating the photo electro-motive force (emf) and the current. The magnitude of the current varies between 1 and 10 nA depending on the rotation speed of HRDG. The peculiarities of the current behavior include a backward current flow, and current oscillations. The holographic current generated through this technique can find applications in non-destructive testing for ultra-sensitive vibrometry, materials characterization, and for motion sensors. References [1] S.F. Lyuksyutov, P. Buchhave, and M.V. Vasnetsov, Physical Review Letters, 79, No.1, 67-70 (1997) [2] P. Buchhave, S. Lyuksyutov, M. Vasnetsov, and C. Heyde, Journal Optical Society of America B, 13, No.11 2595-2602 (1996) [3] M. Vasnetsov, P. Buchhave, and S. Lyuksyutov Optics Communications, 137, 181-191 (1997)

  6. The ISEE-1 and ISEE-2 plasma wave investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.; Fredricks, R. W.; Smith, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The ISEE-1 and ISEE-2 plasma wave experiments are designed to provide basic information on wave-particle interactions in the earth's magnetosphere and in the solar wind. The ISEE-1 plasma wave instrument uses three electric dipole antennas with lengths of 215, 73.5 and 0.61 m for electric field measurements, and a triaxial search coil antenna for magnetic field measurements. The ISEE-2 instrument uses two electric dipole antennas with lengths of 30 and 0.61 m for electric field measurements and a single-axis search coil antenna for magnetic field measurements. The primary scientific objectives of the experiments are described, including the resolution of space-time relationships of plasma wave phenomena and VLBI studies. The instrumentation is described, with emphasis on the antennas and the electronics.

  7. Electric Field and Plasma Density Observations of Irregularities and Plasma Instabilities in the Low Latitude Ionosphere Gathered by the C/NOFS Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, Robert F.; Freudenreich, H.; Rowland, D.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the C/NOFS equatorial satellite provides a unique data set which includes detailed measurements of irregularities associated with the equatorial ionosphere and in particular with spread-F depletions. We present vector AC electric field observations gathered on C/NOFS that address a variety of key questions regarding how plasma irregularities, from meter to kilometer scales, are created and evolve. The talk focuses on occasions where the ionosphere F-peak has been elevated above the C/NOFS satellite perigee of 400 km as solar activity has increased. In particular, during the equinox periods of 2011, the satellite consistently journeyed below the F-peak whenever the orbit was in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly after sunset. During these passes, data from the electric field and plasma density probes on the satellite have revealed two types of instabilities which had not previously been observed in the C/NOFS data set: The first is evidence for 400-500km-scale bottomside "undulations" that appear in the density and electric field data. In one case, these large scale waves are associated with a strong shear in the zonal E x B flow, as evidenced by variations in the meridional (outward) electric fields observed above and below the F-peak. These undulations are devoid of smaller scale structures in the early evening, yet appear at later local times along the same orbit associated with fully-developed spread-F with smaller scale structures. This suggests that they may be precursor waves for spread-F, driven by a collisional shear instability, following ideas advanced previously by researchers using data from the Jicamarca radar. A second result is the appearance of km-scale irregularities that are a common feature in the electric field and plasma density data that also appear when the satellite is near or below the F-peak at night. The vector electric field instrument on C/NOFS clearly shows that the electric field

  8. Electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy improve the recovery of injured sciatic nerves

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Feng; He, Wei; Zhang, Yingze; Tian, Dehu; Zhao, Hongfang; Yu, Kunlun; Bai, Jiangbo

    2013-01-01

    Drug treatment, electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy have been shown to promote the repair and regeneration of the peripheral nerves at the injured site. This study prepared a Mackinnon's model of rat sciatic nerve compression. Electric stimulation was given immediately after neurolysis, and decimeter wave radiation was performed at 1 and 12 weeks post-operation. Histological observation revealed that intraoperative electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy could improve the local blood circulation of repaired sites, alleviate hypoxia of compressed nerves, and lessen adhesion of compressed nerves, thereby decreasing the formation of new entrapments and enhancing compressed nerve regeneration through an improved microenvironment for regeneration. Immunohistochemical staining results revealed that intraoperative electric stimulation and decimeter wave could promote the expression of S-100 protein. Motor nerve conduction velocity and amplitude, the number and diameter of myelinated nerve fibers, and sciatic functional index were significantly increased in the treated rats. These results verified that intraoperative electric stimulation and decimeter wave therapy contributed to the regeneration and the recovery of the functions in the compressed nerves. PMID:25206506

  9. Ion gyroradius effects on particle trapping in kinetic Alfven waves along auroral field lines

    SciTech Connect

    Damiano, P. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Chaston, C. C.

    In this study, a 2-D self-consistent hybrid gyrofluid-kinetic electron model is used to investigate Alfven wave propagation along dipolar magnetic field lines for a range of ion to electron temperature ratios. The focus of the investigation is on understanding the role of these effects on electron trapping in kinetic Alfven waves sourced in the plasma sheet and the role of this trapping in contributing to the overall electron energization at the ionosphere. This work also builds on our previous effort by considering a similar system in the limit of fixed initial parallel current, rather than fixed initial perpendicular electric field.more » It is found that the effects of particle trapping are strongest in the cold ion limit and the kinetic Alfven wave is able to carry trapped electrons a large distance along the field line yielding a relatively large net energization of the trapped electron population as the phase speed of the wave is increased. However, as the ion temperature is increased, the ability of the kinetic Alfven wave to carry and energize trapped electrons is reduced by more significant wave energy dispersion perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field which reduces the amplitude of the wave. This reduction of wave amplitude in turn reduces both the parallel current and the extent of the high-energy tails evident in the energized electron populations at the ionospheric boundary (which may serve to explain the limited extent of the broadband electron energization seen in observations). Here, even in the cold ion limit, trapping effects in kinetic Alfven waves lead to only modest electron energization for the parameters considered (on the order of tens of eV) and the primary energization of electrons to keV levels coincides with the arrival of the wave at the ionospheric boundary.« less

  10. Ion gyroradius effects on particle trapping in kinetic Alfven waves along auroral field lines

    DOE PAGES

    Damiano, P. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Chaston, C. C.

    2016-11-10

    In this study, a 2-D self-consistent hybrid gyrofluid-kinetic electron model is used to investigate Alfven wave propagation along dipolar magnetic field lines for a range of ion to electron temperature ratios. The focus of the investigation is on understanding the role of these effects on electron trapping in kinetic Alfven waves sourced in the plasma sheet and the role of this trapping in contributing to the overall electron energization at the ionosphere. This work also builds on our previous effort by considering a similar system in the limit of fixed initial parallel current, rather than fixed initial perpendicular electric field.more » It is found that the effects of particle trapping are strongest in the cold ion limit and the kinetic Alfven wave is able to carry trapped electrons a large distance along the field line yielding a relatively large net energization of the trapped electron population as the phase speed of the wave is increased. However, as the ion temperature is increased, the ability of the kinetic Alfven wave to carry and energize trapped electrons is reduced by more significant wave energy dispersion perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field which reduces the amplitude of the wave. This reduction of wave amplitude in turn reduces both the parallel current and the extent of the high-energy tails evident in the energized electron populations at the ionospheric boundary (which may serve to explain the limited extent of the broadband electron energization seen in observations). Here, even in the cold ion limit, trapping effects in kinetic Alfven waves lead to only modest electron energization for the parameters considered (on the order of tens of eV) and the primary energization of electrons to keV levels coincides with the arrival of the wave at the ionospheric boundary.« less

  11. Effect of high magnetic fields on the charge density wave properties of KMo 6O 17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rötger, A.; Dumas, J.; Marcus, J.; Schlenker, C.; Ulmet, J. P.; Audouard, A.; Askenazy, S.

    1992-03-01

    The electrical resistivity of the purple bronze KMo 6O 17 has been studied between 2 and 88 K with pulsed magnetic fields up to 35 T. Several anomalies are found on the curves Δρ/ρ(B) at different temperatures. The low field results are compared with previous measurements of susceptibility and magnetization. A phase diagram which may show a field displaced charge density wave instability and field induced transitions is proposed.

  12. Electron wind in strong wave guide fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krienen, F.

    1985-03-01

    The X-ray activity observed near highly powered waveguide structures is usually caused by local electric discharges originating from discontinuities such as couplers, tuners or bends. In traveling waves electrons move in the direction of the power flow. Seed electrons can multipactor in a traveling wave, the moving charge pattern is different from the multipactor in a resonant structure and is self-extinguishing. The charge density in the wave guide will modify impedance and propagation constant of the wave guide. The radiation level inside the output wave guide of the SLAC, 50 MW, S-band, klystron is estimated. Possible contributions of radiation to window failure are discussed.

  13. Low-intensity electric fields induce two distinct response components in neocortical neuronal populations

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weifeng; Wolff, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    Low-intensity alternating electric fields applied to the scalp are capable of modulating cortical activity and brain functions, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report two distinct components of voltage-sensitive dye signals induced by low-intensity, alternating electric fields in rodent cortical slices: a “passive component,” which corresponds to membrane potential changes directly induced by the electric field; and an “active component,” which is a widespread depolarization that is dependent on excitatory synaptic transmission. The passive component is stationary, with amplitude and phase accurately reflecting the cortical cytoarchitecture. In contrast, the active component is initiated from a local “hot spot” of activity and spreads to a large population as a propagating wave with rich local dynamics. The propagation of the active component may play a role in modulating large-scale cortical activity by spreading a low level of excitation from a small initiation point to a vast neuronal population. PMID:25122710

  14. Efficiency of wave-driven rigid body rotation toroidal confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rax, J. M.; Gueroult, R.; Fisch, N. J.

    2017-03-01

    The compensation of vertical drifts in toroidal magnetic fields through a wave-driven poloidal rotation is compared with compensation through the wave driven toroidal current generation to support the classical magnetic rotational transform. The advantages and drawbacks associated with the sustainment of a radial electric field are compared with those associated with the sustainment of a poloidal magnetic field both in terms of energy content and power dissipation. The energy content of a radial electric field is found to be smaller than the energy content of a poloidal magnetic field for a similar set of orbits. The wave driven radial electric field generation efficiency is similarly shown, at least in the limit of large aspect ratio, to be larger than the efficiency of wave-driven toroidal current generation.

  15. Synaptic Effects of Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Asif

    Learning and sensory processing in the brain relies on the effective transmission of information across synapses. The strength and efficacy of synaptic transmission is modifiable through training and can be modulated with noninvasive electrical brain stimulation. Transcranial electrical stimulation (TES), specifically, induces weak intensity and spatially diffuse electric fields in the brain. Despite being weak, electric fields modulate spiking probability and the efficacy of synaptic transmission. These effects critically depend on the direction of the electric field relative to the orientation of the neuron and on the level of endogenous synaptic activity. TES has been used to modulate a wide range of neuropsychiatric indications, for various rehabilitation applications, and cognitive performance in diverse tasks. How can a weak and diffuse electric field, which simultaneously polarizes neurons across the brain, have precise changes in brain function? Designing therapies to maximize desired outcomes and minimize undesired effects presents a challenging problem. A series of experiments and computational models are used to define the anatomical and functional factors leading to specificity of TES. Anatomical specificity derives from guiding current to targeted brain structures and taking advantage of the direction-sensitivity of neurons with respect to the electric field. Functional specificity originates from preferential modulation of neuronal networks that are already active. Diffuse electric fields may recruit connected brain networks involved in a training task and promote plasticity along active synaptic pathways. In vitro, electric fields boost endogenous synaptic plasticity and raise the ceiling for synaptic learning with repeated stimulation sessions. Synapses undergoing strong plasticity are preferentially modulated over weak synapses. Therefore, active circuits that are involved in a task could be more susceptible to stimulation than inactive circuits

  16. Velocity shear Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with inhomogeneous DC electric field in the magnetosphere of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandpal, Praveen; Kaur, Rajbir; Pandey, R. S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper parallel flow velocity shear Kelvin-Helmholtz instability has been studied in two different extended regions of the inner magnetosphere of Saturn. The method of the characteristic solution and kinetic approach has been used in the mathematical calculation of dispersion relation and growth rate of K-H waves. Effect of magnetic field (B), inhomogeneity (P/a), velocity shear scale length (Ai), temperature anisotropy (T⊥ /T||), electric field (E), ratio of electron to ion temperature (Te /Ti), density gradient (εnρi) and angle of propagation (θ) on the dimensionless growth rate of K-H waves in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn has been observed with respect to k⊥ρi . Calculations of this theoretical analysis have been done taking the data from the Cassini in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn in the two extended regions of Rs ∼4.60-4.01 and Rs ∼4.82-5.0. In our study velocity shear, temperature anisotropy and magnitude of the electric field are observed to be the major sources of free energy for the K-H instability in both the regions considered. The inhomogeneity of electric field, electron-ion temperature ratio, and density gradient have been observed playing stabilizing effect on K-H instability. This study also indicates the effect of the vicinity of icy moon Enceladus on the growth of K-H instability.

  17. Electrically optical phase controlling for millimeter wave orbital angular momentum multi-modulation communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haotian; Tang, Jin; Yu, Zhenliang; Yi, Jun; Chen, Shuqing; Xiao, Jiangnan; Zhao, Chujun; Li, Ying; Chen, Lin; Wen, Shuangchun

    2017-06-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM), an emerging and fascinating degree of freedom, has highlighted an innovation in communication and optical manipulation field. The beams with different OAM state, which manifest as the phase front ;twisting; of electromagnetic waves, are mutually orthogonal, which is exactly what a new freedom applied to practical communication eagers for. Herein, we proposed a novel millimeter-wave OAM modulation technique by electrically optical phase controlling. By modulating OAM and phase of optical-millimeter-wave synchronously, the multi-modulation: quadrature orbital angular momentum modulation (QOM) communication system at W band is structured and simulated, allowing a 50 Gbit/s signal transmitting with bit-error rates less than 10-4. Our work might suggest that OAM could be compounded to more complex multi-modulation signal, and revealed a new insight into OAM based high capacity wireless and radio-over-fiber communication.

  18. Relativistic nonlinear plasma waves in a magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, C. F.; Pellat, R.

    1975-01-01

    Five relativistic plane nonlinear waves were investigated: circularly polarized waves and electrostatic plasma oscillations propagating parallel to the magnetic field, relativistic Alfven waves, linearly polarized transverse waves propagating in zero magnetic field, and the relativistic analog of the extraordinary mode propagating at an arbitrary angle to the magnetic field. When the ions are driven relativistic, they behave like electrons, and the assumption of an 'electron-positron' plasma leads to equations which have the form of a one-dimensional potential well. The solutions indicate that a large-amplitude superluminous wave determines the average plasma properties.

  19. Underwater electric field detection system based on weakly electric fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Wei; Wang, Tianyu; Wang, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Weakly electric fish sense their surroundings in complete darkness by their active electric field detection system. However, due to the insufficient detection capacity of the electric field, the detection distance is not enough, and the detection accuracy is not high. In this paper, a method of underwater detection based on rotating current field theory is proposed to improve the performance of underwater electric field detection system. First of all, we built underwater detection system based on the theory of the spin current field mathematical model with the help of the results of previous researchers. Then we completed the principle prototype and finished the metal objects in the water environment detection experiments, laid the foundation for the further experiments.

  20. The Polar Plasma Wave Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Persoon, A. M.; Randall, R. F.; Odem, D. L.; Remington, S. L.; Averkamp, T. F.; Debower, M. M.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Huff, R. L.; Kirchner, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    The Plasma Wave Instrument on the Polar spacecraft is designed to provide measurements of plasma waves in the Earth's polar regions over the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 800 kHz. Three orthogonal electric dipole antennas are used to detect electric fields, two in the spin plane and one aligned along the spacecraft spin axis. A magnetic loop antenna and a triaxial magnetic search coil antenna are used to detect magnetic fields. Signals from these antennas are processed by five receiver systems: a wideband receiver, a high-frequency waveform receiver, a low-frequency waveform receiver, two multichannel analyzers; and a pair of sweep frequency receivers. Compared to previous plasma wave instruments, the Polar plasma wave instrument has several new capabilities. These include (1) an expanded frequency range to improve coverage of both low- and high-frequency wave phenomena, (2) the ability to simultaneously capture signals from six orthogonal electric and magnetic field sensors, and (3) a digital wideband receiver with up to 8-bit resolution and sample rates as high as 249k samples s(exp -1).

  1. Low frequency electric field variations during HF transmissions on a mother-daughter rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, T. J.; Maynard, M. C.; Holtet, J. A.; Karlsen, N. O.; Egeland, A.; Moe, T. E.; Troim, J.

    1977-01-01

    HF wave propagation experiments were conducted on Mother-Daughter rockets in the polar ionosphere. Swept frequency transmissions from the Mother, nominally covering the range from 0.5 to 5 MHz in both CW and pulse modes, are received by the Daughter. In the most recent rocket of the series, the Mother also contained an AC electric field spectrometer covering the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz in four decade bands. The low frequency response of the ionosphere with respect to waves emitted from the onboard HF transmitter is examined.

  2. Ambient seismic wave field

    PubMed Central

    NISHIDA, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    The ambient seismic wave field, also known as ambient noise, is excited by oceanic gravity waves primarily. This can be categorized as seismic hum (1–20 mHz), primary microseisms (0.02–0.1 Hz), and secondary microseisms (0.1–1 Hz). Below 20 mHz, pressure fluctuations of ocean infragravity waves reach the abyssal floor. Topographic coupling between seismic waves and ocean infragravity waves at the abyssal floor can explain the observed shear traction sources. Below 5 mHz, atmospheric disturbances may also contribute to this excitation. Excitation of primary microseisms can be attributed to topographic coupling between ocean swell and seismic waves on subtle undulation of continental shelves. Excitation of secondary microseisms can be attributed to non-linear forcing by standing ocean swell at the sea surface in both pelagic and coastal regions. Recent developments in source location based on body-wave microseisms enable us to estimate forcing quantitatively. For a comprehensive understanding, we must consider the solid Earth, the ocean, and the atmosphere as a coupled system. PMID:28769015

  3. Radial dependence of HF wave field strength in the BPD column. [Beam Plasma Discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, R. J.; Anderson, H. R.; Bernstein, W.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a recent set of RF frequency measurements of the beam plasma discharge (BPD) performed in order to determine a quantitative value for the field strength in the plasma frequency region of the spectrum are presented. The parallel and perpendicular components of the plasma wave electric fields inside the BPD column have comparable field strengths, on the order of 10 volts/m. The radial dependence of the field strength is very strong, decreasing by as much as 40 dB within one meter from the beam center, with the illumination or discharge column approximately one meter in diameter. The field strength inside the column increases as a function of distance along the beam at least for several meters from the gun aperture. The frequency and amplitude of the plasma wave increases with beam current. A particularly rapid increase in these parameters occurs as the beam current approaches the critical current.

  4. Wigner functions for nonparaxial, arbitrarily polarized electromagnetic wave fields in free space.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Miguel A

    2004-11-01

    New representations are defined for describing electromagnetic wave fields in free space exactly in terms of rays for any wavelength, level of coherence or polarization, and numerical aperture, as long as there are no evanescent components. These representations correspond to tensors assigned to each ray such that the electric and magnetic energy densities, the Poynting vector, and the polarization properties of the field correspond to simple integrals involving these tensors for the rays that go through the specified point. For partially coherent fields, the ray-based approach provided by the new representations can reduce dramatically the computation times for the physical properties mentioned earlier.

  5. On Multiple Hall-Like Electron Currents and Tripolar Guide Magnetic Field Perturbations During Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturner, Andrew P.; Eriksson, Stefan; Nakamura, Takuma; Gershman, Daniel J.; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Ergun, Robert E.; Wilder, Frederick D.; Giles, Barbara; Pollock, Craig; Paterson, William R.; Strangeway, Robert J.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Burch, James L.

    2018-02-01

    Two magnetopause current sheet crossings with tripolar guide magnetic field signatures were observed by multiple Magnetosphere Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft during Kelvin-Helmholtz wave activity. The two out-of-plane magnetic field depressions of the tripolar guide magnetic field are largely supported by the observed in-plane electron currents, which are reminiscent of two clockwise Hall current loop systems. A comparison with a three-dimensional kinetic simulation of Kelvin-Helmholtz waves and vortex-induced reconnection suggests that MMS likely encountered the two Hall magnetic field depressions on either side of a magnetic reconnection X-line. Moreover, MMS observed an out-of-plane current reversal and a corresponding in-plane magnetic field rotation at the center of one of the current sheets, suggesting the presence of two adjacent flux ropes. The region inside one of the ion-scale flux ropes was characterized by an observed decrease of the total magnetic field, a strong axial current, and significant enhancements of electron density and parallel electron temperature. The flux rope boundary was characterized by currents opposite this axial current, strong in-plane and converging electric fields, parallel electric fields, and weak electron-frame Joule dissipation. These return current region observations may reflect a need to support the axial current rather than representing local reconnection signatures in the absence of any exhausts.

  6. DC Electric Field measurement in the Mid-latitude Ionosphere during MSTID by S-520-27 Sounding Rocket Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishisaka, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, M.; Abe, T.; Kumamoto, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the middle latitude ionospheric F region, mainly in summer, wave structures of electron density that have wave length of 100-200 km and period of one hour are observed. This phenomena is called Medium Scale Traveling Ionosphiric Disturbance; MSTID. MSTID has been observed by GPS receiving network, and its characteristic were studied. In the past, MSTID was thought to be generated by the Perkins instability, but its growth ratio was too small to be effective so far smaller than the real. Recently coupling process between ionospheric E and F regions are studied by using two radars and by computer simulations. Through these studies, we now have hypothesis that MSTID is generated by the combination of E-F region coupling and Perkins instability. The S-520-27 sounding rocket experiment on E-layer and F-layer was planned in order to verify this hypothesis. S-520-27 sounding rocket was launched at 23:57 JST on 20th July, 2013 from JAXA Uchinoura Space Center. S-520-27 sounding rocket reached 316km height. The S-520-27 payload was equipped with Electric Field Detector (EFD) with a two set of orthogonal double probes to measure DC electric field in the spin plane of the payload. The electrodes of two double probe antennas were used to gather the potentials which were detected with high impedance pre-amplifier using the floating (unbiased) double probe technique. As a results of measurements of DC electric fields by the EFD, the natural electric field was about +/-5mV/m, and varied the direction from southeast to east. Then the electric field was mapped to the horizontal plane at 280km height along the geomagnetic field line. In this presentation, we show the detail result of DC electric field measurement by S-520-27 sounding rocket and then we discuss about the correlation between the natural electric field and TEC variation by using the GPS-TEC.

  7. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    PubMed

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  8. Nonlinear Electron Acoustic Waves in the Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillard, C. S.; Vasko, I.; Mozer, F.; Agapitov, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes observe intense broad-band electrostatic wave activity in the inner magnetosphere. The high-resolution electric field measurements show that these broad-band wave activity is made of large-amplitude electrostatic solitary waves propagating generally along the background magnetic field with velocities of a few thousands km/s. There are generally two types of the observed solitary waves. The solitary waves with the bipolar parallel electric field are interpreted as electron phase space holes, while the nature of solitary waves with asymmetric parallel electric field has remained puzzling. In the present work we show that asymmetric solitary waves propagate with velocities (1000-5000 km/s) and have spatial scales (100 m-1 km) similar to those for electron-acoustic waves existing due to two temperature electron population. Through the numerical fluid simulation we show that the spikes are produced from the initially harmonic electron-acoustic perturbation due to the nonlinear steepening. Through the analysis of the modified KdV equation we show that the steepening is arrested at some moment by the collisionless Landau dissipation and results in formation of the observed asymmetric spikes (shocklets).

  9. Electric Field Sensor for Lightning Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premlet, B.; Mohammed, R.; Sabu, S.; Joby, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    Electric field mills are used popularly for atmospheric electric field measurements. Atmospheric Electric Field variation is the primary signature for Lightning Early Warning systems. There is a characteristic change in the atmospheric electric field before lightning during a thundercloud formation.A voltage controlled variable capacitance is being proposed as a method for non-contacting measurement of electric fields. A varactor based mini electric field measurement system is developed, to detect any change in the atmospheric electric field and to issue lightning early warning system. Since this is a low-cost device, this can be used for developing countries which are facing adversities. A network of these devices can help in forming a spatial map of electric field variations over a region, and this can be used for more improved atmospheric electricity studies in developing countries.

  10. One-dimensional numerical study of charged particle trajectories in turbulent electrostatic wave fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, K. N.; Fejer, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes a numerical simulation of electron trajectories in weak random electric fields under conditions that are approximately true for Langmuir waves whose wavelength is much longer than the Debye length. Two types of trajectory calculations were made: (1) the initial particle velocity was made equal to the mean phase velocity of the waves, or (2) it was equal to 0.7419 times the mean velocity of the waves, so that the initial velocity differed substantially from all phase velocities of the wave spectrum. When the autocorrelation time is much greater than the trapping time, the particle motion can change virtually instantaneously from one of three states - high-velocity, low-velocity, or trapped state - to another. The probability of instantaneous transition from a high- or low-velocity state becomes small when the difference between the particle velocity and the mean phase velocity of the waves becomes high in comparison to the trapping velocity. Diffusive motion becomes negligible under these conditions also.

  11. Introduction to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Kaune, W T

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces the reader to electric and magnetic fields, particularly those fields produced by electric power systems and other sources using frequencies in the power-frequency range. Electric fields are produced by electric charges; a magnetic field also is produced if these charges are in motion. Electric fields exert forces on other charges; if in motion, these charges will experience magnetic forces. Power-frequency electric and magnetic fields induce electric currents in conducting bodies such as living organisms. The current density vector is used to describe the distribution of current within a body. The surface of the human body is an excellent shield for power-frequency electric fields, but power-frequency magnetic fields penetrate without significant attenuation; the electric fields induced inside the body by either exposure are comparable in magnitude. Electric fields induced inside a human by most environmental electric and magnetic fields appear to be small in magnitude compared to levels naturally occurring in living tissues. Detection of such fields thus would seem to require the existence of unknown biological mechanisms. Complete characterization of a power-frequency field requires measurement of the magnitudes and electrical phases of the fundamental and harmonic amplitudes of its three vector components. Most available instrumentation measures only a small subset, or some weighted average, of these quantities. Hand-held survey meters have been used widely to measure power-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Automated data-acquisition systems have come into use more recently to make electric- and magnetic-field recordings, covering periods of hours to days, in residences and other environments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8206045

  12. Nanomechanical electric and electromagnetic field sensor

    DOEpatents

    Datskos, Panagiotis George; Lavrik, Nickolay

    2015-03-24

    The present invention provides a system for detecting and analyzing at least one of an electric field and an electromagnetic field. The system includes a micro/nanomechanical oscillator which oscillates in the presence of at least one of the electric field and the electromagnetic field. The micro/nanomechanical oscillator includes a dense array of cantilevers mounted to a substrate. A charge localized on a tip of each cantilever interacts with and oscillates in the presence of the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a subsystem for recording the movement of the cantilever to extract information from the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a means of adjusting a stiffness of the cantilever to heterodyne tune an operating frequency of the system over a frequency range.

  13. Electron acceleration by inertial Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, B.J.; Lysak, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    Alfven waves reflected by the ionosphere and by inhomogeneities in the Alfven speed can develop an oscillating parallel electric field when electron inertial effects are included. These waves, which have wavelengths of the order of an Earth radius, can develop a coherent structure spanning distances of several Earth radii along geomagnetic field lines. This system has characteristic frequencies in the range of 1 Hz and can exhibit electric fields capable of accelerating electrons in several senses: via Landua resonance, bounce or transit time resonance as discussed by Andre and Eliasson or through the effective potential drop which appears when themore » transit time of the electrons is much smaller than the wave period, so that the electric fields appear effectively static. A time-dependent model of wave propagation is developed which represents inertial Alfven wave propagation along auroral field lines. The disturbance is modeled as it travels earthward, experiences partial reflections in regions of rapid variation, and finally reflects off a conducting ionosphere to continue propagating antiearthward. The wave experiences partial trapping by the ionospheric and the Alfven speed peaks discussed earlier by Polyakov and Rapoport and Trakhtengerts and Feldstein and later by Lysak. Results of the wave simulation and an accompanying test particle simulation are presented, which indicate that inertial Alfven waves are a possible mechanism for generating electron conic distributions and field-aligned particle precipitation. The model incorporates conservation of energy by allowing electrons to affect the wave via Landau damping, which appears to enhance the effect of the interactions which heat electron populations. 22 refs., 14 figs.« less

  14. Reverberant shear wave fields and estimation of tissue properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Kevin J.; Ormachea, Juvenal; Zvietcovich, Fernando; Castaneda, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    The determination of shear wave speed is an important subject in the field of elastography, since elevated shear wave speeds can be directly linked to increased stiffness of tissues. MRI and ultrasound scanners are frequently used to detect shear waves and a variety of estimators are applied to calculate the underlying shear wave speed. The estimators can be relatively simple if plane wave behavior is assumed with a known direction of propagation. However, multiple reflections from organ boundaries and internal inhomogeneities and mode conversions can create a complicated field in time and space. Thus, we explore the mathematics of multiple component shear wave fields and derive the basic properties, from which efficient estimators can be obtained. We approach this problem from the historic perspective of reverberant fields, a conceptual framework used in architectural acoustics and related fields. The framework can be recast for the alternative case of shear waves in a bounded elastic media, and the expected value of displacement patterns in shear reverberant fields are derived, along with some practical estimators of shear wave speed. These are applied to finite element models and phantoms to illustrate the characteristics of reverberant fields and provide preliminary confirmation of the overall framework.

  15. Transmission of the Magnetospheric Electric Fields to the Low Latitude Ionosphere during Storm and Substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, T.; Hashimoto, K. K.; Ebihara, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Tomizawa, I.; Nagatsuma, T.

    2016-12-01

    The solar wind energy is transmitted to the low latitude ionosphere in a current circuit from a dynamo in the magnetosphere to the equatorial ionosphere via the polar ionosphere. During the substorm growth phase and storm main phase, the dawn-to-dusk convection electric field is intensified by the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), driving the ionospheric DP2 currents composed of two-cell Hall current vortices in high latitudes and Pedersen currents amplified at the dayside equator (EEJ). The EEJ-Region-1 field-aligned current (R1 FAC) circuit is completed via the Pedersen currents in midlatitude. On the other hand, the shielding electric field and the Region-2 FACs develop in the inner magnetosphere, tending to cancel the convection electric field at the mid-equatorial latitudes. The shielding often causes overshielding when the convection electric field reduces substantially and the EEJ is overcome by the counter-electrojet (CEJ), leading to that even the quasi-periodic DP2 fluctuations are contributed by the overshielding. The overshielding develop significantly during substorms and storms, leading to that the mid and low latitude ionosphere is under strong influence of the overshielding as well as the convection electric fields. The electric fields on the day- and night-sides are in opposite direction to each other, but the electric fields in the evening are anomalously enhanced in the same direction as in the day. The evening anomaly is a unique feature of the electric potential distribution in the global ionosphere. DP2-type electric field and currents also develop during the transient/short-term geomagnetic disturbances like the geomagnetic sudden commencements (SC) and ULF pulsations, which appear simultaneously at high latitude and equator within the temporal resolution of 10 sec. Using the SC, we can confirm that the electric potential and currents are transmitted near-instantaneously to low latitude ionosphere on both the day- and night

  16. The role of the large scale convection electric field in erosion of the plasmasphere during moderate and strong storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, S. A.; Wygant, J. R.; Cattell, C. A.; Breneman, A. W.; Bonnell, J. W.; Kletzing, C.; De Pascuale, S.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Bounds, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Van Allen Probes offer the first opportunity to investigate the response of the plasmasphere to the enhancement and penetration of the large scale duskward convection electric field in different magnetic local time (MLT) sectors. Using electric field measurements and estimates of the cold plasma density from the Van Allen Probes' Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) instrument, we study erosion of the plasmasphere during moderate and strong geomagnetic storms. We present the electric field and density data both on an orbit by orbit basis and synoptically, showing the behavior of the convection electric field and plasmasphere over a period of months. The data indicate that the large scale duskward electric field penetrates deep (L shell < 3) into the inner magnetosphere on both the dusk and dawn sides, but that the plasmasphere response on the dusk and dawn sides differ. In particular, significant (~2 orders of magnitude) decreases in the cold plasma density occur on the dawn side within hours of the onset of enhanced duskward electric field. In contrast, on the dusk side, the plasmapause is located at higher L shell than it is on the dawn side. In some cases, in the post-noon sector, cold plasma density enhancements accompany duskward electric field enhancements for the first orbit after the electric field enchantment, consistent with a duskside, sunward flowing, drainage plume.

