Science.gov

Sample records for wave function impact

  1. Wave-function functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Xiaoyin; Slamet, Marlina; Sahni, Viraht

    2010-04-15

    We extend our prior work on the construction of variational wave functions {psi} that are functionals of functions {chi}:{psi}={psi}[{chi}] rather than simply being functions. In this manner, the space of variations is expanded over those of traditional variational wave functions. In this article we perform the constrained search over the functions {chi} chosen such that the functional {psi}[{chi}] satisfies simultaneously the constraints of normalization and the exact expectation value of an arbitrary single- or two-particle Hermitian operator, while also leading to a rigorous upper bound to the energy. As such the wave function functional is accurate not only in the region of space in which the principal contributions to the energy arise but also in the other region of the space represented by the Hermitian operator. To demonstrate the efficacy of these ideas, we apply such a constrained search to the ground state of the negative ion of atomic hydrogen H{sup -}, the helium atom He, and its positive ions Li{sup +} and Be{sup 2+}. The operators W whose expectations are obtained exactly are the sum of the single-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub i}r{sub i}{sup n},n=-2,-1,1,2, W={Sigma}{sub i{delta}}(r{sub i}), W=-(1/2){Sigma}{sub i{nabla}i}{sup 2}, and the two-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub n}u{sup n},n=-2,-1,1,2, where u=|r{sub i}-r{sub j}|. Comparisons with the method of Lagrangian multipliers and of other constructions of wave-function functionals are made. Finally, we present further insights into the construction of wave-function functionals by studying a previously proposed construction of functionals {psi}[{chi}] that lead to the exact expectation of arbitrary Hermitian operators. We discover that analogous to the solutions of the Schroedinger equation, there exist {psi}[{chi}] that are unphysical in that they lead to singular values for the expectations. We also explain the origin of the singularity.

  2. Adaptive multiconfigurational wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelista, Francesco A.

    2014-03-28

    A method is suggested to build simple multiconfigurational wave functions specified uniquely by an energy cutoff Λ. These are constructed from a model space containing determinants with energy relative to that of the most stable determinant no greater than Λ. The resulting Λ-CI wave function is adaptive, being able to represent both single-reference and multireference electronic states. We also consider a more compact wave function parameterization (Λ+SD-CI), which is based on a small Λ-CI reference and adds a selection of all the singly and doubly excited determinants generated from it. We report two heuristic algorithms to build Λ-CI wave functions. The first is based on an approximate prescreening of the full configuration interaction space, while the second performs a breadth-first search coupled with pruning. The Λ-CI and Λ+SD-CI approaches are used to compute the dissociation curve of N{sub 2} and the potential energy curves for the first three singlet states of C{sub 2}. Special attention is paid to the issue of energy discontinuities caused by changes in the size of the Λ-CI wave function along the potential energy curve. This problem is shown to be solvable by smoothing the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian. Our last example, involving the Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2}{sup 2+} core, illustrates an alternative use of the Λ-CI method: as a tool to both estimate the multireference character of a wave function and to create a compact model space to be used in subsequent high-level multireference coupled cluster computations.

  3. [Heat waves: health impacts].

    PubMed

    Marto, Natália

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, record high temperatures were reported across Europe, causing thousands of casualties. Heat waves are sporadic recurrent events, characterised by intense and prolonged heat, associated with excess mortality and morbidity. The most frequent cause of death directly attributable to heat is heat stroke but heat waves are known to cause increases in all-cause mortality, specially circulatory and respiratory mortality. Epidemiological studies demonstrate excess casualties cluster in specific risk groups. The elderly, those with chronic medical conditions and the socially isolated are particularly vulnerable. Air conditioning is the strongest protective factor against heat-related disorders. Heat waves cause disease indirectly, by aggravating chronic disorders, and directly, by causing heat-related illnesses (HRI). Classic HRI include skin eruptions, heat cramps, heat syncope, heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Heat stroke is a medical emergency characterised by hyperthermia and central nervous system dysfunction. Treatment includes immediate cooling and support of organ-system function. Despite aggressive treatment, heat stroke is often fatal and permanent neurological damage is frequent in those who survive. Heat related illness and death are preventable through behavioural adaptations, such as use of air conditioning and increased fluid intake. Other adaptation measures include heat emergency warning systems and intervention plans and environmental heat stress reduction. Heat related mortality is expected to rise as a consequence of the increasing proportion of elderly persons, the growing urban population, and the anticipated increase in number and intensity of heat waves associated with global warming. Improvements in surveillance and response capability may limit the adverse health conditions of future heat waves. It is crucial that health professionals are prepared to recognise, prevent and treat HRI and learn to cooperate with local health

  4. Photoelectron wave function in photoionization: plane wave or Coulomb wave?

    PubMed

    Gozem, Samer; Gunina, Anastasia O; Ichino, Takatoshi; Osborn, David L; Stanton, John F; Krylov, Anna I

    2015-11-19

    The calculation of absolute total cross sections requires accurate wave functions of the photoelectron and of the initial and final states of the system. The essential information contained in the latter two can be condensed into a Dyson orbital. We employ correlated Dyson orbitals and test approximate treatments of the photoelectron wave function, that is, plane and Coulomb waves, by comparing computed and experimental photoionization and photodetachment spectra. We find that in anions, a plane wave treatment of the photoelectron provides a good description of photodetachment spectra. For photoionization of neutral atoms or molecules with one heavy atom, the photoelectron wave function must be treated as a Coulomb wave to account for the interaction of the photoelectron with the +1 charge of the ionized core. For larger molecules, the best agreement with experiment is often achieved by using a Coulomb wave with a partial (effective) charge smaller than unity. This likely derives from the fact that the effective charge at the centroid of the Dyson orbital, which serves as the origin of the spherical wave expansion, is smaller than the total charge of a polyatomic cation. The results suggest that accurate molecular photoionization cross sections can be computed with a modified central potential model that accounts for the nonspherical charge distribution of the core by adjusting the charge in the center of the expansion.

  5. Photoelectron wave function in photoionization: plane wave or Coulomb wave?

    PubMed

    Gozem, Samer; Gunina, Anastasia O; Ichino, Takatoshi; Osborn, David L; Stanton, John F; Krylov, Anna I

    2015-11-19

    The calculation of absolute total cross sections requires accurate wave functions of the photoelectron and of the initial and final states of the system. The essential information contained in the latter two can be condensed into a Dyson orbital. We employ correlated Dyson orbitals and test approximate treatments of the photoelectron wave function, that is, plane and Coulomb waves, by comparing computed and experimental photoionization and photodetachment spectra. We find that in anions, a plane wave treatment of the photoelectron provides a good description of photodetachment spectra. For photoionization of neutral atoms or molecules with one heavy atom, the photoelectron wave function must be treated as a Coulomb wave to account for the interaction of the photoelectron with the +1 charge of the ionized core. For larger molecules, the best agreement with experiment is often achieved by using a Coulomb wave with a partial (effective) charge smaller than unity. This likely derives from the fact that the effective charge at the centroid of the Dyson orbital, which serves as the origin of the spherical wave expansion, is smaller than the total charge of a polyatomic cation. The results suggest that accurate molecular photoionization cross sections can be computed with a modified central potential model that accounts for the nonspherical charge distribution of the core by adjusting the charge in the center of the expansion. PMID:26509428

  6. Many-body wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    In the past few years, we developed many-body variational wave functions that allow one to treat pairing and particle-hole two-body interactions on an equal footing. The complexity of these wave functions depends on the number of levels included in the valence space, but does not depend on the number of nucleons in the system. By using residual interaction strengths (e.g. the quadrupole interaction strength or pairing interaction strength) as generator coordinates, one gets many different wave functions, each having a different expectation value for the relevant interaction mode. These wave functions are particularly useful when one is dealing with a situation in which the mean-field approximation is inadequate. Because the same basis states are used in the construction of the many-body wave functions, it is possible to calculate overlaps and interaction matrix elements for the many-body wave functions (which are not in general orthogonal) easily. The valence space can contain a large number of single-particle basis states, when there are constants of motion that can be used to break the levels up into groups. We added a cranking term to the many-body Hamiltonian and modified the projection procedure to get states of good signature before variation. In our present implementation, each group is limited to eight pairs of single-particle levels. We are working on ways of increasing the number of levels that can be included in each group. We are also working on including particle-particle residual interaction modes, in addition to pairing, in our Hamiltonian.

  7. Wave-function functionals for the density

    SciTech Connect

    Slamet, Marlina; Pan Xiaoyin; Sahni, Viraht

    2011-11-15

    We extend the idea of the constrained-search variational method for the construction of wave-function functionals {psi}[{chi}] of functions {chi}. The search is constrained to those functions {chi} such that {psi}[{chi}] reproduces the density {rho}(r) while simultaneously leading to an upper bound to the energy. The functionals are thereby normalized and automatically satisfy the electron-nucleus coalescence condition. The functionals {psi}[{chi}] are also constructed to satisfy the electron-electron coalescence condition. The method is applied to the ground state of the helium atom to construct functionals {psi}[{chi}] that reproduce the density as given by the Kinoshita correlated wave function. The expectation of single-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub i}r{sub i}{sup n}, n=-2,-1,1,2, W={Sigma}{sub i}{delta}(r{sub i}) are exact, as must be the case. The expectations of the kinetic energy operator W=-(1/2){Sigma}{sub i}{nabla}{sub i}{sup 2}, the two-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub n}u{sup n}, n=-2,-1,1,2, where u=|r{sub i}-r{sub j}|, and the energy are accurate. We note that the construction of such functionals {psi}[{chi}] is an application of the Levy-Lieb constrained-search definition of density functional theory. It is thereby possible to rigorously determine which functional {psi}[{chi}] is closer to the true wave function.

  8. Green's Functions of Wave Equations in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shijin; Wang, Weike; Yu, Shih-Hsien

    2015-06-01

    We study the d'Alembert equation with a boundary. We introduce the notions of Rayleigh surface wave operators, delayed/advanced mirror images, wave recombinations, and wave cancellations. This allows us to obtain the complete and simple formula of the Green's functions for the wave equation with the presence of various boundary conditions. We are able to determine whether a Rayleigh surface wave is active or virtual, and study the lacunas of the wave equation in three dimensional with the presence of a boundary in the case of a virtual Rayleigh surface wave.

  9. The destructive impact of the rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamin, Roman

    2013-04-01

    In our talk rogue waves at the ocean will be considered. By means of numerical modeling dangerous impact of rogue waves on the ships and oil rigs is calculated. Cases when these waves can bring in accident are considered. Using statistics of emergence of waves (see [1]-[2]), it is possible to estimate risks in each case. These results can be used for safety of the ships and oil rigs from rogue waves. References [1] V.E. Zakharov, A.I. Dyachenko, R.V. Shamin. How probability for freak wave formation can be found // THE EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL - SPECIAL TOPICS Volume 185, Number 1, 113-124, DOI: 10.1140/epjst/e2010-01242-y [2] V.E. Zakharov, R.V. Shamin. Statistics of rogue waves in computer experiments // JETP Letters, 2012, V. 96, Issue 1, pp 66-69.

  10. Factorization and recomposition of molecular wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, R.

    2016-09-01

    Some situations in the determination of molecular wave functions require to go beyond the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation, with the wave function written as the product of an electronic wave function depending parametrically on the nuclear coordinates and a nuclear wave function. Such situations are usually treated by combining BO products. This form of the wave function leads to coupled equations which determine the nuclear factors of these products. There is another possibility: writing the exact molecular wave function as a single product having formally the same structure as a BO product. This approach has been at the origin of recent developments. We reconsider this problem with the aim of looking at the solutions of the coupled equations which determine the electronic factor of the factorization scheme. It is shown that these coupled equations can be reduced precisely to those encountered with the usual combination of diabatic BO products.

  11. Spheroidal Wave Functions in Electromagnetic Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Le-Wei; Kang, Xiao-Kang; Leong, Mook-Seng

    2001-11-01

    The flagship monograph addressing the spheroidal wave function and its pertinence to computational electromagnetics Spheroidal Wave Functions in Electromagnetic Theory presents in detail the theory of spheroidal wave functions, its applications to the analysis of electromagnetic fields in various spheroidal structures, and provides comprehensive programming codes for those computations. The topics covered in this monograph include: Spheroidal coordinates and wave functions Dyadic Green's functions in spheroidal systems EM scattering by a conducting spheroid EM scattering by a coated dielectric spheroid Spheroid antennas SAR distributions in a spheroidal head model The programming codes and their applications are provided online and are written in Mathematica 3.0 or 4.0. Readers can also develop their own codes according to the theory or routine described in the book to find subsequent solutions of complicated structures. Spheroidal Wave Functions in Electromagnetic Theory is a fundamental reference for scientists, engineers, and graduate students practicing modern computational electromagnetics or applied physics.

  12. Spatial wave functions of photon and electron

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhlov, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    The quantum mechanical model of the photon and electron is considered. The photon is conceived of as a particle moving with the speed of light which is accompanied by the wave function of the photon spreading out with an infinite speed. The wave function of the electron is introduced in terms of virtual photons tied to the electron. A description of electrostatic and magnetostatic interactions is given through the wave functions of electrons. The approach provides an explanation of the results of recent experiments measuring the speed of propagation of the bound magnetic field.

  13. Waves in fragmented geomaterials with impact attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Attenuation of waves in geomaterials, such as seismic waves is usually attributed to energy dissipation due to the presence of viscous fluid and/or viscous cement between the constituents. In fragmented geomaterials such as blocky rock mass there is another possible source of energy dissipation - impacting between the fragments. This can be characterised by the coefficient of restitution, which is the ratio between the rotational velocities after and before the impact. In particular, this manifests itself in the process of mutual rotations of the fragments/blocks, whereby in the process of oscillation different ends of the contacting faces of the fragments are impacting. During the rotational oscillations the energy dissipation is concentrated in the neutral position that is the one in which the relative rotation between two fragments is zero. We show that in a simple system of two fragments this dissipation is equivalent, in a long run, to the presence of viscous damper between the fragments (the Voigt model of visco-elasticity). Generalisation of this concept to the material consisting of many fragments leads to a Voigt model of wave propagation where the attenuation coefficient is proportional to the logarithm of restitution coefficient. The waves in such a medium show slight dispersion caused by damping and strong dependence of the attenuation on the wave frequency.

  14. On single nucleon wave functions in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Talmi, Igal

    2011-05-06

    The strong and singular interaction between nucleons, makes the nuclear many body theory very complicated. Still, nuclei exhibit simple and regular features which are simply described by the shell model. Wave functions of individual nucleons may be considered just as model wave functions which bear little resemblance to the real ones. There is, however, experimental evidence for the reality of single nucleon wave functions. There is a simple method of constructing such wave functions for valence nucleons. It is shown that this method can be improved by considering the polarization of the core by the valence nucleon. This gives rise to some rearrangement energy which affects the single valence nucleon energy within the nucleus.

  15. The geometry of electron wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Aminov, Yurii A

    2013-02-28

    To each wave function we assign a codimension-two submanifold in Euclidean space. We study the case of the wave function of a single electron in the hydrogen atom or other hydrogen-type atoms with quantum numbers n, l, m in detail. We prove theorems describing the behaviour of the scalar and sectional curvature of the constructed submanifold, depending on the quantum numbers. We also consider the external geometry of the submanifold. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  16. Weak measurement and Bohmian conditional wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Norsen, Travis; Struyve, Ward

    2014-11-15

    It was recently pointed out and demonstrated experimentally by Lundeen et al. that the wave function of a particle (more precisely, the wave function possessed by each member of an ensemble of identically-prepared particles) can be “directly measured” using weak measurement. Here it is shown that if this same technique is applied, with appropriate post-selection, to one particle from a perhaps entangled multi-particle system, the result is precisely the so-called “conditional wave function” of Bohmian mechanics. Thus, a plausibly operationalist method for defining the wave function of a quantum mechanical sub-system corresponds to the natural definition of a sub-system wave function which Bohmian mechanics uniquely makes possible. Similarly, a weak-measurement-based procedure for directly measuring a sub-system’s density matrix should yield, under appropriate circumstances, the Bohmian “conditional density matrix” as opposed to the standard reduced density matrix. Experimental arrangements to demonstrate this behavior–and also thereby reveal the non-local dependence of sub-system state functions on distant interventions–are suggested and discussed. - Highlights: • We study a “direct measurement” protocol for wave functions and density matrices. • Weakly measured states of entangled particles correspond to Bohmian conditional states. • Novel method of observing quantum non-locality is proposed.

  17. The Wave Function and Quantum Reality

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Shan

    2011-03-28

    We investigate the meaning of the wave function by analyzing the mass and charge density distributions of a quantum system. According to protective measurement, a charged quantum system has effective mass and charge density distributing in space, proportional to the square of the absolute value of its wave function. In a realistic interpretation, the wave function of a quantum system can be taken as a description of either a physical field or the ergodic motion of a particle. The essential difference between a field and the ergodic motion of a particle lies in the property of simultaneity; a field exists throughout space simultaneously, whereas the ergodic motion of a particle exists throughout space in a time-divided way. If the wave function is a physical field, then the mass and charge density will be distributed in space simultaneously for a charged quantum system, and thus there will exist gravitational and electrostatic self-interactions of its wave function. This not only violates the superposition principle of quantum mechanics but also contradicts experimental observations. Thus the wave function cannot be a description of a physical field but be a description of the ergodic motion of a particle. For the later there is only a localized particle with mass and charge at every instant, and thus there will not exist any self-interaction for the wave function. It is further argued that the classical ergodic models, which assume continuous motion of particles, cannot be consistent with quantum mechanics. Based on the negative result, we suggest that the wave function is a description of the quantum motion of particles, which is random and discontinuous in nature. On this interpretation, the square of the absolute value of the wave function not only gives the probability of the particle being found in certain locations, but also gives the probability of the particle being there. The suggested new interpretation of the wave function provides a natural realistic

  18. Functional methods for waves in random media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Some basic ideas in functional methods for waves in random media are illustrated through a simple random differential equation. These methods are then generalized to solve certain random parabolic equations via an exponential representation given by the Feynman-Kac formula. It is shown that these functional methods are applicable to a number of problems in random wave propagation. They include the forward-scattering approximation in Gaussian white-noise media; the solution of the optical beam propagation problem by a phase-integral method; the high-frequency scattering by bounded random media; and a derivation of approximate moment equations from the functional integral representation.

  19. Functional methods for waves in random media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Some basic ideas in functional methods for waves in random media are illustrated through a simple random differential equation. These methods are then generalized to solve certain random parabolic equations via an exponential representation given by the Feynman-Kac formula. It is shown that these functional methods are applicable to a number of problems in random wave propagation. They include the forward-scattering approximation in Gaussian white-noise media; the solution of the optical beam propagation problem by a phase-integral method; the high-frequency scattering by bounded random media, and a derivation of approximate moment equations from the functional integral representation.

  20. Swell-Dissipation Function for Wave Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babanin, A.

    2012-04-01

    In the paper, we will investigate swell attenuation due to production of turbulence by the wave orbital motion. Theoreticaly, potential waves cannot generate the vortex motion, but the scale considerations indicate that if the steepness of waves is not too small, the Reynolds number can exceed the critical values. This means that in presence of initial non-potential disturbances the orbital velocities can generate the vortex motion and turbulence. This problem was investigated by laboratory means, numerical simulations and field observations. As a sink of wave energy, such dissipation is small in presence of wave breaking, but is essential for swell. Swell prediction by spectral wave models is often poor, but is important for offshore and maritime industry, and across a broad range of oceanographic and air-sea interaction applications. Based on the research of wave-induced turbulence, new swell-dissipation function is proposed. It agrees well with satellite observations of long-distance swell propagation and has been employed and tested in spectral wave models.

  1. Impact damage detection in composite panels using guided ultrasonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murat, Bibi Intan Suraya; Khalili, Pouyan; Fromme, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Composite materials such as carbon fiber reinforced panels offer many advantages for aerospace applications, e.g, good strength to weight ratio. However, impact during the operation and servicing of the aircraft can lead to barely visible and difficult to detect damage. Depending on the severity of the impact, fiber breakage or delaminations can be induced which reduce the functionality of the structure. Efficient structural health monitoring of such plate-like components can be achieved using guided ultrasonic waves propagating along the structure and covering critical areas. However, the guided wave propagation in such anisotropic and inhomogeneous materials needs to be understood from theory and verified experimentally to achieve sufficient coverage of the structure. Using noncontact laser interferometer measurements the guided wave propagation in carbon fiber reinforced panels was investigated experimentally. Good agreement with calculations using a full three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) model was achieved. Impact damage was induced in the composite panels and the guided wave scattering at the damage measured and quantified. Good agreement with predictions was found and barely visible impact damage in composite panels detected.

  2. Compression algorithm for multideterminant wave functions.

    PubMed

    Weerasinghe, Gihan L; Ríos, Pablo López; Needs, Richard J

    2014-02-01

    A compression algorithm is introduced for multideterminant wave functions which can greatly reduce the number of determinants that need to be evaluated in quantum Monte Carlo calculations. We have devised an algorithm with three levels of compression, the least costly of which yields excellent results in polynomial time. We demonstrate the usefulness of the compression algorithm for evaluating multideterminant wave functions in quantum Monte Carlo calculations, whose computational cost is reduced by factors of between about 2 and over 25 for the examples studied. We have found evidence of sublinear scaling of quantum Monte Carlo calculations with the number of determinants when the compression algorithm is used.

  3. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in correlated wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Ryui; Tocchio, Luca F.; Valenti, Roser; Becca, Federico; Gros, Claudius

    We show that Jastrow-Slater wave functions, in which a density-density Jastrow factor is applied onto an uncorrelated fermionic state, may possess long-range order even when all symmetries are preserved in the wave function. This fact is mainly related to the presence of a sufficiently strong Jastrow term (also including the case of full Gutzwiller projection, suitable for describing spin models). Selected examples are reported, including the spawning of Néel order and dimerization in spin systems, and the stabilization of density and orbital order in itinerant electronic systems

  4. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in correlated wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Ryui; Tocchio, Luca F.; Valentí, Roser; Becca, Federico; Gros, Claudius

    2016-03-01

    We show that Jastrow-Slater wave functions, in which a density-density Jastrow factor is applied onto an uncorrelated fermionic state, may possess long-range order even when all symmetries are preserved in the wave function. This fact is mainly related to the presence of a sufficiently strong Jastrow term (also including the case of full Gutzwiller projection, suitable for describing spin models). Selected examples are reported, including the spawning of Néel order and dimerization in spin systems, and the stabilization of charge and orbital order in itinerant electronic systems.

  5. Constructibility of the Universal Wave Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotin, Arkady

    2016-05-01

    This paper focuses on a constructive treatment of the mathematical formalism of quantum theory and a possible role of constructivist philosophy in resolving the foundational problems of quantum mechanics, particularly, the controversy over the meaning of the wave function of the universe. As it is demonstrated in the paper, unless the number of the universe's degrees of freedom is fundamentally upper bounded (owing to some unknown physical laws) or hypercomputation is physically realizable, the universal wave function is a non-constructive entity in the sense of constructive recursive mathematics. This means that even if such a function might exist, basic mathematical operations on it would be undefinable and subsequently the only content one would be able to deduce from this function would be pure symbolical.

  6. Constructibility of the Universal Wave Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotin, Arkady

    2016-10-01

    This paper focuses on a constructive treatment of the mathematical formalism of quantum theory and a possible role of constructivist philosophy in resolving the foundational problems of quantum mechanics, particularly, the controversy over the meaning of the wave function of the universe. As it is demonstrated in the paper, unless the number of the universe's degrees of freedom is fundamentally upper bounded (owing to some unknown physical laws) or hypercomputation is physically realizable, the universal wave function is a non-constructive entity in the sense of constructive recursive mathematics. This means that even if such a function might exist, basic mathematical operations on it would be undefinable and subsequently the only content one would be able to deduce from this function would be pure symbolical.

  7. Elastic Waves Green Functions For Stratified Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, E. L.; Ferreira, E. C.; Mauriz, P. W.

    Multiple scattering analysis of elastic waves propagating in a stratified medium is a powerful method to model seismic reflection signals, widely used in the exploration for oil and gas reservoirs. Reflection imaging and inversion method derive their exis- tence from the presence of singularities in the Earth's material properties that support the waves. Considering a Green's function formalism based on the {it frequency distri- bution} of the elastic wave spectra, we study their propagation within a model in which the Earth is treated as a stratified medium. The calculations are based on the linear response function approach, which is very convenient to deal with this kind of prob- lem. Both the displacement ({it space}) and the wavevector ({it space-time}) Green's functions are determined. A damping term gamma is included in a phenomenolog- ical way into the wavevector expression. In order to examine the waves' excitation, we also determine, by using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, their power spectra, which have many interesting properties.

  8. On the Role of Shock Wave Reflections in Impact Cratering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoglio, O.

    2015-07-01

    When the downward impact shockwave meets a rock discontinuity, an upward reflected pressure wave is created. When travelling through the crater fill deposits, this wave projects upwards the shattered rocks which so may contribute to the rim creation.

  9. Measurement of Oblique Impact-generated Shear Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, J. M.; Schultz, P. H.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental strain measurements reveal that oblique impacts can generate shear waves with displacements as large as those in the P-wave. Large oblique impacts may thus be more efficient sources of surface disruption than vertical impacts. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Wave function microscopy of quasibound atomic states.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S; Harb, M M; Ollagnier, A; Robicheaux, F; Vrakking, M J J; Barillot, T; Lépine, F; Bordas, C

    2013-05-01

    In the 1980s Demkov, Kondratovich, and Ostrovsky and Kondratovich and Ostrovsky proposed an experiment based on the projection of slow electrons emitted by a photoionized atom onto a position-sensitive detector. In the case of resonant excitation, they predicted that the spatial electron distribution on the detector should represent nothing else but a magnified image of the projection of a quasibound electronic state. By exciting lithium atoms in the presence of a static electric field, we present in this Letter the first experimental photoionization wave function microscopy images where signatures of quasibound states are evident. Characteristic resonant features, such as (i) the abrupt change of the number of wave function nodes across a resonance and (ii) the broadening of the outer ring of the image (associated with tunneling ionization), are observed and interpreted via wave packet propagation simulations and recently proposed resonance tunneling mechanisms. The electron spatial distribution measured by our microscope is a direct macroscopic image of the projection of the microscopic squared modulus of the electron wave that is quasibound to the atom and constitutes the first experimental realization of the experiment proposed 30 years ago. PMID:23683194

  11. Impact of 'functional food'.

    PubMed

    Guesry, Pierre René

    2005-01-01

    'Functional Food' is not a new concept but it became more important recently due to the collapse of most social health system because 'Functional Foods' allow low cost prevention of numerous diseases. 'Functional Foods' are different from 'Neutraceuticals' which remain drug based with poor taste whereas 'Functional Foods' remain good food which could be consumed for years, but in addition have a disease prophylactic function. They are becoming particularly important for the prevention of food allergy in 'at risk' population, obesity, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases and particularly high blood pressure and atherosclerosis, but also for cancer prevention. The newest trend is that governments and health authorities allow food manufacturers to make health prevention related claims on mass media.

  12. Semiclassical wave functions for open quantum billiards.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Fabian; Březinová, Iva; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Libisch, Florian

    2013-08-01

    We present a semiclassical approximation to the scattering wave function Ψ(r,k) for an open quantum billiard, which is based on the reconstruction of the Feynman path integral. We demonstrate its remarkable numerical accuracy for the open rectangular billiard and show that the convergence of the semiclassical wave function to the full quantum state is controlled by the mean path length or equivalently the dwell time for a given scattering state. In the numerical implementation a cutoff length in the maximum path length or, equivalently, a maximum dwell time τ(max) included implies a finite energy resolution ΔE~τ(max)(-1). Possible applications include leaky billiards and systems with decoherence present. PMID:24032910

  13. General Forms of Wave Functions for Dipositronium, Ps2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of particle interchange symmetry for the structure of wave functions of the states of dipositronium was recently discussed by the author [I]. In the present work, the methodology is simply explained, and the wave functions are explicitly given.

  14. Impact detection using ultrasonic waves based on artificial immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Keisuke; Mita, Akira

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a structural health monitoring system for judging structural condition of metallic plates by analyzing ultrasonic waves. Many critical accidents of structures like buildings and aircrafts are caused by small structural errors; cracks and loosened bolts etc. This is a reason why we need to detect little errors at an early stage. Moreover, to improve precision and to reduce cost for damage detection, it is necessary to build and update the database corresponding to environmental change. This study focuses our attention on the automatable structures, specifically, applying artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm to determine the structure safe or not. The AIS is a novelty computational detection algorithm inspired from biological defense system, which discriminates between self and non-self to reject nonself cells. Here, self is defined to be normal data patterns and non-self is abnormal data patterns. Furthermore, it is not only pattern recognition but also it has a storage function. In this study, a number of impact resistance experiments of duralumin plates, with normal structural condition and abnormal structural condition, are examined and ultrasonic waves are acquired by AE sensors on the surface of the aluminum plates. By accumulating several feature vectors of ultrasonic waves, a judging method, which can determine an abnormal wave as nonself, inspired from immune system is created. The results of the experiments show good performance of this method.

  15. Lanczos steps to improve variational wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becca, Federico; Hu, Wen-Jun; Iqbal, Yasir; Parola, Alberto; Poilblanc, Didier; Sorella, Sandro

    2015-09-01

    Gutzwiller-projected fermionic states can be efficiently implemented within quantum Monte Carlo calculations to define extremely accurate variational wave functions for Heisenberg models on frustrated two-dimensional lattices, not only for the ground state but also for low-energy excitations. The application of few Lanczos steps on top of these states further improves their accuracy, allowing calculations on large clusters. In addition, by computing both the energy and its variance, it is possible to obtain reliable estimations of exact results. Here, we report the cases of the frustrated Heisenberg models on square and Kagome lattices.

  16. Covariance Constraints for Light Front Wave Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.

    2016-06-01

    Light front wave functions (LFWFs) are often utilized to model parton distributions and form factors where their transverse and longitudinal momenta are tied to each other in some manner that is often guided by convenience. On the other hand, the cross talk of transverse and longitudinal momenta is governed by Poincaré symmetry and thus popular LFWF models are often not usable to model more intricate quantities such as generalized parton distributions. In this contribution a closer look to this issue is given and it is shown how to overcome the issue for two-body LFWFs.

  17. Adiabatic corrections to density functional theory energies and wave functions.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, José R; Coura, Thiago de O; Diniz, Leonardo G; de Castro, Gustavo; Assafrão, Denise; Heine, Thomas

    2008-09-25

    The adiabatic finite-nuclear-mass-correction (FNMC) to the electronic energies and wave functions of atoms and molecules is formulated for density-functional theory and implemented in the deMon code. The approach is tested for a series of local and gradient corrected density functionals, using MP2 results and diagonal-Born-Oppenheimer corrections from the literature for comparison. In the evaluation of absolute energy corrections of nonorganic molecules the LDA PZ81 functional works surprisingly better than the others. For organic molecules the GGA BLYP functional has the best performance. FNMC with GGA functionals, mainly BLYP, show a good performance in the evaluation of relative corrections, except for nonorganic molecules containing H atoms. The PW86 functional stands out with the best evaluation of the barrier of linearity of H2O and the isotopic dipole moment of HDO. In general, DFT functionals display an accuracy superior than the common belief and because the corrections are based on a change of the electronic kinetic energy they are here ranked in a new appropriate way. The approach is applied to obtain the adiabatic correction for full atomization of alcanes C(n)H(2n+2), n = 4-10. The barrier of 1 mHartree is approached for adiabatic corrections, justifying its insertion into DFT. PMID:18537228

  18. String wave function across a Kasner singularity

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Niz, Gustavo; Turok, Neil

    2010-06-15

    A collision of orbifold planes in 11 dimensions has been proposed as an explanation of the hot big bang. When the two planes are close to each other, the winding membranes become the lightest modes of the theory, and can be effectively described in terms of fundamental strings in a ten-dimensional background. Near the brane collision, the 11-dimensional metric is a Euclidean space times a 1+1-dimensional Milne universe. However, one may expect small perturbations to lead into a more general Kasner background. In this paper we extend the previous classical analysis of winding membranes to Kasner backgrounds, and using the Hamiltonian equations, solve for the wave function of loops with circular symmetry. The evolution across the singularity is regular, and explained in terms of the excitement of higher oscillation modes. We also show there is finite particle production and unitarity is preserved.

  19. Intercellular Ca2+ Waves: Mechanisms and Function

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular calcium (Ca2+) waves (ICWs) represent the propagation of increases in intracellular Ca2+ through a syncytium of cells and appear to be a fundamental mechanism for coordinating multicellular responses. ICWs occur in a wide diversity of cells and have been extensively studied in vitro. More recent studies focus on ICWs in vivo. ICWs are triggered by a variety of stimuli and involve the release of Ca2+ from internal stores. The propagation of ICWs predominately involves cell communication with internal messengers moving via gap junctions or extracellular messengers mediating paracrine signaling. ICWs appear to be important in both normal physiology as well as pathophysiological processes in a variety of organs and tissues including brain, liver, retina, cochlea, and vascular tissue. We review here the mechanisms of initiation and propagation of ICWs, the key intra- and extracellular messengers (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and ATP) mediating ICWs, and the proposed physiological functions of ICWs. PMID:22811430

  20. Hadron Wave Functions from Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    I give a brief account of the status and perspectives of lattice calculations of the light-front wave functions at small transverse separations, usually referred to as hadron distribution amplitudes (DAs). The existing calculations indicate that the corrections to the asymptotic form of such distributions at large scales are rather small as compared to earlier model estimates. Lattice calculations also suggest an alternating pattern of such corrections for the nucleon resonances with increasing mass. Several recent results are discussed, including precise determination of the second moment of the pion DA, leading-twist DAs of the nucleon and N^*(1535) , and the first calculation of the flavor-symmetry breaking corrections in the DAs of the baryon octet.

  1. Computer network defense through radial wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Ian J.

    The purpose of this research is to synthesize basic and fundamental findings in quantum computing, as applied to the attack and defense of conventional computer networks. The concept focuses on uses of radio waves as a shield for, and attack against traditional computers. A logic bomb is analogous to a landmine in a computer network, and if one was to implement it as non-trivial mitigation, it will aid computer network defense. As has been seen in kinetic warfare, the use of landmines has been devastating to geopolitical regions in that they are severely difficult for a civilian to avoid triggering given the unknown position of a landmine. Thus, the importance of understanding a logic bomb is relevant and has corollaries to quantum mechanics as well. The research synthesizes quantum logic phase shifts in certain respects using the Dynamic Data Exchange protocol in software written for this work, as well as a C-NOT gate applied to a virtual quantum circuit environment by implementing a Quantum Fourier Transform. The research focus applies the principles of coherence and entanglement from quantum physics, the concept of expert systems in artificial intelligence, principles of prime number based cryptography with trapdoor functions, and modeling radio wave propagation against an event from unknown parameters. This comes as a program relying on the artificial intelligence concept of an expert system in conjunction with trigger events for a trapdoor function relying on infinite recursion, as well as system mechanics for elliptic curve cryptography along orbital angular momenta. Here trapdoor both denotes the form of cipher, as well as the implied relationship to logic bombs.

  2. Impacts of wave energy conversion devices on local wave climate: observations and modelling from the Perth Wave Energy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeke, Ron; Hemer, Mark; Contardo, Stephanie; Symonds, Graham; Mcinnes, Kathy

    2016-04-01

    As demonstrated by the Australian Wave Energy Atlas (AWavEA), the southern and western margins of the country possess considerable wave energy resources. The Australia Government has made notable investments in pre-commercial wave energy developments in these areas, however little is known about how this technology may impact local wave climate and subsequently affect neighbouring coastal environments, e.g. altering sediment transport, causing shoreline erosion or accretion. In this study, a network of in-situ wave measurement devices have been deployed surrounding the 3 wave energy converters of the Carnegie Wave Energy Limited's Perth Wave Energy Project. This data is being used to develop, calibrate and validate numerical simulations of the project site. Early stage results will be presented and potential simulation strategies for scaling-up the findings to larger arrays of wave energy converters will be discussed. The intended project outcomes are to establish zones of impact defined in terms of changes in local wave energy spectra and to initiate best practice guidelines for the establishment of wave energy conversion sites.

  3. Nonlinear Trivelpiece-Gould Waves: Frequency, Functional Form, and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2015-11-01

    This poster considers the frequency, spatial form, and stability, of nonlinear Trivelpiece- Gould (TG) waves on a cylindrical plasma column of length L and radius rp, treating both traveling and standing waves, and focussing on the regime of experimental interest in which L/rp >> 1. In this regime TG waves are weakly dispersive, allowing strong mode-coupling between Fourier harmonics. The mode coupling implies that linear theory for such waves is a poor approximation even at fairly small amplitudes, and nonlinear theories that include only a small number of harmonics (such as 3-wave parametric resonance theory) fail to fully capture the stability properties of the system. We find that nonlinear standing waves suffer jumps in their functional form as their amplitude is varied continuously. The jumps are caused by nonlinear resonances between the standing wave and nearly linear waves whose frequencies and wave numbers are harmonics of the standing wave. Also, the standing waves are found to be unstable to a multi-wave version of 3-wave parametric resonance, with an amplitude required for instability onset that is much larger than expected from three wave theory. For traveling wave, linearly stability is found for all amplitudes that could be studied, in contradiction to 3-wave theory. Supported by National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1414570, Department of Energy Grants DE-SC0002451and DE-SC0008693.

  4. Impact of mountain gravity waves on infrasound propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Linear theory of acoustic propagation is used to analyze how mountain waves can change the characteristics of infrasound signals. The mountain wave model is based on the integration of the linear inviscid Taylor-Goldstein equation forced by a nonlinear surface boundary condition. For the acoustic propagation we solve the wave equation using the normal mode method together with the effective sound speed approximation. For large-amplitude mountain waves we use direct numerical simulations to compute the interactions between the mountain waves and the infrasound component. It is shown that the mountain waves perturb the low level waveguide, which leads to significant acoustic dispersion. The mountain waves also impact the arrival time and spread of the signals substantially and can produce a strong absorption of the wave signal. To interpret our results we follow each acoustic mode separately and show which mode is impacted and how. We also show that the phase shift between the acoustic modes over the horizontal length of the mountain wave field may yield to destructive interferences in the lee side of the mountain, resulting in a new form of infrasound absorption. The statistical relevance of those results is tested using a stochastic version of the mountain wave model and large enough sample sizes.

  5. A Hammer-Impact, Aluminum, Shear-Wave Seismic Source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2007-01-01

    Near-surface seismic surveys often employ hammer impacts to create seismic energy. Shear-wave surveys using horizontally polarized waves require horizontal hammer impacts against a rigid object (the source) that is coupled to the ground surface. I have designed, built, and tested a source made out of aluminum and equipped with spikes to improve coupling. The source is effective in a variety of settings, and it is relatively simple and inexpensive to build.

  6. Analysis of the impacts of Wave Energy Converter arrays on the nearshore wave climate in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, A.; Haller, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    through the external modification of the wave spectra at the device locations, based on a new experimentally determined Power Transfer Function established in an earlier WEC-array laboratory study. Changes in nearshore forcing conditions for each array size and configuration are compared in order to determine the scale of the far-field effects of WEC arrays and which array sizes and configurations could have the most significant impacts on coastal processes.

  7. Holographic Wave Functions, Meromorphization and Counting Rules

    SciTech Connect

    Anatoly Radyushkin

    2006-05-10

    We study the large-Q{sup 2} behavior of the meson form factor F{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) constructed using the holographic light-front wave functions proposed recently by Brodsky and de Teramond. We show that this model can be also obtained within the Migdal's regularization approach (''meromorphization''), if one applies it to 3-point function for scalar currents made of scalar quarks. We found that the asymptotic 1/Q{sup 2} behavior of F{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) is generated by soft Feynman mechanism rather than by short distance dynamics, which causes very late onset of the 1/Q{sup 2} asymptotic behavior. It becomes visible only for unaccessible momenta Q{sup 2} {approx}> 10, GeV{sup 2}. Using meromorphization for spin-1/2 quarks, we demonstrated that resulting form factor F{sup spinor}{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) has 1/Q{sup 4} asymptotic behavior. Now, owing to the late onset of this asymptotic pattern, F{sup spinor}{sub M} (Q{sup 2}) imitates the 1/Q{sup 2} behavior in the few GeV{sup 2} region.

  8. Holomorphic wave function of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, H. )

    1990-10-15

    The quantum behavior of the vacuum Bianchi type-IX universe with the cosmological constant is investigated in terms of the Ashtekar variables. An exact solution to the quantum Hamiltonian constraint in the holomorphic representation is given. This solution reduces to the Hartle-Hawking wave function in the spatially isotropic sector and extends in the triad representation to the classically forbidden region where the determinant of the spatial metric becomes negative. The analysis of the quantum Robertson-Walker universe indicates that if the superspace is extended to such a classically forbidden region, the holomorphic representation picks up some restricted class of solutions in general. This observation leads to a new ansatz on the boundary condition of the Universe. In particular, the behavior of the Lorentzian and Euclidean WKB orbits corresponding to the solution suggests a new picture on the semiclassical behavior of the quantum Universe: that the Universe is created from an ensemble of Euclidean mother spacetimes. Further it is pointed out that the solution is a restriction to the spatially homogeneous sector of an almost exact solution to all the quantum constraints in the holomorphic representation for generic vacuum spacetime with the cosmological constant. The latter generic solution has a WKB structure for which the phase is proportional to the Chern-Simons functional.

  9. Bohmian mechanics without wave function ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé, Albert

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, I critically assess different interpretations of Bohmian mechanics that are not committed to an ontology based on the wave function being an actual physical object that inhabits configuration space. More specifically, my aim is to explore the connection between the denial of configuration space realism and another interpretive debate that is specific to Bohmian mechanics: the quantum potential versus guidance approaches. Whereas defenders of the quantum potential approach to the theory claim that Bohmian mechanics is better formulated as quasi-Newtonian, via the postulation of forces proportional to acceleration; advocates of the guidance approach defend the notion that the theory is essentially first-order and incorporates some concepts akin to those of Aristotelian physics. Here I analyze whether the desideratum of an interpretation of Bohmian mechanics that is both explanatorily adequate and not committed to configuration space realism favors one of these two approaches to the theory over the other. Contrary to some recent claims in the literature, I argue that the quasi-Newtonian approach based on the idea of a quantum potential does not come out the winner.

  10. Impacts of ULF wave power on the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, E.; Doherty, P.; Zesta, E.; Moldwin, M.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of the ULF wave power, which is excited by long-lived high solar wind speed streams, in the magnetosphere has been well understood. For example, it has been reported that ULF pulsations may be the likely acceleration mechanism for generating storm-time MeV "killer" electrons in the magnetosphere. However, the impact of this energetic ULF wave power onto the ionosphere is not yet explored very well. In this paper we unequivocally demonstrated that during intense Pc5 ULF wave activity period, distinct pulsations with the same periodicity were found in the TEC data observed by GPS receivers located at different latitudes. The GPS-TEC has been used as a powerful tool to study the propagation pattern of transient ionospheric disturbances generated by seismic or internal gravity waves. Since then the small-scale variations (undulation) of GPS TEC has been associated with either gravity wave or TIDs. However, these small scale undulations of TECs turned out to be sensitive enough to the intense global ULF waves as well. The wavelet analysis of GPS TEC small scale undulations shows a peak value at the frequency of 2-10mHz which is a typical frequency range of Pc5 ULF wave. The typical internal gravity wave frequency is less than 1.6 or 2 mHz, therefore the TEC waves are likely due to ULF waves. At the same time, we detect the ULF activity on the ground using a chain of ground-based magnetometer data, depicting the ULF wave penetration from high latitude to low latitude region. All these observations demonstrate that Pc5 waves with a likely driver in the solar wind can penetrate to the ionosphere and cause small scale undulation on the ionospheric density structures.

  11. Second order distorted wave calculations for electron impact ionization processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhangjin

    Electron impact ionization of atoms provides a fundamental test of the current understanding of atomic structure as well as our understanding of the three body problem. Triple differential cross sections (TDCS), measured in the coincidence experiment, provide the most sensitive test of the theory of electron impact ionization processes. It was found two decades ago that second-order effects were crucial in explaining both the positions and magnitudes of the binary and recoil peaks in the TDCS. However, the existing theoretical calculations of second-order amplitudes typically resort to simplifying approximations, such as the closure approximation or neglecting the real part of the Green's function, to make the calculation tractable. In this work, we have developed a second-order distorted wave (DWB2) theory for atomic ionization which does not make these approximations. The DWB2 theory has been used to calculate the TDCS for electron impact ionization of hydrogen. It is found that the DWB2 results are in good agreement with absolute experimental measurements for incident energy greater than 100 eV. We have also performed DWB2 calculations for electron impact ionization of helium with the residual ion left in the n=1 and 2 states at intermediate energies in coplanar asymmetric geometry. Both the neutral and ionic distorting potentials are employed for the projectile in the final state. It has been found that the DWB2 results with the ionic distorting potential are in better agreement with experiment for the case in which the residual ion is left in the excited states. We have also performed the calculations to check the validity of the closure approximation and the simplified Green's function approximation and found that these approximations are not accurate for non-coplanar geometry and low incident energies.

  12. Wave functions for continuum states of charged fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, S. J.; Macek, J. H.

    1994-02-01

    Briggs's representation [Phys. Rev. A 41, 539 (1990)] of the Mo/ller wave operator for multiparticle wave functions is applied to charged fragments using a limiting procedure to correctly account for the slow decrease of Coulomb interactions with distance. Approximate wave functions used to model (e,2e) angular correlation measurments are obtained. Computed and measured angular correlations are compared to clarify the region of applicability of two approximations.

  13. The Wave Function of the Universe in New Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Subenoy

    1997-09-01

    In this paper we evaluate the wave function of the universe using the usual Euclidean path integral technique as proposed by Halliwell and Louko for Ashtekar's new variables. Also we consider the new regularization technique developed by Ishikawa and Ueda for evaluation of the path integral. The wave function by solving the Wheeler-DeWitt equation is also presented.

  14. Calculation of the Aharonov-Bohm wave function

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, M.

    1996-08-01

    A calculation of the Aharonov-Bohm wave function is presented. The result is an asymptotic series of confluent hypergeometric functions which is finite at the forward direction. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  15. Optimal Slater-determinant approximation of fermionic wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. M.; Mauser, Norbert J.

    2016-09-01

    We study the optimal Slater-determinant approximation of an N -fermion wave function analytically. That is, we seek the Slater-determinant (constructed out of N orthonormal single-particle orbitals) wave function having largest overlap with a given N -fermion wave function. Some simple lemmas have been established and their usefulness is demonstrated on some structured states, such as the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. In the simplest nontrivial case of three fermions in six orbitals, which the celebrated Borland-Dennis discovery is about, the optimal Slater approximation wave function is proven to be built out of the natural orbitals in an interesting way. We also show that the Hadamard inequality is useful for finding the optimal Slater approximation of some special target wave functions.

  16. Effect of Forcing Function on Nonlinear Acoustic Standing Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkheiner, Joshua R.; Li, Xiao-Fan; Raman, Ganesh; Daniels, Chris; Steinetz, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear acoustic standing waves of high amplitude have been demonstrated by utilizing the effects of resonator shape to prevent the pressure waves from entering saturation. Experimentally, nonlinear acoustic standing waves have been generated by shaking an entire resonating cavity. While this promotes more efficient energy transfer than a piston-driven resonator, it also introduces complicated structural dynamics into the system. Experiments have shown that these dynamics result in resonator forcing functions comprised of a sum of several Fourier modes. However, previous numerical studies of the acoustics generated within the resonator assumed simple sinusoidal waves as the driving force. Using a previously developed numerical code, this paper demonstrates the effects of using a forcing function constructed with a series of harmonic sinusoidal waves on resonating cavities. From these results, a method will be demonstrated which allows the direct numerical analysis of experimentally generated nonlinear acoustic waves in resonators driven by harmonic forcing functions.

  17. Detecting wave function collapse without prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Charles Wesley; Tumulka, Roderich

    2015-08-01

    We are concerned with the problem of detecting with high probability whether a wave function has collapsed or not, in the following framework: A quantum system with a d-dimensional Hilbert space is initially in state ψ; with probability 0 < p < 1, the state collapses relative to the orthonormal basis b1, …, bd. That is, the final state ψ' is random, it is ψ with probability 1 - p and bk (up to a phase) with p times Born's probability || ψ 2 . Now an experiment on the system in state ψ' is desired that provides information about whether or not a collapse has occurred. Elsewhere [C. W. Cowan and R. Tumulka, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 47, 195303 (2014)], we identify and discuss the optimal experiment in case that ψ is either known or random with a known probability distribution. Here, we present results about the case that no a priori information about ψ is available, while we regard p and b1, …, bd as known. For certain values of p, we show that the set of ψs for which any experiment E is more reliable than blind guessing is at most half the unit sphere; thus, in this regime, any experiment is of questionable use, if any at all. Remarkably, however, there are other values of p and experiments E such that the set of ψs for which E is more reliable than blind guessing has measure greater than half the sphere, though with a conjectured maximum of 64% of the sphere.

  18. Shock Waves Impacting Composite Material Plates: The Mutual Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    High-performance, fiber-reinforced polymer composites have been extensively used in structural applications in the last 30 years because of their light weight combined with high specific stiffness and strength at a rather low cost. The automotive industry has adopted these materials in new designs of lightweight vehicles. The mechanical response and characterization of such materials under transient dynamic loading caused with shock impact induced by blast is not well understood. Air blast is associated with a fast traveling shock front with high pressure across followed by a decrease in pressure behind due to expansion waves. The time scales associated with the shock front are typically 103 faster than those involved in the expansion waves. Impingement of blast waves on structures can cause a reflection of the wave off the surface of the structure followed by a substantial transient aerodynamic load, which can cause significant deformation and damage of the structure. These can alter the overpressure, which is built behind the reflected shock. In addition, a complex aeroelastic interaction between the blast wave and the structure develops that can induce reverberation within an enclosure, which can cause substantial overpressure through multiple reflections of the wave. Numerical simulations of such interactions are quite challenging. They usually require coupled solvers for the flow and the structure. The present contribution provides a physics-based analysis of the phenomena involved, a critical review of existing computational techniques together with some recent results involving face-on impact of shock waves on thin composite plates.

  19. Heat waves in urban heat islands: interactions, impacts, and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bou-Zeid, E.; Li, D.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization rates and the intensity of anthropogenic global warming are both on the rise. By the middle of this century, climate change impacts on humans will be largely manifested in urban regions and will result from a combination of global to regional impacts related to greenhouse gas emissions, as well as regional to local impacts related to land-cover changes associated with urbanization. Alarmingly, our understanding of how these two distinct impacts will interact remains very poor. One example, which is the focus of this study, is the interaction of urban heat islands and heat waves. Urban heat islands (UHIs) are spatial anomalies consisting of higher temperatures over built terrain; while their intensity varies with many factors, it consistently increases with city size. UHIs will hence intensify in the future as cities expand. Heat waves are temporal anomalies in the regional temperatures that affect both urban and rural areas; there is high certainty that the frequency and intensity of such waves will increase as a result global warming. However, whether urban and rural temperatures respond in the same way to heat waves remains a critical unanswered question. In this study, a combination of observational and modeling analyses of a heat wave event over the Baltimore-Washington urban corridor reveals synergistic interactions between urban heat islands and heat waves. Not only do heat waves increase the regional temperatures, but they also intensify the difference between urban and rural temperatures. That is, their impact is stronger in cities and the urban heat stress during such waves is larger than the sum of the background urban heat island effect and the heat wave effect. We also develop a simple analytical model of this interaction that suggests that this exacerbated impact in urban areas is primarily to the lack of surface moisture, with low wind speeds also playing a smaller role. Finally, the effectiveness of cool and green roofs as UHI mitigation

  20. Double plane wave reverse time migration with plane wave Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Sen, M. K.; Stoffa, P. L.

    2015-12-01

    Reverse time migration (RTM) is effective in obtaining complex subsurface structures from seismic data. By solving the two-way wave equation, RTM can use entire wavefield for imaging. Although powerful computer are becoming available, the conventional pre-stack shot gather RTM is still computationally expensive. Solving forward and backward wavefield propagation for each source location and shot gather is extremely time consuming, especially for large seismic datasets. We present an efficient, accurate and flexible plane wave RTM in the frequency domain where we utilize a compressed plane wave dataset, known as the double plane wave (DPW) dataset. Provided with densely sampled seismic dataset, shot gathers can be decomposed into source and receiver plane wave components with minimal artifacts. The DPW RTM is derived under the Born approximation and utilizes frequency domain plane wave Green's function for imaging. Time dips in the shot profiles can help to estimate the range of plane wave components present in shot gathers. Therefore, a limited number of plane wave Green's functions are needed for imaging. Plane wave Green's functions can be used for imaging both source and receiver plane waves. Source and receiver reciprocity can be used for imaging plane wave components at no cost and save half of the computation time. As a result, the computational burden for migration is substantially reduced. Plane wave components can be migrated independently to recover specific targets with given dips, and ray parameter common image gathers (CIGs) can be generated after migration directly. The ray parameter CIGs can be used to justify the correctness of velocity models. Subsurface anisotropy effects can also be included in our imaging condition, provided with plane wave Green's functions in the anisotropic media.

  1. Joint inversion of body wave receiver function and Rayleigh wave ellipticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, J.; Ni, S.; Chu, R.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, surface wave dispersion has been used to image lithospheric structure jointly with receiver function, or Rayleigh wave ellipticity (Julia et al., 2000; Lin et al., 2012). Because surface wave dispersion is the total propagation effect of the travel path, the joint inversion relies on dense seismic arrays or high seismicity to obtain local velocity structure. However, both receiver function and Rayleigh wave ellipticity are single station measurements with localized sensitivities and could be combined for joint inversion naturally. In this study we explored the feasibility of the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave ellipticity and receiver function. We performed sensitivity tests with forward modeling, and found that the receiver function is sensitive to sharp velocity interfaces but shows weak sensitivity to long wavelength structure, almost complementary to Rayleigh wave ellipticity. Therefore, joint inversion with two single-station measurements provides tighter constraints on the velocity structure beneath the seismic station. A joint inversion algorithm based on the Fast Simulated Annealing method is developed to invert Rayleigh wave ellipticity and receiver function for the lithospheric structure. Application of the algorithm to the Indian Craton and the Williston Basin in the United States demonstrates its effectiveness in reducing the non-uniqueness of the inversion. However, the joint inversion is not sensitive to average crustal velocity, suggesting the need to combine surface wave dispersion, receiver function and Rayleigh wave ellipticity to more accurately resolve the velocity structure. ReferenceJuliá, J., C. Ammon, R. Herrmann, and A. Correig, 2000. Joint inversion of receiver function and surface wave dispersion observations, Geophys. J. Int., 143(1), 99-112. Lin F.C., Schmandt B. and Tsai V.C., 2012. Joint inversion of Rayleigh wave phase velocity and ellipticity using USArray: constraining velocity and density structure in the upper

  2. Madden Julian Oscillation impacts on global ocean surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Andrew G.; Hendon, Harry H.; Durrant, Tom H.; Hemer, Mark A.

    2015-12-01

    We assess the impact of the tropical Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) on global ocean wind waves using 30 years of wave data from a wave model hindcast that is forced with high resolution surface winds from the NCEP-CFSR reanalysis. We concentrate on the boreal winter season when the MJO has its greatest amplitude and is potentially a source of predictable wave impacts at intra-seasonal lead times. Statistically significant anomalies in significant wave height (Hs), peak wave period (Tp) and zonal wave energy flux (CgE) are found to covary with the intra-seasonal variation of surface zonal wind induced by the MJO as it traverses eastward from the western tropical Indian Ocean to the eastern tropical Pacific. Tp varies generally out of phase with Hs over the life cycle of the MJO, indicating that these MJO-wave anomalies are locally wind-generated rather than remotely generated by ocean swell. Pronounced Hs anomalies develop on the northwest shelf of Australia, where the MJO is known to influence sea level and surface temperatures, and in the western Caribbean Sea and Guatemalan-Panama Seas with enhanced wave anomalies apparent in the vicinity of the Tehuantepec and Papagayo gaps. Significant wave anomalies are also detected in the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans in connection with the MJO teleconnection to the extratropics via atmospheric wave propagation. The impact in the north Atlantic stems from induction of the high phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) about 1 week after MJO convection traverses the Indian Ocean, and the low phase of the NAO about one week after suppressed convection traverses the Indian Ocean. Strong positive Hs anomalies maximize on the Northern European coast in the positive NAO phase and vice versa for the negative NAO phase. The MJO also influences the occurrence of daily low (below the 5th percentile) and high (above the 95th percentile) wave conditions across the tropics and in the North Pacific and North Atlantic

  3. Modular matrices from universal wave-function overlaps in Gutzwiller-projected parton wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Jia-Wei; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2015-03-01

    We implement the universal wave-function overlap (UWFO) method to extract modular S and T matrices for topological orders in Gutzwiller-projected parton wave functions (GPWFs). The modular S and T matrices generate a projective representation of S L (2 ,Z ) on the degenerate-ground-state Hilbert space on a torus and may fully characterize the 2+1D topological orders, i.e., the quasiparticle statistics and chiral central charge (up to E8 bosonic quantum Hall states). We use the variational Monte Carlo method to computed the S and T matrices of the chiral spin liquid (CSL) constructed by the GPWF on the square lattice, and we confirm that the CSL carries the same topological order as the ν =1/2 bosonic Laughlin state. We find that the nonuniversal exponents in the UWFO can be small, and direct numerical computation can be applied on relatively large systems. The UWFO may be a powerful method to calculate the topological order in GPWFs.

  4. Traveling waves and impact-parameter correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Munier, S.; Salam, G. P.; Soyez, G.

    2008-09-01

    It is usually assumed that the high-energy evolution of partons in QCD remains local in coordinate space. In particular, fixed impact-parameter scattering is thought to be in the universality class of one-dimensional reaction-diffusion processes as if the evolutions at different points in the transverse plane became uncorrelated through rapidity evolution. We check this assumption by numerically comparing a toy model with QCD-like impact-parameter dependence to its exact counterpart with uniform evolution in impact-parameter space. We find quantitative differences, but which seem to amount to a mere rescaling of the strong coupling constant. Since the rescaling factor does not show any strong {alpha}{sub s} dependence, we conclude that locality is well verified, up to subleading terms at small {alpha}{sub s}.

  5. Traveling waves and impact-parameter correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munier, S.; Salam, G. P.; Soyez, G.

    2008-09-01

    It is usually assumed that the high-energy evolution of partons in QCD remains local in coordinate space. In particular, fixed impact-parameter scattering is thought to be in the universality class of one-dimensional reaction-diffusion processes as if the evolutions at different points in the transverse plane became uncorrelated through rapidity evolution. We check this assumption by numerically comparing a toy model with QCD-like impact-parameter dependence to its exact counterpart with uniform evolution in impact-parameter space. We find quantitative differences, but which seem to amount to a mere rescaling of the strong coupling constant. Since the rescaling factor does not show any strong αs dependence, we conclude that locality is well verified, up to subleading terms at small αs.

  6. Boundary conditions on internal three-body wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Kevin A.; Littlejohn, Robert G.

    1999-10-01

    For a three-body system, a quantum wave function {Psi}{sub m}{sup {ell}} with definite {ell} and m quantum numbers may be expressed in terms of an internal wave function {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} which is a function of three internal coordinates. This article provides necessary and sufficient constraints on {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} to ensure that the external wave function {Psi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} is analytic. These constraints effectively amount to boundary conditions on {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} and its derivatives at the boundary of the internal space. Such conditions find similarities in the (planar) two-body problem where the wave function (to lowest order) has the form r{sup |m|} at the origin. We expect the boundary conditions to prove useful for constructing singularity free three-body basis sets for the case of nonvanishing angular momentum.

  7. Nonstandard jump functions for radially symmetric shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, Roy S.; Tucker, Don H.; Stanescu, Dan

    2008-10-01

    Nonstandard analysis is applied to derive generalized jump functions for radially symmetric, one-dimensional, magnetogasdynamic shock waves. It is assumed that the shock wave jumps occur on infinitesimal intervals, and the jump functions for the physical parameters occur smoothly across these intervals. Locally integrable predistributions of the Heaviside function are used to model the flow variables across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the physical parameters for two families of self-similar flows. It is shown that the microstructures for these families of radially symmetric, magnetogasdynamic shock waves coincide in a nonstandard sense for a specified density jump function

  8. Nonstandard jump functions for radically symmetric shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, Roy S; Tucker, Don H; Stanescu, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Nonstandard analysis is applied to derive generalized jump functions for radially symmetric, one-dimensional, magnetogasdynamic shock waves. It is assumed that the shock wave jumps occur on infinitesimal intervals and the jump functions for the physical parameters occur smoothly across these intervals. Locally integrable predistributions of the Heaviside function are used to model the flow variables across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the physical parameters for two families of self-similar flows. It is shown that the microstructures for these families of radially symmetric, magnetogasdynamic shock waves coincide in a nonstandard sense for a specified density jump function.

  9. Impact of plunging breaking waves on a partially submerged cube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A.; Ikeda, C.; Duncan, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    The impact of a deep-water plunging breaking wave on a partially submerged cube is studied experimentally in a tank that is 14.8 m long and 1.2 m wide with a water depth of 0.91 m. The breakers are created from dispersively focused wave packets generated by a programmable wave maker. The water surface profile in the vertical center plane of the cube is measured using a cinematic laser-induced fluorescence technique with movie frame rates ranging from 300 to 4,500 Hz. The pressure distribution on the front face of the cube is measured with 24 fast-response sensors simultaneously with the wave profile measurements. The cube is positioned vertically at three heights relative to the mean water level and horizontally at a distance from the wave maker where a strong vertical water jet is formed. The portion of the water surface between the contact point on the front face of the cube and the wave crest is fitted with a circular arc and the radius and vertical position of the fitted circle is tracked during the impact. The vertical acceleration of the contact point reaches more than 50 times the acceleration of gravity and the pressure distribution just below the free surface shows a localized high-pressure region with a very high vertical pressure gradient. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research under grant N000141110095.

  10. Breaking wave impact forces on truss support structures for offshore wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieślikiewicz, Witold; Gudmestad, Ove T.; Podrażka, Olga

    2014-05-01

    total and local force transducers which measured the response of the structure to the impact force. Also, the free surface elevations, the water particle velocity and the water particle acceleration were recorded during the WaveSlam experiment. Both the total and the local force data have been analysed using the Frequency Response Function method, which has been already applied to the estimation of the wave slamming forces. The results of this classical approach were compared to the calculated slamming forces based on Goda and Wienke and Oumeraci theories. Slamming wave forces and slamming coefficients calculated using both models appeared to be very much larger than those obtained from the analysed recorded data, therefore there is a need for further research. Details of this research and modelling results will be presented in the final poster.

  11. Antipodal focusing of seismic waves after larger meteorite impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschede, M.

    2011-12-01

    We examine focusing of seismic waves at the antipode of large terrestrial meteorite impacts, using the Chicxulub impact as our case study. Numerical simulations are based on a spectral-element method, representing the impact as a Gaussian force in time and space. Simulating the impact as a point source at the surface of a spherically symmetric Earth model results in deceptively large peak displacements at the antipode. Earth's ellipticity, lateral heterogeneity and a spatially distributed source limit high-frequency waves from constructively interfering at the antipode, thereby reducing peak displacement by a factor of four. Nevertheless, for plausible impact parameters, we observe peak antipodal displacements of ˜ 4~m, dynamic stresses in excess of 15~bar, and strains of 2 ± 10-5 . While these values are significantly lower than prior estimates, mainly based on a point source in a spherically symmetric Earth model, wave interference en route to the antipode induces ``channels'' of peak stress that are 5~times greater than in surrounding areas. Underneath the antipode we observed ``chimneys'' of peak stress, strain and velocity, with peak values exceeding 50~bar, 10-5 and 0.1~m/s, respectively. Our results put quantitative constraints on the feasibility of impact-induced antipodal volcanism and seismicity, as well as mantle plume and hotspot formation.

  12. Using local operator fluctuations to identify wave function improvements.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kiel T; Wagner, Lucas K

    2016-07-01

    A method is developed that allows analysis of quantum Monte Carlo simulations to identify errors in trial wave functions. The purpose of this method is to allow for the systematic improvement of variational wave functions by identifying degrees of freedom that are not well described by an initial trial state. We provide proof of concept implementations of this method by identifying the need for a Jastrow correlation factor and implementing a selected multideterminant wave function algorithm for small dimers that systematically decreases the variational energy. Selection of the two-particle excitations is done using the quantum Monte Carlo method within the presence of a Jastrow correlation factor and without the need to explicitly construct the determinants. We also show how this technique can be used to design compact wave functions for transition metal systems. This method may provide a route to analyze and systematically improve descriptions of complex quantum systems in a scalable way. PMID:27575232

  13. Using local operator fluctuations to identify wave function improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kiel T.; Wagner, Lucas K.

    2016-07-01

    A method is developed that allows analysis of quantum Monte Carlo simulations to identify errors in trial wave functions. The purpose of this method is to allow for the systematic improvement of variational wave functions by identifying degrees of freedom that are not well described by an initial trial state. We provide proof of concept implementations of this method by identifying the need for a Jastrow correlation factor and implementing a selected multideterminant wave function algorithm for small dimers that systematically decreases the variational energy. Selection of the two-particle excitations is done using the quantum Monte Carlo method within the presence of a Jastrow correlation factor and without the need to explicitly construct the determinants. We also show how this technique can be used to design compact wave functions for transition metal systems. This method may provide a route to analyze and systematically improve descriptions of complex quantum systems in a scalable way.