  17. Electric Field Strength Of Coherent Radio Emission In Rock Salt Concerning Ultra High-Energy Neutrino Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Y.; Chiba, M.; Yasuda, O.

    2006-07-12

    Detection possibility of ultra high-energy (UHE) neutrino (E >1015 eV) in natural huge rock salt formation has been studied. Collision between the UHE neutrino and the rock salt produces electromagnetic (EM) shower. Charge difference (excess electrons) between electrons and positrons in EM shower radiates radio wave coherently (Askar'yan effect). Angular distribution and frequency spectrum of electric field strength of radio wave radiated from 3-dimensional EM shower in rock salt are presented.

  18. A study of electric field components in shallow water and water half-space models in seabed logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostami, Amir; Soleimani, Hassan; Yahya, Noorhana; Nyamasvisva, Tadiwa Elisha; Rauf, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Seabed logging (SBL) is an electromagnetic (EM) method to detect hydrocarbon (HC) laid beneath the seafloor, which is a development of marine controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) method. CSEM is a method to show resistivity log of geological layers, transmitting ultra-low frequency EM wave. In SBL a net of receivers, placed on the seafloor, detect reflected and refracted EM wave by layers with different resistivity. Contrast of electrical resistivity of layers impacts on amplitude and phase of the EM wave response. The most indispensable concern in SBL is to detect guided wave via high resistive layer under the seafloor that can be an HC reservoir. Guided wave by HC creates a remarkable difference in received signal when HC reservoir does not exist. While the major contribution of received EM wave in large offset, especially in shallow water environment, is airwave, which is refracted by sea surface due to extremely high resistivity of atmosphere, airwave can affect received guided wave, dramatically. Our objective for this work is to compare HC delineation of tangential and normal components of electric field in shallow water area, using finite element method simulation. Will be reported that, in shallow water environment, minor contribution of air wave in normal component of E field (Ey) versus its major contribution in the tangential component (Ex), causes a considerable contrast on HC delineation of Ey for deeply buried reservoirs (more than 3000 m), while Ex is unable to show different contrasts of received data for with and without HC media at the same condition.

  19. Liberation of a pinned spiral wave by a rotating electric pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiang-Xing; Peng, Liang; Ma, Jun; Ying, He-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Spiral waves may be pinned to anatomical heterogeneities in the cardiac tissue, which leads to monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. Wave emission from heterogeneities (WEH) induced by electric pulses in one direction (EP) is a promising method for liberating such waves by using heterogeneities as internal virtual pacing sites. Here, based on the WEH effect, a new mechanism of liberation by means of a rotating electric pulse (REP) is proposed in a generic model of excitable media. Compared with the EP, the REP has the advantage of opening wider time window to liberate pinned spiral. The influences of rotating direction and frequency of the REP, and the radius of the obstacles on this new mechanism are studied. We believe this strategy may improve manipulations with pinned spiral waves in heart experiments.

  20. Landau problem with time dependent mass in time dependent electric and harmonic background fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Latévi M.; Avossevou, Gabriel Y. H.

    2018-04-01

    The spectrum of a Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of a Landau particle with time-dependent mass and frequency undergoing the influence of a uniform time-dependent electric field is obtained. The configuration space wave function of the model is expressed in terms of the generalised Laguerre polynomials. To diagonalize the time-dependent Hamiltonian, we employ the Lewis-Riesenfeld method of invariants. To this end, we introduce a unitary transformation in the framework of the algebraic formalism to construct the invariant operator of the system and then to obtain the exact solution of the Hamiltonian. We recover the solutions of the ordinary Landau problem in the absence of the electric and harmonic fields for a constant particle mass.

  1. Electric field replaces gravity in laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgolewski, S.

    For several years experiments in physical laboratories and in the fitotron have shown that one can replace gravitational field with electrical fields for plants. First obvious experiments in strong electrical fields in the MV/m regi on show that any materials and living plants respond immediately to Coulomb forces. Such fields are found in nature during thunderstorms. One has to be very careful in handling such strong fields for safety reasons. The fair weather global electrical field is about 20,000 times weaker. The coulomb forces are proportional to the square of the field strength and are thus 400 milion times weaker for a field of the order of 100 V/m.Yet it was found that some plants respond to such "weak" fields. We must remember that the electrical field is a factor of 10 38 times stronger than gravitational interaction. In plants we have dissociated in water mineral salts and the ions are subject to such ernormous forces. It was shown and published that the positive charges in the air in fields of the order of 3kV/m enhance lettuce growth by a factor of four relative to fields about 30 times weaker (100V/m). Reversal of the field polarity reverses the direction of plant growth and retards the plant's growth. Such fields overpower the gravitropism in the laboratory. More so horizontal electrical field is othogonal to gravity, now the fields do not see each other. Lettuce now growth horizontally ignoring the gravitational field. We can thus select the plants whose electrotropism even in the laboratory overwhelms gravity. This is important for the long space flights that we must grow vegetarian food for the crew. The successful harvesting of wheat in orbit does not contradict our experimental findings because wheat is not electrotropic like all plants from the grass family. The results of fitotron experiments with kV/m electrical fields are richly illustrated with colour digital photographs. We also subjected the candle flame to very strong horizontal

  2. Electric generator

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Jr., John S.; Wilson, James R.; McDonald, Jr., Charles A.

    1983-01-01

    1. In an electrical energy generator, the combination comprising a first elongated annular electrical current conductor having at least one bare surface extending longitudinally and facing radially inwards therein, a second elongated annular electrical current conductor disposed coaxially within said first conductor and having an outer bare surface area extending longitudinally and facing said bare surface of said first conductor, the contiguous coaxial areas of said first and second conductors defining an inductive element, means for applying an electrical current to at least one of said conductors for generating a magnetic field encompassing said inductive element, and explosive charge means disposed concentrically with respect to said conductors including at least the area of said inductive element, said explosive charge means including means disposed to initiate an explosive wave front in said explosive advancing longitudinally along said inductive element, said wave front being effective to progressively deform at least one of said conductors to bring said bare surfaces thereof into electrically conductive contact to progressively reduce the inductance of the inductive element defined by said conductors and transferring explosive energy to said magnetic field effective to generate an electrical potential between undeformed portions of said conductors ahead of said explosive wave front.

  3. Applying the cold plasma dispersion relation to whistler mode chorus waves: EMFISIS wave measurements from the Van Allen Probes

    DOE PAGES

    Hartley, D. P.; Chen, Y.; Kletzing, C. A.; ...

    2015-01-26

    Most theoretical wave models require the power in the wave magnetic field in order to determine the effect of chorus waves on radiation belt electrons. However, researchers typically use the cold plasma dispersion relation to approximate the magnetic wave power when only electric field data are available. In this study, the validity of using the cold plasma dispersion relation in this context is tested using Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) observations of both the electric and magnetic spectral intensities in the chorus wave band (0.1–0.9 f ce). Results from this study indicate that the calculatedmore » wave intensity is least accurate during periods of enhanced wave activity. For observed wave intensities >10⁻³ nT², using the cold plasma dispersion relation results in an underestimate of the wave intensity by a factor of 2 or greater 56% of the time over the full chorus wave band, 60% of the time for lower band chorus, and 59% of the time for upper band chorus. Hence, during active periods, empirical chorus wave models that are reliant on the cold plasma dispersion relation will underestimate chorus wave intensities to a significant degree, thus causing questionable calculation of wave-particle resonance effects on MeV electrons.« less

  4. Modelling of induced electric fields based on incompletely known magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; De Santis, Valerio; Cruciani, Silvano; Campi, Tommaso; Feliziani, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    Determining the induced electric fields in the human body is a fundamental problem in bioelectromagnetics that is important for both evaluation of safety of electromagnetic fields and medical applications. However, existing techniques for numerical modelling of induced electric fields require detailed information about the sources of the magnetic field, which may be unknown or difficult to model in realistic scenarios. Here, we show how induced electric fields can accurately be determined in the case where the magnetic fields are known only approximately, e.g. based on field measurements. The robustness of our approach is shown in numerical simulations for both idealized and realistic scenarios featuring a personalized MRI-based head model. The approach allows for modelling of the induced electric fields in biological bodies directly based on real-world magnetic field measurements.

  5. Excitation of parasitic waves in forward-wave amplifiers with weak guiding fields.

    PubMed

    Nusinovich, G S; Romero-Talamás, C A; Han, Y

    2012-12-01

    To produce high-power coherent electromagnetic radiation at frequencies from microwaves up to terahertz, the radiation sources should have interaction circuits of large cross sections, i.e., the sources should operate in high-order modes. In such devices, the excitation of higher-order parasitic modes near cutoff where the group velocity is small and, hence, start currents are low can be a serious problem. The problem is especially severe in the sources of coherent, phase-controlled radiation, i.e., the amplifiers or phase-locked oscillators. This problem was studied earlier [Nusinovich, Sinitsyn, and Antonsen, Phys. Rev. E 82, 046404 (2010)] for the case of electron focusing by strong guiding magnetic fields. For many applications it is desirable to minimize these focusing fields. Therefore in this paper we analyze the problem of excitation of parasitic modes near cutoff in forward-wave amplifiers with weak focusing fields. First, we study the large-signal operation of such a device with a signal wave only. Then, we analyze the self-excitation conditions of parasitic waves near cutoff in the presence of the signal wave. It is shown that the main effect is the suppression of the parasitic wave in large-signal regimes. At the same time, there is a region of device parameters where the presence of signal waves can enhance excitation of parasitic modes. The role of focusing fields in such effects is studied.

  6. Nonlinear physics of electrical wave propagation in the heart: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Sergio; Bär, Markus; Echebarria, Blas

    2016-09-01

    The beating of the heart is a synchronized contraction of muscle cells (myocytes) that is triggered by a periodic sequence of electrical waves (action potentials) originating in the sino-atrial node and propagating over the atria and the ventricles. Cardiac arrhythmias like atrial and ventricular fibrillation (AF,VF) or ventricular tachycardia (VT) are caused by disruptions and instabilities of these electrical excitations, that lead to the emergence of rotating waves (VT) and turbulent wave patterns (AF,VF). Numerous simulation and experimental studies during the last 20 years have addressed these topics. In this review we focus on the nonlinear dynamics of wave propagation in the heart with an emphasis on the theory of pulses, spirals and scroll waves and their instabilities in excitable media with applications to cardiac modeling. After an introduction into electrophysiological models for action potential propagation, the modeling and analysis of spatiotemporal alternans, spiral and scroll meandering, spiral breakup and scroll wave instabilities like negative line tension and sproing are reviewed in depth and discussed with emphasis on their impact for cardiac arrhythmias.

  7. Consistency restrictions on maximal electric-field strength in quantum field theory.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, S P; Gitman, D M

    2008-09-26

    Quantum field theory with an external background can be considered as a consistent model only if backreaction is relatively small with respect to the background. To find the corresponding consistency restrictions on an external electric field and its duration in QED and QCD, we analyze the mean-energy density of quantized fields for an arbitrary constant electric field E, acting during a large but finite time T. Using the corresponding asymptotics with respect to the dimensionless parameter eET2, one can see that the leading contributions to the energy are due to the creation of particles by the electric field. Assuming that these contributions are small in comparison with the energy density of the electric background, we establish the above-mentioned restrictions, which determine, in fact, the time scales from above of depletion of an electric field due to the backreaction.

  8. Lattice QCD with strong external electric fields.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Arata

    2013-03-15

    We study particle generation by a strong electric field in lattice QCD. To avoid the sign problem of the Minkowskian electric field, we adopt the "isospin" electric charge. When a strong electric field is applied, the insulating vacuum is broken down and pairs of charged particles are produced by the Schwinger mechanism. The competition against the color confining force is also discussed.

  9. Crystalline Electric Field Level Scheme of the Non-Centrosymmetric CePtSi3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueta, Daichi; Kobuke, Tomohiro; Yoshida, Masahiro; Yoshizawa, Hideki; Ikeda, Yoichi; Itoh, Shinichi; Yokoo, Tetsuya

    2018-05-01

    The crystalline electric field (CEF) excitations in CePtSi3 with the non-centrosymmetric structure were investigated by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiment. CEF excitations were observed at 5.3 and 17.5 meV. We discuss the CEF parameters and wave function of CePtSi3 by comparing those of other CeTX3(T: transition metal, X: Si, Ge) systems.

  10. Imaging electric field dynamics with graphene optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Horng, Jason; Balch, Halleh B; McGuire, Allister F; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Forrester, Patrick R; Crommie, Michael F; Cui, Bianxiao; Wang, Feng

    2016-12-16

    The use of electric fields for signalling and control in liquids is widespread, spanning bioelectric activity in cells to electrical manipulation of microstructures in lab-on-a-chip devices. However, an appropriate tool to resolve the spatio-temporal distribution of electric fields over a large dynamic range has yet to be developed. Here we present a label-free method to image local electric fields in real time and under ambient conditions. Our technique combines the unique gate-variable optical transitions of graphene with a critically coupled planar waveguide platform that enables highly sensitive detection of local electric fields with a voltage sensitivity of a few microvolts, a spatial resolution of tens of micrometres and a frequency response over tens of kilohertz. Our imaging platform enables parallel detection of electric fields over a large field of view and can be tailored to broad applications spanning lab-on-a-chip device engineering to analysis of bioelectric phenomena.

  11. Imaging electric field dynamics with graphene optoelectronics

    DOE PAGES

    Horng, Jason; Balch, Halleh B.; McGuire, Allister F.; ...

    2016-12-16

    The use of electric fields for signalling and control in liquids is widespread, spanning bioelectric activity in cells to electrical manipulation of microstructures in lab-on-a-chip devices. However, an appropriate tool to resolve the spatio-temporal distribution of electric fields over a large dynamic range has yet to be developed. Here we present a label-free method to image local electric fields in real time and under ambient conditions. Our technique combines the unique gate-variable optical transitions of graphene with a critically coupled planar waveguide platform that enables highly sensitive detection of local electric fields with a voltage sensitivity of a few microvolts,more » a spatial resolution of tens of micrometres and a frequency response over tens of kilohertz. Our imaging platform enables parallel detection of electric fields over a large field of view and can be tailored to broad applications spanning lab-on-a-chip device engineering to analysis of bioelectric phenomena.« less

  12. Imaging electric field dynamics with graphene optoelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Horng, Jason; Balch, Halleh B.; McGuire, Allister F.

    The use of electric fields for signalling and control in liquids is widespread, spanning bioelectric activity in cells to electrical manipulation of microstructures in lab-on-a-chip devices. However, an appropriate tool to resolve the spatio-temporal distribution of electric fields over a large dynamic range has yet to be developed. Here we present a label-free method to image local electric fields in real time and under ambient conditions. Our technique combines the unique gate-variable optical transitions of graphene with a critically coupled planar waveguide platform that enables highly sensitive detection of local electric fields with a voltage sensitivity of a few microvolts,more » a spatial resolution of tens of micrometres and a frequency response over tens of kilohertz. Our imaging platform enables parallel detection of electric fields over a large field of view and can be tailored to broad applications spanning lab-on-a-chip device engineering to analysis of bioelectric phenomena.« less

  13. Spherical-wave expansions of piston-radiator fields.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, R C; Yaghjian, A D

    1991-09-01

    Simple spherical-wave expansions of the continuous-wave fields of a circular piston radiator in a rigid baffle are derived. These expansions are valid throughout the illuminated half-space and are useful for efficient numerical computation in the near-field region. Multipole coefficients are given by closed-form expressions which can be evaluated recursively.

  14. Static electric fields modify the locomotory behaviour of cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Christopher W; Hunt, Edmund; Sharkh, Suleiman; Newland, Philip L

    2011-06-15

    Static electric fields are found throughout the environment and there is growing interest in how electric fields influence insect behaviour. Here we have analysed the locomotory behaviour of cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in response to static electric fields at levels equal to and above those found in the natural environment. Walking behaviour (including velocity, distance moved, turn angle and time spent walking) were analysed as cockroaches approached an electric field boundary in an open arena, and also when continuously exposed to an electric field. On approaching an electric field boundary, the greater the electric field strength the more likely a cockroach would be to turn away from, or be repulsed by, the electric field. Cockroaches completely exposed to electric fields showed significant changes in locomotion by covering less distance, walking slowly and turning more often. This study highlights the importance of electric fields on the normal locomotory behaviour of insects.

  15. Robustness of free and pinned spiral waves against breakup by electrical forcing in excitable chemical media.

    PubMed

    Phantu, Metinee; Sutthiopad, Malee; Luengviriya, Jiraporn; Müller, Stefan C; Luengviriya, Chaiya

    2017-04-01

    We present an investigation on the breakup of free and pinned spiral waves under an applied electrical current in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. Spiral fronts propagating towards the negative electrode are decelerated. A breakup of the spiral waves occurs when some segments of the fronts are stopped by a sufficiently strong electrical current. In the absence of obstacles (i.e., free spiral waves), the critical value of the electrical current for the wave breakup increases with the excitability of the medium. For spiral waves pinned to circular obstacles, the critical electrical current increases with the obstacle diameter. Analysis of spiral dynamics shows that the enhancement of the robustness against the breakup of both free and pinned spiral waves is originated by the increment of wave speed when either the excitability is strengthened or the obstacle size is enlarged. The experimental findings are reproduced by numerical simulations using the Oregonator model. In addition, the simulations reveal that the robustness against the forced breakup increases with the activator level in both cases of free and pinned spiral waves.

  16. Simple estimation of induced electric fields in nervous system tissues for human exposure to non-uniform electric fields at power frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarao, Hiroo; Miyamoto, Hironobu; Korpinen, Leena; Hayashi, Noriyuki; Isaka, Katsuo

    2016-06-01

    Most results regarding induced current in the human body related to electric field dosimetry have been calculated under uniform field conditions. We have found in previous work that a contact current is a more suitable way to evaluate induced electric fields, even in the case of exposure to non-uniform fields. If the relationship between induced currents and external non-uniform fields can be understood, induced electric fields in nervous system tissues may be able to be estimated from measurements of ambient non-uniform fields. In the present paper, we numerically calculated the induced electric fields and currents in a human model by considering non-uniform fields based on distortion by a cubic conductor under an unperturbed electric field of 1 kV m-1 at 60 Hz. We investigated the relationship between a non-uniform external electric field with no human present and the induced current through the neck, and the relationship between the current through the neck and the induced electric fields in nervous system tissues such as the brain, heart, and spinal cord. The results showed that the current through the neck can be formulated by means of an external electric field at the central position of the human head, and the distance between the conductor and the human model. As expected, there is a strong correlation between the current through the neck and the induced electric fields in the nervous system tissues. The combination of these relationships indicates that induced electric fields in these tissues can be estimated solely by measurements of the external field at a point and the distance from the conductor.

  17. Contributions of poroelastic-wave potentials to seismoelectromagnetic wavefields and validity of the quasi-static calculation: a view from a borehole model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Wei; Shi, Peng; Hu, Hengshan

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we theoretically analyse the contributions of the four poroelastic-wave potentials to seismoelectromagnetic (SEM) wavefields, verify the validity of the quasi-static calculation of the electric field and provide a method to calculate the magnetic field by using the curl-free electric field. Calculations show that both the fast and slow P waves and the SH and SV waves have non-negligible contributions to the SEM fields. The S waves have indirect contribution to the electric field through the EM conversion from the magnetic field, although the direct contribution due to streaming current is negligible if EM wavenumbers are much smaller than those of the S waves. The P waves have indirect contribution to the magnetic field through EM conversion from the electric field, although the direct contribution is absent. The quasi-static calculation of the electric field is practicable since it is normally satisfied in reality that the EM wavenumbers are much smaller than those of poroelastic waves. While the direct contribution of the S waves and the higher-order EM conversions are ignored, the first-order EM conversion from the S-wave-induced magnetic field is reserved through the continuity of the electric-current density. To calculate the magnetic field on this basis, we separate the quasi-static electric field into a rotational and an irrotational part. The magnetic-field solutions are derived through Hertz vectors in which the coefficients of the magnetic Hertz vector are determined from the magnetic-field continuities and those of the electric Hertz vector originate from the irrotational part of the quasi-static electric field.

  18. Transmission of the electric fields to the low latitude ionosphere in the magnetosphere-ionosphere current circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Hashimoto, Kumiko K.

    2016-12-01

    The solar wind energy is transmitted to low latitude ionosphere in a current circuit from a dynamo in the magnetosphere to the equatorial ionosphere via the polar ionosphere. During the substorm growth phase and storm main phase, the dawn-to-dusk convection electric field is intensified by the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), driving the ionospheric DP2 currents composed of two-cell Hall current vortices in high latitudes and Pedersen currents amplified at the dayside equator (EEJ). The EEJ-Region-1 field-aligned current (R1 FAC) circuit is completed via the Pedersen currents in midlatitude. On the other hand, the shielding electric field and the Region-2 FACs develop in the inner magnetosphere, tending to cancel the convection electric field at the mid-equatorial latitudes. The shielding often causes overshielding when the convection electric field reduces substantially and the EEJ is overcome by the counter electrojet (CEJ), leading to that even the quasi-periodic DP2 fluctuations are contributed by the overshielding as being composed of the EEJ and CEJ. The overshielding develop significantly during substorms and storms, leading to that the mid and low latitude ionosphere is under strong influence of the overshielding as well as the convection electric fields. The electric fields on the day- and night sides are in opposite direction to each other, but the electric fields in the evening are anomalously enhanced in the same direction as in the day. The evening anomaly is a unique feature of the electric potential distribution in the global ionosphere. DP2-type electric field and currents develop during the transient/short-term geomagnetic disturbances like the geomagnetic sudden commencements (SC), which appear simultaneously at high latitude and equator within the temporal resolution of 10 s. Using the SC, we can confirm that the electric potential and currents are transmitted near-instantaneously to low latitude ionosphere on both day- and night

  19. Reception and learning of electric fields in bees.

    PubMed

    Greggers, Uwe; Koch, Gesche; Schmidt, Viola; Dürr, Aron; Floriou-Servou, Amalia; Piepenbrock, David; Göpfert, Martin C; Menzel, Randolf

    2013-05-22

    Honeybees, like other insects, accumulate electric charge in flight, and when their body parts are moved or rubbed together. We report that bees emit constant and modulated electric fields when flying, landing, walking and during the waggle dance. The electric fields emitted by dancing bees consist of low- and high-frequency components. Both components induce passive antennal movements in stationary bees according to Coulomb's law. Bees learn both the constant and the modulated electric field components in the context of appetitive proboscis extension response conditioning. Using this paradigm, we identify mechanoreceptors in both joints of the antennae as sensors. Other mechanoreceptors on the bee body are potentially involved but are less sensitive. Using laser vibrometry, we show that the electrically charged flagellum is moved by constant and modulated electric fields and more strongly so if sound and electric fields interact. Recordings from axons of the Johnston organ document its sensitivity to electric field stimuli. Our analyses identify electric fields emanating from the surface charge of bees as stimuli for mechanoreceptors, and as biologically relevant stimuli, which may play a role in social communication.

  20. Rogue waves of the Kundu-Eckhaus equation in a chaotic wave field.

    PubMed

    Bayindir, Cihan

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we study the properties of the chaotic wave fields generated in the frame of the Kundu-Eckhaus equation (KEE). Modulation instability results in a chaotic wave field which exhibits small-scale filaments with a free propagation constant, k. The average velocity of the filaments is approximately given by the average group velocity calculated from the dispersion relation for the plane-wave solution; however, direction of propagation is controlled by the β parameter, the constant in front of the Raman-effect term. We have also calculated the probabilities of the rogue wave occurrence for various values of propagation constant k and showed that the probability of rogue wave occurrence depends on k. Additionally, we have showed that the probability of rogue wave occurrence significantly depends on the quintic and the Raman-effect nonlinear terms of the KEE. Statistical comparisons between the KEE and the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation have also been presented.

  1. Plasma and field observations of a Pc 5 wave event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Chandler, M. O.; Olsen, R. C.; Comfort, R. H.; Johnson, J. F. E.; Peterson, W. K.; Weimer, D.; Shawhan, S. D.

    1986-01-01

    The particle detector and electric field data collected by the Dynamo Explorer 1 on the Pc 5 wave event encounter on July 14, 1982 are presented, yielding a nearly complete picture of the event. The overall structure of the Pc 5 seems to order the event into two distinct halves, suggesting a temporal or spatial variation of the micropulsation. Thermal plasma measurements showed that the dominant ion throughout both lobes was H(+). Significant quantities of He(+), O(+), N(+), and O(2+) were also observed to be present and rotating together in a plane normal to the magnetic field direction, due to the Pc5 E x B drift. The plasma parameters determined for the two lobes were used in theoretical calculations to predict the period of the observed resonance.

  2. Plasma and field observations of a Pc 5 wave event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, J. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Chandler, M. O.; Olsen, R. C.; Comfort, R. H.; Johnson, J. F. E.; Chappell, C. R.; Peterson, W. K.; Weimer, D.; Shawhan, S. D.

    1986-10-01

    The particle detector and electric field data collected by the Dynamo Explorer 1 on the Pc 5 wave event encounter on July 14, 1982 are presented, yielding a nearly complete picture of the event. The overall structure of the Pc 5 seems to order the event into two distinct halves, suggesting a temporal or spatial variation of the micropulsation. Thermal plasma measurements showed that the dominant ion throughout both lobes was H(+). Significant quantities of He(+), O(+), N(+), and O(2+) were also observed to be present and rotating together in a plane normal to the magnetic field direction, due to the Pc5 E x B drift. The plasma parameters determined for the two lobes were used in theoretical calculations to predict the period of the observed resonance.

  3. First observation of the anomalous electric field in the topside ionosphere by ionospheric modification over EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosch, M. J.; Vickers, H.; Ogawa, Y.; Senior, A.; Blagoveshchenskaya, N.

    2014-11-01

    We have developed an active ground-based technique to estimate the steady state field-aligned anomalous electric field (E*) in the topside ionosphere, up to ~600 km, using the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) ionospheric modification facility and UHF incoherent scatter radar. When pumping the ionosphere with high-power high-frequency radio waves, the F region electron temperature is significantly raised, increasing the plasma pressure gradient in the topside ionosphere, resulting in ion upflow along the magnetic field line. We estimate E* using a modified ion momentum equation and the Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter model. From an experiment on 23 October 2013, E* points downward with an average amplitude of ~1.6 μV/m, becoming weaker at higher altitudes. The mechanism for anomalous resistivity is thought to be low-frequency ion acoustic waves generated by the pump-induced flux of suprathermal electrons. These high-energy electrons are produced near the pump wave reflection altitude by plasma resonance and also result in observed artificially induced optical emissions.

  4. Electric field with bipolar structure during magnetic reconnection without a guide field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jun

    2014-05-01

    We present a study on the polarized electric field during the collisionless magnetic reconnection of antiparallel fields using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations demonstrate clearly that electron holes and electric field with bipolar structure are produced during magnetic reconnection without a guide field. The electric field with bipolar structure can be found near the X-line and on the separatrix and the plasma sheet boundary layer, which is consistent with the observations. These structures will elongate electron's time staying in the diffusion region. In addition, the electric fields with tripolar structures are also found in our simulation.

  5. Mirror force induced wave dispersion in Alfvén waves

    SciTech Connect

    Damiano, P. A.; Johnson, J. R.

    2013-06-15

    Recent hybrid MHD-kinetic electron simulations of global scale standing shear Alfvén waves along the Earth's closed dipolar magnetic field lines show that the upward parallel current region within these waves saturates and broadens perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field and that this broadening increases with the electron temperature. Using resistive MHD simulations, with a parallel Ohm's law derived from the linear Knight relation (which expresses the current-voltage relationship along an auroral field line), we explore the nature of this broadening in the context of the increased perpendicular Poynting flux resulting from the increased parallel electric field associated with mirror forcemore » effects. This increased Poynting flux facilitates wave energy dispersion across field lines which in-turn allows for electron acceleration to carry the field aligned current on adjacent field lines. This mirror force driven dispersion can dominate over that associated with electron inertial effects for global scale waves.« less

  6. ULF Waves and Diffusive Radial Transport of Charged Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Ashar Fawad

    The Van Allen radiation belts contain highly energetic particles which interact with a variety of plasma and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. Waves in the ultra low-frequency (ULF) range play an important role in the loss and acceleration of energetic particles. Considering the geometry of the geomagnetic field, charged particles trapped in the inner magnetosphere undergo three distinct types of periodic motions; an adiabatic invariant is associated with each type of motion. The evolution of the phase space density of charged particles in the magnetosphere in the coordinate space of the three adiabatic invariants is modeled by the Fokker-Planck equation. If we assume that the first two adiabatic invariants are conserved while the third invariant is violated, then the general Fokker-Planck equation reduces to a radial diffusion equation with the radial diffusion coefficient quantifying the rate of the radial diffusion of charged particles, including contributions from perturbations in both the magnetic and the electric fields. This thesis investigates two unanswered questions about ULF wave-driven radial transport of charged particles. First, how important are the ULF fluctuations in the magnetic field compared with the ULF fluctuations in the electric field in driving the radial diffusion of charged particles in the Earth's inner magnetosphere? It has generally been accepted that magnetic field perturbations dominate over electric field perturbations, but several recently published studies suggest otherwise. Second, what is the distribution of ULF wave power in azimuth, and how does ULF wave power depend upon radial distance and the level of geomagnetic activity? Analytic treatments of the diffusion coefficients generally assume uniform distribution of power in azimuth, but in situ measurements suggest that this may not be the case. We used the magnetic field data from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) and the electric and the magnetic

  7. Bound states for an induced electric dipole in the presence of an azimuthal magnetic field and a disclination

    SciTech Connect

    Bakke, K.

    2010-09-15

    Based on the Wei-Han-Wei setup [H. Wei, R. Han, and X. Wei, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2071 (1995)], where a neutral particle with an induced electric dipole moment interacts with a configuration of crossed electric and magnetic fields, in this paper we study the bound states that arise when we change the Wei-Han-Wei field configuration and consider a field configuration of crossed azimuthal magnetic field and a radial electric field. Moreover, we consider here a spin-half neutral particle and the presence of a linear topological defect called disclination. We obtain the bound states in two distinct cases: in the firstmore » case, we consider that the wave function of the neutral particle is well-behaved at the origin and vanishes at the asymptotic limit; in the second case, we consider the neutral particle confined to a parabolic potential like a quantum dot.« less

  8. ELF wave production by an electron beam emitting rocket system and its suppression on auroral field lines - Evidence for Alfven and drift waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winckler, J. R.; Erickson, K. N.; Abe, Y.; Steffen, J. E.; Malcolm, P. R.

    1985-07-01

    Orthogonal probes on a free-flying plasma diagnostics payload are used to study ELF electric disturbances in the auroral ionosphere that are due to the injection of powerful electron beams. Frequency spectrograms are presented for various pitch angles, pulsing characteristics, and other properties of the injected beams; the large scale DC ionospheric convection electric field is measured, together with auroral particle precipitation, visual auroral forms, and ionospheric parameters. In view of the experimental results obtained, it is postulated that the observed ELF waves are in the Alfven and drift modes, and are generated by the positive vehicle potential during beam injection.

  9. Far-Field RF Sheaths due to Shear Alfvén Waves in the LAPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Michael; van Compernolle, Bart; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Pat; Carter, Troy; D'Ippolito, Daniel A.; Myra, James R.

    2013-10-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is an important tool in current fusion experiments and will be an essential heating component in ITER. ICRH could be limited by deleterious effects due to the formation of radio frequency (RF) sheaths in the near-field (at the antenna) and in the far-field (e.g. in the divertor region). Far-field sheaths are thought to be caused by the direct launch of or mode conversion to a shear Alfvén wave with an electric field component parallel to the background magnetic field at the wall. In this experiment a limiter plate was inserted into a cylindrical plasma in the LAPD (ne ~ 1010-11 cm-3, Te ~ 5 eV, B0 = 1.2 kG) and RF sheaths were created by directly launching the shear Alfven wave. Plasma potential measurements were made with an emissive probe. DC plasma potential rectification was observed along field lines connected to the plate, serving as an indirect measure of RF sheath formation. 2-D maps of plasma properties and rectified plasma potential will be presented. This research is part of an ongoing campaign to study the formation and structure of RF sheaths.

  10. Electric field effect on the second-order nonlinear optical properties of parabolic and semiparabolic quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Xie, Hong-Jing

    2003-12-01

    By using the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative procedure, a detailed procedure for the calculation of the second-harmonic generation (SHG) susceptibility tensor is given in the electric-field-biased parabolic and semiparabolic quantum wells (QW’s). The simple analytical formula for the SHG susceptibility in the systems is also deduced. By adopting the methods of envelope wave function and displacement harmonic oscillation, the electronic states in parabolic and semi parabolic QW’s with applied electric fields are exactly solved. Numerical results on typical AlxGa1-xAl/GaAs materials show that, for the same effective widths, the SHG susceptibility in semiparabolic QW is larger than that in parabolic QW due to the self-asymmetry of the semiparabolic QW, and the applied electric field can make the SHG susceptibilities in both systems enhance remarkably. Moreover, the SHG susceptibility also sensitively depends on the relaxation rate of the systems.

  11. Electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.; Etters, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of energy momentum anomalies are described that result from the use of Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic theory. These anomalies have in common the motion of charged bodies or current carrying conductors relative to the observer. The anomalies can be avoided by using the nonflow approach, based on internal energy of the electromagnetic field. The anomalies can also be avoided by using the flow approach, if all contributions to flow work are included. The general objective of this research is a fundamental physical understanding of electric and magnetic fields which, in turn, might promote the development of new concepts in electric space propulsion. The approach taken is to investigate quantum representations of these fields.

  12. [Investigations on the effect of an electrostatic field free of residual waves on the motility of the mouse (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fischer, G

    1977-08-01

    Comparative investigations were carried out concerning the influence on the motility of mice of different electrobioclimatic conditions (electrostatic field with a residual wave component of 1% and a field strength of 4.500 V/m; pure residual wave component: 32 Vs/s, field strength 120 V/m/ss; electrostatic field established by batteries: initial voltage 900 V, field strength 4.500 V/m; shielded from ambient atmospheric electrical fields: damping efficiency at 99%). The Faraday condition represented the control as absolutely objective physical magnitude. All experimental chambers were positioned under Faraday shields. Following a 20 day period of acclimatization to the unaccustomed surroundings for the animals (adaptation period), we established the previously described electrophysical conditions in the cages for a further period of 20 days (experimental period). The lowest values measured during the daily readings were found in the Faraday cage, resp. in the pure electrostatic field, the highest in the DC-field with residual wave component resp. in the residual wave component alone. We draw the following conclusion from the findings: the pure DC-field apparently does not possess those bioclimatologically decisive importance that has been and is being postulated from several sides. Many of the stimtng effects observed and attributed to the electrostatic field are most probably due to the residual wave component resulting from the high-voltage generators employed.

  13. Wave-particle interactions in rotating mirrorsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-05-01

    Wave-particle interactions in E ×B rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation. Energy may also be transferred from the electric field to particles or waves, which may be useful for ion heating and energy generation.

  14. Simulating the interplay between plasma transport, electric field, and magnetic field in the near-earth nightside magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkioulidou, Malamati

    found to be located at lower latitudes and extend more dawnward for a hotter and more tenuous plasma sheet. In comparison with simulation runs under an empirical but not force balance magnetic field from the Tsyganenko 96 model, the simulation results show that transport under force-balanced magnetic field results in weaker pressure gradients and thus weaker R2 FAC in the near-earth region, weaker shielding of the penetration electric field and, as a result, more earthward penetration of plasma sheet protons and electrons with their inner edges being closer together and more azimuthally symmetric. To evaluate the effect of electron loss rate on ionospheric conductivity, a major contributing factor to M-I coupling, we run RCM-Dungey with a more realistic, MLT dependent electron loss rate established from observed wave activity. Comparing our results with those using a strong diffusion everywhere rate, we found that under the MLT dependent loss rate, the dawn-dusk asymmetry in the precipitating electron energy fluxes agrees better with statistical DMSP observations. The more realistic loss rate is much weaker than the strong diffusion limit in the inner magnetosphere. This allows high-energy electrons in the inner magnetosphere to remain much longer and produce substantial conductivity at lower latitudes. The higher conductivity at lower latitudes under the MLT dependent loss rate results in less efficient shielding in response to an enhanced convection electric field, and thus to deeper penetration of the ion plasma sheet into the inner magnetosphere than under the strong diffusion everywhere rate.

  15. Quasi-Static Electric Field Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A generator for producing an electric field for with an inspection technology system is provided. The generator provides the required variable magnitude quasi-static electric fields for the "illumination" of objects, areas and volumes to be inspected by the system, and produces human-safe electric fields that are only visible to the system. The generator includes a casing, a driven, non-conducting and triboelectrically neutral rotation shaft mounted therein, an ungrounded electrostatic dipole element which works in the quasi-static range, and a non-conducting support for mounting the dipole element to the shaft. The dipole element has a wireless motor system and a charging system which are wholly contained within the dipole element and the support that uses an electrostatic approach to charge the dipole element.

  16. Electric field measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges in air over liquid water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeni Simeni, Marien; Baratte, Edmond; Zhang, Cheng; Frederickson, Kraig; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2018-01-01

    Electric field in nanosecond pulse discharges in ambient air is measured by picosecond four-wave mixing, with absolute calibration by a known electrostatic field. The measurements are done in two geometries, (a) the discharge between two parallel cylinder electrodes placed inside quartz tubes, and (b) the discharge between a razor edge electrode and distilled water surface. In the first case, breakdown field exceeds DC breakdown threshold by approximately a factor of four, 140 ± 10 kV cm-1. In the second case, electric field is measured for both positive and negative pulse polarities, with pulse durations of ˜10 ns and ˜100 ns, respectively. In the short duration, positive polarity pulse, breakdown occurs at 85 kV cm-1, after which the electric field decreases over several ns due to charge separation in the plasma, with no field reversal detected when the applied voltage is reduced. In a long duration, negative polarity pulse, breakdown occurs at a lower electric field, 30 kV cm-1, after which the field decays over several tens of ns and reverses direction when the applied voltage is reduced at the end of the pulse. For both pulse polarities, electric field after the pulse decays on a microsecond time scale, due to residual surface charge neutralization by transport of opposite polarity charges from the plasma. Measurements 1 mm away from the discharge center plane, ˜100 μm from the water surface, show that during the voltage rise, horizontal field component (Ex ) lags in time behind the vertical component (Ey ). After breakdown, Ey is reduced to near zero and reverses direction. Further away from the water surface (≈0.9 mm), Ex is much higher compared to Ey during the entire voltage pulse. The results provide insight into air plasma kinetics and charge transport processes near plasma-liquid interface, over a wide range of time scales.

  17. Electric field measurements from Halley, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, Keri; Harrison, R. Giles

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica is a unique location for the study of atmospheric electricity. Not only is it one of the most pollutant free places on Earth, but its proximity to the south magnetic pole means that it is an ideal location to study the effects of solar variability on the atmospheric electric field. This is due to the reduced shielding effect of the geomagnetic field at the poles which leads to a greater flux of incoming Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) as well as an increased probability of energetic particle precipitation from SEPs and relativistic electrons. To investigate such effects, two electric field mills of different design were installed at the British Antarctic Survey Halley base in February 2015 (75. 58 degrees south, 26.66 degrees west). Halley is situated on the Brunt Ice Shelf in the south east of the Weddell Sea and has snow cover all year round. Preliminary analysis has focused on selection of fair weather criteria using wind speed and visibility measurements which are vital to assess the effects of falling snow, blowing snow and freezing fog on the electric field measurements. When the effects of such adverse weather conditions are removed clear evidence of the characteristic Carnegie Curve diurnal cycle exists in the Halley electric field measurements (with a mean value of 50V/m and showing a 40% peak to peak variation in comparison to the 34% variation in the Carnegie data). Since the Carnegie Curve represents the variation in thunderstorm activity across the Earth, its presence in the Halley data confirms the presence of the global atmospheric electric circuit signal at Halley. The work presented here will discuss the details of the Halley electric field dataset, including the variability in the fair weather measurements, with a particular focus on magnetic field fluctuations.

  18. Reception and learning of electric fields in bees

    PubMed Central

    Greggers, Uwe; Koch, Gesche; Schmidt, Viola; Dürr, Aron; Floriou-Servou, Amalia; Piepenbrock, David; Göpfert, Martin C.; Menzel, Randolf

    2013-01-01

    Honeybees, like other insects, accumulate electric charge in flight, and when their body parts are moved or rubbed together. We report that bees emit constant and modulated electric fields when flying, landing, walking and during the waggle dance. The electric fields emitted by dancing bees consist of low- and high-frequency components. Both components induce passive antennal movements in stationary bees according to Coulomb's law. Bees learn both the constant and the modulated electric field components in the context of appetitive proboscis extension response conditioning. Using this paradigm, we identify mechanoreceptors in both joints of the antennae as sensors. Other mechanoreceptors on the bee body are potentially involved but are less sensitive. Using laser vibrometry, we show that the electrically charged flagellum is moved by constant and modulated electric fields and more strongly so if sound and electric fields interact. Recordings from axons of the Johnston organ document its sensitivity to electric field stimuli. Our analyses identify electric fields emanating from the surface charge of bees as stimuli for mechanoreceptors, and as biologically relevant stimuli, which may play a role in social communication. PMID:23536603

  19. Three-dimensional wave evolution on electrified falling films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlin, Ruben; Papageorgiou, Demetrios; Pavliotis, Greg

    2016-11-01

    We consider the full three-dimensional model for a thin viscous liquid film completely wetting a flat infinite solid substrate at some non-zero angle to the horizontal, with an electric field normal to the substrate far from the flow. Thin film flows have applications in cooling processes. Many studies have shown that the presence of interfacial waves increases heat transfer by orders of magnitude due to film thinning and convection effects. A long-wave asymptotics procedure yields a Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation with a non-local term to model the weakly nonlinear evolution of the interface dynamics for overlying film arrangements, with a restriction on the electric field strength. The non-local term is always linearly destabilising and produces growth rates proportional to the cube of the magnitude of the wavenumber vector. A sufficiently strong electric field is able promote non-trivial dynamics for subcritical Reynolds number flows where the flat interface is stable in the absence of an electric field. We present numerical simulations where we observe rich dynamical behavior with competing attractors, including "snaking" travelling waves and other fully three-dimensional wave formations. EPSRC studentship (RJT).

  20. Medical management with diazepam for electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep in children.

    PubMed

    Francois, Densley; Roberts, Jessica; Hess, Stephany; Probst, Luke; Eksioglu, Yaman

    2014-03-01

    Oral diazepam, administered in varying doses, is among the few proposed treatment options for electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep in children. We sought to retrospectively evaluate the long-term efficacy of high-dose oral diazepam in reducing electrographic and clinical evidence of electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep in children. Additionally, we surveyed caregivers to assess safety and behavioral outcomes related to ongoing therapy. We collected demographic and clinical data on children treated for electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep between October 2010 and March 2013. We sought to identify the number of patients who achieved at least a 50% reduction in spike wave index on electroencephalograph after receiving high-dose oral diazepam. We also administered a questionnaire to caregivers to assess for behavioral problems and side effects. We identified 42 evaluable patients who received high-dose diazepam (range 0.23-2.02 mg/kg per day) to treat electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep. Twenty-six patients had spike reduction data and 18/26 (69.2%) children achieved a greater than 50% reduction in spike wave count from an average of 15.54 to 5.05 (P = 0.001). We received 28 responses to the questionnaire. Some patients experienced new onset of difficulties with problem-solving and speech and writing development. Sleep disturbances (50%) and irritability (57.1%) were the most frequent side effects reported. There did not appear to be a dose-related effect with electroencephalograph changes, behavioral effects, or side effects. High-dose oral diazepam significantly reduces the spike wave count on electroencephalograph in children with electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep. Although this therapy improves electroencephalograph-related findings, it can be associated with concerning neurological and behavioral side effects in some individuals, so further study is warranted. Copyright © 2014

  1. Electric field divertor plasma pump

    DOEpatents

    Schaffer, M.J.

    1994-10-04

    An electric field plasma pump includes a toroidal ring bias electrode positioned near the divertor strike point of a poloidal divertor of a tokamak, or similar plasma-confining apparatus. For optimum plasma pumping, the separatrix of the poloidal divertor contacts the ring electrode, which then also acts as a divertor plate. A plenum or other duct near the electrode includes an entrance aperture open to receive electrically-driven plasma. The electrode is insulated laterally with insulators, one of which is positioned opposite the electrode at the entrance aperture. An electric field E is established between the ring electrode and a vacuum vessel wall, with the polarity of the bias applied to the electrode being relative to the vessel wall selected such that the resultant electric field E interacts with the magnetic field B already existing in the tokamak to create an E [times] B/B[sup 2] drift velocity that drives plasma into the entrance aperture. The pumped plasma flow into the entrance aperture is insensitive to variations, intentional or otherwise, of the pump and divertor geometry. Pressure buildups in the plenum or duct connected to the entrance aperture in excess of 10 mtorr are achievable. 11 figs.

  2. Electron-cyclotron damping of helicon waves in low diverging magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lafleur, T.; Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W.

    2011-04-15

    Particle-in-cell simulations are performed to investigate wave propagation and absorption behavior of low-field (B{sub 0}<5 mT) helicon waves in the presence of a diverging magnetic field. The 1D electromagnetic simulations, which include experimental external magnetic field profiles, provide strong evidence for electron-cyclotron damping of helicon waves in the spatially decaying nonuniform magnetic field. For a dipole-type magnetic field configuration, the helicon waves are absence in the downstream (lower field) region of the plasma and are observed to be completely absorbed. As the magnetic field is changed slightly however, wave damping decreases, and waves are able to propagate freely downstream, confirmingmore » previous experimental measurements of this phenomenon.« less

  3. A statistical model of the wave field in a bounded domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellsten, T.

    2017-02-01

    Numerical simulations of plasma heating with radiofrequency waves often require repetitive calculations of wave fields as the plasma evolves. To enable effective simulations, bench marked formulas of the power deposition have been developed. Here, a statistical model applicable to waves with short wavelengths is presented, which gives the expected amplitude of the wave field as a superposition of four wave fields with weight coefficients depending on the single pass damping, as. The weight coefficient for the wave field coherent with that calculated in the absence of reflection agrees with the coefficient for strong single pass damping of an earlier developed heuristic model, for which the weight coefficients were obtained empirically using a full wave code to calculate the wave field and power deposition. Antennas launching electromagnetic waves into bounded domains are often designed to produce localised wave fields and power depositions in the limit of strong single pass damping. The reflection of the waves changes the coupling that partly destroys the localisation of the wave field, which explains the apparent paradox arising from the earlier developed heuristic formula that only a fraction as2(2-as) and not as of the power is absorbed with a profile corresponding to the power deposition for the first pass of the rays. A method to account for the change in the coupling spectrum caused by reflection for modelling the wave field with ray tracing in bounded media is proposed, which should be applicable to wave propagation in non-uniform media in more general geometries.

  4. Imaging Electric Properties of Biological Tissues by RF Field Mapping in MRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Zhu, Shanan; He, Bin

    2010-01-01

    The electric properties (EPs) of biological tissue, i.e., the electric conductivity and permittivity, can provide important information in the diagnosis of various diseases. The EPs also play an important role in specific absorption rate (SAR) calculation, a major concern in high-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), as well as in non-medical areas such as wireless-telecommunications. The high-field MRI system is accompanied by significant wave propagation effects, and the radio frequency (RF) radiation is dependent on the EPs of biological tissue. Based on the measurement of the active transverse magnetic component of the applied RF field (known as B1-mapping technique), we propose a dual-excitation algorithm, which uses two sets of measured B1 data to noninvasively reconstruct the electric properties of biological tissues. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was utilized in three-dimensional (3D) modeling and B1 field calculation. A series of computer simulations were conducted to evaluate the feasibility and performance of the proposed method on a 3D head model within a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) coil and a birdcage (BC) coil. Using a TEM coil, when noise free, the reconstructed EP distribution of tissues in the brain has relative errors of 12% ∼ 28% and correlated coefficients of greater than 0.91. Compared with other B1-mapping based reconstruction algorithms, our approach provides superior performance without the need for iterative computations. The present simulation results suggest that good reconstruction of electric properties from B1 mapping can be achieved. PMID:20129847

  5. Electric-field-driven switching of individual magnetic skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pin-Jui; Kubetzka, André; Finco, Aurore; Romming, Niklas; von Bergmann, Kirsten; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2017-02-01

    Controlling magnetism with electric fields is a key challenge to develop future energy-efficient devices. The present magnetic information technology is mainly based on writing processes requiring either local magnetic fields or spin torques, but it has also been demonstrated that magnetic properties can be altered on the application of electric fields. This has been ascribed to changes in magnetocrystalline anisotropy caused by spin-dependent screening and modifications of the band structure, changes in atom positions or differences in hybridization with an adjacent oxide layer. However, the switching between states related by time reversal, for example magnetization up and down as used in the present technology, is not straightforward because the electric field does not break time-reversal symmetry. Several workarounds have been applied to toggle between bistable magnetic states with electric fields, including changes of material composition as a result of electric fields. Here we demonstrate that local electric fields can be used to switch reversibly between a magnetic skyrmion and the ferromagnetic state. These two states are topologically inequivalent, and we find that the direction of the electric field directly determines the final state. This observation establishes the possibility to combine electric-field writing with the recently envisaged skyrmion racetrack-type memories.

  6. The Effect of Precipitating Electrons and Ions on Ionospheric Conductance and Inner Magnetospheric Electric Fields 142106

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Lemon, C.; Hecht, J. H.; Evans, J. S.; Boyd, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate how scattering of electrons by waves and of ions by field-line curvature in the inner magnetosphere affect precipitating energy flux distributions and how the precipitating particles modify the ionospheric conductivity and electric potentials during magnetic storms. We examine how particle precipitation in the evening sector affects the development of the Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) electric field that is observed at sub-auroral latitudes in that sector as well as the electric field in the morning sector. Our approach is to use the magnetically and electrically self-consistent Rice Convection Model - Equilibrium (RCM-E) of the inner magnetosphere to simulate the stormtime precipitating particle distributions and the electric field. We use parameterized rates of whistler-generated electron pitch-angle scattering from Orlova and Shprits [JGR, 2014] that depend on equatorial radial distance, magnetic activity (Kp), and magnetic local time (MLT) outside the simulated plasmasphere. Inside the plasmasphere, parameterized scattering rates due to hiss [Orlova et al., GRL, 2014] are employed. Our description for the rate of ion scattering is more simplistic. We assume that the ions are scattered at a fraction of strong pitch-angle scattering where the fraction is scaled by epsilon, the ratio of the gyroradius to the field-line radius of curvature, when epsilon is greater than 0.1. We compare simulated trapped and precipitating electron/ion flux distributions with measurements from Van Allen Probes/MagEIS, POES and DMSP, respectively, to validate the particle loss models. DMSP observations of electric fields are compared with the simulation results. We discuss the effect of precipitating electrons and ions on the SAPS and the inner magnetospheric electric field through the data-model comparisons.

  7. The Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) on board the Arase (ERG) satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Yoshiya; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Yagitani, Satoshi; Ishisaka, Keigo; Kumamoto, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Matsuda, Shoya; Imachi, Tomohiko; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Hikishima, Mitsuru; Katoh, Yuto; Ota, Mamoru; Shoji, Masafumi; Matsuoka, Ayako; Shinohara, Iku

    2018-05-01

    The Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (ERG) project aims to study acceleration and loss mechanisms of relativistic electrons around the Earth. The Arase (ERG) satellite was launched on December 20, 2016, to explore in the heart of the Earth's radiation belt. In the present paper, we introduce the specifications of the Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) on board the Arase satellite. In the inner magnetosphere, plasma waves, such as the whistler-mode chorus, electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave, and magnetosonic wave, are expected to interact with particles over a wide energy range and contribute to high-energy particle loss and/or acceleration processes. Thermal plasma density is another key parameter because it controls the dispersion relation of plasma waves, which affects wave-particle interaction conditions and wave propagation characteristics. The DC electric field also plays an important role in controlling the global dynamics of the inner magnetosphere. The PWE, which consists of an orthogonal electric field sensor (WPT; wire probe antenna), a triaxial magnetic sensor (MSC; magnetic search coil), and receivers named electric field detector (EFD), waveform capture and onboard frequency analyzer (WFC/OFA), and high-frequency analyzer (HFA), was developed to measure the DC electric field and plasma waves in the inner magnetosphere. Using these sensors and receivers, the PWE covers a wide frequency range from DC to 10 MHz for electric fields and from a few Hz to 100 kHz for magnetic fields. We produce continuous ELF/VLF/HF range wave spectra and ELF range waveforms for 24 h each day. We also produce spectral matrices as continuous data for wave direction finding. In addition, we intermittently produce two types of waveform burst data, "chorus burst" and "EMIC burst." We also input raw waveform data into the software-type wave-particle interaction analyzer (S-WPIA), which derives direct correlation between waves and particles. Finally, we introduce our

  8. Properties of large electric fields in the plasma sheet at 4-7RE measured with Polar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiling, A.; Wygant, J. R.; Cattell, C.; Johnson, M.; Temerin, M.; Mozer, F. S.; Kletzing, C. A.; Scudder, J.; Russell, C. T.

    2001-04-01

    Measurements from the Polar satellite provide evidence for large electric field structures in the plasma sheet at geocentric distances of 4-7RE. These structures had amplitudes perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field that can exceed 100 mV m-1 (6 s averaged). Two years (from May 1, 1996, to April 30, 1998) of electric field data (EZ component, approximately along GSE z) were surveyed. The distribution in invariant latitude (ILAT) and magnetic local time (MLT) of large perpendicular electric field events (defined as >=20 mV m-1 for a 6-s average) delineates the statistical auroral oval with the majority of events occurring in the nightside centered around midnight and a smaller concentration around 1500 MLT. The magnitude-versus-altitude distribution of the electric fields between 4 and 7RE in the nightside could be explained by models which assume either shear Alfvén waves propagating into regions of larger background magnetic fields or electrostatic structures being mapped quasi-statically along equipotential magnetic field lines. In addition, this survey yielded 24 very large amplitude events with |E⊥|>=100mVm-1 (6 s averaged), all of which occurred in the nightside. In the spacecraft frame, the electric field structures occurred on timescales ranging from 10 to 60 s. About 85% of these events occurred in the vicinity of the outer boundary of the plasma sheet; the rest occurred in the central plasma sheet. The polarity of the electric fields was dominantly perpendicular to the nominal plasma sheet boundary. For a large fraction of events (<=50%) the ratios of electric and magnetic fields in the period range from 10 to 60 s were consistent with Alfvén waves. Large Poynting flux (up to 2.5 ergs cm-2s-1) dominantly directed downward along the background magnetic field was associated with 21 events. All 24 events occurred during geomagnetic disturbances such as magnetic substorms. A conjugate study with ground stations for 14 events (out of the 24 events

  9. Mode jumping of split-ring resonator metamaterials controlled by high-permittivity BST and incident electric fields

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiaojian; Zeng, Xinxi; Cui, Tie Jun; Lan, Chuwen; Guo, Yunsheng; Zhang, Hao Chi; Zhang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the resonant modes of split-ring resonator (SRR) metamaterials that contain high-permittivity BST block numerically and experimentally. We observe interesting mode-jumping phenomena from the BST-included SRR absorber structure as the excitation wave is incident perpendicularly to the SRR plane. Specifically, when the electric field is parallel to the SRR gap, the BST block in the gap will induce a mode jumping from the LC resonance to plasmonic resonance (horizontal electric-dipole mode), because the displacement current excited by the Mie resonance in the dielectric block acts as a current channel in the gap. When the electric field is perpendicular to the gap side, the plasmonic resonance mode (vertical electric-dipole mode) in SRR changes to two joint modes contributed simultaneously by the back layer, SRR and BST block, as a result of connected back layer and SRR layer by the displacement current in the BST dielectric block. Based on the mode jumping effect as well as temperature and electric-field dependent dielectric constant, the BST-included SRR metamaterials may have great potentials for the applications in electromagnetic switches and widely tunable metamaterial devices. PMID:27502844

  10. Effect of Precipitating Electrons on Stormtime Inner Magnetospheric Electric Fields during the 17 March 2013 Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Lemon, C. L.; Sazykin, S. Y.; Wolf, R.; Hecht, J. H.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Boyd, A. J.; Turner, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate how scattering of electrons by waves in the plasma sheet and plasmasphere affects precipitating energy flux distributions and how the precipitating electrons modify the ionospheric conductivity and electric potentials during the large 17 March 2013 magnetic storm. Of particular interest is how electron precipitation in the evening sector affects the development of the Sub-auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) electric field that is observed at sub-auroral latitudes in that sector. Our approach is to use the magnetically and electrically self-consistent Rice Convection Model - Equilibrium (RCM-E) of the inner magnetosphere to simulate the stormtime precipitating electron distributions and the electric field. We use parameterized rates of whistler-generated electron pitch-angle scattering from Orlova and Shprits [JGR, 2014] that depend on equatorial radial distance, magnetic activity (Kp), and magnetic local time (MLT) outside the simulated plasmasphere. Inside the plasmasphere, parameterized scattering rates due to hiss [Orlova et al., GRL, 2014] are used. We compare simulated trapped and precipitating electron flux distributions with measurements from Van Allen Probes/MagEIS, POES/TED and MEPED, respectively, to validate the electron loss model. Ground-based (SuperDARN) and in-situ (Van Allen Probes/EFW) observations of electric fields are compared with the simulation results. We discuss the effect of precipitating electrons on the SAPS and inner magnetospheric electric field through the data-model comparisons.

  11. Electric field imaging of single atoms

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Naoya; Seki, Takehito; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Findlay, Scott D.; Kohno, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takao; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    In scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), single atoms can be imaged by detecting electrons scattered through high angles using post-specimen, annular-type detectors. Recently, it has been shown that the atomic-scale electric field of both the positive atomic nuclei and the surrounding negative electrons within crystalline materials can be probed by atomic-resolution differential phase contrast STEM. Here we demonstrate the real-space imaging of the (projected) atomic electric field distribution inside single Au atoms, using sub-Å spatial resolution STEM combined with a high-speed segmented detector. We directly visualize that the electric field distribution (blurred by the sub-Å size electron probe) drastically changes within the single Au atom in a shape that relates to the spatial variation of total charge density within the atom. Atomic-resolution electric field mapping with single-atom sensitivity enables us to examine their detailed internal and boundary structures. PMID:28555629

  12. The FIELDS Instrument Suite for Solar Probe Plus Measuring the Coronal Plasma and Magnetic Field, Plasma Waves and Turbulence, and Radio Signatures of Solar Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bale, S. D.; Goetz, K.; Harvey, P. R.; Turin, P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Dudok de Wit, T.; Ergun, R. E.; MacDowall, R. J.; Pulupa, M.; Choi, M. K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission will make the first in situ measurements of the solar corona and the birthplace of the solar wind. The FIELDS instrument suite on SPP will make direct measurements of electric and magnetic fields, the properties of in situ plasma waves, electron density and temperature profiles, and interplanetary radio emissions, amongst other things. Here, we describe the scientific objectives targeted by the SPP/FIELDS instrument, the instrument design itself, and the instrument concept of operations and planned data products.

  13. The FIELDS Instrument Suite for Solar Probe Plus: Measuring the Coronal Plasma and Magnetic Field, Plasma Waves and Turbulence, and Radio Signatures of Solar Transients.

    PubMed

    Bale, S D; Goetz, K; Harvey, P R; Turin, P; Bonnell, J W; de Wit, T Dudok; Ergun, R E; MacDowall, R J; Pulupa, M; Andre, M; Bolton, M; Bougeret, J-L; Bowen, T A; Burgess, D; Cattell, C A; Chandran, B D G; Chaston, C C; Chen, C H K; Choi, M K; Connerney, J E; Cranmer, S; Diaz-Aguado, M; Donakowski, W; Drake, J F; Farrell, W M; Fergeau, P; Fermin, J; Fischer, J; Fox, N; Glaser, D; Goldstein, M; Gordon, D; Hanson, E; Harris, S E; Hayes, L M; Hinze, J J; Hollweg, J V; Horbury, T S; Howard, R A; Hoxie, V; Jannet, G; Karlsson, M; Kasper, J C; Kellogg, P J; Kien, M; Klimchuk, J A; Krasnoselskikh, V V; Krucker, S; Lynch, J J; Maksimovic, M; Malaspina, D M; Marker, S; Martin, P; Martinez-Oliveros, J; McCauley, J; McComas, D J; McDonald, T; Meyer-Vernet, N; Moncuquet, M; Monson, S J; Mozer, F S; Murphy, S D; Odom, J; Oliverson, R; Olson, J; Parker, E N; Pankow, D; Phan, T; Quataert, E; Quinn, T; Ruplin, S W; Salem, C; Seitz, D; Sheppard, D A; Siy, A; Stevens, K; Summers, D; Szabo, A; Timofeeva, M; Vaivads, A; Velli, M; Yehle, A; Werthimer, D; Wygant, J R

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission will make the first in situ measurements of the solar corona and the birthplace of the solar wind. The FIELDS instrument suite on SPP will make direct measurements of electric and magnetic fields, the properties of in situ plasma waves, electron density and temperature profiles, and interplanetary radio emissions, amongst other things. Here, we describe the scientific objectives targeted by the SPP/FIELDS instrument, the instrument design itself, and the instrument concept of operations and planned data products.

  14. The FIELDS Instrument Suite for Solar Probe Plus. Measuring the Coronal Plasma and Magnetic Field, Plasma Waves and Turbulence, and Radio Signatures of Solar Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bale, S. D.; Goetz, K.; Harvey, P. R.; Turin, P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Dudok de Wit, T.; Ergun, R. E.; MacDowall, R. J.; Pulupa, M.; Andre, M.; Bolton, M.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Bowen, T. A.; Burgess, D.; Cattell, C. A.; Chandran, B. D. G.; Chaston, C. C.; Chen, C. H. K.; Choi, M. K.; Connerney, J. E.; Cranmer, S.; Diaz-Aguado, M.; Donakowski, W.; Drake, J. F.; Farrell, W. M.; Fergeau, P.; Fermin, J.; Fischer, J.; Fox, N.; Glaser, D.; Goldstein, M.; Gordon, D.; Hanson, E.; Harris, S. E.; Hayes, L. M.; Hinze, J. J.; Hollweg, J. V.; Horbury, T. S.; Howard, R. A.; Hoxie, V.; Jannet, G.; Karlsson, M.; Kasper, J. C.; Kellogg, P. J.; Kien, M.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Krucker, S.; Lynch, J. J.; Maksimovic, M.; Malaspina, D. M.; Marker, S.; Martin, P.; Martinez-Oliveros, J.; McCauley, J.; McComas, D. J.; McDonald, T.; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Moncuquet, M.; Monson, S. J.; Mozer, F. S.; Murphy, S. D.; Odom, J.; Oliverson, R.; Olson, J.; Parker, E. N.; Pankow, D.; Phan, T.; Quataert, E.; Quinn, T.; Ruplin, S. W.; Salem, C.; Seitz, D.; Sheppard, D. A.; Siy, A.; Stevens, K.; Summers, D.; Szabo, A.; Timofeeva, M.; Vaivads, A.; Velli, M.; Yehle, A.; Werthimer, D.; Wygant, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission will make the first in situ measurements of the solar corona and the birthplace of the solar wind. The FIELDS instrument suite on SPP will make direct measurements of electric and magnetic fields, the properties of in situ plasma waves, electron density and temperature profiles, and interplanetary radio emissions, amongst other things. Here, we describe the scientific objectives targeted by the SPP/FIELDS instrument, the instrument design itself, and the instrument concept of operations and planned data products.

  15. Influence of magnetic field configuration on magnetohydrodynamic waves in Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Nicholas; Buffett, Bruce

    2018-04-01

    We develop a numerical model to study magnetohydrodynamic waves in a thin layer of stratified fluid near the surface of Earth's core. Past studies have been limited to using simple background magnetic field configurations. However, the choice of field distribution can dramatically affect the structure and frequency of the waves. To permit a more general treatment of background magnetic field and layer stratification, we combine finite volume and Fourier methods to describe the wave motions. We validate our model by comparisons to previous studies and examine the influence of background magnetic field configuration on two types of magnetohydrodynamic waves. We show that the structure of zonal Magnetic-Archimedes-Coriolis (MAC) waves for a dipole background field is unstable to small perturbations of the field strength in the equatorial region. Modifications to the wave structures are computed for a range of field configurations. In addition, we show that non-zonal MAC waves are trapped near the equator for realistic magnetic field distributions, and that their latitudinal extent depends upon the distribution of magnetic field strength at the CMB.