  14. Multi-time wave functions for quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Petrat, Sören; Tumulka, Roderich

    2014-06-15

    Multi-time wave functions such as ϕ(t{sub 1},x{sub 1},…,t{sub N},x{sub N}) have one time variable t{sub j} for each particle. This type of wave function arises as a relativistic generalization of the wave function ψ(t,x{sub 1},…,x{sub N}) of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. We show here how a quantum field theory can be formulated in terms of multi-time wave functions. We mainly consider a particular quantum field theory that features particle creation and annihilation. Starting from the particle–position representation of state vectors in Fock space, we introduce multi-time wave functions with a variable number of time variables, set up multi-time evolution equations, and show that they are consistent. Moreover, we discuss the relation of the multi-time wave function to two other representations, the Tomonaga–Schwinger representation and the Heisenberg picture in terms of operator-valued fields on space–time. In a certain sense and under natural assumptions, we find that all three representations are equivalent; yet, we point out that the multi-time formulation has several technical and conceptual advantages. -- Highlights: •Multi-time wave functions are manifestly Lorentz-covariant objects. •We develop consistent multi-time equations with interaction for quantum field theory. •We discuss in detail a particular model with particle creation and annihilation. •We show how multi-time wave functions are related to the Tomonaga–Schwinger approach. •We show that they have a simple representation in terms of operator valued fields.

  15. Structure of the number-projected BCS wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukelsky, J.; Pittel, S.; Esebbag, C.

    2016-03-01

    We study the structure of the number-projected BCS (PBCS) wave function in the particle-hole basis, displaying its similarities with coupled clusters theory (CCT). The analysis of PBCS together with several modifications suggested by the CCT wave function is carried out for the exactly solvable Richardson model involving a pure pairing Hamiltonian acting in a space of equally spaced, doubly degenerate levels. We point out the limitations of PBCS to describe the nonsuperconducting regime and suggest possible avenues for improvement.

  16. Calculation of electron wave functions and refractive index of Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Min; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Tao

    2008-10-01

    The radial wave functions of inner electron shell and outer electron shell of a Ne atom were obtained by the approximate analytical method and tested by calculating the ground state energy of the Ne atom. The equivalent volume of electron cloud and the refractive index of Ne were calculated. The calculated refractive index agrees well with the experimental result. Relationship between the refractive index and the wave function of Ne was discovered.

  17. Plane-wave expansion of elliptic cylindrical functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, Carlo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Nicola

    2015-08-01

    Elliptic Cylindrical Waves (ECW), defined as the product of an angular Mathieu function by its corresponding radial Mathieu function, occur in the solution of scattering problems involving two-dimensional structures with elliptic cross sections. In this paper, we explicitly derive the expansion of ECW, along a plane surface, in terms of homogeneous and evanescent plane waves, showing the accuracy of the numerical implementation of the formulas and discussing possible applications of the result.

  18. Impact of Functionally Graded Cylinders: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, S. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work funded under the Grant NAG3-2411 during the 04/05/2000-04/04/2001 period. The objective of this one-year project was to generalize the theoretical framework of the two-dimensional higher-order theory for the analysis of cylindrical functionally graded materials/structural components employed in advanced aircraft engines developed under past NASA Glenn funding. The completed generalization significantly broadens the theory's range of applicability through the incorporation of dynamic impact loading capability into its framework. Thus, it makes possible the assessment of the effect of damage due to fuel impurities, or the presence of submicron-level debris, on the life of functionally graded structural components. Applications involving advanced turbine blades and structural components for the reusable-launch vehicle (RLV) currently under development will benefit from the completed work. The theory's predictive capability is demonstrated through a numerical simulation of a one-dimensional wave propagation set up by an impulse load in a layered half-plane. Full benefit of the completed generalization of the higher-order theory described in this report will be realized upon the development of a related computer code.

  19. Factorized molecular wave functions: Analysis of the nuclear factor

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, R.

    2015-06-07

    The exact factorization of molecular wave functions leads to nuclear factors which should be nodeless functions. We reconsider the case of vibrational perturbations in a diatomic species, a situation usually treated by combining Born-Oppenheimer products. It was shown [R. Lefebvre, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 074106 (2015)] that it is possible to derive, from the solutions of coupled equations, the form of the factorized function. By increasing artificially the interstate coupling in the usual approach, the adiabatic regime can be reached, whereby the wave function can be reduced to a single product. The nuclear factor of this product is determined by the lowest of the two potentials obtained by diagonalization of the potential matrix. By comparison with the nuclear wave function of the factorized scheme, it is shown that by a simple rectification, an agreement is obtained between the modified nodeless function and that of the adiabatic scheme.

  20. Improved variational wave functions for few-body nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.; Arriaga, A.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1995-08-01

    We continued to work on improvements to our variational wave functions for use in Monte Carlo calculations of few-body nuclei. These trial functions include central, spin, isospin, tensor, and spin-orbit two-body correlations and three-body correlations for the three-nucleon potential. In the last two years we studied a variety of extra three-body correlations. Our search for possible forms was guided by comparisons made with 34-channel Faddeev wave functions provided by the Los Alamos-Iowa group. The new trial functions reduce the discrepancy with exact Faddeev calculations in {sup 3}H and Green`s Function Monte Carlo (GFMC) calculations in {sup 4}He by about 40%. This work is now being written up for publication. We hope to use similar comparisons with GFMC calculations in the six-body nuclei to find further improvements for the light p-shell nuclei, where the variational wave functions are not as good.

  1. The effect of meson wave function on heavy-quark fragmentation function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi Nejad, S. Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the process-independent fragmentation functions (FFs) for a heavy quark to fragment into heavy mesons considering the effects of meson wave function. In all previous works, where the FFs of heavy mesons or heavy baryons were calculated, a delta function form was approximated for the wave function of hadrons. Here, for the first time, we consider a typical mesonic wave function which is different from the delta function and is the nonrelativistic limit of the solution of Bethe-Salpeter equation with the QCD kernel. We shall present our numerical results for the heavy FFs and show how the proposed wave function improves the previous results. As an example, we focus on the fragmentation function for c -quark to split into S -wave D^0 -meson and compare our results with experimental data from BELLE and CLEO.

  2. Donor wave functions in Si gauged by STM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, A. L.; Salfi, J.; Bocquel, J.; Voisin, B.; Rogge, S.; Capaz, Rodrigo B.; Calderón, M. J.; Koiller, Belita

    2016-01-01

    The triumph of effective mass theory in describing the energy spectrum of dopants does not guarantee that the model wave functions will withstand an experimental test. Such wave functions have recently been probed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy, revealing localized patterns of resonantly enhanced tunneling currents. We show that the shape of the conducting splotches resembles a cut through Kohn-Luttinger (KL) hydrogenic envelopes, which modulate the interfering Bloch states of conduction electrons. All the nonmonotonic features of the current profile are consistent with the charge density fluctuations observed between successive {001 } atomic planes, including a counterintuitive reduction of the symmetry—a heritage of the lowered point group symmetry at these planes. A model-independent analysis of the diffraction figure constrains the value of the electron wave vector to k0=(0.82 ±0.03 ) (2 π /aSi) . Unlike prior measurements, averaged over a sizable density of electrons, this estimate is obtained directly from isolated electrons. We further investigate the model-specific anisotropy of the wave function envelope, related to the effective mass anisotropy. This anisotropy appears in the KL variational wave function envelope as the ratio between Bohr radii b /a . We demonstrate that the central-cell-corrected estimates for this ratio are encouragingly accurate, leading to the conclusion that the KL theory is a valid model not only for energies but for wave functions as well.

  3. Do Heat Waves have an Impact on Terrestrial Water Storage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brena-Naranjo, A.; Teuling, R.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent works have investigated the impact of heat waves on the surface energy and carbon balance. However, less attention has been given to the impacts on terrestrial hydrology. During the summer of 2010, the occurrence of an exceptional heat wave affected severely the Northern Hemisphere. The extension (more than 2 million km2) and severity of this extreme event caused substantial ecosystem damage (more than 1 million ha of forest fires), economic and human losses (~500 billion USD and more than 17 million of indirect deaths, respectively). This work investigates for the first time the impacts of the 2010 summer heat wave on terrestrial water storage. Our study area comprises three different regions where air temperature records were established or almost established during the summer: Western Russia, the Middle East and Eastern Sahel. Anomalies of terrestrial water storage derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were used to infer water storage deficits during the 2003-2013 period. Our analysis shows that Russia experienced the most severe water storage decline, followed by the Middle East, whereas Eastern Sahel was not significantly affected. The impact of the heat wave was spatially uniform in Russia but highly variable in the Middle East, with the Northern part substantially more affected than the Southern region. Lag times between maxima air temperatures and lower water storage deficits for Russia and the Middle East were approximately two and seven months, respectively. The results suggest that the response of terrestrial water storage to heat waves is stronger in energy-limited environments than in water-limited regions. Such differences in the magnitude and timing between meteorological and hydrological extremes can be explained by the propagation time between atmospheric water demand and natural or anthropogenic sources of water storage.

  4. Solutions of the Maxwell equations and photon wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, Peter J.

    2010-03-15

    Properties of six-component electromagnetic field solutions of a matrix form of the Maxwell equations, analogous to the four-component solutions of the Dirac equation, are described. It is shown that the six-component equation, including sources, is invariant under Lorentz transformations. Complete sets of eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian for the electromagnetic fields, which may be interpreted as photon wave functions, are given both for plane waves and for angular-momentum eigenstates. Rotationally invariant projection operators are used to identify transverse or longitudinal electric and magnetic fields. For plane waves, the velocity transformed transverse wave functions are also transverse, and the velocity transformed longitudinal wave functions include both longitudinal and transverse components. A suitable sum over these eigenfunctions provides a Green function for the matrix Maxwell equation, which can be expressed in the same covariant form as the Green function for the Dirac equation. Radiation from a dipole source and from a Dirac atomic transition current are calculated to illustrate applications of the Maxwell Green function.

  5. Adiabatic continuity, wave-function overlap, and topological phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jiahua; Sun, Kai

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we study the relation between wave-function overlap and adiabatic continuity in gapped quantum systems. We show that for two band insulators, a scalar function can be defined in the momentum space, which characterizes the wave-function overlap between Bloch states in the two insulators. If this overlap is nonzero for all momentum points in the Brillouin zone, these two insulators are adiabatically connected, i.e., we can deform one insulator into the other smoothly without closing the band gap. In addition, we further prove that this adiabatic path preserves all the symmetries of the insulators. The existence of such an adiabatic path implies that two insulators with nonzero wave-function overlap belong to the same topological phase. This relation, between adiabatic continuity and wave-function overlap, can be further generalized to correlated systems. The generalized relation cannot be applied to study generic many-body systems in the thermodynamic limit, because of the orthogonality catastrophe. However, for certain interacting systems (e.g., quantum Hall systems), the quantum wave-function overlap can be utilized to distinguish different quantum states. Experimental implications are also discussed.

  6. New approach to folding with the Coulomb wave function

    SciTech Connect

    Blokhintsev, L. D.; Savin, D. A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.

    2015-05-15

    Due to the long-range character of the Coulomb interaction theoretical description of low-energy nuclear reactions with charged particles still remains a formidable task. One way of dealing with the problem in an integral-equation approach is to employ a screened Coulomb potential. A general approach without screening requires folding of kernels of the integral equations with the Coulomb wave. A new method of folding a function with the Coulomb partial waves is presented. The partial-wave Coulomb function both in the configuration and momentum representations is written in the form of separable series. Each term of the series is represented as a product of a factor depending only on the Coulomb parameter and a function depending on the spatial variable in the configuration space and the momentum variable if the momentum representation is used. Using a trial function, the method is demonstrated to be efficient and reliable.

  7. Quantum Corral Wave-function Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Alfredo; Reboredo, Fernando; Balseiro, Carlos

    2005-03-01

    We present a theoretical method for the design and optimization of quantum corrals[1] with specific electronic properties. Taking advantage that spins are subject to a RKKY interaction that is directly controlled by the scattering of the quantum corral, we design corral structures that reproduce spin Hamiltonians with coupling constants determined a priori[2]. We solve exactly the bi-dimensional scattering problem for each corral configuration within the s-wave approximation[3] and subsequently the geometry of the quantum corral is optimized by means of simulated annealing[4] and genetic algorithms[5]. We demonstrate the possibility of automatic design of structures with complicated target electronic properties[6]. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by the University of California at the LLNL under contract no W-7405-Eng-48. [1] M. F. Crommie, C. P. Lutz and D. M. Eigler, Nature 403, 512 (2000) [2] D. P. DiVincenzo et al., Nature 408, 339 (2000) [3] G. A. Fiete and E. J. Heller, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 933 (2003) [4] M. R. A. T. N. Metropolis et al., J. Chem. Phys. 1087 (1953) [5] E. Aarts and J. K. Lenstra, eds. Local search in combinatorial problems (Princeton University Press, 1997) [6] A. A. Correa, F. Reboredo and C. Balseiro, Phys. Rev. B (in press).

  8. Impact of internal waves on the coherent underwater acoustic communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Lixin; Wang, Haibin; Lynch, James F.; Newhall, Arthur

    2012-11-01

    The 2001 Asian Sea International Experiment (ASIAEX2001) is a large-scale survey performed in the South China Sea. During May 2001 several minutes of M-sequence phase modulation signals were transmitted by a 400-Hz source repeatedly at intervals of half an hour, and received by an array 31 km away to conduct tomography of internal waves. The signal was treated as a binary-phase shift-keying (BPSK) communication signal with an information rate of 100 bps. The communication signals were demodulated by a decision-feedback equalizer. Since the intensity of the internal waves was not stable during the experiment period, data of two transmissions corresponding to a strong and a weak internal-wave activity were separately located and processed to investigate the impact of internal waves on the coherent underwater acoustic communication. The results show that internal waves cause a greatly fluctuating signal level and a rapidly varying multipath structure; consequently, these results show that the parameters of the equalizer need to be adjusted to mitigate the degradation of the communication performance.

  9. Impact of sea-level rise and coral mortality on the wave dynamics and wave forces on barrier reefs.

    PubMed

    Baldock, T E; Golshani, A; Callaghan, D P; Saunders, M I; Mumby, P J

    2014-06-15

    A one-dimensional wave model was used to investigate the reef top wave dynamics across a large suite of idealized reef-lagoon profiles, representing barrier coral reef systems under different sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios. The modeling shows that the impacts of SLR vary spatially and are strongly influenced by the bathymetry of the reef and coral type. A complex response occurs for the wave orbital velocity and forces on corals, such that the changes in the wave dynamics vary reef by reef. Different wave loading regimes on massive and branching corals also leads to contrasting impacts from SLR. For many reef bathymetries, wave orbital velocities increase with SLR and cyclonic wave forces are reduced for certain coral species. These changes may be beneficial to coral health and colony resilience and imply that predicting SLR impacts on coral reefs requires careful consideration of the reef bathymetry and the mix of coral species.

  10. Analytic Beyond-Mean-Field BEC Wave Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Martin; Laing, W. Blake; Watson, Deborah K.; Loeser, John G.

    2006-05-01

    We present analytic N-body beyond-mean-field wave functions for Bose-Einstein condensates. This extends our previous beyond-mean-field energy calculations to the substantially more difficult problem of determining correlated N-body wave functions for a confined system. The tools used to achieve this have been carefully chosen to maximize the use of symmetry and minimize the dependence on numerical computation. We handle the huge number of interactions when N is large (˜N^2/2 two-body interactions) by bringing together three theoretical methods. These are dimensional perturbation theory, the FG method of Wilson et al, and the group theory of the symmetric group. The wave function is then used to derive the density profile of a condensate in a cylindrical trap.This method makes no assumptions regarding the form or strength of the interactions and is applicable to both small-N and large-N systems.

  11. Inside looking out: Probing JIMWLK wave functions with BFKL calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Altinoluk, Tolga; Kovner, Alex; Levin, Eugene

    2010-10-01

    We investigate the relation between the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) and Jalilian-Marian-Iancu-McLerran-Weigert-Leonidov-Kovner (JIMWLK/KLWMIJ) Hamiltonians. We show that the eigenvalues of the BFKL Hamiltonians are also exact eigenvalues of the KLWMIJ (and JIMWLK) Hamiltonian, albeit corresponding to possibly non-normalizable eigenfunctions. The question whether a given eigenfunction of BFKL corresponds to a normalizable eigenfunction of KLWMIJ is rather complicated, except in some obvious cases, and requires independent investigation. As an example to illustrate this relation we concentrate on the color octet exchange in the framework of KLWMIJ Hamiltonian. We show that it corresponds to the reggeized gluon exchange of BFKL, and find first correction to the BFKL wave function, which has the meaning of the impact factor for shadowing correction to the Reggeized gluon. We also show that the bootstrap condition in the KLWMIJ framework is satisfied automatically and does not carry any additional information to that contained in the second quantized structure of the KLWMIJ Hamiltonian. This is an example of how the bootstrap condition inherent in the t-channel unitarity arises in the s-channel picture.

  12. Wave propagation of functionally graded material plates in thermal environments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dan; Luo, Song-Nan

    2011-12-01

    The wave propagation of an infinite functionally graded plate in thermal environments is studied using the higher-order shear deformation plate theory. The thermal effects and temperature-dependent material properties are both taken into account. The temperature field considered is assumed to be a uniform distribution over the plate surface and varied in the thickness direction only. Material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent, and graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. Considering the effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia, the governing equations of the wave propagation in the functionally graded plate are derived by using the Hamilton's principle. The analytic dispersion relation of the functionally graded plate is obtained by solving an eigenvalue problem. Numerical examples show that the characteristics of wave propagation in the functionally graded plate are relates to the volume fraction index and thermal environment of the functionally graded plate. The influences of the volume fraction distributions and temperature on wave propagation of functionally graded plate are discussed in detail. The results carried out can be used in the ultrasonic inspection techniques and structural health monitoring.

  13. Embedding beyond electrostatics—The role of wave function confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nâbo, Lina J.; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Holmgaard List, Nanna; Solanko, Lukasz M.; Wüstner, Daniel; Kongsted, Jacob

    2016-09-01

    We study excited states of cholesterol in solution and show that, in this specific case, solute wave-function confinement is the main effect of the solvent. This is rationalized on the basis of the polarizable density embedding scheme, which in addition to polarizable embedding includes non-electrostatic repulsion that effectively confines the solute wave function to its cavity. We illustrate how the inclusion of non-electrostatic repulsion results in a successful identification of the intense π → π∗ transition, which was not possible using an embedding method that only includes electrostatics. This underlines the importance of non-electrostatic repulsion in quantum-mechanical embedding-based methods.

  14. Evolution of wave function in a dissipative system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Li-Hua; Sun, Chang-Pu

    1994-01-01

    For a dissipative system with Ohmic friction, we obtain a simple and exact solution for the wave function of the system plus the bath. It is described by the direct product in two independent Hilbert space. One of them is described by an effective Hamiltonian, the other represents the effect of the bath, i.e., the Brownian motion, thus clarifying the structure of the wave function of the system whose energy is dissipated by its interaction with the bath. No path integral technology is needed in this treatment. The derivation of the Weisskopf-Wigner line width theory follows easily.

  15. Simulations of Wave Propagation in the Jovian Atmosphere after SL9 Impact Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, Jarrad W.; Palotai, C.; Korycansky, D.; Harrington, J.

    2013-10-01

    Our previous numerical investigations into Jovian impacts, including the Shoemaker Levy- 9 (SL9) event (Korycansky et al. 2006 ApJ 646. 642; Palotai et al. 2011 ApJ 731. 3), the 2009 bolide (Pond et al. 2012 ApJ 745. 113), and the ephemeral flashes caused by smaller impactors in 2010 and 2012 (Hueso et al. 2013; Submitted to A&A), have covered only up to approximately 3 to 30 seconds after impact. Here, we present further SL9 impacts extending to minutes after collision with Jupiter’s atmosphere, with a focus on the propagation of shock waves generated as a result of the impact events. Using a similar yet more efficient remapping method than previously presented (Pond et al. 2012; DPS 2012), we move our simulation results onto a larger computational grid, conserving quantities with minimal error. The Jovian atmosphere is extended as needed to accommodate the evolution of the features of the impact event. We restart the simulation, allowing the impact event to continue to progress to greater spatial extents and for longer times, but at lower resolutions. This remap-restart process can be implemented multiple times to achieve the spatial and temporal scales needed to investigate the observable effects of waves generated by the deposition of energy and momentum into the Jovian atmosphere by an SL9-like impactor. As before, we use the three-dimensional, parallel hydrodynamics code ZEUS-MP 2 (Hayes et al. 2006 ApJ.SS. 165. 188) to conduct our simulations. Wave characteristics are tracked throughout these simulations. Of particular interest are the wave speeds and wave positions in the atmosphere as a function of time. These properties are compared to the characteristics of the HST rings to see if shock wave behavior within one hour of impact is consistent with waves observed at one hour post-impact and beyond (Hammel et al. 1995 Science 267. 1288). This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant AST-1109729 and NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program Grant

  16. ERS-1 modulation transfer function impact on shoreline change model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marghany, Maged

    2003-11-01

    The impact of wave spectra modulation transfer function (MTF) in shoreline change model accuracy has been presented. The MTF consisted of real aperture radar (RAR) and velocity-bunching which is utilized to map the wave spectra observed from ERS-1 into the observed real ocean wave spectra. Based on this information, the shoreline change model have developed. Two hypotheses were concerned with the shoreline change model based on ERS-1 wave spectra. First, there is a significant difference between RAR and velocity-bunching modulations for ERS-1 wave spectra modeling. Second, this significant difference is induced a different spatial variation for shoreline change pattern. This study shows that there was the significant difference between velocity-bunching and quasi-linear models. The study shows that velocity-bunching model produces wave spectra pattern approximately close to the real ocean wave compared to the quasi-linear model. The error percentage occurred with velocity-bunching and quasi-linear models were 33.5 and 46.7%, respectively. The highest rate of erosion occurred to the shore south of Chendering with -5 m per year and the highest rate of sedimentation occurred to north of Chendering headland with 3 m per year. It can be concluded that ERS-1 data could be used to model shoreline change and identify the locations of erosion and sedimentation. The sedimentation was occurred due to the effect of lowest wave spectra energy captured along the range direction while the erosion was occurred due to highest spectra energy captured near azimuth direction.

  17. Surface acoustic wave depth profiling of a functionally graded material

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, Jozefien; Leclaire, Philippe; Xu Xiaodong; Glorieux, Christ; Martinez, Loic; Sola, Antonella; Siligardi, Cristina; Cannillo, Valeria; Van der Donck, Tom; Celis, Jean-Pierre

    2007-09-01

    The potential and limitations of Rayleigh wave spectroscopy to characterize the elastic depth profile of heterogeneous functional gradient materials are investigated by comparing simulations of the surface acoustic wave dispersion curves of different profile-spectrum pairs. This inverse problem is shown to be quite ill posed. The method is then applied to extract information on the depth structure of a glass-ceramic (alumina) functionally graded material from experimental data. The surface acoustic wave analysis suggests the presence of a uniform coating region consisting of a mixture of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and glass, with a sharp transition between the coating and the substrate. This is confirmed by scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray analysis.

  18. Source Time Function of P-wave Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the site effect of time function of the Taiwan area will be invested. The recorded response function of a single earthquake will be calculated by Complex Demodulation. The path effect of each event-station pair will be estimated by using the forward method with a 3-D attenuation structure. After removing the path effect, the source frequency function of each single event will be obtained by averaging the whole station gotten. Using this source time function to calculate the path effect of the all stations, the theoretic received time frequency function can be obtained. The difference between this theoretic function and the recorded function is the site effect function of the single station. The characterics of the site effect in Taiwan area will be analyzed. Recalculate the path effect and remove the site effect of each station to get the new source time function of P-wave acceleration.

  19. Wave Function Arbitrariness of Noninteracting Fermion Model in Quantal Density Functional Theory^1(QDFT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slamet, Marlina; Sahni, Viraht

    2006-03-01

    In the QDFT mapping from a ground or excited state of the interacting system to one of noninteracting fermions in a particular excited state with equivalent density, there is an arbitrariness in the wave function of the model system. For example, in the case of a two-electron atom, the mapping to the excited singlet 2^1S state of the model system, there are three wave functions that lead to the same density: two single Slater determinants of the orbitals that are eigen functions of only Sz, and a linear combination of Slater determinants of these orbitals that is an eigen function of both Sz and S^2. Neither of the wave functions is more appropriate than the other, since all three wave functions deliver the same density. However, based on the choice of wave function, the structure of the corresponding Fermi and Coulomb holes, and therefore the values of the resulting Pauli and Coulomb correlation energies, will differ. Their sum, the Fermi-Coulomb holes, and the Pauli-Coulomb energy, remains unchanged. The wave function arbitrariness will be demonstrated via the Hooke's atom.1 Quantal Density Functional Theory, V. Sahni (Springer-Verlag, 2004).

  20. Impact of boat-generated waves on intertidal estuarine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanpain, O.; Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Gomit, G.; Calluaud, D.; David, L.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrodynamics in the macrotidal Seine estuary (France) are controlled by the semi-diurnal tidal regime modulated seasonally by the fluvial discharge. Wind effect on sediment transport (through wind waves and swell) is observed at the mouth of the estuary. Over the last century, authorities have put emphasis on facilitating economic exchanges by means of embankment building and increased dredging activity. These developments led to allow and secure sea vessel traffic in the Seine estuary (from its mouth to the port of Rouen, 125 km upstream) but they also resulted in a change of estuarine hydrodynamics and sediment transport features. A riversides restoration policy has been recently started by port authorities. In this context, the objective of the field-based study presented is to connect vessel characteristics (i.e. speed, draft...), boat-generated waves and their sedimentary impacts. Such information will be used by stakeholders to manage riverside. The natural intertidal site of interest is located in the fluvial freshwater part of the Seine estuary characterized by a 4.5 m maximum tidal range. The foreshore slope is gently decreasing and surface sediments are composed of fine to coarse sand with occasional mud drapes. In order to decipher boat-generated events, the sampling strategy is based on continuous ADV measurements coupled with a turbidimeter and an altimeter to study sediment dynamics. These instruments are settled in the lower part of the foreshore (i) to obtain a significant dataset (i.e. oceanic instruments are not measuring in air) on a zone statically affected by boat waves and (ii) because most of boat traffic occurs during early flood or late ebb period. Spatial variations are assessed along a cross-section through grain-size analysis of surface sediments and topography measurements using pole technique. Results enhance hydrodynamic and sedimentary impacts of boat-generated waves compared respectively to tidal and wind effects. Long

  1. Pain's Impact on Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breau, L. M.; Camfield, C. S.; McGrath, P. J.; Finley, G. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pain interferes with the functioning of typical children, but no study has examined its effect on children with pre-existing intellectual disabilities (ID). Methods: Caregivers of 63 children observed their children for 2-h periods and recorded in 1-week diaries: pain presence, cause, intensity and duration. Caregivers also recorded…

  2. Simulation of wind wave growth with reference source functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badulin, Sergei I.; Zakharov, Vladimir E.; Pushkarev, Andrei N.

    2013-04-01

    We present results of extensive simulations of wind wave growth with the so-called reference source function in the right-hand side of the Hasselmann equation written as follows First, we use Webb's algorithm [8] for calculating the exact nonlinear transfer function Snl. Second, we consider a family of wind input functions in accordance with recent consideration [9] ( )s S = ?(k)N , ?(k) = ? ? ?- f (?). in k 0 ?0 in (2) Function fin(?) describes dependence on angle ?. Parameters in (2) are tunable and determine magnitude (parameters ?0, ?0) and wave growth rate s [9]. Exponent s plays a key role in this study being responsible for reference scenarios of wave growth: s = 4-3 gives linear growth of wave momentum, s = 2 - linear growth of wave energy and s = 8-3 - constant rate of wave action growth. Note, the values are close to ones of conventional parameterizations of wave growth rates (e.g. s = 1 for [7] and s = 2 for [5]). Dissipation function Sdiss is chosen as one providing the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?5 at high frequency range [3] (parameter ?diss fixes a dissipation scale of wind waves) Sdiss = Cdissμ4w?N (k)θ(? - ?diss) (3) Here frequency-dependent wave steepness μ2w = E(?,?)?5-g2 makes this function to be heavily nonlinear and provides a remarkable property of stationary solutions at high frequencies: the dissipation coefficient Cdiss should keep certain value to provide the observed power-law tails close to the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?-5. Our recent estimates [3] give Cdiss ? 2.0. The Hasselmann equation (1) with the new functions Sin, Sdiss (2,3) has a family of self-similar solutions of the same form as previously studied models [1,3,9] and proposes a solid basis for further theoretical and numerical study of wave evolution under action of all the physical mechanisms: wind input, wave dissipation and nonlinear transfer. Simulations of duration- and fetch-limited wind wave growth have been carried out within the above model setup to check its

  3. How close can we get waves to wave functions, including potential?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faletič, Sergej

    2016-05-01

    In the following article we show that mechanical waves on a braced string can have the same shapes as important wave functions in introductory quantum mechanics. A braced string is a string with additional transversal springs that serve as external "potential". The aim is not to suggest teaching quantum mechanics with these analogies. Instead, the aim is to provide students with some additional relevant experience in wave mechanics before they are introduced to quantum mechanics. We show how this experience can be used in a constructivist sense as the basis for building quantum concepts. We consider energy transfer along such string and show that penetration of a wave into a region with high "potential" is not unexpected. We also consider energy transfer between two such strings and show that it can appear point-like even though the wave is an extended object. We also suggest that applying quantization of energy transfer to wave phenomena can explain some of the more difficult to accept features of quantum mechanics.

  4. Impact of improved wave dissipation parameterisations on wave-current interactions in a coupled wave-ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanafin, J. A.; Ardhuin, F.; Roland, A.; Leckler, F.; Rascle, N.

    2012-12-01

    the group velocity decreases. In the study area, tidal currents of up to 4m/s which are highly coherent over the water column and a high wind event created excellent conditions to test the performance of the model. A surface current radar with a resolution of 1km due to multiple signal classification algorithm and a number of buoys were used for validation. Adding currents in the wave model reduced the errors by up to 30% and clearly showed the effects of wave trapping by the strong tidal currents. Comparing different dissipation parameterisations, however, showed that none were completely satisfactory, indicating that further research is required in this area. For short wind waves, the relative wind at the air-sea interface becomes an important factor. At larger scales, waves are refracted by currents. In these cases, the choice of dissipation parameterisation was found to be less important when only one partition was present, though Ardhuin et al (2010) showed better results in mixed seas. Tidal modulations were shown to be due to currents, rather than water level, and a large impact was observed down-wave of currents that have large refraction effects as well as in the vicinity of the currents.

  5. Crustal structure of North Dakota from joint inversion of surface wave dispersion and teleseismic P-wave reciever functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Braden Michael

    Studying and determining crustal structure of the Earth is important for understanding the interior of the Earth. Using methods like receiver functions and surface wave dispersion allows the determination of differences in structure and composition through the crust. Jointly inverting receiver functions and surface wave dispersion reduces the error and over-interpretation of the crustal structure estimation. Receiver functions and surface wave dispersion invert well together because receiver functions are very sensitive to velocity contrasts and vertical travel times, and surface wave dispersion is sensitive to average velocity and insensitive to sharp velocity contrasts. By jointly inverting receiver functions and surface wave dispersion, shear wave velocity profiles can be created to determine the properties of the crustal structure and velocity contrasts. With the use of IRIS Transportable Array stations data throughout the United States, this thesis takes a closer look at the crustal structure of North Dakota through the joint inversion of surface wave dispersion and teleseismic P-wave receiver functions. The receiver functions in North Dakota show shallow sediment effects that affect the joint inversion process. In western North Dakota the Williston basin and in eastern North Dakota the Red River Valley cause ringing effects in the receiver functions. The shallow sediments in North Dakota control and overpower the rest of the crustal signal in the receiver functions, and thus affect the ability of determining the crustal shear wave velocity structure of North Dakota through the joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion, thus the use of background geology is necessary.

  6. Evaluation techniques for Gutzwiller wave functions in finite dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Schickling, Tobias; Bünemann, Jörg

    2015-09-01

    We give a comprehensive introduction into a diagrammatic method that allows for the evaluation of Gutzwiller wave functions in finite spatial dimensions. We discuss in detail some numerical schemes that turned out to be useful in the real-space evaluation of the diagrams. The method is applied to the problem of d-wave superconductivity in a two-dimensional single-band Hubbard model. Here, we discuss in particular the role of long-range contributions in our diagrammatic expansion. We further reconsider our previous analysis on the kinetic energy gain in the superconducting state.

  7. The ``primitive'' wave function in the theory of intermolecular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzelnigg, Werner

    1980-07-01

    The concept of the primitive wave function for a supermolecule consisting of interacting subsystems is critically analyzed. The distinction between formal and genuine primitive functions is stressed. The concept of uniformly complete basis sets as contrasted to simply complete basis is introduced. Primitive basis sets are defined and shown not to be uniformly complete for the expansion of the supersystem wave function while 'full supersystem basis sets' are. The conditions are specified under which a supersystem wave function can be decomposed into its 'primitive components' corresponding to different partitions of the electrons among the subsystems. These primitive components satisfy the Schrödinger equation asymptotically. The matrix representation of the Hamiltonian (both the full supersystem Hamiltonian H and the zeroth order Hamiltonian Ho) in terms of these partitions is analyzed. It is shown that in the standard application of RS-perturbation theory to intermolecular forces (the polarization approximation) the limiting processes λ→1 and R→∞ do not commute, that the λ-series is not uniformly convergent with respect to R and that the wave function to any finite order in λ is genuinely primitive. The symmetrized polarization approximation is justified for the 'coasymptotic ground state' in certain cases and a 'symmetrized polarization approximation with shifted eigenvalues' is proposed that connects the lowest eigenvalue of Ho with the physical ground state. A justification of simplified schemes in the region of 'small exchange' is given and alternative perturbation schemes are discussed. Finally the use of the primitive function in variational treatments is outlined. One advantage is that a genuinely (not a formally) primitive function is uniformly expandable in a primitive basis set.

  8. Local properties of three-body atomic wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Krivec, R.; Mandelzweig, V. B.; Varga, K.

    2000-06-01

    The local properties and accuracy of the positronium negative-ion (Ps{sup -}) ground-state wave functions obtained by the stochastic variational method (SVM) and by direct solution of the Schroedinger equation with the help of the correlation-function hyperspherical-harmonic method (CFHHM) are studied and compared. Though the energy, calculated by both methods, agrees to up to ten digits, the amplitudes of the values of the operator D=H{psi}/E{psi}-1, characterizing local deviation of the wave function from its true value, in all of the coordinate space in the SVM are consistently larger (by up to five orders of magnitude) than in the CFHHM, despite the fact that the SVM observables except <{delta}(r{sub k})> converge to significantly more digits than the CFHHM observables for their respective selected bases. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  9. Helicon Wave Physics Impacts on Electrodeless Thruster Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.

    2007-01-01

    Effective generation of helicon waves for high density plasma sources is determined by the dispersion relation and plasma power balance. Helicon wave plasma sources inherently require an applied magnetic field of .01-0.1 T, an antenna properly designed to couple to the helicon wave in the plasma, and an rf power source in the 10-100 s of MHz, depending on propellant choice. For a plasma thruster, particularly one with a high specific impulse (>2000 s), the physics of the discharge would also have to address the use of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating and magnetic expansion. In all cases the system design includes an optimized magnetic field coil, plasma source chamber, and antenna. A preliminary analysis of such a system, calling on experimental data where applicable and calculations where required, has been initiated at Glenn Research Center. Analysis results showing the mass scaling of various components as well as thruster performance projections and their impact on thruster size are discussed.

  10. Helicon Wave Physics Impacts on Electrodeless Thruster Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James

    2003-01-01

    Effective generation of helicon waves for high density plasma sources is determined by the dispersion relation and plasma power balance. Helicon wave plasma sources inherently require an applied magnetic field of .01-0.1 T, an antenna properly designed to couple to the helicon wave in the plasma, and an rf power source in the 10-100 s of MHz, depending on propellant choice. For a plasma thruster, particularly one with a high specific impulse (>2000 s), the physics of the discharge would also have to address the use of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating and magnetic expansion. In all cases the system design includes an optimized magnetic field coil, plasma source chamber, and antenna. A preliminary analysis of such a system, calling on experimental data where applicable and calculations where required, has been initiated at Glenn Research Center. Analysis results showing the mass scaling of various components as well as thruster performance projections and their impact on thruster size are discussed.

  11. Resonating valence bond wave functions and classical interacting dimer models.

    PubMed

    Damle, Kedar; Dhar, Deepak; Ramola, Kabir

    2012-06-15

    We relate properties of nearest-neighbor resonating valence-bond (NNRVB) wave functions for SU(g) spin systems on two-dimensional bipartite lattices to those of fully packed interacting classical dimer models on the same lattice. The interaction energy can be expressed as a sum of n-body potentials V(n), which are recursively determined from the NNRVB wave function on finite subgraphs of the original lattice. The magnitude of the n-body interaction V(n) (n>1) is of order O(g(-(n-1))) for small g(-1). The leading term is a two-body nearest-neighbor interaction V2(g) favoring two parallel dimers on elementary plaquettes. For SU(2) spins, using our calculated value of V2(g=2), we find that the long-distance behavior of the bond-energy correlation function is dominated by an oscillatory term that decays as 1/|r|α with α≈1.22. This result is in remarkable quantitative agreement with earlier direct numerical studies of the corresponding wave function, which give α≈1.20. PMID:23004328

  12. Reconstructing the Shock Wave From the Wolfe Creek Meteorite Impact.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, C.; O'Neill, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    The Wolfe Creek meteorite crater is an 800m diameter impact structure located in the Tanami Desert near Hall's Creek, Western Australia. The crater formed <300000 years ago, and is the 2nd largest crater from which fragments of the impacting meteorite (a medium octahedrite) have been recovered. We present the results of new ground based geophysical (magnetics and gravity) surveys conducted over the structure in July-August, 2003. The results highlight the simple structure of the crater under the infilling sediments, and track the extent of deformation and the ejecta blanket under the encroaching sanddunes. The variations in the dip of the foliations around the crater rim confirm that the crater approached from East-Northeast, as deduced from the ejecta distribution, and provide constraints on the kinetic energy and angle of the impactor. We also use the distribution of shocked quartz in the target rock (Devonian sandstones) to reconstruct the shock loading conditions of the impact using the Grieve and Robertson (1976) criterion. We also use a Simplified Arbitrary Langrangian-Eulerian hydrocode (SALE 2) to simulate the propagation of shock waves through a material described by a Tillotson equation of state. Using the deformational and PT constraints of the Wolfe-Creek crater, we can estimate the partitioning of kinetic energy as a result of this medium-size impact.

  13. Joint resummation for pion wave function and pion transition form factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hsiang-nan; Shen, Yue-Long; Wang, Yu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    We construct an evolution equation for the pion wave function in the k T factorization formalism, whose solution sums the mixed logarithm ln x ln k T to all orders, with x ( k T ) being a parton momentum fraction (transverse momentum). This joint resummation induces strong suppression of the pion wave function in the small x and large b regions, b being the impact parameter conjugate to k T , and improves the applicability of perturbative QCD to hard exclusive processes. The above effect is similar to those from the conventional threshold resummation for the double logarithm ln2 x and the conventional k T resummation for ln2 k T . Combining the evolution equation for the hard kernel, we are able to organize all large logarithms in the γ * π 0 → γ scattering, and to establish a scheme-independent k T factorization formula. It will be shown that the significance of next-to-leading-order contributions and saturation behaviors of this process at high energy differ from those under the conventional resummations. It implies that QCD logarithmic corrections to a process must be handled appropriately, before its data are used to extract a hadron wave function. Our predictions for the involved pion transition form factor, derived under the joint resummation and the input of a non-asymptotic pion wave function with the second Gegenbauer moment a 2 = 0 .05, match reasonably well the CLEO, BaBar, and Belle data.

  14. Configuration interaction wave functions: A seniority number approach

    SciTech Connect

    Alcoba, Diego R.; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E.; Oña, Ofelia B.

    2014-06-21

    This work deals with the configuration interaction method when an N-electron Hamiltonian is projected on Slater determinants which are classified according to their seniority number values. We study the spin features of the wave functions and the size of the matrices required to formulate states of any spin symmetry within this treatment. Correlation energies associated with the wave functions arising from the seniority-based configuration interaction procedure are determined for three types of molecular orbital basis: canonical molecular orbitals, natural orbitals, and the orbitals resulting from minimizing the expectation value of the N-electron seniority number operator. The performance of these bases is analyzed by means of numerical results obtained from selected N-electron systems of several spin symmetries. The comparison of the results highlights the efficiency of the molecular orbital basis which minimizes the mean value of the seniority number for a state, yielding energy values closer to those provided by the full configuration interaction procedure.

  15. Spin-orbit decomposition of ab initio nuclear wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Calvin W.

    2015-03-01

    Although the modern shell-model picture of atomic nuclei is built from single-particle orbits with good total angular momentum j , leading to j -j coupling, decades ago phenomenological models suggested that a simpler picture for 0 p -shell nuclides can be realized via coupling of the total spin S and total orbital angular momentum L . I revisit this idea with large-basis, no-core shell-model calculations using modern ab initio two-body interactions and dissect the resulting wave functions into their component L - and S -components. Remarkably, there is broad agreement with calculations using the phenomenological Cohen-Kurath forces, despite a gap of nearly 50 years and six orders of magnitude in basis dimensions. I suggest that L -S decomposition may be a useful tool for analyzing ab initio wave functions of light nuclei, for example, in the case of rotational bands.

  16. Measurement and Shaping of Biphoton Spectral Wave Functions.

    PubMed

    Tischler, N; Büse, A; Helt, L G; Juan, M L; Piro, N; Ghosh, J; Steel, M J; Molina-Terriza, G

    2015-11-01

    In this work we present a simple method to reconstruct the complex spectral wave function of a biphoton, and hence gain complete information about the spectral and temporal properties of a photon pair. The technique, which relies on quantum interference, is applicable to biphoton states produced with a monochromatic pump when a shift of the pump frequency produces a shift in the relative frequencies contributing to the biphoton. We demonstrate an example of such a situation in type-II parametric down conversion allowing arbitrary paraxial spatial pump and detection modes. Moreover, our test cases demonstrate the possibility to shape the spectral wave function. This is achieved by choosing the spatial mode of the pump and of the detection modes, and takes advantage of spatiotemporal correlations.

  17. Singlet Mott state simulating the bosonic Laughlin wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shoucheng

    2014-01-01

    We study properties of a class of spin-singlet Mott states for arbitrary spin S bosons on a lattice, with particle number per cite n =S/l+1, where l is a positive integer. We show that such a singlet Mott state can be mapped to a bosonic Laughlin wave function on a sphere with a finite number of particles at filling ν =1/2l. Spin, particle, and hole excitations in the Mott state are discussed, among which the hole excitation can be mapped to the quasihole of the bosonic Laughlin wave function. We show that this singlet Mott state can be realized in a cold-atom system on an optical lattice and can be identified using Bragg spectroscopy and Stern-Gerlach techniques. This class of singlet Mott states may be generalized to map to bosonic Laughlin states with filling ν =q/2l.

  18. Singlet Mott State Simulating the Bosonic Laughlin Wave Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2014-03-01

    We study properties of a class of spin singlet Mott states for arbitrary spin S bosons on a lattice, with particle number per cite n = S / l + 1 , where l is a positive integer. We show that such a singlet Mott state can be mapped to a bosonic Laughlin wave function on the sphere with a finite number of particles at filling ν = 1 / 2 l . Bosonic spinons, particle and hole excitations in the Mott state are discussed, among which the hole excitation can be mapped to the quasi-hole of the bosonic Laughlin wave function. We show that this singlet Mott state can be realized in a cold atom system on optical lattice, and can be identified using Bragg spectroscopy and Stern-Gerlach techniques. This class of singlet Mott states may be generalized to simulate bosonic Laughlin states with filling ν = q / 2 l .

  19. Embedding beyond electrostatics-The role of wave function confinement.

    PubMed

    Nåbo, Lina J; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Holmgaard List, Nanna; Solanko, Lukasz M; Wüstner, Daniel; Kongsted, Jacob

    2016-09-14

    We study excited states of cholesterol in solution and show that, in this specific case, solute wave-function confinement is the main effect of the solvent. This is rationalized on the basis of the polarizable density embedding scheme, which in addition to polarizable embedding includes non-electrostatic repulsion that effectively confines the solute wave function to its cavity. We illustrate how the inclusion of non-electrostatic repulsion results in a successful identification of the intense π → π(∗) transition, which was not possible using an embedding method that only includes electrostatics. This underlines the importance of non-electrostatic repulsion in quantum-mechanical embedding-based methods. PMID:27634246

  20. No-boundary wave function for two-field inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Dong-il; Kim, Soo A.; Yeom, Dong-han

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the no-boundary wave function and the complex-valued instantons for two-field inflation models that have different masses. If there is a relatively massive direction, to classicalize the massive field, the solution should start from the slow direction with relatively larger vacuum energy. Therefore, the existence of the massive direction implies the increase of expected e-foldings. The most probable e-foldings are approximately N≃ {{({{m}2}/{{m}1})}2}× O(1) in the {{m}1}\\ll {{m}2} limit. Therefore, as long as there is a sufficient mass hierarchy, the no-boundary wave function can reasonably explain large e-foldings, so to speak, more than 50 e-foldings.

  1. New Offshore Approach to Reduce Impact of Tsunami Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anant Chatorikar, Kaustubh

    2016-07-01

    The world is facing an increasing frequency and intensity of natural disaster that has devastating impacts on society. As per International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR), it has been observed that over five million people were killed or affected in last 10 years and huge amount of economic losses occurred due to natural disaster. The 2011 tsunami in Japan showed a tremendous setback to existing technology of tsunami protection. More than 25,000 lives have been lost, Apart from that the damage to the nuclear power stations has severely affected the nearby populace and marine life. After the 2004 tsunami, world's effort has been concentrated on early warning and effective mitigation plans to defend against tsunami. It is anybody's guess as to what would have happened if such natural calamity specifically tsunami of such magnitude strikes our nation as country has already suffered from it in 2004 and seen its disastrous effects. But the point is what if such calamity strikes the mega cities like Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata again where there is extensive human habitation and conventional warning systems and mitigation methods are not effective when it comes to huge population of these cities, destruction caused by it will be worse than nuclear weapon strike as there is also very high possibility of deaths due to stampede. This paper talks about an idea inspired from daily routine and its relation with fundamental physics as well as method of its deployment is discussed. According to this idea when wave will strike the coast, aim is not to stop it but to reduce its impact within the permissible impact limits of existing infrastructure by converting it into foam wave with help of surfactants, thereby saving human lives as well as complications of Mitigation.

  2. Numerical modeling of wave propagation in functionally graded materials using time-domain spectral Chebyshev elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Bui, Tinh Quoc; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Lim, Chee Wah

    2014-02-01

    Numerical modeling of the Lamb wave propagation in functionally graded materials (FGMs) by a two-dimensional time-domain spectral finite element method (SpFEM) is presented. The high-order Chebyshev polynomials as approximation functions are used in the present formulation, which provides the capability to take into account the through thickness variation of the material properties. The efficiency and accuracy of the present model with one and two layers of 5th order spectral elements in modeling wave propagation in FGM plates are analyzed. Different excitation frequencies in a wide range of 28-350 kHz are investigated, and the dispersion properties obtained by the present model are verified by reference results. The through thickness wave structure of two principal Lamb modes are extracted and analyzed by the symmetry and relative amplitude of the vertical and horizontal oscillations. The differences with respect to Lamb modes generated in homogeneous plates are explained. Zero-crossing and wavelet signal processing-spectrum decomposition procedures are implemented to obtain phase and group velocities and their dispersion properties. So it is attested how this approach can be practically employed for simulation, calibration and optimization of Lamb wave based nondestructive evaluation techniques for the FGMs. The capability of modeling stress wave propagation through the thickness of an FGM specimen subjected to impact load is also investigated, which shows that the present method is highly accurate as compared with other existing reference data.

  3. Transverse instability of a plane front of fast impact ionization waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kyuregyan, A. S.

    2012-05-15

    The transverse instability of a plane front of fast impact ionization waves in p{sup +}-n-n{sup +} semiconductor structures with a finite concentration of donors N in the n layer has been theoretically analyzed. It is assumed that the high velocity u of impact ionization waves is ensured owing to the avalanche multiplication of the uniform background of electrons and holes whose concentration {sigma}{sub b} ahead of the front is high enough for the continuum approximation to be applicable. The problem of the calculation of the growth rate s of a small harmonic perturbation with wavenumber k is reduced to the eigenvalue problem for a specific homogeneous Volterra equation of the second kind containing the sum of double and triple integrals of an unknown eigenfunction. This problem has been solved by the method of successive approximations. It has been shown that the function s(k) for small k values increases monotonically in agreement with the analytical theory reported in Thermal Engineering 58 (13), 1119 (2011), reaches a maximum s{sub M} at k = k{sub M}, then decreases, and becomes negative at k > k{sub 01}. This behavior of the function s(k) for short-wavelength perturbations is due to a decrease in the distortion of the field owing to a finite thickness of the space charge region of the front and 'smearing' of perturbation of concentrations owing to the transverse transport of charge carriers. The similarity laws for perturbations with k Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To k{sub M} have been established: at fixed {sigma}{sub b} values and the maximum field strength on the front E{sub 0M}, the growth rate s depends only on the ratio k/N and the boundary wavenumber k{sub 01} {proportional_to} N. The parameters s{sub M}, k{sub M}, and k{sub 01}, which determine the perturbation growth dynamics and the upper boundary of the instability region for impact ionization waves, have been presented as functions of E{sub 0M}. These dependences indicate that the model of a plane

  4. Sensory Function: Insights From Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Kern, David W.; Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Chen, Rachel C.; Schumm, L. Philip; McClintock, Martha K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Sensory function, a critical component of quality of life, generally declines with age and influences health, physical activity, and social function. Sensory measures collected in Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) survey focused on the personal impact of sensory function in the home environment and included: subjective assessment of vision, hearing, and touch, information on relevant home conditions and social sequelae as well as an improved objective assessment of odor detection. Method. Summary data were generated for each sensory category, stratified by age (62–90 years of age) and gender, with a focus on function in the home setting and the social consequences of sensory decrements in each modality. Results. Among both men and women, older age was associated with self-reported impairment of vision, hearing, and pleasantness of light touch. Compared with women, men reported significantly worse hearing and found light touch less appealing. There were no gender differences for vision. Overall, hearing loss seemed to have a greater impact on social function than did visual impairment. Discussion. Sensory function declines across age groups, with notable gender differences for hearing and light touch. Further analysis of sensory measures from NSHAP Wave 2 may provide important information on how sensory declines are related to health, social function, quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in this nationally representative sample of older adults. PMID:25360015

  5. Correlated wave functions for three-particle systems with Coulomb interaction - The muonic helium atom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, K.-N.

    1977-01-01

    A computational procedure for calculating correlated wave functions is proposed for three-particle systems interacting through Coulomb forces. Calculations are carried out for the muonic helium atom. Variational wave functions which explicitly contain interparticle coordinates are presented for the ground and excited states. General Hylleraas-type trial functions are used as the basis for the correlated wave functions. Excited-state energies of the muonic helium atom computed from 1- and 35-term wave functions are listed for four states.

  6. Modelling of tsunami wave run-up, breaking and impact on vertical wall by SPH method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, M. H.; Xu, H.; Chan, E. S.; Tkalich, P.

    2013-06-01

    Accurate predictions of wave run-up and run-down are important for coastal impact assessment of relatively long waves such as tsunami or storm waves. Wave run-up is, however, a complex process involving nonlinear build-up of the wave front, intensive wave breaking and strong turbulent flow, making the numerical approximation challenging. Recent advanced modeling methodologies could help to overcome these numerical challenges. For a demonstration, we study run-up of non-breaking and breaking solitary waves on vertical wall using two methods, the enhanced Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method and the traditional non-breaking nonlinear model Tunami-N2. The Tunami-N2 model fails to capture the evolution of steep waves at the proximity of breaking that observed in the experiments. Whereas, the SPH method successfully simulate the wave propagation, breaking, impact on structure and the reform and breaking processes of wave run-down. The study also indicates that inadequate approximation of the wave breaking could lead to significant under-predictions of wave height and impact pressure on structures. The SPH model shows potential applications for accurate impact assessments of wave run-up onto coastal structures.

  7. Finite range distorted-wave Born approximation analysis of (p,t) reactions with a realistic triton wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werby, M. F.; Strayer, M. R.; Nagarajan, M. A.

    1980-06-01

    Exact finite range distorted-wave Born approximation analysis of the ground state reactions 208Pb(p,t)206Pb and 18O(p,t)16O are presented. The calculations are carried out using a realistic triton wave function comprising a spatially symmetric S and mixed symmetric S' and D states. The transfer interaction is treated consistently with the interaction used in obtaining the triton wave function. The use of a realistic wave function and transfer potential yields improved agreement between experimental and theoretical angular distributions. Calculations using the wave function of the transferred neutron pair suggest it is possible to explain both the absolute magnitude and shape of the angular distribution for these transitions. NUCLEAR REACTIONS (p,t), distorted-wave Born approximation analyses.

  8. Wave impact on walls with/without parapets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandsen, Jannette; Tremblay, Olivier; Xharde, Regis

    2015-11-01

    This work is concerned with coastline protection. The usage of vertical walls is examined for various wave trains. The effect of parapets is further studied to minimize overtopping. The results presented are based on large scale flume experiments (Quebec) with a geometric scaling of 1:4. The beach has a slope 1:10. The beach material is highly absorbing and contains a mix of sand-gravel-cobble. Steel plates are mounted locally at the beach top to eliminate effect from local scour. The critical cases found relates to the plunging breakers breaking directly impacting the wall. Entrapped air-pocket(s) under the breaking wave contribute to the run-up energy through compressibility effects and bubble burst physics even from relatively small air-pockets. Highly localized wall pressures greater than 1 MPa and 10 m run-up are easily developed even with moderate amplitude waves at the inlet. The max. peak pressure on the wall identified caused either by water or entrained air pressure is typically greater than 1 MPa occurring in the order of 0.1 ms. The pressure distributions contain either single, double or triple peaks occurring typically above/at mean flume water depth and at around the local water depth in front of the wall. Furthermore, it was identified that the cases with maximum pressure on the wall does not necessarily give the maximum jet velocity (equivalent to vertical force considered in design of parapets). This work is supported by Le ministere des Transports du Quebec, and Le ministere de la Securite publique du Quebec, Canada.

  9. Computational aspects of the continuum quaternionic wave functions for hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Morais, J.

    2014-10-15

    Over the past few years considerable attention has been given to the role played by the Hydrogen Continuum Wave Functions (HCWFs) in quantum theory. The HCWFs arise via the method of separation of variables for the time-independent Schrödinger equation in spherical coordinates. The HCWFs are composed of products of a radial part involving associated Laguerre polynomials multiplied by exponential factors and an angular part that is the spherical harmonics. In the present paper we introduce the continuum wave functions for hydrogen within quaternionic analysis ((R)QHCWFs), a result which is not available in the existing literature. In particular, the underlying functions are of three real variables and take on either values in the reduced and full quaternions (identified, respectively, with R{sup 3} and R{sup 4}). We prove that the (R)QHCWFs are orthonormal to one another. The representation of these functions in terms of the HCWFs are explicitly given, from which several recurrence formulae for fast computer implementations can be derived. A summary of fundamental properties and further computation of the hydrogen-like atom transforms of the (R)QHCWFs are also discussed. We address all the above and explore some basic facts of the arising quaternionic function theory. As an application, we provide the reader with plot simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. (R)QHCWFs are new in the literature and have some consequences that are now under investigation.

  10. Impact of rheumatoid arthritis on sexual function

    PubMed Central

    Tristano, Antonio G

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality is a complex aspect of the human being’s life and is more than just the sexual act. Normal sexual functioning consists of sexual activity with transition through the phases from arousal to relaxation with no problems, and with a feeling of pleasure, fulfillment and satisfaction. Rheumatic diseases may affect all aspects of life including sexual functioning. The reasons for disturbing sexual functioning are multifactorial and comprise disease-related factors as well as therapy. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by progressive joint destruction resulting from chronic synovial inflammation. It leads to various degrees of disability, and ultimately has a profound impact on the social, economic, psychological, and sexual aspects of the patient’s life. This is a systemic review about the impact of RA on sexual functioning. PMID:24829873

  11. Wave function for harmonically confined electrons in time-dependent electric and magnetostatic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Chen, Jin-Wang; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht

    2014-01-14

    We derive via the interaction “representation” the many-body wave function for harmonically confined electrons in the presence of a magnetostatic field and perturbed by a spatially homogeneous time-dependent electric field—the Generalized Kohn Theorem (GKT) wave function. In the absence of the harmonic confinement – the uniform electron gas – the GKT wave function reduces to the Kohn Theorem wave function. Without the magnetostatic field, the GKT wave function is the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function. We further prove the validity of the connection between the GKT wave function derived and the system in an accelerated frame of reference. Finally, we provide examples of the application of the GKT wave function.

  12. Love wave propagation in functionally graded piezoelectric material layer.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianke; Jin, Xiaoying; Wang, Ji; Xian, Kai

    2007-03-01

    An exact approach is used to investigate Love waves in functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) layer bonded to a semi-infinite homogeneous solid. The piezoelectric material is polarized in z-axis direction and the material properties change gradually with the thickness of the layer. We here assume that all material properties of the piezoelectric layer have the same exponential function distribution along the x-axis direction. The analytical solutions of dispersion relations are obtained for electrically open or short circuit conditions. The effects of the gradient variation of material constants on the phase velocity, the group velocity, and the coupled electromechanical factor are discussed in detail. The displacement, electric potential, and stress distributions along thickness of the graded layer are calculated and plotted. Numerical examples indicate that appropriate gradient distributing of the material properties make Love waves to propagate along the surface of the piezoelectric layer, or a bigger electromechanical coupling factor can be obtained, which is in favor of acquiring a better performance in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices.

  13. Simulating photoacoustic waves produced by individual biological particles with spheroidal wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Fang, Hui; Min, Changjun; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2015-10-01

    Under the usual approximation of treating a biological particle as a spheroidal droplet, we consider the analysis of its size and shape with the high frequency photoacoustics and develop a numerical method which can simulate its characteristic photoacoustic waves. This numerical method is based on the calculation of spheroidal wave functions, and when comparing to the finite element model (FEM) calculation, can reveal more physical information and can provide results independently at each spatial points. As the demonstration, red blood cells (RBCs) and MCF7 cell nuclei are studied, and their photoacoustic responses including field distribution, spectral amplitude, and pulse forming are calculated. We expect that integrating this numerical method with the high frequency photoacoustic measurement will form a new modality being extra to the light scattering method, for fast assessing the morphology of a biological particle.

  14. Simulating photoacoustic waves produced by individual biological particles with spheroidal wave functions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Fang, Hui; Min, Changjun; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2015-01-01

    Under the usual approximation of treating a biological particle as a spheroidal droplet, we consider the analysis of its size and shape with the high frequency photoacoustics and develop a numerical method which can simulate its characteristic photoacoustic waves. This numerical method is based on the calculation of spheroidal wave functions, and when comparing to the finite element model (FEM) calculation, can reveal more physical information and can provide results independently at each spatial points. As the demonstration, red blood cells (RBCs) and MCF7 cell nuclei are studied, and their photoacoustic responses including field distribution, spectral amplitude, and pulse forming are calculated. We expect that integrating this numerical method with the high frequency photoacoustic measurement will form a new modality being extra to the light scattering method, for fast assessing the morphology of a biological particle. PMID:26442830

  15. Impact of transgenic technologies on functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Shashikant, Cooduvalli S; Ruddle, Frank H

    2003-07-01

    Gene transfer technologies in mammals are the focus of renewed interest owing to the recent emphasis on analyzing gene function in the postgenomic era. Three important developments in this area include transgenics, gene targeting and nuclear transfer or animal cloning. These technological innovations have enhanced our ability to analyze gene function at the level of the whole organism and have provided the means to modify gene expression. This review discusses the origins and current status of transgenic technologies. Various applications and technologies including chromosome engineering, stem cells, gene traps and modification of livestock are presented. The impact of mouse technologies and genomics on functional analyses is also discussed.

  16. A Critical Examination of Wind-Wave Spectral Functional Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E.; Long, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, data from random ocean waves are presented in spectral functions. The spectra are the result of Fourier analysis. Fourier spectral analysis has dominated data analysis for, at least, the last hundred years. It has been the standard method for is examining the global amplitude-frequency distributions. Although Fourier transform valid under extremely general conditions, there are some crucial restrictions for the Fourier spectral analysis. The system must be linear, and the data must be stationary- otherwise, the resulting spectrum will make little physical sense. The stationarity requirement is also a common required criterion for most of other available data analysis methods. Nevertheless, few, if any, natural phenomena are linear and stationary. To compound these complications is the imperfection of our probes or numerical schemes the interactions of the imperfect probes even with a perfect linear system can make the final data nonlinear. Furthermore, all the available data are usually of finite duration. Under these conditions, Fourier analysis is of limited use, For lack of alternatives, however, Fourier analysis is still used to process such data. The loose application of Fourier analysis and the insouciant adoption of the stationary and linear assumptions may lead to misleading conclusions. Ocean waves are know to be nonlinear, and the wind system generating the wave field are seldom stationary- As a result, the traditional examination of the spectral form hardly made physical sense. A new method for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data has been developed. The key part is the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that serve as the basis of the representation of the data, This decomposition method is adaptive, and, therefore, highly efficient. The IMFs admit well-behaved Hilbert transforms, and yield instantaneous

  17. A critical survey of wave propagation and impact in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moon, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    A review of the field of stress waves in composite materials is presented covering the period up to December 1972. The major properties of waves in composites are discussed and a summary is made of the major experimental results in this field. Various theoretical models for analysis of wave propagation in laminated, fiber and particle reinforced composites are surveyed. The anisotropic, dispersive and dissipative properties of stress pulses and shock waves in such materials are reviewed. A review of the behavior of composites under impact loading is presented along with the application of wave propagation concepts to the determination of impact stresses in composite plates.

  18. Analytical expressions for the log-amplitude correlation function for spherical wave propagation through anisotropic non-Kolmogorov atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Gudimetla, V S Rao; Holmes, Richard B; Riker, Jim F

    2014-01-01

    An analytical expression for the log-amplitude correlation function based on the Rytov approximation is derived for spherical wave propagation through an anisotropic non-Kolmogorov refractive turbulent atmosphere. The expression reduces correctly to the previously published analytic expressions for the case of spherical wave propagation through isotropic Kolmogorov turbulence. These results agree well with a wave-optics simulation based on the more general Fresnel approximation, as well as with numerical evaluations, for low-to-moderate strengths of turbulence. These results are useful for understanding the potential impact of deviations from the standard isotropic Kolmogorov spectrum.

  19. Analytical expressions for the log-amplitude correlation function for plane wave propagation in anisotropic non-Kolmogorov refractive turbulence.

    PubMed

    Gudimetla, V S Rao; Holmes, Richard B; Riker, Jim F

    2012-12-01

    An analytical expression for the log-amplitude correlation function for plane wave propagation through anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulent atmosphere is derived. The closed-form analytic results are based on the Rytov approximation. These results agree well with wave optics simulation based on the more general Fresnel approximation as well as with numerical evaluations, for low-to-moderate strengths of turbulence. The new expression reduces correctly to the previously published analytic expressions for the cases of plane wave propagation through both nonisotropic Kolmogorov turbulence and isotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence cases. These results are useful for understanding the potential impact of deviations from the standard isotropic Kolmogorov spectrum.

  20. Is spontaneous wave function collapse testable at all?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2015-07-01

    Mainstream literature on spontaneous wave function collapse never reflects on or profits from the formal coincidence and conceptual relationship with standard collapse under time-continuous quantum measurement (monitoring). I propose some easy lessons of standard monitoring theory which would make spontaneous collapse models revise some of their claims. In particular, the objective detection of spontaneous collapse remains impossible as long as the correct identification of what corresponds to the signal in standard monitoring is missing from spontaneous collapse models, the physical detectability of the “signal” is not stated explicitly and, finally, the principles of physical detection are not revealed.

  1. Wave-function monopoles in Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Th.; Anglin, J. R.

    1999-10-01

    Experimental preparation of multispecies Bose-Einstein condensates should permit the creation of topologically stable defects beyond the superfluid vortex. But the coldness and isolation of condensates should also permit the survival for observable durations of ``pseudodefects,'' such as the one-dimensional dark soliton: localized structures related to a defect but not topologically stable. In this paper we investigate the viability of pseudodefects beyond one dimension, by examining ``wave-function monopoles'' in two-species condensates in two dimensions. We identify interesting instabilities, including a ``dancing mode'' for monopoles of higher winding number, and (in a one-dimensional limit) ``superfluid roulette.''

  2. Average wave function method for gas-surface scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harjinder; Dacol, Dalcio K.; Rabitz, Herschel

    1986-02-01

    The average wave function method (AWM) is applied to scattering of a gas off a solid surface. The formalism is developed for both periodic as well as disordered surfaces. For an ordered lattice an explicit relation is derived for the Bragg peaks along with a numerical illustration. Numerical results are presented for atomic clusters on a flat hard wall with a Gaussian-like potential at each atomic scattering site. The effect of relative lateral displacement of two clusters upon the scattering pattern is shown. The ability of AWM to accommodate disorder through statistical averaging over cluster configurations is illustrated. Enhanced uniform backscattering is observed with increasing roughness on the surface.

  3. Theory of steady-state plane tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kyuregyan, A. S.

    2013-07-15

    The effect of band-to-band and trap-assisted tunneling on the properties of steady-state plane ionization waves in p{sup +}-n-n{sup +} structures is theoretically analyzed. It is shown that such tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves do not differ in a qualitative sense from ordinary impact ionization waves propagating due to the avalanche multiplication of uniformly distributed seed electrons and holes. The quantitative differences of tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves from impact ionization waves are reduced to a slightly different relation between the wave velocity u and the maximum field strength E{sub M} at the front. It is shown that disregarding impact ionization does not exclude the possibility of the existence of tunneling-assisted ionization waves; however, their structure radically changes, and their velocity strongly decreases for the same E{sub M}. A comparison of the dependences u(E{sub M}) for various ionization-wave types makes it possible to determine the conditions under which one of them is dominant. In conclusion, unresolved problems concerning the theory of tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves are discussed and the directions of further studies are outlined.

  4. Elimination of the impact of vessels on ocean wave height inversion with X-band wave monitoring radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Wu, Xiongbin; Ma, Ketao; Tian, Yun; Fei, Yuejun

    2016-09-01

    Directional wave spectra and integrated wave parameters can be derived from X-band radar sea surface images. A vessel on the sea surface has a significant influence on wave parameter inversions that can be seen as intensive backscatter speckles in X-band wave monitoring radar sea surface images. A novel algorithm to eliminate the interference of vessels in ocean wave height inversions from X-band wave monitoring radar is proposed. This algorithm is based on the characteristics of the interference. The principal components (PCs) of a sea surface image sequence are extracted using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The standard deviation of the PCs is then used to identify vessel interference within the image sequence. To mitigate the interference, a suppression method based on a frequency domain geometric model is applied. The algorithm framework has been applied to OSMAR-X, a wave monitoring system developed by Wuhan University, based on nautical X-band radar. Several sea surface images captured on vessels by OSMAR-X are processed using the method proposed in this paper. Inversion schemes are validated by comparisons with data from in situ wave buoys. The root-mean-square error between the significant wave heights (SWH) retrieved from original interference radar images and those measured by the buoy is reduced by 0.25 m. The determinations of surface gravity wave parameters, in particular SWH, confirm the applicability of the proposed method.

  5. Climate change impact on wave energy in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamranzad, Bahareh; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir; Chegini, Vahid; Yeganeh-Bakhtiary, Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Excessive usage of fossil fuels and high emission of greenhouse gases have increased the earth's temperature, and consequently have changed the patterns of natural phenomena such as wind speed, wave height, etc. Renewable energy resources are ideal alternatives to reduce the negative effects of increasing greenhouse gases emission and climate change. However, these energy sources are also sensitive to changing climate. In this study, the effect of climate change on wave energy in the Persian Gulf is investigated. For this purpose, future wind data obtained from CGCM3.1 model were downscaled using a hybrid approach and modification factors were computed based on local wind data (ECMWF) and applied to control and future CGCM3.1 wind data. Downscaled wind data was used to generate the wave characteristics in the future based on A2, B1, and A1B scenarios, while ECMWF wind field was used to generate the wave characteristics in the control period. The results of these two 30-yearly wave modelings using SWAN model showed that the average wave power changes slightly in the future. Assessment of wave power spatial distribution showed that the reduction of the average wave power is more in the middle parts of the Persian Gulf. Investigation of wave power distribution in two coastal stations (Boushehr and Assalouyeh ports) indicated that the annual wave energy will decrease in both stations while the wave power distribution for different intervals of significant wave height and peak period will also change in Assalouyeh according to all scenarios.

  6. The impact of heat waves on children's health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiwei; Sheffield, Perry E; Su, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyu; Bi, Yan; Tong, Shilu

    2014-03-01

    Young children are thought to be particularly sensitive to heat waves, but relatively less research attention has been paid to this field to date. A systematic review was conducted to elucidate the relationship between heat waves and children's health. Literature published up to August 2012 were identified using the following MeSH terms and keywords: "heatwave", "heat wave", "child health", "morbidity", "hospital admission", "emergency department visit", "family practice", "primary health care", "death" and "mortality". Of the 628 publications identified, 12 met the selection criteria. The existing literature does not consistently suggest that mortality among children increases significantly during heat waves, even though infants were associated with more heat-related deaths. Exposure to heat waves in the perinatal period may pose a threat to children's health. Pediatric diseases or conditions associated with heat waves include renal disease, respiratory disease, electrolyte imbalance and fever. Future research should focus on how to develop a consistent definition of a heat wave from a children's health perspective, identifying the best measure of children's exposure to heat waves, exploring sensitive outcome measures to quantify the impact of heat waves on children, evaluating the possible impacts of heat waves on children's birth outcomes, and understanding the differences in vulnerability to heat waves among children of different ages and from different income countries. Projection of the children's disease burden caused by heat waves under climate change scenarios, and development of effective heat wave mitigation and adaptation strategies that incorporate other child protective health measures, are also strongly recommended.

  7. The impact of heat waves on children's health: a systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Sheffield, Perry E.; Su, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyu; Bi, Yan; Tong, Shilu

    2014-03-01

    Young children are thought to be particularly sensitive to heat waves, but relatively less research attention has been paid to this field to date. A systematic review was conducted to elucidate the relationship between heat waves and children's health. Literature published up to August 2012 were identified using the following MeSH terms and keywords: "heatwave", "heat wave", "child health", "morbidity", "hospital admission", "emergency department visit", "family practice", "primary health care", "death" and "mortality". Of the 628 publications identified, 12 met the selection criteria. The existing literature does not consistently suggest that mortality among children increases significantly during heat waves, even though infants were associated with more heat-related deaths. Exposure to heat waves in the perinatal period may pose a threat to children's health. Pediatric diseases or conditions associated with heat waves include renal disease, respiratory disease, electrolyte imbalance and fever. Future research should focus on how to develop a consistent definition of a heat wave from a children's health perspective, identifying the best measure of children's exposure to heat waves, exploring sensitive outcome measures to quantify the impact of heat waves on children, evaluating the possible impacts of heat waves on children's birth outcomes, and understanding the differences in vulnerability to heat waves among children of different ages and from different income countries. Projection of the children's disease burden caused by heat waves under climate change scenarios, and development of effective heat wave mitigation and adaptation strategies that incorporate other child protective health measures, are also strongly recommended.

  8. Systematic theoretical investigation of the zero-field splitting in Gd(III) complexes: Wave function and density functional approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shehryar; Kubica-Misztal, Aleksandra; Kruk, Danuta; Kowalewski, Jozef; Odelius, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the electronic ground state in paramagnetic ions is a sensitive probe of the variations in the electronic and molecular structure with an impact on fields ranging from fundamental physical chemistry to medical applications. A detailed analysis of the ZFS in a series of symmetric Gd(III) complexes is presented in order to establish the applicability and accuracy of computational methods using multiconfigurational complete-active-space self-consistent field wave functions and of density functional theory calculations. The various computational schemes are then applied to larger complexes Gd(III)DOTA(H2O)-, Gd(III)DTPA(H2O)2-, and Gd(III)(H2O)83+ in order to analyze how the theoretical results compare to experimentally derived parameters. In contrast to approximations based on density functional theory, the multiconfigurational methods produce results for the ZFS of Gd(III) complexes on the correct order of magnitude.

  9. Wave functions for fractional Chern insulators in disk geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ai-Lei; Luo, Wei-Wei; Wang, Yi-Fei; Gong, Chang-De

    2015-12-01

    Recently, fractional Chern insulators (FCIs), also called fractional quantum anomalous Hall (FQAH) states, have been theoretically established in lattice systems with topological flat bands. These systems exhibit similar fractionalization phenomena to the conventional fractional quantum Hall (FQH) systems. Using the mapping relationship between the FQH states and the FCI/FQAH states, we construct the many-body wave functions of the fermionic FCI/FQAH states in disk geometry with the aid of the generalized Pauli principle (GPP) and Jack polynomials. Compared with the ground state by the exact diagonalization method, the wave-function overlap is higher than 0.97, even when the Hilbert space dimension is as large as 3 × 106. We also use the GPP and the Jack polynomials to construct edge excitations for the fermionic FCI/FQAH states. The quasi-degeneracy sequences of fermionic FCI/FQAH systems reproduce the prediction of the chiral Luttinger liquid theory, complementing the exact diagonalization results with larger lattice sizes and more particles.

  10. Coupling of WRF meteorological model to WAM spectral wave model through sea surface roughness at the Balearic Sea: impact on wind and wave forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolosana-Delgado, R.; Soret, A.; Jorba, O.; Baldasano, J. M.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.

    2012-04-01

    Meteorological models, like WRF, usually describe the earth surface characteristics by tables that are function of land-use. The roughness length (z0) is an example of such approach. However, over sea z0 is modeled by the Charnock (1955) relation, linking the surface friction velocity u*2 with the roughness length z0 of turbulent air flow, z0 = α-u2* g The Charnock coefficient α may be considered a measure of roughness. For the sea surface, WRF considers a constant roughness α = 0.0185. However, there is evidence that sea surface roughness should depend on wave energy (Donelan, 1982). Spectral wave models like WAM, model the evolution and propagation of wave energy as a function of wind, and include a richer sea surface roughness description. Coupling WRF and WAM is thus a common way to improve the sea surface roughness description of WRF. WAM is a third generation wave model, solving the equation of advection of wave energy subject to input/output terms of: wind growth, energy dissipation and resonant non-linear wave-wave interactions. Third generation models work on the spectral domain. WAM considers the Charnock coefficient α a complex yet known function of the total wind input term, which depends on the wind velocity and on the Charnock coefficient again. This is solved iteratively (Janssen et al., 1990). Coupling of meteorological and wave models through a common Charnock coefficient is operationally done in medium-range met forecasting systems (e.g., at ECMWF) though the impact of coupling for smaller domains is not yet clearly assessed (Warner et al, 2010). It is unclear to which extent the additional effort of coupling improves the local wind and wave fields, in comparison to the effects of other factors, like e.g. a better bathymetry and relief resolution, or a better circulation information which might have its influence on local-scale meteorological processes (local wind jets, local convection, daily marine wind regimes, etc.). This work, within the

  11. Impact wave deposits provide new constraints on the location of the K/T boundary impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Boynton, W. V.

    1988-01-01

    All available evidence is consistent with an impact into oceanic crust terminating the Cretaceous Period. Although much of this evidence is incompatible with an endogenic origin, some investigators still feel that a volcanic origin is possible for the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary clay layers. The commonly cited evidence for a large impact stems from delicate clay layers and their components and the impact site has not yet been found. Impact sites have been suggested all over the globe. The impact is felt to have occurred near North America by: the occurrence of a 2 cm thick ejecta layer only at North American locales, the global variation of shocked quartz grain sizes peaking in North America, the global variation of spinel compositions with most refractory compositions occurring in samples from the Pacific region and possibly uniquely severe plant extinctions in the North American region. The K/T boundary interval was investigated as preserved on the banks of the Brazos River, Texas. The K/T fireball and ejecta layers with associated geochemical anomalies were found interbedded with this sequence which apparently allows a temporal resolution 4 orders of magnitude greater than typical K/T boundary sections. A literature search reveals that such coarse deposits are widely preserved at the K/T boundary. Impact wave deposits have not been found elsewhere on the globe, suggesting the impact occurred between North and South America. The coarse deposits preserved in Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) holes 151-3 suggest the impact occurred nearby. Subsequent tectonism has complicated the picture.

  12. Stress wave propagation in a composite beam subjected to transverse impact.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wei-Yang; Song, Bo; Jin, Huiqing

    2010-08-01

    Composite materials, particularly fiber reinforced plastic composites, have been extensively utilized in many military and industrial applications. As an important structural component in these applications, the composites are often subjected to external impact loading. It is desirable to understand the mechanical response of the composites under impact loading for performance evaluation in the applications. Even though many material models for the composites have been developed, experimental investigation is still needed to validate and verify the models. It is essential to investigate the intrinsic material response. However, it becomes more applicable to determine the structural response of composites, such as a composite beam. The composites are usually subjected to out-of-plane loading in applications. When a composite beam is subjected to a sudden transverse impact, two different kinds of stress waves, longitudinal and transverse waves, are generated and propagate in the beam. The longitudinal stress wave propagates through the thickness direction; whereas, the propagation of the transverse stress wave is in-plane directions. The longitudinal stress wave speed is usually considered as a material constant determined by the material density and Young's modulus, regardless of the loading rate. By contrast, the transverse wave speed is related to structural parameters. In ballistic mechanics, the transverse wave plays a key role to absorb external impact energy [1]. The faster the transverse wave speed, the more impact energy dissipated. Since the transverse wave speed is not a material constant, it is not possible to be calculated from stress-wave theory. One can place several transducers to track the transverse wave propagation. An alternative but more efficient method is to apply digital image correlation (DIC) to visualize the transverse wave propagation. In this study, we applied three-pointbending (TPB) technique to Kolsky compression bar to facilitate

  13. Impact of gravity waves on long-range infrasound propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millet, Christophe; Lott, François; De La Camara, Alvaro

    2016-04-01

    In this work we study infrasound propagation in acoustic waveguides that support a finite number of propagating modes. We analyze the effects of gravity waves on these acoustic waveguides. Testing sound propagation in such perturbed fields can potentially be used to improve the gravity wave models. A linear solution modeling the interaction between an incoming acoustic wave and a randomly perturbed atmosphere is developed, using the forward-scattering approximation. The wave mode structure is determined by the effective sound speed profile which is strongly affected by gravity wave breaking. The random perturbations are described by a stochastic field predicted by a multiwave stochastic parameterization of gravity waves, which is operational in the LMDz climate model. The justification for this approach is two fold. On the one hand, the use of a few monochromatic waves mimics the observations of rather narrow-banded gravity wave packets in the lower stratosphere. On the other hand, the stochastic sampling of the gravity wave field and the random choice of wave properties deals with the inherent unpredictability of mesoscale dynamics from large scale conditions provided by the meteorological reanalysis. The transmitted acoustic signals contain a stable front and a small-amplitude incoherent coda. A general expression for the stable front is derived in terms of saddle-point contributions. The saddle-points are obtained from a WKB approximation of the vertical eigenvalue problem. This approach extract the dominant effects in the acoustic - gravity wave interaction. We present results that show how statistics of the transmitted signal are related to a few saddle-points and how the GW field can trigger large deviations in the acoustic signals. While some of the characteristics of the stable front can be directly related to that of a few individual gravity waves, it is shown that the amount of the launched gravity waves included in climate models can be estimated using

  14. Longitudinal Variations of Low-Latitude Gravity Waves and Their Impacts on the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullens, C. Y.; England, S.; Immel, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    The lower atmospheric forcing has important roles in the ionospheric variability. However, influences of lower atmospheric gravity waves on the ionospheric variability are still not clear due to the simplified gravity wave parameterizations and the limited knowledge of gravity wave distributions. In this study, we aim to study the longitudinal variations of gravity waves and their impacts of longitudinal variations of low-latitude gravity waves on the ionospheric variability. Our SABER results show that longitudinal variations of gravity waves at the lower boundary of TIME-GCM are the largest in June-August and January-February. We have implemented these low-latitude gravity wave variations from SABER instrument into TIME-GCM model. TIME-GCM simulation results of ionospheric responses to longitudinal variations of gravity waves and physical mechanisms will be discussed.

  15. Simulation of asteroid impact on ocean surfaces, subsequent wave generation and the effect on US shorelines

    SciTech Connect

    Ezzedine, Souheil M.; Lomov, Ilya; Miller, Paul L.; Dennison, Deborah S.; Dearborn, David S.; Antoun, Tarabay H.

    2015-05-19

    As part of a larger effort involving members of several other organizations, we have conducted numerical simulations in support of emergency-response exercises of postulated asteroid ocean impacts. We have addressed the problem from source (asteroid entry) to ocean impact (splash) to wave generation, propagation and interaction with the U.S. shoreline. We simulated three impact sites. The first site is located off the east coast by Maryland's shoreline. The second site is located off of the West coast, the San Francisco bay. The third set of sites are situated in the Gulf of Mexico. Asteroid impacts on the ocean surface are conducted using LLNL's hydrocode GEODYN to create the impact wave source for the shallow water wave propagation code, SWWP, a shallow depth averaged water wave code.

  16. Simulation of asteroid impact on ocean surfaces, subsequent wave generation and the effect on US shorelines

    DOE PAGES

    Ezzedine, Souheil M.; Lomov, Ilya; Miller, Paul L.; Dennison, Deborah S.; Dearborn, David S.; Antoun, Tarabay H.

    2015-05-19

    As part of a larger effort involving members of several other organizations, we have conducted numerical simulations in support of emergency-response exercises of postulated asteroid ocean impacts. We have addressed the problem from source (asteroid entry) to ocean impact (splash) to wave generation, propagation and interaction with the U.S. shoreline. We simulated three impact sites. The first site is located off the east coast by Maryland's shoreline. The second site is located off of the West coast, the San Francisco bay. The third set of sites are situated in the Gulf of Mexico. Asteroid impacts on the ocean surface aremore » conducted using LLNL's hydrocode GEODYN to create the impact wave source for the shallow water wave propagation code, SWWP, a shallow depth averaged water wave code.« less

  17. Epicenter Location of Regional Seismic Events Using Love Wave and Rayleigh Wave Ambient Seismic Noise Green's Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levshin, A. L.; Barmin, M. P.; Moschetti, M. P.; Mendoza, C.; Ritzwoller, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    We describe a novel method to locate regional seismic events based on exploiting Empirical Green's Functions (EGF) that are produced from ambient seismic noise. Elastic EGFs between pairs of seismic stations are determined by cross-correlating long time-series of ambient noise recorded at the two stations. The EGFs principally contain Rayleigh waves on the vertical-vertical cross-correlations and Love waves on the transverse-transverse cross-correlations. Earlier work (Barmin et al., "Epicentral location based on Rayleigh wave empirical Green's functions from ambient seismic noise", Geophys. J. Int., 2011) showed that group time delays observed on Rayleigh wave EGFs can be exploited to locate to within about 1 km moderate sized earthquakes using USArray Transportable Array (TA) stations. The principal advantage of the method is that the ambient noise EGFs are affected by lateral variations in structure similarly to the earthquake signals, so the location is largely unbiased by 3-D structure. However, locations based on Rayleigh waves alone may be biased by more than 1 km if the earthquake depth is unknown but lies between 2 km and 7 km. This presentation is motivated by the fact that group time delays for Love waves are much less affected by earthquake depth than Rayleigh waves; thus exploitation of Love wave EGFs may reduce location bias caused by uncertainty in event depth. The advantage of Love waves to locate seismic events, however, is mitigated by the fact that Love wave EGFs have a smaller SNR than Rayleigh waves. Here, we test the use of Love and Rayleigh wave EGFs between 5- and 15-sec period to locate seismic events based on the USArray TA in the western US. We focus on locating aftershocks of the 2008 M 6.0 Wells earthquake, mining blasts in Wyoming and Montana, and small earthquakes near Norman, OK and Dallas, TX, some of which may be triggered by hydrofracking or injection wells.

  18. Human brain networks function in connectome-specific harmonic waves.

    PubMed

    Atasoy, Selen; Donnelly, Isaac; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-21

    A key characteristic of human brain activity is coherent, spatially distributed oscillations forming behaviour-dependent brain networks. However, a fundamental principle underlying these networks remains unknown. Here we report that functional networks of the human brain are predicted by harmonic patterns, ubiquitous throughout nature, steered by the anatomy of the human cerebral cortex, the human connectome. We introduce a new technique extending the Fourier basis to the human connectome. In this new frequency-specific representation of cortical activity, that we call 'connectome harmonics', oscillatory networks of the human brain at rest match harmonic wave patterns of certain frequencies. We demonstrate a neural mechanism behind the self-organization of connectome harmonics with a continuous neural field model of excitatory-inhibitory interactions on the connectome. Remarkably, the critical relation between the neural field patterns and the delicate excitation-inhibition balance fits the neurophysiological changes observed during the loss and recovery of consciousness.

  19. Probing dissociative molecular dications by mapping vibrational wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Puettner, R.; Sekushin, V.; Kaindl, G.; Arion, T.; Lischke, T.; Mucke, M.; Hergenhahn, U.; Foerstel, M.; Bradshaw, A. M.

    2011-04-15

    We present high-resolution photoelectron-Auger-electron coincidence spectra of methane (CH{sub 4}). Since the vibrational structure in the photoelectron spectrum is resolved, the Auger spectra corresponding to different vibrational levels can be separated. The seven final states of CH{sub 4}{sup 2+} are either dissociative or metastable, but in any case are populated in a repulsive part of their potential-energy curve via the Auger decay. The Auger line shapes can therefore be obtained by mapping the vibrational wave functions of the core-hole state into energy space. We have implemented this connection in the data analysis. By simultaneously fitting the different Auger spectra, detailed information on the energies of the dicationic states and their repulsive potential-energy curves is derived.

  20. From Bethe-Salpeter Wave functions to Generalised Parton Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezrag, C.; Moutarde, H.; Rodríguez-Quintero, J.

    2016-09-01

    We review recent works on the modelling of generalised parton distributions within the Dyson-Schwinger formalism. We highlight how covariant computations, using the impulse approximation, allows one to fulfil most of the theoretical constraints of the GPDs. Specific attention is brought to chiral properties and especially the so-called soft pion theorem, and its link with the Axial-Vector Ward-Takahashi identity. The limitation of the impulse approximation are also explained. Beyond impulse approximation computations are reviewed in the forward case. Finally, we stress the advantages of the overlap of lightcone wave functions, and possible ways to construct covariant GPD models within this framework, in a two-body approximation.

  1. Human brain networks function in connectome-specific harmonic waves

    PubMed Central

    Atasoy, Selen; Donnelly, Isaac; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-01

    A key characteristic of human brain activity is coherent, spatially distributed oscillations forming behaviour-dependent brain networks. However, a fundamental principle underlying these networks remains unknown. Here we report that functional networks of the human brain are predicted by harmonic patterns, ubiquitous throughout nature, steered by the anatomy of the human cerebral cortex, the human connectome. We introduce a new technique extending the Fourier basis to the human connectome. In this new frequency-specific representation of cortical activity, that we call ‘connectome harmonics', oscillatory networks of the human brain at rest match harmonic wave patterns of certain frequencies. We demonstrate a neural mechanism behind the self-organization of connectome harmonics with a continuous neural field model of excitatory–inhibitory interactions on the connectome. Remarkably, the critical relation between the neural field patterns and the delicate excitation–inhibition balance fits the neurophysiological changes observed during the loss and recovery of consciousness. PMID:26792267

  2. Dominant partition method. [based on a wave function formalism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, R. M.; Redish, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    By use of the L'Huillier, Redish, and Tandy (LRT) wave function formalism, a partially connected method, the dominant partition method (DPM) is developed for obtaining few body reductions of the many body problem in the LRT and Bencze, Redish, and Sloan (BRS) formalisms. The DPM maps the many body problem to a fewer body one by using the criterion that the truncated formalism must be such that consistency with the full Schroedinger equation is preserved. The DPM is based on a class of new forms for the irreducible cluster potential, which is introduced in the LRT formalism. Connectivity is maintained with respect to all partitions containing a given partition, which is referred to as the dominant partition. Degrees of freedom corresponding to the breakup of one or more of the clusters of the dominant partition are treated in a disconnected manner. This approach for simplifying the complicated BRS equations is appropriate for physical problems where a few body reaction mechanism prevails.