  16. Alfven waves in spiral interplanetary field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whang, Y. C.

    1973-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented of the Alfven waves in the spiral interplanetary magnetic field. The Alfven waves under consideration are arbitrary, large amplitude, non-monochromatic, microscale waves of any polarization. They superpose on a mesoscale background flow of thermally anisotropic plasma. Using WKB approximation, an analytical solution for the amplitude vectors is obtained as a function of the background flow properties: density, velocity, Alfven speed, thermal anisotropy, and the spiral angel. The necessary condition for the validity of the WKB solution is discussed. The intensity of fluctuations is calculated as a function of heliocentric distance. Relative intensity of fluctuations as compared with the magnitude of the background field has its maximum in the region near l au. Thus outside of this region, the solar wind is less turbulent.

  17. Wave field synthesis, adaptive wave field synthesis and ambisonics using decentralized transformed control: Potential applications to sound field reproduction and active noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert; Berry, Alain; Woszczyk, Wieslaw

    2005-09-01

    Sound field reproduction finds applications in listening to prerecorded music or in synthesizing virtual acoustics. The objective is to recreate a sound field in a listening environment. Wave field synthesis (WFS) is a known open-loop technology which assumes that the reproduction environment is anechoic. Classical WFS, therefore, does not perform well in a real reproduction space such as room. Previous work has suggested that it is physically possible to reproduce a progressive wave field in-room situation using active control approaches. In this paper, a formulation of adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS) introduces practical possibilities for an adaptive sound field reproduction combining WFS and active control (with WFS departure penalization) with a limited number of error sensors. AWFS includes WFS and closed-loop ``Ambisonics'' as limiting cases. This leads to the modification of the multichannel filtered-reference least-mean-square (FXLMS) and the filtered-error LMS (FELMS) adaptive algorithms for AWFS. Decentralization of AWFS for sound field reproduction is introduced on the basis of sources' and sensors' radiation modes. Such decoupling may lead to decentralized control of source strength distributions and may reduce computational burden of the FXLMS and the FELMS algorithms used for AWFS. [Work funded by NSERC, NATEQ, Université de Sherbrooke and VRQ.] Ultrasound/Bioresponse to

  18. Circularly polarized few-cycle optical rogue waves: rotating reduced Maxwell-Bloch equations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuwei; Porsezian, K; He, Jingsong; Cheng, Yi

    2013-12-01

    The rotating reduced Maxwell-Bloch (RMB) equations, which describe the propagation of few-cycle optical pulses in a transparent media with two isotropic polarized electronic field components, are derived from a system of complete Maxwell-Bloch equations without using the slowly varying envelope approximations. Two hierarchies of the obtained rational solutions, including rogue waves, which are also called few-cycle optical rogue waves, of the rotating RMB equations are constructed explicitly through degenerate Darboux transformation. In addition to the above, the dynamical evolution of the first-, second-, and third-order few-cycle optical rogue waves are constructed with different patterns. For an electric field E in the three lower-order rogue waves, we find that rogue waves correspond to localized large amplitude oscillations of the polarized electric fields. Further a complementary relationship of two electric field components of rogue waves is discussed in terms of analytical formulas as well as numerical figures.

  19. The reduced basis method for the electric field integral equation

    SciTech Connect

    Fares, M., E-mail: fares@cerfacs.f; Hesthaven, J.S., E-mail: Jan_Hesthaven@Brown.ed; Maday, Y., E-mail: maday@ann.jussieu.f

    We introduce the reduced basis method (RBM) as an efficient tool for parametrized scattering problems in computational electromagnetics for problems where field solutions are computed using a standard Boundary Element Method (BEM) for the parametrized electric field integral equation (EFIE). This combination enables an algorithmic cooperation which results in a two step procedure. The first step consists of a computationally intense assembling of the reduced basis, that needs to be effected only once. In the second step, we compute output functionals of the solution, such as the Radar Cross Section (RCS), independently of the dimension of the discretization space, formore » many different parameter values in a many-query context at very little cost. Parameters include the wavenumber, the angle of the incident plane wave and its polarization.« less

  20. Characteristics of DC electric fields at dipolarization fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Harri; Escoubet, Philippe; Masson, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the characteristics of DC electric field at dipolarization fronts and BBF's using multi-point Cluster observations. There are plenty of important issues that are considered, such as what kind of DC electric fields exist in such events and what are their spatial scales. One can also recognize if electrons and ions perform ExB drift motions in these events. To investigate this, we take an advantage of five different DC electric field measurements in the plasma sheet available from the EFW double probe experiment, EDI electron drift instrument, CODIF and HIA ion spectrometers, and PEACE electron spectrometer. The calibrated observations of the three spectrometers are used to determine the proton and electron drift velocity and furthermore the DC electric field, assuming that the electron and proton velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field is dominated by the ExB drift motion. Naturally when ions and electrons do not perform a proper drift motion, which can happen in the plasma sheet, the estimated DC electric field from ion and electron motion is not correct. However, surprisingly often the DC electric fields estimated from electron and ion motions are identical suggesting that this field is a real DC electric field around the measurement point. This investigation also helps understand how well different measurements are calibrated.

  1. Electric field divertor plasma pump

    DOEpatents

    Schaffer, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    An electric field plasma pump includes a toroidal ring bias electrode (56) positioned near the divertor strike point of a poloidal divertor of a tokamak (20), or similar plasma-confining apparatus. For optimum plasma pumping, the separatrix (40) of the poloidal divertor contacts the ring electrode (56), which then also acts as a divertor plate. A plenum (54) or other duct near the electrode (56) includes an entrance aperture open to receive electrically-driven plasma. The electrode (56) is insulated laterally with insulators (63,64), one of which (64) is positioned opposite the electrode at the entrance aperture. An electric field E is established between the ring electrode (56) and a vacuum vessel wall (22), with the polarity of the bias applied to the electrode being relative to the vessel wall selected such that the resultant electric field E interacts with the magnetic field B already existing in the tokamak to create an E.times.B/B.sup.2 drift velocity that drives plasma into the entrance aperture. The pumped plasma flow into the entrance aperture is insensitive to variations, intentional or otherwise, of the pump and divertor geometry. Pressure buildups in the plenum or duct connected to the entrance aperture in excess of 10 mtorr are achievable.

  2. Time-Varying Seismogenic Coulomb Electric Fields as a Probable Source for Pre-Earthquake Variation in the Ionospheric F2-Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Vitaly P.; Hegai, Valery V.; Liu, Jann Yenq; Ryu, Kwangsun; Chung, Jong-Kyun

    2017-12-01

    The electric coupling between the lithosphere and the ionosphere is examined. The electric field is considered as a time- varying irregular vertical Coulomb field presumably produced on the Earth’s surface before an earthquake within its epicentral zone by some micro-processes in the lithosphere. It is shown that the Fourier component of this electric field with a frequency of 500 Hz and a horizontal scale-size of 100 km produces in the nighttime ionosphere of high and middle latitudes a transverse electric field with a magnitude of 20 mV/m if the peak value of the amplitude of this Fourier component is just 30 V/m. The time-varying vertical Coulomb field with a frequency of 500 Hz penetrates from the ground into the ionosphere by a factor of 7×105 more efficient than a time independent vertical electrostatic field of the same scale size. The transverse electric field with amplitude of 20 mV/m will cause perturbations in the nighttime F region electron density through heating the F region plasma resulting in a reduction of the downward plasma flux from the protonosphere and an excitation of acoustic gravity waves.

  3. Simultaneous electric-field measurements on nearby balloons.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozer, F. S.

    1972-01-01

    Electric-field payloads were flown simultaneously on two balloons from Great Whale River, Canada, on September 21, 1971, to provide data at two points in the upper atmosphere that differed in altitude by more than one atmospheric density scale height and in horizontal position by 30-140 km. The altitude dependences in the two sets of data prove conclusively that the vertical electric field at balloon altitudes stems from fair-weather atmospheric electricity sources and that the horizontal fields are mapped down ionospheric fields, since the weather-associated horizontal fields were smaller than 2 mV/m.

  4. MOA: Magnetic Field Oscillating Amplified Thruster and its Application for Nuclear Electric and Thermal Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hettmer, Manfred; Grassauer, Andreas

    More than 60 years after the later Nobel laureate Hannes Alfven had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfven waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. The name of the concept, utilising Alfven waves to accelerate ionised matter for propulsive purposes, is MOA - Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified thruster. Alfven waves are generated by making use of two coils, one being permanently powered and serving also as magnetic nozzle, themore » other one being switched on and off in a cyclic way, deforming the field lines of the overall system. It is this deformation that generates Alfven waves, which are in the next step used to transport and compress the propulsive medium, in theory leading to a propulsion system with a much higher performance than any other electric propulsion system. Based on computer simulations, which were conducted to get a first estimate on the performance of the system, MOA is a highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable to deliver a maximum specific impulse of 13116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. While space propulsion is expected to be the prime application for MOA and is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an 'afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion, other terrestrial applications can be thought of as well, making the system highly suited for a common space-terrestrial application research and utilisation strategy. (authors)« less

  5. An Operator Method for Field Moments from the Extended Parabolic Wave Equation and Analytical Solutions of the First and Second Moments for Atmospheric Electromagnetic Wave Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    The extended wide-angle parabolic wave equation applied to electromagnetic wave propagation in random media is considered. A general operator equation is derived which gives the statistical moments of an electric field of a propagating wave. This expression is used to obtain the first and second order moments of the wave field and solutions are found that transcend those which incorporate the full paraxial approximation at the outset. Although these equations can be applied to any propagation scenario that satisfies the conditions of application of the extended parabolic wave equation, the example of propagation through atmospheric turbulence is used. It is shown that in the case of atmospheric wave propagation and under the Markov approximation (i.e., the delta-correlation of the fluctuations in the direction of propagation), the usual parabolic equation in the paraxial approximation is accurate even at millimeter wavelengths. The comprehensive operator solution also allows one to obtain expressions for the longitudinal (generalized) second order moment. This is also considered and the solution for the atmospheric case is obtained and discussed. The methodology developed here can be applied to any qualifying situation involving random propagation through turbid or plasma environments that can be represented by a spectral density of permittivity fluctuations.

  6. Rates of Charged Clocks in an Electric Field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Murat

    2008-04-01

    The gravitational arguments leading to time dilation, redshift, and spacetime curvature are adapted to electric fields. The energy levels of two identical positively charged atoms at different potentials in a static electric field are shown to undergo blueshift. Secondly, the period of a charged simple pendulum (clock) in the electric field of a metallic sphere is shown to vary with the electric potential. The spacetime diagram for the world lines of two photons emitted and absorbed by two pendulums at different potentials at different times and the world lines of the pendulums, as in Schild's argument, is shown to be not a parallelogram in Minkowski spacetime, concluding that spacetime must be curved. A Pound-Rebka-Snider experiment in an electric field is proposed to confirm that photons undergo a frequency shift in an electric field and hence the spacetime manifold is curved. Next, Torretti's gravitational argument that spacetime around a mass distribution concentrated at a point is curved is extended to electric charge distributions to conclude that the nonuniform electric fields of such charge distributions too curve spacetime. Finally, the local equivalence of a uniform electric field times the charge to mass ratio to a uniform acceleration is shown through spacetime transformations and the electrical redshift is obtained in a uniformly accelerated frame by using this principle. These arguments lead to the conclusion that special relativistic electromagnetism is an approximation to a general relativistic multi-metric theory.

  7. Characterization of applied fields for ion mobility in traveling wave based structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid, Ahmed M.; Prabhakaran Nair Syamala Amma, Aneesh; Garimella, Venkata BS

    2018-03-21

    Ion mobility (IM) is rapidly gaining attention for the analysis of biomolecules due to the ability to distinguish the shapes of ions. However, conventional constant electric field drift tube IM has limited resolving power, constrained by practical limitations on the path length and maximum applied voltage. The implementation of traveling waves (TW) in IM removes the latter limitation, allowing higher resolution to be achieved using extended path lengths. These can be readily obtainable in structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM), which are fabricated from electric fields that are generated by appropriate potentials applied to arrays of electrodes patterned on twomore » parallel surfaces. In this work we have investigated the relationship between the various SLIM variables, such as electrode dimensions, inter-surface gap, and the TW applied voltages, that directly impact the fields experienced by ions. Ion simulation and theoretical calculations have been utilized to understand the dependence of SLIM geometry and effective electric field. The variables explored impact both ion confinement and the observed IM resolution in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) modules.« less

  8. Vibration damping of elastic waves in electrically conducting media subjected to high magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwath, T. G.

    1992-01-01

    The propagation of vibrational energy in bulk, torsional, and flexural modes, in electrically conducting media can undergo strong attenuation if subjected to high magnetic fields in certain spatial arrangements. The reasons for this are induced Eddy currents which are generated by the volume elements in the media moving transversally to the magnetic field at acoustic velocities. In magnetic fields achievable with superconductors, the non-conservative (dissipative) forces are compared to the elastic and inertial forces for most metals. Strong dissipation of vibrational energy in the form of heat takes place as a result. A simplified theory is presented based on engineering representations of electrodynamics, attenuation values for representative metals are calculated, and problems encountered in formulating a generalized theory based on electrodynamics of moving media are discussed. General applications as well as applications specific to maglev are discussed.

  9. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS <100 KHZ IN ELECTRIC AND GASOLINE-POWERED VEHICLES.

    PubMed

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Measurements were conducted to investigate electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) from 120 Hz to 10 kHz and 1.2 to 100 kHz in 9 electric or hybrid vehicles and 4 gasoline vehicles, all while being driven. The range of fields in the electric vehicles enclosed the range observed in the gasoline vehicles. Mean magnetic fields ranged from nominally 0.6 to 3.5 µT for electric/hybrids depending on the measurement band compared with nominally 0.4 to 0.6 µT for gasoline vehicles. Mean values of electric fields ranged from nominally 2 to 3 V m -1 for electric/hybrid vehicles depending on the band, compared with 0.9 to 3 V m -1 for gasoline vehicles. In all cases, the fields were well within published exposure limits for the general population. The measurements were performed with Narda model EHP-50C/EHP-50D EMF analysers that revealed the presence of spurious signals in the EHP-50C unit, which were resolved with the EHP-50D model. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Catrin F., E-mail: williamscf@cardiff.ac.uk; School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Cathays Park, Cardiff, CF10 3AT Wales; Geroni, Gilles M.

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ubiquitous in the digital world we inhabit, with microwave and millimetre wave sources of non-ionizing radiation employed extensively in electronics and communications, e.g., in mobile phones and Wi-Fi. Indeed, the advent of 5G systems and the “internet of things” is likely to lead to massive densification of wireless networks. Whilst the thermal effects of EMFs on biological systems are well characterised, their putative non-thermal effects remain a controversial subject. Here, we use the bioluminescent marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, to monitor the effects of pulsed microwave electromagnetic fields, of nominal frequency 2.5 GHz, on light emission. Separatedmore » electric and magnetic field effects were investigated using a resonant microwave cavity, within which the maxima of each field are separated. For pulsed electric field exposure, the bacteria gave reproducible responses and recovery in light emission. At the lowest pulsed duty cycle (1.25%) and after short durations (100 ms) of exposure to the electric field at power levels of 4.5 W rms, we observed an initial stimulation of bioluminescence, whereas successive microwave pulses became inhibitory. Much of this behaviour is due to thermal effects, as the bacterial light output is very sensitive to the local temperature. Conversely, magnetic field exposure gave no measurable short-term responses even at the highest power levels of 32 W rms. Thus, we were able to detect, de-convolute, and evaluate independently the effects of separated electric and magnetic fields on exposure of a luminescent biological system to microwave irradiation.« less

  11. The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Catrin F.; Geroni, Gilles M.; Pirog, Antoine; Lloyd, David; Lees, Jonathan; Porch, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ubiquitous in the digital world we inhabit, with microwave and millimetre wave sources of non-ionizing radiation employed extensively in electronics and communications, e.g., in mobile phones and Wi-Fi. Indeed, the advent of 5G systems and the "internet of things" is likely to lead to massive densification of wireless networks. Whilst the thermal effects of EMFs on biological systems are well characterised, their putative non-thermal effects remain a controversial subject. Here, we use the bioluminescent marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, to monitor the effects of pulsed microwave electromagnetic fields, of nominal frequency 2.5 GHz, on light emission. Separated electric and magnetic field effects were investigated using a resonant microwave cavity, within which the maxima of each field are separated. For pulsed electric field exposure, the bacteria gave reproducible responses and recovery in light emission. At the lowest pulsed duty cycle (1.25%) and after short durations (100 ms) of exposure to the electric field at power levels of 4.5 W rms, we observed an initial stimulation of bioluminescence, whereas successive microwave pulses became inhibitory. Much of this behaviour is due to thermal effects, as the bacterial light output is very sensitive to the local temperature. Conversely, magnetic field exposure gave no measurable short-term responses even at the highest power levels of 32 W rms. Thus, we were able to detect, de-convolute, and evaluate independently the effects of separated electric and magnetic fields on exposure of a luminescent biological system to microwave irradiation.

  12. Electrostatic Steepening of Whistler Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasko, I. Y.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F. S.; Bonnell, J. W.; Artemyev, A. V.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Tong, Y.

    2018-05-01

    We present surprising observations by the NASA Van Allen Probes spacecraft of whistler waves with substantial electric field power at harmonics of the whistler wave fundamental frequency. The wave power at harmonics is due to a nonlinearly steepened whistler electrostatic field that becomes possible in the two-temperature electron plasma due to the whistler wave coupling to the electron-acoustic mode. The simulation and analytical estimates show that the steepening takes a few tens of milliseconds. The hydrodynamic energy cascade to higher frequencies facilitates efficient energy transfer from cyclotron resonant electrons, driving the whistler waves, to lower energy electrons.

  13. ELECTRIC-FIELD-ENHANCED FABRIC FILTRATION OF ELECTRICALLY CHARGED FLYASH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes measurements in which both external electric field (applied by electrodes at the fabric surface) and flyash electrical charge (controlled by an upstream corona precharger) are independent variables in a factorial performance experiment carried out in a labora...

  14. Contribution of non-resonant wave-wave interactions in the dynamics of long-crested sea wave fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Gravity waves fields at the surface of the oceans evolve under the combined effects of several physical mechanisms, of which nonlinear wave-wave interactions play a dominant role. These interactions transfer energy between components within the energy spectrum and allow in particular to explain the shape of the distribution of wave energy according to the frequencies and directions of propagation. In the oceanic domain (deep water conditions), dominant interactions are third-order resonant interactions, between quadruplets (or quartets) of wave components, and the evolution of the wave spectrum is governed by a kinetic equation, established by Hasselmann (1962) and Zakharov (1968). The kinetic equation has a number of interesting properties, including the existence of self-similar solutions and cascades to small and large wavelengths of waves, which can be studied in the framework of the wave (or weak) turbulence theory (e.g. Badulin et al., 2005). With the aim to obtain more complete and precise modelling of sea states dynamics, we investigate here the possibility and consequences of taking into account the non-resonant interactions -quasi-resonant in practice- among 4 waves. A mathematical formalism has recently been proposed to account for these non-resonant interactions in a statistical framework by Annenkov & Shrira (2006) (Generalized Kinetic Equation, GKE) and Gramstad & Stiassnie (2013) (Phase Averaged Equation, PAE). In order to isolate the non-resonant contributions, we limit ourselves here to monodirectional (i.e. long-crested) wave trains, since in this case the 4-wave resonant interactions vanish. The (stochastic) modelling approaches proposed by Annenkov & Shrira (2006) and Gramstad & Stiassnie (2013) are compared to phase-resolving (deterministic) simulations based on a fully nonlinear potential approach (using a high-order spectral method, HOS). We study and compare the evolution dynamics of the wave spectrum at different time scales (i.e. over

  15. Extremely Low-Frequency Waves Inside the Diamagnetic Cavity of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, B.; Wedlund, C. Simon; Eriksson, A.; Goetz, C.; Karlsson, T.; Gunell, H.; Spicher, A.; Henri, P.; Vallières, X.; Miloch, W. J.

    2018-05-01

    The European Space Agency/Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko has provided several hundred observations of the cometary diamagnetic cavity induced by the interaction between outgassed cometary particles, cometary ions, and the solar wind magnetic field. Here we present the first electric field measurements of four preperihelion and postperihelion cavity crossings on 28 May 2015 and 17 February 2016, using the dual-probe electric field mode of the Langmuir probe (LAP) instrument of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium. We find that on large scales, variations in the electric field fluctuations capture the cavity and boundary regions observed in the already well-studied magnetic field, suggesting the electric field mode of the LAP instrument as a reliable tool to image cavity crossings. In addition, the LAP electric field mode unravels for the first time extremely low-frequency waves within two cavities. These low-frequency electrostatic waves are likely triggered by lower-hybrid waves observed in the surrounding magnetized plasma.

  16. Ionizing potential waves and high-voltage breakdown streamers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, N. W.; Tidman, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The structure of ionizing potential waves driven by a strong electric field in a dense gas is discussed. Negative breakdown waves are found to propagate with a velocity proportional to the electric field normal to the wavefront. This causes a curved ionizing potential wavefront to focus down into a filamentary structure, and may provide the reason why breakdown in dense gases propagates in the form of a narrow leader streamer instead of a broad wavefront.

  17. Electric field stabilization of viscous liquid layers coating the underside of a surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Thomas G.; Cimpeanu, Radu; Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.; Petropoulos, Peter G.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the electrostatic stabilization of a viscous thin film wetting the underside of a horizontal surface in the presence of an electric field applied parallel to the surface. The model includes the effect of bounding solid dielectric regions above and below the liquid-air system that are typically found in experiments. The competition between gravitational forces, surface tension, and the nonlocal effect of the applied electric field is captured analytically in the form of a nonlinear evolution equation. A semispectral solution strategy is employed to resolve the dynamics of the resulting partial differential equation. Furthermore, we conduct direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations using the volume-of-fluid methodology and assess the accuracy of the obtained solutions in the long-wave (thin-film) regime when varying the electric field strength from zero up to the point when complete stabilization occurs. We employ DNS to examine the limitations of the asymptotically derived behavior as the liquid layer thickness increases and find excellent agreement even beyond the regime of strict applicability of the asymptotic solution. Finally, the asymptotic and computational approaches are utilized to identify robust and efficient active control mechanisms allowing the manipulation of the fluid interface in light of engineering applications at small scales, such as mixing.

  18. Contactless measurement of electrical conductivity of semiconductor wafers using the reflection of millimeter waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Yang; Inoue, Kojiro; Saka, Masumi; Abe, Hiroyuki

    2002-11-01

    We present a method for quantitative measurement of electrical conductivity of semiconductor wafers in a contactless fashion by using millimeter waves. A focusing sensor was developed to focus a 110 GHz millimeter wave beam on the surface of a silicon wafer. The amplitude and the phase of the reflection coefficient of the millimeter wave signal were measured by which electrical conductivity of the wafer was determined quantitatively, independent of the permittivity and thickness of the wafers. The conductivity obtained by this method agrees well with that measured by the conventional four-point-probe method.

  19. On high-latitude convection field inhomogeneities, parallel electric fields and inverted-V precipitation events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennartsson, W.

    1977-01-01

    A simple model of a static electric field with a component parallel to the magnetic field is proposed for calculating the electric field and current distributions at various altitudes when the horizontal distribution of the convection electric field is given at a certain altitude above the auroral ionosphere. The model is shown to be compatible with satellite observations of inverted-V electron precipitation structures and associated irregularities in the convection electric field.

  20. Temperature Modulation of Electric Fields in Biological Matter

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Charlotte S.; Rubinsky, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) have become an important minimally invasive surgical technology for various applications including genetic engineering, electrochemotherapy and tissue ablation. This study explores the hypothesis that temperature dependent electrical parameters of tissue can be used to modulate the outcome of PEF protocols, providing a new means for controlling and optimizing this minimally invasive surgical procedure. This study investigates two different applications of cooling temperatures applied during PEF. The first case utilizes an electrode which simultaneously delivers pulsed electric fields and cooling temperatures. The subsequent results demonstrate that changes in electrical properties due to temperature produced by this configuration can substantially magnify and confine the electric fields in the cooled regions while almost eliminating electric fields in surrounding regions. This method can be used to increase precision in the PEF procedure, and eliminate muscle contractions and damage to adjacent tissues. The second configuration considered introduces a third probe that is not electrically active and only applies cooling boundary conditions. This second study demonstrates that in this probe configuration the temperature induced changes in electrical properties of tissue substantially reduce the electric fields in the cooled regions. This novel treatment can potentially be used to protect sensitive tissues from the effect of the PEF. Perhaps the most important conclusion of this investigation is that temperature is a powerful and accessible mechanism to modulate and control electric fields in biological tissues and can therefore be used to optimize and control PEF treatments. PMID:21695144

  1. Monitoring Induced Fractures with Electrical Measurements using Depth to Surface Resistivity: A Field Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilt, M.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Sun, S.; MacLennan, K.

    2016-12-01

    Electrical methods offer an attractive option to map induced fractures because the recovered anomaly is related to the electrical conductivity of the injected fluid in the open (propped) section of the fracture operation. This is complementary to existing micro-seismic technology, which maps the mechanical effects of the fracturing. In this paper we describe a 2014 field case where a combination of a borehole casing electrode and a surface receiver array was used to monitor hydrofracture fracture creation and growth in an unconventional oil field project. The fracture treatment well was 1 km long and drilled to a depth of 2.2 km. Twelve fracture events were induced in 30 m intervals (stages) in the 1 km well. Within each stage 5 events (clusters) were initiated at 30 m intervals. Several of the fracture stages used a high salinity brine, instead of fresh water, to enhance the electrical signal. The electrical experiment deployed a downhole source in a well parallel to the treatment well and 100 m away. The source consisted of an electrode attached to a wireline cable into which a 0.25 Hz square wave was injected. A 60-station electrical field receiver array was placed above the fracture and extending for several km. Receivers were oriented to measure electrical field parallel with the presumed fracture direction and those perpendicular to it. Active source electrical data were collected continuously during 7 frac stages, 3 of which used brine as the frac fluid over a period of several days. Although the site was quite noisy and the electrical anomaly small we managed to extract a clear frac anomaly using field separation, extensive signal averaging and background noise rejection techniques. Preliminary 3D modeling, where we account for current distribution of the casing electrode and explicitly model multiple thin conductive sheets to represent fracture stages, produces a model consistent with the field measurements and also highlights the sensitivity of the

  2. Spatial characterization of innervation zones under electrically elicited M-wave.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Peng, Y; Li, S; Zhou, P; Munoz, A; Tang, D; Zhang, Y

    2016-08-01

    The three dimensional (3D) innervation zone (IZ) imaging approach (3DIZI) has been developed in our group to localize the IZ of a particular motor unit (MU) from its motor unit action potentials decomposed from high-density surface electromyography (EMG) recordings. In this study, the developed 3DIZI approach was combined with electrical stimulation to investigate global distributions of IZs in muscles from electrically elicited M-wave recordings. Electrical stimulations were applied to the musculocutaneous nerve to activate supramaximal muscle response of the biceps brachii in one healthy subject, and high-density (128 channels) surface EMG signals of the biceps brachii muscles were recorded. The 3DIZI approach was then employed to image the IZ distribution of IZs in the 3D space of the biceps brachii. The performance of the M-wave based 3DIZI approach was evaluated with different stimulation intensities. Results show that the reconstructed IZs under supramaximal stimulation are spatially distributed in the center region of muscle belly which is consistent with previous studies. With sub-maximal stimulation intensity, the imaged IZ centers became more proximally and deeply located. The proposed M-wave based 3DIZI approach demonstrated its capability of imaging global distribution of IZs in muscles, which provide valuable information for clinical applications such as guiding botulinum toxin injection in treating muscle spasticity.

  3. Electric-field-induced structural changes in multilayer piezoelectric actuators during electrical and mechanical loading

    SciTech Connect

    Esteves, Giovanni; Fancher, Chris M.; Röhrig, Sören

    The effects of electrical and mechanical loading on the behavior of domains and phases in Multilayer Piezoelectric Actuators (MAs) is studied using in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) and macroscopic property measurements. Rietveld refinement is carried out on measured diffraction patterns using a two-phase tetragonal (P4mm) and rhombohedral (R3m) model. Applying an electric field promotes the rhombohedral phase, while increasing compressive uniaxial pre-stress prior to electric field application favors the tetragonal phase. The competition between electrical and mechanical energy leads to a maximal difference between electric-field-induced phase fractions at 70 MPa pre-stress. Additionally, the available volume fraction of non-180° domainmore » reorientation that can be accessed during electric field application increases with compressive pre-stress up to 70 MPa. The origin for enhanced strain and polarization with applied pre-stress is attributed to a combination of enhanced non-180° domain reorientation and electric-field-induced phase transitions. The suppression of both the electric-field-induced phase transitions and domain reorientation at high pre-stresses (>70 MPa) is attributed to a large mechanical energy barrier, and alludes to the competition of the electrical and mechanical energy within the MA during applied stimuli.« less

  4. Electric-field-induced structural changes in multilayer piezoelectric actuators during electrical and mechanical loading

    DOE PAGES

    Esteves, Giovanni; Fancher, Chris M.; Röhrig, Sören; ...

    2017-04-08

    The effects of electrical and mechanical loading on the behavior of domains and phases in Multilayer Piezoelectric Actuators (MAs) is studied using in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) and macroscopic property measurements. Rietveld refinement is carried out on measured diffraction patterns using a two-phase tetragonal (P4mm) and rhombohedral (R3m) model. Applying an electric field promotes the rhombohedral phase, while increasing compressive uniaxial pre-stress prior to electric field application favors the tetragonal phase. The competition between electrical and mechanical energy leads to a maximal difference between electric-field-induced phase fractions at 70 MPa pre-stress. Additionally, the available volume fraction of non-180° domainmore » reorientation that can be accessed during electric field application increases with compressive pre-stress up to 70 MPa. The origin for enhanced strain and polarization with applied pre-stress is attributed to a combination of enhanced non-180° domain reorientation and electric-field-induced phase transitions. The suppression of both the electric-field-induced phase transitions and domain reorientation at high pre-stresses (>70 MPa) is attributed to a large mechanical energy barrier, and alludes to the competition of the electrical and mechanical energy within the MA during applied stimuli.« less

  5. Comparing different approaches to visualizing light waves: An experimental study on teaching wave optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mešić, Vanes; Hajder, Erna; Neumann, Knut; Erceg, Nataša

    2016-06-01

    Research has shown that students have tremendous difficulties developing a qualitative understanding of wave optics, at all educational levels. In this study, we investigate how three different approaches to visualizing light waves affect students' understanding of wave optics. In the first, the conventional, approach light waves are represented by sinusoidal curves. The second teaching approach includes representing light waves by a series of static images, showing the oscillating electric field vectors at characteristic, subsequent instants of time. Within the third approach phasors are used for visualizing light waves. A total of N =85 secondary school students were randomly assigned to one of the three teaching approaches, each of which lasted a period of four class hours. Students who learned with phasors and students who learned from the series of static images outperformed the students learning according to the conventional approach, i.e., they showed a much better understanding of basic wave optics, as measured by a conceptual survey administered to the students one week after the treatment. Our results suggest that visualizing light waves with phasors or oscillating electric field vectors is a promising approach to developing a deeper understanding of wave optics for students enrolled in conceptual level physics courses.

  6. DC Electric Field Measurement by the Double Probe System Aboard Geotail and its Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasaba, Y.; Hayakawa, H.; Ishisaka, K.; Okada, T.; Matsuoka, A.; Mukai, T.; Okada, M.