  3. Propagation of impact-induced shock waves in porous sandstone using mesoscale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GÜLdemeister, Nicole; WÜNnemann, Kai; Durr, Nathanael; Hiermaier, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Generation and propagation of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> by meteorite <span class="hlt">impact</span> is significantly affected by material properties such as porosity, water content, and strength. The objective of this work was to quantify processes related to the shock-induced compaction of pore space by numerical modeling, and compare the results with data obtained in the framework of the Multidisciplinary Experimental and Modeling <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Research Network (MEMIN) <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments. We use mesoscale models resolving the collapse of individual pores to validate macroscopic (homogenized) approaches describing the bulk behavior of porous and water-saturated materials in large-scale models of crater formation, and to quantify localized shock amplification as a result of pore space crushing. We carried out a suite of numerical models of planar shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation through a well-defined area (the "sample") of porous and/or water-saturated material. The porous sample is either represented by a homogeneous unit where porosity is treated as a state variable (macroscale model) and water content by an equation of state for mixed material (ANEOS) or by a defined number of individually resolved pores (mesoscale model). We varied porosity and water content and measured thermodynamic parameters such as shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity and particle velocity on meso- and macroscales in separate simulations. The mesoscale models provide additional data on the heterogeneous distribution of peak shock pressures as a consequence of the complex superposition of reflecting rarefaction <span class="hlt">waves</span> and shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> originating from the crushing of pores. We quantify the bulk effect of porosity, the reduction in shock pressure, in terms of Hugoniot data as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of porosity, water content, and strength of a quartzite matrix. We find a good agreement between meso-, macroscale models and Hugoniot data from shock experiments. We also propose a combination of a porosity compaction model (ɛ-α model) that was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6214414','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6214414"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of a moored tanker under the action of regular <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yu-Cheng Li</p> <p>1982-09-01</p> <p>The influence that factors such as mooring line conditions, fender arrangements, dolphin arrangements, degree of ship loading, <span class="hlt">waves</span> of long period, <span class="hlt">wave</span> direction, and wind on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of a moored tanker were studied. Based on systematic test data, a semi-empirical formula was developed to calculate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of the moored ship on the berthing facilities under the action of regular <span class="hlt">waves</span>. It was shown by experiment that this method is suitable for calculating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy of moored ships of capacities as great as 200 X 10/sup 3/ t.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChOE...27..283X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ChOE...27..283X"><span id="translatedtitle">Study on far field <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns and their characteristics of Havelock form green <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Yong; Dong, Wen-cai; Xiao, Wen-bin</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>A new mathematical integral representation including five integrals about the far field <span class="hlt">wave</span> shape <span class="hlt">function</span> of Havelock form translating-pulsating source is obtained by performing variable substitution. Constant-phase curves and propagation <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns are investigated by applying stationary phase analysis method to the new representation. Some findings are summarized as follows: (1) when 0< τ <0.25 (where τ is the Strouhal number), three types of stationary phase curves corresponding to three propagation <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns such as fan <span class="hlt">wave</span> pattern, inner V and outer V <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns, are found in the integral representation. (2) When τ>0.25, besides three types of <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns such as a ring-faning <span class="hlt">wave</span> pattern, a fan <span class="hlt">wave</span> pattern and an inner V <span class="hlt">wave</span> pattern, a new one called parallel <span class="hlt">wave</span> pattern is also found which not only exists in the integrals about the ring-fan <span class="hlt">wave</span> and fan <span class="hlt">wave</span>, but also in the integrals whose interval is [0, γ] In addition, Characteristics about these parallel <span class="hlt">waves</span> such as mathematical expressions, existence conditions, propagation directions and <span class="hlt">wave</span> lengths are obtained, and cancellation relationships between these parallel <span class="hlt">waves</span> are stated, which certificates the fact that there are no parallel <span class="hlt">waves</span> existing in the far field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/40116','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/40116"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Functional</span> measures of stream <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hill, B.H.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>The effects of elevated metals (primarily Zn) in a Rocky Mountain stream were assessed using measures of primary productivity, community respiration, and phosphatase activity. Primary productivity was measured as rates of mass and chlorophyll a accumulation on ceramic tiles, and as O{sub 2}, evolution from natural substrates incubated in situ in closed chambers. Community respiration was measured in situ by incubating fine-grained sediments, collected and composited along each stream study reach, in closed chambers and measuring O{sub 2} depletion. Alkaline and acid phosphatase activity were measured for periphyton scraped from ceramic tiles and natural substrates. Primary productivity, measured as chlorophyll accretion rates and O{sup 2} evolution, were depressed by increasing Zn concentrations. Productivity measured as mass accretion rates did not show significant Zn effects. Community respiration was depressed by increasing Zn concentrations, as was alkaline phosphatase activity. Acid phosphatase activity was higher at the more <span class="hlt">impacted</span> sites. Overall, <span class="hlt">functional</span> measures were able to discern those sites receiving greater metal <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from less <span class="hlt">impacted</span> sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.701a2003N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.701a2003N"><span id="translatedtitle">Bohmian Conditional <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> (and the status of the quantum state)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Norsen, Travis</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The de Broglie - Bohm pilot-<span class="hlt">wave</span> theory - uniquely among realistic candidate quantum theories - allows a straightforward and simple definition of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a subsystem of some larger system (such as the entire universe). Such sub-system <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are called “Conditional <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Functions” (CWFs). Here we explain this concept and indicate the CWF's role in the Bohmian explanation of the usual quantum formalism, and then develop (and motivate) the more speculative idea that something like single-particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> could replace the (ontologically problematical) universal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in some future, empirically adequate, pilot-<span class="hlt">wave</span>-type theory. Throughout the presentation is pedagogical and points are illustrated with simple toy models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23844401','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23844401"><span id="translatedtitle">The environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon array operating in the Black Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diaconu, Sorin; Rusu, Eugen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm consisting of <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged <span class="hlt">wave</span> model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy converter and simulations considering a <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm consisting of six <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon devices. Comparisons of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm than the significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height. Finally, the possible <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23844401','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23844401"><span id="translatedtitle">The environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon array operating in the Black Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diaconu, Sorin; Rusu, Eugen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm consisting of <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged <span class="hlt">wave</span> model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy converter and simulations considering a <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm consisting of six <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon devices. Comparisons of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm than the significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height. Finally, the possible <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed. PMID:23844401</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3690912','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3690912"><span id="translatedtitle">The Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rusu, Eugen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm consisting of <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged <span class="hlt">wave</span> model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy converter and simulations considering a <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm consisting of six <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon devices. Comparisons of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm than the significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height. Finally, the possible <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed. PMID:23844401</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6335H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6335H"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracing Shock <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Attenuation in Porous, Particulate Targets: Insights from <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Experiments and Numerical Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamann, C.; Zhu, M.-H.; Wünnemann, K.; Hecht, L.; Stöffler, D.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We directly compare shock zoning (representing shock pressures from ~59 to ~5 GPa) preserved in layered melt particles recovered from <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments with quartz sand targets with numerical models of crater formation and shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> attenuation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22104538','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22104538"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of propagating and standing <span class="hlt">waves</span> on cavitation appearance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kenis, Alexander M; Grinfeld, Javier; Zadicario, Eyal; Vitek, Shuki</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Standing <span class="hlt">waves</span> play a significant role in the appearance of cavitation phenomena. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect that the relation between standing and propagating <span class="hlt">waves</span> in a focused field has on acoustic bubble cloud formation. Measurements of the cavitation signals were performed on five different configurations of a hemispheric phased array transducer (230 kHz) representing a wide range of relations between propagating and standing <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The results show that configurations with a larger propagating component induce bubble clouds at lower pressures than configurations with a larger standing component.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448638','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448638"><span id="translatedtitle">Riemann {zeta} <span class="hlt">function</span> from <span class="hlt">wave</span>-packet dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mack, R.; Schleich, W. P.; Dahl, J. P.; Moya-Cessa, H.; Strunz, W. T.; Walser, R.</p> <p>2010-09-15</p> <p>We show that the time evolution of a thermal phase state of an anharmonic oscillator with logarithmic energy spectrum is intimately connected to the generalized Riemann {zeta} <span class="hlt">function</span> {zeta}(s,a). Indeed, the autocorrelation <span class="hlt">function</span> at a time t is determined by {zeta}({sigma}+i{tau},a), where {sigma} is governed by the temperature of the thermal phase state and {tau} is proportional to t. We use the JWKB method to solve the inverse spectral problem for a general logarithmic energy spectrum; that is, we determine a family of potentials giving rise to such a spectrum. For large distances, all potentials display a universal behavior; they take the shape of a logarithm. However, their form close to the origin depends on the value of the Hurwitz parameter a in {zeta}(s,a). In particular, we establish a connection between the value of the potential energy at its minimum, the Hurwitz parameter and the Maslov index of JWKB. We compare and contrast exact and approximate eigenvalues of purely logarithmic potentials. Moreover, we use a numerical method to find a potential which leads to exact logarithmic eigenvalues. We discuss possible realizations of Riemann {zeta} <span class="hlt">wave</span>-packet dynamics using cold atoms in appropriately tailored light fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..MARH38012U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004APS..MARH38012U"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlocal density-<span class="hlt">functional</span> description constructed from a correlated many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Umezawa, Naoto; Tsuneyuki, Shinji</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>We suggest a new approach to the nonlocal density-<span class="hlt">functional</span> theory. In our method, the nonlocal correlation <span class="hlt">functional</span> is derived from a correlated many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> using the transcorrelated similarity transformation [1,2]. Our formalism is rigorous in principle if the v-representable density is assumed. In practice, Jastrow-Slater-type <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is adopted and the correlation <span class="hlt">functional</span> consists of many-body interactions originated from the Jastrow factor. Instead of struggling with these higher order interactions, we retain only 2-body interactions multiplying an adjusting parameter so that it can reproduce the exact correlation energy for the homogeneous electron gas. Therefore, the computational cost is comparable to the exact exchange method. Moreover, parameters in the Jastrow factor are determined by the two conditions: the cusp conditions and the random-phase approximation without empirical fitting. We found that our correlation <span class="hlt">functional</span> gives fairly good results for small atoms and ions (He, Li^+, Be^2+, Li, and Be). [1]S. F. Boys and N. C. Handy, Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 309, 209; 310, 43; 310, 63; 311, 309. [2] N. Umezawa and S. Tsuneyuki, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 10015 (2003).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614392S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614392S"><span id="translatedtitle">The stability of freak <span class="hlt">waves</span> with regard to external <span class="hlt">impact</span> and perturbation of initial data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smirnova, Anna; Shamin, Roman</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We investigate solutions of the equations, describing freak <span class="hlt">waves</span>, in perspective of stability with regard to external <span class="hlt">impact</span> and perturbation of initial data. The modeling of freak <span class="hlt">waves</span> is based on numerical solution of equations describing a non-stationary potential flow of the ideal fluid with a free surface. We consider the two-dimensional infinitely deep flow. For <span class="hlt">waves</span> modeling we use the equations in conformal variables. The variant of these equations is offered in [1]. Mathematical correctness of these equations was discussed in [2]. These works establish the uniqueness of solutions, offer the effective numerical solution calculation methods, prove the numerical convergence of these methods. The important aspect of numerical modeling of freak <span class="hlt">waves</span> is the stability of solutions, describing these <span class="hlt">waves</span>. In this work we study the questions of stability with regards to external <span class="hlt">impact</span> and perturbation of initial data. We showed the stability of freak <span class="hlt">waves</span> numerical model, corresponding to the external <span class="hlt">impact</span>. We performed series of computational experiments with various freak <span class="hlt">wave</span> initial data and random external <span class="hlt">impact</span>. This <span class="hlt">impact</span> means the power density on free surface. In each experiment examine two <span class="hlt">waves</span>: the <span class="hlt">wave</span> that was formed by external <span class="hlt">impact</span> and without one. In all the experiments we see the stability of equation`s solutions. The random external <span class="hlt">impact</span> practically does not change the time of freak <span class="hlt">wave</span> formation and its form. Later our work progresses to the investigation of solution's stability under perturbations of initial data. We take the initial data that provide a freak <span class="hlt">wave</span> and get the numerical solution. In common we take the numerical solution of equation with perturbation of initial data. The computing experiments showed that the freak <span class="hlt">waves</span> equations solutions are stable under perturbations of initial data.So we can make a conclusion that freak <span class="hlt">waves</span> are stable relatively external perturbation and perturbation of initial data both. 1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AnPhy.371...53R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AnPhy.371...53R"><span id="translatedtitle">Photon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> formalism for analysis of Mach-Zehnder interferometer and sum-frequency generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ritboon, Atirach; Daengngam, Chalongrat; Pengpan, Teparksorn</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Biakynicki-Birula introduced a photon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> similar to the matter <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that satisfies the Schrödinger equation. Its second quantization form can be applied to investigate nonlinear optics at nearly full quantum level. In this paper, we applied the photon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> formalism to analyze both linear optical processes in the well-known Mach-Zehnder interferometer and nonlinear optical processes for sum-frequency generation in dispersive and lossless medium. Results by photon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> formalism agree with the well-established Maxwell treatments and existing experimental verifications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24070284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24070284"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for time-dependent harmonically confined electrons in a time-dependent electric field.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Yu-Qi; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht</p> <p>2013-09-21</p> <p>The many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a system of interacting particles confined by a time-dependent harmonic potential and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field is derived via the Feynman path-integral method. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical driven equation of motion. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> reduces to that of the Harmonic Potential Theorem <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for the case of the time-independent harmonic confining potential. PMID:24070284</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21039502','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21039502"><span id="translatedtitle">About Essence of the <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> on Atomic Level and in Superconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nikulov, A. V.</p> <p>2007-12-03</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> was proposed for description of quantum phenomena on the atomic level. But now it is well known that quantum phenomena are observed not only on atomic level and the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is used for description of macroscopic quantum phenomena, such as superconductivity. The essence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> on level elementary particles was and is the subject of heated argument among founders of quantum mechanics and other physicists. This essence seems more clear in superconductor. But impossibility of probabilistic interpretation of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in this case results to obvious contradiction of quantum principles with some fundamental principles of physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740061866&hterms=detonator&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddetonator','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740061866&hterms=detonator&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Ddetonator"><span id="translatedtitle">A technique for generating shear <span class="hlt">waves</span> in cylindrical shells under radial <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blum, A.; Mortimer, R. W.; Rose, J. L.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Experimental techniques are developed to study and measure the shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity in an aluminum cylindrical shell subjected to a radial <span class="hlt">impact</span>. The radial <span class="hlt">impact</span> is obtained by exploding an electrical detonator inserted in plastic plugs mounted on the end of the shell. Strain gages, mounted on the outside surface of the shell at various axial locations, are used to obtain oscilloscope traces from which the shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity can be calculated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25072392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25072392"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of autocorrelation on <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arbabshirani, Mohammad R; Damaraju, Eswar; Phlypo, Ronald; Plis, Sergey; Allen, Elena; Ma, Sai; Mathalon, Daniel; Preda, Adrian; Vaidya, Jatin G; Adali, Tülay; Calhoun, Vince D</p> <p>2014-11-15</p> <p>Although the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of serial correlation (autocorrelation) in residuals of general linear models for fMRI time-series has been studied extensively, the effect of autocorrelation on <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity studies has been largely neglected until recently. Some recent studies based on results from economics have questioned the conventional estimation of <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity and argue that not correcting for autocorrelation in fMRI time-series results in "spurious" correlation coefficients. In this paper, first we assess the effect of autocorrelation on Pearson correlation coefficient through theoretical approximation and simulation. Then we present this effect on real fMRI data. To our knowledge this is the first work comprehensively investigating the effect of autocorrelation on <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity estimates. Our results show that although FC values are altered, even following correction for autocorrelation, results of hypothesis testing on FC values remain very similar to those before correction. In real data we show this is true for main effects and also for group difference testing between healthy controls and schizophrenia patients. We further discuss model order selection in the context of autoregressive processes, effects of frequency filtering and propose a preprocessing pipeline for connectivity studies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.S33A1072C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.S33A1072C"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Equation Migration Method for Receiver <span class="hlt">Function</span> Imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, L.; Wen, L.; Zheng, T.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation based poststack depth migration method is proposed to image the crustal and upper mantle structures using teleseismic receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span>. By utilizing a frequency-wavenumber domain one-way phase-screen propagator for wavefield extrapolation in the migration scheme, the common conversion point (CCP) stacked receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> are backward propagated to construct the subsurface structural images. Synthetic experiments demonstrate the validity of the migration method for a variety of laterally heterogeneous models. The migrated images show considerable improvement over the CCP images in recovering the structural features. The phase-screen propagator migration method proves to be particularly useful for imaging complex structures and deep discontinuities overlain by strong shallow anomalies, because of its capability of handling lateral velocity variations. Influences of several factors on the image quality of the poststack migration are further investigated, including inter-station spacing, noise level of the data, velocity model used in migration, and earthquake distribution (incident direction of source fields). Theoretical derivation and numerical results suggest that both the CCP stacking and the poststack migration of receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> need to be designed in a target-oriented way for reliable and efficient imaging, and special consideration on earthquake distribution is particularly required in designing seismic experiments if structures of large dips are present. The proposed wav equation migration scheme is applied to image the Earth's internal structures using a number of dense field data sets collected at many seismic arrays in Asia. The constructed images reveal several interesting subsurface structures of the study regions and synthetic tests indicate that those subsurface features are well resolved by the seismic data. Significant improvements of the image quality demonstrate the great potential and flexibility of the proposed migration</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcMod..96...49W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcMod..96...49W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span> spreading and multidirectional <span class="hlt">waves</span> on estimating Stokes drift</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webb, A.; Fox-Kemper, B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Stokes drift, and its leading-order approximation, for a random sea depend upon the interaction of different <span class="hlt">wave</span> groups and the process of <span class="hlt">wave</span> spreading. Here Stokes drift direction and magnitude from prescribed spectra, local observational buoy data, and global model WAVEWATCH III output are used to analyze approximations of Stokes drift for directional random seas in deep water. To facilitate analysis, a new approximation is defined to incorporate the systematic effects of <span class="hlt">wave</span> spreading. Stokes drift is typically overestimated by ignoring these effects or by ignoring directional differences in swell and wind seas. These two errors are differentiated and found to be largely uncorrelated. These errors depend strongly on depth, with deeper Stokes drift favoring narrow-banded swell and shallower Stokes drift favoring wind seas. Results are consistent among the data examined. Mean Stokes drift magnitude reductions from <span class="hlt">wave</span> spreading and multidirectional <span class="hlt">wave</span> effects alone are 14-20% and 7-23% respectively, giving a combined reduction of 20-40% versus unidirectional <span class="hlt">waves</span>, depending on <span class="hlt">wave</span> age and depth. Approximations that do not include these reductions however, will on average overestimate Stokes drift by 16-26%, 26-43%, and 45-71% respectively. In addition to magnitude, the direction of Stokes drift is also affected and multidirectional <span class="hlt">waves</span> generate a directional veer with depth: the 30/60/90% confidence intervals are bounded (approximately) by ± 0.12/0.28/0.84 radians (± 7/16/48 deg) at the surface, with smaller intervals at depth. Complementary depth-integrated approximations are also investigated and directional effects are similar with depth-dependent subsurface results. Furthermore, an optimized directional spread correction for the surface is nearly identical for global simulations and a buoy located at Ocean Weather Station P (50°N 145°W), and does not require directional <span class="hlt">wave</span> spectrum data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25964239','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25964239"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of a <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded soft middle layer on Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating in layered piezoelectric systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ben Salah, Issam; Ben Amor, Morched; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Numerical examples for <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in a three-layer structure have been investigated for both electrically open and shorted cases. The first order differential equations are solved by both methods ODE and Stiffness matrix. The solutions are used to study the effects of thickness and gradient coefficient of soft middle layer on the phase velocity and on the electromechanical coupling factor. We demonstrate that the electromechanical coupling factor is substantially increased when the equivalent thickness is in the order of the wavelength. The effects of gradient coefficients are plotted for the first mode when electrical and mechanical gradient variations are applied separately and altogether. The obtained deviations in comparison with the ungraded homogenous film are plotted with respect to the dimensionless wavenumber. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> related to the gradient coefficient of the soft middle layer, on the mechanical displacement and the Poynting vector, is carried out. The numericals results are illustrated by a set of appropriate curves related to various profiles. The obtained results set guidelines not only for the design of high-performance surface acoustic <span class="hlt">wave</span> (SAW) devices, but also for the measurement of material properties in a <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded piezoelectric layered system using Love <span class="hlt">waves</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApPhL..97g2104M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ApPhL..97g2104M"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental determination of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> spread in Si inversion layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Majumdar, Amlan</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>We have experimentally determined the extent of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> spread TQM in Si inversion layers on (100)-oriented surface in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) using the back gate bias sensitivity of front gate threshold voltage of planar fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOSFETs. We show that the sum of TQM for large positive and negative F is an electrically determined value of the SOI thickness TSI. We find that the electric field dependence of TQM for electrons and holes is given by TQM˜F-0.4 and F-0.6, respectively, at high electric fields with TQM being larger for holes at a given F. Larger TQM for holes can be explained by the fact that holes have a smaller effective mass along the confinement direction than electrons in (100) Si. The field dependences of TQM are, however, not consistent with the results of variational calculations that assume single-subband occupancy and predict TQM˜F-1/3. The discrepancy likely indicates that the effects of multiple-subband occupation are significant at room temperature, especially for holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1040697','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1040697"><span id="translatedtitle">Covariant nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> with S, D, and P-state components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Franz Gross, G. Ramalho, M. T. Pena</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Expressions for the nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the covariant spectator theory (CST) are derived. The nucleon is described as a system with a off-mass-shell constituent quark, free to interact with an external probe, and two spectator constituent quarks on their mass shell. Integrating over the internal momentum of the on-mass-shell quark pair allows us to derive an effective nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that can be written only in terms of the quark and diquark (quark-pair) variables. The derived nucleon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> includes contributions from S, P and D-<span class="hlt">waves</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.145f4107H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.145f4107H"><span id="translatedtitle">Exact density <span class="hlt">functional</span> and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> embedding schemes based on orbital localization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hégely, Bence; Nagy, Péter R.; Ferenczy, György G.; Kállay, Mihály</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Exact schemes for the embedding of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> theory (WFT) methods into lower-level DFT or WFT approaches are introduced utilizing orbital localization. First, a simple modification of the projector-based embedding scheme of Manby and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A507 (2014)] is proposed. We also use localized orbitals to partition the system, but instead of augmenting the Fock operator with a somewhat arbitrary level-shift projector we solve the Huzinaga-equation, which strictly enforces the Pauli exclusion principle. Second, the embedding of WFT methods in local correlation approaches is studied. Since the latter methods split up the system into local domains, very simple embedding theories can be defined if the domains of the active subsystem and the environment are treated at a different level. The considered embedding schemes are benchmarked for reaction energies and compared to quantum mechanics (QM)/molecular mechanics (MM) and vacuum embedding. We conclude that for DFT-in-DFT embedding, the Huzinaga-equation-based scheme is more efficient than the other approaches, but QM/MM or even simple vacuum embedding is still competitive in particular cases. Concerning the embedding of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods, the clear winner is the embedding of WFT into low-level local correlation approaches, and WFT-in-DFT embedding can only be more advantageous if a non-hybrid density <span class="hlt">functional</span> is employed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..93a3410G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..93a3410G"><span id="translatedtitle">Attosecond photoemission dynamics encoded in real-valued continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaillac, Romain; Vacher, Morgane; Maquet, Alfred; Taïeb, Richard; Caillat, Jérémie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The dynamics of photoemission is fully encoded in the continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> selected by the transitions. Using numerical simulations on simple benchmark models, we show how scattering phase shifts and photoemission delays can be retrieved from this unambiguously defined class of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. In contrast with standard scattering <span class="hlt">waves</span> inherited from collision theory, they are real-valued for one-photon transitions and provide a clear-cut interpretation of the delays recently discussed in the framework of attosecond science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1042058','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1042058"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Phase Transitions on P <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Velocities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>D Weidner; L Li</p> <p>2011-12-31</p> <p>In regions where a high pressure phase is in equilibrium with a low pressure phase, the bulk modulus defined by the P-V relationship is greatly reduced. Here we evaluate the effect of such transitions on the P <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity. A model, where cation diffusion is the rate limiting factor, is used to project laboratory data to the conditions of a seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating in the two-phase region. We demonstrate that for the minimum expected effect there is a significant reduction of the seismic velocity, as large as 10% over a narrow depth range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4785508','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4785508"><span id="translatedtitle">Efficient and Flexible Computation of Many-Electron <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> Overlaps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A new algorithm for the computation of the overlap between many-electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is described. This algorithm allows for the extensive use of recurring intermediates and thus provides high computational efficiency. Because of the general formalism employed, overlaps can be computed for varying <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> types, molecular orbitals, basis sets, and molecular geometries. This paves the way for efficiently computing nonadiabatic interaction terms for dynamics simulations. In addition, other application areas can be envisaged, such as the comparison of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> constructed at different levels of theory. Aside from explaining the algorithm and evaluating the performance, a detailed analysis of the numerical stability of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> overlaps is carried out, and strategies for overcoming potential severe pitfalls due to displaced atoms and truncated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are presented. PMID:26854874</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93t5153M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93t5153M"><span id="translatedtitle">Fractal dimensions of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and local spectral measures on the Fibonacci chain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Macé, Nicolas; Jagannathan, Anuradha; Piéchon, Frédéric</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We present a theoretical framework for understanding the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and spectrum of an extensively studied paradigm for quasiperiodic systems, namely the Fibonacci chain. Our analytical results, which are obtained in the limit of strong modulation of the hopping amplitudes, are in good agreement with published numerical data. In the perturbative limit, we show a symmetry of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> under permutation of site and energy indices. We compute the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> renormalization factors and from them deduce analytical expressions for the fractal exponents corresponding to individual <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, as well as their global averages. The multifractality of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is seen to appear at next-to-leading order in ρ . Exponents for the local spectral density are given, in extremely good accord with numerical calculations. Interestingly, our analytical results for exponents are observed to describe the system rather well even for values of ρ well outside the domain of applicability of perturbation theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22309110','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22309110"><span id="translatedtitle">Coherent cooling of atoms in a frequency-modulated standing laser <span class="hlt">wave</span>: <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and stochastic trajectory approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Argonov, V. Yu.</p> <p>2014-11-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a moderately cold atom in a stationary near-resonant standing light <span class="hlt">wave</span> delocalizes very fast due to <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet splitting. However, we show that frequency modulation of the field can suppress packet splitting for some atoms whose specific velocities are in a narrow range. These atoms remain localized in a small space for a long time. We demonstrate and explain this effect numerically and analytically. We also demonstrate that the modulated field can not only trap but also cool the atoms. We perform a numerical experiment with a large atomic ensemble having wide initial velocity and energy distributions. During the experiment, most of atoms leave the <span class="hlt">wave</span> while the trapped atoms have a narrow energy distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20219235','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20219235"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the 2003 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> on mortality in Shanghai, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Wei; Kan, Haidong; Kovats, Sari</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>In 2003, Shanghai recorded the hottest summer in over 50years. We investigated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the mortality of a heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> in 2003 in Shanghai. We calculated excess mortality and rate ratios (RRs) during the heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> (July 19-August 6, 2003) compared to a reference (non-heatwave) period (June 28-July 9, and August 16-August 22). During the heat <span class="hlt">wave</span>, the RR of total mortality was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.06-1.20), and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> was greatest for cardiovascular (RR=1.19, 95% CI: 1.08-1.32) and respiratory (RR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.02-1.48) mortality. Gender did not make a statistically significant difference for the heat-<span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Elderly people (over 65years) were most vulnerable to the heat <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Our analysis showed that the 2003 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> had a substantial effect on mortality in Shanghai. Public health programs should be implemented to prevent heat <span class="hlt">wave</span>-related health problems in the city. PMID:20219235</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830014054','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830014054"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> propagation in graphite/epoxy laminates due to <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tan, T. M.; Sun, C. T.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The low velocity <span class="hlt">impact</span> response of graphite-epoxy laminates is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A nine-node isoparametric finite element in conjunction with an empirical contact law was used for the theoretical investigation. Flat laminates subjected to pendulum <span class="hlt">impact</span> were used for the experimental investigation. Theoretical results are in good agreement with strain gage experimental data. The collective results of the investigation indicate that the theoretical procedure describes the <span class="hlt">impact</span> response of the laminate up to about 150 in/sec. <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSV...362..176F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSV...362..176F"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental validation of theoretical methods to estimate the energy radiated by elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span> during an <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farin, Maxime; Mangeney, Anne; Rosny, Julien de; Toussaint, Renaud; Sainte-Marie, Jacques; Shapiro, Nikolaï M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Estimating the energy lost in elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span> during an <span class="hlt">impact</span> is an important problem in seismology and in industry. We propose three complementary methods to estimate the elastic energy radiated by bead <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on thin plates and thick blocks from the generated vibration. The first two methods are based on the direct <span class="hlt">wave</span> front and are shown to be equivalent. The third method makes use of the diffuse regime. These methods are tested for laboratory experiments of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and are shown to give the same results, with error bars of 40 percent and 300 percent for <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on a smooth plate and on a rough block, respectively. We show that these methods are relevant to establish the energy budget of an <span class="hlt">impact</span>. On plates of glass and PMMA, the radiated elastic energy increases from 2 percent to almost 100 percent of the total energy lost as the bead diameter approaches the plate thickness. The rest of the lost energy is dissipated by viscoelasticity. For beads larger than the plate thickness, plastic deformation occurs and reduces the amount of energy radiated in the form of elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span>. On a concrete block, the energy dissipation during the <span class="hlt">impact</span> is principally inelastic because only 0.2-2 percent of the energy lost by the bead is transported by elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The radiated elastic energy estimated with the presented methods is quantitatively validated by Hertz's model of elastic <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011928','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011928"><span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentological effects of tsunamis, with particular reference to <span class="hlt">impact</span>-generated and volcanogenic <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bourgeois, Joanne; Wiberg, Patricia L.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Impulse-generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> (tsunamis) may be produced, at varying scales and global recurrence intervals (RI), by several processes. Meteorite-water <span class="hlt">impacts</span> will produce tsunamis, and asteroid-scale <span class="hlt">impacts</span> with associated mega-tsunamis may occur. A bolide-water <span class="hlt">impact</span> would undoubtedly produce a major tsunami, whose sedimentological effects should be recognizable. Even a bolide-land <span class="hlt">impact</span> might trigger major submarine landslides and thus tsunamis. In all posulated scenarios for the K/T boundary event, then, tsunamis are expected, and where to look for them must be determined, and how to distinguish deposits from different tsunamis. Also, because tsunamis decrease in height as they move away from their source, the proximal effects will differ by perhaps orders of magnitude from distal effects. Data on the characteristics of tsunamis at their origin are scarce. Some observations exist for tsunamis generated by thermonuclear explosions and for seismogenic tsunamis, and experimental work was conducted on <span class="hlt">impact</span>-generated tsunamis. All tsunamis of interest have <span class="hlt">wave</span>-lengths of 0(100) km and thus behave as shallow-water <span class="hlt">waves</span> in all ocean depths. Typical <span class="hlt">wave</span> periods are 0(10 to 100) minutes. The effect of these tsunamis can be estimated in the marine and coastal realm by calculating boundary shear stresses (expressed as U*, the shear velocity). An event layer at the K/T boundary in Texas occurs in mid-shelf muds. Only a large, long-period <span class="hlt">wave</span> with a <span class="hlt">wave</span> height of 0(50) m, is deemed sufficient to have produced this layer. Such <span class="hlt">wave</span> heights imply a nearby volcanic explosion on the scale of Krakatau or larger, or a nearby submarine landslide also of great size, or a bolide-water <span class="hlt">impact</span> in the ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711496M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711496M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span> action on the structure of material on the beach in Calypsobyen (Spitsbergen)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mędrek, Karolina; Herman, Agnieszka; Moskalik, Mateusz; Rodzik, Jan; Zagórski, Piotr</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The research was conducted during the XXVI Polar Expedition of Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin on Spitsbergen. It involved recording water <span class="hlt">wave</span> action in the Bellsund Strait, and taking daily photographs of the beach on its shore in Calypsobyen. The base of polar expeditions of UMCS, Calypsobyen, is located on the coast of Calypsostranda, developed by raised marine terraces. Weakly resistant Tertiary sandstones occur in the substrate, covered with glacigenic sediments and marine gravels. No skerries are encountered along this section of the accumulation coast. The shore is dominated by gravel deposits. The bottom slopes gently. The recording of <span class="hlt">wave</span> action was performed from 8 July to 27 August 2014 by means of a pressure based MIDAS WTR <span class="hlt">Wave</span> and Tide Recorder set at a depth of 10 m at a distance of about 1 km from the shore. The obtained data provided the basis for the calculation of the significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height, and the corresponding mean <span class="hlt">wave</span> period . These parameters reflect <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy and <span class="hlt">wave</span> level, having a considerable <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the dynamics of coastal processes and the type and grain size of sediments accumulated on the beach. Material consisting of medium gravel and seaweed appeared on the beach at high values of significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height and when the corresponding mean <span class="hlt">wave</span> period showed average values. The contribution of fine, gravel-sandy material grew with an increase in mean period and a decrease in significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height. At maximum values of mean period and low values of significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height, the beach was dominated by well-sorted fine-grained gravel. The lowest mean periods resulted in the least degree of sorting of the sediment (from very coarse sand to medium gravel). The analysis of data from the <span class="hlt">wave</span> and tide recorder set and their comparison with photographs of the beach suggest that <span class="hlt">wave</span> action, and particularly <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy manifested in significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height, has a considerable <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the type and grain size of material</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21254401','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21254401"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of cosmic neutrinos on the gravitational-<span class="hlt">wave</span> background</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mangilli, Anna; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio</p> <p>2008-10-15</p> <p>We obtain the equation governing the evolution of the cosmological gravitational-<span class="hlt">wave</span> background, accounting for the presence of cosmic neutrinos, up to second order in perturbation theory. In particular, we focus on the epoch during radiation dominance, after neutrino decoupling, when neutrinos yield a relevant contribution to the total energy density and behave as collisionless ultrarelativistic particles. Besides recovering the standard damping effect due to neutrinos, a new source term for gravitational <span class="hlt">waves</span> is shown to arise from the neutrino anisotropic stress tensor. The importance of such a source term, so far completely disregarded in the literature, is related to the high velocity dispersion of neutrinos in the considered epoch; its computation requires solving the full second-order Boltzmann equation for collisionless neutrinos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ZVMMF..25..224I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985ZVMMF..25..224I"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical methods for the calculation of special <span class="hlt">functions</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span> catastrophes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ipatov, E. B.; Lukin, D. S.; Palkin, E. A.</p> <p>1985-02-01</p> <p>The paper investigates the properties of special <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are used for the asymptotic description of the structure of <span class="hlt">wave</span> fields near various types of focusings. These <span class="hlt">functions</span> are realized in software packages for the BESM-6 computer using FORTRAN. The canonical equations and basic properties of these <span class="hlt">functions</span> are examined along with the development of numerical algorithms for their computation. These <span class="hlt">functions</span> may be applied in the study of various types of <span class="hlt">wave</span> problems, including: (1) radio <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the ionosphere and ionospheric waveguide channels; (2) the fine structure of sound fields in an acoustic duct; and (3) the focusing of laser radiation reflected from a rough surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013121','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013121"><span id="translatedtitle">Covariant spectator theory of $np$ scattering:\\\\ Effective range expansions and relativistic deuteron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Franz Gross, Alfred Stadler</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>We present the effective range expansions for the 1S0 and 3S1 scattering phase shifts, and the relativistic deuteron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that accompany our recent high precision fits (with \\chi^2/N{data} \\simeq 1) to the 2007 world np data below 350 MeV. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are expanded in a series of analytical <span class="hlt">functions</span> (with the correct asymptotic behavior at both large and small arguments) that can be Fourier-transformed from momentum to coordinate space and are convenient to use in any application. A fortran subroutine to compute these <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be obtained from the authors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/809126','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/809126"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of tropospheric planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> variability on stratospheric ozone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McElroy, Michael B.; Schneider, Hans R.</p> <p>2002-06-25</p> <p>The goal of this project was to improve understanding of the role of the stratosphere in inducing long-term variations of the chemical composition of the troposphere. Changes in stratospheric transport occur on decadel timescales in response to changes in the structure of planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns, forced in the troposphere. For many important tracers, such as column amounts of ozone, this variability of the transport leads to changes with signatures very similar to those induced by anthropogenic releases of chemicals into the atmosphere. During this project, a new interactive two-dimensional model of the dynamics, chemistry and radiation of the stratosphere was developed. The model was used to interpret available data of tracers. It was found that a fairly coherent picture of tracer distributions is obtained when a layer of reduced gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag is assumed for the lower stratosphere. The results suggest that the power of models to predict variability in tracer transport in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere is limited until current theories of gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking have been refined.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhPl...14i3103D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhPl...14i3103D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of attenuator models on computed traveling <span class="hlt">wave</span> tube performances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duan, Zhaoyun; Gong, Yubin; Wei, Yanyu; Wang, Wenxiang</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>Radio frequency characteristics of helix traveling <span class="hlt">wave</span> tubes are analyzed with a one-dimensional numerical model that includes a new, more rigorous, self-consistent attenuator model. The nonlinear properties of the beam-<span class="hlt">wave</span> interaction, including gain, phase distortion, and intermodulation distortion, are analyzed and compared with simulations using a conventional one-dimensional model of the attenuator. The comparative results show that the small signal gain is about 2-5dB smaller with the new model than with the conventional and <span class="hlt">wave</span> phase has a difference of 2°-6° between the new and conventional models in the intermediate and large signal regions. The amplitude modulation/phase modulation (AM/PM) conversion from the new model shows a slower reach to maximum than that from the conventional, and when the large input signal is applied, the conventional model's AM/PM conversion oscillates more quickly compared to the new. Under two-frequency excitation, the fundamental tones are about 5-7dB smaller with the new model than the conventional, while the intermodulation products are approximately 10dB smaller relative to the conventional model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20775252','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20775252"><span id="translatedtitle">Hadronic Spectra and Light-Front <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> in Holographic QCD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brodsky, Stanley J.; Teramond, Guy F. de</p> <p>2006-05-26</p> <p>We show how the string amplitude {phi}(z) defined on the fifth dimension in AdS{sub 5} space can be precisely mapped to the light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of hadrons in physical space-time. We find an exact correspondence between the holographic variable z and an <span class="hlt">impact</span> variable {zeta}, which represents the measure of transverse separation of the constituents within the hadrons. In addition, we derive effective four dimensional Schroedinger equations for the bound states of massless quarks and gluons which exactly reproduce the anti-de Sitter conformal field theory results and give a realistic description of the light-quark meson and baryon spectrum as well as the form factors for spacelike Q{sup 2}. Only one parameter which sets the mass scale, {lambda}{sub QCD}, is introduced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890039070&hterms=Ocean+University+China&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DOcean%2BUniversity%2BChina','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890039070&hterms=Ocean+University+China&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DOcean%2BUniversity%2BChina"><span id="translatedtitle">Probability <span class="hlt">function</span> of breaking-limited surface elevation. [wind generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> of ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tung, C. C.; Huang, N. E.; Yuan, Y.; Long, S. R.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking on the probability <span class="hlt">function</span> of surface elevation is examined. The surface elevation limited by <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking zeta sub b(t) is first related to the original <span class="hlt">wave</span> elevation zeta(t) and its second derivative. An approximate, second-order, nonlinear, non-Gaussian model for zeta(t) of arbitrary but moderate bandwidth is presented, and an expression for the probability density <span class="hlt">function</span> zeta sub b(t) is derived. The results show clearly that the effect of <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking on the probability density <span class="hlt">function</span> of surface elevation is to introduce a secondary hump on the positive side of the probability density <span class="hlt">function</span>, a phenomenon also observed in wind <span class="hlt">wave</span> tank experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhB...44p5201H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhB...44p5201H"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimized scattering <span class="hlt">functions</span> and amplitudes for electron <span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization and the post-prior symmetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hahn, Y. K.; Zerrad, E.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The electron <span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization of hydrogen, in the all-s-<span class="hlt">wave</span> approximation, is treated by the improved distorted <span class="hlt">wave</span> theory. The leading corrections to the distorted <span class="hlt">wave</span> Born amplitude are calculated in the POST form, using simple variational trial <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The localized virial conditions are imposed for the determination of nonlinear parameters, thus optimizing the scattering <span class="hlt">function</span> of the initial state. It is shown that the singly differential cross section can be adequately described by including up to three linear parameters. The calculated cross sections agree with that of the PRIOR form, and also compare well with the existing theoretical data. Furthermore, the procedure for accuracy estimates based on the post-prior comparison is critically re-examined, showing that the DWBA comparison can lead to erroneous conclusion. The fully optimized, distorted wavefunctions are extremely simple, and should be suitable for various applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24038752','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24038752"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of a spring heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> on canopy processes in a northern hardwood forest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Filewod, Ben; Thomas, Sean C</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency, duration, and intensity are predicted to increase with global warming, but the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of short-term high temperature events on forest <span class="hlt">functioning</span> remain virtually unstudied. We examined canopy processes in a forest in Central Ontario following 3 days of record-setting high temperatures (31–33 °C) that coincided with the peak in leaf expansion of dominant trees in late May 2010. Leaf area dynamics, leaf morphology, and leaf-level gas-exchange were compared to data from prior years of sampling (2002–2008) at the same site, focusing on Acer saccharum Marsh., the dominant tree in the region. Extensive shedding of partially expanded leaves was observed immediately following high temperature days, with A. saccharum losing ca. 25% of total leaf production but subsequently producing an unusual second flush of neoformed leaves. Both leaf losses and subsequent reflushing were highest in the upper canopy; however, retained preformed leaves and neoformed leaves showed reduced size, resulting in an overall decline in end-of-season leaf area index of 64% in A. saccharum, and 16% in the entire forest. Saplings showed lower leaf losses, but also a lower capacity to reflush relative to mature trees. Both surviving preformed and neoformed leaves had severely depressed photosynthetic capacity early in the summer of 2010, but largely regained photosynthetic competence by the end of the growing season. These results indicate that even short-term heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> can have severe <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in northern forests, and suggest a particular vulnerability to high temperatures during the spring period of leaf expansion in temperate deciduous forests. PMID:24038752</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24038752','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24038752"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of a spring heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> on canopy processes in a northern hardwood forest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Filewod, Ben; Thomas, Sean C</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency, duration, and intensity are predicted to increase with global warming, but the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of short-term high temperature events on forest <span class="hlt">functioning</span> remain virtually unstudied. We examined canopy processes in a forest in Central Ontario following 3 days of record-setting high temperatures (31–33 °C) that coincided with the peak in leaf expansion of dominant trees in late May 2010. Leaf area dynamics, leaf morphology, and leaf-level gas-exchange were compared to data from prior years of sampling (2002–2008) at the same site, focusing on Acer saccharum Marsh., the dominant tree in the region. Extensive shedding of partially expanded leaves was observed immediately following high temperature days, with A. saccharum losing ca. 25% of total leaf production but subsequently producing an unusual second flush of neoformed leaves. Both leaf losses and subsequent reflushing were highest in the upper canopy; however, retained preformed leaves and neoformed leaves showed reduced size, resulting in an overall decline in end-of-season leaf area index of 64% in A. saccharum, and 16% in the entire forest. Saplings showed lower leaf losses, but also a lower capacity to reflush relative to mature trees. Both surviving preformed and neoformed leaves had severely depressed photosynthetic capacity early in the summer of 2010, but largely regained photosynthetic competence by the end of the growing season. These results indicate that even short-term heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> can have severe <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in northern forests, and suggest a particular vulnerability to high temperatures during the spring period of leaf expansion in temperate deciduous forests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25132676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25132676"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of complex blast <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the human head: a computational study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Long Bin; Chew, Fatt Siong; Tse, Kwong Ming; Chye Tan, Vincent Beng; Lee, Heow Pueh</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Head injuries due to complex blasts are not well examined because of limited published articles on the subject. Previous studies have analyzed head injuries due to <span class="hlt">impact</span> from a single planar blast <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Complex or concomitant blasts refer to <span class="hlt">impacts</span> usually caused by more than a single blast source, whereby the blast <span class="hlt">waves</span> may <span class="hlt">impact</span> the head simultaneously or consecutively, depending on the locations and distances of the blast sources from the subject, their blast intensities, the sequence of detonations, as well as the effect of blast <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflections from rigid walls. It is expected that such scenarios will result in more serious head injuries as compared to <span class="hlt">impact</span> from a single blast <span class="hlt">wave</span> due to the larger effective duration of the blast. In this paper, the utilization of a head-helmet model for blast <span class="hlt">impact</span> analyses in Abaqus(TM) (Dassault Systemes, Singapore) is demonstrated. The model is validated against studies published in the literature. Results show that the skull is capable of transmitting the blast <span class="hlt">impact</span> to cause high intracranial pressures (ICPs). In addition, the pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> from a frontal blast may enter through the sides of the helmet and wrap around the head to result in a second <span class="hlt">impact</span> at the rear. This study recommended better protection at the sides and rear of the helmet through the use of foam pads so as to reduce <span class="hlt">wave</span> entry into the helmet. The consecutive frontal blasts scenario resulted in higher ICPs compared with <span class="hlt">impact</span> from a single frontal blast. This implied that blast impingement from an immediate subsequent pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> would increase severity of brain injury. For the unhelmeted head case, a peak ICP of 330 kPa is registered at the parietal lobe which exceeds the 235 kPa threshold for serious head injuries. The concurrent front and side blasts scenario yielded lower ICPs and skull stresses than the consecutive frontal blasts case. It is also revealed that the additional side blast would only significantly affect ICPs at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22416012','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22416012"><span id="translatedtitle">Systematic theoretical investigation of the zero-field splitting in Gd(III) complexes: <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and density <span class="hlt">functional</span> approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Khan, Shehryar Odelius, Michael; Kubica-Misztal, Aleksandra; Kruk, Danuta; Kowalewski, Jozef</p> <p>2015-01-21</p> <p>The zero-field splitting (ZFS) of the electronic ground state in paramagnetic ions is a sensitive probe of the variations in the electronic and molecular structure with an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on fields ranging from fundamental physical chemistry to medical applications. A detailed analysis of the ZFS in a series of symmetric Gd(III) complexes is presented in order to establish the applicability and accuracy of computational methods using multiconfigurational complete-active-space self-consistent field <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory calculations. The various computational schemes are then applied to larger complexes Gd(III)DOTA(H{sub 2}O){sup −}, Gd(III)DTPA(H{sub 2}O){sup 2−}, and Gd(III)(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}{sup 3+} in order to analyze how the theoretical results compare to experimentally derived parameters. In contrast to approximations based on density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory, the multiconfigurational methods produce results for the ZFS of Gd(III) complexes on the correct order of magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdAtS..31..851N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AdAtS..31..851N"><span id="translatedtitle">Planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on tropospheric cold weather over Asia during January 2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Wang, Lin; Ma, Yin</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Reflection of stratospheric planetary <span class="hlt">waves</span> and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on tropospheric cold weather over Asia during January 2008 were investigated by applying two dimensional Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux and three-dimensional Plumb <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity fluxes. The planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation can clearly be seen in the longitude-height and latitude-height sections of the Plumb <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity flux and EP flux, respectively, when the stratospheric basic state is partially reflective. Primarily, a <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet emanating from Baffin Island/coast of Labrador propagated eastward, equatorward and was reflected over Central Eurasia and parts of China, which in turn triggered the advection of cold wind from the northern part of the boreal forest regions and Siberia to the subtropics. The wide region of Central Eurasia and China experienced extreme cold weather during the second ten days of January 2008, whereas the extraordinary persistence of the event might have occurred due to an anomalous blocking high in the Urals-Siberia region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CPM.....3..155P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CPM.....3..155P"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of the SPH method to solitary <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> on an offshore platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pan, K.; IJzermans, R. H. A.; Jones, B. D.; Thyagarajan, A.; van Beest, B. W. H.; Williams, J. R.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This paper investigates the interaction between large <span class="hlt">waves</span> and floating offshore structures. Here, the fluid-structure interaction is considered using the weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. To ensure the applicability of this method, we validate its prediction for fluid forces and rigid-body motion against two sets of experimental data. These are <span class="hlt">impact</span> due to dam break, and <span class="hlt">wave</span> induced motion of a floating cube. For the dam break problem, the SPH method is used to predict <span class="hlt">impact</span> forces on a rectangular column located downstream. In the second case of a floating cube, the SPH method simulates the motion of a buoyant cube under the action of induced <span class="hlt">waves</span>, where a wall placed upstream of the cube is displaced sinusoidally to induce <span class="hlt">waves</span>. In both cases, the SPH framework implemented is able to accurately reproduce the experimental results. Following validation, we apply this framework to simulation of a toy model of a tension-leg platform upon <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a large solitary <span class="hlt">wave</span>. This analysis shows that the platform may be pulled into the water by stretched tension legs, where the extension of the tension legs also governs the rotational behavior of the platform. The result also indicates that a tension-leg platform is very unlikely to topple over during the arrival of an extreme <span class="hlt">wave</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1058H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1058H"><span id="translatedtitle">Life's <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on the Soil Production <span class="hlt">Function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harrison, Emma; Willenbring, Jane; Brocard, Gilles</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>]. The depth of soil mixing in the soil profiles we collect is shown by the homogenization of 10Be concentrations in grains. Mixing changes the residence time of grains in soil. The length of this residence time is a critical component in the rate of weathering reactions, the mechanism by which material is lost to chemical dissolution and leaching. Additionally, mixing may drive the value of the diffusion coefficient, which determines the flux of sediment out of the soil mantle in the geomorphic soil production <span class="hlt">function</span>. Life actively <span class="hlt">impacts</span> the soil-hillslope system, and quantifying these effects is an essential modification of a fundamental paradigm in the geomorphology of soil-mantled landscapes. [1] Heimsath et al. 1997. Nature 388:358-361 [2] Zou et al., 1995. Forest Ecol. and Management 78:147-157 [3] Pett-Ridge et al., 2009. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73:25-43 [4] Hidy et al. 2010. Geochem. Geophys., Geosys. 11 [5] González et al. 2007. Eur. J. Soil Biol. 43:S24-S32</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22253412','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22253412"><span id="translatedtitle">Coherent molecular transistor: Control through variation of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ernzerhof, Matthias</p> <p>2014-03-21</p> <p>In quantum interference transistors (QUITs), the current through the device is controlled by variation of the gate component of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that interferes with the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> component joining the source and the sink. Initially, mesoscopic QUITs have been studied and more recently, QUITs at the molecular scale have been proposed and implemented. Typically, in these devices the gate lead is subjected to externally adjustable physical parameters that permit interference control through modifications of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Here, we present an alternative model of a molecular QUIT in which the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is directly considered as a variable and the transistor operation is discussed in terms of this variable. This implies that we specify the gate current as well as the phase of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> component and calculate the resulting current through the source-sink channel. Thus, we extend on prior works that focus on the phase of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> component as a control parameter while having zero or certain discrete values of the current. We address a large class of systems, including finite graphene flakes, and obtain analytic solutions for how the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> controls the transistor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25624018','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25624018"><span id="translatedtitle">Longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> control in single quantum dots with an applied magnetic field.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cao, Shuo; Tang, Jing; Gao, Yunan; Sun, Yue; Qiu, Kangsheng; Zhao, Yanhui; He, Min; Shi, Jin-An; Gu, Lin; Williams, David A; Sheng, Weidong; Jin, Kuijuan; Xu, Xiulai</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Controlling single-particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in single semiconductor quantum dots is in demand to implement solid-state quantum information processing and spintronics. Normally, particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be tuned transversely by an perpendicular magnetic field. We report a longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> control in single quantum dots with a magnetic field. For a pure InAs quantum dot with a shape of pyramid or truncated pyramid, the hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> always occupies the base because of the less confinement at base, which induces a permanent dipole oriented from base to apex. With applying magnetic field along the base-apex direction, the hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> shrinks in the base plane. Because of the linear changing of the confinement for hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> from base to apex, the center of effective mass moves up during shrinking process. Due to the uniform confine potential for electrons, the center of effective mass of electrons does not move much, which results in a permanent dipole moment change and an inverted electron-hole alignment along the magnetic field direction. Manipulating the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> longitudinally not only provides an alternative way to control the charge distribution with magnetic field but also a new method to tune electron-hole interaction in single quantum dots. PMID:25624018</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24655199','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24655199"><span id="translatedtitle">Coherent molecular transistor: control through variation of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ernzerhof, Matthias</p> <p>2014-03-21</p> <p>In quantum interference transistors (QUITs), the current through the device is controlled by variation of the gate component of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that interferes with the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> component joining the source and the sink. Initially, mesoscopic QUITs have been studied and more recently, QUITs at the molecular scale have been proposed and implemented. Typically, in these devices the gate lead is subjected to externally adjustable physical parameters that permit interference control through modifications of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Here, we present an alternative model of a molecular QUIT in which the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is directly considered as a variable and the transistor operation is discussed in terms of this variable. This implies that we specify the gate current as well as the phase of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> component and calculate the resulting current through the source-sink channel. Thus, we extend on prior works that focus on the phase of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> component as a control parameter while having zero or certain discrete values of the current. We address a large class of systems, including finite graphene flakes, and obtain analytic solutions for how the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> controls the transistor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4306960','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4306960"><span id="translatedtitle">Longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> control in single quantum dots with an applied magnetic field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cao, Shuo; Tang, Jing; Gao, Yunan; Sun, Yue; Qiu, Kangsheng; Zhao, Yanhui; He, Min; Shi, Jin-An; Gu, Lin; Williams, David A.; Sheng, Weidong; Jin, Kuijuan; Xu, Xiulai</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Controlling single-particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in single semiconductor quantum dots is in demand to implement solid-state quantum information processing and spintronics. Normally, particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be tuned transversely by an perpendicular magnetic field. We report a longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> control in single quantum dots with a magnetic field. For a pure InAs quantum dot with a shape of pyramid or truncated pyramid, the hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> always occupies the base because of the less confinement at base, which induces a permanent dipole oriented from base to apex. With applying magnetic field along the base-apex direction, the hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> shrinks in the base plane. Because of the linear changing of the confinement for hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> from base to apex, the center of effective mass moves up during shrinking process. Due to the uniform confine potential for electrons, the center of effective mass of electrons does not move much, which results in a permanent dipole moment change and an inverted electron-hole alignment along the magnetic field direction. Manipulating the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> longitudinally not only provides an alternative way to control the charge distribution with magnetic field but also a new method to tune electron-hole interaction in single quantum dots. PMID:25624018</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcDyn..65.1547Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcDyn..65.1547Z"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sea surface currents in <span class="hlt">wave</span> power potential modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Kallos, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Kalogeri, Christina; Liakatas, Aristotelis; Stylianou, Stavros</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sea surface currents to the estimation and modeling of <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy potential over an area of increased economic interest, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, is investigated in this work. High-resolution atmospheric, <span class="hlt">wave</span>, and circulation models, the latter downscaled from the regional Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) of the Copernicus marine service (former MyOcean regional MFS system), are utilized towards this goal. The modeled data are analyzed by means of a variety of statistical tools measuring the potential changes not only in the main <span class="hlt">wave</span> characteristics, but also in the general distribution of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy and the <span class="hlt">wave</span> parameters that mainly affect it, when using sea surface currents as a forcing to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> models. The obtained results prove that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the sea surface currents is quite significant in <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy-related modeling, as well as temporally and spatially dependent. These facts are revealing the necessity of the utilization of the sea surface currents characteristics in renewable energy studies in conjunction with their meteo-ocean forecasting counterparts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008IJBm...52..733K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008IJBm...52..733K"><span id="translatedtitle">Decreased <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the 2003 heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on mortality in the Czech Republic: an improved response?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kyselý, Jan; Kříž, Bohumír</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>The paper examines <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on mortality of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in 2003, the hottest summer on record in the Czech Republic, and compares them with previous similar events. While most summer heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> over the period since 1986 were associated with significantly elevated mortality, this was not the case for three out of the four heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in 2003. The relatively weak mortality response was particularly noteworthy for the most severe heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> which occurred in the first 10 days of August 2003 and resulted in enormous excess mortality in some western European countries. A mortality displacement effect and short-term adaptation to heat contributed to the reduced mortality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> that followed after previous relatively warm periods. However, the decreased mortality response of the 2003 heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> compared to previous heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the 1990s is also likely to have arisen from positive health-care and other socio-economic changes in the post-communist central European region over the past decade, as well as a better public awareness of heat-related risks due to enhanced media coverage and regular biometeorological forecast and warnings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DFD.R1003I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DFD.R1003I"><span id="translatedtitle">Breaking <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on a Partially Submerged Rigid Cube in Deep Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ikeda, C. M.; Choquette, M.; Duncan, J. H.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a plunging breaking <span class="hlt">wave</span> on a partially submerged cube is studied experimentally. The experiments are performed in a <span class="hlt">wave</span> tank that is 14.8 m long, 1.15 m wide and 2.2 m high with a water depth of 0.91 m. A single repeatable plunging breaker is generated from a dispersively focused <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet (average frequency of 1.4 Hz) that is created with a programmable <span class="hlt">wave</span> maker. The rigid (L = 30 . 5 cm) cube is centered in the width of the tank and mounted from above with one face oriented normal to the oncoming <span class="hlt">wave</span>. The position of the center of the front face of the cube is varied from the breaker location (xb ~ 6 . 35 m) to xb + 0 . 05 m in the streamwise direction and from - 0 . 25 L to 0 . 25 L vertically relative to the mean water level. A high-speed digital camera is used to record both white-light and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) movies of the free surface shape in front of the cube before and after the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span>. When the <span class="hlt">wave</span> hits the cube just as the plunging jet is formed, a high-velocity vertical jet is created and the trajectory and maximum height of the jet are strongly influenced by the vertical position of the cube. Supported by the Office of Naval Research, Contract Monitor R. D. Joslin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH21B3839E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH21B3839E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Waves</span> Generated by Asteroid <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> and Their Hazard Consequences on The Shorelines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ezzedine, S. M.; Miller, P. L.; Dearborn, D. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We have performed numerical simulations of a hypothetical asteroid <span class="hlt">impact</span> onto the ocean in support of an emergency preparedness, planning, and management exercise. We addressed the scenario from asteroid entry; to ocean <span class="hlt">impact</span> (splash rim); to <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation, propagation, and interaction with the shoreline. For the analysis we used GEODYN, a hydrocode, to simulate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> and generate the source <span class="hlt">wave</span> for the large-scale shallow water <span class="hlt">wave</span> program, SWWP. Using state-of-the-art, high-performance computing codes we simulated three <span class="hlt">impact</span> areas — two are located on the West Coast near Los Angeles's shoreline and the San Francisco Bay, respectively, and the third is located in the Gulf of Mexico, with a possible <span class="hlt">impact</span> location between Texas and Florida. On account of uncertainty in the exact <span class="hlt">impact</span> location within the asteroid risk corridor, we examined multiple possibilities for <span class="hlt">impact</span> points within each area. Uncertainty in the asteroid <span class="hlt">impact</span> location was then convolved and represented as uncertainty in the shoreline flooding zones. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and partially funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL under tracking code 12-ERD-005.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDR29002R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDR29002R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span>-Induced Pressure Under an Internal Solitary <span class="hlt">Wave</span> and Its <span class="hlt">Impact</span> at the Bed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rivera, Gustavo; Diamesis, Peter; Jenkins, James; Berzi, Diego</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The bottom boundary layer (BBL) under a mode-1 internal solitary <span class="hlt">wave</span> (ISW) of depression propagating against an oncoming model barotropic current is examined using 2-D direct numerical simulation based on a spectral multidomain penalty method model. Particular emphasis is placed on the diffusion into the bed of the pressure field driven by the wake and any near-bed instabilities produced under specific conditions. To this end, a spectral nodal Galerkin approach is used for solving the diffusion equation for the <span class="hlt">wave</span>-induced pressure. At sufficiently high ISW amplitude, the BBL undergoes a global instability which produces intermittent vortex shedding from within the separation bubble in the lee of the <span class="hlt">wave</span>. The interplay between the bottom shear stress field and pressure perturbations during vortex ejection events and the subsequent evolution of the vortices is examined. The potential for bed failure upon the passage of the ISW trough and implications for resuspension of bottom particulate matter are both discussed in the context of specific sediment transport models.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1245M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1245M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of intense inward and outward ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> radial diffusion on the Van Allen belts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mann, Ian; Ozeke, Louis; Rae, I. Jonathan; Murphy, Kyle</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>During geomagnetic storms, the power in ultra-low frequency (ULF) <span class="hlt">waves</span> can be orders of magnitude larger than that predicted by statistics determined from an entire solar cycle. This is especially true during the main phase and early recovery phase. These periods of enhanced storm-time ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> power can have significant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the morphology and structure of the Van Allen belts. Either fast inward or outward radial diffusion can result, depending on the profiles of the electron phase space density and the outer boundary condition at the edge of the belts. Small changes in the time sequence of powerful ULF <span class="hlt">waves</span>, and the time sequence of any magnetopause shadowing or the recovery of plamasheet sources relative to the ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> occurrence, have a remarkable <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the resulting structure of the belts. The overall <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the enhanced ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> power is profound, but the response can be very different depending on the available source flux in the plasmasheet. We review these <span class="hlt">impacts</span> by examining ultra-relativistic electron dynamics during seemingly different storms during the Van Allen Probe era, including during the Baker et al. third radiation belt, and show the observed behaviour can be largely explained by differences in the time sequence of events described above.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JChPh.111.6230B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JChPh.111.6230B"><span id="translatedtitle">A spline approach to trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for variational and diffusion Monte Carlo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bressanini, Dario; Fabbri, Giordano; Mella, Massimo; Morosi, Gabriele</p> <p>1999-10-01</p> <p>We describe how to combine the variational Monte Carlo method with a spline description of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> to obtain a powerful and flexible method to optimize electronic and nuclear <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. A property of this method is that the optimization is performed "locally": During the optimization, the attention is focused on a region of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> at a certain time, with little or no perturbation in far away regions. This allows a fine tuning of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> even in cases where there is no experience on how to choose a good <span class="hlt">functional</span> form and a good basis set. After the optimization, the splines were fitted using more familiar analytical global <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The flexibility of the method is shown by calculating the electronic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for some two and three electron systems, and the nuclear <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for the helium trimer. For 4He3, using a two-body helium-helium potential, we obtained the best variational <span class="hlt">function</span> to date, which allows us to estimate the exact energy with a very small variance by a diffusion Monte Carlo simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=95909&keyword=PROGRESSIONS&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78787744&CFTOKEN=73453157','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=95909&keyword=PROGRESSIONS&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78787744&CFTOKEN=73453157"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC <span class="hlt">FUNCTION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Although urbanization has a major <span class="hlt">impact</span> on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships that are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the <span class="hlt">impacts</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26482393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26482393"><span id="translatedtitle">Propagation of ultrasonic Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in nonhomogeneous elastic <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kiełczyński, P; Szalewski, M; Balcerzak, A; Wieja, K</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>This paper presents a theoretical study of the propagation behavior of ultrasonic Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in nonhomogeneous <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded elastic materials, which is a vital problem in the mechanics of solids. The elastic properties (shear modulus) of a semi-infinite elastic half-space vary monotonically with the depth (distance from the surface of the material). The Direct Sturm-Liouville Problem that describes the propagation of Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in nonhomogeneous elastic <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded materials is formulated and solved by using two methods: i.e., (1) Finite Difference Method, and (2) Haskell-Thompson Transfer Matrix Method. The dispersion curves of phase and group velocity of surface Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in inhomogeneous elastic graded materials are evaluated. The integral formula for the group velocity of Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in nonhomogeneous elastic graded materials has been established. The effect of elastic non-homogeneities on the dispersion curves of Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> is discussed. Two Love <span class="hlt">wave</span> waveguide structures are analyzed: (1) a nonhomogeneous elastic surface layer deposited on a homogeneous elastic substrate, and (2) a semi-infinite nonhomogeneous elastic half-space. Obtained in this work, the phase and group velocity dispersion curves of Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating in the considered nonhomogeneous elastic waveguides have not previously been reported in the scientific literature. The results of this paper may give a deeper insight into the nature of Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagation in elastic nonhomogeneous <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded materials, and can provide theoretical guidance for the design and optimization of Love <span class="hlt">wave</span> based devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESS..13.3457D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESS..13.3457D"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling of tsunami-like <span class="hlt">wave</span> run-up, breaking and <span class="hlt">impact</span> on a vertical wall by SPH method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dao, M. H.; Xu, H.; Chan, E. S.; Tkalich, P.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Accurate predictions of <span class="hlt">wave</span> run-up and run-down are important for coastal <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment of relatively long <span class="hlt">waves</span> such as tsunami or storm <span class="hlt">waves</span>. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> run-up is, however, a complex process involving nonlinear build-up of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> front, intensive <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking and strong turbulent flow, making the numerical approximation challenging. Recent advanced modelling methodologies could help to overcome these numerical challenges. For a demonstration, we study run-up of non-breaking and breaking solitary <span class="hlt">waves</span> on a vertical wall using two methods, an enhanced smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method and the traditional non-breaking nonlinear model Tunami-N2. The Tunami-N2 model fails to capture the evolution of steep <span class="hlt">waves</span> at the proximity of breaking that was observed in the experiments. Whereas the SPH method successfully simulates the <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation, breaking, <span class="hlt">impact</span> on structure and the reform and breaking processes of <span class="hlt">wave</span> run-down. The study also indicates that inadequate approximation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking could lead to significant under-predictions of <span class="hlt">wave</span> height and <span class="hlt">impact</span> pressure on structures. The SPH model shows potential applications for accurate <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessments of <span class="hlt">wave</span> run-up on to coastal structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21503670','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21503670"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-Gaussian <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functionals</span> in Coulomb gauge Yang-Mills theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Campagnari, Davide R.; Reinhardt, Hugo</p> <p>2010-11-15</p> <p>A general method to treat non-Gaussian vacuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functionals</span> in the Hamiltonian formulation of a quantum field theory is presented. By means of Dyson-Schwinger techniques, the static Green <span class="hlt">functions</span> are expressed in terms of the kernels arising in the Taylor expansion of the exponent of the vacuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functional</span>. These kernels are then determined by minimizing the vacuum expectation value of the Hamiltonian. The method is applied to Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge, using a vacuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functional</span> whose exponent contains up to quartic terms in the gauge field. An estimate of the cubic and quartic interaction kernels is given using as input the gluon and ghost propagators found with a Gaussian <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functional</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvA..89d4101S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvA..89d4101S"><span id="translatedtitle">Semiclassical and quantum analysis of a free-particle Hermite <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Strange, P.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>In this Brief Report we discuss a solution of the free-particle Schrödinger equation in which the time and space dependence are not separable. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is written as a product of exponential terms, Hermite polynomials, and a phase. The peaks in the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> decelerate and then accelerate around t =0. We analyze this behavior within both a quantum and a semiclassical regime. We show that the acceleration does not represent true acceleration of the particle but can be related to the envelope <span class="hlt">function</span> of the allowed classical paths. Comparison with other "accelerating" <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is also made. The analysis provides considerable insight into the meaning of the quantum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS21A1683T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS21A1683T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Parameterized Lee <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Drag on the Energy Budget of an Eddying Global Ocean Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trossman, D. S.; Arbic, B. K.; Garner, S.; Goff, J. A.; Jayne, S. R.; Metzger, E.; Wallcraft, A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We examine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a lee <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag parameterization on an eddying global ocean model. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag parameterization represents the the momentum transfer associated with the generation of lee <span class="hlt">waves</span> arising from geostrophic flow impinging upon rough topography. It is included in the online model, thus ensuring that abyssal currents and stratification in the simulation are affected by the presence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag. The model utilized here is the nominally 1/12th degree Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) forced by winds and air-sea buoyancy fluxes. An energy budget including the parameterized <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag, quadratic bottom boundary layer drag, vertical eddy viscosity, and horizontal eddy viscosity is diagnosed during the model runs and compared with the wind power input and buoyancy fluxes. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> drag and vertical viscosity are the largest of the mechanical energy dissipation rate terms, each more than half of a terawatt when globally integrated. The sum of all four dissipative terms approximately balances the rate of energy put by the winds and buoyancy fluxes into the ocean. An ad hoc global enhancement of the bottom drag at each grid point by a constant factor cannot serve as a perfect substitute for <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag, particularly where there is little <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag. Eddy length scales at the surface, sea surface height variance, surface kinetic energy, and positions of intensified jets in the model are compared with those inferred from altimetric observations. Vertical profiles of kinetic energy from the model are compared with mooring observations to investigate whether the model is improved when <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag is inserted.; The drag and viscosity terms in our energy budget [log_10(W m^-2)]: (a) quadratic bottom boundary layer drag, (b) parameterized internal lee <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag, (c) vertical viscosity, and (d) "horizontal" viscosity. Shown is an average of inline estimates over one year of the spin-up phase with <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930001612','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930001612"><span id="translatedtitle">Data synthesis and display programs for <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Storey, L. R. O.; Yeh, K. J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>At the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) software was written to synthesize and display artificial data for use in developing the methodology of <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution analysis. The software comprises two separate interactive programs, one for data synthesis and the other for data display.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JOSAA...4.2116S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987JOSAA...4.2116S"><span id="translatedtitle">Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> of the strip-slab guide by plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span>-spectrum synthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sen, T. K.; Basuray, A.; Datta, A. K.</p> <p>1987-11-01</p> <p>The application of the plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span>-spectrum method to strip-slab waveguides is described. The dispersion equation of the structure is first evaluated from the condition of self-consistency of rays. By treating the modes as the superpositions of plane <span class="hlt">waves</span>, Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> for the structure is subsequently derived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20875704','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20875704"><span id="translatedtitle">Failure <span class="hlt">Wave</span> in DEDF and Soda-Lime Glass during Rod <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Orphal, D. L.; Behner, Th.; Hohler, V.; Anderson, C. E. Jr.; Templeton, D. W.</p> <p>2006-07-28</p> <p>Investigations of glass by planar, and classical and symmetric Taylor <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments reveal that failure <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity vF depends on <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity, geometry, and type of glass. vF typically increases with <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity vP to between cS and cL or to {radical}2cS (shear and longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity). This paper reports initial results of an investigation of failure <span class="hlt">waves</span> associated with gold rod <span class="hlt">impact</span> on high-density (DEDF) glass and soda-lime glass. Data are obtained by visualizing simultaneously the failure propagation in the glass with a high-speed camera and the rod penetration velocity u with flash radiography. Results for DEDF glass are reported for vP between 1.2 and 2.0 km/s, those for soda-lime glass with vP {approx_equal}1.3 km/s. It is shown that vF > u, and that in the case of DEDF glass vF/u decreases from ; 1.38 to 1.13 with increasing vp. In addition, several Taylor tests were performed. For both DEDF and soda-lime glass the vF-values, found here as well as vF- data reported in the literature, reveal that--for equal pressures--the failure <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocities determined from Taylor tests or planar-<span class="hlt">impact</span> tests are distinctly greater than those observed during steady-state rod penetration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2256419M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2256419M"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental study on <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating through quartz sand simulating asteroid regolith</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsue, Kazuma; Arakawa, Masahiko; Yasui, Minami; Matsumoto, Rie; Tsujido, Sayaka; Takano, Shota; Hasegawa, Sunao</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Introduction: Recent spacecraft surveys clarified that asteroid surfaces were covered with regolith made of boulders and pebbles such as that found on the asteroid Itokawa. It was also found that surface morphologies of asteroids formed on the regolith layer were modified. For example, the high-resolution images of the asteroid Eros revealed the evidence of the downslope movement of the regolith layer, then it could cause the degradation and the erasure of small <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater. One possible process to explain these observations is the regolith layer collapse caused by seismic vibration after projectile <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> might be an important physical process affecting the morphology change of regolith layer on asteroid surfaces. Therefore, it is significant for us to know the relationship between the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy and the <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span>. So in this study, we carried out <span class="hlt">impact</span> cratering experiments in order to observe the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating through the target far from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater.Experimental method: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> cratering experiments were conducted by using a single stage vertical gas gun set at Kobe Univ and a two-stage vertical gas gun set at ISAS. We used quartz sands with the particle diameter of 500μm, and the bulk density of 1.48g/cm3. The projectile was a ball made of polycarbonate with the diameter of 4.75mm and aluminum, titan, zirconia, stainless steel, cupper, tungsten carbide projectile with the diameter of 2mm. These projectiles were launched at the <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity from 0.2 to 7km/s. The target was set in a vacuum chamber evacuated below 10 Pa. We measured the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> by using a piezoelectric uniaxial accelerometer.Result: The <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> was measured to show a large single peak and found to attenuate with the propagation distance. The maximum acceleration of the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> was recognized to have a good relationship with the normalized distance x/R, where x is the propagation distance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GPC...119...71A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GPC...119...71A"><span id="translatedtitle">Projections of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> with high <span class="hlt">impact</span> on human health in Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amengual, A.; Homar, V.; Romero, R.; Brooks, H. E.; Ramis, C.; Gordaliza, M.; Alonso, S.