    2005-12-01

    We summarize the characteristics of the DC electric field measurement by the double probe system, PANT and EFD-P, aboard Geotail. The accuracy and correction factors for the gain (effective length) and off-set, which depends on ambient plasma conditions, are provided. Accurate measurements of electric fields are essential for space plasma studies, for example, plasma convection, wave-particle interactions, violation of MHD approximation, etc. One typical measurement techniques is the 'Double Probe method', identical to that of a voltmeter: the potential difference between two top-hat probes [cf. Pedersen et al., 1984]. This method can measure electric fields passively and continuously in all plasma conditions. However, the accuracy of the measured electric field values is limited. The probe measurement is also subjected to the variable gain (effective length) of the probe antenna and the artificial offset of the measured values. Those depend on a) the disturbance from ambient plasma and b) the disturbance from the spacecraft and the probe itself. In this paper, we show the results of the characteristics of DC electric field measurement by the PANT probe and the EFD-P (Electric Field Detector - Probe technique) receiver aboard Geotail [Tsuruda et al., 1994], in order to evaluate the accuracy, gain, and offset controlled by ambient plasmas. We conclude that the Geotail electric field measurement by the double probe system has the accuracy 0.4 mV/m for Ex and 0.3 mV/m for Ey, after the correction of the gain and offset. In better conditions, accuracy of Ey is 0.2 mV/m. The potential accuracy would be better because those values are limited by the accuracy of the particle measurement especially in low density conditions. In practical use, the corrections by long-term variation and spacecraft potential are effective to refine the electric field data. The characteristics of long-term variation and the dependences on ambient plasma are not fully understood well, yet

  7. Electric field induced spin-polarized current

    DOEpatents

    Murakami, Shuichi; Nagaosa, Naoto; Zhang, Shoucheng

    2006-05-02

    A device and a method for generating an electric-field-induced spin current are disclosed. A highly spin-polarized electric current is generated using a semiconductor structure and an applied electric field across the semiconductor structure. The semiconductor structure can be a hole-doped semiconductor having finite or zero bandgap or an undoped semiconductor of zero bandgap. In one embodiment, a device for injecting spin-polarized current into a current output terminal includes a semiconductor structure including first and second electrodes, along a first axis, receiving an applied electric field and a third electrode, along a direction perpendicular to the first axis, providing the spin-polarized current. The semiconductor structure includes a semiconductor material whose spin orbit coupling energy is greater than room temperature (300 Kelvin) times the Boltzmann constant. In one embodiment, the semiconductor structure is a hole-doped semiconductor structure, such as a p-type GaAs semiconductor layer.

  8. Calibrating MMS Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) Ambient Electron Flux Measurements and Characterizing 3D Electric Field Signatures of Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuster, J. R.; Torbert, R. B.; Vaith, H.; Argall, M. R.; Li, G.; Chen, L. J.; Ergun, R. E.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Marklund, G. T.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Le Contel, O.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    The electron drift instruments (EDIs) onboard each MMS spacecraft are designed with large geometric factors (~0.01cm2 str) to facilitate detection of weak (~100 nA) electron beams fired and received by the two gun-detector units (GDUs) when EDI is in its "electric field mode" to determine the local electric and magnetic fields. A consequence of the large geometric factor is that "ambient mode" electron flux measurements (500 eV electrons having 0°, 90°, or 180° pitch angle) can vary depending on the orientation of the EDI instrument with respect to the magnetic field, a nonphysical effect that requires a correction. Here, we present determinations of the θ- and ø-dependent correction factors for the eight EDI GDUs, where θ (ø) is the polar (azimuthal) angle between the GDU symmetry axis and the local magnetic field direction, and compare the corrected fluxes with those measured by the fast plasma instrument (FPI). Using these corrected, high time resolution (~1,000 samples per second) ambient electron fluxes, combined with the unprecedentedly high resolution 3D electric field measurements taken by the spin-plane and axial double probes (SDP and ADP), we are equipped to accurately detect electron-scale current layers and electric field waves associated with the non-Maxwellian (anisotropic and agyrotropic) particle distribution functions predicted to exist in the reconnection diffusion region. We compare initial observations of the diffusion region with distributions and wave analysis from PIC simulations of asymmetric reconnection applicable for modeling reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause, where MMS will begin Science Phase 1 as of September 1, 2015.

  9. Electric-field-stimulated protein mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hekstra, Doeke R.; White, K. Ian; Socolich, Michael A.; Henning, Robert W.; Šrajer, Vukica; Ranganathan, Rama

    2017-01-01

    The internal mechanics of proteins—the coordinated motions of amino acids and the pattern of forces constraining these motions—connects protein structure to function. Here we describe a new method combining the application of strong electric field pulses to protein crystals with time-resolved X-ray crystallography to observe conformational changes in spatial and temporal detail. Using a human PDZ domain (LNX2PDZ2) as a model system, we show that protein crystals tolerate electric field pulses strong enough to drive concerted motions on the sub-microsecond timescale. The induced motions are subtle, involve diverse physical mechanisms, and occur throughout the protein structure. The global pattern of electric-field-induced motions is consistent with both local and allosteric conformational changes naturally induced by ligand binding, including at conserved functional sites in the PDZ domain family. This work lays the foundation for comprehensive experimental study of the mechanical basis of protein function. PMID:27926732

  10. Determination of medium electrical properties through full-wave modelling of frequency domain reflectrometry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Frédéric; Lambot, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Accurate knowledge of the shallow soil properties is of prime importance in agricultural, hydrological and environmental engineering. During the last decade, numerous geophysical techniques, either invasive or resorting to proximal or remote sensing, have been developed and applied for quantitative characterization of soil properties. Amongst them, time domain reflectrometry (TDR) and frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) are recognized as standard techniques for the determination of soil dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity, based on the reflected electromagnetic waves from a probe inserted into the soil. TDR data were first commonly analyzed in the time domain using methods considering only a part of the waveform information. Later, advancements have led to the possibility of analyzing the TDR signal through full-wave inverse modeling either in the time or the frequency domains. A major advantage of FDR compared to TDR is the possibility to increase the bandwidth, thereby increasing the information content of the data and providing more detailed characterization of the medium. Amongst the recent works in this field, Minet et al. (2010) developed a modeling procedure for processing FDR data based on an exact solution of Maxwell's equations for wave propagation in one-dimensional multilayered media. In this approach, the probe head is decoupled from the medium and is fully described by characteristic transfer functions. The authors successfully validated the method for homogeneous sand subject to a range of water contents. In the present study, we further validated the modelling approach using reference liquids with well-characterized frequency-dependent electrical properties. In addition, the FDR model was coupled with a dielectric mixing model to investigate the ability of retrieving water content, pore water electrical conductivity and sand porosity from inversion of FDR data acquired in sand subject to different water content levels. Finally, the

  11. Remote Powering and Steering of Self-Propelling Microdevices by Modulated Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rachita; Velev, Orlin

    2011-03-01

    We have demonstrated a new class of self-propelling particles based on semiconductor diodes powered by an external uniform alternating electric field. The millimeter-sized diodes floating in water rectify the applied voltage. The resulting particle-localized electroosmotic flux propels them in the direction of the cathode or the anode depending on their surface charge. These particles suggest solutions to problems facing self-propelling microdevices, and have potential for a range of additional functions. The next step in this direction is the steering of these devices. We will present a novel technique that allows on-demand steering of these self-propelling diodes. We control remotely their direction of motion by modifying the duty cycle of the applied AC field. The diodes change their direction of motion when a DC component (wave asymmetry) is introduced into the AC signal. The DC component leads to redistribution of the counterions near the diode surface. The electric field resulting from this counterion redistribution exerts a torque on the dipole across the diode, causing its rotation. Thus, the reversal of the direction of the electroosmotic flux caused by field asymmetry leads to reversal of the direction of diode motion. This new principle of steering of self-propelling diodes can find applications in MEMs and micro-robotics.

  12. Effects Of Electric Field On Hydrocarbon-Fueled Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Z.-G.; Hegde, U.

    2003-01-01

    It has been observed that flames are susceptible to electric fields that are much weaker than the breakdown field strength of the flame gases. When an external electric field is imposed on a flame, the ions generated in the flame reaction zone drift in the direction of the electric forces exerted on them. The moving ions collide with the neutral species and change the velocity distribution in the affected region. This is often referred to as ionic wind effect. In addition, the removal of ions from the flame reaction zone can alter the chemical reaction pathway of the flame. On the other hand, the presence of space charges carried by moving ions affects the electric field distribution. As a result, the flame often changes its shape, location and color once an external electric field is applied. The interplay between the flame movement and the change of electric field makes it difficult to determine the flame location for a given configuration of electrodes and fuel source. In normal gravity, the buoyancy-induced flow often complicates the problem and hinders detailed study of the interaction between the flame and the electric field. In this work, the microgravity environment established at the 2.2 Second Drop Tower at the NASA Glenn Research Center is utilized to effectively remove the buoyant acceleration. The interaction between the flame and the electric field is studied in a one-dimensional domain. A specially designed electrode makes flame current measurements possible; thus, the mobility of ions, ion density, and ionic wind effect can be evaluated.

  13. Microstickies agglomeration by electric field.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaotang Tony; Hsieh, Jeffery S

    2016-01-01

    Microstickies deposits on both paper machine and paper products when it agglomerates under step change in ionic strength, pH, temperature and chemical additives. These stickies increase the down time of the paper mill and decrease the quality of paper. The key property of microstickies is its smaller size, which leads to low removal efficiency and difficulties in measurement. Thus the increase of microstickies size help improve both removal efficiency and reduce measurement difficulty. In this paper, a new agglomeration technology based on electric field was investigated. The electric treatment could also increase the size of stickies particles by around 100 times. The synergetic effect between electric field treatment and detacky chemicals/dispersants, including polyvinyl alcohol, poly(diallylmethylammonium chloride) and lignosulfonate, was also studied.

  14. The high-performance electric field detector EFD for space-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badoni, Davide

    2016-04-01

    We present the prototype of a new electric field detector (EFD) for space applications, that has been built and fully tested in laboratory in the framework of the LIMADOU collaboration between Italy and China aimed at developing the CSES (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite) space mission (launch scheduled by the end of 2016). Investigations of the electromagnetic near-Earth space environment represent an important field of research as demonstrated by the satellite missions, already accomplished and/or planned to be launched in the near future, devoted to such issue (e.g. INJUN-5; POLAR, DEMETER, THEMIS, TARANIS, CSES, etc.). The payload of these satellites includes several instruments to measure electric fields in a broad frequency band along with magnetic field, plasma parameters and high energy particles fluxes. Even though these phenomena are mainly dominated by the solar activity, they are also conditioned by atmospheric and ionospheric processes, seismic activity, and human electromagnetic sources. The CSES mission will prosecute the exploratory study performed by the DEMETER satellite, by studying the electromagnetic, plasma and particle perturbations caused by seismicity in the ionosphere, magnetosphere and inner Van Allen belts. This task will be carried out through a detailed investigation of the anomalous electromagnetic field fluctuations, ionospheric plasma perturbations and instabilities accompanying earthquakes of moderate and strong magnitude, as observed by numerous satellite. As a secondary objective, the CSES satellite will also investigate the influence of the electromagnetic emissions of anthropogenic origin on the ionosphere and magnetosphere. The EFD detector consists of four probes designed to be installed on four booms deployed from the 3-axes stabilized satellite. The instrument has been conceived for space-borne measurements of electromagnetic phenomena such as magnetospheric waves, seimo-electromagnetic perturbations, anthropogenic

  15. Magnetic Field Control of the Entry into the Ionosphere of Whistler-Mode Waves Produced by Venus Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Christopher; Wei, Hanying; Zhang, Tielong

    The sampling rate of the Venus Express fluxgate magnetometer was set so that it could register the 100 Hz signals previously reported by the electric antenna on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter. At least two minutes of each periapsis pass is devoted to recording at 128 Hz. Many of these passes do observe signals near 100 Hz, and these signals invariably have the properties expected for whistler-mode waves. They are nearly circularly polarized, and they propagate very closely to along the magnetic field. The waves are also only a fraction of a second in duration. They do not occur every orbit. The magnetic field is often nearly horizontal throughout the periapsis pass. When it is, no signals are seen. When the field deviates more than 15o from the horizontal, signals can reach the spacecraft but they again are not always present. The number 15o is quite similar to the size of the cone of non-propagation of the whistler-mode perpendicular to the magnetic field. Thus this observation, too, is consistent with a cloud level source of electric discharges whose electromagnetic radiation is refracted along the vertical upon entering the ionosphere. Only when and where this field is inclined to the horizontal can the signal enter the ionosphere. We continue to refine our estimate of the rate of lightning on Venus, but it is clear that the rate is very significant, comparable to activity in the terrestrial atmosphere.

  16. Shear Wave Speed Estimation Using Reverberant Shear Wave Fields: Implementation and Feasibility Studies.

    PubMed

    Ormachea, Juvenal; Castaneda, Benjamin; Parker, Kevin J

    2018-05-01

    Elastography is a modality that estimates tissue stiffness and, thus, provides useful information for clinical diagnosis. Attention has focused on the measurement of shear wave propagation; however, many methods assume shear wave propagation is unidirectional and aligned with the lateral imaging direction. Any deviations from the assumed propagation result in biased estimates of shear wave speed. To address these challenges, directional filters have been applied to isolate shear waves with different propagation directions. Recently, a new method was proposed for tissue stiffness estimation involving creation of a reverberant shear wave field propagating in all directions within the medium. These reverberant conditions lead to simple solutions, facile implementation and rapid viscoelasticity estimation of local tissue. In this work, this new approach based on reverberant shear waves was evaluated and compared with another well-known elastography technique using two calibrated elastic and viscoelastic phantoms. Additionally, the clinical feasibility of this technique was analyzed by assessing shear wave speed in human liver and breast tissues, in vivo. The results indicate that it is possible to estimate the viscoelastic properties in each scanned medium. Moreover, a better approach to estimation of shear wave speed was obtained when only the phase information was taken from the reverberant waves, which is equivalent to setting all magnitudes within the bandpass equal to unity: an idealization of a perfectly isotropic reverberant shear wave field. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. AC field exposure study: human exposure to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, J.M.

    1985-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method of estimating human exposure to the 60 Hz electric fields created by transmission lines. The Activity Systems Model simulates human activities in a variety of situations where exposure to electric fields is possible. The model combines maps of electric fields, activity maps, and experimentally determined activity factors to provide histograms of time spent in electric fields of various strengths in the course of agricultural, recreational, and domestic activities. For corroboration, the study team measured actual human exposure at locations across the United States near transmission lines ranging in voltage frommore » 115 to 1200 kV. The data were collected with a specially designed vest that measures exposure. These data demonstrate the accuracy of the exposure model presented in this report and revealed that most exposure time is spent in fields of magnitudes similar to many household situations. The report provides annual exposure estimates for human activities near transmission lines and in the home and compares them with exposure data from typical laboratory animal experiments. For one exposure index, the cumulative product of time and electric field, exposure during some of the laboratory animal experiments is two to four orders of magnitude greater than cumulative exposure for a human during one year of outdoor work on a farm crossed by a transmission line.« less

  18. Electric Fields near RF Heating and Current Drive Antennas in Tore Supra Measured with Dynamic Stark Effect Spectroscopy*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepper, C. C.; Martin, E. H.; Isler, R. C.; Colas, L.; Hillairet, J.; Marandet, Y.; Lotte, Ph.; Colledani, G.; Martin, V.; Hillis, D. L.; Harris, J. H.; Saoutic, B.

    2011-10-01

    Computational models of the interaction between RF waves and the scrape-off layer plasma near ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) and lower hybrid current drive launch antennas are continuously improving. These models mainly predict the RF electric fields produced in the SOL and, therefore, the best measurement for verification of these models would be a direct measurement of these electric fields. Both types of launch antennas are used on Tore Supra and are designed for high power (up to 4MW/antenna) and long pulse (> > 25s) operation. Direct, non-intrusive measurement of the RF electric fields in the vicinity of these structures is achieved by fitting spectral profiles of deuterium Balmer-alpha and Balmer-beta to a model that includes the dynamic, external-field Stark effect, as well as Zeeman splitting and Doppler broadening mechanisms. The measurements are compared to the mentioned, near-field region, RF antenna models. *Work supported in part by the US DOE under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.

  19. Near-membrane electric field calcium ion dehydration.

    PubMed

    Barger, James P; Dillon, Patrick F

    2016-12-01

    The dehydration of ion-water complexes prior to ion channel transit has focused on channel protein-mediated dissociation of water. Ion dehydration by the membrane electric field has not previously been considered. Near membrane electric fields have previously been shown to cause the disassociation of non-covalently bound small molecule-small molecule, small molecule-protein, and protein-protein complexes. It is well known that cosmotropic, structure making ions such as calcium and sodium significantly bind multiple water ions in solution. It is also known that these ions are often not hydrated as they pass through membrane ion channels. Using capillary electrophoresis, the range of electric fields needed to strip water molecules from calcium ions has been measured. Ion migration velocity is a linear function of the electric field. At low electric fields, the migration rate of calcium ion was shown to be linearly related to the applied electric field. Using a form of the Stoke's equation applicable to ion migration, the hydrated calcium radius was found to be 0.334nm, corresponding to a water hydration shell of 5.09 water molecules. At higher electric fields, the slope of the calcium migration velocity as a function of the electric field increased, which was modeled as a decrease in the radius of the migrating ion as the water was removed. Using a tanh function to model the transition of the ion from a hydrated to a stripped state, the transition had a midpoint at 446V/cm, and was 88% complete at 587V/cm with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The migration velocity of the stripped calcium ion was found to be a function of both the decrease in radius and an increase in the effective, electronic viscosity of the dipole medium through which the dehydrated ion moved. The size of the electric field needed to dehydrate calcium occurs 6-7nm from the cell membrane. Calcium ions within this distance from the membrane will be devoid of water molecules when they reach the

  20. Penetration electric fields: A Volland Stern approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, William J.

    2007-07-01

    This paper reformulates the Volland Stern model, separating contributions from corotation and convection to predict electric field penetration of the inner magnetosphere using data from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite. In the absence of shielding, the model electric field is EVS=ΦPC/2LYRE, where ΦPC is the polar cap potential and 2LYRE is the width of the magnetosphere along the dawn dusk meridian. ΦPC is estimated from the interplanetary electric field (IEF) and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind (PSW); values of LY were approximated using PSW and simple force-balance considerations. ACE measurements on 16 17 April 2002 were then used to calculate EVS for comparison with the eastward electric field component (EJφ) detected by the incoherent scatter radar at Jicamarca, Peru. While the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was southward, the model predicted observed ratios of EVS/IEF. During intervals of northward IMF, EJφ turned westward suggesting that a northward IMF BZ system of field-aligned currents affected the electrodynamics of the dayside ionosphere on rapid time scales.

  1. Characterization of applied fields for ion mobility separations in traveling wave based structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM)

    DOE PAGES

    Hamid, Ahmed M.; Prabhakaran, Aneesh; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; ...

    2018-03-26

    Ion mobility (IM) is rapidly gaining attention for the separation and analysis of biomolecules due to the ability to distinguish the shapes of ions. However, conventional constant electric field drift tube IM separations have limited resolving power, constrained by practical limitations on the path length and maximum applied voltage. The implementation of traveling waves (TW) in IM removes the latter limitation, allowing higher resolution to be achieved using extended path lengths. Both of these can be readily obtained in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM), which are fabricated from arrays of electrodes patterned on two parallel surfaces where potentials aremore » applied to generate appropriate electric fields between the surfaces. Here we have investigated the relationship between the primary SLIM variables, such as electrode dimensions, inter-surface gap, and the applied TW voltages, that directly impact the fields experienced by ions. Ion trajectory simulations and theoretical calculations have been utilized to understand the dependence of SLIM geometry and effective electric fields on IM resolution. The variables explored impact both ion confinement and the observed IM resolution using SLIM modules.« less

  2. Characterization of applied fields for ion mobility separations in traveling wave based structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid, Ahmed M.; Prabhakaran, Aneesh; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.

    Ion mobility (IM) is rapidly gaining attention for the analysis of biomolecules due to the ability to distinguish the shapes of ions. However, conventional constant electric field drift tube IM has limited resolving power, constrained by practical limitations on the path length and maximum applied voltage. The implementation of traveling waves (TW) in IM removes the latter limitation, allowing higher resolution to be achieved using extended path lengths. These can be readily obtainable in structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM), which are fabricated from electric fields that are generated by appropriate potentials applied to arrays of electrodes patterned on twomore » parallel surfaces. In this work we have investigated the relationship between the various SLIM variables, such as electrode dimensions, inter-surface gap, and the TW applied voltages, that directly impact the fields experienced by ions. Ion simulation and theoretical calculations have been utilized to understand the dependence of SLIM geometry and effective electric field. The variables explored impact both ion confinement and the observed IM resolution in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) modules.« less

  3. Characterization of applied fields for ion mobility separations in traveling wave based structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid, Ahmed M.; Prabhakaran, Aneesh; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.

    Ion mobility (IM) is rapidly gaining attention for the separation and analysis of biomolecules due to the ability to distinguish the shapes of ions. However, conventional constant electric field drift tube IM separations have limited resolving power, constrained by practical limitations on the path length and maximum applied voltage. The implementation of traveling waves (TW) in IM removes the latter limitation, allowing higher resolution to be achieved using extended path lengths. Both of these can be readily obtained in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM), which are fabricated from arrays of electrodes patterned on two parallel surfaces where potentials aremore » applied to generate appropriate electric fields between the surfaces. Here we have investigated the relationship between the primary SLIM variables, such as electrode dimensions, inter-surface gap, and the applied TW voltages, that directly impact the fields experienced by ions. Ion trajectory simulations and theoretical calculations have been utilized to understand the dependence of SLIM geometry and effective electric fields on IM resolution. The variables explored impact both ion confinement and the observed IM resolution using SLIM modules.« less

  4. Current drive by helicon waves

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Manash Kumar; Bora, Dhiraj; ITER Organization, Cadarache Centre-building 519, 131008 St. Paul-Lez-Durance

    2009-01-01

    Helicity in the dynamo field components of helicon wave is examined during the novel study of wave induced helicity current drive. Strong poloidal asymmetry in the wave magnetic field components is observed during helicon discharges formed in a toroidal vacuum chamber of small aspect ratio. High frequency regime is chosen to increase the phase velocity of helicon waves which in turn minimizes the resonant wave-particle interactions and enhances the contribution of the nonresonant current drive mechanisms. Owing to the strong poloidal asymmetry in the wave magnetic field structures, plasma current is driven mostly by the dynamo-electric-field, which arise due tomore » the wave helicity injection by helicon waves. Small, yet finite contribution from the suppressed wave-particle resonance cannot be ruled out in the operational regime examined. A brief discussion on the parametric dependence of plasma current along with numerical estimations of nonresonant components is presented. A close agreement between the numerical estimation and measured plasma current magnitude is obtained during the present investigation.« less

  5. Manipulation of positron orbits in a dipole magnetic field with fluctuating electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, H.; Horn-Stanja, J.; Nißl, S.; Stenson, E. V.; Hergenhahn, U.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Singer, M.; Dickmann, M.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Stoneking, M. R.; Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M.

    2018-01-01

    We report the manipulation of positron orbits in a toroidal dipole magnetic field configuration realized with electric fields generated by segmented electrodes. When the toroidal circulation motion of positrons in the dipole field is coupled with time-varying electric fields generated by azimuthally segmented outer electrodes, positrons undergo oscillations of their radial positions. This enables quick manipulation of the spatial profiles of positrons in a dipole field trap by choosing appropriate frequency, amplitude, phase, and gating time of the electric fields. According to numerical orbit analysis, we applied these electric fields to positrons injected from the NEPOMUC slow positron facility into a prototype dipole field trap experiment with a permanent magnet. Measurements with annihilation γ-rays clearly demonstrated the efficient compression effects of positrons into the strong magnetic field region of the dipole field configuration. This positron manipulation technique can be used as one of essential tools for future experiments on the formation of electron-positron plasmas.

  6. High electric field conduction in low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Priyanka; Yuan, Mengxue; Gao, Jun; Furman, Eugene; Lanagan, Michael T.

    2018-02-01

    Electrical conduction in silica-based glasses under a low electric field is dominated by high mobility ions such as sodium, and there is a transition from ionic transport to electronic transport as the electric field exceeds 108 V/m at low temperatures. Electrical conduction under a high electric field was investigated in thin low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glass samples, showing nonlinear conduction with the current density scaling approximately with E1/2, where E is the electric field. In addition, thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) characterization was carried out on room-temperature electrically poled glass samples, and an anomalous discharging current flowing in the same direction as the charging current was observed. High electric field conduction and TSDC results led to the conclusion that Poole-Frenkel based electronic transport occurs in the mobile-cation-depleted region adjacent to the anode, and accounts for the observed anomalous current.

  7. Electric field controlled emulsion phase contactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.

    1995-01-01

    A system for contacting liquid phases comprising a column for transporting a liquid phase contacting system, the column having upper and lower regions. The upper region has a nozzle for introducing a dispersed phase and means for applying thereto a vertically oriented high intensity pulsed electric field. This electric field allows improved flow rates while shattering the dispersed phase into many micro-droplets upon exiting the nozzle to form a dispersion within a continuous phase. The lower region employs means for applying to the dispersed phase a horizontally oriented high intensity pulsed electric field so that the dispersed phase undergoes continuous coalescence and redispersion while being urged from side to side as it progresses through the system, increasing greatly the mass transfer opportunity.

  8. Electric field controlled emulsion phase contactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, T.C.

    1995-01-31

    A system is described for contacting liquid phases comprising a column for transporting a liquid phase contacting system, the column having upper and lower regions. The upper region has a nozzle for introducing a dispersed phase and means for applying thereto a vertically oriented high intensity pulsed electric field. This electric field allows improved flow rates while shattering the dispersed phase into many micro-droplets upon exiting the nozzle to form a dispersion within a continuous phase. The lower region employs means for applying to the dispersed phase a horizontally oriented high intensity pulsed electric field so that the dispersed phase undergoes continuous coalescence and redispersion while being urged from side to side as it progresses through the system, increasing greatly the mass transfer opportunity. 5 figs.

  9. High field side launch of RF waves: A new approach to reactor actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, G. M.; Baek, S. G.; Bonoli, P. T.; Faust, I. C.; LaBombard, B. L.; Lin, Y.; Mumgaard, R. T.; Parker, R. R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Vieira, R.; Whyte, D. G.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Launching radio frequency (RF) waves from the high field side (HFS) of a tokamak offers significant advantages over low field side (LFS) launch with respect to both wave physics and plasma material interactions (PMI). For lower hybrid (LH) waves, the higher magnetic field opens the window between wave accessibility (n∥≡c k∥/ω >√{1 -ωpi 2/ω2+ωpe 2/ωce 2 }+ωp e/|ωc e| ) and the condition for strong electron Landau damping (n∥˜√{30 /Te } with Te in keV), allowing LH waves from the HFS to penetrate into the core of a burning plasma, while waves launched from the LFS are restricted to the periphery of the plasma. The lower n∥ of waves absorbed at higher Te yields a higher current drive efficiency as well. In the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF), HFS launch allows for direct access to the mode conversion layer where mode converted waves absorb strongly on thermal electrons and ions, thus avoiding the generation of energetic minority ion tails. The absence of turbulent heat and particle fluxes on the HFS, particularly in double null configuration, makes it the ideal location to minimize PMI damage to the antenna structure. The quiescent SOL also eliminates the need to couple LH waves across a long distance to the separatrix, as the antenna can be located close to plasma without risking damage to the structure. Improved impurity screening on the HFS will help eliminate the long-standing issues of high Z impurity accumulation with ICRF. Looking toward a fusion reactor, the HFS is the only possible location for a plasma-facing RF antenna that will survive long-term. By integrating the antenna into the blanket module it is possible to improve the tritium breeding ratio compared with an antenna occupying an equatorial port plug. Blanket modules will require remote handling of numerous cooling pipes and electrical connections, and the addition of transmission lines will not substantially increase the level of complexity. The obvious engineering

  10. Diffraction of Harmonic Flexural Waves in a Cracked Elastic Plate Carrying Electrical Current

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Hasanyan, Davresh; Librescu, iviu; Qin, Zhanming

    2005-01-01

    The scattering effect of harmonic flexural waves at a through crack in an elastic plate carrying electrical current is investigated. In this context, the Kirchhoffean bending plate theory is extended as to include magnetoelastic interactions. An incident wave giving rise to bending moments symmetric about the longitudinal z-axis of the crack is applied. Fourier transform technique reduces the problem to dual integral equations, which are then cast to a system of two singular integral equations. Efficient numerical computation is implemented to get the bending moment intensity factor for arbitrary frequency of the incident wave and of arbitrary electrical current intensity. The asymptotic behaviour of the bending moment intensity factor is analysed and parametric studies are conducted.

  11. Relationship of the interplanetary electric field to the high-latitude ionospheric electric field and currents Observations and model simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauer, C. R.; Banks, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    The electrical coupling between the solar wind, magnetosphere, and ionosphere is studied. The coupling is analyzed using observations of high-latitude ion convection measured by the Sondre Stromfjord radar in Greenland and a computer simulation. The computer simulation calculates the ionospheric electric potential distribution for a given configuration of field-aligned currents and conductivity distribution. The technique for measuring F-region in velocities at high time resolution over a large range of latitudes is described. Variations in the currents on ionospheric plasma convection are examined using a model of field-aligned currents linking the solar wind with the dayside, high-latitude ionosphere. The data reveal that high-latitude ionospheric convection patterns, electric fields, and field-aligned currents are dependent on IMF orientation; it is observed that the electric field, which drives the F-region plasma curve, responds within about 14 minutes to IMF variations in the magnetopause. Comparisons of the simulated plasma convection with the ion velocity measurements reveal good correlation between the data.

  12. A corotation electric field model of the Earth derived from Swarm satellite magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maus, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Rotation of the Earth in its own geomagnetic field sets up a primary corotation electric field, compensated by a secondary electric field of induced electrical charges. For the geomagnetic field measured by the Swarm constellation of satellites, a derivation of the global corotation electric field inside and outside of the corotation region is provided here, in both inertial and corotating reference frames. The Earth is assumed an electrical conductor, the lower atmosphere an insulator, followed by the corotating ionospheric E region again as a conductor. Outside of the Earth's core, the induced charge is immediately accessible from the spherical harmonic Gauss coefficients of the geomagnetic field. The charge density is positive at high northern and southern latitudes, negative at midlatitudes, and increases strongly toward the Earth's center. Small vertical electric fields of about 0.3 mV/m in the insulating atmospheric gap are caused by the corotation charges located in the ionosphere above and the Earth below. The corotation charges also flow outward into the region of closed magnetic field lines, forcing the plasmasphere to corotate. The electric field of the corotation charges further extends outside of the corotating regions, contributing radial outward electric fields of about 10 mV/m in the northern and southern polar caps. Depending on how the magnetosphere responds to these fields, the Earth may carry a net electric charge.

  13. Beyond 2D: Parallel Electric Fields and Dissipation in Guide Field Reconnectio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, F. D.; Ergun, R.; Ahmadi, N.; Goodrich, K.; Eriksson, S.; Shimoda, E.; Burch, J. L.; Phan, T.; Torbert, R. B.; Strangeway, R. J.; Giles, B. L.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, NASA launched the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission to study phenomenon of magnetic reconnection down to the electron scale. Advantages of MMS include a 20s spin period and long axial booms, which together allow for measurement of 3-D electric fields with accuracy down to 1 mV/m. During the two dayside phases of the prime mission, MMS has observed multiple electron and ion diffusion region events at the Earth's subsolar and flank magnetopause, as well as in the magnetosheath, providing an option to study both symmetric and asymmetric reconnection at a variety of guide field strengths. We present a review of parallel electric fields observed by MMS during diffusion region events, and discuss their implications for simulations and laboratory observations of reconnection. We find that as the guide field increases, the dissipation in the diffusion region transitions from being due to currents and fields perpendicular to the background magnetic field, to being associated with parallel electric fields and currents. Additionally, the observed parallel electric fields are significantly larger than those predicted by simulations of reconnection under strong guide field conditions.

  14. Cloaking magnetic field and generating electric field with topological insulator and superconductor bi-layer sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin

    2017-12-01

    When an electric field is applied on a topological insulator, not only the electric field is generated, but also the magnetic field is generated, vice versa. I designed topological insulator and superconductor bi-layer magnetic cloak, derived the electric field and magnetic field inside and outside the topological insulator and superconductor sphere. Simulation and calculation results show that the applied magnetic field is screened by the topological insulator and superconductor bi-layer, and the electric field is generated in the cloaked region.