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Climate change will result in more intense, more frequent and longer lasting heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The most hazardous conditions emerge when extreme daytime temperatures combine with warm night-time temperatures, high humidities and light winds for several consecutive days. Here, we assess present and future heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on human health in Europe. Present daily physiologically equivalent temperatures (PET) are derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. PET allows to specifically focus on heat-related risks on humans. Regarding projections, a suite of high-resolution regional climate models - run under SRES A1B scenario - has been used. A quantile-quantile adjustment is applied to the daily simulated PET to correct biases in individual model climatologies and a multimodel ensemble strategy is adopted to encompass model errors. Two types of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> differently <span class="hlt">impacting</span> human health - strong and extreme stress - are defined according to specified thresholds of thermal stress and duration. Heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> number, frequency, duration and amplitude are derived for each type. Results reveal relatively strong correlations between the spatial distribution of strong and extreme heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> amplitudes and mortality excess for the 2003 European summer. Projections suggest a steady increase and a northward extent of heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> attributes in Europe. Strong stress heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequencies could increase more than 40 days, lasting over 20 days more by 2075-2094. Amplitudes might augment up to 7 °C per heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> day. Important increases in extreme stress heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> attributes are also expected: up to 40 days in frequency, 30 days in duration and 4 °C in amplitude. We believe that with this information at hand policy makers and stakeholders on vulnerable populations to heat stress can respond more effectively to the future challenges imposed by climate warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23995621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23995621"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on mortality in Croatia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zaninović, Ksenija; Matzarakis, Andreas</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The aim of this work was to determine the criteria for heat loads associated with an increase in mortality in different climatic regions of Croatia. The relationship between heat stress and mortality was analysed for the period 1983-2008. The input series is excess mortality defined as the deviations of mortality from expected values determined by means of a Gaussian filter of 183 days. The assessment of the thermal environment was performed by means of physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The curve depicting the relationship between mortality and temperature has a U shape, with increased mortality in both the cold and warm parts of the scale but more pronounced in the warm part. The threshold temperature for increased mortality was determined using a scatter plot and fitting data by means of moving average of mortality; the latter is defined as the temperature at which excess mortality becomes significant. The values are higher in the continental part of Croatia than at the coast due to the refreshing influence of the sea during the day. The same analysis on a monthly basis shows that at the beginning of the warm season increased mortality occurs at a lower temperature compared with later on in the summer, and the difference is up to 15 °C between August and April. The increase in mortality is highest during the first 3-5 days and after that it decreases and falls below the expected value. Long-lasting heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> present an increased risk, but in very long heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> the increase in mortality is reduced due to mortality displacement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58.1135Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58.1135Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on mortality in Croatia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaninović, Ksenija; Matzarakis, Andreas</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The aim of this work was to determine the criteria for heat loads associated with an increase in mortality in different climatic regions of Croatia. The relationship between heat stress and mortality was analysed for the period 1983-2008. The input series is excess mortality defined as the deviations of mortality from expected values determined by means of a Gaussian filter of 183 days. The assessment of the thermal environment was performed by means of physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The curve depicting the relationship between mortality and temperature has a U shape, with increased mortality in both the cold and warm parts of the scale but more pronounced in the warm part. The threshold temperature for increased mortality was determined using a scatter plot and fitting data by means of moving average of mortality; the latter is defined as the temperature at which excess mortality becomes significant. The values are higher in the continental part of Croatia than at the coast due to the refreshing influence of the sea during the day. The same analysis on a monthly basis shows that at the beginning of the warm season increased mortality occurs at a lower temperature compared with later on in the summer, and the difference is up to 15 °C between August and April. The increase in mortality is highest during the first 3-5 days and after that it decreases and falls below the expected value. Long-lasting heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> present an increased risk, but in very long heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> the increase in mortality is reduced due to mortality displacement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415794','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415794"><span id="translatedtitle">On the accuracy of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods for calculating vertical ionization energies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McKechnie, Scott; Booth, George H.; Cohen, Aron J.; Cole, Jacqueline M.</p> <p>2015-05-21</p> <p>The best practice in computational methods for determining vertical ionization energies (VIEs) is assessed, via reference to experimentally determined VIEs that are corroborated by highly accurate coupled-cluster calculations. These reference values are used to benchmark the performance of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods: Hartree-Fock theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and Electron Propagator Theory (EPT). The core test set consists of 147 small molecules. An extended set of six larger molecules, from benzene to hexacene, is also considered to investigate the dependence of the results on molecule size. The closest agreement with experiment is found for ionization energies obtained from total energy difference calculations. In particular, DFT calculations using exchange-correlation <span class="hlt">functionals</span> with either a large amount of exact exchange or long-range correction perform best. The results from these <span class="hlt">functionals</span> are also the least sensitive to an increase in molecule size. In general, ionization energies calculated directly from the orbital energies of the neutral species are less accurate and more sensitive to an increase in molecule size. For the single-calculation approach, the EPT calculations are in closest agreement for both sets of molecules. For the orbital energies from DFT <span class="hlt">functionals</span>, only those with long-range correction give quantitative agreement with dramatic failing for all other <span class="hlt">functionals</span> considered. The results offer a practical hierarchy of approximations for the calculation of vertical ionization energies. In addition, the experimental and computational reference values can be used as a standardized set of benchmarks, against which other approximate methods can be compared.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26001454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26001454"><span id="translatedtitle">On the accuracy of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods for calculating vertical ionization energies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McKechnie, Scott; Booth, George H; Cohen, Aron J; Cole, Jacqueline M</p> <p>2015-05-21</p> <p>The best practice in computational methods for determining vertical ionization energies (VIEs) is assessed, via reference to experimentally determined VIEs that are corroborated by highly accurate coupled-cluster calculations. These reference values are used to benchmark the performance of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods: Hartree-Fock theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and Electron Propagator Theory (EPT). The core test set consists of 147 small molecules. An extended set of six larger molecules, from benzene to hexacene, is also considered to investigate the dependence of the results on molecule size. The closest agreement with experiment is found for ionization energies obtained from total energy difference calculations. In particular, DFT calculations using exchange-correlation <span class="hlt">functionals</span> with either a large amount of exact exchange or long-range correction perform best. The results from these <span class="hlt">functionals</span> are also the least sensitive to an increase in molecule size. In general, ionization energies calculated directly from the orbital energies of the neutral species are less accurate and more sensitive to an increase in molecule size. For the single-calculation approach, the EPT calculations are in closest agreement for both sets of molecules. For the orbital energies from DFT <span class="hlt">functionals</span>, only those with long-range correction give quantitative agreement with dramatic failing for all other <span class="hlt">functionals</span> considered. The results offer a practical hierarchy of approximations for the calculation of vertical ionization energies. In addition, the experimental and computational reference values can be used as a standardized set of benchmarks, against which other approximate methods can be compared.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.419a2046Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.419a2046Y"><span id="translatedtitle">A Study on Propagation Characteristic of One-dimensional Stress <span class="hlt">Wave</span> in <span class="hlt">Functionally</span> Graded Armor Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, S. Y.; Liu, X.; Cao, D. F.; Mei, H.; Lei, Z. T.; Liu, L. S.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The development of <span class="hlt">Functionally</span> Graded Materials (FGM) for energy-absorbing applications requires understanding of stress <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in these structures in order to optimize their resistance to failure. One-dimensional stress <span class="hlt">wave</span> in FGM composites under elastic and plastic <span class="hlt">wave</span> loading have been investigated. The stress distributions through the thickness and stress status have been analyzed and some comparisons have been done with the materials of sharp interfaces (two-layered material). The results demonstrate that the gradient structure design greatly decreases the severity of the stress concentrations at the interfaces and there are no clear differences in stress distribution in FGM composites under elastic and plastic <span class="hlt">wave</span> loading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..SHK.C5003O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..SHK.C5003O"><span id="translatedtitle">Failure <span class="hlt">Wave</span> in DEDF and Soda-Lime Glass During Rod <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orphal, Dennis; Behner, Thilo; Anderson, Charles; Templeton, Douglas</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>Investigations of glass by planar, and classical and symmetric Taylor <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments reveal that failure <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity U/F depends on <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity, geometry, and the type of glass. U/F typically increases with <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity to between ˜ 1.4 C/S and C/L (shear and longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocities, respectively). This paper reports the results of direct high-speed photographic measurements of the failure <span class="hlt">wave</span> for gold rod <span class="hlt">impact</span> from 1.2 and 2.0 km/s on DEDF glass (C/S = 2.0, C/L =3.5 km/s). The average rod penetration velocity, u, was measured using flash X-rays. Gold rods eliminated penetrator strength effects. U/F for gold rod <span class="hlt">impact</span> on DEDF is ˜ 1.0-1.2 km/s, which is considerably less than C/S. The increase of u with <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity is greater than that of U/F. These results are confirmed by soda-lime glass <span class="hlt">impact</span> on a gold rod at an <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity of 1300 m/s. Similar results are found in``edge-on-<span class="hlt">impact</span>'' tests; U/F values of 1.4 km/s and 2.4-2.6 km/s in soda-lime glass are reported for W-alloy rod <span class="hlt">impact</span>, considerably less than C/S (3.2 km/s) [1,2]. [1] Bless, et. al.(1990) AIP Proc. Shock Comp. Cond. Matter---1989, pp. 939-942 (1990) [2] E. L. Zilberbrand, et. al. (1999) Int. J. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Engng., 23, 995-1001 (1999).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S41B4482X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S41B4482X"><span id="translatedtitle">A Study of Regional <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Source Time <span class="hlt">Functions</span> of Central Asian Earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, J.; Perry, M. R.; Schult, F. R.; Wood, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Despite the extensive use of seismic regional <span class="hlt">waves</span> in seismic event identification and attenuation tomography, very little is known on how seismic sources radiate energy into these <span class="hlt">waves</span>. For example, whether regional Lg <span class="hlt">wave</span> has the same source spectrum as that of the local S has been questioned by Harr et al. and Frenkel et al. three decades ago; many current investigators assume source spectra in Lg, Sn, Pg, Pn and Lg coda <span class="hlt">waves</span> have either the same or very similar corner frequencies, in contrast to local P and S spectra whose corner frequencies differ. The most complete information on how the finite source ruptures radiate energy into regional <span class="hlt">waves</span> is contained in the time domain source time <span class="hlt">functions</span> (STFs). To estimate the STFs of regional <span class="hlt">waves</span> using the empirical Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> (EGF) method, we have been substantially modifying a semi-automotive computer procedure to cope with the increasingly diverse and inconsistent naming patterns of new data files from the IRIS DMC. We are applying the modified procedure to many earthquakes in central Asia to study the STFs of various regional <span class="hlt">waves</span> to see whether they have the same durations and pulse shapes, and how frequently source directivity occur. When applicable, we also examine the differences between STFs of local P and S <span class="hlt">waves</span> and those of regional <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The result of these analyses will be presented at the meeting.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/428195','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/428195"><span id="translatedtitle">Green`s <span class="hlt">function</span> implementation of common-offset, <span class="hlt">wave</span>-equation migration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ehinger, A.; Lailly, P.; Marfurt, K.J.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>Common-offset migration is extremely important in the context of migration velocity analysis (MVA) since it generates geologically interpretable migrated images. However, only a <span class="hlt">wave</span>-equation-based migration handles multipathing of energy in contrast to the popular Kirchhoff migration with first-arrival traveltimes. The authors have combined the superior treatment of multipathing of energy by <span class="hlt">wave</span>-equation-based migration with the advantages of the common-offset domain for MVA by implementing <span class="hlt">wave</span>-equation migration algorithms via the use of finite-difference Green`s <span class="hlt">functions</span>. With this technique, the authors are able to apply <span class="hlt">wave</span>-equation migration in measurement configurations that are usually considered to be of the realm of Kirchhoff migration. In particular, <span class="hlt">wave</span>-equation migration of common offset sections becomes feasible. The application of the <span class="hlt">wave</span>-equation, common-offset migration algorithm to the Marmousi data set confirms the large increase in interpretability of individual migrated sections, for about twice the cost of standard <span class="hlt">wave</span>-equation common-shot migration. The implementation of <span class="hlt">wave</span>-equation migration via the Green`s <span class="hlt">functions</span> is based on wavefield extrapolation via paraxial one-way <span class="hlt">wave</span> equations. For these equations, theoretical results allow one to perform exact inverse extrapolation of wavefields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvA..93f2125R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvA..93f2125R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterizing the parent Hamiltonians for a complete set of orthogonal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>: An inverse quantum problem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramezanpour, A.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We study the inverse problem of constructing an appropriate Hamiltonian from a physically reasonable set of orthogonal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for a quantum spin system. Usually, we are given a local Hamiltonian and our goal is to characterize the relevant <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and energies (the spectrum) of the system. Here, we take the opposite approach; starting from a reasonable collection of orthogonal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, we try to characterize the associated parent Hamiltonians, to see how the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and the energy values affect the structure of the parent Hamiltonian. Specifically, we obtain (quasi) local Hamiltonians by a complete set of (multilayer) product states and a local mapping of the energy values to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. On the other hand, a complete set of tree <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> (having a tree structure) results to nonlocal Hamiltonians and operators which flip simultaneously all the spins in a single branch of the tree graph. We observe that even for a given set of basis states, the energy spectrum can significantly change the nature of interactions in the Hamiltonian. These effects can be exploited in a quantum engineering problem optimizing an objective <span class="hlt">functional</span> of the Hamiltonian.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26368778','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26368778"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of truncations on wedge <span class="hlt">waves</span> by using the laser ultrasound technique.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jia, Jing; Shen, Zhonghua; Sun, KaiHua</p> <p>2015-08-20</p> <p>This research focuses on measuring the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of truncations on the dispersion characteristics of wedge <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating along the wedge tip by using the laser-generated ultrasound. First, the finite element method was used to simulate laser-induced wedge <span class="hlt">waves</span> and the dispersion curves were obtained by using the 2D Fourier transformation method. Pulsed laser excitation and laser-based wedge <span class="hlt">wave</span> detection were also utilized to investigate these characteristics experimentally. For the 20° and 60° line wedges, both experimental and numerical results indicated that a nonideal wedge tip had great <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the wedge <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The modes of the 20° line wedge with truncations presented anomalous dispersion, low mode closed to high mode in high frequency, and the characteristics of antisymmetric Lamb <span class="hlt">waves</span> as truncation increased. Meanwhile, the modes of the 60° line wedge with truncations showed the characteristics of antisymmetric Lamb <span class="hlt">waves</span>, and the A<sub>1</sub> mode was also observed clearly. The findings of this study can be used to evaluate and detect wedge structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1849M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1849M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the atmospheric climate modes on <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate in the North Atlantic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martínez-Asensio, Adrián; Tsimplis, Michael N.; Marcos, Marta; Feng, Xiangbo; Gomis, Damià; Jordà, Gabriel; Josey, Simon</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>This study establishes the relationships between the mean modes of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic and present <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate. The modes considered, namely the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic pattern (EA), the East Atlantic Western Russian pattern (EA/WR) and the Scandinavian pattern (SCAN), are obtained from the NOAA Climate Prediction Centre. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> data sets used consist of buoy records and two high-resolution simulations of significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height (SWH), mean <span class="hlt">wave</span> period (MWP) and mean <span class="hlt">wave</span> direction (MWD) forced with ERA-40 (1958-2002) and ERA-INTERIM (1989-2008) wind fields. The results show the winter <span class="hlt">impact</span> of each mode on <span class="hlt">wave</span> parameters which are discussed regionally. The NAO and EA pattern increase winter SWH up to 1 m per unit index at the Scottish and Spanish coasts, respectively, during their positive phase; while EA pattern causes clockwise changes of winter MWD up to more than 60 degrees per unit index at the Bay of Biscay during its negative phase. EA/WR and SCAN patterns have a weaker <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..453..305L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..453..305L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for dissipative harmonically confined electrons in a time-dependent electric field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lai, Meng-Yun; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Li, Yu-Qi</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We investigate the many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a dissipative system of interacting particles confined by a harmonic potential and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field. Applying the method of Yu and Sun (1994), it is found that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent (TD) Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical damped driven equation of motion, plus an addition fluctuation term due to the Brownian motion. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> reduces to that of the Harmonic Potential Theorem (HPT) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in the absence of the dissipation. An example of application of the results derived is also given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27586735','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27586735"><span id="translatedtitle">Approximate analytical time-domain Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the Caputo fractional <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelly, James F; McGough, Robert J</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The Caputo fractional <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation [Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 13, 529-539 (1967)] models power-law attenuation and dispersion for both viscoelastic and ultrasound <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation. The Caputo model can be derived from an underlying fractional constitutive equation and is causal. In this study, an approximate analytical time-domain Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> is derived for the Caputo equation in three dimensions (3D) for power law exponents greater than one. The Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> consists of a shifted and scaled maximally skewed stable distribution multiplied by a spherical spreading factor 1/(4πR). The approximate one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> are also computed in terms of stable distributions. Finally, this Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> is decomposed into a loss component and a diffraction component, revealing that the Caputo <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation may be approximated by a coupled lossless <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation and a fractional diffusion equation. PMID:27586735</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20365055','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20365055"><span id="translatedtitle">Asymptotic-boundary-layer method for unstable trajectories: semiclassical expansions for individual scar <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vagov, A; Schomerus, H; Zalipaev, V V</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>We extend the asymptotic boundary layer (ABL) method, originally developed for stable resonator modes, to the description of individual <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> localized around unstable periodic orbits. The formalism applies to the description of scar states in fully or partially chaotic quantum systems, and also allows for the presence of smooth and sharp potentials, as well as magnetic fields. We argue that the separatrix <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> provides the largest contribution to the scars on a single <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. This agrees with earlier results on the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> asymptotics and on the quantization condition of the scar states. Predictions of the ABL formalism are compared with the exact numerical solution for a strip resonator with a parabolic confinement potential and a magnetic field. PMID:20365055</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=material+AND+defect&pg=2&id=EJ215015','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=material+AND+defect&pg=2&id=EJ215015"><span id="translatedtitle">Continuity Conditions on Schrodinger <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> at Discontinuities of the Potential.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Branson, David</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Several standard arguments which attempt to show that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and its derivative must be continuous across jump discontinuities of the potential are reviewed and their defects discussed. (Author/HM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93k5105S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93k5105S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of symmetry-protected topological phases from conformal field theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scaffidi, Thomas; Ringel, Zohar</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We propose a method for analyzing two-dimensional symmetry-protected topological (SPT) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> using a correspondence with conformal field theories (CFTs) and integrable lattice models. This method generalizes the CFT approach for the fractional quantum Hall effect wherein the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> amplitude is written as a many-operator correlator in the CFT. Adopting a bottom-up approach, we start from various known microscopic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of SPTs with discrete symmetries and show how the CFT description emerges at large scale, thereby revealing a deep connection between group cocycles and critical, sometimes integrable, models. We show that the CFT describing the bulk <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is often also the one describing the entanglement spectrum, but not always. Using a plasma analogy, we also prove the existence of hidden quasi-long-range order for a large class of SPTs. Finally, we show how response to symmetry fluxes is easily described in terms of the CFT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27276688','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27276688"><span id="translatedtitle">Second-Order Perturbation Theory for Generalized Active Space Self-Consistent-Field <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Dongxia; Li Manni, Giovanni; Olsen, Jeppe; Gagliardi, Laura</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>A multireference second-order perturbation theory approach based on the generalized active space self-consistent-field (GASSCF) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is presented. Compared with the complete active space (CAS) and restricted active space (RAS) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, GAS <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are more flexible and can employ larger active spaces and/or different truncations of the configuration interaction expansion. With GASSCF, one can explore chemical systems that are not affordable with either CASSCF or RASSCF. Perturbation theory to second order on top of GAS <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> (GASPT2) has been implemented to recover the remaining electron correlation. The method has been benchmarked by computing the chromium dimer ground-state potential energy curve. These calculations show that GASPT2 gives results similar to CASPT2 even with a configuration interaction expansion much smaller than the corresponding CAS expansion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611722','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611722"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Real Ship Rolling Dynamics under <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Excitement Force Composed of Sums of Cosine <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y. S.; Cai, F.; Xu, W. M.</p> <p>2011-09-28</p> <p>The ship motion equation with a cosine <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitement force describes the slip moments in regular <span class="hlt">waves</span>. A new kind of <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitement force model, with the form as sums of cosine <span class="hlt">functions</span> was proposed to describe ship rolling in irregular <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Ship rolling time series were obtained by solving the ship motion equation with the fourth-order-Runger-Kutta method. These rolling time series were synthetically analyzed with methods of phase-space track, power spectrum, primary component analysis, and the largest Lyapunove exponent. Simulation results show that ship rolling presents some chaotic characteristic when the <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitement force was applied by sums of cosine <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The result well explains the course of ship rolling's chaotic mechanism and is useful for ship hydrodynamic study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012064','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012064"><span id="translatedtitle">The East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection in the North Atlantic: Climate <span class="hlt">Impact</span> and Relation to Rossby <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lim, Young-Kwon</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Large-scale winter teleconnection of the East Atlantic - West Russia (EA-WR) over the Atlantic and surrounding regions is examined in order to quantify its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on temperature and precipitation and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for its existence. A rotated empirical orthogonal <span class="hlt">function</span> (REOF) analysis of the upper-tropospheric monthly height field captures successfully the EA-WR pattern and its interannual variation, with the North Atlantic Oscillation as the first mode. EA-WRs climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> extends from eastern North America to Eurasia. The positive (negative) EA-WR produces positive (negative) temperature anomalies over the eastern US, western Europe and Russia east of Caspian Sea, with negative (positive) anomalies over eastern Canada, eastern Europe including Ural Mountains and the Middle East. These anomalies are largely explained by lower-tropospheric temperature advections. Positive (negative) precipitation anomalies are found over the mid-latitude Atlantic and central Russia around 60E, where lower-level cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation anomaly is dominant. The eastern Canada and the western Europe are characterized by negative (positive) precipitation anomalies.The EA-WR is found to be closely associated with Rossby <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> activity fluxes show that it is strongly tied to large-scale stationary <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Furthermore, a stationary <span class="hlt">wave</span> model (SWM) forced with vorticity transients in the mid-latitude Atlantic (approximately 40N) or diabatic heat source over the subtropical Atlantic near the Caribbean Sea produces well-organized EA-WR-like <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns, respectively. Sensitivity tests with the SWM indicate improvement in the simulation of the EA-WR when the mean state is modified to have a positive NAO component that enhances upper-level westerlies between 40-60N.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22107532','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22107532"><span id="translatedtitle">Bragg scattering as a probe of atomic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and quantum phase transitions in optical lattices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miyake, Hirokazu; Siviloglou, Georgios A; Puentes, Graciana; Pritchard, David E; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Weld, David M</p> <p>2011-10-21</p> <p>We have observed Bragg scattering of photons from quantum degenerate ^{87}Rb atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Bragg scattered light directly probes the microscopic crystal structure and atomic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> whose position and momentum width is Heisenberg limited. The spatial coherence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> leads to revivals in the Bragg scattered light due to the atomic Talbot effect. The decay of revivals across the superfluid to Mott insulator transition indicates the loss of superfluid coherence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22107532','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22107532"><span id="translatedtitle">Bragg scattering as a probe of atomic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and quantum phase transitions in optical lattices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miyake, Hirokazu; Siviloglou, Georgios A; Puentes, Graciana; Pritchard, David E; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Weld, David M</p> <p>2011-10-21</p> <p>We have observed Bragg scattering of photons from quantum degenerate ^{87}Rb atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Bragg scattered light directly probes the microscopic crystal structure and atomic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> whose position and momentum width is Heisenberg limited. The spatial coherence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> leads to revivals in the Bragg scattered light due to the atomic Talbot effect. The decay of revivals across the superfluid to Mott insulator transition indicates the loss of superfluid coherence. PMID:22107532</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CEJPh..12..392B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CEJPh..12..392B"><span id="translatedtitle">Spinless relativistic particle in energy-dependent potential and normalization of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benchikha, Amar; Chetouani, Lyazid</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The problem of normalization related to a Klein-Gordon particle subjected to vector plus scalar energy-dependent potentials is clarified in the context of the path integral approach. In addition the correction relating to the normalizing constant of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is exactly determined. As examples, the energy dependent linear and Coulomb potentials are considered. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> obtained via spectral decomposition, were found exactly normalized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7205961','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7205961"><span id="translatedtitle">sup 4 He- sup 4 He elastic scattering and variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Usmani, A.A.; Ahmad, I. ); Usmani, Q.N. )</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>We calculate differential cross sections for {sup 4}He-{sup 4}He elastic scattering at 4.32 GeV/{ital c} in the framework of Glauber multiple scattering theory using correlated variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> as given by the two-nucleon Urbana {ital v}{sub 14} potential and the spin-isospin averaged Melfleit-Tjon force {ital V}. These <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are found to give fairly satisfactory results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoJI.187..529M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoJI.187..529M"><span id="translatedtitle">Antipodal focusing of seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> due to large meteorite <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on Earth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meschede, Matthias A.; Myhrvold, Conor L.; Tromp, Jeroen</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>We examine focusing of seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> at the antipode of large terrestrial meteorite <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, using the Chicxulub <span class="hlt">impact</span> as our case study. Numerical simulations are based on a spectral-element method, representing the <span class="hlt">impact</span> as a Gaussian force in time and space. Simulating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> as a point source at the surface of a spherically symmetric earth model results in deceptively large peak displacements at the antipode. Earth's ellipticity, lateral heterogeneity and a spatially distributed source limit high-frequency <span class="hlt">waves</span> from constructively interfering at the antipode, thereby reducing peak displacement by a factor of 4. Nevertheless, for plausible <span class="hlt">impact</span> parameters, we observe peak antipodal displacements of ˜4 m, dynamic stresses in excess of 15 bar, and strains of 2 × 10-5 . Although these values are significantly lower than prior estimates, mainly based on a point source in a spherically symmetric earth model, <span class="hlt">wave</span> interference en route to the antipode induces 'channels' of peak stress that are five times greater than in surrounding areas. Underneath the antipode, we observed 'chimneys' of peak stress, strain and velocity, with peak values exceeding 50 bar, 10-5 and 0.1 m s-1, respectively. Our results put quantitative constraints on the feasibility of <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced antipodal volcanism and seismicity, as well as mantle plume and hotspot formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160005618&hterms=UN&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DUN','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160005618&hterms=UN&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DUN"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Acoustic Standing <span class="hlt">Waves</span> on Structural Responses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kolaini, Ali R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>For several decades large reverberant chambers and most recently direct field acoustic testing have been used in the aerospace industry to test larger structures with low surface densities such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify them and to detect faults in the design and fabrication. It has been reported that in reverberant chamber and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes may strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware (Reference 1). In this paper results from a recent reverberant chamber acoustic test of a composite reflector are discussed. These results provide further convincing evidence of the acoustic standing <span class="hlt">wave</span> and structural modes coupling phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to alert test organizations to this phenomenon so that they can account for the potential increase in structural responses and ensure that flight hardware undergoes safe testing. An understanding of the coupling phenomenon may also help minimize the over and/or under testing that could pose un-anticipated structural and flight qualification issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015OcMod..96..126R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015OcMod..96..126R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of assimilating altimeter data on <span class="hlt">wave</span> predictions in the western Iberian coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rusu, Liliana; Guedes Soares, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The present work describes the implementation of a methodology based on the optimal interpolation method for assimilating the altimeter data in a regional <span class="hlt">wave</span> forecasting system. The main objective is to improve the <span class="hlt">wave</span> predictions in the western Iberian coastal environment. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> modelling system considered is based on WAM, for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation, and on SWAN for the coastal transformation and delivers daily forecast products. An analysis scheme was first applied to the hindcast runs, when the observations and the simulations were blended within a time window of one day. The objective is to validate the methodology proposed and to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> produced by this scheme on the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> predictions. Corrections are applied to the output of the SWAN model, and consequently, the data assimilation scheme is executed independently of the model simulations. As a second step, the data assimilation scheme is applied to operational runs, when the analysis fields are used as a first guess for the next simulations. The procedure considered uses the observations provided by the multi-satellite altimeter data. Both satellite data and in-situ observations are used for the quality assessment. The results show that the assimilation scheme works correctly and all the statistical parameters evaluated have better values in the case of the assimilated significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height scalar field. As expected, by increasing the amount of the data assimilated, the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> predictions is enhanced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9224E..0WN','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9224E..0WN"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of large-scale atmospheric refractive structures on optical <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nunalee, Christopher G.; He, Ping; Basu, Sukanta; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Fiorino, Steven T.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Conventional techniques used to model optical <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation through the Earth's atmosphere typically as- sume flow fields based on various empirical relationships. Unfortunately, these synthetic refractive index fields do not take into account the influence of transient macroscale and mesoscale (i.e. larger than turbulent microscale) atmospheric phenomena. Nevertheless, a number of atmospheric structures that are characterized by various spatial and temporal scales exist which have the potential to significantly <span class="hlt">impact</span> refractive index fields, thereby resulting dramatic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on optical <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation characteristics. In this paper, we analyze a subset of spatio-temporal dynamics found to strongly affect optical <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating through these atmospheric struc- tures. Analysis of <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation was performed in the geometrical optics approximation using a standard ray tracing technique. Using a numerical weather prediction (NWP) approach, we simulate multiple realistic atmospheric events (e.g., island wakes, low-level jets, etc.), and estimate the associated refractivity fields prior to performing ray tracing simulations. By coupling NWP model output with ray tracing simulations, we demon- strate the ability to quantitatively assess the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of coherent atmospheric phenomena on optical ray propagation. Our results show a strong <span class="hlt">impact</span> of spatio-temporal characteristics of the refractive index field on optical ray trajectories. Such correlations validate the effectiveness of NWP models as they offer a more comprehensive representation of atmospheric refractivity fields compared to conventional methods based on the assumption of horizontal homogeneity.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4909275','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4909275"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the Pulse Signal by <span class="hlt">Wave</span>-Shape <span class="hlt">Function</span> and Analyzing by Synchrosqueezing Transform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Chun-Li; Yang, Yueh-Lung; Wu, Wen-Hsiang; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chang, Hen-Hong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We apply the recently developed adaptive non-harmonic model based on the <span class="hlt">wave</span>-shape <span class="hlt">function</span>, as well as the time-frequency analysis tool called synchrosqueezing transform (SST) to model and analyze oscillatory physiological signals. To demonstrate how the model and algorithm work, we apply them to study the pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> signal. By extracting features called the spectral pulse signature, and based on <span class="hlt">functional</span> regression, we characterize the hemodynamics from the radial pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> signals recorded by the sphygmomanometer. Analysis results suggest the potential of the proposed signal processing approach to extract health-related hemodynamics features. PMID:27304979</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26374017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26374017"><span id="translatedtitle">Polynomial scaling approximations and dynamic correlation corrections to doubly occupied configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Raemdonck, Mario; Alcoba, Diego R; Poelmans, Ward; De Baerdemacker, Stijn; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E; Van Neck, Dimitri; Bultinck, Patrick</p> <p>2015-09-14</p> <p>A class of polynomial scaling methods that approximate Doubly Occupied Configuration Interaction (DOCI) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and improve the description of dynamic correlation is introduced. The accuracy of the resulting <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is analysed by comparing energies and studying the overlap between the newly developed methods and full configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, showing that a low energy does not necessarily entail a good approximation of the exact <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Due to the dependence of DOCI <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> on the single-particle basis chosen, several orbital optimisation algorithms are introduced. An energy-based algorithm using the simulated annealing method is used as a benchmark. As a computationally more affordable alternative, a seniority number minimising algorithm is developed and compared to the energy based one revealing that the seniority minimising orbital set performs well. Given a well-chosen orbital basis, it is shown that the newly developed DOCI based <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are especially suitable for the computationally efficient description of static correlation and to lesser extent dynamic correlation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARL51014M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARL51014M"><span id="translatedtitle">Structure of Ground state <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect: A Variational Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mukherjee, Sutirtha; Mandal, Sudhansu</p> <p></p> <p>The internal structure and topology of the ground states for fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) are determined by the relative angular momenta between all the possible pairs of electrons. Laughlin <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is the only known microscopic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for which these relative angular momenta are homogeneous (same) for any pair of electrons and depend solely on the filling factor. Without invoking any microscopic theory, considering only the relationship between number of flux quanta and particles in spherical geometry, and allowing the possibility of inhomogeneous (different) relative angular momenta between any two electrons, we develop a general method for determining a closed-form ground state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for any incompressible FQHE state. Our procedure provides variationally obtained very accurate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, yet having simpler structure compared to any other known complex microscopic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the FQHE states. This method, thus, has potential in predicting a very accurate ground state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for the puzzling states such as the state at filling fraction 5/2. We acknowledge support from Department of Science and Technology, India.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EEEV...13...23Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EEEV...13...23Y"><span id="translatedtitle">A whole-space transform formula of cylindrical <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for scattering problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yuan, Xiaoming</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The theory of elastic <span class="hlt">wave</span> scattering is a fundamental concept in the study of elastic dynamics and <span class="hlt">wave</span> motion, and the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> expansion technique has been widely used in many subjects. To supply the essential tools for solving <span class="hlt">wave</span> scattering problems induced by an eccentric source or multi-sources as well as multi-scatters, a whole-space transform formula of cylindrical <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is presented and its applicability to some simple cases is demonstrated in this study. The transforms of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in cylindrical coordinates can be classified into two basic types: interior transform and exterior transform, and the existing Graf's addition theorem is only suitable for the former. By performing a new replacement between the two coordinates, the exterior transform formula is first deduced. It is then combined with Graf's addition theorem to establish a whole-space transform formula. By using the whole-space transform formula, the scattering solutions by the sources outside and inside a cylindrical cavity are constructed as examples of its application. The effectiveness and advantages of the whole-space transform formula is illustrated by comparison with the approximate model based on a large cycle method. The whole-space transform formula presented herein can be used to perform the transform between two different cylindrical coordinates in the whole space. In addition, its concept and principle are universal and can be further extended to establish the coordinate transform formula of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in other coordinate systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4219156','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4219156"><span id="translatedtitle">The Dynamic Dielectric at a Brain <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Site and an EM <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Approach to <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Brain Imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, X. P.; Xia, Q.; Qu, D.; Wu, T. C.; Yang, D. G.; Hao, W. D.; Jiang, X.; Li, X. M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Functional</span> brain imaging has tremendous applications. The existing methods for <span class="hlt">functional</span> brain imaging include <span class="hlt">functional</span> Magnetic Resonant Imaging (fMRI), scalp electroencephalography (EEG), implanted EEG, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), which have been widely and successfully applied to various brain imaging studies. To develop a new method for <span class="hlt">functional</span> brain imaging, here we show that the dielectric at a brain <span class="hlt">functional</span> site has a dynamic nature, varying with local neuronal activation as the permittivity of the dielectric varies with the ion concentration of the extracellular fluid surrounding neurons in activation. Therefore, the neuronal activation can be sensed by a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating through the site as the phase change of the EM <span class="hlt">wave</span> varies with the permittivity. Such a dynamic nature of the dielectric at a brain <span class="hlt">functional</span> site provides the basis for an RF EM <span class="hlt">wave</span> approach to detecting and imaging neuronal activation at brain <span class="hlt">functional</span> sites, leading to an RF EM <span class="hlt">wave</span> approach to <span class="hlt">functional</span> brain imaging. PMID:25367217</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25367217','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25367217"><span id="translatedtitle">The dynamic dielectric at a brain <span class="hlt">functional</span> site and an EM <span class="hlt">wave</span> approach to <span class="hlt">functional</span> brain imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, X P; Xia, Q; Qu, D; Wu, T C; Yang, D G; Hao, W D; Jiang, X; Li, X M</p> <p>2014-11-04</p> <p><span class="hlt">Functional</span> brain imaging has tremendous applications. The existing methods for <span class="hlt">functional</span> brain imaging include <span class="hlt">functional</span> Magnetic Resonant Imaging (fMRI), scalp electroencephalography (EEG), implanted EEG, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), which have been widely and successfully applied to various brain imaging studies. To develop a new method for <span class="hlt">functional</span> brain imaging, here we show that the dielectric at a brain <span class="hlt">functional</span> site has a dynamic nature, varying with local neuronal activation as the permittivity of the dielectric varies with the ion concentration of the extracellular fluid surrounding neurons in activation. Therefore, the neuronal activation can be sensed by a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating through the site as the phase change of the EM <span class="hlt">wave</span> varies with the permittivity. Such a dynamic nature of the dielectric at a brain <span class="hlt">functional</span> site provides the basis for an RF EM <span class="hlt">wave</span> approach to detecting and imaging neuronal activation at brain <span class="hlt">functional</span> sites, leading to an RF EM <span class="hlt">wave</span> approach to <span class="hlt">functional</span> brain imaging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CoPhC.178..621F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CoPhC.178..621F"><span id="translatedtitle">EDF: Computing electron number probability distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span> in real space from molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Francisco, E.; Pendás, A. Martín; Blanco, M. A.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Given an N-electron molecule and an exhaustive partition of the real space ( R) into m arbitrary regions Ω,Ω,…,Ω ( ⋃i=1mΩ=R), the edf program computes all the probabilities P(n,n,…,n) of having exactly n electrons in Ω, n electrons in Ω,…, and n electrons ( n+n+⋯+n=N) in Ω. Each Ω may correspond to a single basin (atomic domain) or several such basins (<span class="hlt">functional</span> group). In the later case, each atomic domain must belong to a single Ω. The program can manage both single- and multi-determinant <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are read in from an aimpac-like <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> description ( .wfn) file (T.A. Keith et al., The AIMPAC95 programs, http://www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca/aimpac, 1995). For multi-determinantal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> a generalization of the original .wfn file has been introduced. The new format is completely backwards compatible, adding to the previous structure a description of the configuration interaction (CI) coefficients and the determinants of correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Besides the .wfn file, edf only needs the overlap integrals over all the atomic domains between the molecular orbitals (MO). After the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities are computed, edf obtains from them several magnitudes relevant to chemical bonding theory, such as average electronic populations and localization/delocalization indices. Regarding spin, edf may be used in two ways: with or without a splitting of the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities into α and β spin components. Program summaryProgram title: edf Catalogue identifier: AEAJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5387 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 52 381 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2852C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2852C"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity <span class="hlt">Waves</span> characteristics and their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on turbulent transport above an Antarctic Ice Sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cava, Daniela; Giostra, Umberto; Katul, Gabriel</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Turbulence within the stable boundary layer (SBL) remains a ubiquitous feature of many geophysical flows, especially over glaciers and ice-sheets. Although numerous studies have investigated various aspects of the boundary layer motion during stable atmospheric conditions, a unified picture of turbulent transport within the SBL remains elusive. In a strongly stratified SBL, turbulence generation is frequently associated with interactions with sub-meso scale motions that are often a combination of gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> (GWs) and horizontal modes. While some progress has been made in the inclusion of GW parameterisation within global models, description and parameterisation of the turbulence-<span class="hlt">wave</span> interaction remain an open question. The discrimination between <span class="hlt">waves</span> and turbulence is a focal point needed to make progress as these two motions have different properties with regards to heat, moisture and pollutant transport. In fact, the occurrence of GWs can cause significant differences and ambiguities in the interpretation of turbulence statistics and fluxes if not a priori filtered from the analysis. In this work, the characteristics of GW and their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on turbulent statistics were investigated using wind velocity components and scalars collected above an Antarctic Ice sheet during an Austral Summer. Antarctica is an ideal location for exploring the characteristics of GW because of persistent conditions of strongly stable atmospheric stability in the lower troposphere. Periods dominated by wavy motions have been identified by analysing time series measured by fast response instrumentation. The GWs nature and features have been investigated using Fourier cross-spectral indicators. The detected <span class="hlt">waves</span> were frequently characterised by variable amplitude and period; moreover, they often produced non-stationarity and large intermittency in turbulent fluctuations that can significantly alter the estimation of turbulence statistics in general and fluxes in particular. A multi</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4986815','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4986815"><span id="translatedtitle">Mayer <span class="hlt">waves</span> reduce the accuracy of estimated hemodynamic response <span class="hlt">functions</span> in <span class="hlt">functional</span> near-infrared spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yücel, Meryem A.; Selb, Juliette; Aasted, Christopher M.; Lin, Pei-Yi; Borsook, David; Becerra, Lino; Boas, David A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Analysis of cerebral hemodynamics reveals a wide spectrum of oscillations ranging from 0.0095 to 2 Hz. While most of these oscillations can be filtered out during analysis of <span class="hlt">functional</span> near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals when estimating stimulus evoked hemodynamic responses, oscillations around 0.1 Hz are an exception. This is due to the fact that they share a common spectral range with typical stimulus evoked hemodynamic responses from the brain. Here we investigate the effect of hemodynamic oscillations around 0.1 Hz on the estimation of hemodynamic response <span class="hlt">functions</span> from fNIRS data. Our results show that for an expected response of ~1 µM in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (HbO), Mayer <span class="hlt">wave</span> oscillations with an amplitude > ~1 µM at 0.1 Hz reduce the accuracy of the estimated response as quantified by a 3 fold increase in the mean squared error and decrease in correlation (R2 below 0.78) when compared to the true HRF. These results indicate that the amplitude of oscillations at 0.1 Hz can serve as an objective metric of the expected HRF estimation accuracy. In addition, we investigated the effect of short separation regression on the recovered HRF, and found that this improves the recovered HRF when large amplitude 0.1 Hz oscillations are present in fNIRS data. We suspect that the development of other filtering strategies may provide even further improvement. PMID:27570699</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570699','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570699"><span id="translatedtitle">Mayer <span class="hlt">waves</span> reduce the accuracy of estimated hemodynamic response <span class="hlt">functions</span> in <span class="hlt">functional</span> near-infrared spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yücel, Meryem A; Selb, Juliette; Aasted, Christopher M; Lin, Pei-Yi; Borsook, David; Becerra, Lino; Boas, David A</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Analysis of cerebral hemodynamics reveals a wide spectrum of oscillations ranging from 0.0095 to 2 Hz. While most of these oscillations can be filtered out during analysis of <span class="hlt">functional</span> near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals when estimating stimulus evoked hemodynamic responses, oscillations around 0.1 Hz are an exception. This is due to the fact that they share a common spectral range with typical stimulus evoked hemodynamic responses from the brain. Here we investigate the effect of hemodynamic oscillations around 0.1 Hz on the estimation of hemodynamic response <span class="hlt">functions</span> from fNIRS data. Our results show that for an expected response of ~1 µM in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (HbO), Mayer <span class="hlt">wave</span> oscillations with an amplitude > ~1 µM at 0.1 Hz reduce the accuracy of the estimated response as quantified by a 3 fold increase in the mean squared error and decrease in correlation (R(2) below 0.78) when compared to the true HRF. These results indicate that the amplitude of oscillations at 0.1 Hz can serve as an objective metric of the expected HRF estimation accuracy. In addition, we investigated the effect of short separation regression on the recovered HRF, and found that this improves the recovered HRF when large amplitude 0.1 Hz oscillations are present in fNIRS data. We suspect that the development of other filtering strategies may provide even further improvement. PMID:27570699</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A51E3091F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A51E3091F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Low-Level Southerly Surges on Mixed Rossby Gravity <span class="hlt">Waves</span> over the Central Pacific.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fukutomi, Y.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This study examines dynamical <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of lower-tropospheric southerly wind surges originating in midlatitudes of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) on the development of mixed Rossby gravity (MRG) <span class="hlt">waves</span> over the central Pacific during June-August 1979-2012, through the statistical analysis of the JRA-55 products and NOAA outgoing long <span class="hlt">wave</span> radiation data. The central Pacific MRG <span class="hlt">waves</span> are identified by an extended EOF (EEOF) analysis on 2-8-day filtered daily 850-hPa meridional wind anomalies during June-August 1979-2012. Composite analysis based on the leading EEOF time coefficients is able to capture the development of the MRG <span class="hlt">waves</span> associated with a southerly surge originating in the SH extratropics. As a weak clockwise gyre as a part of an off-equatorial easterly wavetrain moves eastward and southeastward from the off-equatorial eastern Pacific into the equatorial central Pacific, the southerly surge penetrates into the equatorial tropics at around 150W. Then, the clockwise gyre develops into a MRG-type gyre over the central Pacific. A transition from an easterly <span class="hlt">wave</span>-type gyre into a MRG-type gyre occurs associated with the southerly surge. The southerly surge forms a cross-equatorial flow on the western flank of the MRG-type gyre. The gyre is amplified when the southerly surge reaches the equatorial tropics. At the same time, convection coupled with the MRG-type gyre is enhanced. The southerly surges are originated in the midlatitude South Pacific, and they are induced by synoptic-scale baroclinic disturbances propagating along the SH midlatitude westerly jet. An eddy vorticity budget analysis indicates that the southerly surge plays an important role in spinning up the MRG-type gyre through transient advection of absolute vorticiy. A case study of a MRG-<span class="hlt">wave</span> event in mid-July 2006 also illustrates development of a MRG <span class="hlt">wave</span> associated with the southerly surge and an easterly <span class="hlt">wave</span>-to-MRG <span class="hlt">wave</span> transition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcMod..97..109T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcMod..97..109T"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of topographic internal lee <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag on an eddying global ocean model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trossman, David S.; Arbic, Brian K.; Richman, James G.; Garner, Stephen T.; Jayne, Steven R.; Wallcraft, Alan J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of topographic internal lee <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag (<span class="hlt">wave</span> drag hereafter) on several aspects of the low-frequency circulation in a high-resolution global ocean model forced by winds and air-sea buoyancy fluxes is examined here. The HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) is run at two different horizontal resolutions (one nominally 1/12° and the other 1/25°). <span class="hlt">Wave</span> drag, which parameterizes both topographic blocking and the generation of lee <span class="hlt">waves</span> arising from geostrophic flow impinging upon rough topography, is inserted into the simulations as they run. The parameterization used here affects the momentum equations and hence the structure of eddy kinetic energy. Lee <span class="hlt">waves</span> also have implications for diapycnal mixing in the ocean, though the parameterization does not directly modify the density. Total near-bottom energy dissipation due to <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag and quadratic bottom boundary layer drag is nearly doubled, and the energy dissipation due to quadratic bottom drag is reduced by about a factor of two, in simulations with an inserted <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag compared to simulations having only quadratic bottom drag. With the insertion of <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag, the kinetic energy is reduced in the abyss and in a three-dimensional global integral. Deflection by partial topographic blocking is inferred to be one reason why the near-bottom kinetic energy can increase in locations where there is little change in dissipation by quadratic bottom drag. Despite large changes seen in the abyss, the changes that occur near the sea surface are relatively small upon insertion of <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag into the simulations. Both the sea surface height variance and geostrophic surface kinetic energy are reduced on global average by more than twice the seasonal variability in these diagnostics. Alterations in the intensified jet positions brought about by inserting <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag are not distinguishable from the temporal variability of jet positions. Various statistical measures suggest that applying <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag only within a fixed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4713765','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4713765"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy on frozen shoulder patients’ pain and <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Chan; Lee, Sangyong; Yi, Chae-Woo; Lee, Kwansub</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] The present study was conducted to examine the effects of extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy on frozen shoulder patients’ pain and <span class="hlt">functions</span>. [Subjects] In the present study, 30 frozen shoulder patients were divided into two groups: an extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy group of 15 patients and a conservative physical therapy group of 15 patients. [Methods] Two times per week for six weeks, the extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy group underwent extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy, and the conservative physical therapy group underwent general physical therapy. Visual analog scales were used to measure frozen shoulder patients’ pain, and patient-specific <span class="hlt">functional</span> scales were used to evaluate the degree of <span class="hlt">functional</span> disorders. [Results] In intra-group comparisons, the two groups showed significant decreases in terms of visual analog scales and patient-specific <span class="hlt">functional</span> scales, although the extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy group showed significantly lower scores than the conservative physical therapy group. [Conclusion] Extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy is considered an effective intervention for improving frozen shoulder patients’ pain and <span class="hlt">functions</span>. PMID:26834326</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26834326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26834326"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy on frozen shoulder patients' pain and <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Chan; Lee, Sangyong; Yi, Chae-Woo; Lee, Kwansub</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>[Purpose] The present study was conducted to examine the effects of extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy on frozen shoulder patients' pain and <span class="hlt">functions</span>. [Subjects] In the present study, 30 frozen shoulder patients were divided into two groups: an extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy group of 15 patients and a conservative physical therapy group of 15 patients. [Methods] Two times per week for six weeks, the extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy group underwent extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy, and the conservative physical therapy group underwent general physical therapy. Visual analog scales were used to measure frozen shoulder patients' pain, and patient-specific <span class="hlt">functional</span> scales were used to evaluate the degree of <span class="hlt">functional</span> disorders. [Results] In intra-group comparisons, the two groups showed significant decreases in terms of visual analog scales and patient-specific <span class="hlt">functional</span> scales, although the extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy group showed significantly lower scores than the conservative physical therapy group. [Conclusion] Extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy is considered an effective intervention for improving frozen shoulder patients' pain and <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPhCS.150e2071C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JPhCS.150e2071C"><span id="translatedtitle">Strong correlation effects on the d-<span class="hlt">wave</span> superconductor- spectral weight analysis by variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chou, Chung-Pin; Lee, T. K.; Ho, Chang-Ming</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>We examine the strong correlation effects of the d-<span class="hlt">wave</span> superconducting state by including the Gutzwiller projection for no electron double occupancy at each lattice site. The spectral weights (SW's) for adding and removing an electon on the projected superconducting state, the ground state of the 2-dimensional t-t'-t"-J model with moderate doped holes describing the high Tc cuprates, are studied numerically on finite lattices and compared with the observation made by low-temperature tunneling (particle asymmetry of tunneling conductance) and angle-resolved photoemission (SW transfer from the projected Fermi liquid tate) spectoscopies. The contast with the dwave case without projection is alo presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6424882','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6424882"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlated Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the atoms He through Ne</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schmidt, K.E. ); Moskowitz, J.W. )</p> <p>1990-09-15</p> <p>We apply the variational Monte Carlo method to the atoms He through Ne. Our trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is of the form introduced by Boys and Handy. We use the Monte Carlo method to calculate the first and second derivatives of an unreweighted variance and apply Newton's method to minimize this variance. We motivate the form of the correlation <span class="hlt">function</span> using the local current conservation arguments of Feynman and Cohen. Using a self-consistent field <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> multiplied by a Boys and Handy correlation <span class="hlt">function</span>, we recover a large fraction of the correlation energy of these atoms. We give the value of all variational parameters necessary to reproduce our <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The method can be extended easily to other atoms and to molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0440/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0440/"><span id="translatedtitle">A test of a mechanical multi-<span class="hlt">impact</span> shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> seismic source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Worley, David M.; Odum, Jack K.; Williams, Robert A.; Stephenson, William J.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>We modified two gasoline-engine-powered earth tampers, commonly used as compressional-(P) <span class="hlt">wave</span> seismic energy sources for shallow reflection studies, for use as shear(S)-<span class="hlt">wave</span> energy sources. This new configuration, termed ?Hacker? (horizontal Wacker?), is evaluated as an alternative to the manual sledgehammer typically used in conjunction with a large timber held down by the front wheels of a vehicle. The Hacker maximizes the use of existing equipment by a quick changeover of bolt-on accessories as opposed to the handling of a separate source, and is intended to improve the depth of penetration of S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> data by stacking hundreds of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> over a two to three minute period. Records were made with a variety of configurations involving up to two Hackers simultaneously then compared to a reference record made with a sledgehammer. Preliminary results indicate moderate success by the higher amplitude S-<span class="hlt">waves</span> recorded with the Hacker as compared to the hammer method. False triggers generated by the backswing of the Hacker add unwanted noise and we are currently working to modify the device to eliminate this effect. Correlation noise caused by insufficient randomness of the Hacker <span class="hlt">impact</span> sequence is also a significant noise problem that we hope to reduce by improving the coupling of the Hacker to the timber so that the operator has more control over the <span class="hlt">impact</span> sequence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60.1367Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60.1367Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on nonaccidental deaths in Jinan, China, and associated risk factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jun; Liu, Shouqin; Han, Jing; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Yueling; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Ying</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>An ecological study and a case-crossover analysis were conducted to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on nonaccidental deaths, and to identify contributing factors of population vulnerability to heat-related deaths in Jinan, China. Daily death data and meteorological data were collected for summer months (June to August) of 2012-2013. Excess mortality was calculated and multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the increased risk of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on deaths. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to estimate the odd ratios (ORs) of risk factors and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> were related to 24.88 % excess deaths of total nonaccidental deaths and 31.33 % excess deaths of circulatory diseases, with an OR of 16.07 (95 % CI 8.80-23.33) for total nonaccidental deaths and 12.46 (95 % CI 7.39-17.53) for deaths of circulatory diseases. The case-crossover analysis indicated that older people were more likely to die during heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> (OR = 1.233, 95 % CI 1.076-1.413) and more deaths occurred outside a hospital during heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> (OR = 1.142, 95 % CI 1.006-1.296). In conclusion, heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> have caused excess deaths and significantly increased the risk of circulatory deaths. The risk factors identified in our study have implications for public health interventions to reduce heat-related mortality during extreme heat events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26749223','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26749223"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on nonaccidental deaths in Jinan, China, and associated risk factors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jun; Liu, Shouqin; Han, Jing; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Yueling; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Ying</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>An ecological study and a case-crossover analysis were conducted to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on nonaccidental deaths, and to identify contributing factors of population vulnerability to heat-related deaths in Jinan, China. Daily death data and meteorological data were collected for summer months (June to August) of 2012-2013. Excess mortality was calculated and multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the increased risk of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on deaths. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to estimate the odd ratios (ORs) of risk factors and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> were related to 24.88 % excess deaths of total nonaccidental deaths and 31.33 % excess deaths of circulatory diseases, with an OR of 16.07 (95 % CI 8.80-23.33) for total nonaccidental deaths and 12.46 (95 % CI 7.39-17.53) for deaths of circulatory diseases. The case-crossover analysis indicated that older people were more likely to die during heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> (OR = 1.233, 95 % CI 1.076-1.413) and more deaths occurred outside a hospital during heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> (OR = 1.142, 95 % CI 1.006-1.296). In conclusion, heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> have caused excess deaths and significantly increased the risk of circulatory deaths. The risk factors identified in our study have implications for public health interventions to reduce heat-related mortality during extreme heat events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdWR...93..326T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdWR...93..326T"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental investigation of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of macroalgal mats on the <span class="hlt">wave</span> and current dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tambroni, N.; Figueiredo da Silva, J.; Duck, R. W.; McLelland, S. J.; Venier, C.; Lanzoni, S.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Macroalgal mats of Ulva intestinalis are becoming increasingly common in many coastal and estuarine intertidal habitats, thus it is important to determine whether they increase flow resistance, promote bed stability and therefore reduce the risk of erosion favoring tidal flooding or degradation of coastal lagoons. Venier et al. (2012) [6] studied the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of macroalgal mats of Ulva intestinalis on flow dynamics and sediment stability for uniform flow. Here we extend their experimental work to the case of vegetation under the combined action of <span class="hlt">waves</span> and currents. These hydrodynamic conditions are very common in many shallow coastal environments and lagoons. The experimental facility employed in the present study and the series of flow runs are the same as that used by Venier et al. (2012)[6]. However, <span class="hlt">waves</span> have been superposed to uniform current flowing firstly over a mobile sediment bed covered with U. intestinalis, then over a bare sediment surface. For the depth, <span class="hlt">wave</span> and current conditions considered in the experiments, the time-averaged vertical profile of horizontal velocity for the case of coexisting <span class="hlt">waves</span> and current turns out to be very close to that observed for a pure current, both with and without vegetation. However, contrary to what was observed in the case of a unidirectional current, in the presence of <span class="hlt">waves</span> the time averaged velocity profile is only weakly influenced by the vegetation, whose main effect is to attenuate velocity oscillations induced by <span class="hlt">waves</span> and to slightly increase the overall bed roughness.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAMS...77.1497C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAMS...77.1497C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> and Responses to the 1995 Heat <span class="hlt">Wave</span>: A Call to Action.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Changnon, Stanley A.; Kunkel, Kenneth E.; Reinke, Beth C.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>The short but intense heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> in mid-July 1995 caused 830 deaths nationally, with 525 of these deaths in Chicago. Many of the dead were elderly. and the event raised great concern over why it happened. Assessment of causes for the heat <span class="hlt">wave</span>-related deaths in Chicago revealed many factors were at fault, including an inadequate local heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> warning system, power failures, questionable death assessments, inadequate ambulance service and hospital facilities, the heat island, an aging population, and the inability of many persons to properly ventilate their residences due to fear of crime or a lack of resources for fans or air conditioning. Heat-related deaths appear to be on the increase in the United States. Heat-related deaths greatly exceed those caused by other life-threatening weather conditions. Analysis of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and responses to this heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> reveals a need to 1) define the heat island conditions during heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> for all major cities is a means to improve forecasts of threatening conditions, 2) develop a nationally uniform means for classifying heat-related deaths, 3) improve warning systems that are designed around local conditions of large cities, and 4) increase research on the meteorological and climatological aspects of heat stress and heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hydrogen+AND+energy&pg=6&id=EJ187590','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hydrogen+AND+energy&pg=6&id=EJ187590"><span id="translatedtitle">Completeness of the Coulomb <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> in Quantum Mechanics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mukunda, N.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Gives an explicit and elementary proof that the radial energy eigenfunctions for the hydrogen atom in quantum mechanics, bound and scattering states included, form a complete set. The proof uses some properties of the confluent hypergeometric <span class="hlt">functions</span> and the Cauchy residue theorem from analytic <span class="hlt">function</span> theory. (Author/GA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23005556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23005556"><span id="translatedtitle">Mathieu <span class="hlt">function</span> solutions for photoacoustic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in sinusoidal one-dimensional structures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Binbin; Diebold, Gerald J</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The photoacoustic effect for a one-dimensional structure, the sound speed of which varies sinusoidally in space, is shown to be governed by an inhomogeneous Mathieu equation with the forcing term dependent on the spatial and temporal properties of the exciting optical radiation. New orthogonality relations, traveling <span class="hlt">wave</span> Mathieu <span class="hlt">functions</span>, and solutions to the inhomogeneous Mathieu equation are found, which are used to determine the character of photoacoustic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in infinite and finite length phononic structures. Floquet solutions to the Mathieu equation give the positions of the band gaps, the damping of the acoustic <span class="hlt">waves</span> within the band gaps, and the dispersion relation for photoacoustic <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The solutions to the Mathieu equation give the photoacoustic response of the structure, show the space equivalent of subharmonic generation and acoustic confinement when <span class="hlt">waves</span> are excited within band gaps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3138125','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3138125"><span id="translatedtitle">Pineal <span class="hlt">Function</span>: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Microarray Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Klein, David C.; Bailey, Michael J.; Carter, David A.; Kim, Jong-so; Shi, Qiong; Ho, Anthony; Chik, Constance; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Sugden, David; Rangel, Zoila G.; Munson, Peter J.; Weller, Joan L.; Coon, Steven L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Microarray analysis has provided a new understanding of pineal <span class="hlt">function</span> by identifying genes that are highly expressed in this tissue relative to other tissues and also by identifying over 600 genes that are expressed on a 24-hour schedule. This effort has highlighted surprising similarity to the retina and has provided reason to explore new avenues of study including intracellular signaling, signal transduction, transcriptional cascades, thyroid/retinoic acid hormone signaling, metal biology, RNA splicing, and the role the pineal gland plays in the immune/inflammation response. The new foundation that microarray analysis has provided will broadly support future research on pineal <span class="hlt">function</span>. PMID:19622385</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21389174','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21389174"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of single-particle splitting in the exact <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of the isovectorial pairing Hamiltonian</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lerma H, S.</p> <p>2010-07-15</p> <p>The structure of the exact <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of the isovectorial pairing Hamiltonian with nondegenerate single-particle levels is discussed. The way that the single-particle splittings break the quartet condensate solution found for N=Z nuclei in a single degenerate level is established. After a brief review of the exact solution, the structure of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is analyzed and some particular cases are considered where a clear interpretation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> emerges. An expression for the exact <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in terms of the isospin triplet of pair creators is given. The ground-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is analyzed as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of pairing strength, for a system of four protons and four neutrons. For small and large values of the pairing strength a dominance of two-pair (quartets) scalar couplings is found, whereas for intermediate values enhancements of the nonscalar couplings are obtained. A correlation of these enhancements with the creation of Cooper-like pairs is observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CoPhC.191...33R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CoPhC.191...33R"><span id="translatedtitle">A spectral Phase-Amplitude method for propagating a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> to large distances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rawitscher, George</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The phase and amplitude (Ph-A) of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> vary slowly with distance, in contrast to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that can be highly oscillatory. Hence the Ph-A representation of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> requires far fewer computational mesh points than the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> itself. In 1930 Milne presented an equation for the phase and the amplitude <span class="hlt">functions</span> (which is different from the one developed by Calogero), and in 1962 Seaton and Peach solved these equations iteratively. The objective of the present study is to implement Seaton and Peach's iteration procedure with a spectral Chebyshev expansion method, and at the same time present a non-iterative analytic solution to an approximate version of the iterative equations. The iterations converge rapidly for the case of attractive potentials. Two numerical examples are given: (1) for a potential that decreases with distance as 1 /r3, and (2) a Coulomb potential ∝ 1 / r. In both cases the whole radial range of [0-2000] requires only between 25 and 100 mesh points and the corresponding accuracy is between 10-3 and 10-6. The 0th iteration (which is the WKB approximation) gives an accuracy of 10-2. This spectral method permits one to calculate a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> out to large distances reliably and economically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010avh..confE...7K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010avh..confE...7K"><span id="translatedtitle">The 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> in South Korea: mortality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and recurrence probability in a changing climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kysely, J.; Kim, J.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The study deals with mortality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the July-August 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> in the population of South Korea, including the megacity of Seoul (with the population exceeding 10 million for the city and 20 million for the metropolitan area), and estimates recurrence probability of the heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> in a changing climate in terms of simulations of daily temperature series with a stochastic model. The 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> is found exceptional with respect to both climatological characteristics and the mortality effects: significantly elevated mortality occurred in all population groups, including children up to 14 years of age, and the total death toll exceeded 3000 in the Korean population, which ranks the 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> among the worst weather-related disasters in East Asia. The estimate represents net excess mortality as no mortality displacement effect appeared. A comparison with other documented natural disasters shows that the death toll of the heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> was much higher than those of the most disastrous floodings and typhoons over Korean Peninsula in the 20th century. The mortality response was stronger in males than females although males are found to be less vulnerable during average heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. A climatological analysis reveals that the July-August 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> might be considered an extremely rare event with a return period in the order of hundreds of years if stationarity of temperature time series is assumed. However, under a more realistic assumption of gradual warming related to climate change, recurrence probability of an event analogous to the 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> sharply rises for near-future time horizons. If warming of 0.04°C/year is assumed over 2001-2060, the recurrence interval of a very long spell of days with temperature exceeding a high threshold (as in the 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span>) is estimated to decrease to around 40 (10) years in the 2021-2030 (2041-2050) decade. This emphasizes the need for setting up an efficient heat-watch-warning system in this area in order to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26953176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26953176"><span id="translatedtitle">Extracting a shape <span class="hlt">function</span> for a signal with intra-<span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency modulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hou, Thomas Y; Shi, Zuoqiang</p> <p>2016-04-13</p> <p>In this paper, we develop an effective and robust adaptive time-frequency analysis method for signals with intra-<span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency modulation. To handle this kind of signals effectively, we generalize our data-driven time-frequency analysis by using a shape <span class="hlt">function</span> to describe the intra-<span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency modulation. The idea of using a shape <span class="hlt">function</span> in time-frequency analysis was first proposed by Wu (Wu 2013 Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 35, 181-199. (doi:10.1016/j.acha.2012.08.008)). A shape <span class="hlt">function</span> could be any smooth 2π-periodic <span class="hlt">function</span>. Based on this model, we propose to solve an optimization problem to extract the shape <span class="hlt">function</span>. By exploring the fact that the shape <span class="hlt">function</span> is a periodic <span class="hlt">function</span> with respect to its phase <span class="hlt">function</span>, we can identify certain low-rank structure of the signal. This low-rank structure enables us to extract the shape <span class="hlt">function</span> from the signal. Once the shape <span class="hlt">function</span> is obtained, the instantaneous frequency with intra-<span class="hlt">wave</span> modulation can be recovered from the shape <span class="hlt">function</span>. We demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our method by applying it to several synthetic and real signals. One important observation is that this approach is very stable to noise perturbation. By using the shape <span class="hlt">function</span> approach, we can capture the intra-<span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency modulation very well even for noise-polluted signals. In comparison, existing methods such as empirical mode decomposition/ensemble empirical mode decomposition seem to have difficulty in capturing the intra-<span class="hlt">wave</span> modulation when the signal is polluted by noise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CSR...120...14M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CSR...120...14M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of enhanced central Pacific ENSO on <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate and headland-bay beach morphology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mortlock, Thomas R.; Goodwin, Ian D.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wave</span> climate and Pacific basin coastal behaviour associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is understood at a reconnaissance level, but the coastal response to different central Pacific (CP) versus eastern Pacific (EP) flavours of ENSO is unknown. We show that CP ENSO events produce different patterns of directional <span class="hlt">wave</span> power to EP ENSO along the southeast Australian shelf and southwest Pacific region, because of significant variability in trade-wind <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation. The modulation of the trade wind <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate during CP ENSO has thus far been neglected in existing coastal process studies. We also show that coastal change between CP and EP ENSO cannot be inferred from shifts in the deepwater <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate. This is because variability in trade wind <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation is masked in deepwater by the persistence of high power extra-tropical <span class="hlt">waves</span> that have reduced <span class="hlt">impact</span> on nearshore processes due to high <span class="hlt">wave</span> refraction. Morphodynamic modelling in a headland-bay beach indicates that CP ENSO leads to higher coastal erosion potential and slower post-storm recovery than EP ENSO during an El Niño/La Niña cycle. We show that the alongshore variability in beach morphological type can be used to model the static equilibrium planform response for each ENSO phase. Results indicate that shoreline response to ENSO in most headland-bay beach coasts is not as simple as the existing paradigm that (anti-) clockwise rotation occurs during El Niño (La Niña). Our methods provide a second-order approach to project coastal response and predict the discrete shoreline rotations for ENSO flavours.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..260..320Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..260..320Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental study on <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation through granular materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yasui, Minami; Matsumoto, Eri; Arakawa, Masahiko</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> are supposed to cause movements of regolith particles, resulting in modifications of asteroidal surfaces. The imparted seismic energy is thus a key parameter to determining the scale and magnitude of this seismic shaking process. It is important to study the propagation velocity, attenuation rate, and vibration period of the <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> to estimate the seismic energy. Hence, we conducted <span class="hlt">impact</span> cratering experiments at Kobe University using a 200-μm glass beads target to simulate a regolith layer, and measured the <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> using three accelerometers set on the target surface at differences ranging from 3.2 to 12.7 cm. The target was <span class="hlt">impacted</span> with three kinds of projectiles at ˜100 m s-1 using a one-stage gas gun. The propagation velocity of the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> in the beads target was 108.9 m s-1, and the maximum acceleration, gmax, in the unit of m s-2, measured by each accelerometer showed good correlation with the distance from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> point normalized by the crater radius, x/R, irrespective of projectile type. They also were fitted by one power-law equation, gmax = 102.19 (x/R)-2.21. The half period of the first peak of the measured seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> was ˜0.72 ms, and this duration was almost consistent with the penetration time of each projectile into the target. According to these measurements, we estimated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> seismic efficiency factor, that is, the ratio of seismic energy to kinetic energy of the projectile, to be almost constant, 5.7 × 10-4 inside the crater rim, while it exponentially decreased with distance from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> point outside the crater rim. At a distance quadruple of the crater radius, the efficiency factors were 4.4 × 10-5 for polycarbonate projectile and 9.5 × 10-5 for alumina and stainless steel projectiles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25615225','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25615225"><span id="translatedtitle">Basis of symmetric polynomials for many-boson light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chabysheva, Sophia S; Hiller, John R</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We provide an algorithm for the construction of orthonormal multivariate polynomials that are symmetric with respect to the interchange of any two coordinates on the unit hypercube and are constrained to the hyperplane where the sum of the coordinates is one. These polynomials form a basis for the expansion of bosonic light-front momentum-space <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, as <span class="hlt">functions</span> of longitudinal momentum, where momentum conservation guarantees that the fractions are on the interval [0,1] and sum to one. This generalizes earlier work on three-boson <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> to <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for arbitrarily many identical bosons. A simple application in two-dimensional ϕ(4) theory illustrates the use of these polynomials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.108p1104I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.108p1104I"><span id="translatedtitle">Manipulation of terahertz <span class="hlt">waves</span> by work <span class="hlt">function</span> engineering in metal-graphite structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Irfan, Muhammad; Lee, Soo Kyung; Yim, Jong-Hyuk; Lee, Yong Tak; Jho, Young-Dahl</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We manipulate the transient terahertz (THz) <span class="hlt">waves</span> emitted from metal-graphite interfaces, where potential barriers were formed because of work <span class="hlt">function</span> differences. To flip the phase of the THz <span class="hlt">waves</span>, two distinct groups of metals were evaporated on n-type doped highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG): group A, which consisted of Pt, Au, and Ag with work <span class="hlt">functions</span> larger than that of HOPG and group B, which consisted of Al and Ti with work <span class="hlt">functions</span> smaller than that of HOPG. The phase of the transient THz lineshapes from group A was opposite to that of group B under infrared laser excitation, which is indicative of opposite band bending and concomitant interfacial doping for ambipolar transport at the metal-graphite junctions. The amplitude of the THz <span class="hlt">waves</span> could also be manipulated by the work <span class="hlt">function</span> differences and further quantified based on modified minority carrier mobilities at the depletion regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2000PhRvD..61d4005B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2000PhRvD..61d4005B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for quantum black hole formation in scalar field collapse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bak, Dongsu; Kim, Sang Pyo; Kim, Sung Ku; Soh, Kwang-Sup; Yee, Jae Hyung</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>We study quantum mechanically self-similar black hole formation by a collapsing scalar field and find the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that give the correct semiclassical limit. In contrast with classical theory, the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for black hole formation even in the supercritical case have not only incoming flux but also outgoing flux. From this result we compute the rate for black hole formation. In the subcritical case our result agrees with the semiclassical tunneling rate. Furthermore, we show how to recover the classical evolution of black hole formation from the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> by defining the Hamilton-Jacobi characteristic <span class="hlt">function</span> as W=ħ Im ln ψ. We find that the quantum-corrected apparent horizon deviates from the classical value only slightly without any qualitative change even in the critical case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21419509','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21419509"><span id="translatedtitle">Covariant spectator theory of np scattering: Effective range expansions and relativistic deuteron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gross, Franz; Stadler, Alfred</p> <p>2010-09-15</p> <p>We present the effective range expansions for the {sup 1}S{sub 0} and {sup 3}S{sub 1} scattering phase shifts, and the relativistic deuteron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that accompany our recent high precision fits (with {chi}{sup 2}/N{sub data{approx_equal}}1) to the 2007 world np data below 350 MeV. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are expanded in a series of analytical <span class="hlt">functions</span> (with the correct asymptotic behavior at both large and small arguments) that can be Fourier-transformed from momentum to coordinate space and are convenient to use in any application. A fortran subroutine to compute these <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be obtained from the authors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/51768','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/51768"><span id="translatedtitle">Power and frequency measurements from a uniform backward <span class="hlt">wave</span> oscillator as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of length</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moreland, L.D.; Roitman, A.M.; Schamiloglu, E.; Pegel, I.V.; Lemke, R.W.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>The authors describe results from an experiment where the number of ripple periods in the slow <span class="hlt">wave</span> structure of a backward <span class="hlt">wave</span> oscillator (BWO) is increased. Both microwave power and frequency measurements are made for each shot. For a given cathode voltage and beam current, the microwave peak power and frequency are plotted as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of BWO length. In previous investigations, the observation of two power maxima as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of length was explained by the interaction of the electron beam with the forward traveling <span class="hlt">wave</span> and reflections at the transition from the slow <span class="hlt">wave</span> structure into the output waveguide. However, recent numerical calculations using the phase dynamics of electron beam and electromagnetic modes suggest that the power maxima are due to the phase relationship between the electron beam density <span class="hlt">wave</span> and the backward <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Experiments were performed on the Sinus-6, a relativistic electron beam accelerator. By adjusting the pressure in the Sinus-6 spark gap switch, cathode voltages between 400 kV to 650 kV can be obtained. The experiment was repeated for different sets of beam parameters. In all cases, the magnetic field used for beam transport was longer than the length of the slow <span class="hlt">wave</span> structure. The experimental results are compared with phase model calculations and PIC code simulations using KARAT and TWOQUICK.