  15. A New Electric Field in Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakit, K.; Shay, M. A.; Cassak, P.; Ruffolo, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important plasma process that drives the dynamics of the plasma in the magnetosphere and plays a crucial role in the interaction between magnetospheric and magnetosheath plasma. It has been shown that when a reconnection occurs in a collisionless plasma, it exhibits the Hall electric field, an in-plane electric field structure pointing toward the X-line. In this work, we show that when the reconnection has asymmetric inflow conditions such as the reconnection at the day-side magnetopause, a new in-plane electric field structure can exist. This electric field points away from the X-line and is distinct from the known Hall electric field. We argue that the origin of the electric field is associated with the physics of finite Larmor radius. A theory and predictions of the electric field properties are presented and backed up by results from fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations of asymmetric reconnection with various inflow conditions. Under normal day-side reconnection inflow conditions, the electric field is expected to occur on the magnetospheric side of the X-line pointing Earthward. Hence, it has a potential to be used as a signature for satellites, such as the upcoming Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) mission, to locate the reconnection sites at the day-side magnetopause. This research was supported by the postdoctoral research sponsorship of Mahidol University (KM), NSF grants ATM-0645271 - Career Award (MAS) and AGS-0953463 (PAC), NASA grants NNX08A083G - MMS IDS, NNX11AD69G, and NNX13AD72G (MAS) and NNX10AN08A (PAC), and the Thailand Research Fund (DR).

  16. On traveling-wave field-effect flow control for simultaneous induced-charge electroosmotic pumping and mixing in microfluidics: physical perspectives and theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weiyu; Ren, Yukun; Tao, Ye; Li, Yanbo; Wu, Qisheng

    2018-05-01

    Since its first proposition at the end of the last century (Schasfoort et al 1999 Science 286 942-5), field-effect flow control at micrometer dimensions has attracted tremendous attention from the microfluidic community. Most previous research on this subject has mainly focused on enhancing the electroosmotic pump flow rate by introducing an additional in-phase counterionic charge across the diffusing screening cloud with external gate electrodes of static DC voltages. However, there is a flaw, namely that AC fields, which suppress undesirable electrochemical reactions, result in zero time-averaged flow. Starting from this point, we present herein a brand new approach to traveling-wave field-effect electroosmosis control from a theoretical point of view, in the context of a smart manipulation tool for the stratified liquid content of miniaturization systems. In the configuration of a traveling-wave flow field-effect transistor (TW-FFET), the field-induced out-of-phase Debye screening charge within the thin double layer originates from the forward propagation of a traveling potential wave along a discrete arrangement of external gating electrode arrays, which interacts actively with the horizontal standing-wave electric field imposed across the source-drain terminal. Since the voltage waves and induced free charge are all sinusoidal functions of the observation time, the net ICEO flow component can survive in a broad frequency range. Due to the action of the background AC electric field on the inhomogeneous counterionic charge induced at the solution/sidewall interface, asymmetric ICEO vortex patterns appear above the traveling-wave gate arrays, giving rise to simultaneous induced-charge electroosmotic pumping and mixing of fluidic samples. A mathematical model is then developed to numerically investigate the feasibility of TW-FFETs in electrokinetic microflow manipulation. A prototyping paradigm of fully electrokinetics-driven microfabricated fluidic networks in a

  17. Combination pulsed electric field with ethanol solvent for Nannochloropsis sp. extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafis, Ghazy Ammar; Mumpuni, Perwitasari Yekti; Indarto, Budiman, Arief

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, energy is one of human basic needs. As the human population increased, energy consumption also increased. This condition causes energy depletion. In case of the situation, alternative energy is needed to replace existing energy. Microalgae is chosen to become one of renewable energy resource, especially biodiesel, because it contains high amount of lipid instead of other feedstock which usually used. Fortunately, Indonesia has large area of water and high intensity of sunlight so microalgae cultivation becomes easier. Nannochloropsis sp., one of microalgae species, becomes the main focus because of its high lipid content. Many ways to break the cell wall of microalgae so the lipid content inside the microalgae will be released, for example conventional extraction, ultrasonic wave extraction, pressing, and electrical method. The most effective way for extraction is electrical method such as pulsed electric field method (PEF). The principal work of this method is by draining the electrical current into parallel plate. Parallel plate will generate the electrical field to break microalgae cell wall and the lipid will be released. The aim of this work is to evaluate two-stage procedure for extraction of useful components from microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. The first stage of this procedure includes pre-treatment of microalgae by ethanol solvent extraction and the second stage applies the PEF extraction using a binary mixture of water and ethanol solvent. Ethanol is chosen as solvent because it's safer to be used and easier to be handled than other solvent. Some variables that used to study the most effective operation conditions are frequency and duty cycle for microalgae. The optimum condition based on this research are at frequency 1 Hz and duty cycle 13%.

  18. Electric field distribution on surface of the artificial magnetic conductor: miniaturization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Welyson T. S.; Mesquita, Renato C.; Silva, Elson J.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a study of the influence of the geometric shape on the resonance frequency of the artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) by analysis of the electric field distributions on top of the surface metallic patch inside the unit cell. It is known that various parameters such as geometry, dielectric substrate thickness, gap between patches, length and width of patch, size of unit cell, permittivity and permeability strongly affect the resonance frequency. In attempts to elucidate the miniaturization process, as reference, a metallic square patch with a unit cell of size 10 mm × 10 mm was simulated and a resonance frequency of 5.75 GHz was obtained. The device has illuminated by a plane wave with polarization in the y direction. Additionally, different geometries were performed such as triangle, hexagon, circle and cross of Jerusalem. We realized that the field distribution can be used as an physical insight to understand the AMC miniaturization process. In particular, bow-tie geometry provided considerable electrical miniaturization compared with square patch, about 1.5 GHz. The results are supported by finite element method. Our findings suggest that shift at resonant frequency may be interpreted as a variation in the net induced electric polarizability on the surface of the metallic patches.

  19. Lightning-generated whistler waves observed by probes on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System satellite at low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzworth, R. H.; McCarthy, M. P.; Pfaff, R. F.; Jacobson, A. R.; Willcockson, W. L.; Rowland, D. E.

    2011-06-01

    Direct evidence is presented for a causal relationship between lightning and strong electric field transients inside equatorial ionospheric density depletions. In fact, these whistler mode plasma waves may be the dominant electric field signal within such depletions. Optical lightning data from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite and global lightning location information from the World Wide Lightning Location Network are presented as independent verification that these electric field transients are caused by lightning. The electric field instrument on C/NOFS routinely measures lightning-related electric field wave packets or sferics, associated with simultaneous measurements of optical flashes at all altitudes encountered by the satellite (401-867 km). Lightning-generated whistler waves have abundant access to the topside ionosphere, even close to the magnetic equator.

  20. Lightning-Generated Whistler Waves Observed by Probes On The Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System Satellite at Low Latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzworth, R. H.; McCarthy, M. P.; Pfaff, R. F.; Jacobson, A. R.; Willcockson, W. L.; Rowland, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    Direct evidence is presented for a causal relationship between lightning and strong electric field transients inside equatorial ionospheric density depletions. In fact, these whistler mode plasma waves may be the dominant electric field signal within such depletions. Optical lightning data from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite and global lightning location information from the World Wide Lightning Location Network are presented as independent verification that these electric field transients are caused by lightning. The electric field instrument on C/NOFS routinely measures lightning ]related electric field wave packets or sferics, associated with simultaneous measurements of optical flashes at all altitudes encountered by the satellite (401.867 km). Lightning ]generated whistler waves have abundant access to the topside ionosphere, even close to the magnetic equator.

  1. Polar Spacecraft Based Comparisons of Intense Electric Fields and Poynting Flux Near and Within the Plasma Sheet-Tail Lobe Boundary to UVI Images: An Energy Source for the Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wygant, J. R.; Keiling, A.; Cattell, C. A.; Johnson, M.; Lysak, R. L.; Temerin, M.; Mozer, F. S.; Kletzing, C. A.; Scudder, J. D.; Peterson, W.; hide

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present measurements from two passes of the Polar spacecraft of intense electric and magnetic field structures associated with Alfven waves at and within the outer boundary of the plasma sheet at geocentric distances of 4-6 R(sub E), near local midnight. The electric field variations have maximum values exceeding 100 mV/m and are typically polarized approximately normal to the plasma sheet boundary. The electric field structures investigated vary over timescales (in the spacecraft frame.) ranging front 1 to 30 s. They are associated with strong magnetic field fluctuations with amplitudes of 10-40 nT which lie predominantly ill the plane of the plasma sheet and are perpendicular to the local magnetic field. The Poynting flux associated with the perturbation fields measured at these altitudes is about 1-2 ergs per square centimeters per second and is directed along the average magnetic field direction toward the ionosphere. If the measured Poynting flux is mapped to ionospheric altitudes along converging magnetic field lines. the resulting energy flux ranges up to 100 ergs per centimeter squared per second. These strongly enhanced Poynting fluxes appear to occur in layers which are observed when the spacecraft is magnetically conjugate (to within a 1 degree mapping accuracy) to intense auroral structures as detected by the Polar UV Imager (UVI). The electron energy flux (averaged over a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees) deposited in the ionosphere due to auroral electron beams as estimated from the intensity in the UVI Lyman-Birge-Hopfield-long filters is 15-30 ergs per centimeter squared per second. Thus there is evidence that these electric field structures provide sufficient Poynting flux to power the acceleration of auroral electrons (as well as the energization of upflowing ions and Joule heating of the ionosphere). During some events the phasing and ratio of the transverse electric and magnetic field variations are consistent with earthward

  2. Polar spacecraft based comparisons of intense electric fields and Poynting flux near and within the plasma sheet-tail lobe boundary to UVI images: An energy source for the aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wygant, J. R.; Keiling, A.; Cattell, C. A.; Johnson, M.; Lysak, R. L.; Temerin, M.; Mozer, F. S.; Kletzing, C. A.; Scudder, J. D.; Peterson, W.; Russell, C. T.; Parks, G.; Brittnacher, M.; Germany, G.; Spann, J.

    2000-08-01

    In this paper, we present measurements from two passes of the Polar spacecraft of intense electric and magnetic field structures associated with Alfven waves at and within the outer boundary of the plasma sheet at geocentric distances of 4-6 RE near local midnight. The electric field variations have maximum values exceeding 100 mV/m and are typically polarized approximately normal to the plasma sheet boundary. The electric field structures investigated vary over timescales (in the spacecraft frame) ranging from 1 to 30 s. They are associated with strong magnetic field fluctuations with amplitudes of 10-40 nT which lie predominantly in the plane of the plasma sheet and are perpendicular to the local magnetic field. The Poynting flux associated with the perturbation fields measured at these altitudes is about 1-2 ergs cm-2 s-1 and is directed along the average magnetic field direction toward the ionosphere. If the measured Poynting flux is mapped to ionospheric altitudes along converging magnetic field lines, the resulting energy flux ranges up to 100 ergs cm-2s-1. These strongly enhanced Poynting fluxes appear to occur in layers which are observed when the spacecraft is magnetically conjugate (to within a 1° mapping accuracy) to intense auroral structures as detected by the Polar UV Imager (UVI). The electron energy flux (averaged over a spatial resolution of 0.5° ) deposited in the ionosphere due to auroral electron beams as estimated from the intensity in the UVI Lyman-Birge-Hopfield-long filters is 15-30 ergs cm-2s-1. Thus there is evidence that these electric field structures provide sufficient Poynting flux to power the acceleration of auroral electrons (as well as the energization of upflowing ions and Joule heating of the ionosphere). During some events the phasing and ratio of the transverse electric and magnetic field variations are consistent with earthward propagation of Alfven surface waves with phase velocities of 4000-10000 km/s. During other events

  3. MMS Observations of Harmonic Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usanova, M.; Ahmadi, N.; Ergun, R.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Torbert, R. B.; Mauk, B.; Le Contel, O.; Giles, B. L.; Russell, C. T.; Burch, J.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Harmonically related electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves with the fundamental frequency near the O+ cyclotron frequency were observed by the four MMS spacecraft on May 20, 2016. The wave activity was detected by the spacecraft on their inbound passage through the Earth's morning magnetosphere during generally quiet geomagnetic conditions but enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure. It was also associated with an enhancement of energetic H+ and O+ ions. The waves are seen in both magnetic and electric fields, formed by over ten higher order harmonics, most pronounced in the electric field. The wave activity lasted for about an hour with some wave packets giving rise to short-lived structures extending from Hz to kHz range. These observations are particularly interesting since they suggest cross-frequency coupling between the lower and higher frequency modes. Further work will focus on examining the nature and role of these waves in the energetic particle dynamics from a theoretical perspective.

  4. Dynamics of vesicles in electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahovska, Petia; Gracia, Ruben

    2007-11-01

    Electromechanical forces are widely used for cell manipulation. Knowledge of the physical mechanisms underlying the interaction of cells and external fields is essential for practical applications. Vesicles are model cells made of a lipid bilayer membrane. They are examples of ``soft'' particles, i.e., their shape when subjected to flow or electric field is not given a priori but it is governed by the balance of membrane, fluid and electrical stresses. This generic ``softness'' gives rise to a very complex vesicle dynamics in external fields. In an AC electric field, as the frequency is increased, vesicles filled with a fluid less conducting than the surrounding fluid undergo shape transition from prolate to oblate ellipsoids. The opposite effect is observed with drops. We present an electro- hydrodynamic theory based on the leaky dielectric model that quantitatively describes experimental observations. We compare drops and vesicles, and show how their distinct behavior stems from different interfacial properties.

  5. Advanced wave field sensing using computational shear interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falldorf, Claas; Agour, Mostafa; Bergmann, Ralf B.

    2014-07-01

    In this publication we give a brief introduction into the field of Computational Shear Interferometry (CoSI), which allows for determining arbitrary wave fields from a set of shear interferograms. We discuss limitations of the method with respect to the coherence of the underlying wave field and present various numerical methods to recover it from its sheared representations. Finally, we show experimental results on Digital Holography of objects with rough surface using a fiber coupled light emitting diode and quantitative phase contrast imaging as well as numerical refocusing in Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) microscopy.

  6. Application of the planar-scanning technique to the near-field dosimetry of millimeter-wave radiators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianxun; Lu, Hongmin; Deng, Jun

    2015-02-01

    The planar-scanning technique was applied to the experimental measurement of the electric field and power flux density (PFD) in the exposure area close to the millimeter-wave (MMW) radiator. In the near-field region, the field and PFD were calculated from the plane-wave spectrum of the field sampled on a scan plane far from the radiator. The measurement resolution was improved by reducing the spatial interval between the field samples to a fraction of half the wavelength and implementing multiple iterations of the fast Fourier transform. With the reference to the results from the numerical calculation, an experimental evaluation of the planar-scanning measurement was made for a 50 GHz radiator. Placing the probe 1 to 3 wavelengths from the aperture of the radiator, the direct measurement gave the near-field data with significant differences from the numerical results. The planar-scanning measurement placed the probe 9 wavelengths away from the aperture and effectively reduced the maximum and averaged differences in the near-field data by 70.6% and 65.5%, respectively. Applied to the dosimetry of an open-ended waveguide and a choke ring antenna for 60 GHz exposure, the technique proved useful to the measurement of the PFD in the near-field exposure area of MMW radiators. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Apparatus and method for generating mechanical waves

    DOEpatents

    Allensworth, Dwight L.; Chen, Peter J.

    1985-01-01

    Mechanical waves are generated in a medium by subjecting an electromechanical element to an alternating electric field having a frequency which induces mechanical resonance therein and is below any electrical resonance frequency thereof.

  8. Apparatus and method for generating mechanical waves

    DOEpatents

    Allensworth, D.L.; Chen, P.J.

    1982-10-25

    Mechanical waves are generated in a medium by subjecting an electromechanical element to an alternating electric field having a frequency which induces mechanical resonance therein and is below any electrical resonance frequency thereof.

  9. Enhanced Fair-Weather Electric Fields Soon After Sunrise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, T. C.; Rust, W. D.; Stolzenburg, M.; Roeder, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The typical fair weather electric field at the ground is between -100 and -300 V/m. At the NASA Kennedy Space Center and US Air Force Cape Canaveral Air Station (KSC) the electric field at the ground sometimes reaches -400 to -1200 V/m within an hour or two after sunrise on days that otherwise seem to be fair weather. We refer to the enhanced negative electric fields as the "sunrise enhancement." To investigate the sunrise enhancement at KSC we measured the electric field (E) in the first few hundred meters above the ground before and during several sunrise enhancements. From these E soundings we can infer the presence of charge layers and determine their thickness and charge density.

  10. Electroinduction disk sensor of electric field strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, S. V.; Korolyova, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of the level of electric fields exposure to the technical and biological objects for a long time is an urgent task. To solve this problem, the required electric field sensors with specified metrological characteristics. The aim of the study is the establishment of theoretical assumptions for the calculation of the flat electric field sensors. It is proved that the accuracy of the sensor does not exceed 3% in the spatial range 0fields, this article examines single-axis electromotive disk sensor radius R, and the estimation errors caused by the inhomogeneity of the field. The maximum of this error is 3% in the spatial range from 0 to 5R to the source field that allows you to design better quality sensors used in different measuring systems of wide application.

  11. Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent.

    PubMed

    Huveneers, Charlie; Rogers, Paul J; Semmens, Jayson M; Beckmann, Crystal; Kock, Alison A; Page, Brad; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nV cm(-1), using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks.

  12. Effects of an Electric Field on White Sharks: In Situ Testing of an Electric Deterrent

    PubMed Central

    Huveneers, Charlie; Rogers, Paul J.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Beckmann, Crystal; Kock, Alison A.; Page, Brad; Goldsworthy, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nVcm–1, using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks. PMID:23658766

  13. Field-aligned currents and large-scale magnetospheric electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dangelo, N.

    1979-01-01

    The existence of field-aligned currents (FAC) at northern and southern high latitudes was confirmed by a number of observations, most clearly by experiments on the TRIAD and ISIS 2 satellites. The high-latitude FAC system is used to relate what is presently known about the large-scale pattern of high-latitude ionospheric electric fields and their relation to solar wind parameters. Recently a simplified model was presented for polar cap electric fields. The model is of considerable help in visualizing the large-scale features of FAC systems. A summary of the FAC observations is given. The simplified model is used to visualize how the FAC systems are driven by their generators.

  14. Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Kunihiko; Ohashi, Keishi; Ikari, Tomofumi; Minamide, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Shikata, Jun-ichi; Ito, Hiromasa

    2006-11-01

    We demonstrate the terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using a bow-tie shaped aperture surrounded by concentric periodic structures in a metal film. A subwavelength aperture with concentric periodic grooves, which are known as a bull's eye structure, shows extremely large enhanced transmission beyond the diffraction limit caused by the resonant excitation of surface waves. Additionally, a bow-tie aperture exhibits extraordinary field enhancement at the sharp tips of the metal, which enhances the transmission and the subwavelength spatial resolution. We introduced a bow-tie aperture to the bull's eye structure and achieved high spatial resolution (˜λ/17) in the near-field region. The terahertz-wave near-field image of the subwavelength metal pattern (pattern width=20μm) was obtained for the wavelength of 207μm.

  15. Middle atmosphere electrical energy coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, L. C.

    1989-01-01

    The middle atmosphere (MA) has long been known as an absorber of radio waves, and as a region of nonlinear interactions among waves. The region of highest transverse conductivity near the top of the MA provides a common return for global thunderstorm, auroral Birkeland, and ionospheric dynamo currents, with possibilities for coupling among them. Their associated fields and other transverse fields map to lower altitudes depending on scale size. Evidence now exists for motion-driven aerosol generators, and for charge trapped at the base of magnetic field lines, both capable of producing large MA electric fields. Ionospheric Maxwell currents (curl H) parallel to the magnetic field appear to map to lower altitudes, with rapidly time-varying components appearing as displacement currents in the stratosphere. Lightning couples a (primarily ELF and ULF) current transient to the ionosphere and magnetosphere whose wave shape is largely dependent on the MA conductivity profile. Electrical energy is of direct significance mainly in the upper MA, but electrodynamic transport of minor constituents such as smoke particles or CN may be important at other altitudes.

  16. A model for polar cap electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dangelo, N.

    1976-01-01

    A model is proposed relating polar cap ionospheric electric fields to the parameters of the solar wind near the orbit of the earth. The model ignores the notion of field line merging. An essential feature is the role played by velocity shear instabilities in regions of the outer magnetosphere, in which mapping of the magnetosheath electric field would produce sunward convection. The anomalous resistivity which arises from velocity shear turbulence, suffices to essentially disconnect the magnetosphere from the magnetosheath, at any place where that resistivity is large enough. The magnetosheath-magnetosphere system, as a consequence, acts as a kind of diode or rectifier for the magnetosheath electric fields. Predictions of the model are compared with several observations related to polar cap convection.

  17. Horizontal electric fields from lightning return strokes

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, E.M.; Uman, M.A.; Johnson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements are presented of simultaneous horizontal and vertical electric fields from both close and distant lightning return strokes. The data were obtained during summer 1984 at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, using an electrically isolated spherical antenna having a system bandwidth of 3 Hz to 5 MHz. Lightning signals were obtained from flashes at distances from a few to 100 kilometers. Since the horizontal electric field is in part determined by the local ground conductivity, that parameter was measured as a function of depth. The horizontal fields from lightning return strokes had typically 1/50 the peak amplitude of the verticalmore » fields and waveshapes which were consistant with available theory, as expressed by the ''wavetilt'' formula.« less

  18. Electric fields yield chaos in microflows

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Jonathan D.; Pérez, Carlos L.; Santiago, Juan G.

    2012-01-01

    We present an investigation of chaotic dynamics of a low Reynolds number electrokinetic flow. Electrokinetic flows arise due to couplings of electric fields and electric double layers. In these flows, applied (steady) electric fields can couple with ionic conductivity gradients outside electric double layers to produce flow instabilities. The threshold of these instabilities is controlled by an electric Rayleigh number, Rae. As Rae increases monotonically, we show here flow dynamics can transition from steady state to a time-dependent periodic state and then to an aperiodic, chaotic state. Interestingly, further monotonic increase of Rae shows a transition back to a well-ordered state, followed by a second transition to a chaotic state. Temporal power spectra and time-delay phase maps of low dimensional attractors graphically depict the sequence between periodic and chaotic states. To our knowledge, this is a unique report of a low Reynolds number flow with such a sequence of periodic-to-aperiodic transitions. Also unique is a report of strange attractors triggered and sustained through electric fluid body forces. PMID:22908251

  19. Transverse eV Ion Heating by Random Electric Field Fluctuations in the Plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O. V.; Blum, L.

    2017-01-01

    Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2-3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse heating of H+ and O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. The essential element of the proposed model of ion heating is the presence of trains of random whistler (hiss) wave packets, with significant amplitude modulations produced by strong wave damping, rapid wave growth, or a superposition of wave packets of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. Such characteristics correspond to measured characteristics of hiss waves in this region. Using test particle simulations with typical wave and plasma parameters, we demonstrate that the corresponding stochastic transverse ion heating reaches 0.07-0.2 eV/h for protons and 0.007-0.015 eV/h for O+ ions. This global temperature increase of the Maxwellian ion population from an initial Ti approx. 0.3 eV could potentially explain the observations.

  20. Application of Wave Distribution Function Method to the ERG/PWE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, M.; Kasahara, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Kojima, H.; Matsuoka, A.; Hikishima, M.; Kasaba, Y.; Ozaki, M.; Yagitani, S.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kumamoto, A.

    2017-12-01

    The ERG (Arase) satellite was launched on 20 December 2016 to study acceleration and loss mechanisms of relativistic electrons in the Earth's magnetosphere. The Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE), which is one of the science instruments on board the ERG satellite, measures electric field and magnetic field. The PWE consists of three sub-systems; EFD (Electric Field Detector), OFA/WFC (Onboard Frequency Analyzer and Waveform Capture), and HFA (High Frequency Analyzer).The OFA/WFC measures electromagnetic field spectra and raw waveforms in the frequency range from few Hz to 20 kHz. The OFA produces three kind of data; OFA-SPEC (power spectrum), OFA-MATRIX (spectral matrix), and OFA-COMPLEX (complex spectrum). The OFA-MATRIX measures ensemble averaged complex cross-spectra of two electric field components, and of three magnetic field components. The OFA-COMPLEX measures instantaneous complex spectra of electric and magnetic fields. These data are produced every 8 seconds in the nominal mode, and it can be used for polarization analysis and wave propagation direction finding.In general, spectral matrix composed by cross-spectra of observed signals is used for direction finding, and many algorithms have been proposed. For example, Means method and SVD method can be applied on the assumption that the spectral matrix is consists of a single plane wave, while wave distribution function (WDF) method is applicable even to the data in which multiple numbers of plane waves are simultaneously included. In this presentation, we introduce the results when the WDF method is applied to the ERG/PWE data.

  1. Scalar field vacuum expectation value induced by gravitational wave background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Preston; McDougall, Patrick; Ragsdale, Michael; Singleton, Douglas

    2018-06-01

    We show that a massless scalar field in a gravitational wave background can develop a non-zero vacuum expectation value. We draw comparisons to the generation of a non-zero vacuum expectation value for a scalar field in the Higgs mechanism and with the dynamical Casimir vacuum. We propose that this vacuum expectation value, generated by a gravitational wave, can be connected with particle production from gravitational waves and may have consequences for the early Universe where scalar fields are thought to play an important role.

  2. Inhibition of brain tumor cell proliferation by alternating electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyesun; Oh, Seung-ick; Hong, Sunghoi, E-mail: shong21@korea.ac.kr, E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr

    2014-11-17

    This study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which electric fields affect cell function, and to determine the optimal conditions for electric field inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Low-intensity (<2 V/cm) and intermediate-frequency (100–300 kHz) alternating electric fields were applied to glioblastoma cell lines. These electric fields inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and abnormal mitosis due to the malformation of microtubules. These effects were significantly dependent on the intensity and frequency of applied electric fields.

  3. Current-induced modulation of backward spin-waves in metallic microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Nana; Lee, Seo-Won; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Sekiguchi, Koji

    2017-03-01

    We performed a propagating spin-wave spectroscopy for backward spin-waves in ferromagnetic metallic microstructures in the presence of electric-current. Even with the smaller current injection of 5× {{10}10} A m-2 into ferromagnetic microwires, the backward spin-waves exhibit a gigantic 200 MHz frequency shift and a 15% amplitude change, showing 60 times larger modulation compared to previous reports. Systematic experiments by measuring dependences on a film thickness of mirowire, on the wave-vector of spin-wave, and on the magnitude of bias field, we revealed that for the backward spin-waves a distribution of internal magnetic field generated by electric-current efficiently modulates the frequency and amplitude of spin-waves. The gigantic frequency and amplitude changes were reproduced by a micromagnetics simulation, predicting that the current-injection of 5× {{10}11} A m-2 allows 3 GHz frequency shift. The effective coupling between electric-current and backward spin-waves has a potential to build up a logic control method which encodes signals into the phase and amplitude of spin-waves. The metallic magnonics cooperating with electronics could suggest highly integrated magnonic circuits both in Boolean and non-Boolean principles.

  4. Explaining Electromagnetic Plane Waves in a Vacuum at the Introductory Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allred, Clark L.; Della-Rose, Devin J.; Flusche, Brian M.; Kiziah, Rex R.; Lee, David J.

    2010-01-01

    A typical introduction to electromagnetic waves in vacuum is illustrated by the following quote from an introductory physics text: "Maxwell's equations predict that an electromagnetic wave consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. The changing fields induce each other, which maintains the propagation of the wave; a changing electric…

  5. Optical distortion in the field of a lithotripter shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnell, M. T.; Emmony, D. C.

    1995-10-01

    The schlieren observation of cavitation phenomena produced in the tail of a lithotripter shock wave has indicated the presence of some interesting features. The images produced appear to indicate that cavitation transients in the field of a shock wave propagate nonsymmetrically; this is not the case. The apparent lack of symmetry exhibited by the primary cavitation transients is due to a complex optical lensing effect, which is brought about by the change in refractive index associated with the pressure profile of the shock wave. Objects seen through or immersed in the shock-wave field of an electromagnetic acoustic transducer, such as cavitation, appear highly distorted because of the strong positive and negative lensing effects of the compression and rarefaction cycles of the shock wave. A modification of the schlieren technique called the scale method has been used to model the distortion introduced by the shock wave and consequently explain the cavitation distortion. The technique has also been used to quantitatively analyze and partially reconstruct the lithotripter shock wave. The combination of schlieren and scale imaging gives more information about the refractive index field and therefore the shock-wave structure itself.

  6. Electron transport in reduced graphene oxides in high electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Wen-Bin; Lai, Jian-Jhong; Wang, Sheng-Tsung; Tsao, Rui-Wen; Su, Min-Chia; Tsai, Wei-Yu; Rosenstein, Baruch; Zhou, Xufeng; Liu, Zhaoping

    Due to a honeycomb structure, charge carriers in graphene exhibit quasiparticles of linear energy-momentum dispersion and phenomena of Schwinger pair creation may be explored. Because graphene is easily broken in high electric fields, single-layer reduced graphene oxides (rGO) are used instead. The rGO shows a small band gap while it reveals a graphene like behavior in high electric fields. Electron transport in rGO exhibits two-dimensional Mott's variable range hopping. The temperature behavior of resistance in low electric fields and the electric field behavior of resistance at low temperatures are all well explained by the Mott model. At temperatures higher than 200 K, the electric field behavior does not agree with the model while it shows a power law behavior with an exponent of 3/2, being in agreement with the Schwinger model. Comparing with graphene, the rGO is more sustainable to high electric field thus presenting a complete high-electric field behavior. When the rGO is gated away from the charge neutral point, the turn-on electric field of Schwinger phenomena is increased. A summary figure is given to present electric field behaviors and power law variations of resistances of single-layer rGO, graphene, and MoS2.

  7. Optical Remote Sensing of Electric Fields Above Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, B. M.; Carlson, B. E.; Lauben, D.; Cohen, M.; Smith, D.; Inan, U. S.

    2010-12-01

    Measurement of thunderstorm electric fields typically require balloon-borne measurements in the region of interest. Such measurements are cumbersome and provide limited information at a single point. Remote sensing of electric fields by Kerr-effect induced optical polarization changes of background skylight circumvents many of these difficulties and can in principle provide a high-speed movie of electric field behavior. Above-thundercloud 100 kV/m quasi-static electric fields are predicted to produce polarization changes at above the part in one million level that should be detectable at a ground instrument featuring 1 cm2sr geometric factor and 1 kHz bandwidth (though more sensitivity is nonetheless desired). Currently available optical and electronic components may meet these requirements. We review the principles of this measurement and discuss the current status of a field-ready prototype instrument currently in construction.

  8. High-frequency electric field measurement using a toroidal antenna

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki Ha

    2002-01-01

    A simple and compact method and apparatus for detecting high frequency electric fields, particularly in the frequency range of 1 MHz to 100 MHz, uses a compact toroidal antenna. For typical geophysical applications the sensor will be used to detect electric fields for a wide range of spectrum starting from about 1 MHz, in particular in the frequency range between 1 to 100 MHz, to detect small objects in the upper few meters of the ground. Time-varying magnetic fields associated with time-varying electric fields induce an emf (voltage) in a toroidal coil. The electric field at the center of (and perpendicular to the plane of) the toroid is shown to be linearly related to this induced voltage. By measuring the voltage across a toroidal coil one can easily and accurately determine the electric field.

  9. Influence of mean radial electric field on particle transport induced by RMPs in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dunqiang; Xu, Yingfeng; Wang, Shaojie

    2018-06-01

    The quasi-linear theory of the particle diffusion coefficient including the finite Larmor radius effect and the mean radial electric field ( E r without shear) in a stochastic magnetic field is derived. The theory has been verified by comparing with test particle simulations and previous theory. It is found that E r can shift the wave-particle resonance position. The Er-shift effect mainly modifies the ion diffusion coefficients and leads to the modification of ion particle flux. By using the ambipolar condition, we obtained the balanced flux at the edge of a tokamak plasma and found good agreement with recent experimental observations.

  10. Colloidal particle electrorotation in a nonuniform electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yi; Vlahovska, Petia M.; Miksis, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    A model to study the dynamics of colloidal particles in nonuniform electric fields is proposed. For an isolated sphere, the conditions and threshold for sustained (Quincke) rotation in a linear direct current (dc) field are determined. Particle dynamics becomes more complex with increasing electric field strength, changing from steady spinning around the particle center to time-dependent orbiting motion around the minimum field location. Pairs of particles exhibit intricate trajectories, which are a combination of translation, due to dielectrophoresis, and rotation, due to the Quincke effect. Our model provides a basis to study the collective dynamics of many particles in a general electric field.

  11. Colloidal particle electrorotation in a nonuniform electric field.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Vlahovska, Petia M; Miksis, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    A model to study the dynamics of colloidal particles in nonuniform electric fields is proposed. For an isolated sphere, the conditions and threshold for sustained (Quincke) rotation in a linear direct current (dc) field are determined. Particle dynamics becomes more complex with increasing electric field strength, changing from steady spinning around the particle center to time-dependent orbiting motion around the minimum field location. Pairs of particles exhibit intricate trajectories, which are a combination of translation, due to dielectrophoresis, and rotation, due to the Quincke effect. Our model provides a basis to study the collective dynamics of many particles in a general electric field.

  12. Inner Magnetospheric Electric Fields Derived from IMAGE EUV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Adrian, M. L.

    2007-01-01

    The local and global patterns of plasmaspheric plasma transport reflect the influence of electric fields imposed by all sources in the inner magnetosphere. Image sequences of thermal plasma G:istribution obtained from the IMAGE Mission Extreme Ultraviolet Imager can be used to derive plasma motions and, using a magnetic field model, the corresponding electric fields. These motions and fields directly reflect the dynamic coupling of injected plasmasheet plasma and the ionosphere, in addition to solar wind and atmospheric drivers. What is being learned about the morphology of inner magnetospheric electric fields during storm and quite conditions from this new empirical tool will be presented and discussed.

  13. Electrostatic lower hybrid waves excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves scattering from planar magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, T. F.; Ngo, H. D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model for electrostatic lower hybrid waves excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves propagating in regions of the magnetosphere and the topside ionosphere, where small-scale magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities are thought to exist. In this model, the electrostatic waves are excited by linear mode coupling as the incident electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from the magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities. Results indicate that high-amplitude short-wavelength (5 to 100 m) quasi-electrostatic whistler mode waves can be excited when electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from small-scale planar magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities in the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere.

  14. Photodetachment dynamics in a time-dependent oscillating electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, De-hua; Xu, Qin-feng; Du, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Using the time-dependent form of closed orbit theory, as developed by Haggerty and Delos [M.R. Haggerty, J.B. Delos, Phys. Rev. A 61, 053406 (2000)], and by Yang and Robicheaux [B.C. Yang, F. Robicheaux, Phys. Rev. A 93, 053413 (2016)], we study the photodetachment dynamics of a hydrogen negative ion in a time-dependent oscillating electric field. Compared to the photodetachment in a static electric field, the photodetachment dynamics of a negative ion in the time-dependent oscillating electric field become much more complicated but more interesting. Since the applied electric field is oscillating with time, the photodetachment cross section of the negative ion in the oscillating electric field is time-dependent. In a time-dependent framework, we put forward an analytical formula for calculating the instantaneous photodetachment cross section of this system. Our study suggests that the instantaneous photodetachment cross section exhibits oscillatory structure, which depends sensitively on the frequency of the oscillating electric field. With increasing frequency of the oscillating electric field, the number of closed orbits increases and the oscillatory structure in the photodetachment cross section becomes much more complicated. The connection between the detached electron's closed orbit with the oscillating cross section is analyzed quantitatively. This study provides a clear and intuitive picture for the photodetachment processes of a negative ion in the presence of an oscillating electric field. We hope that our work will be useful in guiding future experimental research.

  15. On the electric field model for an open magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhi; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Walker, Raymond J.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a new canonical separator line type magnetospheric magnetic field and electric field model for use in magnetospheric calculations, we determine the magnetic and electric field by controlling the reconnection rate at the subsolar magnetopause. The model is applicable only for purely southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We have obtained a more realistic magnetotail configuration by applying a stretch transformation to an axially symmetric field solution. We also discuss the Stern singularity in which there is an electric field singlarity in the canonical separate line models for B(sub y) not = to 0 by using a new technique that solves for the electric field along a field line directly instead of determining it by a potential mapping. The singularity not only causes an infinite electric field on the polar cap, but also causes the boundary conditions at plus infinity and minus infinity in the solar wind to contradict each other. This means that the canonical separator line models do not represent the open magnetosphere well, except for the case of purely southward IMF.

  16. GROUNDWATER AND SOIL REMEDIATION USING ELECTRICAL FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enhancements of contaminants removal and degradation in low permeability soils by electrical fields are achieved by the processes of electrical heating, electrokinetics, and electrochemical reactions. Electrical heating increases soil temperature resulting in the increase of cont...

  17. Homogeneous microwave field emitted propagating spin waves: Direct imaging and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohman, Mathis; Mozooni, Babak; McCord, Jeffrey

    2018-03-01

    We explore the generation of propagating dipolar spin waves by homogeneous magnetic field excitation in the proximity of the boundaries of magnetic microstructures. Domain wall motion, precessional dynamics, and propagating spin waves are directly imaged by time-resolved wide-field magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy. The aspects of spin wave generation are clarified by micromagnetic calculations matching the experimental results. The region of dipolar spin wave formation is confined to the local resonant excitation due to non-uniform internal demagnetization fields at the edges of the patterned sample. Magnetic domain walls act as a border for the propagation of plane and low damped spin waves, thus restraining the spin waves within the individual magnetic domains. The findings are of significance for the general understanding of structural and configurational magnetic boundaries for the creation, the propagation, and elimination of spin waves.

  18. Shape modeling with family of Pearson distributions: Langmuir waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidojevic, Sonja

    2014-10-01

    Two major effects of Langmuir wave electric field influence on spectral line shapes are appearance of depressions shifted from unperturbed line and an additional dynamical line broadening. More realistic and accurate models of Langmuir waves are needed to study these effects with more confidence. In this article we present distribution shapes of a high-quality data set of Langmuir waves electric field observed by the WIND satellite. Using well developed numerical techniques, the distributions of the empirical measurements are modeled by family of Pearson distributions. The results suggest that the existing theoretical models of energy conversion between an electron beam and surrounding plasma is more complex. If the processes of the Langmuir wave generation are better understood, the influence of Langmuir waves on spectral line shapes could be modeled better.

  19. Linear electric field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Funsten, Herbert O [Los Alamos, NM; Feldman, William C [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-06-10

    A linear electric field ion mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating a linear electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the linear electric field. A source of pulsed ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the linear electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between ionization of atoms or molecules and arrival of an ion out of the ionized atoms or molecules at a predetermined position.

  20. Field distribution and DNA transport in solid tumors during electric field-mediated gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, Joshua W; Yuan, Fan

    2008-02-01

    Gene therapy has a great potential in cancer treatment. However, the efficacy of cancer gene therapy is currently limited by the lack of a safe and efficient means to deliver therapeutic genes into the nucleus of tumor cells. One method under investigation for improving local gene delivery is based on the use of pulsed electric field. Despite repeated demonstration of its effectiveness in vivo, the underlying mechanisms behind electric field-mediated gene delivery remain largely unknown. Without a thorough understanding of these mechanisms, it will be difficult to further advance the gene delivery. In this review, the electric field-mediated gene delivery in solid tumors will be examined by following individual transport processes that must occur in vivo for a successful gene transfer. The topics of examination include: (i) major barriers for gene delivery in the body, (ii) distribution of electric fields at both cell and tissue levels during the application of external fields, and (iii) electric field-induced transport of genes across each of the barriers. Through this approach, the review summarizes what is known about the mechanisms behind electric field-mediated gene delivery and what require further investigations in future studies.

  1. Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography using magnetic field measurements.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Reyhan; Gençer, Nevzat Güneri

    2016-08-21

    In this study, magnetic field measurement technique is investigated to image the electrical conductivity properties of biological tissues using Lorentz forces. This technique is based on electrical current induction using ultrasound together with an applied static magnetic field. The magnetic field intensity generated due to induced currents is measured using two coil configurations, namely, a rectangular loop coil and a novel xy coil pair. A time-varying voltage is picked-up and recorded while the acoustic wave propagates along its path. The forward problem of this imaging modality is defined as calculation of the pick-up voltages due to a given acoustic excitation and known body properties. Firstly, the feasibility of the proposed technique is investigated analytically. The basic field equations governing the behaviour of time-varying electromagnetic fields are presented. Secondly, the general formulation of the partial differential equations for the scalar and magnetic vector potentials are derived. To investigate the feasibility of this technique, numerical studies are conducted using a finite element method based software. To sense the pick-up voltages a novel coil configuration (xy coil pairs) is proposed. Two-dimensional numerical geometry with a 16-element linear phased array (LPA) ultrasonic transducer (1 MHz) and a conductive body (breast fat) with five tumorous tissues is modeled. The static magnetic field is assumed to be 4 Tesla. To understand the performance of the imaging system, the sensitivity matrix is analyzed. The sensitivity matrix is obtained for two different locations of LPA transducer with eleven steering angles from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] at intervals of [Formula: see text]. The characteristics of the imaging system are shown with the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the sensitivity matrix. The images are reconstructed with the truncated SVD algorithm. The signal-to-noise ratio in measurements is assumed 80 d

  2. Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography using magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zengin, Reyhan; Güneri Gençer, Nevzat

    2016-08-01

    In this study, magnetic field measurement technique is investigated to image the electrical conductivity properties of biological tissues using Lorentz forces. This technique is based on electrical current induction using ultrasound together with an applied static magnetic field. The magnetic field intensity generated due to induced currents is measured using two coil configurations, namely, a rectangular loop coil and a novel xy coil pair. A time-varying voltage is picked-up and recorded while the acoustic wave propagates along its path. The forward problem of this imaging modality is defined as calculation of the pick-up voltages due to a given acoustic excitation and known body properties. Firstly, the feasibility of the proposed technique is investigated analytically. The basic field equations governing the behaviour of time-varying electromagnetic fields are presented. Secondly, the general formulation of the partial differential equations for the scalar and magnetic vector potentials are derived. To investigate the feasibility of this technique, numerical studies are conducted using a finite element method based software. To sense the pick-up voltages a novel coil configuration (xy coil pairs) is proposed. Two-dimensional numerical geometry with a 16-element linear phased array (LPA) ultrasonic transducer (1 MHz) and a conductive body (breast fat) with five tumorous tissues is modeled. The static magnetic field is assumed to be 4 Tesla. To understand the performance of the imaging system, the sensitivity matrix is analyzed. The sensitivity matrix is obtained for two different locations of LPA transducer with eleven steering angles from -{{25}\\circ} to {{25}\\circ} at intervals of {{5}\\circ} . The characteristics of the imaging system are shown with the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the sensitivity matrix. The images are reconstructed with the truncated SVD algorithm. The signal-to-noise ratio in measurements is assumed 80 dB. Simulation studies

  3. The influence of electric field and confinement on cell motility.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ja; Samorajski, Justin; Kreimer, Rachel; Searson, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    The ability of cells to sense and respond to endogenous electric fields is important in processes such as wound healing, development, and nerve regeneration. In cell culture, many epithelial and endothelial cell types respond to an electric field of magnitude similar to endogenous electric fields by moving preferentially either parallel or antiparallel to the field vector, a process known as galvanotaxis. Here we report on the influence of dc electric field and confinement on the motility of fibroblast cells using a chip-based platform. From analysis of cell paths we show that the influence of electric field on motility is much more complex than simply imposing a directional bias towards the cathode or anode. The cell velocity, directedness, as well as the parallel and perpendicular components of the segments along the cell path are dependent on the magnitude of the electric field. Forces in the directions perpendicular and parallel to the electric field are in competition with one another in a voltage-dependent manner, which ultimately govern the trajectories of the cells in the presence of an electric field. To further investigate the effects of cell reorientation in the presence of a field, cells are confined within microchannels to physically prohibit the alignment seen in 2D environment. Interestingly, we found that confinement results in an increase in cell velocity both in the absence and presence of an electric field compared to migration in 2D.

  4. Electric field stimulated growth of Zn whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niraula, D.; McCulloch, J.; Warrell, G. R.; Irving, R.; Karpov, V. G.; Shvydka, Diana

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the impact of strong (˜104 V/cm) electric fields on the development of Zn whiskers. The original samples, with considerable whisker infestation were cut from Zn-coated steel floors and then exposed to electric fields stresses for 10-20 hours at room temperature. We used various electric field sources, from charges accumulated in samples irradiated by: (1) the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), (2) the electron beam of a medical linear accelerator, and (3) the ion beam of a linear accelerator; we also used (4) the electric field produced by a Van der Graaf generator. In all cases, the exposed samples exhibited a considerable (tens of percent) increase in whiskers concentration compared to the control sample. The acceleration factor defined as the ratio of the measured whisker growth rate over that in zero field, was estimated to approach several hundred. The statistics of lengths of e-beam induced whiskers was found to follow the log-normal distribution known previously for metal whiskers. The observed accelerated whisker growth is attributed to electrostatic effects. These results offer promise for establishing whisker-related accelerated life testing protocols.

  5. GENERAL P, TYPE-I S, AND TYPE-II S WAVES IN ANELASTIC SOLIDS; INHOMOGENEOUS WAVE FIELDS IN LOW-LOSS SOLIDS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Wennerberg, Leif

    1985-01-01

    The physical characteristics for general plane-wave radiation fields in an arbitrary linear viscoelastic solid are derived. Expressions for the characteristics of inhomogeneous wave fields, derived in terms of those for homogeneous fields, are utilized to specify the characteristics and a set of reference curves for general P and S wave fields in arbitrary viscoelastic solids as a function of wave inhomogeneity and intrinsic material absorption. The expressions show that an increase in inhomogeneity of the wave fields cause the velocity to decrease, the fractional-energy loss (Q** minus **1) to increase, the deviation of maximum energy flow with respect to phase propagation to increase, and the elliptical particle motions for P and type-I S waves to approach circularity. Q** minus **1 for inhomogeneous type-I S waves is shown to be greater than that for type-II S waves, with the deviation first increasing then decreasing with inhomogeneity. The mean energy densities (kinetic, potential, and total), the mean rate of energy dissipation, the mean energy flux, and Q** minus **1 for inhomogeneous waves are shown to be greater than corresponding characteristics for homogeneous waves, with the deviations increasing as the inhomogeneity is increased for waves of fixed maximum displacement amplitude.

  6. Self-consistent quasi-static parallel electric field associated with substorm growth phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Contel, O.; Pellat, R.; Roux, A.

    2000-06-01

    A new approach is proposed to calculate the self-consistent parallel electric field associated with the response of a plasma to quasi-static electromagnetic perturbations (ωwave vector). Calculations are carried out in the case of a mirror geometry, for ω<ωb (ωb being the particle bounce frequency). For the sake of simplification the β of the plasma is assumed to be small. Apart from this restriction, the full Vlasov-Maxwell system of equations has been solved within the constraints described above (ωelectric field vanishes. In the present study, we solve the QNC to the next order in Te/Ti and show that a field-aligned potential drop proportional to Te/Ti does develop. We compute explicitly this potential drop in the case of the substorm growth phase modeled as in LC00. This potential drop has been calculated analytically for two regimes of parameters, ωd<ω and ωd>ω (ωd being the bounce averaged magnetic drift frequency equal to kyvd, where ky is the wave number in the y direction and vd the bounce averaged magnetic drift velocity). The first regime (ωd<ω) corresponds to small particle

  7. Lower Hybrid Frequency Range Waves Generated by Ion Polarization Drift Due to Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves: Analysis of an Event Observed by the Van Allen Probe B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Boardsen, S.; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Engebretson, M. J.; Sibeck, D.; Chen, S.; Breneman, A.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze a wave event that occurred near noon between 07:03 and 07:08 UT on 23 February 2014 detected by the Van Allen Probes B spacecraft, where waves in the lower hybrid frequency range (LHFR) and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are observed to be highly correlated, with Pearson correlation coefficient of approximately 0.86. We assume that the correlation is the result of LHFR wave generation by the ions polarization drift in the electric field of the EMIC waves. To check this assumption the drift velocities of electrons and H+, He+, and O+ ions in the measured EMIC wave electric field were modeled. Then the LHFR wave linear instantaneous growth rates for plasma with these changing drift velocities and different plasma compositions were calculated. The time distribution of these growth rates, their frequency distribution, and the frequency dependence of the ratio of the LHFR wave power spectral density (PSD)parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic eld to the total PSD were found. These characteristics of the growth rates were compared with the corresponding characteristics of the observed LHFR activity. Reasonable agreement between these features and the strong correlation between EMIC and LHFR energy densities support the assumption that the LHFR wave generation can be caused by the ions polarization drift in the electric field of an EMIC wave.

  8. Gravitational waves from non-Abelian gauge fields at a tachyonic transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranberg, Anders; Tähtinen, Sara; Weir, David J.

    2018-04-01

    We compute the gravitational wave spectrum from a tachyonic preheating transition of a Standard Model-like SU(2)-Higgs system. Tachyonic preheating involves exponentially growing IR modes, at scales as large as the horizon. Such a transition at the electroweak scale could be detectable by LISA, if these non-perturbatively large modes translate into non-linear dynamics sourcing gravitational waves. Through large-scale numerical simulations, we find that the spectrum of gravitational waves does not exhibit such IR features. Instead, we find two peaks corresponding to the Higgs and gauge field mass, respectively. We find that the gravitational wave production is reduced when adding non-Abelian gauge fields to a scalar-only theory, but increases when adding Abelian gauge fields. In particular, gauge fields suppress the gravitational wave spectrum in the IR. A tachyonic transition in the early Universe will therefore not be detectable by LISA, even if it involves non-Abelian gauge fields.

  9. Phase Structure of Strong-Field Tunneling Wave Packets from Molecules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Ming; Li, Min; Wu, Chengyin; Gong, Qihuang; Staudte, André; Liu, Yunquan

    2016-04-22

    We study the phase structure of the tunneling wave packets from strong-field ionization of molecules and present a molecular quantum-trajectory Monte Carlo model to describe the laser-driven dynamics of photoelectron momentum distributions of molecules. Using our model, we reproduce and explain the alignment-dependent molecular frame photoelectron spectra of strong-field tunneling ionization of N_{2} reported by M. Meckel et al. [Nat. Phys. 10, 594 (2014)]. In addition to modeling the low-energy photoelectron angular distributions quantitatively, we extract the phase structure of strong-field molecular tunneling wave packets, shedding light on its physical origin. The initial phase of the tunneling wave packets at the tunnel exit depends on both the initial transverse momentum distribution and the molecular internuclear distance. We further show that the ionizing molecular orbital has a critical effect on the initial phase of the tunneling wave packets. The phase structure of the photoelectron wave packet is a key ingredient for modeling strong-field molecular photoelectron holography, high-harmonic generation, and molecular orbital imaging.

  10. Lunar Electric Fields: Observations and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halekas, J. S.; Delory, G. T.; Stubbs, T. J.; Farrell, W. M.; Vondrak, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Alhough the Moon is typically thought of as having a relatively dormant environment, it is in fact very electrically active. The lunar surface, not protected by any substantial atmosphere, is directly exposed to solar UV and X-rays as well as solar wind plasma and energetic particles. This creates a complex electrodynamic environment, with the surface typically charging positive in sunlight and negative in shadow, and surface potentials varying over orders of magnitude in response to changing solar illumination and plasma conditions. Observations from the Apollo era and theoretical considerations strongly suggest that surface charging also drives dust electrification and horizontal and vertical dust transport. We present a survey of the lunar electric field environment, utilizing both newly interpreted Lunar Prospector (LP) orbital observations and older Apollo surface observations, and comparing to theoretical predictions. We focus in particular on time periods when the most significant surface charging was observed by LP - namely plasmasheet crossings (when the Moon is in the Earth's magnetosphere) and space weather events. During these time periods, kV-scale potentials are observed, and enhanced surface electric fields can be expected to drive significant horizontal and vertical dust transport. Both dust and electric fields can have serious effects on habitability and operation of machinery, so understanding the coupled dust-plasma-electric field system around the Moon is critically important for planning exploration efforts, in situ resource utilization, and scientific observations on the lunar surface. Furthermore, from a pure science perspective, this represents an excellent opportunity to study fundamental surface-plasma interactions.

  11. Assessing human exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields.

    PubMed Central

    Kaune, W T

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews published literature and current problems relating to the assessment of occupational and residential human exposures to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields. Available occupational exposure data suggest that the class of job titles known as electrical workers may be an effective surrogate for time-weighted-average (TWA) magnetic-field (but not electric-field) exposure. Current research in occupational-exposure assessment is directed to the construction of job-exposure matrices based on electric- and magnetic-field measurements and estimates of worker exposures to chemicals and other factors of interest. Recent work has identified five principal sources of residential magnetic fields: electric power transmission lines, electric power distribution lines, ground currents, home wiring, and home appliances. Existing residential-exposure assessments have used one or more of the following techniques: questionnaires, wiring configuration coding, theoretical field calculations, spot electric- and magnetic-field measurements, fixed-site magnetic-field recordings, personal- exposure measurements, and geomagnetic-field measurements. Available normal-power magnetic-field data for residences differ substantially between studies. It is not known if these differences are due to geographical differences, differences in measurement protocols, or instrumentation differences. Wiring codes and measured magnetic fields (but not electric fields) are associated weakly. Available data suggest, but are far from proving, that spot measurements may be more effective than wire codes as predictors of long-term historical magnetic-field exposure. Two studies find that away-from-home TWA magnetic-field exposures are less variable than at-home exposures. The importance of home appliances as contributors to total residential magnetic-field exposure is not known at this time. It also is not known what characteristics (if any) of residential electric and magnetic fields are

  12. APPARENT CROSS-FIELD SUPERSLOW PROPAGATION OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN SOLAR PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Goossens, M.

    2015-10-20

    In this paper we show that the phase-mixing of continuum Alfvén waves and/or continuum slow waves in the magnetic structures of the solar atmosphere as, e.g., coronal arcades, can create the illusion of wave propagation across the magnetic field. This phenomenon could be erroneously interpreted as fast magnetosonic waves. The cross-field propagation due to the phase-mixing of continuum waves is apparent because there is no real propagation of energy across the magnetic surfaces. We investigate the continuous Alfvén and slow spectra in two-dimensional (2D) Cartesian equilibrium models with a purely poloidal magnetic field. We show that apparent superslow propagation acrossmore » the magnetic surfaces in solar coronal structures is a consequence of the existence of continuum Alfvén waves and continuum slow waves that naturally live on those structures and phase-mix as time evolves. The apparent cross-field phase velocity is related to the spatial variation of the local Alfvén/slow frequency across the magnetic surfaces and is slower than the Alfvén/sound velocities for typical coronal conditions. Understanding the nature of the apparent cross-field propagation is important for the correct analysis of numerical simulations and the correct interpretation of observations.« less

  13. Wave field and evanescent waves produced by a sound beam incident on a simulated sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterhoudt, Curtis F.; Marston, Philip L.; Morse, Scot F.

    2005-09-01

    When a sound beam in water is incident on a sediment at a sufficiently small grazing angle, the resulting wave field in the sediment is complicated, even for the case of flat, fluidlike sediments. The wave field in the sediment for a sound beam from a simple, unshaded, finite transducer has an evanescent component and diffractive components. These components can interfere to produce a series of nulls outside the spatial region dominated by the evanescent wave field. This situation has been experimentally simulated by using a combination of previously described immiscible liquids [Osterhoudt et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 2483 (2005)]. The spacing between the observed nulls is similar to that seen in a wave-number-integration-based synthesis (using OASES) for a related problem. An analysis of a dephasing distance for evanescent and algebraically decaying components [T .J. Matula and P. L. Marston, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 1389-1398 (1995)] explains the spacing of the nulls. [Work supported by ONR.

  14. Nonlinear dynamics of resonant electrons interacting with coherent Langmuir waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobita, Miwa; Omura, Yoshiharu

    2018-03-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of resonant particles interacting with coherent waves in space plasmas. Magnetospheric plasma waves such as whistler-mode chorus, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, and hiss emissions contain coherent wave structures with various discrete frequencies. Although these waves are electromagnetic, their interaction with resonant particles can be approximated by equations of motion for a charged particle in a one-dimensional electrostatic wave. The equations are expressed in the form of nonlinear pendulum equations. We perform test particle simulations of electrons in an electrostatic model with Langmuir waves and a non-oscillatory electric field. We solve equations of motion and study the dynamics of particles with different values of inhomogeneity factor S defined as a ratio of the non-oscillatory electric field intensity to the wave amplitude. The simulation results demonstrate deceleration/acceleration, thermalization, and trapping of particles through resonance with a single wave, two waves, and multiple waves. For two-wave and multiple-wave cases, we describe the wave-particle interaction as either coherent or incoherent based on the probability of nonlinear trapping.

  15. Alpha channeling with high-field launch of lower hybrid waves

    DOE PAGES

    Ochs, I. E.; Bertelli, N.; Fisch, N. J.

    2015-11-04

    Although lower hybrid waves are effective at driving currents in present-day tokamaks, they are expected to interact strongly with high-energy particles in extrapolating to reactors. In the presence of a radial alpha particle birth gradient, this interaction can take the form of wave amplification rather than damping. While it is known that this amplification more easily occurs when launching from the tokamak high-field side, the extent of this amplification has not been made quantitative. Here, by tracing rays launched from the high- field-side of a tokamak, the required radial gradients to achieve amplification are calculated for a temperature and densitymore » regime consistent with a hot-ion-mode fusion reactor. As a result, these simulations, while valid only in the linear regime of wave amplification, nonetheless illustrate the possibilities for wave amplification using high-field launch of the lower hybrid wave.« less

  16. Antenna for Measuring Electric Fields Within the Inner Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Edward Charles

    2007-01-01

    A document discusses concepts for the design of an antenna to be deployed from a spacecraft for measuring the ambient electric field associated with plasma waves at a location within 3 solar radii from the solar photosphere. The antenna must be long enough to extend beyond the photoelectron and plasma sheaths of the spacecraft (expected to be of the order of meters thick) and to enable measurements at frequencies from 20 Hz to 10 MHz without contamination by spacecraft electric-field noise. The antenna must, therefore, extend beyond the thermal protection system (TPS) of the main body of the spacecraft and must withstand solar heating to a temperature as high as 2,000 C while not conducting excessive heat to the interior of the spacecraft. The TPS would be conical and its axis would be pointed toward the Sun. The antenna would include monopole halves of dipoles that would be deployed from within the shadow of the TPS. The outer potion of each monopole would be composed of a carbon-carbon (C-C) composite surface exposed to direct sunlight (hot side) and a C-C side in shadow (cold side) with yttria-stabilized zirconia spacers in-between. The hot side cannot view the spacecraft bus, while the cold side can. The booms also can be tilted to minimize heat input to spacecraft bus. This design allows one to reduce heat input to the spacecraft bus to acceptable levels.

  17. Electric Field Simulation of Surge Capacitors with Typical Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chenmeng; Mao, Yuxiang; Xie, Shijun; Zhang, Yu

    2018-03-01

    The electric field of power capacitors with different typical defects in DC working condition and impulse oscillation working condition is studied in this paper. According to the type and location of defects and considering the influence of space charge, two-dimensional models of surge capacitors with different typical defects are simulated based on ANSYS. The distribution of the electric field inside the capacitor is analyzed, and the concentration of electric field and its influence on the insulation performance are obtained. The results show that the type of defects, the location of defects and the space charge all affect the electric field distribution inside the capacitor in varying degrees. Especially the electric field distortion in the local area such as sharp corners and burrs is relatively larger, which increases the probability of partial discharge inside the surge capacitor.

  18. Experimental Measurements of the Lower Hybrid Electric Field and Induced Neutral Flow in Tore Supra by Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, E. H.; Klepper, C. C.; Isler, R. C.; Goniche, M.; Caughman, J. B. O.

    2014-10-01

    Recently, the RF electric field vector (ELH) in front of a lower hybrid (LH) launcher, operating at 3.7 GHz, at the low field side of the Tore Supra tokamak was determined by spectroscopic analysis of passive Dβ spectral emission from the near-antenna plasma. The ELH was determined by globally minimizing the χ associated with the experimental and theoretical spectral line profile. The theoretical profile is calculated from a non-perturbative solution to the Schrödinger equation, which includes the magnetic and dynamic electric field vectors. The magnitude, the direction, and the scaling with LH power of the measured ELH were fairly consistent with those calculated from a full-wave LH model. In addition to ELH the inboard and an outboard neutral flow was determined from the Doppler shifts associated with the Dα and Dβ spectral profiles. It was found that excitation of the LH wave induced both an inboard and outboard co-current neutral flow, which is linearly dependent on injected power; preliminary results indicate ICRH decreases the LH wave-induced co-current neutral flow. Neutral flow velocities are consistent with measurements of ion flow velocities obtained by charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. Work supported by the US DOE under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC., and by the European Communities under the contract of Assoc. EURATOM-CEA and within the framework of the EFDA.

  19. Sharp-front wave of strong magnetic field diffusion in solid metal

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Bo; Gu, Zhuo-wei; Kan, Ming-xian

    When a strong magnetic field diffuses into a solid metal, if the metal's resistance possesses an abrupt rise at some critical temperature and the magnetic field strength is above some critical value, the magnetic field will diffuse into the metal in the form of a sharp-front wave. Formulas for the critical conditions under which a sharp-front magnetic diffusion wave emerges and a formula for the wave-front velocity are derived in this work.

  20. Second and third harmonic generation associated to infrared transitions in a Morse quantum well under applied electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, R. L.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sakiroglu, S.; Ungan, F.; Morales, A. L.; Duque, C. A.

    2017-09-01

    The effects of electric and magnetic fields on the second and third harmonic generation coefficients in a Morse potential quantum well are theoretically studied. The energy levels and corresponding wave functions are obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation for the electron in the parabolic band scheme and effective mass approximations and the envelope function approach. The results show that both the electric and the magnetic fields have significant influence on the magnitudes and resonant peak energy positions of the second and third harmonic generation responses. In general, the Morse potential profile becomes wider and shallower as γ -parameter increases and so the energies of the bound states will be functions of this parameter. Therefore, we can conclude that the effects of the electric and magnetic fields can be used to tune and control the optical properties of interest in the range of the infrared electromagnetic spectrum.

  1. Controlling three-dimensional vortices using multiple and moving external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Nirmali Prabha; Dutta, Sumana

    2017-08-01

    Spirals or scroll wave activities in cardiac tissues are the cause of lethal arrhythmias. The external control of these waves is thus of prime interest to scientists and physicians. In this article, we demonstrate the spatial control of scroll waves by using external electric fields and thermal gradients in experiments with the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. We show that a scroll ring can be made to trace cyclic trajectories under a rotating electric field. Application of a thermal gradient in addition to the electric field deflects the motion and changes the nature of the trajectory. Our experimental results are analyzed and corroborated by numerical simulations based on an excitable reaction diffusion model.

  2. Electrostatic Wave Generation and Transverse Ion Acceleration by Alfvenic Wave Components of BBELF Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Khazanov, George; Mukhter, Ali

    2007-01-01

    We present results here from 2.5-D particle-in-cell simulations showing that the electrostatic (ES) components of broadband extremely low frequency (BBELF) waves could possibly be generated by cross-field plasma instabilities driven by the relative drifts between the heavy and light ion species in the electromagnetic (EM) Alfvenic component of the BBELF waves in a multi-ion plasma. The ES components consist of ion cyclotron as well as lower hybrid modes. We also demonstrate that the ES wave generation is directly involved in the transverse acceleration of ions (TAI) as commonly measured with the BBELF wave events. The heating is affected by ion cyclotron resonance in the cyclotron modes and Landau resonance in the lower hybrid waves. In the simulation we drive the plasma by the transverse electric field, E(sub y), of the EM waves; the frequency of E(sub y), omega(sub d), is varied from a frequency below the heavy ion cyclotron frequency, OMEGA(sub h), to below the light ion cyclotron frequency, OMEGA(sub i). We have also performed simulations for E(sub y) having a continuous spectrum given by a power law, namely, |Ey| approx. omega(sub d) (exp -alpha), where the exponent alpha = _, 1, and 2 in three different simulations. The driving electric field generates polarization and ExB drifts of the ions and electrons. When the interspecies relative drifts are sufficiently large, they drive electrostatic waves, which cause perpendicular heating of both light and heavy ions. The transverse ion heating found here is discussed in relation to observations from Cluster, FAST and Freja.