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5812634','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5812634"><span id="translatedtitle">Initial survey of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span> for plasmaspheric hiss observed by ISEE 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Storey, L.R.O. ); Lefeuvre, F.; Parrot, M.; Cairo, L. ); Anderson, R.R. )</p> <p>1991-11-01</p> <p>Multicomponent ELF/VLF <span class="hlt">wave</span> data from the ISEE 1 satellite have been analyzed with the aim of identifying the generation mechanism of plasmaspheric hiss, and especially of determining whether it involves <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation of cyclic trajectories. The data were taken from four passes of the satellite, of which two were close to the geomagnetic equatorial plane and two were farther from it; all four occurred during magnetically quiet periods. The principal method of analysis was calculation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The <span class="hlt">waves</span> appear to have been generated over a wide range of altitudes within the plasmasphere, and most, though not all, of them were propagating obliquely with respect to the Earth's magnetic field. On one of the passes near the equator, some <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy was observed at small <span class="hlt">wave</span> normal angles, and these <span class="hlt">waves</span> may have been propagating on cyclic trajectories. Even here, however, obliquely propagating <span class="hlt">waves</span> were predominant, a finding that is difficult to reconcile with the classical quasi-linear generation mechanism or its variants. The conclusion is that another mechanism, probably nonlinear, must have been generating most of the hiss observed on these four passes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27627303','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27627303"><span id="translatedtitle">Breather turbulence versus soliton turbulence: Rogue <span class="hlt">waves</span>, probability density <span class="hlt">functions</span>, and spectral features.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akhmediev, N; Soto-Crespo, J M; Devine, N</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Turbulence in integrable systems exhibits a noticeable scientific advantage: it can be expressed in terms of the nonlinear modes of these systems. Whether the majority of the excitations in the system are breathers or solitons defines the properties of the turbulent state. In the two extreme cases we can call such states "breather turbulence" or "soliton turbulence." The number of rogue <span class="hlt">waves</span>, the probability density <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the chaotic <span class="hlt">wave</span> fields, and their physical spectra are all specific for each of these two situations. Understanding these extreme cases also helps in studies of mixed turbulent states when the <span class="hlt">wave</span> field contains both solitons and breathers, thus revealing intermediate characteristics. PMID:27627303</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..94b2212A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..94b2212A"><span id="translatedtitle">Breather turbulence versus soliton turbulence: Rogue <span class="hlt">waves</span>, probability density <span class="hlt">functions</span>, and spectral features</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akhmediev, N.; Soto-Crespo, J. M.; Devine, N.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Turbulence in integrable systems exhibits a noticeable scientific advantage: it can be expressed in terms of the nonlinear modes of these systems. Whether the majority of the excitations in the system are breathers or solitons defines the properties of the turbulent state. In the two extreme cases we can call such states "breather turbulence" or "soliton turbulence." The number of rogue <span class="hlt">waves</span>, the probability density <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the chaotic <span class="hlt">wave</span> fields, and their physical spectra are all specific for each of these two situations. Understanding these extreme cases also helps in studies of mixed turbulent states when the <span class="hlt">wave</span> field contains both solitons and breathers, thus revealing intermediate characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2135701','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2135701"><span id="translatedtitle">AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SHOCK <span class="hlt">WAVES</span> RESULTING FROM THE <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> OF HIGH VELOCITY MISSILES ON ANIMAL TISSUES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Harvey, E. Newton; McMillen, J. Howard</p> <p>1947-01-01</p> <p>The spark shadowgram method of studying shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> is described. It has been used to investigate the properties of such <span class="hlt">waves</span> produced by the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a high velocity missile on the surface of water. The method can be adapted for study of behavior of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> in tissue by placing the tissue on a water surface or immersing it in water. Spark shadowgrams then reveal <span class="hlt">waves</span> passing from tissue to water or reflected from tissue surfaces. Reflection and transmission of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> from muscle, liver, stomach, and intestinal wall are compared with reflection from non-living surfaces such as gelatin gel, steel, plexiglas, cork, and air. Because of its heterogeneous structure, <span class="hlt">waves</span> transmitted by tissue are dispersed and appear as a series of wavelets. When the accoustical impedance (density x <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity) of a medium is less than that in which the <span class="hlt">wave</span> is moving, reflection will occur with inversion of the <span class="hlt">wave</span>; i.e., a high pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> will become a low pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span>. This inversion occurs at an air surface and is illustrated by shadowgrams of reflection from stomach wall, from a segment of colon filled with gas, and from air-filled rubber balloons. Bone (human skull and beef ribs) shows good reflection and some transmission of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span>. When steel is directly hit by a missile, clearly visible elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span> pass from metal to water, but a similar direct hit on bone does not result in elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span> strong enough to be detected by a spark shadowgram. PMID:19871617</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1076528','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1076528"><span id="translatedtitle">Large multiconfiguration self-consistent-field <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the ozone molecule</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Laidig, William D.; Schaefer, III, Henry F.</p> <p>1981-03-15</p> <p>The electronic structure of the ozone molecule is of particular interest in light of Goddard’s characterization of the ground state as a biradical. We determine rigorously optimized multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of varying size for ozone via newly developed techniques utilizing the unitary group approach. The largest of these a b i n i t i o MCSCF <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> includes 13413 configurations, i.e., all singly- and doubly excited configurations relative to the two reference configurations required for the biradical description of ozone. The convergence of the MCSCF procedures is discussed, as well as the structure of the MCSCF <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, and the effectiveness of different orbital transformations. There is a significant energy difference (0.034 hartrees) between the MCSCF <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> involving one and two reference configurations. This gives emphasis to the fact that orbital optimization alone cannot compensate for the exclusion from the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of important classes of configurations. Lastly, a simple test for the determination of the fraction biradical character of systems such as ozone suggests 23% biradical character for 0<sub>3</sub> at its equilibrium geometry.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4957B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4957B"><span id="translatedtitle">Drought <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> as intermediate step towards drought damage assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bachmair, Sophie; Svensson, Cecilia; Prosdocimi, Ilaria; Hannaford, Jamie; Helm Smith, Kelly; Svoboda, Mark; Stahl, Kerstin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>While damage or vulnerability <span class="hlt">functions</span> for floods and seismic hazards have gained considerable attention, there is comparably little knowledge on drought damage or loss. On the one hand this is due to the complexity of the drought hazard affecting different domains of the hydrological cycle and different sectors of human activity. Hence, a single hazard indicator is likely not able to fully capture this multifaceted hazard. On the other hand, drought <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are often non-structural and hard to quantify or monetize. Examples are impaired navigability of streams, restrictions on domestic water use, reduced hydropower production, reduced tree growth, and irreversible deterioration/loss of wetlands. Apart from reduced crop yield, data about drought damage or loss with adequate spatial and temporal resolution is scarce, making the development of drought damage <span class="hlt">functions</span> difficult. As an intermediate step towards drought damage <span class="hlt">functions</span> we exploit text-based reports on drought <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from the European Drought <span class="hlt">Impact</span> report Inventory and the US Drought <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Reporter to derive surrogate information for drought damage or loss. First, text-based information on drought <span class="hlt">impacts</span> is converted into timeseries of absence versus presence of <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, or number of <span class="hlt">impact</span> occurrences. Second, meaningful hydro-meteorological indicators characterizing drought intensity are identified. Third, different statistical models are tested as link <span class="hlt">functions</span> relating drought hazard indicators with drought <span class="hlt">impacts</span>: 1) logistic regression for drought <span class="hlt">impacts</span> coded as binary response variable; and 2) mixture/hurdle models (zero-inflated/zero-altered negative binomial regression) and an ensemble regression tree approach for modeling the number of drought <span class="hlt">impact</span> occurrences. Testing the predictability of (number of) drought <span class="hlt">impact</span> occurrences based on cross-validation revealed a good agreement between observed and modeled (number of) <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for regions at the scale of federal states or</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11908005R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11908005R"><span id="translatedtitle">Mineral Dust <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Short- and Long-<span class="hlt">Wave</span> Radiation and Comparison with Ceres Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Romano, Salvatore; Perrone, Maria Rita</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Clear-sky downward and upward radiative flux measurements both in the short- and in the long-<span class="hlt">wave</span> spectral range have been used to estimate and analyze the radiation changes at the surface due to the mineral dust advection at a Central Mediterranean site. Then, short- and long-<span class="hlt">wave</span> radiative fluxes retrieved from the CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) radiometer sensors operating on board the EOS (Earth Observing System) AQUA and TERRA platforms have been used to evaluate the mineral dust radiative <span class="hlt">impact</span> at the top of the atmosphere. Satellite-derived radiative fluxes at the surface have been compared with corresponding ground-based flux measurements, collocated in space and time, to better support and understand the desert dust radiative <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Results referring to the year 2012 are reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950043549&hterms=solar+energy+impacts&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Benergy%2Bimpacts','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950043549&hterms=solar+energy+impacts&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Benergy%2Bimpacts"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ingersoll, A. P.; Kanamori, H.; Dowling, T. E.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>We study the effect of the Jovian water cloud on internal gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> generated by the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9). Vertical structure follows Voyager data to the 1-bar level, a moist adiabat from 1 to 5 bars, and a dry adiabat below the 5-bar level. The <span class="hlt">waves</span> are trapped in the moist layer and propagate horizontally. Their speed is related to the vertical integral of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency, and varies as the square root of the water abundance (130 m/s for solar composition). The amplitudes are large, e.g., +/- 1 K at a distance of 8000 km for an energy of 10(exp 27) ergs. The circular ripples should be detectable one or two days after the <span class="hlt">impact</span> in thermal infrared and visible images.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhyD..200...25M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhyD..200...25M"><span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of FPU lattice discreteness upon solitary <span class="hlt">wave</span> interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McMillan, Ewen</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This work is concerned with the motions of an infinite one-dimensional lattice with nearest-neighbour interactions governed by a generic potential. The Hamiltonian of such a system may be written H=∑i=-∞∞{1}/{2}pi2+V(q-qi), in terms of the momenta pi and the displacements qi of the lattice sites. All sites are assumed to be of equal mass. Certain generic conditions are placed on the potential V. The particular results of this paper concern the way in which lattice discreteness <span class="hlt">impacts</span> upon the solitary <span class="hlt">wave</span> interaction process, which is known to be well approximated in the long-<span class="hlt">wave</span> continuum limit by KdV soliton interaction. An evolution equation for discreteness effects on the lattice is proposed and is found to be strikingly similar to corresponding equations known in both the theories of shallow water <span class="hlt">waves</span> and ion-acoustic <span class="hlt">waves</span>. It is proved, by standard techniques, to have a unique classical solution, whose profile is explicitly obtained by numerical simulation. The most important outcome is the observation that lattice discreteness imposes an effective repulsion between post-collision solitary <span class="hlt">waves</span>, relative to their unperturbed “pure-KdV” positions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SMaS...24j5019T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SMaS...24j5019T"><span id="translatedtitle">Guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> imaging for detection and evaluation of <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced delamination in composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu; Leckey, Cara; Seebo, Jeffrey</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In this paper, guided wavefield interactions with delamination damage in laminated composite panels are investigated. The frequency-wavenumber representations of the guided wavefields show that different wavenumbers are present in the delaminated plate, compared to a pristine case. The wavenumbers are correlated to trapped <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the delamination region. Novel approaches for imaging the composite panels using guided <span class="hlt">waves</span> are discussed and demonstrated for quantitative evaluation of the delamination damage. A filter reconstruction imaging method is shown to provide a rapid technique to locate delamination damage by showing where guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy is trapped. A spatial wavenumber-based imaging algorithm is applied to calculate wavenumber values at each spatial location and highlights the delamination damage as regions with larger wavenumber values. The imaging approaches are demonstrated using experimental data from a plate with a simulated delamination (teflon insert) and from a plate containing <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced delamination damage. The methods are also applied to a multiple mode guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> case to demonstrate application to complex <span class="hlt">wave</span> cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144a4102C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144a4102C"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying local exciton, charge resonance, and multiexciton character in correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of multichromophoric systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Casanova, David; Krylov, Anna I.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A new method for quantifying the contributions of local excitation, charge resonance, and multiexciton configurations in correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of multichromophoric systems is presented. The approach relies on fragment-localized orbitals and employs spin correlators. Its utility is illustrated by calculations on model clusters of hydrogen, ethylene, and tetracene molecules using adiabatic restricted-active-space configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. In addition to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis, this approach provides a basis for a simple state-specific energy correction accounting for insufficient description of electron correlation. The decomposition scheme also allows one to compute energies of the diabatic states of the local excitonic, charge-resonance, and multi-excitonic character. The new method provides insight into electronic structure of multichromophoric systems and delivers valuable reference data for validating excitonic models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvB..90w5146L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvB..90w5146L"><span id="translatedtitle">U (1 )×U (1 ) symmetry-protected topological order in Gutzwiller <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Zheng-Xin; Mei, Jia-Wei; Ye, Peng; Wen, Xiao-Gang</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Gutzwiller projection is a way to construct many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that could carry topological order or symmetry-protected topological (SPT) order. However, an important issue is to determine whether or not a given Gutzwiller-projected <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> (GWF) carries a nontrivial SPT order, and which SPT order is carried by the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. In this paper, we numerically study the SPT order in a spin S =1 GWF on the kagome lattice. Using the standard Monte Carlo method, we directly confirm that the GWF has (1) gapped bulk with short-range correlations, (2) a trivial topological order via a nondegenerate ground state, and zero topological entanglement entropy, (3) a nontrivial U (1 )×U (1 ) SPT order via the Hall conductances of the protecting U (1 )×U (1 ) symmetry, and (4) a symmetry-protected gapless boundary. This represents numerical evidence of continuous symmetry-protected topological order in two-dimensional bosonic lattice systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..94c4021L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..94c4021L"><span id="translatedtitle">Coupled-channel effects for the bottomonium with realistic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Yu; Anwar, Muhammad Naeem; Zou, Bing-Song</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>With Gaussian expansion method (GEM), realistic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are used to calculate coupled-channel effects for the bottomonium under the framework of 3P0 model. The simplicity and accuracy of GEM are explained. We calculate the mass shifts, probabilities of the B meson continuum, S -D mixing angles, strong and dielectric decay widths. Our calculation shows that both S -D mixing and the B meson continuum can contribute to the suppression of the vector meson's dielectric decay width. We suggest more precise measurements on the radiative decays of ϒ (10580 ) and ϒ (11020 ) to distinguish these two effects. The above quantities are also calculated with simple harmonic oscillator (SHO) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> approximation for comparison. The deviation between GEM and SHO indicates that it is essential to treat the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> accurately for near threshold states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22390882','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22390882"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic structure and correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of a few electron quantum dots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sako, Tokuei; Ishida, Hiroshi; Fujikawa, Kazuo</p> <p>2015-01-22</p> <p>The energy spectra and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of a few electrons confined by a quasi-one-dimensional harmonic and anharmonic potentials have been studied by using a full configuration interaction method employing a Cartesian anisotropic Gaussian basis set. The energy spectra are classified into three regimes of the strength of confinement, namely, large, medium and small. The polyad quantum number defined by a total number of nodes in the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is shown to be a key ingredient to interpret the energy spectra for the whole range of the confinement strength. The nodal pattern of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> exhibits normal modes for the harmonic confining potential, indicating collective motions of electrons. These normal modes are shown to undergo a transition to local modes for an anharmonic potential with large anharmonicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24483584','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24483584"><span id="translatedtitle">Symmetric multivariate polynomials as a basis for three-boson light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chabysheva, Sophia S; Elliott, Blair; Hiller, John R</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We develop a polynomial basis to be used in numerical calculations of light-front Fock-space <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Such <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> typically depend on longitudinal momentum fractions that sum to unity. For three particles, this constraint limits the two remaining independent momentum fractions to a triangle, for which the three momentum fractions act as barycentric coordinates. For three identical bosons, the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> must be symmetric with respect to all three momentum fractions. Therefore, as a basis, we construct polynomials in two variables on a triangle that are symmetric with respect to the interchange of any two barycentric coordinates. We find that, through the fifth order, the polynomial is unique at each order, and, in general, these polynomials can be constructed from products of powers of the second- and third-order polynomials. The use of such a basis is illustrated in a calculation of a light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in two-dimensional ϕ(4) theory; the polynomial basis performs much better than the plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> basis used in discrete light-cone quantization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24483584','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24483584"><span id="translatedtitle">Symmetric multivariate polynomials as a basis for three-boson light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chabysheva, Sophia S; Elliott, Blair; Hiller, John R</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We develop a polynomial basis to be used in numerical calculations of light-front Fock-space <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Such <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> typically depend on longitudinal momentum fractions that sum to unity. For three particles, this constraint limits the two remaining independent momentum fractions to a triangle, for which the three momentum fractions act as barycentric coordinates. For three identical bosons, the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> must be symmetric with respect to all three momentum fractions. Therefore, as a basis, we construct polynomials in two variables on a triangle that are symmetric with respect to the interchange of any two barycentric coordinates. We find that, through the fifth order, the polynomial is unique at each order, and, in general, these polynomials can be constructed from products of powers of the second- and third-order polynomials. The use of such a basis is illustrated in a calculation of a light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in two-dimensional ϕ(4) theory; the polynomial basis performs much better than the plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> basis used in discrete light-cone quantization. PMID:24483584</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212307A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212307A"><span id="translatedtitle">Multicriteria analysis to evaluate <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy converters based on their environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>: an Italian case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azzellino, Arianna; Contestabile, Pasquale; Lanfredi, Caterina; Vicinanza, Diego</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The exploitation of renewable energy resources is fast becoming a key objective in many countries. Countries with coastlines have particularly valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, <span class="hlt">waves</span> and offshore wind. Due to the visual <span class="hlt">impact</span> of siting large numbers of energy generating devices (eg. wind turbines) in terrestrial landscapes, considerable attention is now being directed towards coastal waters. Due to their environmental sensitivity, the selection of the most adequate location for these systems is a critical factor. Multi-criteria analysis allows to consider a wide variety of key characteristics (e.g. water depth, distance to shore, distance to the electric grid in land, geology, environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>) that may be converted into a numerical index of suitability for different WEC devices to different locations. So identifying the best alternative between an offshore or a onshore device may be specifically treated as a multicriteria problem. Special enphasisi should be given in the multicriteria analysis to the environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> issues. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy prospective in the Italian seas is relatively low if compared to the other European countries faced to the ocean. Based on the <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate, the Alghero site, (NW Sardinia, Italy) is one of the most interesting sites for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy perspective (about 10 kW/m). Alghero site is characterized by a high level of marine biodiversity. In 2002 the area northern to Alghero harbour (Capo Caccia-Isola Piana) was established a Marine Protected Area (MPA). It could be discussed for this site how to choose between the onshore/offshore WEC alternative. An offshore device like <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon (http://www.wavedragon.net/) installed at -65m depth (width=300m and length=170 m) may approximately produce about 3.6 GWh/y with a total cost of about 9,000,000 €. On the other hand, an onshore device like SSG (http://waveenergy.no/), employed as crown wall for a vertical breakwater to enlarge the present</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890005634','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890005634"><span id="translatedtitle">A planetary ultra hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impact</span> mechanics and shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> science facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ahrens, Thomas J.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Using the concept of intercepting orbits from a pair of Space Station serviced free flyers, a class of <span class="hlt">impact</span> and shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> experiments pertinent to planetary science can be performed. One proposed free flying vehicle is an impactor dispensor, and the second is the <span class="hlt">impact</span> laboratory. How collision is achieved by utilizing essentially twice orbital velocity is demonstrated. The impactor dispensor contains a series of small flyer plates or other projectiles which are launched into the trajectory of the impactor laboratory at appropriate positions. The impactor laboratory is a large <span class="hlt">impact</span> tank similar to those in terrestrial gun laboratories, except that it contains a supply of targets and instrumentation such as high speed cameras, flash X-ray apparatus, and digital recorders. Shock and isentropic pressures of up to 20 Mbar are achievable with such a system which provides 15 km/sec <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocities for precisely oriented projectiles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1637.1381S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1637.1381S"><span id="translatedtitle">Hormonal profile <span class="hlt">impact</span> on female sexual <span class="hlt">function</span> in young women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Female sexual <span class="hlt">function</span> is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual <span class="hlt">function</span>. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3219142','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3219142"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of coastal vegetation on the 2004 tsunami <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> in west Aceh</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Laso Bayas, Juan Carlos; Marohn, Carsten; Dercon, Gerd; Dewi, Sonya; Piepho, Hans Peter; Joshi, Laxman; van Noordwijk, Meine; Cadisch, Georg</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In a tsunami event human casualties and infrastructure damage are determined predominantly by seaquake intensity and offshore properties. On land, <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy is attenuated by gravitation (elevation) and friction (land cover). Tree belts have been promoted as “bioshields” against <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span>. However, given the lack of quantitative evidence of their performance in such extreme events, tree belts have been criticized for creating a false sense of security. This study used 180 transects perpendicular to over 100 km on the west coast of Aceh, Indonesia to analyze the influence of coastal vegetation, particularly cultivated trees, on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the 2004 tsunami. Satellite imagery; land cover maps; land use characteristics; stem diameter, height, and planting density; and a literature review were used to develop a land cover roughness coefficient accounting for the resistance offered by different land uses to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> advance. Applying a spatial generalized linear mixed model, we found that while distance to coast was the dominant determinant of <span class="hlt">impact</span> (casualties and infrastructure damage), the existing coastal vegetation in front of settlements also significantly reduced casualties by an average of 5%. In contrast, dense vegetation behind villages endangered human lives and increased structural damage. Debris carried by the backwash may have contributed to these dissimilar effects of land cover. For sustainable and effective coastal risk management, location of settlements is essential, while the protective potential of coastal vegetation, as determined by its spatial arrangement, should be regarded as an important livelihood provider rather than just as a bioshield. PMID:22065751</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22065751','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22065751"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of coastal vegetation on the 2004 tsunami <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> in west Aceh.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laso Bayas, Juan Carlos; Marohn, Carsten; Dercon, Gerd; Dewi, Sonya; Piepho, Hans Peter; Joshi, Laxman; van Noordwijk, Meine; Cadisch, Georg</p> <p>2011-11-15</p> <p>In a tsunami event human casualties and infrastructure damage are determined predominantly by seaquake intensity and offshore properties. On land, <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy is attenuated by gravitation (elevation) and friction (land cover). Tree belts have been promoted as "bioshields" against <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span>. However, given the lack of quantitative evidence of their performance in such extreme events, tree belts have been criticized for creating a false sense of security. This study used 180 transects perpendicular to over 100 km on the west coast of Aceh, Indonesia to analyze the influence of coastal vegetation, particularly cultivated trees, on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the 2004 tsunami. Satellite imagery; land cover maps; land use characteristics; stem diameter, height, and planting density; and a literature review were used to develop a land cover roughness coefficient accounting for the resistance offered by different land uses to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> advance. Applying a spatial generalized linear mixed model, we found that while distance to coast was the dominant determinant of <span class="hlt">impact</span> (casualties and infrastructure damage), the existing coastal vegetation in front of settlements also significantly reduced casualties by an average of 5%. In contrast, dense vegetation behind villages endangered human lives and increased structural damage. Debris carried by the backwash may have contributed to these dissimilar effects of land cover. For sustainable and effective coastal risk management, location of settlements is essential, while the protective potential of coastal vegetation, as determined by its spatial arrangement, should be regarded as an important livelihood provider rather than just as a bioshield.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.142n4115K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.142n4115K"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic determination of important mode-mode correlations in many-mode vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>König, Carolin; Christiansen, Ove</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We introduce new automatic procedures for parameterizing vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) and vibrational configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Importance measures for individual mode combinations in the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> are derived based on upper bounds to Hamiltonian matrix elements and/or the size of perturbative corrections derived in the framework of VCC. With a threshold, this enables an automatic, system-adapted way of choosing which mode-mode correlations are explicitly parameterized in the many-mode <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. The effect of different importance measures and thresholds is investigated for zero-point energies and infrared spectra for formaldehyde and furan. Furthermore, the direct link between important mode-mode correlations and coordinates is illustrated employing water clusters as examples: Using optimized coordinates, a larger number of mode combinations can be neglected in the correlated many-mode vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> than with normal coordinates for the same accuracy. Moreover, the fraction of important mode-mode correlations compared to the total number of correlations decreases with system size. This underlines the potential gain in efficiency when using optimized coordinates in combination with a flexible scheme for choosing the mode-mode correlations included in the parameterization of the correlated many-mode vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. All in all, it is found that the introduced schemes for parameterizing correlated many-mode vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> lead to at least as systematic and accurate calculations as those using more standard and straightforward excitation level definitions. This new way of defining approximate calculations offers potential for future calculations on larger systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26761421','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26761421"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiple-Resonance Local <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> for Accurate Excited States in Quantum Monte Carlo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zulfikri, Habiburrahman; Amovilli, Claudio; Filippi, Claudia</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We introduce a novel class of local multideterminant Jastrow-Slater <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the efficient and accurate treatment of excited states in quantum Monte Carlo. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is expanded as a linear combination of excitations built from multiple sets of localized orbitals that correspond to the bonding patterns of the different Lewis resonance structures of the molecule. We capitalize on the concept of orbital domains of local coupled-cluster methods, which is here applied to the active space to select the orbitals to correlate and construct the important transitions. The excitations are further grouped into classes, which are ordered in importance and can be systematically included in the Jastrow-Slater <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> to ensure a balanced description of all states of interest. We assess the performance of the proposed <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in the calculation of vertical excitation energies and excited-state geometry optimization of retinal models whose π → π* state has a strong intramolecular charge-transfer character. We find that our multiresonance <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> recover the reference values of the total energies of the ground and excited states with only a small number of excitations and that the same expansion can be flexibly used at very different geometries. Furthermore, significant computational saving can also be gained in the orbital optimization step by selectively mixing occupied and virtual orbitals based on spatial considerations without loss of accuracy on the excitation energy. Our multiresonance <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are therefore compact, accurate, and very promising for the calculation of multiple excited states of different character in large molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090016&hterms=citric+acid&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcitric%2Bacid','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090016&hterms=citric+acid&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcitric%2Bacid"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of weightlessness on muscle <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tischler, M. E.; Slentz, M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The most studied skeletal muscles which depend on gravity, "antigravity" muscles, are located in the posterior portion of the legs. Antigravity muscles are characterized generally by a different fiber type composition than those which are considered nonpostural. The gravity-dependent <span class="hlt">function</span> of the antigravity muscles makes them particularly sensitive to weightlessness (unweighting) resulting in a substantial loss of muscle protein, with a relatively greater loss of myofibrillar (structural) proteins. Accordingly alpha-actin mRNA decreases in muscle of rats exposed to microgravity. In the legs, the soleus seems particularly responsive to the lack of weight-bearing associated with space flight. The loss of muscle protein leads to a decreased cross-sectional area of muscle fibers, particularly of the slow-twitch, oxidative (SO) ones compared to fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) or oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) fibers. In some muscles, a shift in fiber composition from SO to FOG has been reported in the adaptation to spaceflight. Changes in muscle composition with spaceflight have been associated with decreased maximal isometric tension (Po) and increased maximal shortening velocity. In terms of fuel metabolism, results varied depending on the pathway considered. Glucose uptake, in the presence of insulin, and activities of glycolytic enzymes are increased by space flight. In contrast, oxidation of fatty acids may be diminished. Oxidation of pyruvate, activity of the citric acid cycle, and ketone metabolism in muscle seem to be unaffected by microgravity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4838572','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4838572"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sarcopenia in respiratory muscles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Elliott, Jonathan E.; Greising, Sarah M.; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Sieck, Gary C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The risk for respiratory complications and infections is substantially increased in old age, which may be due, in part, to sarcopenia (aging-related weakness and atrophy) of the diaphragm muscle (DIAm), reducing its force generating capacity and impairing the ability to perform expulsive non-ventilatory motor behaviors critical for airway clearance. The aging-related reduction in DIAm force generating capacity is due to selective atrophy of higher force generating type IIx and/or IIb muscle fibers, whereas lower force generating type I and IIa muscle fiber sizes are preserved. Fiber type specific DIAm atrophy is also seen following unilateral phrenic nerve denervation and in other neurodegenerative disorders. Accordingly, the effect of aging on DIAm <span class="hlt">function</span> resembles that of neurodegeneration and suggests possible common mechanisms, such as the involvement of several neurotrophic factors in mediating DIAm sarcopenia. This review will focus on changes in two neurotrophic signaling pathways that represent potential mechanisms underlying the aging-related fiber type specific DIAm atrophy. PMID:26467183</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26520497','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26520497"><span id="translatedtitle">Orthogonality of embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for different states in frozen-density embedding theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zech, Alexander; Aquilante, Francesco; Wesolowski, Tomasz A</p> <p>2015-10-28</p> <p>Other than lowest-energy stationary embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> obtained in Frozen-Density Embedding Theory (FDET) [T. A. Wesolowski, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012504 (2008)] can be associated with electronic excited states but they can be mutually non-orthogonal. Although this does not violate any physical principles--embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are only auxiliary objects used to obtain stationary densities--working with orthogonal <span class="hlt">functions</span> has many practical advantages. In the present work, we show numerically that excitation energies obtained using conventional FDET calculations (allowing for non-orthogonality) can be obtained using embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are strictly orthogonal. The used method preserves the mathematical structure of FDET and self-consistency between energy, embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, and the embedding potential (they are connected through the Euler-Lagrange equations). The orthogonality is built-in through the linearization in the embedded density of the relevant components of the total energy <span class="hlt">functional</span>. Moreover, we show formally that the differences between the expectation values of the embedded Hamiltonian are equal to the excitation energies, which is the exact result within linearized FDET. Linearized FDET is shown to be a robust approximation for a large class of reference densities. PMID:26520497</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493145','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493145"><span id="translatedtitle">Orthogonality of embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for different states in frozen-density embedding theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zech, Alexander; Wesolowski, Tomasz A.; Aquilante, Francesco</p> <p>2015-10-28</p> <p>Other than lowest-energy stationary embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> obtained in Frozen-Density Embedding Theory (FDET) [T. A. Wesolowski, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012504 (2008)] can be associated with electronic excited states but they can be mutually non-orthogonal. Although this does not violate any physical principles — embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are only auxiliary objects used to obtain stationary densities — working with orthogonal <span class="hlt">functions</span> has many practical advantages. In the present work, we show numerically that excitation energies obtained using conventional FDET calculations (allowing for non-orthogonality) can be obtained using embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are strictly orthogonal. The used method preserves the mathematical structure of FDET and self-consistency between energy, embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, and the embedding potential (they are connected through the Euler-Lagrange equations). The orthogonality is built-in through the linearization in the embedded density of the relevant components of the total energy <span class="hlt">functional</span>. Moreover, we show formally that the differences between the expectation values of the embedded Hamiltonian are equal to the excitation energies, which is the exact result within linearized FDET. Linearized FDET is shown to be a robust approximation for a large class of reference densities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714498D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714498D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of boat generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> over an estuarine intertidal zone of the Seine estuary (France)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deloffre, Julien; Lafite, Robert</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Water movements in macrotidal estuaries are controlled by the tidal regime modulated seasonally by the fluvial discharge. Wind effect on hydrodynamics and sediment transport is also reported at the mouth. Besides estuaries are frequently man altered our knowledge on the human <span class="hlt">impact</span> on hydrodynamics and sediment transport is less extended. As an example on the Seine estuary (France) port authorities have put emphasis on facilitating economic exchanges by means of embankment building and increased dredging activity over the last century. These developments led to secure sea vessel traffic in the Seine estuary but they also resulted in a change of estuarine hydrodynamics and sediment transport features. Consequences of boat generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> are varied: increased water turbidity and sediment transfer, release of nutrient and contaminants in the water column, harmful to users, ecosystems and infrastructures generating important maintenance spending. The aim of this study is to analyse the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of boat generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> on sediment transport over an intertidal area. The studied site is located on the left bank in the fluvial part of the Seine estuary. On this site the maximum tidal range ranges between 1.25 and 3.5m respectively during neap and spring tide. The sampling strategy is based on continuous ADV acquisition at 4Hz coupled with turbidimeter and altimeter measurements (1 measurement every minute) in order to decipher sediment dynamics during one year. Our results indicate that sediment dynamics are controlled by river flow while medium term scale evolution is dependent on tidal range and short term dynamics on sea-vessels <span class="hlt">waves</span>. 64% of boat passages generated significant sediment reworking (from few mm.min-1 to 3cm.min-1). This reworking rate is mainly controlled by two parameters: (i) water height on the site and (ii) vessels characteristics; in particular the distance between seabed and keel that generate a Bernoulli <span class="hlt">wave</span> (with maximum amplitude of 0.6m</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP13A0817L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP13A0817L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> Of Coral Structures On <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Directional Spreading Across A Shallow Reef Flat - Lizard Island, Northern Great Barrier Reef</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leon, J. X.; Baldock, T.; Callaghan, D. P.; Hoegh-guldberg, O.; Mumby, P.; Phinn, S. R.; Roelfsema, C. M.; Saunders, M. I.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Coral reef hydrodynamics operate at several and overlapping spatial-temporal scales. <span class="hlt">Waves</span> have the most important forcing <span class="hlt">function</span> on shallow (< 5 m) reefs as they drive most ecological and biogeochemical processes by exerting direct physical stress, directly mixing water (temperature and nutrients) and transporting sediments, nutrients and plankton. Reef flats are very effective at dissipating <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy and providing an important ecosystem service by protecting highly valued shorelines. The effectiveness of reef flats to dissipate <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy is related to the extreme hydraulic roughness of the benthos and substrate composition. Hydraulic roughness is usually obtained empirically from frictional-dissipation calculations, as detailed field measurements of bottom roughness (e.g. chain-method or profile gauges) is a very labour and time-consuming task. In this study we measured the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of coral structures on <span class="hlt">wave</span> directional spreading. Field data was collected during October 2012 across a reef flat on Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> surface levels were measured using an array of self-logging pressure sensors. A rapid in situ close-range photogrammetric method was used to create a high-resolution (0.5 cm) image mosaic and digital elevation model. Individual coral heads were extracted from these datasets using geo-morphometric and object-based image analysis techniques. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> propagation was modelled using a modified version of the SWAN model which includes the measured coral structures in 2m by 1m cells across the reef. The approach followed a cylinder drag approach, neglecting skin friction and inertial components. Testing against field data included bed skin friction. Our results show, for the first time, how the variability of the reef benthos structures affects <span class="hlt">wave</span> dissipation across a shallow reef flat. This has important implications globally for coral reefs, due to the large extent of their area occupied by reef flats, particularly, as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19257618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19257618"><span id="translatedtitle">Clustering properties and model <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall quasielectrons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bernevig, B Andrei; Haldane, F D M</p> <p>2009-02-13</p> <p>We present model <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for quasielectron (as opposed to quasihole) excitations of the unitary Z_{k} parafermion sequence (Laughlin, Moore-Read, or Read-Rezayi) of fractional quantum Hall states. We uniquely define these states through two generalized clustering conditions: they vanish when either a cluster of k+2 electrons is put together or when two clusters of k+1 electrons are formed at different positions. For Abelian fractional quantum Hall states (k=1), our construction reproduces the Jain quasielectron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and elucidates the difference between the Jain and Laughlin quasielectrons. PMID:19257618</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhRvL.102f6802B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhRvL.102f6802B"><span id="translatedtitle">Clustering Properties and Model <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> for Non-Abelian Fractional Quantum Hall Quasielectrons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bernevig, B. Andrei; Haldane, F. D. M.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>We present model <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for quasielectron (as opposed to quasihole) excitations of the unitary Zk parafermion sequence (Laughlin, Moore-Read, or Read-Rezayi) of fractional quantum Hall states. We uniquely define these states through two generalized clustering conditions: they vanish when either a cluster of k+2 electrons is put together or when two clusters of k+1 electrons are formed at different positions. For Abelian fractional quantum Hall states (k=1), our construction reproduces the Jain quasielectron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and elucidates the difference between the Jain and Laughlin quasielectrons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EP%26S...64..905E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EP%26S...64..905E"><span id="translatedtitle">Shoreline changes and high-energy <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> at the leeward coast of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Engel, Max; Brückner, Helmut; Messenzehl, Karoline; Frenzel, Peter; May, Simon Matthias; Scheffers, Anja; Scheffers, Sander; Wennrich, Volker; Kelletat, Dieter</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Supralittoral coarse-clast deposits along the shores of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles) as well as increased hurricane frequency during the past decade testify to the major hazard of high-energy <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in the southern Caribbean. Since deducing certain events from the subaerial coarse-clast record involves major uncertainties and historical reports are restricted to the past 500 years, we use a new set of vibracore and push core data (i) to contribute to a more reliable Holocene history of regional extreme-<span class="hlt">wave</span> events and (ii) to evaluate their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on shoreline evolution. Multi-proxy palaeoenvironmental analyses (XRF, XRD, grain size distribution, carbonate, LOI, microfossils) were carried out using nearshore sedimentary archives from the sheltered western (leeward) side of Bonaire and its small neighbour Klein Bonaire. In combination with 14C-AMS age estimates the stratigraphy reflects a long-term coastal evolution controlled by relative sea level rise, longshore sediment transport, and short-term morphodynamic impulses by extreme <span class="hlt">wave</span> action, all three of which may have significantly influenced the development of polyhaline lagoons and the demise of mangrove populations. Extreme <span class="hlt">wave</span> events may be categorized into major episodic incidents (c. 3.6 ka [?] BP; 3.2-3.0 ka BP; 2.0-1.8 ka BP; post-1.3 ka [?] BP), which may correspond to tsunamis and periodic events recurring on the order of decades to centuries, which we interpret as severe tropical cyclones. Extreme <span class="hlt">wave</span> events seem to control to a certain extent the formation of coastal ridges on Bonaire and, thus, to cause abrupt shifts in the long-term morphodynamic and ecological boundary conditions of the circumlittoral inland bays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15011418','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15011418"><span id="translatedtitle">Probability Density <span class="hlt">Function</span> for <span class="hlt">Waves</span> Propagating in a Straight PEC Rough Wall Tunnel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pao, H</p> <p>2004-11-08</p> <p>The probability density <span class="hlt">function</span> for <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating in a straight perfect electrical conductor (PEC) rough wall tunnel is deduced from the mathematical models of the random electromagnetic fields. The field propagating in caves or tunnels is a complex-valued Gaussian random processing by the Central Limit Theorem. The probability density <span class="hlt">function</span> for single modal field amplitude in such structure is Ricean. Since both expected value and standard deviation of this field depend only on radial position, the probability density <span class="hlt">function</span>, which gives what is the power distribution, is a radially dependent <span class="hlt">function</span>. The radio channel places fundamental limitations on the performance of wireless communication systems in tunnels and caves. The transmission path between the transmitter and receiver can vary from a simple direct line of sight to one that is severely obstructed by rough walls and corners. Unlike wired channels that are stationary and predictable, radio channels can be extremely random and difficult to analyze. In fact, modeling the radio channel has historically been one of the more challenging parts of any radio system design; this is often done using statistical methods. In this contribution, we present the most important statistic property, the field probability density <span class="hlt">function</span>, of <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating in a straight PEC rough wall tunnel. This work only studies the simplest case--PEC boundary which is not the real world but the methods and conclusions developed herein are applicable to real world problems which the boundary is dielectric. The mechanisms behind electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in caves or tunnels are diverse, but can generally be attributed to reflection, diffraction, and scattering. Because of the multiple reflections from rough walls, the electromagnetic <span class="hlt">waves</span> travel along different paths of varying lengths. The interactions between these <span class="hlt">waves</span> cause multipath fading at any location, and the strengths of the <span class="hlt">waves</span> decrease as the distance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhB...49r2004F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhB...49r2004F"><span id="translatedtitle">Advanced multiconfiguration methods for complex atoms: I. Energies and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Froese Fischer, Charlotte; Godefroid, Michel; Brage, Tomas; Jönsson, Per; Gaigalas, Gediminas</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Multiconfiguration <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> expansions combined with configuration interaction methods are a method of choice for complex atoms where atomic state <span class="hlt">functions</span> are expanded in a basis of configuration state <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Combined with a variational method such as the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) or multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF), the associated set of radial <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be optimized for the levels of interest. The present review updates the variational MCHF theory to include MCDHF, describes the multireference single and double process for generating expansions and the systematic procedure of a computational scheme for monitoring convergence. It focuses on the calculations of energies and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> from which other atomic properties can be predicted such as transition rates, hyperfine structures and isotope shifts, for example.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20645993','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20645993"><span id="translatedtitle">Uniform approximation of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> with improved semiclassical transformation amplitudes and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Davis, Edward D.</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>Semiclassical transformation theory implies an integral representation for stationary-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> {psi}{sub m}(q) in terms of angle-action variables ({theta},J). It is a particular solution of Schroedinger's time-independent equation when terms of order ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sup 2} and higher are omitted, but the preexponential factor A(q,{theta}) in the integrand of this integral representation does not possess the correct dependence on q. The origin of the problem is identified: the standard unitarity condition invoked in semiclassical transformation theory does not fix adequately in A(q,{theta}) a factor which is a <span class="hlt">function</span> of the action J written in terms of q and {theta}. A prescription for an improved choice of this factor, based on successfully reproducing the leading behavior of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the vicinity of potential minima, is outlined. Exact evaluation of the modified integral representation via the residue theorem is possible. It yields <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are not, in general, orthogonal. However, closed-form results obtained after Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization bear a striking resemblance to the exact analytical expressions for the stationary-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the various potential models considered (namely, a Poeschl-Teller oscillator and the Morse oscillator)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1946899','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1946899"><span id="translatedtitle">Toward a <span class="hlt">functional</span> categorization of slow <span class="hlt">waves</span>: taking into account past and future events.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rösler, F; Heil, M</p> <p>1991-05-01</p> <p>Ruchkin, Johnson, Mahaffey, and Sutton (1988) presented evidence for a frontal positive/posterior negative late slow <span class="hlt">wave</span> (SW) which they found to be <span class="hlt">functionally</span> related to conceptual load, i.e., the difficulty of mental calculation problems increased both the positive and negative parts of it. In the present study we replicated the paradigm of Ruchkin et al. with some modifications, and we also found that this late SW pattern is actually due to a superimposition of two slow potentials. Our results suggest that one potential (positive at frontopolar scalp) is related to the mental operation of division. However, the other potential (negative over posterior scalp) is not related to the computational task itself but to the expectation of stimuli that follow the task. In addition, we found that memorizing a digit seems to be associated with a positive slow <span class="hlt">wave</span> over posterior scalp. Altogether, our data suggest that load imposed on working memory is associated with positive slow <span class="hlt">waves</span> which show a task specific topography--mental division is associated with a pSW at FPZ, remembering with a pSW at PZ/OZ. On the other hand, the state of stimulus and task anticipation is associated with negative slow <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The latter reach their amplitude maximum over posterior scalp, if visually presented information is anticipated. Our study demonstrates how <span class="hlt">functionally</span> distinct slow <span class="hlt">waves</span> can be disentangled by a systematic manipulation of events which either precede or follow the slow <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity. Moreover, it shows that recording epochs must be of considerable length, if the <span class="hlt">functional</span> significance of slow <span class="hlt">waves</span> is the objective of research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16090127','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16090127"><span id="translatedtitle">Acoustical impedance defined by <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> solutions of the reduced Webster equation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Forbes, Barbara J</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>The electrical impedance was first defined by Heaviside in 1884, and the analogy of the acoustical impedance was made by Webster in 1919. However, it can be shown that Webster did not draw a full analogy with the electromagnetic potential, the potential energy per unit charge. This paper shows that the analogous "acoustical potential" the potential energy per unit displacement of fluid, corresponds to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> Psi of the reduced Webster equation, which is of Klein-Gordon form. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is found to obey all of Dirichlet, Von Neumann, and mixed (Robins) boundary conditions, and the latter give rise to resonance phenomena that are not elucidated by Webster's analysis. It is shown that the exact Heaviside analogy yields a complete analytic account of the one-dimensional input impedance, that accounts for both plane- and dispersive-<span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation both at the origin and throughout the duct.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613503L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613503L"><span id="translatedtitle">Using soil <span class="hlt">functional</span> indices to assess wildfire <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>López-Poma, Rosario; Mayor, Ángeles G.; Bautista, Susana</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Disturbance <span class="hlt">impact</span> on ecosystem are often based on <span class="hlt">functional</span> indicators, which provide integrated and yet simple and affordable measures of key ecosystem <span class="hlt">functions</span>. In this work, we studied the amount of change (resistance) and the recovery (resilience) of soil <span class="hlt">functions</span> after fire as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of vegetation type for a variety of Mediterranean shrublands. We used the Landscape <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Analysis methodology to assess soil stability, water infiltration, and nutrient cycling <span class="hlt">functions</span> for different types of vegetation patches and for bare-soil interpatches in repeatedly burned shrubland communities two weeks before, and two and nine months after experimental fires. We assessed the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of fire on soil <span class="hlt">functions</span> using resistance and resilience indices. The resistance and resilience of soil surface <span class="hlt">functions</span> to fire was mediated by vegetation traits associated to the fuel structure and the post-fire regenerative strategy of the species. Resistance was higher in vegetation patches that accumulated low contents of fine dead fuel, whereas resilience was higher in patches of resprouter species. The variation in resistance and resilience of soil <span class="hlt">functions</span> to fire in Mediterranean shrublands depends greatly on variation in fire-related plant structural and <span class="hlt">functional</span> traits. Although originally designed for the assessment of dryland ecosystems LFA has proved to have great potential for the assessment of the soil <span class="hlt">functional</span> status of recently burned areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8406976','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8406976"><span id="translatedtitle">Electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> emitting products and "Kikoh" potentiate human leukocyte <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Niwa, Y; Iizawa, O; Ishimoto, K; Jiang, X; Kanoh, T</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>Tourmaline (electric stone, a type of granite stone), common granite stone, ceramic disks, hot spring water and human palmar energy (called "Kikoh" in Japan and China), all which emit electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared region (wavelength 4-14 microns). These materials were thus examined for effects on human leukocyte activity and on lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. It was revealed that these materials significantly increased intracellular calcium ion concentration, phagocytosis, and generation of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils, and the blastogenetic response of lymphocytes to mitogens. Chemotactic activity by neutrophils was also enhanced by exposure to tourmaline and the palm of "Kikohshi" i.e., a person who heals professionally by the laying on of hands. Despite the increase in reactive oxygen species generated by neutrophils, lipid peroxidation from unsaturated fatty acid was markedly inhibited by these four materials. The results suggest that materials emitting electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared range, which are widely used in Japan for cosmetic, therapeutic, and preservative purposes, appear capable of potentiating leukocyte <span class="hlt">functions</span> without promoting oxidative injury. PMID:8406976</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8406976','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8406976"><span id="translatedtitle">Electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> emitting products and "Kikoh" potentiate human leukocyte <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Niwa, Y; Iizawa, O; Ishimoto, K; Jiang, X; Kanoh, T</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>Tourmaline (electric stone, a type of granite stone), common granite stone, ceramic disks, hot spring water and human palmar energy (called "Kikoh" in Japan and China), all which emit electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared region (wavelength 4-14 microns). These materials were thus examined for effects on human leukocyte activity and on lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. It was revealed that these materials significantly increased intracellular calcium ion concentration, phagocytosis, and generation of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils, and the blastogenetic response of lymphocytes to mitogens. Chemotactic activity by neutrophils was also enhanced by exposure to tourmaline and the palm of "Kikohshi" i.e., a person who heals professionally by the laying on of hands. Despite the increase in reactive oxygen species generated by neutrophils, lipid peroxidation from unsaturated fatty acid was markedly inhibited by these four materials. The results suggest that materials emitting electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared range, which are widely used in Japan for cosmetic, therapeutic, and preservative purposes, appear capable of potentiating leukocyte <span class="hlt">functions</span> without promoting oxidative injury.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E.301T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E.301T"><span id="translatedtitle">Radio-<span class="hlt">wave</span> emission due to hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and its correlation with optical observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takano, T.; Maki, K.; Yamori, A.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes the most interesting phenomena of radio-<span class="hlt">wave</span> emission due to hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. A projectile of polycarbonate with 1.1 g weight was accelerated by a rail gun to 3.8 km/sec, and hit two targets which are a 2 mm thick aluminum plate upstream and a 45 mm diameter aluminum column downstream, respectively. The projectile first breaks wires to give a triggering signal to a data recorder, then penetrates the aluminum plate, and finally hit the column, The emitted radio-<span class="hlt">waves</span> propagate through the chamber window, and are received by antennas at each frequency band. The receivers in 22 GHz- and 2 GHz-bands consist of a low noise amplifier, a mixer, a local oscillator and an IF amplifier , respectively. The receiver in 1 MHz-band is a simple RF amplifier. The outputs of all receivers are fed to a data recorder which is actually a high-speed digital oscilloscope with a large amount of memory. The radio-<span class="hlt">waves</span> were successfully recorded in 22 GHz-band with 500 MHz bandwidth, in 2 GHz-band with 300 MHz bandwidth, and in 1MHz-band. The waveforms in 22 GHz- and 2 GHz-bands coincide well each other, and are composed of two groups of sharp impulses with a separation of about 20 micro seconds. The width of an impulse is less than 2 n sec. which is the resolution limit of the data recorder. We carried out optical observations using an ultra-high speed camera simultaneously through another window of the chamber. The time interval between scenes is 2 micro sec. We can see a faint light of the projectile before the first <span class="hlt">impact</span> to the plate, and then a brilliant gas exploding backward from the plate and forward to the column. After hitting the column target, the brilliant gas flows to the chamber wall and is reflected back to make a mixture with dark gas in the chamber. Excellent correlation between radio-<span class="hlt">wave</span> emission and the observed optical phenomena was obtained in the experiment. It is easily conceived that the radio-<span class="hlt">waves</span> consist of quite a wide frequency</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713705M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713705M"><span id="translatedtitle">An European historical reconstruction of sea surface dynamics (<span class="hlt">waves</span> and storm surge) for coastal <span class="hlt">impact</span> studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Menendez, Melisa; Perez, Jorge; Cid, Alba; Castanedo, Sonia; Losada, Inigo; Medina, Raul; Mendez, Fernando</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p> series of surge sea level component and <span class="hlt">waves</span> (significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height, period and direction) at coastal locations. Altimeter observations are also considered for a spatial validation of surge and <span class="hlt">wave</span> heights. Results obtained from this validation process show a general good agreement with observations for the European region. Finally, the hourly time series of surge and <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate along the European coast grid-points are analyzed. Historical changes in the <span class="hlt">waves</span> and storm surge provide a useful information for coastal <span class="hlt">impact</span> studies since coastal flooding, beach erosion, coastal structures and physical damages in ecosystems can be affected by long-term changes in <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate and sea levels. Reguero, B. G., Menéndez, M., Méndez, F. J. Mínguez, R. Losada, I. J. (2012). A Global Ocean <span class="hlt">Wave</span> (GOW) calibrated reanalysis from 1948 onwards. Coastal Engineering, 65, 38-55. Cid, A., Castanedo, S., Abascal, A. J., Menéndez, M., & Medina, R. (2014). A high resolution hindcast of the meteorological sea level component for Southern Europe: the GOS dataset. Climate Dynamics, 1-18.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26483919','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26483919"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Sound on Electroencephalographic <span class="hlt">Waves</span> during Sleep in Patients Suffering from Tinnitus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pedemonte, Marisa; Testa, Martín; Díaz, Marcela; Suárez-Bagnasco, Diego</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Based on the knowledge that sensory processing continues during sleep and that a relationship exists between sleep and learning, a new strategy for treatment of idiopathic subjective tinnitus, consisted of customized sound stimulation presented during sleep, was tested. It has been previously shown that this treatment induces a sustained decrease in tinnitus intensity; however, its effect on brain activity has not yet been studied. In this work, we compared the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sound stimulation in tinnitus patients in the different sleep stages. Ten patients with idiopathic tinnitus were treated with sound stimulation mimicking tinnitus during sleep. Power spectra and intra- and inter-hemispheric coherence of electroencephalographic <span class="hlt">waves</span> from frontal and temporal electrodes were measured with and without sound stimulation for each sleep stage (stages N2 with sleep spindles; N3 with slow <span class="hlt">wave</span> sleep and REM sleep with Rapid Eye Movements). The main results found were that the largest number of changes, considering both the power spectrum and <span class="hlt">wave׳s</span> coherence, occurred in stages N2 and N3. The delta and theta bands were the most changed, with important changes also in coherence of spindles during N2. All changes were more frequent in temporal areas. The differences between the two hemispheres do not depend, at least exclusively, on the side where the tinnitus is perceived and, hence, of the stimulated side. These results demonstrate that sound stimulation during sleep in tinnitus patients׳ influences brain activity and open an avenue for investigating the mechanism underlying tinnitus and its treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFDL16005W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFDL16005W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on a Wall: Comparison of Experiments with Similarity Solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, A.; Duncan, J. H.; Lathrop, D. P.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a steep water <span class="hlt">wave</span> on a fixed partially submerged cube is studied with experiments and theory. The temporal evolution of the water surface profile upstream of the front face of the cube in its center plane is measured with a cinematic laser-induced fluorescence technique using frame rates up to 4,500 Hz. For a small range of cube positions, the surface profiles are found to form a nearly circular arc with upward curvature between the front face of the cube and a point just downstream of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> crest. As the crest approaches the cube, the effective radius of this portion of the profile decreases rapidly. At the same time, the portion of the profile that is upstream of the crest approaches a straight line with a downward slope of about 15°. As the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> continues, the circular arc shrinks to zero radius with very high acceleration and a sudden transition to a high-speed vertical jet occurs. This flow singularity is modeled with a power-law scaling in time, which is used to create a time-independent system of equations of motion. The scaled governing equations are solved numerically and the similarly scaled measured free surface shapes, are favorably compared with the solutions. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21085197','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21085197"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of internal <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the spatial distribution of Planktothrix rubescens (cyanobacteria) in an alpine lake.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cuypers, Yannis; Vinçon-Leite, Brigitte; Groleau, Alexis; Tassin, Bruno; Humbert, Jean-François</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>The vertical and horizontal distribution of the cyanobacterium, Planktothrix rubescens, was studied in a deep alpine lake (Lac du Bourget) in a 2-year monitoring program with 11 sampling points, and a 24-h survey at one sampling station. This species is known to proliferate in the metalimnic layer of numerous deep mesotrophic lakes in temperate areas, and also to produce hepatotoxins. When looking at the distribution of P. rubescens at the scale of the entire lake, we found large variations (up to 10  m) in the depth of the biomass peak in the water column. These variations were closely correlated to isotherm displacements. We also found significant variations in the distribution of the cyanobacterial biomass in the northern and southern parts of the lake. We used a physical modeling approach to demonstrate that two internal <span class="hlt">wave</span> modes can explain these variations. Internal <span class="hlt">waves</span> are generated by wind events, but can still be detected several days after the end of these events. Finally, our 24-h survey at one sampling point demonstrated that the V1H1 sinusoidal motion could evolve into nonlinear fronts. All these findings show that internal <span class="hlt">waves</span> have a major <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the distribution of P. rubescens proliferating in the metalimnic layer of a deep lake, and that this process could influence the growth of this species by a direct <span class="hlt">impact</span> on light availability.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025827','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025827"><span id="translatedtitle">Shock-<span class="hlt">wave</span>-induced fracturing of calcareous nannofossils from the Chesapeake Bay <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>,</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Fractured calcareous nannofossils of the genus Discoaster from synimpact sediments within the Chesapeake Bay <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater demonstrate that other petrographic shock indicators exist for the cratering process in addition to quartz minerals. Evidence for shock-induced taphonomy includes marginal fracturing of rosette-shaped Discoaster species into pentagonal shapes and pressure- and temperature-induced dissolution of ray tips and edges of discoasters. Rotational deformation of individual crystallites may be the mechanism that produces the fracture pattern. Shock-<span class="hlt">wave</span>-fractured calcareous nannofossils were recovered from synimpact matrix material representing tsunami or resurge sedimentation that followed <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Samples taken from cohesive clasts within the crater rubble show no evidence of shock-induced fracturing. The data presented here support growing evidence that microfossils can be used to determine the intensity and timing of wet-<span class="hlt">impact</span> cratering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24815265','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24815265"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis and measurement of the modulation transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> of harmonic shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> induced phase encoding imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McAleavey, Stephen A</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> induced phase encoding (SWIPE) imaging generates ultrasound backscatter images of tissue-like elastic materials by using traveling shear <span class="hlt">waves</span> to encode the lateral position of the scatters in the phase of the received echo. In contrast to conventional ultrasound B-scan imaging, SWIPE offers the potential advantages of image formation without beam focusing or steering from a single transducer element, lateral resolution independent of aperture size, and the potential to achieve relatively high lateral resolution with low frequency ultrasound. Here a Fourier series description of the phase modulated echo signal is developed, demonstrating that echo harmonics at multiples of the shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency reveal target k-space data at identical multiples of the shear wavenumber. Modulation transfer <span class="hlt">functions</span> of SWIPE imaging systems are calculated for maximum shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> acceleration and maximum shear constraints, and compared with a conventionally focused aperture. The relative signal-to-noise ratio of the SWIPE method versus a conventionally focused aperture is found through these calculations. Reconstructions of wire targets in a gelatin phantom using 1 and 3.5 MHz ultrasound and a cylindrical shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> source are presented, generated from the fundamental and second harmonic of the shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> modulation frequency, demonstrating weak dependence of lateral resolution with ultrasound frequency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21293358','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21293358"><span id="translatedtitle">The Use of the Information <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> in a Drift Dependent Option Price: A Simple Example</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Haven, Emmanuel</p> <p>2009-03-10</p> <p>This paper briefly describes how a drift-dependent option price is obtained, following the work of Tan. We briefly argue how the information <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> concept, which has now been used in various financial settings, can be used in this type of option price.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.1174S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121.1174S"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of the directional distribution of the wind energy input <span class="hlt">function</span> over swell <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shabani, Behnam; Babanin, Alex V.; Baldock, Tom E.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Field measurements of wind stress over shallow water swell traveling in different directions relative to the wind are presented. The directional distribution of the measured stresses is used to confirm the previously proposed but unverified directional distribution of the wind energy input <span class="hlt">function</span>. The observed wind energy input <span class="hlt">function</span> is found to follow a much narrower distribution (β∝cos⁡3.6θ) than the Plant (1982) cosine distribution. The observation of negative stress angles at large wind-<span class="hlt">wave</span> angles, however, indicates that the onset of negative wind shearing occurs at about θ≈ 50°, and supports the use of the Snyder et al. (1981) directional distribution. Taking into account the reverse momentum transfer from swell to the wind, Snyder's proposed parameterization is found to perform exceptionally well in explaining the observed narrow directional distribution of the wind energy input <span class="hlt">function</span>, and predicting the wind drag coefficients. The empirical coefficient (ɛ) in Snyder's parameterization is hypothesised to be a <span class="hlt">function</span> of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> shape parameter, with ɛ value increasing as the <span class="hlt">wave</span> shape changes between sinusoidal, sawtooth, and sharp-crested shoaling <span class="hlt">waves</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24006970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24006970"><span id="translatedtitle">Seniority number in spin-adapted spaces and compactness of configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alcoba, Diego R; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E; Oña, Ofelia B</p> <p>2013-08-28</p> <p>This work extends the concept of seniority number, which has been widely used for classifying N-electron Slater determinants, to <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of N electrons and spin S, as well as to N-electron spin-adapted Hilbert spaces. We propose a spin-free formulation of the seniority number operator and perform a study on the behavior of the expectation values of this operator under transformations of the molecular basis sets. This study leads to propose a quantitative evaluation for the convergence of the expansions of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in terms of Slater determinants. The non-invariant character of the seniority number operator expectation value of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> with respect to a unitary transformation of the molecular orbital basis set, allows us to search for a change of basis which minimizes that expectation value. The results found in the description of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of selected atoms and molecules show that the expansions expressed in these bases exhibit a more rapid convergence than those formulated in the canonical molecular orbital bases and even in the natural orbital ones. PMID:24006970</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94d5135M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94d5135M"><span id="translatedtitle">Gutzwiller variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for multiorbital Hubbard models in finite dimensions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Münster, Kevin zu; Bünemann, Jörg</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We develop a diagrammatic method for the evaluation of general multiband Gutzwiller <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in finite dimensions. Our approach provides a systematic improvement of the widely used Gutzwiller approximation. As a first application, we investigate itinerant ferromagnetism and correlation-induced deformations of the Fermi surface for a two-band Hubbard model on a square lattice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26936575','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26936575"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of the temporal slope density <span class="hlt">function</span> for <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating according to the inviscid Burgers equation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muhlestein, Michael B; Gee, Kent L</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>An exact formulation for the evolution of the probability density <span class="hlt">function</span> of the time derivative of a waveform (slope density) propagating according to the one-dimensional inviscid Burgers equation is given. The formulation relies on the implicit Earnshaw solution and therefore is only valid prior to shock formation. As explicit examples, the slope density evolution of an initially sinusoidal plane <span class="hlt">wave</span>, initially Gaussian-distributed planar noise, and an initially triangular <span class="hlt">wave</span> are presented. The triangular <span class="hlt">wave</span> is used to examine weak-shock limits without violating the theoretical assumptions. It is also shown that the moments of the slope density <span class="hlt">function</span> as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of distance may be written as an expansion in terms of the moments of the source slope density <span class="hlt">function</span>. From this expansion, approximate expressions are presented for the above cases as well as a specific non-Gaussian noise case intended to mimic features of jet noise. Finally, analytical predictions of the propagation of initially Gaussian-distributed noise are compared favorably with plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> tube measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=excel&pg=4&id=EJ1014570','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=excel&pg=4&id=EJ1014570"><span id="translatedtitle">Three-Dimensional Visualization of <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> for Rotating Molecule: Plot of Spherical Harmonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Teramae, Hiroyuki; Nagashima, Umpei</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>At an early stage of learning quantum chemistry, undergraduate students usually encounter the concepts of the particle in a box, the harmonic oscillator, and then the particle on a sphere. Rotational levels of a diatomic molecule can be well approximated by the energy levels of the particle on a sphere. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the particle in a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=192783&keyword=geophysics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68449777&CFTOKEN=57250447','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=192783&keyword=geophysics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68449777&CFTOKEN=57250447"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequency-Domain Green's <span class="hlt">Functions</span> for Radar <span class="hlt">Waves</span> in Heterogeneous 2.5D Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Green’s <span class="hlt">functions</span> for radar <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating in heterogeneous media may be calculated in the frequency domain using a hybrid of two numerical methods. The model is defined in the Cartesian coordinate system, and its electromagnetic properties may vary in the x and z directions, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20692693','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20692693"><span id="translatedtitle">Channel-Coupling Contribution to the Widths of Decay Nuclear States and to Their <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kadmensky, S.G.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>By using the formalism of the quantum theory of fission, the amplitudes of partial decay widths and the asymptotic behavior of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for a decaying nucleus are found with allowance for open-decay-channel coupling not only for fission, but also for the binary decays of nuclei through protonic, alpha-particle, cluster, and other channels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255217','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255217"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparing thermal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods for multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lorenz, U.; Saalfrank, P.</p> <p>2014-01-28</p> <p>We compare two methods for creating stochastic temperature <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that can be used for Multi-Configuration Time-Dependent Hartree (MCTDH) simulations. In the first method, the MCTDH coefficients are chosen randomly, while the other method uses a single Hartree product of random single-particle <span class="hlt">functions</span> (SPFs). We find that using random SPFs dramatically improves convergence for a model system for surface sticking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24972050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24972050"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> propagation analysis of edge cracked circular beams under <span class="hlt">impact</span> force.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akbaş, Şeref Doğuşcan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents responses of an edge circular cantilever beam under the effect of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> force. The beam is excited by a transverse triangular force impulse modulated by a harmonic motion. The Kelvin-Voigt model for the material of the beam is used. The cracked beam is modelled as an assembly of two sub-beams connected through a massless elastic rotational spring. The considered problem is investigated within the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory by using energy based finite element method. The system of equations of motion is derived by using Lagrange's equations. The obtained system of linear differential equations is reduced to a linear algebraic equation system and solved in the time domain by using Newmark average acceleration method. In the study, the effects of the location of crack, the depth of the crack, on the characteristics of the reflected <span class="hlt">waves</span> are investigated in detail. Also, the positions of the cracks are calculated by using reflected <span class="hlt">waves</span>. PMID:24972050</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4074072','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4074072"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> Propagation Analysis of Edge Cracked Circular Beams under <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Force</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Akbaş, Şeref Doğuşcan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents responses of an edge circular cantilever beam under the effect of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> force. The beam is excited by a transverse triangular force impulse modulated by a harmonic motion. The Kelvin–Voigt model for the material of the beam is used. The cracked beam is modelled as an assembly of two sub-beams connected through a massless elastic rotational spring. The considered problem is investigated within the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory by using energy based finite element method. The system of equations of motion is derived by using Lagrange's equations. The obtained system of linear differential equations is reduced to a linear algebraic equation system and solved in the time domain by using Newmark average acceleration method. In the study, the effects of the location of crack, the depth of the crack, on the characteristics of the reflected <span class="hlt">waves</span> are investigated in detail. Also, the positions of the cracks are calculated by using reflected <span class="hlt">waves</span>. PMID:24972050</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/876043','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/876043"><span id="translatedtitle">Dissipation of Magnetohydrodynamic <span class="hlt">Waves</span> on Energetic Particles: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Interstellar Turbulence and Cosmic Ray Transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ptuskin, V.S.; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Jones, F.C.; Strong, A.W.; Zirakashvili, V.N.; /Troitsk, IZMIRAN /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron.</p> <p>2006-01-17</p> <p>The physical processes involved in diffusion of Galactic cosmic rays in the interstellar medium are addressed. We study the possibility that the nonlinear MHD cascade sets the power-law spectrum of turbulence which scatters charged energetic particles. We find that the dissipation of <span class="hlt">waves</span> due to the resonant interaction with cosmic ray particles may terminate the Kraichnan-type cascade below wavelengths 10{sup 13} cm. The effect of this <span class="hlt">wave</span> dissipation has been incorporated in the GALPROP numerical propagation code in order to asses the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on measurable astrophysical data. The energy-dependence of the cosmic-ray diffusion coefficient found in the resulting self-consistent model may explain the peaks in the secondary to primary nuclei ratios observed at about 1 GeV/nucleon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26559680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26559680"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Sedation on Cognitive <span class="hlt">Function</span> in Mechanically Ventilated Patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Porhomayon, Jahan; El-Solh, Ali A; Adlparvar, Ghazaleh; Jaoude, Philippe; Nader, Nader D</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The practice of sedation dosing strategy in mechanically ventilated patient has a profound effect on cognitive <span class="hlt">function</span>. We conducted a comprehensive review of outcome of sedation on mental health <span class="hlt">function</span> in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU). We specifically evaluated current sedative dosing strategy and the development of delirium, post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSDs) and agitation. Based on this review, heavy dosing sedation strategy with benzodiazepines contributes to cognitive dysfunction. However, outcome for mental health dysfunction is mixed in regard to newer sedatives agents such as dexmedetomidine and propofol. Moreover, studies that examine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sedatives for persistence of PTSD/delirium and its long-term cognitive and <span class="hlt">functional</span> outcomes for post-ICU patients are frequently underpowered. Most studies suffer from low sample sizes and methodological variations. Therefore, larger randomized controlled trials are needed to properly assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sedation dosing strategy on cognitive <span class="hlt">function</span>. PMID:26559680</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ChOE...28..791Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ChOE...28..791Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative study of different SPH schemes on simulating violent water <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Xing; Ma, Qing-wei; Duan, Wen-yang</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Free surface flows are of significant interest in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). However, violent water <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> simulation especially when free surface breaks or <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on solid wall can be a big challenge for many CFD techniques. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) has been reported as a robust and reliable method for simulating violent free surface flows. Weakly compressible SPH (WCSPH) uses an equation of state with a large sound speed, and the results of the WCSPH can induce a noisy pressure field and spurious oscillation of pressure in time history for <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> problem simulation. As a remedy, the truly incompressible SPH (ISPH) technique was introduced, which uses a pressure Poisson equation to calculate the pressure. Although the pressure distribution in the whole field obtained by ISPH is smooth, the stability of the techniques is still an open discussion. In this paper, a new free surface identification scheme and solid boundary handling method are introduced to improve the accuracy of ISPH. This modified ISPH is used to study dam breaking flow and violent tank sloshing flows. On the comparative study of WCSPH and ISPH, the accuracy and efficiency are assessed and the results are compared with the experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21935119','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21935119"><span id="translatedtitle">A model for the probability density <span class="hlt">function</span> of downwelling irradiance under ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Meng; Xu, Zao; Yue, Dick K P</p> <p>2011-08-29</p> <p>We present a statistical model that analytically quantifies the probability density <span class="hlt">function</span> (PDF) of the downwelling light irradiance under random ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span> modeling the surface as independent and identically distributed flat facets. The model can incorporate the separate effects of surface short <span class="hlt">waves</span> and volume light scattering. The theoretical model captures the characteristics of the PDF, from skewed to near-Gaussian shape as the depth increases from shallow to deep water. The model obtains a closed-form asymptotic for the probability that diminishes at a rate between exponential and Gaussian with increasing extreme values. The model is validated by comparisons with existing field measurements and Monte Carlo simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39..930K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012cosp...39..930K"><span id="translatedtitle">Dust Heating through Alfvén <span class="hlt">waves</span> using Generalized (r,q) distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kiran, Zubia</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>we used quasilinear theory to calculate the resonant heating of dust particles in a hot, collisionless and magnetized plasma through Alfven <span class="hlt">waves</span>, using (r, q) distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>. The linear (w ,k) relation for the electromagnetic dust cyclotron Alfven <span class="hlt">waves</span>, evaluated by using the kinetic model. The effect of heating rate on the charge, density and mass of the dust species is subsequently investigated. The dependence of the heating rate on the indices (r) and (q) of the (r,q) distribution is also investigated. It has examine that the heating is sensitive to negative value of spectral index (r).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25618104','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25618104"><span id="translatedtitle">A numerically stable formulation of the Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> parabolic equation: Subtracting the surface-<span class="hlt">wave</span> pole.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gilbert, Kenneth E</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The original formulation of the Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> parabolic equation (GFPE) can have numerical accuracy problems for large normalized surface impedances. To solve the accuracy problem, an improved form of the GFPE has been developed. The improved GFPE formulation is similar to the original formulation, but it has the surface-<span class="hlt">wave</span> pole "subtracted." The improved GFPE is shown to be accurate for surface impedances varying over 2 orders of magnitude, with the largest having a magnitude exceeding 1000. Also, the improved formulation is slightly faster than the original formulation because the surface-<span class="hlt">wave</span> component does not have to be computed separately.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000CPL...330..563D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000CPL...330..563D"><span id="translatedtitle">Electronic excitation spectra from time-dependent density <span class="hlt">functional</span> response theory using plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doltsinis, Nikos L.; Sprik, Michiel</p> <p>2000-11-01</p> <p>The time-dependent density <span class="hlt">functional</span> response theory method for the computation of electronic excitation spectra has been implemented in a plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> basis set/pseudo-potential formalism. We compare our test results for N2 and H2CO to literature atomic basis set calculations and find good agreement. We also discuss some of the technical complications specific to the use of plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> basis sets. As an application, the thermally broadened photoabsorption spectrum of formamide at room temperature is computed by averaging over a number of vibrational configurations sampled from an ab initio molecular dynamics run and compared to experiment.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22436554','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22436554"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum diffusion <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> approach to two-dimensional vibronic spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wehner, Johannes; Falge, Mirjam; Engel, Volker; Strunz, Walter T.</p> <p>2014-10-07</p> <p>We apply the quantum diffusion wavefunction approach to calculate vibronic two-dimensional (2D) spectra. As an example, we use a system consisting of two electronic states with harmonic oscillator potentials which are coupled to a bath and interact with three time-delayed laser pulses. The first- and second-order perturbative <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which enter into the expression for the third-order polarization are determined for a sufficient number of stochastic runs. The <span class="hlt">wave</span>-packet approach, besides being an alternative technique to calculate the spectra, offers an intuitive insight into the dissipation dynamics and its relation to the 2D vibronic spectra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S31C2358K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S31C2358K"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary Results for Crustal Structure in Southeastern Africa from P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> Receiver <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kachingwe, M.; Nyblade, A.; Mulibo, G. D.; Mulowezi, A.; Kunkuta, E.; De Magalhães, V.; Wiens, D. A.; Wysession, M. E.; Julia, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The crustal structure of southeastern Africa is investigated by modeling P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> using H-k stacking and joint inversion methods. P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> are analyzed for 29 broadband seismic stations in Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique. Estimates for the Moho depth and Poisson's ratio are determined from H-k stacking, and estimates for the shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity are determined by the joint inversion of receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> and surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> dispersion. Preliminary results show that Moho depths beneath southeastern Africa range from 32 km to 51 km. Thicker crust is found in Proterozoic terrains, such as the Irumide Belt, while thinner crust is found in reworked Archean terrains, such as the Bangweulu Block. These results are consistent with previous studies and global averages for Precambrian terrains. The preliminary results also show a range of Poisson's ratios from 0.2 to 0.3. These new results for southeastern Africa are being combined with similar results from elsewhere in eastern and southern Africa to improve our understanding of African crustal structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/204204','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/204204"><span id="translatedtitle">De Broglie wavelets versus Schroedinger <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>: A ribbon model approach to quantum theory and the mechanisms of quantum interference</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tang, Jau</p> <p>1996-02-01</p> <p>As an alternative to better physical explanations of the mechanisms of quantum interference and the origins of uncertainty broadening, a linear hopping model is proposed with ``color-varying`` dynamics to reflect fast exchange between time-reversed states. Intricate relations between this model, particle-<span class="hlt">wave</span> dualism, and relativity are discussed. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is shown to possess dual characteristics of a stable, localized ``soliton-like`` de Broglie wavelet and a delocalized, interfering Schroedinger carrier <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23116805','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23116805"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of <span class="hlt">impact</span> factors on shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> based liver stiffness measurement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ling, Wenwu; Lu, Qiang; Quan, Jierong; Ma, Lin; Luo, Yan</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> based ultrasound elastographies have been implemented as non-invasive methods for quantitative assessment of liver stiffness. Nonetheless, there are only a few studies that have investigated <span class="hlt">impact</span> factors on liver stiffness measurement (LSM). Moreover, standard examination protocols for LSM are still lacking in clinical practice. Our study aimed to assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> factors on LSM to establish its standard examination protocols in clinical practice. We applied shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> based elastography point quantification (ElastPQ) in 21 healthy individuals to determine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of liver location (segments I-VIII), breathing phase (end-inspiration and end-expiration), probe position (sub-costal and inter-costal position) and examiner on LSM. Additional studies in 175 healthy individuals were also performed to determine the influence of gender and age on liver stiffness. We found significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> of liver location on LSM, while the liver segment V displayed the lowest coefficient of variation (CV 21%). The liver stiffness at the end-expiration was significantly higher than that at the end-inspiration (P=2.1E-05). The liver stiffness was 8% higher in men than in women (3.8 ± 0.7 kPa vs. 3.5 ± 0.4 kPa, P=0.0168). In contrast, the liver stiffness was comparable in the different probe positions, examiners and age groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, this study reveals significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> from liver location, breathing phase and gender on LSM, while furthermore strengthening the necessity for the development of standard examination protocols on LSM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3279432','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3279432"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Heat Islands on Mortality in Paris during the August 2003 Heat <span class="hlt">Wave</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Dousset, Bénédicte; Bretin, Philippe; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Giraudet, Emmanuel; Beaudeau, Pascal</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background: Heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> have a drastic <span class="hlt">impact</span> on urban populations, which could increase with climate change. Objectives: We evaluated new indicators of elderly people’s exposure to heat in Paris, from a public health prevention perspective, using satellite thermal images. Methods: We used a time series of 61 images from the satellites of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) taken from 1 to 13 August 2003 to produce thermal indicators of minimum, maximum, and mean surface temperatures and diurnal temperature amplitude, with different lags between the meteorological data and the health <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Health data came from a case–control study involving 241 people ≥ 65 years of age who died in the city of Paris or the nearby suburban area of Val-de-Marne during the August 2003 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span>, and 241 controls who were matched to cases on age, sex, and residential zone. For each person, we integrated the thermal indicators in a conditional logistic regression model, adjusted for age and other potential confounders. We computed odds ratios (ORs) comparing the 90th and 50th percentiles of the temperature differences between cases and controls for various indicators. Results: Mortality risk was significantly associated with exposure for two indicators: minimum temperatures averaged for 1–13 August [for a 0.41°C increase, OR = 2.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 4.16] and minimum temperature averaged on the day of death and the 6 preceding days (for a 0.51°C increase: OR = 2.24; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.87). Conclusions: Our results support the influence of night temperatures on the health <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in urban areas. Urban heat exposure indicators based on satellite imagery have the potential to identify areas with higher risk of death, which could inform intervention decisions by key stakeholders. PMID:21885383</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1083482.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1083482.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Adult Literacy Programme on Rural Women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mbah, Blessing Akaraka</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study assessed the <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of adult literacy programme among rural women participants in Ishielu Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study was made up of 115 adult instructors and 2,408 adult learners giving a total of 2,623. The sample…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P11B2081K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P11B2081K"><span id="translatedtitle">Inversion of the Chelyabinsk seismic surface <span class="hlt">waves</span> and comparative constraints on the generation of seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> by atmospheric <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Earth and Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karakostas, F. G.; Rakoto, V.; Lognonne, P. H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Meteor <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are a very important seismic source for planetary seismology, since their locations and, in some cases, their occurence times can be accurately known from orbiters, tracking or optical observations. Their importance becomes greater in the case of a seismic experiment with one seismometer, as the SEIS (Seismic Experiment of Interior Structure) of the future Martian mission "InSight", as the known location allows a direct inversion of differential travel times and <span class="hlt">wave</span> forms in terms of structure. Meteor <span class="hlt">impacts</span> generate body and surface seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> when they reach the surface of a planet. But when they explode into the atmosphere, due to ablation, they generate shock <span class="hlt">waves</span>, which are converted into linear, seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the solid part and acoustic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the atmosphere. This effect can be modeled when the amplitude of Rayleigh and other Spheroidal normal modes is made with the atmospheric/ground coupling effects. In this study, meteor <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are modeled as seismic sources in a comparative analysis for the cases of Earth and Mars. Using the computed seismograms, calculated by the summation of the normal modes of the full planet (e.g. with atmosphere) the properties of the seismic source can be obtained. Its duration is typically associated to the radiation duration of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> until they reach the linear regime of propagation. These transition times are comparatively analyzed, for providing constraints on the seismic source duration on Earth and Mars. In the case of Earth, we test our approach with the Chelyabinsk superbolide. The computed seismograms are used in order to perform the inversion of the source, by comparison with the data of the Global Seismographic Network. The results are interpreted and compared with other observations. In the case of Mars, equivalent sources are similarly modeled in different atmospheric, <span class="hlt">impact</span> size and lithospheric conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMSA34A..01M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMSA34A..01M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Global Propagation of Gravity <span class="hlt">Waves</span> Generated with the Whole Atmosphere Transfer <span class="hlt">Function</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mayr, H. G.; Talaat, E. R.; Wolven, B. C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> are ubiquitous phenomena in the Earth's atmosphere, accounting for a significant fraction of its observed variability. These <span class="hlt">waves</span>, with periods ranging from minutes to hours, are thought to be a major means for exchange of momentum and energy between atmospheric regions. The Transfer <span class="hlt">Function</span> Model (TFM) describes acoustic gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> (AGW) that propagate across the globe in a dissipative static background atmosphere extending from the ground to 700 km. The model is limited to <span class="hlt">waves</span> with periods << 12 hr where the Coriolis force is not important. Formulated in terms of zonal vector spherical harmonics and oscillation frequencies, the linearized equations of energy, mass, and momentum conservation are solved to generate the transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> (TF) for a chosen height distribution of the excitation source. The model accounts for momentum exchange between atmospheric species (He, O, N2, O2, Ar), which affects significantly the <span class="hlt">wave</span> amplitudes and phases of thermospheric temperature, densities, and wind fields. Covering a broad range of frequencies and spherical harmonic <span class="hlt">wave</span> numbers (wavelengths), without limitations, the assembled TF captures the physics that controls the propagation of AGW, and the computational effort is considerable. For a chosen horizontal geometry and impulsive time dependence of the source, however, the global <span class="hlt">wave</span> response is then obtained in short order. The model is computationally efficient and well suited to serve as an experimental and educational tool for simulating propagating <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns on the globe. The model is also semi-analytical and therefore well suited to explore the different <span class="hlt">wave</span> modes that can be generated under varying dynamical conditions. The TFM has been applied to simulate the AGW, which are generated in the auroral region of the thermosphere by joule heating and momentum coupling due to solar wind induced electric fields [e.g., Mayr et al., Space Science Reviews, 1990]. The auroral source generates</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22490071','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22490071"><span id="translatedtitle">Dust heating by Alfvén <span class="hlt">waves</span> using non-Maxwellian distribution <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zubia, K.; Shah, H. A.; Yoon, P. H.</p> <p>2015-08-15</p> <p>Quasilinear theory is employed in order to evaluate the resonant heating rate by Alfvén <span class="hlt">waves</span>, of multiple species dust particles in a hot, collisionless, and magnetized plasma, with the underlying assumption that the dust velocity distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> can be modeled by a generalized (r, q) distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>. The kinetic linear dispersion relation for the electromagnetic dust cyclotron Alfvén <span class="hlt">waves</span> is derived, and the dependence of the heating rate on the magnetic field, mass, and density of the dust species is subsequently investigated. The heating rate and its dependence on the spectral indices r and q of the distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> are also investigated. It is found that the heating is sensitive to negative value of spectral index r.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EPJWC.11201021W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EPJWC.11201021W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-dipolar gauge links for transverse-momentum-dependent pion <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yu-Ming</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>I discuss the factorization-compatible definitions of transverse-momentumdependent (TMD) pion <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are fundamental theory inputs entering QCD factorization formulae for many hard exclusive processes. I will first demonstrate that the soft subtraction factor introduced to remove both rapidity and pinch singularities can be greatly reduced by making the maximal use of the freedom to construct the Wilson-line paths when defining the TMD <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. I will then turn to show that the newly proposed TMD definition with non-dipolarWilson lines is equivalent to the one with dipolar gauge links and with a complicated soft <span class="hlt">function</span>, to all orders of the perturbative expansion in the strong coupling, as far as the infrared behavior is concerned.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23670000','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23670000"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span> front and coherence optimization in coherent diffractive imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ge, X; Boutu, W; Gauthier, D; Wang, F; Borta, A; Barbrel, B; Ducousso, M; Gonzalez, A I; Carré, B; Guillaumet, D; Perdrix, M; Gobert, O; Gautier, J; Lambert, G; Maia, F R N C; Hajdu, J; Zeitoun, P; Merdji, H</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>We present single shot nanoscale imaging using a table-top femtosecond soft X-ray laser harmonic source at a wavelength of 32 nm. We show that the phase retrieval process in coherent diffractive imaging critically depends on beam quality. Coherence and image fidelity are measured from single-shot coherent diffraction patterns of isolated nano-patterned slits. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of flux, <span class="hlt">wave</span> front and coherence of the soft X-ray beam on the phase retrieval process and the image quality are discussed. After beam improvements, a final image reconstruction is presented with a spatial resolution of 78 nm (half period) in a single 20 fs laser harmonic shot.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhB...49mLT02A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhB...49mLT02A"><span id="translatedtitle">Fully differential study of <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet scattering in ionization of helium by proton <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arthanayaka, T.; Lamichhane, B. R.; Hasan, A.; Gurung, S.; Remolina, J.; Borbély, S.; Járai-Szabó, F.; Nagy, L.; Schulz, M.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We present a fully differential study of projectile coherence effects in ionization in p + He collisions. The experimental data are qualitatively reproduced by a non-perturbative ab initio time-dependent model, which treats the projectile coherence properties in terms of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet. A comparison between first- and higher-order treatments shows that the observed interference structures are primarily due to a coherent superposition of different <span class="hlt">impact</span> parameters leading to the same scattering angle. Higher-order contributions have a significant effect on the interference term.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034716','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034716"><span id="translatedtitle">Frequency-domain Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> for radar <span class="hlt">waves</span> in heterogeneous 2.5D media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ellefsen, K.J.; Croize, D.; Mazzella, A.T.; McKenna, J.R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> for radar <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating in heterogeneous 2.5D media might be calculated in the frequency domain using a hybrid method. The model is defined in the Cartesian coordinate system, and its electromagnetic properties might vary in the x- and z-directions, but not in the y-direction. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> propagation in the x- and z-directions is simulated with the finite-difference method, and <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the y-direction is simulated with an analytic <span class="hlt">function</span>. The absorbing boundaries on the finite-difference grid are perfectly matched layers that have been modified to make them compatible with the hybrid method. The accuracy of these numerical Greens <span class="hlt">functions</span> is assessed by comparing them with independently calculated Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span>. For a homogeneous model, the magnitude errors range from -4.16% through 0.44%, and the phase errors range from -0.06% through 4.86%. For a layered model, the magnitude errors range from -2.60% through 2.06%, and the phase errors range from -0.49% through 2.73%. These numerical Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> might be used for forward modeling and full waveform inversion. ?? 2009 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9641E..0LQ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9641E..0LQ"><span id="translatedtitle">Bumps of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> structure <span class="hlt">function</span> in non-Kolmogorov turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qiao, Chunhong; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Haitao; Huang, Honghua; Fan, Chengyu</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The analytical expressions for <span class="hlt">wave</span> structure <span class="hlt">function</span> of plane and spherical <span class="hlt">waves</span> are derived both in the viscous dissipation and inertial range. Due to previously research, there is a discrepancy between theoretical results and the experimental datum in viscous dissipation range. In this paper, only considering the inertial range, taking plane <span class="hlt">waves</span> for example, we give a comparison of results of WSF calculated by the analytical formula obtained in this paper and the numerical calculations of the definition at the fixed parameter (i.e., the generalized exponent α), it can be seen that the two results are in agreement with each other exactly. Based on non-Kolmogorov power spectrum, new characteristics for <span class="hlt">wave</span> structure <span class="hlt">function</span> (WSF) have been found for plane and spherical <span class="hlt">wave</span> models when the different ratio of inner scale l0 and outer scale of turbulence L0 is obtained. In outer scale assumed finite case (i.e., L0 =1m), WSF obtains the maximum when α approximates to 3.3 both for plane and spherical <span class="hlt">wave</span> models. In outer scale assumed infinite case (i.e., L0 = ∞), the WSF can be sorted into three parts, including two rapid-rising regions (i.e., 3.0 < α < 3.3 and 3.8 < α < 4.0 ) and one gently rising region (i.e., 3.3 < α < 3.8 ).Further, the changes of scaled WSF versus the ratio of separation distance and inner scale ( p/ l0 ) are investigated under mentioned above conditions for two models. In L0 = 1m case, both for plane and spherical <span class="hlt">waves</span>, the value of α determines the bump position of WSF. In L0 = ∞ case, the bump of scaled WSF disappears when the generalized exponent has large values. The changings of scaled WSF monotonically increase as α increased when the generalized exponent is larger than11/3 for two models. Besides, the properties of spherical <span class="hlt">waves</span> are similar to plane <span class="hlt">waves</span>, except which the values of WSF and the scaled WSF are smaller than plane ones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.162A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.162A"><span id="translatedtitle">Past analogs of recent climate anomalies and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in Portugal. Droughts, storms and heat <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alcoforado, M. J.; Nunes, M. F.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>An indexed reconstruction of precipitation variability, based on documentary and instrumental data, has been done for southern Portugal starting in 1675. The descriptions of the extreme events in the documentary sources have also supplied information about their <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. We will compare past and recent extreme weather events in Portugal, their causes and their <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on society. We have selected periods of winter droughts, of storms that triggered great floods and of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. There are a number of documentary sources dating from 1693-94 indicating that that there was no rainfall from December 1693 to at least November 1694 with the exception of light showers in June. Several pro-pluvia rogations ceremonies took place all over the country, even in the Northwest that is generally rainy. There are numerous descriptions of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of droughts on agriculture, of shortage of cereals, of escalating prices and the subsequent generalised famine. An analogy will be made for the 20th century using the 1980-81 winter drought that lasted roughly the same time and which also had severe social and economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The decrease in production of hydroelectric energy (50% below average) between January and July 1981 is also pointed out. In both cases, the lack of rainfall was partly due to a ridge that stayed over the Eastern Atlantic and kept Iberia in aerologic shelter. Apart from urban flash floods there are two types of floods in Portugal: (i) floods from the big river basins (Tagus, Mondego and Douro) that are due to the frequent passage of westerly frontal depressions during days or weeks; and (ii) floods of the small river basins due to convective depressions that affect small areas. The December 1739 flood, caused by the overflow of the great rivers, will be compared with the ones that occurred in February 1978. Both were caused by intensive precipitation all over the country at a time when the soil was already saturated with water from previous rainfall. The damages</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27001206','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27001206"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-spectral Metasurface for Different <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Control of Reflection <span class="hlt">Waves</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Cheng; Pan, Wenbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Xiangang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Metasurface have recently generated much interest due to its strong manipulation of electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> and its easy fabrication compared to bulky metamaterial. Here, we propose the design of a multi-spectral metasurface that can achieve beam deflection and broadband diffusion simultaneously at two different frequency bands. The metasurface is composed of two-layered metallic patterns backed by a metallic ground plane. The top-layer metasurface utilizes the cross-line structures with two different dimensions for producing 0 and π reflection phase response, while the bottom-layer metasurface is realized by a topological morphing of the I-shaped patterns for creating the gradient phase distribution. The whole metasurface is demonstrated to independently control the reflected <span class="hlt">waves</span> to realize different <span class="hlt">functions</span> at two bands when illuminated by a normal linear-polarized <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Both simulation and experimental results show that the beam deflection is achieved at K-band with broadband diffusion at X-Ku band.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4802343','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4802343"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-spectral Metasurface for Different <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Control of Reflection <span class="hlt">Waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Cheng; Pan, Wenbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Xiangang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Metasurface have recently generated much interest due to its strong manipulation of electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> and its easy fabrication compared to bulky metamaterial. Here, we propose the design of a multi-spectral metasurface that can achieve beam deflection and broadband diffusion simultaneously at two different frequency bands. The metasurface is composed of two-layered metallic patterns backed by a metallic ground plane. The top-layer metasurface utilizes the cross-line structures with two different dimensions for producing 0 and π reflection phase response, while the bottom-layer metasurface is realized by a topological morphing of the I-shaped patterns for creating the gradient phase distribution. The whole metasurface is demonstrated to independently control the reflected <span class="hlt">waves</span> to realize different <span class="hlt">functions</span> at two bands when illuminated by a normal linear-polarized <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Both simulation and experimental results show that the beam deflection is achieved at K-band with broadband diffusion at X-Ku band. PMID:27001206</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160007473&hterms=gilbert&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dgilbert','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160007473&hterms=gilbert&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dgilbert"><span id="translatedtitle">A Proton-Cyclotron <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Storm Generated by Unstable Proton Distribution <span class="hlt">Functions</span> in the Solar Wind</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wicks, R. T.; Alexander, R. L.; Stevens, M.; Wilson, L. B., III; Moya, P. S.; Vinas, A.; Jian, L. K.; Roberts, D. A.; O’Modhrain, S.; Gilbert, J. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We use audification of 0.092 seconds cadence magnetometer data from the Wind spacecraft to identify <span class="hlt">waves</span> with amplitudes greater than 0.1 nanoteslas near the ion gyrofrequency (approximately 0.1 hertz) with duration longer than 1 hour during 2008. We present one of the most common types of event for a case study and find it to be a proton-cyclotron <span class="hlt">wave</span> storm, coinciding with highly radial magnetic field and a suprathermal proton beam close in density to the core distribution itself. Using linear Vlasov analysis, we conclude that the long-duration, large-amplitude <span class="hlt">waves</span> are generated by the instability of the proton distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>. The origin of the beam is unknown, but the radial field period is found in the trailing edge of a fast solar wind stream and resembles other events thought to be caused by magnetic field footpoint motion or interchange reconnection between coronal holes and closed field lines in the corona.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27001206','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27001206"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-spectral Metasurface for Different <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Control of Reflection <span class="hlt">Waves</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Cheng; Pan, Wenbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Xiangang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Metasurface have recently generated much interest due to its strong manipulation of electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> and its easy fabrication compared to bulky metamaterial. Here, we propose the design of a multi-spectral metasurface that can achieve beam deflection and broadband diffusion simultaneously at two different frequency bands. The metasurface is composed of two-layered metallic patterns backed by a metallic ground plane. The top-layer metasurface utilizes the cross-line structures with two different dimensions for producing 0 and π reflection phase response, while the bottom-layer metasurface is realized by a topological morphing of the I-shaped patterns for creating the gradient phase distribution. The whole metasurface is demonstrated to independently control the reflected <span class="hlt">waves</span> to realize different <span class="hlt">functions</span> at two bands when illuminated by a normal linear-polarized <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Both simulation and experimental results show that the beam deflection is achieved at K-band with broadband diffusion at X-Ku band. PMID:27001206</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/244625','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/244625"><span id="translatedtitle">Heavy quark fragmentation <span class="hlt">functions</span> for D-<span class="hlt">wave</span> quarkonium and charmed beauty mesons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cheung, K.; Yuan, T.C.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>At the large transverse momentum region, the production of heavy-heavy bound-states such as charmonium, bottomonium, and {anti b}c mesons in high energy e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and hadronic collisions is dominated by parton fragmentation. The authors calculate the heavy quark fragmentation <span class="hlt">functions</span> into the D-<span class="hlt">wave</span> quarkonium and {anti b}c mesons to leading order in the strong coupling constant and in the non-relativistic expansion. In the {anti b}c meson case, one set of its D-<span class="hlt">wave</span> states is expected to lie below the open flavor threshold. The total fragmentation probability for a {anti b} antiquark to split into the D-<span class="hlt">wave</span> {anti b}c mesons is about 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}, which implies that only 2% of the total pseudo-scalar ground state B{sub c} comes from the cascades of these orbitally excited states.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApGeo..13..333Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApGeo..13..333Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Dispersion <span class="hlt">function</span> of Rayleigh <span class="hlt">waves</span> in porous layered half-space system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yan, Shou-Guo; Xie, Fu-Li; Li, Chang-Zheng; Zhang, Bi-Xing</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> exploration is based on an elastic layered half-space model. If practical formations contain porous layers, these layers need to be simplified as an elastic medium. We studied the effects of this simplification on the results of Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> exploration. Using a half-space model with coexisting porous and elastic layers, we derived the dispersion <span class="hlt">functions</span> of Rayleigh <span class="hlt">waves</span> in a porous layered half-space system with porous layers at different depths, and the problem of transferring variables to matrices of different orders is solved. To solve the significant digit overflow in the multiplication of transfer matrices, we propose a simple, effective method. Results suggest that dispersion curves differ in a lowfrequency region when a porous layer is at the surface; otherwise, the difference is small.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ECSS...82..426L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ECSS...82..426L"><span id="translatedtitle">Artificial reef effect and fouling <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on offshore <span class="hlt">wave</span> power foundations and buoys - a pilot study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Langhamer, Olivia; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Engström, Jens</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Little is known about the effects of offshore energy installations on the marine environment, and further research could assist in minimizing environmental risks as well as in enhancing potential positive effects on the marine environment. While biofouling on marine energy conversion devices on one hand has the potential to be an engineering concern, these structures can also affect biodiversity by <span class="hlt">functioning</span> as artificial reefs. The Lysekil Project is a test park for <span class="hlt">wave</span> power located at the Swedish west coast. Here, buoys acting as point absorbers on the surface are connected to generators anchored on concrete foundations on the seabed. In this study we investigated the colonisation of foundations by invertebrates and fish, as well as fouling assemblages on buoys. We examined the influence of surface orientation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> power foundations on epibenthic colonisation, and made observations of habitat use by fish and crustaceans during three years of submergence. We also examined fouling assemblages on buoys and calculated the effects of biofouling on the energy absorption of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> power buoys. On foundations we demonstrated a succession in colonisation over time with a higher degree of coverage on vertical surfaces. Buoys were dominated by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Calculations indicated that biofouling have no significant effect in the energy absorption on a buoy working as a point absorber. This study is the first structured investigation on marine organisms associated with <span class="hlt">wave</span> power devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20699192','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20699192"><span id="translatedtitle">Analytic solution of the Schroedinger equation for the Coulomb-plus-linear potential. I. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Plante, Guillaume; Antippa, Adel F.</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>We solve the Schroedinger equation for a quark-antiquark system interacting via a Coulomb-plus-linear potential, and obtain the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> as power series, with their coefficients given in terms of the combinatorics <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23714123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23714123"><span id="translatedtitle">Reliability assessment of different plate theories for elastic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation analysis in <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded plates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mehrkash, Milad; Azhari, Mojtaba; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The importance of elastic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation problem in plates arises from the application of ultrasonic elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in non-destructive evaluation of plate-like structures. However, precise study and analysis of acoustic guided <span class="hlt">waves</span> especially in non-homogeneous waveguides such as <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded plates are so complicated that exact elastodynamic methods are rarely employed in practical applications. Thus, the simple approximate plate theories have attracted much interest for the calculation of <span class="hlt">wave</span> fields in FGM plates. Therefore, in the current research, the classical plate theory (CPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT) are used to obtain the transient responses of flexural <span class="hlt">waves</span> in FGM plates subjected to transverse impulsive loadings. Moreover, comparing the results with those based on a well recognized hybrid numerical method (HNM), we examine the accuracy of the plate theories for several plates of various thicknesses under excitations of different frequencies. The material properties of the plate are assumed to vary across the plate thickness according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents. In all analyses, spatial Fourier transform together with modal analysis are applied to compute displacement responses of the plates. A comparison of the results demonstrates the reliability ranges of the approximate plate theories for elastic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation analysis in FGM plates. Furthermore, based on various examples, it is shown that whenever the plate theories are used within the appropriate ranges of plate thickness and frequency content, solution process in <span class="hlt">wave</span> number-time domain based on modal analysis approach is not only sufficient but also efficient for finding the transient waveforms in FGM plates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94k5166H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94k5166H"><span id="translatedtitle">Majorana <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> oscillations, fermion parity switches, and disorder in Kitaev chains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hegde, Suraj S.; Vishveshwara, Smitha</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We study the decay and oscillations of Majorana fermion <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and ground-state (GS) fermion parity in one-dimensional topological superconducting lattice systems. Using a Majorana transfer matrix method, we find that Majorana <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> properties are encoded in the associated Lyapunov exponent, which in turn is the sum of two independent components: a "superconducting component," which characterizes the gap induced decay, and the "normal component," which determines the oscillations and response to chemical potential configurations. The topological phase transition separating phases with and without Majorana end modes is seen to be a cancellation of these two components. We show that Majorana <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> oscillations are completely determined by an underlying nonsuperconducting tight-binding model and are solely responsible for GS fermion parity switches in finite-sized systems. These observations enable us to analytically chart out <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> oscillations, the resultant GS parity configuration as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of parameter space in uniform wires, and special parity switch points where degenerate zero energy Majorana modes are restored in spite of finite size effects. For disordered wires, we find that band oscillations are completely washed out leading to a second localization length for the Majorana mode and the remnant oscillations are randomized as per Anderson localization physics in normal systems. Our transfer matrix method further allows us to (i) reproduce known results on the scaling of midgap Majorana states and demonstrate the origin of its log-normal distribution, (ii) identify contrasting behavior of disorder-dependent GS parity switches for the cases of even versus odd number of lattice sites, and (iii) chart out the GS parity configuration and associated parity switch points as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of disorder strength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24528802','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24528802"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of consecutive freshwater trimix dives at altitude on human cardiovascular <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lozo, Mislav; Madden, Dennis; Gunjaca, Grgo; Ljubkovic, Marko; Marinovic, Jasna; Dujic, Zeljko</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving is regularly associated with numerous asymptomatic changes in cardiovascular <span class="hlt">function</span>. Freshwater SCUBA diving presents unique challenges compared with open sea diving related to differences in water density and the potential for dive locations at altitude. The aim of this study was to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of freshwater trimix diving at altitude on human cardiovascular <span class="hlt">function</span>. Ten divers performed two dives in consecutive days at 294 m altitude with the surface interval of 24 h. Both dives were at a depth of 45 m with total dive time 29 and 26 min for the first and second dive, respectively. Assessment of venous gas embolization, hydration status, cardiac <span class="hlt">function</span> and arterial stiffness was performed. Production of venous gas emboli was low, and there were no significant differences between the dives. After the first dive, diastolic blood pressure was significantly reduced, which persisted up to 24 h. Left ventricular stroke volume decreased, and heart rate increased after both dives. Pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity was unchanged following the dives. However, the central and peripheral augmentation index became more negative after both dives, indicating reduced <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection. Ejection duration and round trip travel time were prolonged 24 h after the first dive, suggesting longer-lasting suppression of cardiac and endothelial <span class="hlt">function</span>. This study shows that freshwater trimix dives with conservative profiles and low venous gas bubble loads can result in multiple asymptomatic acute cardiovascular changes some of which were present up to 24 h after dive. PMID:24528802</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24528802','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24528802"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of consecutive freshwater trimix dives at altitude on human cardiovascular <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lozo, Mislav; Madden, Dennis; Gunjaca, Grgo; Ljubkovic, Marko; Marinovic, Jasna; Dujic, Zeljko</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving is regularly associated with numerous asymptomatic changes in cardiovascular <span class="hlt">function</span>. Freshwater SCUBA diving presents unique challenges compared with open sea diving related to differences in water density and the potential for dive locations at altitude. The aim of this study was to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of freshwater trimix diving at altitude on human cardiovascular <span class="hlt">function</span>. Ten divers performed two dives in consecutive days at 294 m altitude with the surface interval of 24 h. Both dives were at a depth of 45 m with total dive time 29 and 26 min for the first and second dive, respectively. Assessment of venous gas embolization, hydration status, cardiac <span class="hlt">function</span> and arterial stiffness was performed. Production of venous gas emboli was low, and there were no significant differences between the dives. After the first dive, diastolic blood pressure was significantly reduced, which persisted up to 24 h. Left ventricular stroke volume decreased, and heart rate increased after both dives. Pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity was unchanged following the dives. However, the central and peripheral augmentation index became more negative after both dives, indicating reduced <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection. Ejection duration and round trip travel time were prolonged 24 h after the first dive, suggesting longer-lasting suppression of cardiac and endothelial <span class="hlt">function</span>. This study shows that freshwater trimix dives with conservative profiles and low venous gas bubble loads can result in multiple asymptomatic acute cardiovascular changes some of which were present up to 24 h after dive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21120667','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21120667"><span id="translatedtitle">Single <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater <span class="hlt">functions</span> for ion bombardment of silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kalyanasundaram, N.; Ghazisaeidi, M.; Freund, J. B.; Johnson, H. T.</p> <p>2008-03-31</p> <p>The average effect of a single 500 eV incident argon ion on a silicon surface is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. More than 10{sup 3} ion <span class="hlt">impacts</span> at random surface points are averaged for each of seven incidence angles, from 0 deg. to 28 deg. off normal, to determine a local surface height change <span class="hlt">function</span>, or a crater <span class="hlt">function</span>. The crater shapes are mostly determined by mass rearrangement; sputtering has a relatively small effect. Analytical fitting <span class="hlt">functions</span> are provided for several cases, and may serve as input into kinetic Monte Carlo calculations or stability analyses for surfaces subjected to ion bombardment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRC..11512009H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRC..11512009H"><span id="translatedtitle">Coupling of surge and <span class="hlt">waves</span> for an Ivan-like hurricane <span class="hlt">impacting</span> the Tampa Bay, Florida region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Yong; Weisberg, Robert H.; Zheng, Lianyuan</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The interactions between <span class="hlt">waves</span> and storm surge are investigated using an unstructured grid, coupled <span class="hlt">wave</span>-surge model forced by a hypothetical Ivan-like hurricane <span class="hlt">impacting</span> the Tampa Bay, Florida region. The <span class="hlt">waves</span> derived from the unstructured version of the third-generation <span class="hlt">wave</span> model simulating <span class="hlt">waves</span> nearshore. The surge derives from the unstructured Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model, to which <span class="hlt">wave</span>-induced forces (based on radiation stress theory) are added to the traditional forces by winds and atmospheric pressure. Dependent upon complex bathymetry and geometry, the <span class="hlt">wave</span>-induced forces result in an additional 0.3˜0.5 m of surge relative to an uncoupled, surge-only simulation, and the increase in coastal sea level by the storm surge adds some 1.0˜1.5 m to the significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> heights nearshore. Such strong interactions through coupling suggest that <span class="hlt">waves</span> should not be omitted in hurricane storm surge simulations, especially because the forces by <span class="hlt">waves</span> on coastal structures are perhaps the most damaging of the hurricane related forces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=planning+AND+organizations&pg=3&id=EJ956485','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=planning+AND+organizations&pg=3&id=EJ956485"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of IQ Discrepancy on Executive <span class="hlt">Function</span> in High-<span class="hlt">Functioning</span> Autism: Insight into Twice Exceptionality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kalbfleisch, M. Layne; Loughan, Ashlee R.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We examined the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of IQ discrepancy (IQD) within (1) and above (1+) one standard deviation on executive <span class="hlt">function</span> in HFA using the BRIEF. We hypothesized that IQD would benefit executive <span class="hlt">function</span>. IQD 1 is hallmarked by deficits in BRIEF indices and subscales inhibit, shift, initiate, working memory, planning and organization, and monitor…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5036765','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5036765"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Heat <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Definitions on the Added Effect of Heat <span class="hlt">Waves</span> on Cardiovascular Mortality in Beijing, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dong, Wentan; Zeng, Qiang; Ma, Yue; Li, Guoxing; Pan, Xiaochuan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> are associated with increased mortality, however, few studies have examined the added effect of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Moreover, there is limited evidence for the influence of different heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> definitions (HWs) on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, the capital of China. The aim of this study was to find the best HW definitions for cardiovascular mortality, and we examined the effect modification by an individual characteristic on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, a typical northern city in China. We applied a Poisson generalized additive approach to estimate the differences in cardiovascular mortality during heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> (using 12 HWs) compared with non-heat-<span class="hlt">wave</span> days in Beijing from 2006 to 2009. We also validated the model fit by checking the residuals to ensure that the autocorrelation was successfully removed. In addition, the effect modifications by individual characteristics were explored in different HWs. Our results showed that the associations between heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> and cardiovascular mortality differed from different HWs. HWs using the 93th percentile of the daily average temperature (27.7 °C) and a duration ≥5 days had the greatest risk, with an increase of 18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 6%, 31%) in the overall population, 24% (95% CI: 10%, 39%) in an older group (ages ≥65 years), and 22% (95% CI: 3%, 44%) in a female group. The added effect of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> was apparent after 5 consecutive heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> days for the overall population and the older group. Females and the elderly were at higher risk than males and younger subjects (ages <65 years). Our findings suggest that heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> definitions play a significant role in the relationship between heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> and cardiovascular mortality. Using a suitable definition may have implications for designing local heat early warning systems and protecting the susceptible populations during heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. PMID:27657103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261712','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261712"><span id="translatedtitle">Expansion of X-ray form factor for close shell using uncorrelated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>AL-Robayi, Enas M.</p> <p>2013-12-16</p> <p>The atomic scattering factor has been studied for Be+ve, and B+2ve ions using the uncorrelated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> (Hartree-Fock (HF)) for inter particle electronic shells. The physical importance of this factor appears in its relation to several important atomic properties as, the coherent scattering intensity, the total scattering intensity, the incoherent scattering <span class="hlt">function</span>, the coherent scattering cross section, the total incoherent cross section, the nuclear magnetic shielding constant, the geometrical structure factor. Also there is one atomic properties the one particle radial density distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> D(r)has been studied using the partitioning technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CoPhC.181.2098P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CoPhC.181.2098P"><span id="translatedtitle">An accurate Fortran code for computing hydrogenic continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> at a wide range of parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peng, Liang-You; Gong, Qihuang</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The accurate computations of hydrogenic continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are very important in many branches of physics such as electron-atom collisions, cold atom physics, and atomic ionization in strong laser fields, etc. Although there already exist various algorithms and codes, most of them are only reliable in a certain ranges of parameters. In some practical applications, accurate continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> need to be calculated at extremely low energies, large radial distances and/or large angular momentum number. Here we provide such a code, which can generate accurate hydrogenic continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and corresponding Coulomb phase shifts at a wide range of parameters. Without any essential restrict to angular momentum number, the present code is able to give reliable results at the electron energy range [10,10] eV for radial distances of [10,10] a.u. We also find the present code is very efficient, which should find numerous applications in many fields such as strong field physics. Program summaryProgram title: HContinuumGautchi Catalogue identifier: AEHD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1233 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7405 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran90 in fixed format Computer: AMD Processors Operating system: Linux RAM: 20 MBytes Classification: 2.7, 4.5 Nature of problem: The accurate computation of atomic continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is very important in many research fields such as strong field physics and cold atom physics. Although there have already existed various algorithms and codes, most of them can only be applicable and reliable in a certain range of parameters. We present here an accurate FORTRAN program for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25856327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25856327"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> monitoring in soil using a dynamic fiber sensor based on stimulated brillouin scattering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cui, Qingsong; Pamukcu, Sibel; Pervizpour, Mesut</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> response of soil due to a ball drop is monitored on a 30.5 cm by 30.5 cm square soil box using a fiber sensor with dynamic strain sensing capability. The experiments are conducted in real time using a simple one-laser one-modulator configuration with stimulated Brillouin scattering. The embedded BOTDA sensor grid successfully monitored the distribution and evolution of the inner strains of a sand bed during a mass <span class="hlt">impact</span> on its surface. The measurement of the distributed dynamic strains was possible in several milliseconds and with 1 cm actual location resolution. This paper presents a time-domain signal analysis utilized for determining the dynamic strains in embedded fiber sensor. The results demonstrate the method to be a promising one for detection of subsurface vibration and movement in geotechnical Structure Health Monitoring (SHM).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4431247','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4431247"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Monitoring in Soil Using a Dynamic Fiber Sensor Based on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cui, Qingsong; Pamukcu, Sibel; Pervizpour, Mesut</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> response of soil due to a ball drop is monitored on a 30.5 cm by 30.5 cm square soil box using a fiber sensor with dynamic strain sensing capability. The experiments are conducted in real time using a simple one-laser one-modulator configuration with stimulated Brillouin scattering. The embedded BOTDA sensor grid successfully monitored the distribution and evolution of the inner strains of a sand bed during a mass <span class="hlt">impact</span> on its surface. The measurement of the distributed dynamic strains was possible in several milliseconds and with 1 cm actual location resolution. This paper presents a time-domain signal analysis utilized for determining the dynamic strains in embedded fiber sensor. The results demonstrate the method to be a promising one for detection of subsurface vibration and movement in geotechnical Structure Health Monitoring (SHM). PMID:25856327</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25856327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25856327"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> monitoring in soil using a dynamic fiber sensor based on stimulated brillouin scattering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cui, Qingsong; Pamukcu, Sibel; Pervizpour, Mesut</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> response of soil due to a ball drop is monitored on a 30.5 cm by 30.5 cm square soil box using a fiber sensor with dynamic strain sensing capability. The experiments are conducted in real time using a simple one-laser one-modulator configuration with stimulated Brillouin scattering. The embedded BOTDA sensor grid successfully monitored the distribution and evolution of the inner strains of a sand bed during a mass <span class="hlt">impact</span> on its surface. The measurement of the distributed dynamic strains was possible in several milliseconds and with 1 cm actual location resolution. This paper presents a time-domain signal analysis utilized for determining the dynamic strains in embedded fiber sensor. The results demonstrate the method to be a promising one for detection of subsurface vibration and movement in geotechnical Structure Health Monitoring (SHM). PMID:25856327</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18247891','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18247891"><span id="translatedtitle">Determining tomographic arrival times based on matched filter processing: considering the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lewis, James K</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Reflection of high-frequency acoustic signals from an air-sea interface with <span class="hlt">waves</span> is considered in terms of determining travel times for acoustic tomography. <span class="hlt">Wave</span>-induced, multi-path rays are investigated to determine how they influence the assumption that the time of the largest matched filter magnitude between the source and receiver signals is the best estimate of the arrival time of the flat-surface specular ray path. A simple reflection model is developed to consider the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of in-plane, multi-path arrivals on the signal detected by a receiver. It is found that the number of multi-path rays between a source and receiver increases significantly with the number of times the ray paths strike the ocean surface. In test cases, there was always one of the multi-path rays that closely followed the flat-surface specular ray path. But all the multi-path rays arrive at the receiver almost simultaneously, resulting in interference with the signal from the flat-surface specular ray path. As a result, multi-path arrivals due to open ocean surface <span class="hlt">waves</span> often distort the received signal such that maxima of matched filtering magnitudes will not always be a reliable indicator of the arrival time of flat-surface specular ray paths.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.2685S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.2685S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of current-<span class="hlt">wave</span> interaction on storm surge simulation: A case study for Hurricane Bob</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Yunfang; Chen, Changsheng; Beardsley, Robert C.; Xu, Qichun; Qi, Jianhua; Lin, Huichan</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Hurricane Bob moved up the U.S. east coast and crossed over southern New England and the Gulf of Maine [with peak marine winds up to 54 m/s (100 mph)] on 19-20 August 1991, causing significant damage along the coast and shelf. A 3-D fully <span class="hlt">wave</span>-current-coupled finite-volume community ocean model system was developed and applied to simulate and examine the coastal ocean responses to Hurricane Bob. Results from process study-oriented experiments showed that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span>-current interaction on surge elevation varied in space and time, more significant over the shelf than inside the inner bays. While sea level change along the coast was mainly driven by the water flux controlled by barotropic dynamics and the vertically integrated highest water transports were essentially the same for cases with and without water stratification, the hurricane-induced <span class="hlt">wave</span>-current interaction could generate strong vertical current shear in the stratified areas, leading to a strong offshore transport near the bottom and vertical turbulent mixing over the continental shelf. Stratification could also result in a significant difference of water currents around islands where the water is not vertically well mixed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11516213J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11516213J"><span id="translatedtitle">Composite analysis of dust <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on African easterly <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer era</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jury, Mark R.; Santiago, Myrna J.</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>This study examines the synoptic scale <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of African dust on easterly <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the tropical northeast Atlantic. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer aerosol optical depth (AOD), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration products, and National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis fields in the Atlantic main hurricane development region (MDR) form the basis for statistical analysis of a limited set of cases objectively selected for the 2000-2008 hurricane seasons when thresholds are exceeded for sea surface temperature (SST), easterly wind shear, cyclonic vorticity, and upward motion. After ranking African easterly <span class="hlt">waves</span> by AOD, the top (dusty) and bottom (clean) cases are studied as composite differences. African dust and subsidence cause temperatures to warm ˜3°C in the 700 hPa layer, while SSTs cause temperatures to cool, stabilizing the atmosphere. Increased AOD and strong (10 m s-1) 600 hPa easterly winds limit cloud efficiency through shear and oversupply of condensation nuclei. Vertical section composites demonstrate that warm dry subsident air coincides with the African dust plume in the latitudes 18°N-30°N. Hurricane reanalysis data indicate that higher AOD in the MDR reduces chances for the intensification of African easterly <span class="hlt">waves</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.500k2022E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.500k2022E"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> adhesion test for composite bonds by pulsed laser and mechanical <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ecault, R.; Boustie, M.; Touchard, F.; Arrigoni, M.; Berthe, L.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Evaluating the bonding quality of composite material is becoming one of the main challenges faced by aeronautic industries. This work aims to the development of a technique using shock <span class="hlt">wave</span>, which would enable to quantify the bonding mechanical quality. Laser shock experiments were carried out. This technique enables high tensile stress generation in the thickness of composite bonds. The resulting damage has been quantified using different methods such as confocal microscopy, ultrasound and cross section observation. The discrimination between a correct bond and a weak bond was possible thanks to these experiments. Nevertheless, laser sources are not well adapted for optimization of such a test because of often fixed settings. That is why mechanical <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on bonded composites were also performed in this work. By changing the thickness of aluminum projectiles, the generated tensile stresses by the shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation were moved toward the composite/bond interface. The made observations prove that the technique optimization is possible. The key parameters for the development of a bonding test using shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> have been identified.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..SHK.Y6004E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..SHK.Y6004E"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> adhesion test for composite bonds by laser pulsed and mechanical <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ecault, Romain; Boustie, Michel; Touchard, Fabienne; Arrigoni, Michel; Berthe, Laurent; CNRS Collaboration</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Evaluating the bonding quality of composite material is becoming one of the main challenges faced by aeronautic industries. This work aims the development of a technique using shock <span class="hlt">wave</span>, which would enable to quantify the bonding mechanical quality. Laser shock experiments were carried out. This technique enables high tensile stress generation in the thickness of composite bond without any mechanical contact. The resulting damage has been quantified using different method such as confocal microscopy, ultrasound and cross section observation. The discrimination between a correct bond and a weak bond was possible thanks to these experiments. Nevertheless, laser sources are not well adapted for optimization of such a test since it has often fixed parameters. That is why mechanical <span class="hlt">impacts</span> bonded composites were also performed in this work. By changing the thickness of aluminum projectiles, the tensile stresses generated by the shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation were moved toward the composite/bond interface. The observations made prove that the optimization of the technique is possible. The key parameters for the development of a bonding test using shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> have been identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22488668','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22488668"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetic Alfven <span class="hlt">wave</span> in the presence of kappa distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> in plasma sheet boundary layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shrivastava, G. Ahirwar, G.; Shrivastava, J.</p> <p>2015-07-31</p> <p>The particle aspect approach is adopted to investigate the trajectories of charged particles in the electromagnetic field of kinetic Alfven <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Expressions are found for the dispersion relation, damping/growth rate and associated currents in the presence of kappa distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>. Kinetic effect of electrons and ions are included to study kinetic Alfven <span class="hlt">wave</span> because both are important in the transition region. It is found that the ratio β of electron thermal energy density to magnetic field energy density and the ratio of ion to electron thermal temperature (T{sub i}/T{sub e}), and kappa distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> affect the dispersion relation, damping/growth rate and associated currents in both cases(warm and cold electron limit).The treatment of kinetic Alfven <span class="hlt">wave</span> instability is based on assumption that the plasma consist of resonant and non resonant particles. The resonant particles participate in an energy exchange process, whereas the non resonant particles support the oscillatory motion of the <span class="hlt">wave</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21035829','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21035829"><span id="translatedtitle">Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded piezoelectric materials by stiffness matrix method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ben Salah, Issam; Wali, Yassine; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>A numerical matrix method relative to the propagation of ultrasonic guided <span class="hlt">waves</span> in <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded piezoelectric heterostructure is given in order to make a comparative study with the respective performances of analytical methods proposed in literature. The preliminary obtained results show a good agreement, however numerical approach has the advantage of conceptual simplicity and flexibility brought about by the stiffness matrix method. The propagation behaviour of Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in a <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) is investigated in this article. It involves a thin FGPM layer bonded perfectly to an elastic substrate. The inhomogeneous FGPM heterostructure has been stratified along the depth direction, hence each state can be considered as homogeneous and the ordinary differential equation method is applied. The obtained solutions are used to study the effect of an exponential gradient applied to physical properties. Such numerical approach allows applying different gradient variation for mechanical and electrical properties. For this case, the obtained results reveal opposite effects. The dispersive curves and phase velocities of the Love <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the layered piezoelectric film are obtained for electrical open and short cases on the free surface, respectively. The effect of gradient coefficients on coupled electromechanical factor, on the stress fields, the electrical potential and the mechanical displacement are discussed, respectively. Illustration is achieved on the well known heterostructure PZT-5H/SiO(2), the obtained results are especially useful in the design of high-performance acoustic surface devices and accurately prediction of the Love <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation behaviour.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24964297','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24964297"><span id="translatedtitle">Harvesting broadband kinetic <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy from mechanical triggering/vibration and water <span class="hlt">waves</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wen, Xiaonan; Yang, Weiqing; Jing, Qingshen; Wang, Zhong Lin</p> <p>2014-07-22</p> <p>We invented a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) that is based on a wavy-structured Cu-Kapton-Cu film sandwiched between two flat nanostructured PTFE films for harvesting energy due to mechanical vibration/<span class="hlt">impacting</span>/compressing using the triboelectrification effect. This structure design allows the TENG to be self-restorable after <span class="hlt">impact</span> without the use of extra springs and converts direct <span class="hlt">impact</span> into lateral sliding, which is proved to be a much more efficient friction mode for energy harvesting. The working mechanism has been elaborated using the capacitor model and finite-element simulation. Vibrational energy from 5 to 500 Hz has been harvested, and the generator's resonance frequency was determined to be ∼100 Hz at a broad full width at half-maximum of over 100 Hz, producing an open-circuit voltage of up to 72 V, a short-circuit current of up to 32 μA, and a peak power density of 0.4 W/m(2). Most importantly, the wavy structure of the TENG can be easily packaged for harvesting the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy from water <span class="hlt">waves</span>, clearly establishing the principle for ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy harvesting. Considering the advantages of TENGs, such as cost-effectiveness, light weight, and easy scalability, this approach might open the possibility for obtaining green and sustainable energy from the ocean using nanostructured materials. Lastly, different ways of agitating water were studied to trigger the packaged TENG. By analyzing the output signals and their corresponding fast Fourier transform spectra, three ways of agitation were evidently distinguished from each other, demonstrating the potential of the TENG for hydrological analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20717754','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20717754"><span id="translatedtitle">Symmetry properties of the S matrix in a fully relativistic distorted-<span class="hlt">wave</span> treatment of electron-<span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pyper, N. C.; Kampp, Marco; Whelan, Colm T.</p> <p>2005-05-15</p> <p>The symmetry properties of the S matrix in a fully relativistic distorted-<span class="hlt">wave</span> treatment of electron-<span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization are investigated. It is shown that the square modulus of the scattering matrix element in which the spin states of all four electrons are determined is not invariant under the reversal of the direction of alignment of all spins. The largest of two contributions to this noninvariance originates from the relativistic modifications of the continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> induced by the distorting potential of the target atom. A second smaller contribution is manifested on reducing the eight-dimensional matrix elements of the QED covariant propagator to purely spatial two-electron integrals. The triple differential cross section (TDCS) exhibits a spin asymmetry unless the entire scattering process occurs in a single plane. There will be a difference in the TDCS between an (e,2e) event in which the initial beam is polarized parallel or antiparallel with respect to the beam direction even if the target is unpolarized and the final spin states are not determined. The TDCS will remain unchanged if, in addition to reversal of the direction of spin alignment, one appropriate momentum component of one of the two outgoing electrons is reversed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25572112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25572112"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporomandibular joint disorders' <span class="hlt">impact</span> on pain, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and disability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chantaracherd, P; John, M T; Hodges, J S; Schiffman, E L</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the association between more advanced stages of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) intra-articular disorders ("TMJ intra-articular status"), representing a transition from normal joint structure to TMJ disc displacement with and without reduction (DDwR and DDwoR) to degenerative joint disease (DJD), and patient-reported outcomes of jaw pain, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and disability ("TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span>"). This cross-sectional study included 614 cases from the RDC/TMD Validation Project with at least one temporomandibular disorder (TMD) diagnosis. TMJ intra-articular status was determined by 3 blinded, calibrated radiologists using magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography as one of normal joint structure, DDwR, DDwoR, or DJD, representing the subject's most advanced TMJ diagnosis. TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span> was conceptualized as a latent variable consisting of 1) pain intensity (Characteristic Pain Index from the Graded Chronic Pain Scale [GCPS]), 2) jaw <span class="hlt">function</span> (Jaw <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Limitation Scale), and 3) disability (Disability Points from GCPS). A structural equation model estimated the association of TMJ intra-articular status with the latent measure TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span> as a correlation coefficient in all TMD cases (n = 614) and in cases with a TMD pain diagnosis (n = 500). The correlations between TMJ intra-articular status and TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span> were 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.04 to 0.13) for all TMD cases and 0.07 (95% CI, -0.04 to 0.17) for cases with a pain diagnosis, which are neither statistically significant nor clinically relevant. Conceptualizing worsening of TMJ intra-articular disorders as 4 stages and characterizing <span class="hlt">impact</span> from TMD as a composite of jaw pain, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and disability, this cross-sectional study found no clinically significant association. Models of TMJ intra-articular status other than ours (normal structure → DDwR → DDwoR → DJD) should be explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMSA43A1562P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMSA43A1562P"><span id="translatedtitle">The Transfer <span class="hlt">Function</span> Model (TFM) as a Tool for Simulating Gravity <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Phenomena in the Mesosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Porter, H.; Mayr, H.; Moore, J.; Wilson, S.; Armaly, A.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The Transfer <span class="hlt">Function</span> Model (TFM) is semi-analytical and linear, and it is designed to describe the acoustic gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> (GW) propagating over the globe and from the ground to 600 km under the influence of vertical temperature variations. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> interactions with the flow are not accounted for. With an expansion in terms of frequency-dependent spherical harmonics, the time consuming vertical integration of the conservation equations is reduced to computing the transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> (TF). (The applied lower and upper boundary conditions assure that spurious <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflections will not occur.) The TF describes the dynamical properties of the medium divorced from the complexities of the temporal and horizontal variations of the excitation source. Given the TF, the atmospheric response to a chosen source is then obtained in short order to simulate the GW propagating through the atmosphere over the globe. In the past, this model has been applied to study auroral processes, which produce distinct <span class="hlt">wave</span> phenomena such as: (1) standing lamb modes that propagate horizontally in the viscous medium of the thermosphere, (2) <span class="hlt">waves</span> generated in the auroral oval that experience geometric amplification propagating to the pole where constructive interference generates secondary <span class="hlt">waves</span> that propagate equatorward, (3) ducted modes propagating through the middle atmosphere that leak back into the thermosphere, and (4) GWs reflected from the Earth's surface that reach the thermosphere in a narrow propagation cone. Well-defined spectral features characterize these <span class="hlt">wave</span> modes in the TF to provide analytical understanding. We propose the TFM as a tool for simulating GW in the mesosphere and in particular the features observed in Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC). With present-day computers, it takes less than one hour to compute the TF, so that there is virtually no practical limitation on the source configurations that can be applied and tested in the lower atmosphere. And there is no limitation on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992IJMPA...7.3713K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992IJMPA...7.3713K"><span id="translatedtitle">ζ-<span class="hlt">FUNCTION</span> Technique for Quantum Cosmology:. the Contributions of Matter Fields to the Hartle-Hawking <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> of the Universe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamenshchik, A. Yu.; Mishakov, I. V.</p> <p></p> <p>We investigate the contributions of matter fields to the Hartle-Hawking <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of the Universe in the one-loop approximation. The values ζ(0), which describe the scaling behavior of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> calculated on the background representing the part of four-dimensional DeSitter sphere, are calculated for scalar, electromagnetic, graviton, spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 fields. The ζ-<span class="hlt">function</span> technique is used and developed for these calculations. The obtained results can be applied to a detailed investigation of the structure of the Hartle-Hawking <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14514182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14514182"><span id="translatedtitle">The acoustical Klein-Gordon equation: the <span class="hlt">wave</span>-mechanical step and barrier potential <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Forbes, Barbara J; Pike, E Roy; Sharp, David B</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>The transformed form of the Webster equation is investigated. Usually described as analogous to the Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics, it is noted that the second-order time dependency defines a Klein-Gordon problem. This "acoustical Klein-Gordon equation" is analyzed with particular reference to the acoustical properties of <span class="hlt">wave</span>-mechanical potential <span class="hlt">functions</span>, U(x), that give rise to geometry-dependent dispersions at rapid variations in tract cross section. Such dispersions are not elucidated by other one-dimensional--cylindrical or conical--duct models. Since Sturm-Liouville analysis is not appropriate for inhomogeneous boundary conditions, the exact solution of the Klein-Gordon equation is achieved through a Green's-<span class="hlt">function</span> methodology referring to the transfer matrix of an arbitrary string of square potential <span class="hlt">functions</span>, including a square barrier equivalent to a radiation impedance. The general conclusion of the paper is that, in the absence of precise knowledge of initial conditions on the area <span class="hlt">function</span>, any given potential <span class="hlt">function</span> will map to a multiplicity of area <span class="hlt">functions</span> of identical relative resonance characteristics. Since the potential <span class="hlt">function</span> maps uniquely to the acoustical output, it is suggested that the one-dimensional <span class="hlt">wave</span> physics is both most accurately and most compactly described within the Klein-Gordon framework.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000014346&hterms=calculation+vector&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcalculation%2Bvector','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000014346&hterms=calculation+vector&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcalculation%2Bvector"><span id="translatedtitle">Semiclassical Study of the <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Vector Dependence of the Interband <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Ionization Rate in Bulk Silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yang; Brennan, Kevin F.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>We present calculations of the interband <span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization rate calculated using a <span class="hlt">wave</span> vector dependent (k-dependent) semiclassical formulation of the transition rate. The transition rate is determined using Fermi's golden rule from a two-body screened Coulomb interaction assuming energy and momentum conservation. The transition rate is calculated for the first two conduction bands of silicon by numerically integrating over the full Brillouin zone. The overlap integrals in the expression for the transition rate are determined numerically using a 15 band k-p calculation. It is found that the transition rate depends strongly on the initiating electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> vector (k vector) and that the transition rate is greatest for electrons originating within the second conduction band than the first conduction band. An ensemble Monte Carlo simulation, which includes the numerically determined ionization transition rate as well as the full details of the first two conduction bands, is used to calculate the total <span class="hlt">impact</span> ionization rate in bulk silicon. Good agreement with the experimentally determined electron ionization rate data is obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRG..117.2029H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRG..117.2029H"><span id="translatedtitle">Catastrophic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of typhoon <span class="hlt">waves</span> on coral communities in the Ryukyu Islands under global warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hongo, Chuki; Kawamata, Hideki; Goto, Kazuhisa</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Typhoon-generated storm <span class="hlt">waves</span> generally cause mechanical damage to coral communities on present-day reefs, and the magnitude and extent of damage is predicted to increase in the near future as a result of global warming. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of potential future scenarios of reef ecosystems is of prime interest. This study assesses the current status of coral communities on Ibaruma reef, Ryukyu Islands, on the basis of field observations, engineering and fluid dynamic models, and calculations of <span class="hlt">wave</span> motion, and predicts the potential effects of a super-extreme typhoon (incident <span class="hlt">wave</span> height,H = 20 m; <span class="hlt">wave</span> period, T = 20 s) on the reef. On the present-day reef, massive corals occur in shallow lagoons and tabular corals occur from the reef crest to the reef slope. The observed distribution of corals, which is frequently attacked by moderate (H = 10 m, T = 10 s) and extreme (H = 10 m, T = 15 s) typhoons, is consistent with the predictions of engineering models. Moreover, this study indicates that if a super-extreme typhoon attacks the reef in the near future, massive corals will survive in the shallow lagoons but tabular corals on the reef crest and reef slope will be severely <span class="hlt">impacted</span>. The findings imply that super-extreme typhoons will cause a loss of species diversity, as the tabular corals are important reef builders and are critical to the maintenance of reef ecosystems. Consequently, reef restoration is a key approach to maintaining reef ecosystems in the wake of super-extreme typhoons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2938863','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2938863"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing Slow <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Sleep with Sodium Oxybate Reduces the Behavioral and Physiological <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Sleep Loss</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Walsh, James K.; Hall-Porter, Janine M.; Griffin, Kara S.; Dodson, Ehren R.; Forst, Elizabeth H.; Curry, Denise T.; Eisenstein, Rhody D.; Schweitzer, Paula K.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Study Objectives: To investigate whether enhancement of slow <span class="hlt">wave</span> sleep (SWS) with sodium oxybate reduces the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sleep deprivation. Design: Double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled design Setting: Sleep research laboratory Participants: Fifty-eight healthy adults (28 placebo, 30 sodium oxybate), ages 18-50 years. Interventions: A 5-day protocol included 2 screening/baseline nights and days, 2 sleep deprivation nights, each followed by a 3-h daytime (08:00-11:00) sleep opportunity and a recovery night. Sodium oxybate or placebo was administered prior to each daytime sleep period. Multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), psychomotor vigilance test (PVT), Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), and Profile of Mood States were administered during waking hours. Measurements and Results: During daytime sleep, the sodium oxybate group had more SWS, more EEG spectral power in the 1-9 Hz range, and less REM. Mean MSLT latency was longer for the sodium oxybate group on the night following the first daytime sleep period and on the day following the second day sleep period. Median PVT reaction time was faster in the sodium oxybate group following the second day sleep period. The change from baseline in SWS was positively correlated with the change in MSLT and KSS. During recovery sleep the sodium oxybate group had less TST, SWS, REM, and slow <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity (SWA) than the placebo group. Conclusions: Pharmacological enhancement of SWS with sodium oxybate resulted in a reduced response to sleep loss on measures of alertness and attention. In addition, SWS enhancement during sleep restriction appears to result in a reduced homeostatic response to sleep loss. Citation: Walsh JK; Hall-Porter JM; Griffin KS; Dodson ER; Forst EH; Curry DT; Eisenstein RD; Schweitzer PK. Enhancing slow <span class="hlt">wave</span> sleep with sodium oxybate reduces the behavioral and physiological <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sleep loss. SLEEP 2010;33(9):1217-1225. PMID:20857869</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25010084','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25010084"><span id="translatedtitle">How child's play <span class="hlt">impacts</span> executive <span class="hlt">function</span>--related behaviors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shaheen, Sandra</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Executive <span class="hlt">functions</span> refer to an array of organizing and self-regulating behaviors often associated with maturation of the prefrontal cortex. In fact, young children with rudimentary neurodevelopment of the prefrontal cortex develop ways to inhibit impulses and regulate behavior from a very early age. Can executive <span class="hlt">functioning</span> be <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by intervention, practice, or training? What interventions <span class="hlt">impact</span> development of executive <span class="hlt">function</span> in childhood, and how can these be studied? Several programs are reviewed that propose to positively <span class="hlt">impact</span> executive/self-regulation skills. Evidence-based programs are contrasted with popular programs that have little empirical basis but have apparent wide acceptance by educators and families. As self-regulation has critical implications for later school and life success, interventions may well attenuate the negative consequences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, brain injury, and social stressors. Programs with active play components may be more successful in eliciting improved executive <span class="hlt">function</span> (defined here as self-regulation) because of the importance of motor learning early on and because of the social motivation aspects of learning. Caution is advised in the recommendation of programs where there is little empirical basis to support program claims. Carefully planned outcome studies can help bring the most effective components of programs to the mainstream. PMID:25010084</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11461411','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11461411"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculations of properties of screened He-like systems using correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dai, S T; Solovyova, A; Winkler, P</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>The purpose of the present study is twofold. First, the techniques of correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for two-electron systems have been extended to obtain results for P and D states in a screening environment, and in particular for Debye screening. In these calculations, the satisfaction of both the quantum virial theorem and a related sum rule has been enforced and found to provide a high degree of stability of the solutions. Second, in order to facilitate the general use of correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in combination with sum rule stability criteria, a rather systematic computational approach to this notoriously cumbersome method has been developed and thoroughly discussed here. Accurate calculations for few-electron systems are of interest to plasma diagnostics; in particular, when inaccuracies in binding energies are drastically magnified as they occur in exponents of Boltzmann factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22587234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22587234"><span id="translatedtitle">Is a system's <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in one-to-one correspondence with its elements of reality?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Colbeck, Roger; Renner, Renato</p> <p>2012-04-13</p> <p>Although quantum mechanics is one of our most successful physical theories, there has been a long-standing debate about the interpretation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>--the central object of the theory. Two prominent views are that (i) it corresponds to an element of reality, i.e., an objective attribute that exists before measurement, and (ii) it is a subjective state of knowledge about some underlying reality. A recent result [M. F. Pusey, J. Barrett, and T. Rudolph, arXiv:1111.3328] has placed the subjective interpretation into doubt, showing that it would contradict certain physically plausible assumptions, in particular, that multiple systems can be prepared such that their elements of reality are uncorrelated. Here we show, based only on the assumption that measurement settings can be chosen freely, that a system's <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is in one-to-one correspondence with its elements of reality. This also eliminates the possibility that it can be interpreted subjectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvC..91c4331Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvC..91c4331Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the Q .Q interaction in terms of unitary 9-j coefficients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zamick, Larry; Harper, Matthew</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We obtain <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for two protons and two neutrons in the g9 /2 shell expressed as column vectors with amplitudes D (Jp,Jn) . When we use a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction (Q .Q ) we get, in many cases, a very strong overlap with <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> given by a single set of unitary 9-j coefficients—U 9 j =<(jj ) 2 j(jjJB|(jj ) Jp(jj ) Jn) I> . Here JB=9 for even I T =0 states. For both even and odd T =1 states we take JB equal to 8 whilst for odd I ,T =0 we take JB to be 7. We compare the Q .Q results with those of a more realistic interaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27588874','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27588874"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions: Role of Topological Nodes in <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> Overlaps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Zhoushen; Balatsky, Alexander V</p> <p>2016-08-19</p> <p>A sudden quantum quench of a Bloch band from one topological phase toward another has been shown to exhibit an intimate connection with the notion of a dynamical quantum phase transition (DQPT), where the returning probability of the quenched state to the initial state-i.e., the Loschmidt echo-vanishes at critical times {t^{*}}. Analytical results to date are limited to two-band models, leaving the exact relation between topology and DQPT unclear. In this Letter, we show that, for a general multiband system, a robust DQPT relies on the existence of nodes (i.e., zeros) in the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> overlap between the initial band and the postquench energy eigenstates. These nodes are topologically protected if the two participating <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> have distinctive topological indices. We demonstrate these ideas in detail for both one and two spatial dimensions using a three-band generalized Hofstadter model. We also discuss possible experimental observations. PMID:27588874</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840019214','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840019214"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span> spectra and modulation transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> with the airborne two frequency scatterometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weissman, D. E.; Johnson, J. W.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The directional spectrum and the microwave modulation transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> of ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span> can be measured with the airborne two frequency scatterometer technique. Similar to tower based observations, the aircraft measurements of the Modulation Transfer <span class="hlt">Function</span> (MTF) show that it is strongly affected by both wind speed and sea state. Also detected are small differences in the magnitudes of the MTF between downwind and upwind radar look directions, and variations with ocean wavenumber. The MTF inferred from the two frequency radar is larger than that measured using single frequency, <span class="hlt">wave</span> orbital velocity techniques such as tower based radars or ROWS measurements from low altitude aircraft. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The ability to measure the ocean directional spectrum with the two frequency scatterometer, with supporting MTF data, is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316303','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316303"><span id="translatedtitle">Second-order corrections to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> at the origin in muonic hydrogen and pionium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ivanov, Vladimir G.; Korzinin, Evgeny Yu.; Karshenboim, Savely G.</p> <p>2009-07-15</p> <p>Nonrelativistic second-order corrections to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> at the origin in muonic and exotic atoms are considered. The corrections are due to the electronic vacuum polarization. Such corrections are of interest due to various effective approaches, which take into account QED and hadronic effects. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> at the origin plays a key role in the calculation of the pionium lifetime, various finite nuclear size effects, and the hyperfine splitting. The results are obtained for the 1s and 2s states in pionic and muonic hydrogen and deuterium and in pionium, a bound system of {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup -}. Applications to the hyperfine structure and the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen are also considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CQGra..33f5003G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CQGra..33f5003G"><span id="translatedtitle">The Hartle-Hawking <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in 2D causal set quantum gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glaser, Lisa; Surya, Sumati</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We define the Hartle-Hawking no-boundary <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for causal set theory (CST) over the discrete analogs of spacelike hypersurfaces. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo and numerical integration methods we analyze the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in non-perturbative 2D CST. We find that in the low-temperature regime it is dominated by causal sets which have no continuum counterparts but possess physically interesting geometric properties. Not only do they exhibit a rapid spatial expansion with respect to the discrete proper time, but a high degree of spatial homogeneity. The latter is due to the extensive overlap of the causal pasts of the elements in the final discrete hypersurface and corresponds to high graph connectivity. Our results thus suggest new possibilities for the role of quantum gravity in the observable Universe.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/901592','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/901592"><span id="translatedtitle">Form Factors and <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> of Vector Mesons in Holographic QCD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hovhannes R. Grigoryan; Anatoly V. Radyushkin</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Within the framework of a holographic dual model of QCD, we develop a formalism for calculating form factors of vector mesons. We show that the holographic bound states can be described not only in terms of eigenfunctions of the equation of motion, but also in terms of conjugate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that are close analogues of quantum-mechanical bound state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. We derive a generalized VMD representation for form factors, and find a very specific VMD pattern, in which form factors are essentially given by contributions due to the first two bound states in the Q^2-channel. We calculate electric radius of the \\rho-meson, finding the value < r_\\rho^2>_C = 0.53 fm^2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11461411','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11461411"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculations of properties of screened He-like systems using correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dai, S T; Solovyova, A; Winkler, P</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>The purpose of the present study is twofold. First, the techniques of correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for two-electron systems have been extended to obtain results for P and D states in a screening environment, and in particular for Debye screening. In these calculations, the satisfaction of both the quantum virial theorem and a related sum rule has been enforced and found to provide a high degree of stability of the solutions. Second, in order to facilitate the general use of correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in combination with sum rule stability criteria, a rather systematic computational approach to this notoriously cumbersome method has been developed and thoroughly discussed here. Accurate calculations for few-electron systems are of interest to plasma diagnostics; in particular, when inaccuracies in binding energies are drastically magnified as they occur in exponents of Boltzmann factors. PMID:11461411</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARP20008C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARP20008C"><span id="translatedtitle">Auxiliary-field based trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in quantum Monte Carlo simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Chia-Chen; Rubenstein, Brenda; Morales, Miguel</p> <p></p> <p>We propose a simple scheme for generating correlated multi-determinant trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for quantum Monte Carlo algorithms. The method is based on the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation which decouples a two-body Jastrow-type correlator into one-body projectors coupled to auxiliary fields. We apply the technique to generate stochastic representations of the Gutzwiller <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, and present benchmark resuts for the ground state energy of the Hubbard model in one dimension. Extensions of the proposed scheme to chemical systems will also be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, 15-ERD-013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.117h6802H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.117h6802H"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions: Role of Topological Nodes in <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> Overlaps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Zhoushen; Balatsky, Alexander V.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>A sudden quantum quench of a Bloch band from one topological phase toward another has been shown to exhibit an intimate connection with the notion of a dynamical quantum phase transition (DQPT), where the returning probability of the quenched state to the initial state—i.e., the Loschmidt echo—vanishes at critical times {t*}. Analytical results to date are limited to two-band models, leaving the exact relation between topology and DQPT unclear. In this Letter, we show that, for a general multiband system, a robust DQPT relies on the existence of nodes (i.e., zeros) in the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> overlap between the initial band and the postquench energy eigenstates. These nodes are topologically protected if the two participating <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> have distinctive topological indices. We demonstrate these ideas in detail for both one and two spatial dimensions using a three-band generalized Hofstadter model. We also discuss possible experimental observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22423683','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22423683"><span id="translatedtitle">Velocity and attenuation of scalar and elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in random media: a spectral <span class="hlt">function</span> approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Calvet, Marie; Margerin, Ludovic</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>This paper investigates the scattering of scalar and elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in two-phase materials and single-mineral-cubic, hexagonal, orthorhombic-polycrystalline aggregates with randomly oriented grains. Based on the Dyson equation for the mean field, explicit expressions for the imaginary part of Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> in the frequency-wavenumber domain (ω, p), also known as the spectral <span class="hlt">function</span>, are derived. This approach allows the identification of propagating modes with their relative contribution, and the computation of both attenuation and phase velocity for each mode. The results should be valid from the Rayleigh (low-frequency) to the geometrical optics (high-frequency) regime. Comparisons with other approaches are presented for both scalar and elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span>. PMID:22423683</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17694104','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17694104"><span id="translatedtitle">Scalar diffraction modeling in optical disk recording using <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> assembling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yin, Bin; Coene, Wim M J; Hekstra, Andries P</p> <p>2007-08-10</p> <p>A new scalar diffraction modeling method for simulating the readout signal of optical disks is described. The information layer is discretized into pixels that are grouped in specific ways to form written and unwritten areas. A set of 2D <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> resulting from these pixels at the detection aperture is established. A readout signal is obtained via the assembly of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> from this set according to the content under the scanning spot. The method allows efficient simulation of jitter noise due to edge deformation of recorded marks, which is important at high densities. It is also capable of simulating a physically irregular mark, thereby helping to understand and optimize the recording process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhRvC..64f4616A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhRvC..64f4616A"><span id="translatedtitle">Extracting the spectral <span class="hlt">function</span> of 4He from a relativistic plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> treatment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abu-Raddad, L. J.; Piekarewicz, J.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>The spectral <span class="hlt">function</span> of 4He is extracted from a plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> approximation to the (e,e'p) reaction using a fully relativistic formalism. We take advantage of both an algebraic ``trick'' and a general relativistic formalism for quasifree processes developed earlier to arrive at transparent, analytical expressions for all quasifree (e,e'p) observables. An observable is identified for the clean and model-independent extraction of the spectral <span class="hlt">function</span>. Our simple relativistic plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> calculations provide baseline predictions for the recently measured, but not yet fully analyzed, momentum distribution of 4He by the A1 Collaboration from Mainz. Yet in spite of its simplicity, our approach predicts momentum distributions for 4He that rival some of the best nonrelativistic calculations to date. Finally, we highlight some of the challenges and opportunities that remain, both theoretically and experimentally, in the extraction of quasifree observables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001APS..HAW.BE010A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001APS..HAW.BE010A"><span id="translatedtitle">Extracting the spectral <span class="hlt">function</span> of He-4 from a relativistic plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> treatment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abu-Raddad, Laith; Piekarewicz, Jorge</p> <p>2001-10-01</p> <p>The spectral <span class="hlt">function</span> of He-4 is extracted from a plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> approximation to the (e,e'p) reaction using a fully relativistic formalism. We take advantage of both an algebraic ``trick'' and a general relativistic formalism for quasifree processes developed earlier to arrive at transparent, analytical expressions for all quasifree (e,e'p) observables. An observable is identified for the clean and model-independent extraction of the spectral <span class="hlt">function</span>. Our simple relativistic plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> calculations provide baseline predictions for the recently measured, but not yet fully analyzed, momentum distribution of He-4 by the A1-collaboration from Mainz. Yet in spite of its simplicity, our approach predicts momentum distributions for He-4 that rival some of the best nonrelativistic calculations to date. Finally, we highlight some of the challenges and opportunities that remain, both theoretically and experimentally, in the extraction of quasifree observables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhB...49n5003S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhB...49n5003S"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-configurational explicitly correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the study of confined many electron atoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarsa, A.; Buendía, E.; Gálvez, F. J.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Explicitly correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> to study confined atoms under impenetrable spherical walls have been obtained. Configuration mixing and a correlation factor are included in the variational ansatz. The behaviors of the ground state and some low-lying excited states of He, Be, B and C atoms with the confinement size are analyzed. Level crossing with confinement is found for some cases. This effect is analyzed in terms of the single particle energy of the occupied orbitals. The multi-configuration parameterized optimized effective potential method is employed with a cut-off factor to account for Dirichlet boundary conditions. The variational Monte Carlo method is used to deal with explicitly correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22416138','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22416138"><span id="translatedtitle">Perturbations in vibrational diatomic spectra: Factorization of the molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lefebvre, R.</p> <p>2015-02-21</p> <p>The coupling between two electronic states of a diatomic molecule may lead to an erratic behaviour of the associated vibrational energies. An example is the homogeneous coupling between the valence b′ state and the Rydberg c′ state of the N{sub 2} molecule, both of symmetry {sup 1}Σ{sub u}{sup +}. The standard treatment of such a situation is to write the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> as a sum of two Born-Oppenheimer products. It has recently been argued [L. S. Cederbaum, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 224110 (2013); N. I. Gidopoulos and E. K. U. Gross, Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A 372, 20130059 (2014)] that even in such a case the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> should be representable as a single product, with an electronic factor depending parametrically on nuclear positions and a nuclear factor. We setup such a representation in the case of the perturbations in the N{sub 2} molecule.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22489640','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22489640"><span id="translatedtitle">Metal-ligand delocalization and spin density in the CuCl{sub 2} and [CuCl{sub 4}]{sup 2−} molecules: Some insights from <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Giner, Emmanuel Angeli, Celestino</p> <p>2015-09-28</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to unravel the physical phenomena involved in the calculation of the spin density of the CuCl{sub 2} and [CuCl{sub 4}]{sup 2−} systems using <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods. Various types of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are used here, both variational and perturbative, to analyse the effects <span class="hlt">impacting</span> the spin density. It is found that the spin density on the chlorine ligands strongly depends on the mixing between two types of valence bond structures. It is demonstrated that the main difficulties found in most of the previous studies based on <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods come from the fact that each valence bond structure requires a different set of molecular orbitals and that using a unique set of molecular orbitals in a variational procedure leads to the removal of one of them from the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Starting from these results, a method to compute the spin density at a reasonable computational cost is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6479415','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6479415"><span id="translatedtitle">Short range structure of hadron and nuclear <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> at high x</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hoyer, P.; Brodsky, S.J.</p> <p>1990-11-01</p> <p>We discuss the short-range structure of hadronic and nuclear <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> expected in QCD. In addition to the extrinsic'' contributions associated with radiation from single partons, there is an intrinsic'' hardness of the high-mass fluctuations of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> due to the spatial overlap of two or more partons. We argue that intrinsically-hard partons, having large mass and/or large transverse momentum, will dominate in the region of large Feynman x{sub F}. Their rescattering in nuclear targets is expected to be larger than for extrinsically-hard partons, leading to a suppressed production cross section for hadrons scattering on heavy nuclei. Experimental evidence for this exists for open chars. J/{psi}, and {gamma} production at large x{sub F}. The effects of intrinsic hardness may be particularly striking in nuclear <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, where the overlap of partons belonging to different nucleons can give rise to cumulative (x > 1) phenomena. The data on backward cumulative particle production from nuclei supports the existence of an intrinsically-hard component in nuclear <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Partons at large x{sub F} may also be associated with the enhanced subthreshold production of particles observed in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. We discuss the evidence for anomalies in the large angle pp {yields} pp cross section near the charm threshold. Arguments are presented that chromium states may bind to nuclei through the QCD Van der Waals force. This would lead to a striking signal in charm production near threshold. 49 refs., 7 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16907269','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16907269"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding the 5/2 fractional quantum Hall effect without the Pfaffian <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Toke, Csaba; Jain, Jainendra K</p> <p>2006-06-23</p> <p>It is demonstrated that an understanding of the 5/2 fractional quantum Hall effect can be achieved within the composite fermion theory without appealing to the Pfaffian <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. The residual interaction between composite fermions plays a crucial role in establishing incompressibility at this filling factor. This approach has the advantage of being amenable to systematic perturbative improvements, and produces ground as well as excited states. It, however, does not relate to non-Abelian statistics in any obvious manner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4821617B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4821617B"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> upon Venus' thermal structure in the thermosphere based upon VTGCM simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brecht, Amanda; Bougher, Stephen W.; Parkinson, Chris; Shields, Drew; Liu, Hanli</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Observations of the Venusian thermal structure have been conducted by Venus Express (VEx) and its multiple instruments (i.e. SOIR, SPICAV, and VIRTIS). These VEx observations are being combined with ground based observations to create a single comprehensive database. Thus far, these observations are continuing to reveal the significant variability of Venus' upper atmosphere structure, thereby motivating an analysis of the driver(s) of this variability. A likely driver of this variability is <span class="hlt">wave</span> deposition. Evidence of <span class="hlt">waves</span> has been observed, but these <span class="hlt">waves</span> have not been completely analyzed to understand how and where they are important.The Venus Thermospheric General Circulation Model (VTGCM) will be utilized to examine the role planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> play in driving Venus' thermosphere structure and variability (~80 – 200 km). Planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> (Kelvin and Rossby <span class="hlt">waves</span>) have been incorporated at the lower boundary of the VTGCM. The atmospheric response to these <span class="hlt">waves</span> will be analyzed and presented. Specifically, the simulated thermal structure will be presented with and without planetary scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> (e.g. Kelvin and Rossby <span class="hlt">waves</span>) to (1) characterize the magnitude of change; structural change; and location of greatest <span class="hlt">impact</span> and (2) compare with VEx and ground based observations. Since the thermal structure is strongly dependent on the global circulation, the corresponding wind and density distributions (e.g. CO2 and CO) will also be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070021694','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070021694"><span id="translatedtitle">Working With the <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Equation in Aeroacoustics: The Pleasures of Generalized <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Dunn, mark H.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The theme of this paper is the applications of generalized <span class="hlt">function</span> (GF) theory to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation in aeroacoustics. We start with a tutorial on GFs with particular emphasis on viewing <span class="hlt">functions</span> as continuous linear <span class="hlt">functionals</span>. We next define operations on GFs. The operation of interest to us in this paper is generalized differentiation. We give many applications of generalized differentiation, particularly for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation. We discuss the use of GFs in finding Green s <span class="hlt">function</span> and some subtleties that only GF theory can clarify without ambiguities. We show how the knowledge of the Green s <span class="hlt">function</span> of an operator L in a given domain D can allow us to solve a whole range of problems with operator L for domains situated within D by the imbedding method. We will show how we can use the imbedding method to find the Kirchhoff formulas for stationary and moving surfaces with ease and elegance without the use of the four-dimensional Green s theorem, which is commonly done. Other subjects covered are why the derivatives in conservation laws should be viewed as generalized derivatives and what are the consequences of doing this. In particular we show how we can imbed a problem in a larger domain for the identical differential equation for which the Green s <span class="hlt">function</span> is known. The primary purpose of this paper is to convince the readers that GF theory is absolutely essential in aeroacoustics because of its powerful operational properties. Furthermore, learning the subject and using it can be fun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARL22009C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARL22009C"><span id="translatedtitle">Many-body Localization Transition in Rokhsar-Kivelson-type <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Xiao; Yu, Xiongjie; Cho, Gil Young; Clark, Bryan; Fradkin, Eduardo</p> <p></p> <p>We construct a family of many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> to study the many-body localization phase transition. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> have a Rokhsar-Kivelson form, in which the weight for the configurations are chosen from the Gibbs weights of a classical spin glass model, known as the Random Energy Model, multiplied by a random sign structure to represent a highly excited state. These <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> show a phase transition into an MBL phase. In addition, we see three regimes of entanglement scaling with subsystem size: scaling with entanglement corresponding to an infinite temperature thermal phase, constant scaling, and a sub-extensive scaling between these limits. Near the phase transition point, the fluctuations of the Renyi entropies are non-Gaussian. We find that Renyi entropies with different Renyi index transition into the MBL phase at different points and have different scaling behavior, suggesting a multifractal behavior. This work was supported in part by DMR-1064319 and DMR-1408713 (XC,GYC,EF) at the University of Illinois, PHY11-25915 at KITP (EF), DOE, SciDAC FG02-12ER46875 (BKC and XY), and the Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project of Korea Government (GYC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22217845','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22217845"><span id="translatedtitle">Emergence of complex and spinor <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in scale relativity. I. Nature of scale variables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nottale, Laurent; Célérier, Marie-Noëlle</p> <p>2013-11-15</p> <p>One of the main results of scale relativity as regards the foundation of quantum mechanics is its explanation of the origin of the complex nature of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. The scale relativity theory introduces an explicit dependence of physical quantities on scale variables, founding itself on the theorem according to which a continuous and non-differentiable space-time is fractal (i.e., scale-divergent). In the present paper, the nature of the scale variables and their relations to resolutions and differential elements are specified in the non-relativistic case (fractal space). We show that, owing to the scale-dependence which it induces, non-differentiability involves a fundamental two-valuedness of the mean derivatives. Since, in the scale relativity framework, the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is a manifestation of the velocity field of fractal space-time geodesics, the two-valuedness of velocities leads to write them in terms of complex numbers, and yields therefore the complex nature of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, from which the usual expression of the Schrödinger equation can be derived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011881','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011881"><span id="translatedtitle">The seismic response of an aquifer to the propagation of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> generated shock <span class="hlt">wave</span>: A possible trigger of the Martian outflow channels?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leyva, Ivett A.; Clifford, Stephen M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Aquifer dilation from shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> produced by the 8.4 magnitude Alaskan earthquake of 1964 led to water and sediment ejection from the ground up to 400 km away from the earthquake's epicenter. Groundwater disturbances were observed as far away as Perry, Florida (approximately 5500 km), where well water fluctuations with an amplitude of as much as 2.3 m were reported. The martian cratering record provides evidence that the planet has experienced numerous seismic events of a similar, and often much greater, magnitude. Given this fact, and the photogeologic evidence for abundant water in the early crust, the response of a basalt aquifer to the propagation of compressional <span class="hlt">waves</span> (P-<span class="hlt">waves</span>) produced by <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in the 33-1000 km diameter size range were investigated. The resulting one-dimensional changes in effective stress and pore pressure were calculated - as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of both distance and time - based on the following assumptions: (1) that all of the seismic energy radiated by an <span class="hlt">impact</span> is transmitted as a single compressional <span class="hlt">wave</span>; (2) that both the host rock and groundwater are compressible; and (3) that there is no net flow between the water-filled pores.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21164674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21164674"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of cost <span class="hlt">functions</span> on inverse lithography patterning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, Jue-Chin; Yu, Peichen</p> <p>2010-10-25</p> <p>For advanced CMOS processes, inverse lithography promises better patterning fidelity than conventional mask correction techniques due to a more complete exploration of the solution space. However, the success of inverse lithography relies highly on customized cost <span class="hlt">functions</span> whose design and know-how have rarely been discussed. In this paper, we investigate the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of various objective <span class="hlt">functions</span> and their superposition for inverse lithography patterning using a generic gradient descent approach. We investigate the most commonly used objective <span class="hlt">functions</span>, which are the resist and aerial images, and also present a derivation for the aerial image contrast. We then discuss the resulting pattern fidelity and final mask characteristics for simple layouts with a single isolated contact and two nested contacts. We show that a cost <span class="hlt">function</span> composed of a dominant resist-image component and a minor aerial-image or image-contrast component can achieve a good mask correction and contour targets when using inverse lithography patterning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26340103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26340103"><span id="translatedtitle">Pathways and <span class="hlt">functions</span> of gut microbiota metabolism <span class="hlt">impacting</span> host physiology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krishnan, Smitha; Alden, Nicholas; Lee, Kyongbum</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The bacterial populations in the human intestine <span class="hlt">impact</span> host physiological <span class="hlt">functions</span> through their metabolic activity. In addition to performing essential catabolic and biotransformation <span class="hlt">functions</span>, the gut microbiota produces bioactive small molecules that mediate interactions with the host and contribute to the neurohumoral axes connecting the intestine with other parts of the body. This review discusses recent progress in characterizing the metabolic products of the gut microbiota and their biological <span class="hlt">functions</span>, focusing on studies that investigate the responsible bacterial pathways and cognate host receptors. Several key areas are highlighted for future development: context-based analysis targeting pathways; integration of analytical approaches; metabolic modeling; and synthetic systems for in vivo manipulation of microbiota <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Prospectively, these developments could further our mechanistic understanding of host-microbiota interactions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH53A..08E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH53A..08E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Waves</span> generated by Asteroid <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and their effects on US shorelines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ezzedine, S. M.; Miller, P. L.; Dearborn, D. S.; Dennison, D. S.; Glascoe, L. G.; Antoun, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>On February 15, 2013 an undetected ~17-20-m diameter asteroid entered earth's atmosphere and, due to its large entry speed of 18.6 km/s and its shallow entry angle, the asteroid exploded in an airburst over Chelyabinsk, Russia, generating a bright flash, producing many small fragment meteorites and causing a powerful shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> which released the equivalent of ~440 kt TNT of energy. About 16 hours after the Chelyabinsk asteroid, the elongated ~20m by ~40m (~30 m diameter) NEA 2012 DA14 with an estimated mass of 40 kt neared the earth surface at ~28,100km, ~2.2 earth's diameter. These two consecutive events, which were unrelated and had drastically different orbits, generated considerable attention and awareness from the public, confusion among the local residents, and raised the issue of emergency response and preparedness of local, state and government agencies. LLNL and other government agencies have performed numerical simulations of a postulated asteroid <span class="hlt">impact</span> onto the ocean and generated data to support an emergency preparedness exercise. We illustrate the exercise through the application of several codes from source (asteroid entry) to ocean <span class="hlt">impact</span> (splash rim) to <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation, propagation and interaction with the shoreline. Using state-of-the-art high performance computing codes we simulate three <span class="hlt">impact</span> sites; one site is located off the eat coat by Maryland's shoreline and two other sites on the west coast: the San Francisco bay and the Los Angeles bay shorelines, respectively. Simulations were conducted not only under deterministic conditions but also under conditions of uncertainty. Uncertainty assessment of flood hazards zones and structural integrity of infrastructures will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and partially funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL under tracking code 12-ERD</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4336155','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4336155"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporomandibular Joint Disorders’ <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Pain, <span class="hlt">Function</span>, and Disability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chantaracherd, P.; John, M.T.; Hodges, J.S.; Schiffman, E.L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the association between more advanced stages of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) intra-articular disorders (“TMJ intra-articular status”), representing a transition from normal joint structure to TMJ disc displacement with and without reduction (DDwR and DDwoR) to degenerative joint disease (DJD), and patient-reported outcomes of jaw pain, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and disability (“TMD impact”). This cross-sectional study included 614 cases from the RDC/TMD Validation Project with at least one temporomandibular disorder (TMD) diagnosis. TMJ intra-articular status was determined by 3 blinded, calibrated radiologists using magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography as one of normal joint structure, DDwR, DDwoR, or DJD, representing the subject’s most advanced TMJ diagnosis. TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span> was conceptualized as a latent variable consisting of 1) pain intensity (Characteristic Pain Index from the Graded Chronic Pain Scale [GCPS]), 2) jaw <span class="hlt">function</span> (Jaw <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Limitation Scale), and 3) disability (Disability Points from GCPS). A structural equation model estimated the association of TMJ intra-articular status with the latent measure TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span> as a correlation coefficient in all TMD cases (n = 614) and in cases with a TMD pain diagnosis (n = 500). The correlations between TMJ intra-articular status and TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span> were 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], −0.04 to 0.13) for all TMD cases and 0.07 (95% CI, −0.04 to 0.17) for cases with a pain diagnosis, which are neither statistically significant nor clinically relevant. Conceptualizing worsening of TMJ intra-articular disorders as 4 stages and characterizing <span class="hlt">impact</span> from TMD as a composite of jaw pain, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and disability, this cross-sectional study found no clinically significant association. Models of TMJ intra-articular status other than ours (normal structure → DDwR → DDwoR → DJD) should be explored. PMID:25572112</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G33A0815D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G33A0815D"><span id="translatedtitle">Crustal thickness estimation in the Maule Region (Chile) from P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dannowski, A.; Grevemeyer, I.; Thorwart, M. M.; Rabbel, W.; Flueh, E. R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>A temporary passive seismic network of 31 broad-band stations was deployed in the region around Talca and Constitución between 35°S to 36°S latitude and 71°W to 72.5°W longitude. The network was operated between March and October 2008. Thus, we recorded data prior the magnitude Mw=8.8 earthquake of 27 February 2010 at a latitude of the major slip and surface uplift. The experiment was conducted to address fundamental questions on deformation processes, crustal and mantle structures, and fluid flow. We present first results of a teleseismic P receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> study that covers the coastal region and reaches to the Andes. The aim is to determine the structure and thickness of the continental crust and constrain the state of hydration of the mantle wedge. The P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> technique requires large teleseismic earthquakes from different distances and backazimuths. A few percent of the incident P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> energy from a teleseismic event will be converted into S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> (Ps) at significant and relatively sharp discontinuities beneath the station. A small converted S phase is produced that arrives at the station within the P <span class="hlt">wave</span> coda directly after the direct P-<span class="hlt">wave</span>. The converted Ps phase and their crustal multiples contain information about crustal properties, such as Moho depth and the crustal vp/vs ratio. We use teleseismic events with magnitudes mb > 5.5 at epicentral distances between 30° and 95° to examine P-to-S converted seismic phases. Our preliminary results provide new information about the thickness of the continental crust beneath the coastal region in Central Chile. At most of the stations we observed significant energy from P to S converted <span class="hlt">waves</span> between 4 and 5 s after the direct P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> within a positive phase interpreted as the Moho, occurring at 35 to 40 km. Thus, the great Maule earthquake of 27 February 2010 nucleated up-dip of the continental Moho and hence ruptured along a plate contact between subducted sediments and continental crust</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24676473','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24676473"><span id="translatedtitle">Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cavalcanti-Galdino, M K; Silva, J A da; Mendes, L C; Santos, N A da; Simas, M L B</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity <span class="hlt">function</span> (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11088246','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11088246"><span id="translatedtitle">Plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> superpositions defined by orthonormal scalar <span class="hlt">functions</span> on two- and three-dimensional manifolds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borzdov</p> <p>2000-04-01</p> <p>Vector plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> superpositions defined by a given set of orthonormal scalar <span class="hlt">functions</span> on a two- or three-dimensional manifold-beam manifold-are treated. We present a technique for composing orthonormal beams and some other specific types of fields such as three-dimensional standing <span class="hlt">waves</span>, moving and evolving whirls. It can be used for any linear fields, in particular, electromagnetic fields in complex media and elastic fields in crystals. For electromagnetic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in an isotropic medium or free space, unique families of exact solutions of Maxwell's equations are obtained. The solutions are illustrated by calculating fields, energy densities, and energy fluxes of beams defined by the spherical harmonics. It is shown that the obtained results can be used for a transition from the plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> approximation to more accurate models of real incident beams in free-space techniques for characterizing complex media. A mathematical formalism convenient for the treatment of various beams defined by the spherical harmonics is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4075296','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4075296"><span id="translatedtitle">Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cavalcanti-Galdino, M.K.; da Silva, J.A.; Mendes, L.C.; dos Santos, N.A.; Simas, M.L.B.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity <span class="hlt">function</span> (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions. PMID:24676473</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11570758','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11570758"><span id="translatedtitle">Acoustic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in continuous <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded plates: an extension of the Legendre polynomial approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lefebvre, J E; Zhang, V; Gazalet, J; Gryba, T; Sadaune, V</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p>The propagation of guided <span class="hlt">waves</span> in continuous <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded plates is studied by using Legendre polynomials. Dispersion curves, and power and field profiles are easily obtained. Our computer program is validated by comparing our results against other calculations from the literature. Numerical results are also given for a graded semiconductor plate. It is felt that the present method could be of quite practical interest in waveguiding engineering, non-destructive testing of <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded materials (FGMs) to identify the best inspection strategies, or by means of a numerical inversion algorithm to determine through-thickness gradients in material parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JApSc...8..358M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JApSc...8..358M"><span id="translatedtitle">Explicit Solution of Nonlinear ZK-BBM <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Equation Using Exp-<span class="hlt">Function</span> Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mahmoudi, J.; Tolou, N.; Khatami, I.; Barari, A.; Ganji, D. D.</p> <p></p> <p>This study is devoted to studying the (2+1)-dimensional ZK-BBM (Zakharov-Kuznetsov-Benjamin-Bona-Mahony) <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation in an analytical solution. The analysis is based on the implementation a new method, called Exp-<span class="hlt">function</span> method. The obtained results from the proposed approximate solution have been verified with those obtained by the extended tanh method. It shows that the obtained results of these methods are the same; while Exp-<span class="hlt">function</span> method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations of engineering problems in the terms of accuracy and efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27051997','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27051997"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming event and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on cold weather over Eurasia: Role of planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Zelin, Cai; Pogoreltsev, Alexander Ivanovich; Wei, Ke</p> <p>2016-04-07</p> <p>In the present study, we investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of stratospheric planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection on tropospheric weather over Central Eurasia during the 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) event. We analyze EP fluxes and Plumb <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity fluxes to study the two and three dimensional aspects of <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation, respectively. The 2013 SSW event is excited by the combined influence of wavenumber 1 (WN1) and wavenumber 2 (WN2) planetary <span class="hlt">waves</span>, which makes the event an unusual one and seems to have significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on tropospheric weather regime. We observe an extraordinary development of a ridge over the Siberian Tundra and the North Pacific during first development stage (last week of December 2012) and later from the North Atlantic in the second development stage (first week of January 2013), and these <span class="hlt">waves</span> appear to be responsible for the excitation of the WN2 pattern during the SSW. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> packets propagated upward and were then reflected back down to central Eurasia due to strong negative wind shear in the upper stratospheric polar jet, caused by the SSW event. <span class="hlt">Waves</span> that propagated downward led to the formation of a deep trough over Eurasia and brought extreme cold weather over Kazakhstan, the Southern part of Russia and the Northwestern part of China during mid-January 2013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4823715','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4823715"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming event and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on cold weather over Eurasia: Role of planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Zelin, Cai; Pogoreltsev, Alexander Ivanovich; Wei, Ke</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In the present study, we investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of stratospheric planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection on tropospheric weather over Central Eurasia during the 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) event. We analyze EP fluxes and Plumb <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity fluxes to study the two and three dimensional aspects of <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation, respectively. The 2013 SSW event is excited by the combined influence of wavenumber 1 (WN1) and wavenumber 2 (WN2) planetary <span class="hlt">waves</span>, which makes the event an unusual one and seems to have significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on tropospheric weather regime. We observe an extraordinary development of a ridge over the Siberian Tundra and the North Pacific during first development stage (last week of December 2012) and later from the North Atlantic in the second development stage (first week of January 2013), and these <span class="hlt">waves</span> appear to be responsible for the excitation of the WN2 pattern during the SSW. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> packets propagated upward and were then reflected back down to central Eurasia due to strong negative wind shear in the upper stratospheric polar jet, caused by the SSW event. <span class="hlt">Waves</span> that propagated downward led to the formation of a deep trough over Eurasia and brought extreme cold weather over Kazakhstan, the Southern part of Russia and the Northwestern part of China during mid-January 2013. PMID:27051997</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CPL...571...77H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CPL...571...77H"><span id="translatedtitle">Fragment-based configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> to calculate environmental effect on excited states in proteins and solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hasegawa, Jun-ya</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Solvatochromic effect in proteins and solutions was described by a configuration interaction singles (CIS) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> with fragment-localized molecular orbitals. Coarse-grained analysis indicated that the CI <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> can be described by local excitations and charge-transfer (CT) excitations between the chromophore and the environment. We developed an atomic-orbital direct runcated CIS code and applied the excited states of retinal chromophore in bacteriorhodopsin and MeOH environments, and those of s-trans-acrolein in water. Number of excitation operators was significantly reduced by eliminating the CT excitations between the environmental fragments. The truncated CIS <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> reproduced the original excitation energies very well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23004636','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23004636"><span id="translatedtitle">Model <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the collective modes and the magnetoroton theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Bo; Hu, Zi-Xiang; Papić, Z; Haldane, F D M</p> <p>2012-06-22</p> <p>We construct model <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the collective modes of fractional quantum Hall systems. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are expressed in terms of symmetric polynomials characterized by a root partition that defines a "squeezed" basis, and show excellent agreement with exact diagonalization results for finite systems. In the long wavelength limit, we prove that the model <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are identical to those predicted by the single-mode approximation, leading to intriguing interpretations of the collective modes from the perspective of the ground-state guiding-center metric.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1997721','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1997721"><span id="translatedtitle">Chronic effects of focused electrohydraulic shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> on renal <span class="hlt">function</span> and hypertension.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Begun, F P; Knoll, C E; Gottlieb, M; Lawson, R K</p> <p>1991-03-01</p> <p>The chronic effects of focused electrohydraulic shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> were studied in a minipig model. Fifteen animals underwent a unilateral nephrectomy and compensatory renal hypertrophy was allowed to take place over a minimum of six months. Baseline studies were then carried out consisting of 1) serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and plasma renin levels 2) intra-arterial blood pressure measurement and 3) 3H-inulin clearance. Ten of the animals then underwent 8 shockwave treatments (2500 shocks per treatment), alternately to the upper and lower pole of the kidney, at two weeks intervals. A total of 20,000 shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> were administered to each minipig over the four month period. The five control pigs underwent sham procedures. The renal <span class="hlt">function</span> and blood pressure evaluations were then repeated. No significant decrease in renal <span class="hlt">function</span> was noted in the experimental animals when compared to the controls. In addition, renin mediated hypertension was not observed despite the excessive number of total shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> delivered to the kidney.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.676..250A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.676..250A"><span id="translatedtitle">Crustal structure of Nigeria and Southern Ghana, West Africa from P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akpan, Ofonime; Nyblade, Andrew; Okereke, Chiedu; Oden, Michael; Emry, Erica; Julià, Jordi</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We report new estimates of crustal thickness (Moho depth), Poisson's ratio and shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> velocities for eleven broadband seismological stations in Nigeria and Ghana. Data used for this study came from teleseismic earthquakes recorded at epicentral distances between 30° and 95° and with moment magnitudes greater than or equal to 5.5. P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> were modeled using the Moho Ps arrival times, H-k stacking, and joint inversion of receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> and Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> group velocities. The average crustal thickness of the stations in the Neoproterozoic basement complex of Nigeria is 36 km, and 23 km for the stations in the Cretaceous Benue Trough. The crustal structure of the Paleoproterozoic Birimian Terrain, and Neoproterozoic Dahomeyan Terrain and Togo Structural Unit in southern Ghana is similar, with an average Moho depth of 44 km. Poisson's ratios for all the stations range from 0.24 to 0.26, indicating a bulk felsic to intermediate crustal composition. The crustal structure of the basement complex in Nigeria is similar to the average crustal structure of Neoproterozoic terrains in other parts of Africa, but the two Neoproterozoic terrains in southern Ghana have a thicker crust with a thick mafic lower crust, ranging in thickness from 12 to 17 km. Both the thicker crust and thick mafic lower crustal section are consistent with many Precambrian suture zones, and thus we suggest that both features are relict from the collisional event during the formation of Gondwana.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1106..183F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AIPC.1106..183F"><span id="translatedtitle">Time Reversal Mirrors and Cross Correlation <span class="hlt">Functions</span> in Acoustic <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fishman, Louis; Jonsson, B. Lars G.; de Hoop, Maarten V.</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>In time reversal acoustics (TRA), a signal is recorded by an array of transducers, time reversed, and then retransmitted into the configuration. The retransmitted signal propagates back through the same medium and retrofocuses on the source that generated the signal. If the transducer array is a single, planar (flat) surface, then this configuration is referred to as a planar, one-sided, time reversal mirror (TRM). In signal processing, for example, in active-source seismic interferometry, the measurement of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> field at two distinct receivers, generated by a common source, is considered. Cross correlating these two observations and integrating the result over the sources yield the cross correlation <span class="hlt">function</span> (CCF). Adopting the TRM experiments as the basic starting point and identifying the kinematically correct correspondences, it is established that the associated CCF signal processing constructions follow in a specific, infinite recording time limit. This perspective also provides for a natural rationale for selecting the Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> components in the TRM and CCF expressions. For a planar, one-sided, TRM experiment and the corresponding CCF signal processing construction, in a three-dimensional homogeneous medium, the exact expressions are explicitly calculated, and the connecting limiting relationship verified. Finally, the TRM and CCF results are understood in terms of the underlying, governing, two-way <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation, its corresponding time reversal invariance (TRI) symmetry, and the absence of TRI symmetry in the associated one-way <span class="hlt">wave</span> equations, highlighting the role played by the evanescent modal contributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27542875','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27542875"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Neurocognitive <span class="hlt">Function</span> and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Continuous Positive Air Pressure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Davies, Charles R; Harrington, John J</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>There is evidence that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can negatively <span class="hlt">impact</span> attention, memory, learning, executive <span class="hlt">function</span>, and overall intellectual <span class="hlt">function</span> in adults and children. Imaging techniques, including MRI, MR diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, and fMRI, have provided additional insight into the anatomic and <span class="hlt">functional</span> underpinnings of OSA-related cognitive impairment. Both animal and human studies have looked to elucidate the separate effects of oxygen desaturation and sleep fragmentation on independent aspects of cognition. Data from animal models point to neuro-inflammation and oxidative stress as driving factors of cognitive impairment. PMID:27542875</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27185944','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27185944"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient neuronal coactivations embedded in globally propagating <span class="hlt">waves</span> underlie resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matsui, Teppei; Murakami, Tomonari; Ohki, Kenichi</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity (FC), which measures the correlation of spontaneous hemodynamic signals (HemoS) between brain areas, is widely used to study brain networks noninvasively. It is commonly assumed that spatial patterns of HemoS-based FC (Hemo-FC) reflect large-scale dynamics of underlying neuronal activity. To date, studies of spontaneous neuronal activity cataloged heterogeneous types of events ranging from <span class="hlt">waves</span> of activity spanning the entire neocortex to flash-like activations of a set of anatomically connected cortical areas. However, it remains unclear how these various types of large-scale dynamics are interrelated. More importantly, whether each type of large-scale dynamics contributes to Hemo-FC has not been explored. Here, we addressed these questions by simultaneously monitoring neuronal calcium signals (CaS) and HemoS in the entire neocortex of mice at high spatiotemporal resolution. We found a significant relationship between two seemingly different types of large-scale spontaneous neuronal activity-namely, global <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating across the neocortex and transient coactivations among cortical areas sharing high FC. Different sets of cortical areas, sharing high FC within each set, were coactivated at different timings of the propagating global <span class="hlt">waves</span>, suggesting that spatial information of cortical network characterized by FC was embedded in the phase of the global <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Furthermore, we confirmed that such transient coactivations in CaS were indeed converted into spatially similar coactivations in HemoS and were necessary to sustain the spatial structure of Hemo-FC. These results explain how global <span class="hlt">waves</span> of spontaneous neuronal activity propagating across large-scale cortical network contribute to Hemo-FC in the resting state. PMID:27185944</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4988587','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4988587"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient neuronal coactivations embedded in globally propagating <span class="hlt">waves</span> underlie resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Matsui, Teppei; Murakami, Tomonari; Ohki, Kenichi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity (FC), which measures the correlation of spontaneous hemodynamic signals (HemoS) between brain areas, is widely used to study brain networks noninvasively. It is commonly assumed that spatial patterns of HemoS-based FC (Hemo-FC) reflect large-scale dynamics of underlying neuronal activity. To date, studies of spontaneous neuronal activity cataloged heterogeneous types of events ranging from <span class="hlt">waves</span> of activity spanning the entire neocortex to flash-like activations of a set of anatomically connected cortical areas. However, it remains unclear how these various types of large-scale dynamics are interrelated. More importantly, whether each type of large-scale dynamics contributes to Hemo-FC has not been explored. Here, we addressed these questions by simultaneously monitoring neuronal calcium signals (CaS) and HemoS in the entire neocortex of mice at high spatiotemporal resolution. We found a significant relationship between two seemingly different types of large-scale spontaneous neuronal activity—namely, global <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating across the neocortex and transient coactivations among cortical areas sharing high FC. Different sets of cortical areas, sharing high FC within each set, were coactivated at different timings of the propagating global <span class="hlt">waves</span>, suggesting that spatial information of cortical network characterized by FC was embedded in the phase of the global <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Furthermore, we confirmed that such transient coactivations in CaS were indeed converted into spatially similar coactivations in HemoS and were necessary to sustain the spatial structure of Hemo-FC. These results explain how global <span class="hlt">waves</span> of spontaneous neuronal activity propagating across large-scale cortical network contribute to Hemo-FC in the resting state. PMID:27185944</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm..tmp...24S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm..tmp...24S"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat, cold, and heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on hospital admissions in eight cities in Korea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Son, Ji-Young; Bell, Michelle L.; Lee, Jong-Tae</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Although the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of temperature on mortality is well documented, relatively fewer studies have evaluated the associations of temperature with morbidity outcomes such as hospital admissions, and most studies were conducted in North America or Europe. We evaluated weather and hospital admissions including specific causes (allergic disease, asthma, selected respiratory disease, and cardiovascular disease) in eight major cities in Korea from 2003 to 2008. We also explored potential effect modification by individual characteristics such as sex and age. We used hierarchical modeling to first estimate city-specific associations between heat, cold, or heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> and hospitalizations, and then estimated overall effects. Stratified analyses were performed by cause of hospitalization, sex, and age (0-14, 15-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years). Cardiovascular hospitalizations were significantly associated with high temperature, whereas hospitalizations for allergic disease, asthma, and selected respiratory disease were significantly associated with low temperature. The overall heat effect for cardiovascular hospitalization was a 4.5 % (95 % confidence interval 0.7, 8.5 %) increase in risk comparing hospitalizations at 25 to 15 °C. For cold effect, the overall increase in risk of hospitalizations comparing 2 with 15 °C was 50.5 (13.7, 99.2 %), 43.6 (8.9, 89.5 %), and 53.6 % (9.8, 114.9 %) for allergic disease, asthma, and selected respiratory disease, respectively. We did not find statistically significant effects of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> compared with nonheat <span class="hlt">wave</span> days. Our results suggest susceptible populations such as women and younger persons. Our findings provide suggestive evidence that both high and low ambient temperatures are associated with the risk of hospital admissions, particularly in women or younger person, in Korea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27388276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27388276"><span id="translatedtitle">Sound <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Energy Resulting from the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Water Drops on the Soil Surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ryżak, Magdalena; Bieganowski, Andrzej; Korbiel, Tomasz</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The splashing of water drops on a soil surface is the first step of water erosion. There have been many investigations into splashing-most are based on recording and analysing images taken with high-speed cameras, or measuring the mass of the soil moved by splashing. Here, we present a new aspect of the splash phenomenon's characterization the measurement of the sound pressure level and the sound energy of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> that propagates in the air. The measurements were carried out for 10 consecutive water drop <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the soil surface. Three soils were tested (Endogleyic Umbrisol, Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol and Haplic Chernozem) with four initial moisture levels (pressure heads: 0.1 kPa, 1 kPa, 3.16 kPa and 16 kPa). We found that the values of the sound pressure and sound <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy were dependent on the particle size distribution of the soil, less dependent on the initial pressure head, and practically the same for subsequent water drops (from the first to the tenth drop). The highest sound pressure level (and the greatest variability) was for Endogleyic Umbrisol, which had the highest sand fraction content. The sound pressure for this soil increased from 29 dB to 42 dB with the next incidence of drops falling on the sample The smallest (and the lowest variability) was for Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol which had the highest clay fraction. For all experiments the sound pressure level ranged from ~27 to ~42 dB and the energy emitted in the form of sound <span class="hlt">waves</span> was within the range of 0.14 μJ to 5.26 μJ. This was from 0.03 to 1.07% of the energy of the incident drops.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4936686','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4936686"><span id="translatedtitle">Sound <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Energy Resulting from the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Water Drops on the Soil Surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ryżak, Magdalena; Bieganowski, Andrzej; Korbiel, Tomasz</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The splashing of water drops on a soil surface is the first step of water erosion. There have been many investigations into splashing–most are based on recording and analysing images taken with high-speed cameras, or measuring the mass of the soil moved by splashing. Here, we present a new aspect of the splash phenomenon’s characterization the measurement of the sound pressure level and the sound energy of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> that propagates in the air. The measurements were carried out for 10 consecutive water drop <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the soil surface. Three soils were tested (Endogleyic Umbrisol, Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol and Haplic Chernozem) with four initial moisture levels (pressure heads: 0.1 kPa, 1 kPa, 3.16 kPa and 16 kPa). We found that the values of the sound pressure and sound <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy were dependent on the particle size distribution of the soil, less dependent on the initial pressure head, and practically the same for subsequent water drops (from the first to the tenth drop). The highest sound pressure level (and the greatest variability) was for Endogleyic Umbrisol, which had the highest sand fraction content. The sound pressure for this soil increased from 29 dB to 42 dB with the next incidence of drops falling on the sample The smallest (and the lowest variability) was for Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol which had the highest clay fraction. For all experiments the sound pressure level ranged from ~27 to ~42 dB and the energy emitted in the form of sound <span class="hlt">waves</span> was within the range of 0.14 μJ to 5.26 μJ. This was from 0.03 to 1.07% of the energy of the incident drops. PMID:27388276</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27388276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27388276"><span id="translatedtitle">Sound <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Energy Resulting from the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Water Drops on the Soil Surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ryżak, Magdalena; Bieganowski, Andrzej; Korbiel, Tomasz</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The splashing of water drops on a soil surface is the first step of water erosion. There have been many investigations into splashing-most are based on recording and analysing images taken with high-speed cameras, or measuring the mass of the soil moved by splashing. Here, we present a new aspect of the splash phenomenon's characterization the measurement of the sound pressure level and the sound energy of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> that propagates in the air. The measurements were carried out for 10 consecutive water drop <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the soil surface. Three soils were tested (Endogleyic Umbrisol, Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol and Haplic Chernozem) with four initial moisture levels (pressure heads: 0.1 kPa, 1 kPa, 3.16 kPa and 16 kPa). We found that the values of the sound pressure and sound <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy were dependent on the particle size distribution of the soil, less dependent on the initial pressure head, and practically the same for subsequent water drops (from the first to the tenth drop). The highest sound pressure level (and the greatest variability) was for Endogleyic Umbrisol, which had the highest sand fraction content. The sound pressure for this soil increased from 29 dB to 42 dB with the next incidence of drops falling on the sample The smallest (and the lowest variability) was for Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol which had the highest clay fraction. For all experiments the sound pressure level ranged from ~27 to ~42 dB and the energy emitted in the form of sound <span class="hlt">waves</span> was within the range of 0.14 μJ to 5.26 μJ. This was from 0.03 to 1.07% of the energy of the incident drops. PMID:27388276</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828059','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828059"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of kudzu and puerarin on sperm <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gray, Sandra L; Lackey, Brett R; Boone, William R</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The goal of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of kudzu (Pueraria mirifica) and the isoflavone puerarin in <span class="hlt">functional</span> toxicological tests on spermatozoa and to assess the affinity of extracts and pure isoflavones for estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and -beta (ERα, ERβ) in receptor binding assays. Capacitation, acrosome reaction and chromatin decondensation in spermatozoa were analyzed using microscopic analysis. Kudzu, but not puerarin, reduced motility of sperm. Puerarin reduced the percent spontaneous acrosome reaction in spermatozoa. The pathways used by kudzu that affect sperm <span class="hlt">function</span> are not fully mirrored by puerarin. Puerarin, kudzu and its other phytoestrogenic components displayed preferential affinity for ERβ, however the diverse effects of kudzu and puerarin on sperm <span class="hlt">function</span> implicate the involvement of multiple signaling systems. PMID:25828059</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8646E..0CK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8646E..0CK"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation delay on latency in optical communication systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Kanno, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yuki; Kitayama, Ken-ichi</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Latency is an important figure to describe performance of transmission systems for particular applications, such as data transfer for earthquake early warning, transaction for financial businesses, interactive services such as online games, etc. Latency consists of delay due to signal processing at nodes and transmitters, and of signal propagation delay due to propagation of electromagnetic <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The lower limit of the latency in transmission systems using conventional single mode fibers (SMFs) depends on <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation speed in the SMFs which is slower than c. Photonic crystal fibers, holly fibers and large core fibers can have low effective refractive indices, and can transfer light faster than in SMFs. In free-space optical systems, signals propagate with the speed c, so that the latency could be smaller than in optical fibers. For example, LEO satellites would transmit data faster than optical submarine cables, when the transmission distance is longer than a few thousand kilometers. This paper will discuss combination of various transmission media to reduce negative <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the latency, as well as applications of low-latency systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21544540','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21544540"><span id="translatedtitle">Progress at the interface of <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> and density-<span class="hlt">functional</span> theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gidopoulos, Nikitas I.</p> <p>2011-04-15</p> <p>The Kohn-Sham (KS) potential of density-<span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) emerges as the minimizing effective potential in a variational scheme that does not involve fixing the unknown single-electron density. Using Rayleigh Schroedinger (RS) perturbation theory (PT), we construct ab initio approximations for the energy difference, the minimization of which determines the KS potential directly - thereby bypassing DFT's traditional algorithm to search for the density that minimizes the total energy. From second-order RS PT, we obtain variationally stable energy differences to be minimized, solving the severe problem of variational collapse of orbital-dependent exchange-correlation <span class="hlt">functionals</span> based on second-order RS PT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900054827&hterms=chromosphere&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dchromosphere','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900054827&hterms=chromosphere&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dchromosphere"><span id="translatedtitle">Lower solar chromosphere-corona transition region. II - <span class="hlt">Wave</span> pressure effects for a specific form of the heating <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Woods, D. Tod; Holzer, Thomas E.; Macgregor, Keith B.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Lower transition region models with a balance between mechanical heating and radiative losses are expanded to include <span class="hlt">wave</span> pressure effects. The models are used to study the simple damping length form of the heating <span class="hlt">function</span>. The results are compared to the results obtained by Woods et al. (1990) for solutions in the lower transition region. The results suggest that a mixture of fast-mode and slow-mode <span class="hlt">waves</span> may provide the appropriate heating mechanism in the lower transition region, with the decline in effective vertical <span class="hlt">wave</span> speed caused by the refraction and eventual total reflection of the fast-mode <span class="hlt">wave</span> resulting from the decreasing atmospheric density.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23227733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23227733"><span id="translatedtitle">[Influence of the brain <span class="hlt">functional</span> state evoked by spreading depression <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation on the recurrent <span class="hlt">waves</span> properties].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Roshchina, G Ia; Koroleva, V I; Davydov, V I</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>EEG aftereffects of spreading depression <span class="hlt">waves</span> were studied in waking rabbits in chronic experiments by spectral coherence analysis. Experiments were divided in two groups: early (from the first to the third-fourth experiments) and late (fifth-tenth experiments). During the early experimental series, unilateral persistent EEG changes consisting in an increase in the delta- and beta-band power with a simultaneous depression of the gamma-band activity were observed in the ipsilateral to SD hemisphere. In addition, interhemispheric coherence between symmetrical cortical points decreased. During the late experimental series, a generalized bilateral increase in the power of the delta and beta activity was demonstrated with a rise in coherence in the beta band. This generalized activity occurred cyclically and was distinct during a long period of time (2-3 hours) after propagation of a single SD <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Such kind of cyclical activity blocked the propagation of subsequent SD <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the neocortex of a waking rabbit and decreased the probability of recurrent <span class="hlt">wave</span> origin up to a complete cessation of <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation. Thus, a cortical SD <span class="hlt">wave</span> provoked the appearance of synchronized beta oscillations in the EEG, which in turn actively influenced the properties of recurrent <span class="hlt">waves</span>. PMID:23227733</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.2045B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.2045B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of atmospheric convectively coupled equatorial Kelvin <span class="hlt">waves</span> on upper ocean variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baranowski, Dariusz B.; Flatau, Maria K.; Flatau, Piotr J.; Matthews, Adrian J.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Convectively coupled Kelvin <span class="hlt">waves</span> (CCKWs) are atmospheric weather systems that propagate eastward along the equatorial <span class="hlt">wave</span> guide with phase speeds between 11 and 14 m s-1. They are an important constituent of the convective envelope of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), for which ocean-atmosphere interactions play a vital role. Hence, ocean-atmosphere interactions within CCKWs may be important for MJO development and prediction and for tropical climate, in general. Although the atmospheric structure of CCKWs has been well studied, their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the underlying ocean is unknown. In this paper, the ocean-atmosphere interactions in CCKWs are investigated by a case study from November 2011 during the CINDY/DYNAMO field experiment, using in situ oceanographic measurements from an ocean glider. The analysis is then extended to a 15 year period using precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and surface fluxes from the TropFlux analysis. A methodology is developed to calculate trajectories of CCKWs. CCKW events are strongly controlled by the MJO, with twice as many CCKWs observed during the convectively active phase of the MJO compared to the suppressed phase. Coherent ocean-atmosphere interaction is observed during the passage of a CCKW, which lasts approximately 4 days at any given longitude. Surface wind speed and latent heat flux are enhanced, leading to a transient suppression of the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature (SST) and a sustained decrease in bulk SST of 0.1°C. Given that a typical composite mean MJO SST anomaly is of the order of 0.3°C, and more than one CCKW can occur during the active phase of a single MJO event, the oceanographic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of CCKWs is of major importance to the MJO cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950007530','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950007530"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and minimum uncertainty <span class="hlt">function</span> of the bound quadratic Hamiltonian system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yeon, Kyu Hwang; Um, Chung IN; George, T. F.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The bound quadratic Hamiltonian system is analyzed explicitly on the basis of quantum mechanics. We have derived the invariant quantity with an auxiliary equation as the classical equation of motion. With the use of this invariant it can be determined whether or not the system is bound. In bound system we have evaluated the exact eigenfunction and minimum uncertainty <span class="hlt">function</span> through unitary transformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.148A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.148A"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in mortality. Evaluating current risks and future threats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andrade, H.; Canario, P.; Nogueira, H.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in morbidity and mortality are largely known. Climate Change is expected to increase the climate health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in summer while the winter will be probably favored. The health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of extreme thermal events are mainly studied at a national or regional level, considering macro or mesoscale thermal features. But it can be assumed that local variations in mortality must exist, associated, in one hand, with local climatic differences, due to features such as land use and urbanization and, in other hand, with vulnerability factors (depending on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of populations). A model of hazard - vulnerability - risk was developed, to analyze the spatial variations of mortality in extreme thermal events, at the level of city district, in the Lisbon metropolitan area (Portugal). In that model, risk is considered as the product of hazard and vulnerability. Daily mortality data by sex, age and cause of death was supplied by the Health National Authority. The research is yet on-going. In our model, hazard is represented mainly by temperature and air pollution (the influence of other atmospheric variables that affect the human energy balance, such as solar radiation and wind speed should be tested too). Small scale variation of meteorological features, in extreme thermal events, were simulated with a Regional Atmospheric Model (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) and the results were validated and calibrated using observation data from an urban network of termo-higrometers placed in sites with different urban characteristics. Vulnerability is a result on personal sensitivity and exposure. Personal sensitivity is assessed considering individual constitutional and demographic factors as well as socio, cultural and economic variables. Daily mobility determines the population exposure to heat. Since many of these variables are redundant, a set of indicators, including a multiple deprivation index, was used. A</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JChPh.111.7278P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JChPh.111.7278P"><span id="translatedtitle">Boundary condition determined <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the ground states of one- and two-electron homonuclear molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patil, S. H.; Tang, K. T.; Toennies, J. P.</p> <p>1999-10-01</p> <p>Simple analytical <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> satisfying appropriate boundary conditions are constructed for the ground states of one-and two-electron homonuclear molecules. Both the asymptotic condition when one electron is far away and the cusp condition when the electron coalesces with a nucleus are satisfied by the proposed <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. For H2+, the resulting <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is almost identical to the Guillemin-Zener <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> which is known to give very good energies. For the two electron systems H2 and He2++, the additional electron-electron cusp condition is rigorously accounted for by a simple analytic correlation <span class="hlt">function</span> which has the correct behavior not only for r12→0 and r12→∞ but also for R→0 and R→∞, where r12 is the interelectronic distance and R, the internuclear distance. Energies obtained from these simple <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> agree within 2×10-3 a.u. with the results of the most sophisticated variational calculations for all R and for all systems studied. This demonstrates that rather simple physical considerations can be used to derive very accurate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for simple molecules thereby avoiding laborious numerical variational calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JAP....73..233T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JAP....73..233T"><span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical investigation of impurity scattering limited mobility in quantum wells: The influence of <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thobel, J. L.; Baudry, L.; Dessenne, F.; Charef, M.; Fauquembergue, R.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A theoretical investigation of the impurity scattering limited mobility in quantum wells is presented. Emphasis is put on the influence of <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> modeling, since the literature about this topic is contradictory. For an infinite square well, Dirac and sine <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> yield the same evolutions of the mobility with temperature, carrier density, and well width. These results contradict those published by Lee [J. Appl. Phys. 54, 6995 (1983)], which are shown to be wrong. Self-consistent <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> have also been used to compute the mobility in finite barrier height quantum wells. A strong influence of the presence of electrons inside the doped barrier has been demonstrated. It is suggested that, although simple models are useful for qualitative discussions, accurate evaluation of mobility requires a reasonably realistic description of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3218108','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3218108"><span id="translatedtitle">The Hem protein mediates neuronal migration by inhibiting <span class="hlt">WAVE</span> degradation and <span class="hlt">functions</span> opposite of Abelson tyrosine kinase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhu, Zengrong; Bhat, Krishna Moorthi</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In the nervous system, neurons form in different regions, then they migrate and occupy specific positions. We have previously shown that RP2/sib, a well-studied neuronal pair in the Drosophila ventral nerve cord (VNC), has a complex migration route. Here, we show that the Hem protein, via the <span class="hlt">WAVE</span> complex, regulates migration of GMC-1 and its progeny RP2 neuron. In Hem or <span class="hlt">WAVE</span> mutants, RP2 neuron either abnormally migrates, crossing the midline from one hemisegment to the contralateral hemisegment, or does not migrate at al and fail to send out its axon projection. We report that Hem regulates neuronal migration through stabilizing <span class="hlt">WAVE</span>. Since Hem and <span class="hlt">WAVE</span> normally form a complex, our data argues that in the absence of Hem, <span class="hlt">WAVE</span>, which is presumably no longer in a complex, becomes susceptible to degradation. We also find that Abelson Tyrosine kinase affects RP2 migration in a similar manner as Hem and <span class="hlt">WAVE</span>, and appears to operate via <span class="hlt">WAVE</span>. However, while Abl negatively regulates the levels of <span class="hlt">WAVE</span>, it regulates migration via regulating the activity of <span class="hlt">WAVE</span>. Our results also show that during the degradation of <span class="hlt">WAVE</span>, Hem <span class="hlt">function</span> is opposite to that of and downstream of Abl. PMID:21726548</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T23B4670R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T23B4670R"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraining the Lithospheric Structure of the Central Andes Using P- and S- <span class="hlt">wave</span> Receiver <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryan, J. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Central Andean Plateau (CAP) has elevations in excess of 3 km, and is part of the Andean Cordillera that resulted in part from shortening along the western edge of South America as it was compressed between the subducting Nazca plate and underthrusting Brazilian cratonic lithosphere. We calculated P- and S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) temporary deployment of broadband seismometers in the Bolivian orocline (12°-20°S) region to investigate crustal thickness and lithospheric structure. Migration of the receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> is done using common conversion point (CCP) stacks through a 3D shear velocity model from ambient noise tomography (Ward et al., 2013). The P- and S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> provide similar estimates of the depth to Moho under the CAP. Crustal thicknesses include 60-65 km thick crust underneath the Bolivian Altiplano, crust that varies from ~70 km to ~50 km underneath the Eastern Cordillera and Interandean zone, and thins to 50 to 40 km crust in the Subandes and the edge of the foreland. The variable crustal thickness of the Eastern Cordillera and Interandean zone ranges from >70 km associated with the Los Frailes volcanic field at 19°-20°S to ~55 km beneath the 6 km peaks of the Cordillera Real at ~16°S. From our S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span>, that have no multiples that can interfere with deeper structure, we also identify structures below the Moho. Along a SW-NE line that runs near La Paz where we have our highest station density, the S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> CCP receiver-<span class="hlt">function</span> stacks show a strong negative polarity arrival at a depth of ~120 km from the eastern edge of the Altiplano to the Subandean zone. We suggest this may be a good candidate for the base of the CAP lithosphere. In addition, above this depth the mantle is strongly layered, suggesting that there is not a simple high velocity mantle lithosphere associated with the continental lithosphere underthrusting the Andean orogen</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/969079','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/969079"><span id="translatedtitle">Subspace accelerated inexact Newton method for large scale <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> calculations in Density <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fattebert, J</p> <p>2008-07-29</p> <p>We describe an iterative algorithm to solve electronic structure problems in Density <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Theory. The approach is presented as a Subspace Accelerated Inexact Newton (SAIN) solver for the non-linear Kohn-Sham equations. It is related to a class of iterative algorithms known as RMM-DIIS in the electronic structure community. The method is illustrated with examples of real applications using a finite difference discretization and multigrid preconditioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1001456','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1001456"><span id="translatedtitle">Binding Energy of d¹º Transition Metals to Alkenes By <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> Theory and Density <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Averkiev, Boris B; Zhao, Yan; Truhlar, Donald G</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>The structures of Pd(PH₃)₂ and Pt(PH₃)₂ complexes with ethene and conjugated CnH<sub>n+2</sub> systems (n=4, 6, 8, and 10) were studied. Their binding energies were calculated using both <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> theory (WFT) and density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT). Previously it was reported that the binding energy of the alkene to the transition metal does not depend strongly on the size of the conjugated C<sub>n</sub>H<sub>n+2</sub> ligand, but that DFT methods systematically underestimate the binding energy more and more significantly as the size of the conjugated system is increased. Our results show that recently developed density <span class="hlt">functionals</span> predict the binding energy for these systems much more accurately. New benchmark calculations carried out by the coupled cluster method based on Brueckner orbitals with double excitations and a quasiperturbative treatment of connected triple excitations (BCCD(T)) with a very large basis set agree even better with the DFT predictions than do the previous best estimates. The mean unsigned error in absolute and relative binding energies of the alkene ligands to Pd(PH₃)₂ is 2.5 kcal/mol for the ωB97 and M06 density <span class="hlt">functionals</span> and 2.9 kcal/mol for the M06-L <span class="hlt">functional</span>. Adding molecular mechanical damped dispersion yields even smaller mean unsigned errors: 1.3 kcal/mol for the M06-D <span class="hlt">functional</span>, 1.5 kcal/mol for M06- L-D, and 1.8 kcal/mol for B97-D and ωB97X-D. The new <span class="hlt">functionals</span> also lead to improved accuracy for the analogous Pt complexes. These results show that recently developed density <span class="hlt">functionals</span> may be very useful for studying catalytic systems involving Pd d¹º centers and alkenes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20866550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20866550"><span id="translatedtitle">Virial theorem for an inhomogeneous medium, boundary conditions for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, and stress tensor in quantum statistics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bobrov, V B; Trigger, S A; van Heijst, G J F; Schram, P P J M</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>On the basis of the stationary Schrödinger equation, the virial theorem in an inhomogeneous external field for the canonical ensemble is proved. It is shown that the difference in the form of virial theorem is conditioned by the value of the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> derivative on the surface of the volume, surrounding the system under consideration. The stress tensor in such a system is determined by the average values of the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> space derivatives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20866550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20866550"><span id="translatedtitle">Virial theorem for an inhomogeneous medium, boundary conditions for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, and stress tensor in quantum statistics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bobrov, V B; Trigger, S A; van Heijst, G J F; Schram, P P J M</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>On the basis of the stationary Schrödinger equation, the virial theorem in an inhomogeneous external field for the canonical ensemble is proved. It is shown that the difference in the form of virial theorem is conditioned by the value of the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> derivative on the surface of the volume, surrounding the system under consideration. The stress tensor in such a system is determined by the average values of the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> space derivatives. PMID:20866550</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20639981','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20639981"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of the bound-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in capture-loss rates: Slow proton in an electron gas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alducin, M.; Nagy, I.</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>Capture and loss rates for protons moving in an electron gas are calculated using many-body perturbation theory. The role of the form of the bound-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for weakly bound states around the proton is analyzed. We find significant differences (up to a factor of 2 higher) in the values of Auger capture and loss rates when using Hulthen-type instead of hydrogenic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Its relevance in stopping power is briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CoTPh..54..518R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CoTPh..54..518R"><span id="translatedtitle">ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Calculation of Energy and Other Properties of Muonic Helium Atom Using Boundary Conditions of <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rezaei, B.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The properties of muonic helium atom (4He+2μ-e-) in ground state are considered. In this work, the energy and average distance between particles have been obtained using a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, which satisfies boundary conditions. It is shown that the obtained energy are very close to the values calculated by others. But the small differences of the expectation values of r2n are due to the incorporated boundary conditions in proposed <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and are expected.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27176991','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27176991"><span id="translatedtitle">Regularized quadratic cost-<span class="hlt">function</span> for integrating <span class="hlt">wave</span>-front gradient fields.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Villa, Jesús; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Ivanov, Rumen; González, Efrén</p> <p>2016-05-15</p> <p>From the Bayesian regularization theory we derive a quadratic cost-<span class="hlt">function</span> for integrating <span class="hlt">wave</span>-front gradient fields. In the proposed cost-<span class="hlt">function</span>, the term of conditional distribution uses a central-differences model to make the estimated <span class="hlt">function</span> well consistent with the observed gradient field. As will be shown, the results obtained with the central-differences model are superior to the results obtained with the backward-differences model, commonly used in other integration techniques. As a regularization term we use an isotropic first-order differences Markov Random-Field model, which acts as a low-pass filter reducing the errors caused by the noise. We present simulated and real experiments of the proposal applied in the Foucault test, obtaining good results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2730880','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2730880"><span id="translatedtitle">Does spontaneous genital tract trauma <span class="hlt">impact</span> postpartum sexual <span class="hlt">function</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rogers, Rebecca G.; Borders, Noelle; Leeman, Lawrence M.; Albers, Leah L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Changes in sexual <span class="hlt">function</span> are common in postpartum women. In this comparative, descriptive study, a prospective cohort of midwifery patients consented to documentation of genital trauma at birth and assessment of sexual <span class="hlt">function</span> three months postpartum. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of spontaneous genital trauma on postpartum sexual <span class="hlt">function</span> was the focus of the study. Trauma was categorized into minor trauma (no trauma or 1st degree perineal or other trauma that was not sutured) or major trauma (2nd, 3rd, or 4th degree lacerations or any trauma that required suturing). Women who underwent episiotomy or operative delivery were excluded. Fifty eight percent (326/565) of enrolled women gave sexual <span class="hlt">function</span> data; of those, 276 (85%) reported sexual activity since delivery. Seventy percent (193) of women sustained minor trauma and 30% (83) sustained major trauma. Sexually active women completed the Intimate Relationship Scale (IRS), a 12 item questionnaire validated as a measure of postpartum sexual <span class="hlt">function</span>. Both trauma groups were equally likely to be sexually active. Total IRS scores did not differ between trauma groups nor did complaints of dyspareunia. However, for two items, significant differences were demonstrated: women with major trauma reported less desire to be held, touched, and stroked by their partner than women with minor trauma, and women who required perineal suturing reported lower IRS scores than women who did not require suturing. PMID:19249654</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812943M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812943M"><span id="translatedtitle">P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> study of crustal structure in Scandinavia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Makushkina, Anna; Thybo, Hans; Vinnik, Lev; Youssof, Mohammad</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In this study we present preliminary results on the structure of the continental crust in northern Scandinavia. The research area consists of three geologically different domains: the Archaean Domain in the north-east, the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Domain in the east and the Caledonian Deformed Domain in the west (Gorbatschev and Bogdanova,1993). We present results based on data collected by 60 seismic stations during 2-4 years of deployment in the ScanArray experiment, which is an international collaboration between Scandinavian, German and British universities. We use the receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> (RF) technique in the LQT ray-oriented coordinate system (Vinnik, 1977). Receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis has rather high vertical resolution of the depth to seismic discontinuities which cause transformation between P- and S-<span class="hlt">waves</span>. The whole dataset is uniformly filtered and deconvolved records are stacked using appropriate moveout corrections. We have used events with a magnitude ≥ 5.5 Mw, with epicentral distances range from 30° to 95°. The technique allows us to constrain crustal structure and determine the Moho depth around stations by analyzing the PS converted phases generated at discontinuities in particular the Moho. We present preliminary interpretation of P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> RF analysis in terms of the complex tectonic and geodynamic evolution of the Baltic Shield. Further studies will include joint P and S receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis of this area as well as investigations of the upper mantle. References: Vinnik L.P. (1977) Detection of <span class="hlt">waves</span> converted from P to SV in the mantle. Phys. Earth planet. Inter. 15, 39-45 Gorbatschev R., Bogdanova, S. (1993) Frontiers in the Baltic Shield. Precambrian Res. 64, 3-21</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17011008','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17011008"><span id="translatedtitle">Interaction of a plane progressive sound <span class="hlt">wave</span> with a <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded spherical shell.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hasheminejad, Seyyed M; Maleki, M</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>An exact analysis is carried out to study interaction of a time-harmonic plane progressive sound field with a radially inhomogeneous thick-walled elastic isotropic spherical shell suspended in and filled with compressible ideal fluid mediums. Using the laminated approximation method, a modal state equation with variable coefficients is set up in terms of appropriate displacement and stress <span class="hlt">functions</span> and their spherical harmonics. Taylor's expansion theorem is then employed to obtain the solution to the modal state equation ultimately leading to calculation of a global transfer matrix. Numerical example is given for a water-submerged/air-filled Aluminum/Zirconia elastic spherical sandwich shell containing a <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded interlayer and subjected to an incident progressive plane sound <span class="hlt">wave</span>. The mechanical properties of the interlayer are assumed to vary smoothly and continuously across the thickness with the change of volume concentration of its constituents. The effect of incident <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency, thickness and compositional gradient of the interlayer on the form <span class="hlt">function</span> amplitude and the average radiation force acting on the composite shell are examined. Limiting cases are considered and fair agreements with well-known solutions are established.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21503621','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21503621"><span id="translatedtitle">Big bounce as the scattering of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> at the big crunch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Amemiya, Fumitoshi; Koike, Tatsuhiko</p> <p>2010-11-15</p> <p>A gauge-invariant quantum theory of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe with dust is studied in terms of the Ashtekar variables. We use the reduced phase space quantization which has following advantages: (i) fundamental variables are all gauge invariant, (ii) there exists a physical time evolution of gauge-invariant quantities, so that the problem of time is absent, and (iii) the reduced phase space can be quantized in the same manner as in ordinary quantum mechanics. In the FRW model, the dynamical components of the Ashtekar variables are given by a single quantity p and its conjugate momentum, where p is related to the scale factor a as a{proportional_to}{radical}(|p|) and its sign gives the orientation of triads. We solve a scattering problem in terms of ingoing and outgoing energy eigenstates. We show that the incident <span class="hlt">wave</span> is reflected in rate 1/4 and transmitted in rate 3/4 at the classical singularity p=0. Analyzing the dynamics of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet, we show that the classical initial singularity is replaced by a big bounce in quantum theory. A possible interpretation of the result is that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of the universe has been in a superposition of states representing right-handed and left-handed systems before the big bounce.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3900925','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3900925"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of a Setup to test the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of High-Amplitude Pressure <span class="hlt">Waves</span> on Living Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Mischa; Kahlert, Ulf; Wessolleck, Johanna; Maciaczyk, Donata; Merkt, Benjamin; Maciaczyk, Jaroslaw; Osterholz, Jens; Nikkhah, Guido; Steinhauser, Martin O.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of pressure <span class="hlt">waves</span> on cells may provide several possible applications in biology and medicine including the direct killing of tumors, drug delivery or gene transfection. In this study we characterize the physical properties of mechanical pressure <span class="hlt">waves</span> generated by a nanosecond laser pulse in a setup with well-defined cell culture conditions. To systematically characterize the system on the relevant length and time scales (micrometers and nanoseconds) we use photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) and obtain velocity profiles of the cell culture vessel at the passage of the pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span>. These profiles serve as input for numerical pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> simulations that help to further quantify the pressure conditions on the cellular length scale. On the biological level we demonstrate killing of glioblastoma cells and quantify experimentally the pressure threshold for cell destruction. PMID:24458018</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Tectp.462...99L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Tectp.462...99L"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic anisotropy indicators in Western Tibet: Shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> splitting and receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Levin, Vadim; Roecker, Steven; Graham, Peter; Hosseini, Afsaneh</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Using recently collected data from western Tibet we find significant variation in the strength, vertical distribution and attributes of seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> speed anisotropy, constrained through a joint application of teleseismic shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> splitting techniques and a study of P-S mode-converted <span class="hlt">waves</span> (receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span>). We find that the crust of Tibet is characterized by anisotropy on the order of 5%-15% concentrated in layers 10-20 km in thickness, and with relatively steep (30°-45° from the vertical) slow symmetry axes of anisotropy. These layers contribute no more than 0.3 s to the birefringence in teleseismic shear <span class="hlt">waves</span>, significantly smaller than splitting in many of the observations, and much smaller than birefringence predicted by models developed through group inversions of shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> recordings. Consequently, we interpret models constrained with shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> observations in terms of structures in the upper mantle. Near the Altyn-Tagh fault our data favor a two-layer model, with the upper layer fast polarization approximately aligned with the strike of the fault. Near the Karakorum fault our data are well fit with a single layer of relatively modest (~ 0.5 s delay) anisotropy. Fast polarization in this layer is ~ 60°NE, similar to that of the lower layer in the model for the Altyn Tagh fault site. Assuming that layers of similar anisotropic properties at these two sites reflect a common cause, our finding favors a scenario where Indian lithosphere under-thrusts a significant fraction of the plateau. Data from a site at the southern edge of the Tarim basin appear to be inconsistent with a common model of seismic anisotropy distribution. We suspect that thick sediments underlying the site significantly distort observed waveforms. Our ability to resolve features of anisotropic structure in the crust and the upper mantle of western Tibet is limited by the small amount of data collected in a 6 month observing period. We stress the importance of future teleseismic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988ECSS...27..581G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988ECSS...27..581G"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span> exposure on the meiofauna of Gelidium pristoides (Turner) Kuetzing (Gelidiales: Rhodophyta)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gibbons, M. J.</p> <p>1988-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span> exposure on the meiofaunal communities colonising Gelidium pristoides, was examined on five shores around False Bay, South Africa. Under conditions of constant algal structure and mass, and in tufts with similar epiphyte and sediment loads, exposure had a profound <span class="hlt">impact</span> on meiofaunal communities. Algae on sheltered shores supported significantly greater numbers of animals in the size range 63-280 μm (predominantly copepods, copepod nauplii and ostracods), while those on exposed shores supported a greater number of amphipods and bivalves. Total meiofaunal biomass per tuft remained constant irrespective of shore type. Differences between shores are discussed in terms of algal structure and animal size and morphology. Gelidium tufts are open-plan and offer little resistance to water movement; as the frond diameter is wider than the meiofauna are long, small animals are likely to be flushed more easily from exposed than sheltered shores. Differences in the abundance of permanent meiofauna between shores may, however, reflect ifferences in the organic content of sediments, although this was not examined. It is also suggested that meiofaunal communities on plants from different shores are influenced by the total algal and macrofaunal standing stocks, which act as banks of meiofauna and influence the regularity and magnitude of immigration. Extrapolating these data to the whole shore indicates that while the biomass of meiofauna may be greater on exposed than sheltered shores, the proportional contribution of meiofauna to total secondary production is greater under more sheltered conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2898048','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2898048"><span id="translatedtitle">Surveillance of Summer Mortality and Preparedness to Reduce the Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Heat <span class="hlt">Waves</span> in Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Michelozzi, Paola; de’ Donato, Francesca K.; Bargagli, Anna Maria; D’Ippoliti, Daniela; De Sario, Manuela; Marino, Claudia; Schifano, Patrizia; Cappai, Giovanna; Leone, Michela; Kirchmayer, Ursula; Ventura, Martina; di Gennaro, Marta; Leonardi, Marco; Oleari, Fabrizio; De Martino, Annamaria; Perucci, Carlo A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Since 2004, the Italian Department for Civil Protection and the Ministry of Health have implemented a national program for the prevention of heat-health effects during summer, which to-date includes 34 major cities and 93% of the residents aged 65 years and over. The Italian program represents an important example of an integrated approach to prevent the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat on health, comprising Heat Health Watch Warning Systems, a mortality surveillance system and prevention activities targeted to susceptible subgroups. City-specific warning systems are based on the relationship between temperature and mortality and serve as basis for the modulation of prevention measures. Local prevention activities, based on the guidelines defined by the Ministry of Health, are constructed around the infrastructures and services available. A key component of the prevention program is the identification of susceptible individuals and the active surveillance by General Practitioners, medical personnel and social workers. The mortality surveillance system enables the timely estimation of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat, and heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>, on mortality during summer as well as to the evaluation of warning systems and prevention programs. Considering future predictions of climate change, the implementation of effective prevention programs, targeted to high risk subjects, become a priority in the public health agenda. PMID:20623023</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2755142','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2755142"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of vocational rehabilitation on social <span class="hlt">functioning</span>, cognitive <span class="hlt">functioning</span>, and psychopathology in patients with chronic schizophrenia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Suresh Kumar, P. N.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Aim: To assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of vocational rehabilitation on psychopathology, social <span class="hlt">functioning</span> and cognitive <span class="hlt">functioning</span> in schizophrenia Materials and Methods: 34 patients with DSM IV diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia were compared 40 patients with same diagnosis but not attending vocational rehabilitation using PANSS, SCARF social <span class="hlt">functioning</span> Index and MMSE. Results and Discussion: Basic psycho-socio-demographic data were comparable in both groups except more hospitalization in the no rehabilitation group. Comparison of social <span class="hlt">functioning</span>, cognitive <span class="hlt">functioning</span> and psychopathology showed significant improvement in rehabilitated patients. Cognitive <span class="hlt">functioning</span> had positive correlation with occupational role in the rehabilitated group and negative correlation in the rehabilitated group. Social <span class="hlt">functioning</span> had negative correlation with positive and negative symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score and cognitive symptoms in patients without rehabilitation. Conclusion: The present concludes that there is a definite limitation in the domains of social <span class="hlt">functioning</span>, cognitive <span class="hlt">functioning</span> and psychopathology in chronic schizophrenia patients who had no rehabilitation. However vocational rehabilitation significantly improves these limitations, which in turn help these patients to integrate into the society so as to <span class="hlt">function</span> efficiently in their roles as parents, home makers and social beings. PMID:19823610</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22038781','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22038781"><span id="translatedtitle">Extracting elements of molecular structure from the all-particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Matyus, Edit; Reiher, Markus; Hutter, Juerg; Mueller-Herold, Ulrich</p> <p>2011-11-28</p> <p>Structural information is extracted from the all-particle (non-Born-Oppenheimer) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> by calculating radial and angular densities derived from n-particle densities. As a result, one- and two-dimensional motifs of classical molecular structure can be recognized in quantum mechanics. Numerical examples are presented for three- (H{sup -}, Ps{sup -}, H{sub 2}{sup +}), four- (Ps{sub 2}, H{sub 2}), and five-particle (H{sub 2}D{sup +}) systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23581311','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23581311"><span id="translatedtitle">Imaging dynamical chiral-symmetry breaking: pion <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> on the light front.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chang, Lei; Cloët, I C; Cobos-Martinez, J J; Roberts, C D; Schmidt, S M; Tandy, P C</p> <p>2013-03-29</p> <p>We project onto the light front the pion's Poincaré-covariant Bethe-Salpeter <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> obtained using two different approximations to the kernels of quantum chromodynamics' Dyson-Schwinger equations. At an hadronic scale, both computed results are concave and significantly broader than the asymptotic distribution amplitude, φ(π)(asy)(x)=6x(1-x); e.g., the integral of φ(π)(x)/φ(π)(asy)(x) is 1.8 using the simplest kernel and 1.5 with the more sophisticated kernel. Independent of the kernels, the emergent phenomenon of dynamical chiral-symmetry breaking is responsible for hardening the amplitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.701a2012B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.701a2012B"><span id="translatedtitle">Models of spontaneous <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse: what they are, and how they can be tested</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bassi, Angelo</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>There are few proposals, which explicitly allow for (experimentally testable) deviations from standard quantum theory. Collapse models are among the most-widely studied proposals of this kind. The Schrödinger equation is modified by including nonlinear and stochastic terms, which describe the collapse of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in space. These spontaneous collapses are rare for microscopic systems, hence their quantum properties are left almost unaltered. On the other hand, collapses become more and more frequent, the larger the object, to the point that macroscopic superpositions are rapidly suppressed. The main features of collapse models will be reviewed. An update of the most promising experimental tests will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24514983','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24514983"><span id="translatedtitle">Analytical solutions of electromagnetic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in focusing and magnifying cylindrical hyperlenses: Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tapsanit, Piyawath; Yamashita, Masatsugu; Otani, Chiko</p> <p>2014-01-13</p> <p>The analytical solutions of the electromagnetic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the inhomogeneous cylindrical hyperlens (CH) comprising concentric cylindrical layers (CCLs) with multiple point sources located either outside the structure in the focusing process or inside the core in the magnifying process are obtained by means of Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis. The solutions are consistent with FDTD simulation in both processes. The sub-wavelength focal spot λ/16.26 from two point sources with wavelength 465 nm is demonstrated in the CH made by alternating silver and silica CCLs. Our solutions are expected to be the efficient tools for designing the sub-wavelength focusing and imaging cylindrical hyperlens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..87h1306V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvB..87h1306V"><span id="translatedtitle">Spin transition in the fractional quantum Hall regime: Effect of the extent of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vanovsky, V. V.; Khrapai, V. S.; Shashkin, A. A.; Pellegrini, V.; Sorba, L.; Biasiol, G.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Using a magnetocapacitance technique, we determine the magnetic field of the spin transition, B*, at filling factor ν=2/3 in the two-dimensional electron system in GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunctions. The field B* is found to decrease appreciably as the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> extent controlled by back gate voltage is increased. Our calculations show that the contributions to the shift of B* from the change of the Coulomb energy and the g factor change due to nonparabolicity are approximately the same. The observed relative shift of B* is described with no fitting parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997sspr.book..765P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997sspr.book..765P"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations in Quantum Mechanics and the "COLLAPSE of the <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">FUNCTION</span>"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peierls, Rudolf</p> <p></p> <p>The paper analyses the measurement process on the basis of the interpretation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, or more generally the density matrix, as describing our knowledge of the system observed. There has to be a division between the system, as described, and the observer, but usually there is wide flexibility in placing this division within the chain of correlations involved in the measurement. This chain must, in particular, involve three steps: (1) a correlation between the quantity to be observed and the apparatus, (2) and uncontrolled interaction which leads to the loss of information required by the uncertainty principle, and (3) the recognition of the result by the observer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23368456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23368456"><span id="translatedtitle">Symmetric tensor decomposition description of fermionic many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uemura, Wataru; Sugino, Osamu</p> <p>2012-12-21</p> <p>The configuration interaction (CI) is a versatile <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> theory for interacting fermions, but it involves an extremely long CI series. Using a symmetric tensor decomposition method, we convert the CI series into a compact and numerically tractable form. The converted series encompasses the Hartree-Fock state in the first term and rapidly converges to the full-CI state, as numerically tested by using small molecules. Provided that the length of the symmetric tensor decomposition CI series grows only moderately with the increasing complexity of the system, the new method will serve as one of the alternative variational methods to achieve full CI with enhanced practicability. PMID:23368456</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC51B0417S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC51B0417S"><span id="translatedtitle">Using NASA Earth Science Datasets for National Climate Assessment Indicators: Urban <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Heat <span class="hlt">Waves</span> Associated with Climate Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sadoff, N.; Weber, S.; Zell, E. R.; de Sherbinin, A. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Climate-induced heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> have been increasing globally in the past 5-10 years and are projected to continue increasing throughout the 21st century. In urban areas, heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> are exacerbated by the non-climate stressor of urban heat islands (UHIs). The vulnerability of a city's population to heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> reflects exposure to extreme heat events, sensitivity of the population to <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, such as adverse health effects, and adaptive capacity to prepare for and respond to heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Socially and economically vulnerable populations are especially at risk to the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>, due to increasing energy costs, air pollution, and heat-related illness and mortality. NASA earth science datasets, combined with socioeconomic data, can be used to create indicators that characterize vulnerability to urban heat events and address the effectiveness of adaptation measures designed to reduce local temperatures. The indicator development process should include engagement from local stakeholders and end users from the onset to ensure local relevance and, ultimately, indicator uptake and sustainability. This presentation will explore the process of working with urban stakeholders in Philadelphia to develop a set of policy-relevant, interdisciplinary vulnerability indicators focused on extreme heat events in urban areas. Ambient and land surface temperature, land cover classifications, NDVI, and US Census data are used to create a basket of indicators that reflect urban heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> duration and intensity, UHI exposure, socioeconomic vulnerability, and adaptation effectiveness. These indicators can be assessed at the city level and also comparatively among different parts of a city to help quantify and track heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on vulnerable populations and the effectiveness of adaptation measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NJPh...18g3026Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NJPh...18g3026Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Wave-function</span> inspired density <span class="hlt">functional</span> applied to the H2/{{\\rm{H}}}_{2}^{+} challenge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Igor Ying; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We start from the Bethe–Goldstone equation (BGE) to derive a simple orbital-dependent correlation functional—BGE2—which terminates the BGE expansion at the second-order, but retains the self-consistent coupling of electron-pair correlations. We demonstrate that BGE2 is size consistent and one-electron ‘self-correlation’ free. The electron-pair correlation coupling ensures the correct H2 dissociation limit and gives a finite correlation energy for any system even if it has a no energy gap. BGE2 provides a good description of both H2 and {{{H}}}2+ dissociation, which is regarded as a great challenge in density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT). We illustrate the behavior of BGE2 analytically by considering H2 in a minimal basis. Our analysis shows that BGE2 captures essential features of the adiabatic connection path that current state-of-the-art DFT approximations do not.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5080166','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5080166"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy on the shoulder joint <span class="hlt">functional</span> status of patients with calcific tendinitis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwak, Kwang-Il</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] This study aimed to analyze the effect of extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy on the shoulder <span class="hlt">function</span> of patients with calcific tendinitis through a 12-week follow-up. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 34 patients with calcific tendinitis participated in this study. In the extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy group, 18 patients received 6-week extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy and 12-week follow-up. The Constant-Murley scale was used to evaluate shoulder joint <span class="hlt">function</span>. [Results] Analysis of variance showed a significant difference between the measurement periods. The independent t-test showed significant differences between the groups at 2, 6, and 12 weeks. [Conclusion] Extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy can be an effective treatment method for calcific tendinitis that affects patients’ shoulder <span class="hlt">function</span>. PMID:27799684</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.osti.gov/nle"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/NLElogo31.png" alt="National Library of Energy" height="31" width="79"></a> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> </body> </html>