  3. Electric Field Screening with Backflow at Pulsar Polar Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisaka, Shota; Asano, Katsuaki; Terasawa, Toshio

    2016-09-01

    Recent γ-ray observations suggest that particle acceleration occurs at the outer region of the pulsar magnetosphere. The magnetic field lines in the outer acceleration region (OAR) are connected to the neutron star surface (NSS). If copious electron-positron pairs are produced near the NSS, such pairs flow into the OAR and screen the electric field there. To activate the OAR, the electromagnetic cascade due to the electric field near the NSS should be suppressed. However, since a return current is expected along the field lines through the OAR, the outflow extracted from the NSS alone cannot screen the electric field just above the NSS. In this paper, we analytically and numerically study the electric field screening at the NSS, taking into account the effects of the backflowing particles from the OAR. In certain limited cases, the electric field is screened without significant pair cascade if only ultra-relativistic particles (γ \\gg 1) flow back to the NSS. On the other hand, if electron-positron pairs with a significant number density and mildly relativistic temperature, expected to distribute in a wide region of the magnetosphere, flow back to the NSS, these particles adjust the current and charge densities so that the electric field can be screened without pair cascade. We obtain the condition needed for the number density of particles to screen the electric field at the NSS. We also find that in the ion-extracted case from the NSS, bunches of particles are ejected to the outer region quasi-periodically, which is a possible mechanism of observed radio emission.

  4. Internal Gravity Waves in the Magnetized Solar Atmosphere. I. Magnetic Field Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vigeesh, G.; Steiner, O.; Jackiewicz, J., E-mail: vigeesh@leibniz-kis.de

    Observations of the solar atmosphere show that internal gravity waves are generated by overshooting convection, but are suppressed at locations of magnetic flux, which is thought to be the result of mode conversion into magnetoacoustic waves. Here, we present a study of the acoustic-gravity wave spectrum emerging from a realistic, self-consistent simulation of solar (magneto)convection. A magnetic field free, hydrodynamic simulation and a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with an initial, vertical, homogeneous field of 50 G flux density were carried out and compared with each other to highlight the effect of magnetic fields on the internal gravity wave propagation in themore » Sun’s atmosphere. We find that the internal gravity waves are absent or partially reflected back into the lower layers in the presence of magnetic fields and argue that the suppression is due to the coupling of internal gravity waves to slow magnetoacoustic waves still within the high- β region of the upper photosphere. The conversion to Alfvén waves is highly unlikely in our model because there is no strongly inclined magnetic field present. We argue that the suppression of internal waves observed within magnetic flux concentrations may also be due to nonlinear breaking of internal waves due to vortex flows that are ubiquitously present in the upper photosphere and the chromosphere.« less

  5. Study of self-generated electric field at shock front by broadband proton probing and soft X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Rui; Sio, Hong; Wilks, Scott; McGuffey, Christopher; Bailly-Grandvaux, Mathieu; Heeter, Bob; Beg, Farhat; Collins, Gilbert; Ping, Yuan; MIT Collaboration; LLNL Collaboration; UCSD Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Self-generated electric fields arise from gradients in the electron pressure at shock fronts. We report observations of such E-fields from experiments conducted on OMEGA EP. In the experiments, strong shock waves were generated in low density gas under a quasi-planar geometry and diagnosed by broadband proton radiography. The broad proton spectrum allows energy-dependent measurements of deflection from which one can quantitatively constrain the electrical potential and field thickness. Three UV beams delivering up to 6.4 kJ energy in 2ns were used for shock generation and a short laser pulse of energy up to 850 J, 10 ps duration, was used to accelerate the broadband proton beam for point-projection radiography. Observations show the existence of electric fields with potential 300 V at the front of a Mach 9 shock in helium gas. A Mach 16 shock is also studied, from which both the field thickness and electric potential are reproduced. Simultaneous spatially resolved soft-x-ray spectroscopy provided additional measurements of shock velocity, particle velocity and thermal emission. This work was performed under DOE contract DE-AC52-07NA27 344 with support from OFES Early Career program and LLNL LDRD program. This work has been partially supported by the University of California Office of the President Lab Fee Grant Number LFR-17-449059.

  6. Electric Field Detection in Sawfish and Shovelnose Rays

    PubMed Central

    Wueringer, Barbara E.; Jnr, Lyle Squire; Kajiura, Stephen M.; Tibbetts, Ian R.; Hart, Nathan S.; Collin, Shaun P.

    2012-01-01

    In the aquatic environment, living organisms emit weak dipole electric fields, which spread in the surrounding water. Elasmobranchs detect these dipole electric fields with their highly sensitive electroreceptors, the ampullae of Lorenzini. Freshwater sawfish, Pristis microdon, and two species of shovelnose rays, Glaucostegus typus and Aptychotrema rostrata were tested for their reactions towards weak artificial electric dipole fields. The comparison of sawfishes and shovelnose rays sheds light on the evolution and function of the elongated rostrum (‘saw’) of sawfish, as both groups evolved from a shovelnose ray-like ancestor. Electric stimuli were presented both on the substrate (to mimic benthic prey) and suspended in the water column (to mimic free-swimming prey). Analysis of around 480 behavioural sequences shows that all three species are highly sensitive towards weak electric dipole fields, and initiate behavioural responses at median field strengths between 5.15 and 79.6 nVcm−1. The response behaviours used by sawfish and shovelnose rays depended on the location of the dipoles. The elongation of the sawfish’s rostrum clearly expanded their electroreceptive search area into the water column and enables them to target free-swimming prey. PMID:22848543

  7. Electric-field control of magnetic moment in Pd

    PubMed Central

    Obinata, Aya; Hibino, Yuki; Hayakawa, Daichi; Koyama, Tomohiro; Miwa, Kazumoto; Ono, Shimpei; Chiba, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    Several magnetic properties have recently become tunable with an applied electric field. Particularly, electrically controlled magnetic phase transitions and/or magnetic moments have attracted attention because they are the most fundamental parameters in ferromagnetic materials. In this study, we showed that an electric field can be used to control the magnetic moment in films made of Pd, usually a non-magnetic element. Pd ultra-thin films were deposited on ferromagnetic Pt/Co layers. In the Pd layer, a ferromagnetically ordered magnetic moment was induced by the ferromagnetic proximity effect. By applying an electric field to the ferromagnetic surface of this Pd layer, a clear change was observed in the magnetic moment, which was measured directly using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. The results indicate that magnetic moments extrinsically induced in non-magnetic elements by the proximity effect, as well as an intrinsically induced magnetic moments in ferromagnetic elements, as reported previously, are electrically tunable. The results of this study suggest a new avenue for answering the fundamental question of “can an electric field make naturally non-magnetic materials ferromagnetic?” PMID:26391306

  8. Effects of an electric field on interaction of aromatic systems.

    PubMed

    Youn, Il Seung; Cho, Woo Jong; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-04-30

    The effect of uniform external electric field on the interactions between small aromatic compounds and an argon atom is investigated using post-HF (MP2, SCS-MP2, and CCSD(T)) and density functional (PBE0-D3, PBE0-TS, and vdW-DF2) methods. The electric field effect is quantified by the difference of interaction energy calculated in the presence and absence of the electric field. All the post-HF methods describe electric field effects accurately although the interaction energy itself is overestimated by MP2. The electric field effect is explained by classical electrostatic models, where the permanent dipole moment from mutual polarization mainly determines its sign. The size of π-conjugated system does not have significant effect on the electric field dependence. We found out that PBE0-based methods give reasonable interaction energies and electric field response in every case, while vdW-DF2 sometimes shows spurious artifact owing to its sensitivity toward the real space electron density. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Vector optical fields with polarization distributions similar to electric and magnetic field lines.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Li, Si-Min; Mao, Lei; Kong, Ling-Jun; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Pei; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2013-07-01

    We present, design and generate a new kind of vector optical fields with linear polarization distributions modeling to electric and magnetic field lines. The geometric configurations of "electric charges" and "magnetic charges" can engineer the spatial structure and symmetry of polarizations of vector optical field, providing additional degrees of freedom assisting in controlling the field symmetry at the focus and allowing engineering of the field distribution at the focus to the specific applications.

  10. Dynamics analysis of extraction of manganese intensified by electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wenrui; Tao, Changyuan; Li, Huizhan; Liu, Zuohua; Liu, Renlong

    2018-06-01

    In this study, a process reinforcement technology for leaching process of pyrolusite was developed. The electric field was introduced to decrease reaction temperature and improve the leaching rate of pyrolusite. The mechanisms of electric field intensifying leaching process of pyrolusite were investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) in detail. The results showed that the electric field could decrease obviously the apparent activation energy of leaching process of pyrolusite. The apparent activation energy of the leaching of pyrolusite intensified by electric field was calculated to be 53.76 kJ.mol-1. In addition, the leaching efficiency of manganese was effectively increased by 10% to 20% than that without electric field under the same conditions. This was because that the electron conduit between Fe (II)/Fe (III) and pyrite was dredged effectively by electric field.

  11. Electric-field driven jetting from dielectric liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasinghe, S. N.; Edirisinghe, M. J.

    2004-11-01

    Three dielectric (electrical conductivity ˜10-13Sm-1) Newtonian liquids with viscosity in the range 1-100 mPa s were passed through a needle at a controlled flow rate under the influence of an electric field. At an electric field strength of 1.5kV/mm, the liquid exiting the needle instantaneously transformed from dripping droplets to an elliptically pendent droplet from the apex of which a fine jet evolved. Thus, a jet can be obtained on demand, and in this letter we define this phenomenon and explain a basis for it.

  12. Surface waves on floating liquids induced by ultrasound field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a kind of wave pattern on the surface of floating liquids in a modulated ultrasound field. The waves are related to the liquid/solid phase transformation process. The nucleation sites of the eutectics locate at the center of these waves, and the eutectic growth direction is parallel to the propagation direction of the waves. It is revealed that such wave phenomenon can be ascribed to the interaction between ultrasound and eutectic growth at the liquid/solid interface. This result may provide a potential method for fabricating wave patterned surfaces on eutectic alloys.

  13. High field gradient particle accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Nation, J.A.; Greenwald, S.

    1989-05-30

    A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications is disclosed. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle. 10 figs.

  14. High field gradient particle accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Nation, John A.; Greenwald, Shlomo

    1989-01-01

    A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle.

  15. Directed Field Ionization: A Genetic Algorithm for Evolving Electric Field Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xinyue; Rowley, Zoe A.; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.

    2017-04-01

    When an ionizing electric field pulse is applied to a Rydberg atom, the electron's amplitude traverses many avoided crossings among the Stark levels as the field increases. The resulting superposition determines the shape of the time resolved field ionization spectrum at a detector. An engineered electric field pulse that sweeps back and forth through avoided crossings can control the phase evolution so as to determine the electron's path through the Stark map. In the region of n = 35 in rubidium there are hundreds of potential avoided crossings; this yields a large space of possible pulses. We use a genetic algorithm to search this space and evolve electric field pulses to direct the ionization of the Rydberg electron in rubidium. We present the algorithm along with a comparison of simulated and experimental results. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. 1607335 and No. 1607377 and used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation Grant Number OCI-1053575.

  16. Improved outcomes in auditory brainstem implantation with the use of near-field electrical compound action potentials.

    PubMed

    Mandalà, Marco; Colletti, Liliana; Colletti, Giacomo; Colletti, Vittorio

    2014-12-01

    To compare the outcomes (auditory threshold and open-set speech perception at 48-month follow-up) of a new near-field monitoring procedure, electrical compound action potential, on positioning the auditory brainstem implant electrode array on the surface of the cochlear nuclei versus the traditional far-field electrical auditory brainstem response. Retrospective study. Tertiary referral center. Among the 202 patients with auditory brainstem implants fitted and monitored with electrical auditory brainstem response during implant fitting, 9 also underwent electrical compound action potential recording. These subjects were matched retrospectively with a control group of 9 patients in whom only the electrical auditory brainstem response was recorded. Electrical compound action potentials were obtained using a cotton-wick recording electrode located near the surface of the cochlear nuclei and on several cranial nerves. Significantly lower potential thresholds were observed with the recording electrode located on the cochlear nuclei surface compared with the electrical auditory brainstem response (104.4 ± 32.5 vs 158.9 ± 24.2, P = .0030). Electrical brainstem response and compound action potentials identified effects on the neighboring cranial nerves on 3.2 ± 2.4 and 7.8 ± 3.2 electrodes, respectively (P = .0034). Open-set speech perception outcomes at 48-month follow-up had improved significantly in the near- versus far-field recording groups (78.9% versus 56.7%; P = .0051). Electrical compound action potentials during auditory brainstem implantation significantly improved the definition of the potential threshold and the number of auditory and extra-auditory waves generated. It led to the best coupling between the electrode array and cochlear nuclei, significantly improving the overall open-set speech perception. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  17. DC Electric Fields at the Magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, H. E.; Escoubet, C. P.; Masson, A.

    2014-12-01

    In order to understand the transfer of energy, momentum and mass through the magnetopause one needs to know several plasma and field parameters including the DC electric field which is known to be challenging to measure in tenuous plasma regions, e.g. in the inner side of the magnetopause where the density drops below 1/cc. However, each of the Cluster spacecraft carries five different experiments that can provide information about DC electric fields, i.e. double probe antenna (EFW) and electron drift meter (EDI) as well as electron and ion spectrometers (PEACE, CIS-HIA, CIS-CODIF). Each technique is very different and has its own strengths and limitations. Therefore it is important to compare all available measurements before making a judgement on DC electric field variation at the magnetopause; note that only very rarely all five measurements are available at the same time. Although the full-resolution observations in the Cluster archive are calibrated, they can still contain various errors. However, when two experiments show the same field, it is quite likely that this is the right field because the different measurements are based on so complimentary techniques and the field varies so much when the spacecraft moves from the magnetosheath through the magnetopause into the magnetosphere, or vice versa. In this presentation we present several cases of the magnetopause crossings and how the different measurements agree and disagree around the magnetopause region.

  18. Method Apparatus And System For Detecting Seismic Waves In A Borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.; Sumstine, Roger L.

    2006-03-14

    A method, apparatus and system for detecting seismic waves. A sensing apparatus is deployed within a bore hole and may include a source magnet for inducing a magnetic field within a casing of the borehole. An electrical coil is disposed within the magnetic field to sense a change in the magnetic field due to a displacement of the casing. The electrical coil is configured to remain substantially stationary relative to the well bore and its casing along a specified axis such that displacement of the casing induces a change within the magnetic field which may then be sensed by the electrical coil. Additional electrical coils may be similarly utilized to detect changes in the same or other associated magnetic fields along other specified axes. The additional sensor coils may be oriented substantially orthogonally relative to one another so as to detect seismic waves along multiple orthogonal axes in three dimensional space.

  19. Electric Field Measurements During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, Monte G.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field program, a system of 6 electric field mills was flown on one of NASA's Global Hawk aircraft. We placed several mills on the aircraft to enable us to measure the vector electric field. We created a distributed, ethernet-connected system so that each sensor has its own embedded Linux system, complete with web server. This makes our current generation system fully "sensor web enabled." The Global Hawk has several unique qualities, but relevant to quality storm electric field measurements are high altitude (20 km) and long duration (20-30 hours) flights. There are several aircraft participating in the GRIP program, and coordinated measurements are happening. Lightning and electric field measurements will be used to study the relationships between lightning and other storm characteristics. It has been long understood that lightning can be used as a marker for strong convective activity. Past research and field programs suggest that lightning flash rate may serve as an indicator and precursor for rapid intensification change in tropical cyclones and hurricanes. We have the opportunity to sample hurricanes for many hours at a time and observe intensification (or de-intensification) periods. The electrical properties of hurricanes during such periods are not well known. American

  20. Molecules with an induced dipole moment in a stochastic electric field.

    PubMed

    Band, Y B; Ben-Shimol, Y

    2013-10-01

    The mean-field dynamics of a molecule with an induced dipole moment (e.g., a homonuclear diatomic molecule) in a deterministic and a stochastic (fluctuating) electric field is solved to obtain the decoherence properties of the system. The average (over fluctuations) electric dipole moment and average angular momentum as a function of time for a Gaussian white noise electric field are determined via perturbative and nonperturbative solutions in the fluctuating field. In the perturbative solution, the components of the average electric dipole moment and the average angular momentum along the deterministic electric field direction do not decay to zero, despite fluctuations in all three components of the electric field. This is in contrast to the decay of the average over fluctuations of a magnetic moment in a Gaussian white noise magnetic field. In the nonperturbative solution, the component of the average electric dipole moment and the average angular momentum in the deterministic electric field direction also decay to zero.

  1. Plasma control by modification of helicon wave propagation in low magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lafleur, T.; Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W.

    2010-07-15

    By making use of nonuniform magnetic fields, it is shown experimentally that control of helicon wave propagation can be achieved in a low pressure (0.08 Pa) expanding plasma. The m=1 helicon waves are formed during a direct capacitive to wave mode transition that occurs in a low diverging magnetic field (B{sub 0}<3 mT). In this initial configuration, waves are prevented from reaching the downstream region, but slight modifications to the magnetic field allows the axial distance over which waves can propagate to be controlled. By changing the effective propagation distance in this way, significant modification of the density and plasmamore » potential profiles can be achieved, showing that the rf power deposition can be spatially controlled as well. Critical to the modification of the wave propagation behavior is the magnetic field strength (and geometry) near the exit of the plasma source region, which gives electron cyclotron frequencies close to the wave frequency of 13.56 MHz.« less

  2. Identification of wind fields for wave modeling near Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Sashikant; Balan Sobhana, Sandeepan; Panchang, Vijay

    2016-04-01

    Due to the development of coastal and offshore infrastructure in and around the Arabian Gulf, a large semi-enclosed sea, knowledge of met-ocean factors like prevailing wind systems, wind generated waves, and currents etc. are of great importance. Primarily it is important to identify the wind fields that are used as forcing functions for wave and circulation models for hindcasting and forecasting purposes. The present study investigates the effects of using two sources of wind-fields on the modeling of wind-waves in the Arabian Gulf, in particular near the coastal regions of Qatar. Two wind sources are considered here, those obtained from ECMWF and those generated by us using the WRF model. The wave model SWAN was first forced with the 6 hourly ERA Interim daily winds (from ECMWF) having spatial resolution of 0.125°. For the second option, wind fields were generated by us using the mesoscale wind model (WRF) with a high spatial resolution (0.1°) at every 30 minute intervals. The simulations were carried out for a period of two months (7th October-7th December, 2015) during which measurements were available from two moored buoys (deployed and operated by the Qatar Meteorological Department), one in the north of Qatar ("Qatar North", in water depth of 58.7 m) and other in the south ("Shiraouh Island", in water depth of 16.64 m). This period included a high-sea event on 11-12th of October, recorded by the two buoys where the significant wave heights (Hs) reached as high as 2.9 m (i.e. max wave height H ~ 5.22 m) and 1.9 (max wave height H ~ 3.4 m) respectively. Model results were compared with the data for this period. The scatter index (SI) of the Hs simulated using the WRF wind fields and the observed Hs was found to be about 30% and 32% for the two buoys (total period). The observed Hs were generally reproduced but there was consistent underestimation. (Maximum 27% for the high-sea event). For the Hs obtained with ERA interim wind fields, the underestimation was

  3. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  4. Radar observations of density gradients, electric fields, and plasma irregularities near polar cap patches in the context of the gradient-drift instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarche, Leslie J.; Makarevich, Roman A.

    2017-03-01

    We present observations of plasma density gradients, electric fields, and small-scale plasma irregularities near a polar cap patch made by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radar at Rankin Inlet (RKN) and the northern face of Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR-N). RKN echo power and occurrence are analyzed in the context of gradient-drift instability (GDI) theory, with a particular focus on the previously uninvestigated 2-D dependencies on wave propagation, electric field, and gradient vectors, with the latter two quantities evaluated directly from RISR-N measurements. It is shown that higher gradient and electric field components along the wave vector generally lead to the higher observed echo occurrence, which is consistent with the expected higher GDI growth rate, but the relationship with echo power is far less straightforward. The RKN echo power increases monotonically as the predicted linear growth rate approaches zero from negative values but does not continue this trend into positive growth rate values, in contrast with GDI predictions. The observed greater consistency of echo occurrence with GDI predictions suggests that GDI operating in the linear regime can control basic plasma structuring, but measured echo strength may be affected by other processes and factors, such as multistep or nonlinear processes or a shear-driven instability.

  5. Electric field effects on current–voltage relationships in microfluidic channels presenting multiple working electrodes in the weak-coupling limit

    DOE PAGES

    Contento, Nicholas M.; Bohn, Paul W.

    2014-05-23

    While electrochemical methods are well suited for lab-on-a-chip applications, reliably coupling multiple, electrode-controlled processes in a single microfluidic channel remains a considerable challenge, because the electric fields driving electrokinetic flow make it difficult to establish a precisely known potential at the working electrode(s). The challenge of coupling electrochemical detection with microchip electrophoresis is well known; however, the problem is general, arising in other multielectrode arrangements with applications in enhanced detection and chemical processing. Here, we study the effects of induced electric fields on voltammetric behavior in a microchannel containing multiple in-channel electrodes, using a Fe(CN) 6 3/4- model system. Whenmore » an electric field is induced by applying a cathodic potential at one inchannel electrode, the half-wave potential (E 1/2) for the oxidation of ferrocyanide at an adjacent electrode shifts to more negative potentials. The E 1/2 value depends linearly on the electric field current at a separate in-channel electrode. The observed shift in E 1/2 is quantitatively described by a model, which accounts for the change in solution potential caused by the iR drop along the length of the microchannel. The model, which reliably captures changes in electrode location and solution conductivity, apportions the electric field potential between iR drop and electrochemical potential components, enabling the study of microchannel electric field magnitudes at low applied potentials. In the system studied, the iR component of the electric field potential increases exponentially with applied current before reaching an asymptotic value near 80 % of the total applied potential. The methods described will aid in the development and interpretation of future microchip electrochemistry methods, particularly those that benefit from the coupling of electrokinetic and electrochemical phenomena at low voltages.« less

  6. Processes in suspensions of nanocomposite microcapsules exposed to external electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, A. V.; Lomova, M. V.; Kim, V. P.; Chumakov, A. S.; Gorbachev, I. A.; Gorin, D. A.; Glukhovskoy, E. G.

    2016-04-01

    Microcapsules with and without magnetite nanoparticles incorporated in the polyelectrolyte shell were prepared. The effect of external electric field on the nanocomposite polyelectrolyte microcapsules containing magnetite nanoparticles in the shell was studied in this work as a function of the electric field strength. Effect of electric fields on polyelectrolyte microcapsules and the control over integrity of polyelectrolyte microcapsules with and without inorganic nanoparticles by constant electric field has been investigated. Beads effect, aggregation and deformations of nanocomposite microcapsule shell in response to electric field were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Thus, a new approach for effect on the nanocomposite microcapsule, including opening microcapsule shell by an electric field, was demonstrated. These results can be used for creation of new systems for drug delivery systems with controllable release by external electric field.

  7. Characteristics of DC electric fields in transient plasma sheet events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, H. E.; Escoubet, C. P.; Masson, A.

    2015-12-01

    We take an advantage of five different DC electric field measurements in the plasma sheet available from the EFW double probe experiment, EDI electron drift instrument, CODIF and HIA ion spectrometers, and PEACE electron spectrometer on the four Cluster spacecraft. The calibrated observations of the three spectrometers are used to determine the proton and electron velocity moments. The velocity moments can be used to estimate the proton and electron drift velocity and furthermore the DC electric field, assuming that the electron and proton velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field is dominated by the ExB drift motion. Naturally when ions and electrons do not perform a proper drift motion, which can happen in the plasma sheet, the estimated DC electric field from ion and electron motion is not correct. However, surprisingly often the DC electric fields estimated from electron and ion motions are identical suggesting that this field is a real DC electric field around the measurement point. As the measurement techniques are so different, it is quite plausible that when two different measurements yield the same DC electric field, it is the correct field. All five measurements of the DC electric field are usually not simultaneously available, especially on Cluster 2 where CODIF and HIA are not operational, or on Cluster 4 where EDI is off. In this presentation we investigate DC electric field in various transient plasma sheet events such as dipolarization events and BBF's and how the five measurements agree or disagree. There are plenty of important issues that are considered, e.g., (1) what kind of DC electric fields exist in such events and what are their spatial scales, (2) do electrons and ions perform ExB drift motions in these events, and (3) how well the instruments have been calibrated.

  8. Aircraft electric field measurements: Calibration and ambient field retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Bailey, Jeff; Christian, Hugh J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    1994-01-01

    An aircraft locally distorts the ambient thundercloud electric field. In order to determine the field in the absence of the aircraft, an aircraft calibration is required. In this work a matrix inversion method is introduced for calibrating an aircraft equipped with four or more electric field sensors and a high-voltage corona point that is capable of charging the aircraft. An analytic, closed form solution for the estimate of a (3 x 3) aircraft calibration matrix is derived, and an absolute calibration experiment is used to improve the relative magnitudes of the elements of this matrix. To demonstrate the calibration procedure, we analyze actual calibration date derived from a Lear jet 28/29 that was equipped with five shutter-type field mill sensors (each with sensitivities of better than 1 V/m) located on the top, bottom, port, starboard, and aft positions. As a test of the calibration method, we analyze computer-simulated calibration data (derived from known aircraft and ambient fields) and explicitly determine the errors involved in deriving the variety of calibration matrices. We extend our formalism to arrive at an analytic solution for the ambient field, and again carry all errors explicitly.

  9. Spatial distribution of the wave field of the surface modes sustaining filamentary discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lishev, St.; Shivarova, A.; Tarnev, Kh.

    2008-01-01

    The study presents the electrodynamical description of surface-wave-sustained discharges contracted in filamentary structures. The results are for the spatial distribution of the wave field and for the wave propagation characteristics obtained from a two-dimensional model developed for describing surface-wave behavior in plasmas with an arbitrary distribution of the plasma density. In accordance with the experimental observations of filamentary discharges, the plasma density distribution considered is completed by cylindrically shaped gas-discharge channels extended along the discharge length and positioned in the out-of-center region of the discharge, equidistantly in an azimuthal direction. Due to the two-dimensional inhomogeneity of the plasma density of the filamentary structure, the eigen surface mode of the structure is a hybrid wave, with all—six—field components. For identification of its behavior, the surface wave properties in the limiting cases of a plasma ring and a single filament—both radially inhomogeneous—are involved in the discussions. The presentation of the results is for filamentary structures with a decreasing number of filaments (from 10 to 2) starting with the plasma ring, the latter supporting propagation of an azimuthally symmetric wave. Due to the resonance absorption of the surface waves, always present because of the smooth variation of the plasma density, the contours of the critical density are those guiding the surface wave propagation. Decreasing number of filaments in the structure leads to localization of the amplitudes of the wave-field components around the filaments. By analogy with the spatial distribution of the wave field in the plasma ring, the strong resonance enhancement of the wave-field components is along that part of the contour of the critical density which is far off the center of the filamentary structure. The analysis of the spatial distribution of the field components of the filamentary structure shows

  10. Spatial distribution of the wave field of the surface modes sustaining filamentary discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Lishev, St.; Shivarova, A.; Tarnev, Kh.

    2008-01-01

    The study presents the electrodynamical description of surface-wave-sustained discharges contracted in filamentary structures. The results are for the spatial distribution of the wave field and for the wave propagation characteristics obtained from a two-dimensional model developed for describing surface-wave behavior in plasmas with an arbitrary distribution of the plasma density. In accordance with the experimental observations of filamentary discharges, the plasma density distribution considered is completed by cylindrically shaped gas-discharge channels extended along the discharge length and positioned in the out-of-center region of the discharge, equidistantly in an azimuthal direction. Due to the two-dimensional inhomogeneity of the plasma density ofmore » the filamentary structure, the eigen surface mode of the structure is a hybrid wave, with all--six--field components. For identification of its behavior, the surface wave properties in the limiting cases of a plasma ring and a single filament--both radially inhomogeneous--are involved in the discussions. The presentation of the results is for filamentary structures with a decreasing number of filaments (from 10 to 2) starting with the plasma ring, the latter supporting propagation of an azimuthally symmetric wave. Due to the resonance absorption of the surface waves, always present because of the smooth variation of the plasma density, the contours of the critical density are those guiding the surface wave propagation. Decreasing number of filaments in the structure leads to localization of the amplitudes of the wave-field components around the filaments. By analogy with the spatial distribution of the wave field in the plasma ring, the strong resonance enhancement of the wave-field components is along that part of the contour of the critical density which is far off the center of the filamentary structure. The analysis of the spatial distribution of the field components of the filamentary structure

  11. Electric fields in micro-gravity can replace gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgolewski, S.

    The influence of the world-wide atmospheric electric field on the growth of plants seems to have been neglected. The confirmation of the existence of electrotropism shows effects on some plants similar to gravity. I propose space ex eriments withp plants that grow in microgravity but are exposed to different electric field configurations with various field strengths and polarity. The electric field in terrestrial environment shows strong effects on some plants that can be regarded as due to phototropism. In microgravity we have full control of light and electric field, and thus we can practically eliminate the effects of gravity and we can study to what degree the electric field can replace the gravitational effects on plants. In this way we can create a new habitat for some plants and study its role in the rate of growth as well as in the sensing of free space for growth of plants in absence of gravity. By varying the strength and direction of illumination of plants we can also study the relative role of phototropism and electrotropism on different plants. This should enable us to select the most suitable plants for Advanced Life Support systems (ALS) for long-duration missions in microgravity environment. Some simple space experiments for verification of these assumptions are described that should answer the basic questions how should we design the ALS for the future high performance space stations and long duration manned space flights. The selection of the suitable plants for such ALS may go along two approaches: the self supporting electrotropic plants using the optimal electric field strength and its range of variation, non electrotropic plants that creep along the "ground" or other supporting plants or special structures. Ground based fitotron experiments have shown that several kV/m electric fields overwhelm the gravity better than clinostats can do. It happens in case of electrotropic plants but also after several days for non-electrotropic plants

  12. Direct comparison between satellite electric field measurements and the visual aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, D. W.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    Electric field data from two passes of the Injun 5 satellite, one corresponding to magnetically quiet conditions and one corresponding to substorm conditions, are compared with simultaneous all-sky-camera data from College, Alaska. In each case, a significant deviation of the electric field from the expected V x B field (where V is the satellite velocity) was evident and a distinct electric field reversal could be identified. In the region of substantial electric field equatorward of the electric field reversal a diffuse auroral arc was observed during the magnetically quiet pass and auroral patches were observed during the substorm pass. The motion of the auroral patches was consistent with the general direction and magnitude of the E x B drift computed from the satellite electric field measurements. In the substorm case the electric field reversal occurred very near a discrete auroral arc at the poleward side of the diffuse arcs and patches. Comparison of the quiet time and substorm cases suggests that the convection electric field penetrates deeper into the magnetosphere during a substorm.

  13. Interaction of Low Frequency External Electric Fields and Pancreatic β-Cell: A Mathematical Modeling Approach to Identify the Influence of Excitation Parameters.

    PubMed

    Farashi, Sajjad; Sasanpour, Pezhman; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2018-05-24

    Purpose-Although the effect of electromagnetic fields on biological systems has attracted attraction in recent years, there has not been any conclusive result concerning the effects of interaction and the underlying mechanisms involved. Besides the complexity of biological systems, the parameters of the applied electromagnetic field have not been estimated in most of the experiments. Material and Method-In this study, we have used computational approach in order to find the excitation parameters of an external electric field which produces sensible effects in the function of insulin secretory machinery, whose failure triggers the diabetes disease. A mathematical model of the human β-cell has been used and the effects of external electric fields with different amplitudes, frequencies and wave shapes have been studied. Results-The results from our simulations show that the external electric field can influence the membrane electrical activity and perhaps the insulin secretion when its amplitude exceeds a threshold value. Furthermore, our simulations reveal that different waveforms have distinct effects on the β-cell membrane electrical activity and the characteristic features of the excitation like frequency would change the interaction mechanism. Conclusion-The results could help the researchers to investigate the possible role of the environmental electromagnetic fields on the promotion of diabetes disease.

  14. Design of portable electric and magnetic field generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M. G.; Siew, W. H.; Campbell, L. C.; Stewart, M. G.; Siew, W. H.

    2000-11-01

    Electric and magnetic field generators capable of producing high-amplitude output are not readily available. This presents difficulties for electromagnetic compatibility testing of new measurement systems where these systems are