Science.gov

Sample records for wave function impact

  1. Wave-function functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Xiaoyin; Slamet, Marlina; Sahni, Viraht

    2010-04-15

    We extend our prior work on the construction of variational wave functions {psi} that are functionals of functions {chi}:{psi}={psi}[{chi}] rather than simply being functions. In this manner, the space of variations is expanded over those of traditional variational wave functions. In this article we perform the constrained search over the functions {chi} chosen such that the functional {psi}[{chi}] satisfies simultaneously the constraints of normalization and the exact expectation value of an arbitrary single- or two-particle Hermitian operator, while also leading to a rigorous upper bound to the energy. As such the wave function functional is accurate not only in the region of space in which the principal contributions to the energy arise but also in the other region of the space represented by the Hermitian operator. To demonstrate the efficacy of these ideas, we apply such a constrained search to the ground state of the negative ion of atomic hydrogen H{sup -}, the helium atom He, and its positive ions Li{sup +} and Be{sup 2+}. The operators W whose expectations are obtained exactly are the sum of the single-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub i}r{sub i}{sup n},n=-2,-1,1,2, W={Sigma}{sub i{delta}}(r{sub i}), W=-(1/2){Sigma}{sub i{nabla}i}{sup 2}, and the two-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub n}u{sup n},n=-2,-1,1,2, where u=|r{sub i}-r{sub j}|. Comparisons with the method of Lagrangian multipliers and of other constructions of wave-function functionals are made. Finally, we present further insights into the construction of wave-function functionals by studying a previously proposed construction of functionals {psi}[{chi}] that lead to the exact expectation of arbitrary Hermitian operators. We discover that analogous to the solutions of the Schroedinger equation, there exist {psi}[{chi}] that are unphysical in that they lead to singular values for the expectations. We also explain the origin of the singularity.

  2. Baryon scattering at high energies: wave function, impact factor, and gluon radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, J.; Motyka, L.

    2008-05-01

    The scattering of a baryon consisting of three massive quarks is investigated in the high energy limit of perturbative QCD. A model of a relativistic proton-like wave function, dependent on valence quark longitudinal and transverse momenta and on quark helicities, is proposed, and we derive the baryon impact factors for two, three and four t-channel gluons. We find that the baryonic impact factor can be written as a sum of three pieces: in the first one a subsystem consisting of two of the three quarks behaves very much like the quark antiquark pair in γ* scattering, whereas the third quark acts as a spectator. The second term belongs to the odderon, whereas in the third (C-even) piece all three quarks participate in the scattering. This term is new and has no analogue in γ* scattering. We also study the small x evolution of gluon radiation for each of these three terms. The first term follows the same pattern of gluon radiation as the γ*-initiated quark antiquark dipole, and, in particular, it contains the BFKL evolution followed by the 2→4 transition vertex (triple pomeron vertex). The odderon term is described by the standard BKP evolution, and the baryon couples to both known odderon solutions, the Janik Wosiek solution and the BLV solution. Finally, the t-channel evolution of the third term starts with a three-reggeized gluon state, which then, via a new 3→4 transition vertex, couples to the four-gluon (two-pomeron) state. We briefly discuss a few consequences of these findings, in particular the pattern of unitarization of high energy baryon scattering amplitudes.

  3. Adaptive multiconfigurational wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelista, Francesco A.

    2014-03-28

    A method is suggested to build simple multiconfigurational wave functions specified uniquely by an energy cutoff Λ. These are constructed from a model space containing determinants with energy relative to that of the most stable determinant no greater than Λ. The resulting Λ-CI wave function is adaptive, being able to represent both single-reference and multireference electronic states. We also consider a more compact wave function parameterization (Λ+SD-CI), which is based on a small Λ-CI reference and adds a selection of all the singly and doubly excited determinants generated from it. We report two heuristic algorithms to build Λ-CI wave functions. The first is based on an approximate prescreening of the full configuration interaction space, while the second performs a breadth-first search coupled with pruning. The Λ-CI and Λ+SD-CI approaches are used to compute the dissociation curve of N{sub 2} and the potential energy curves for the first three singlet states of C{sub 2}. Special attention is paid to the issue of energy discontinuities caused by changes in the size of the Λ-CI wave function along the potential energy curve. This problem is shown to be solvable by smoothing the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian. Our last example, involving the Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2}{sup 2+} core, illustrates an alternative use of the Λ-CI method: as a tool to both estimate the multireference character of a wave function and to create a compact model space to be used in subsequent high-level multireference coupled cluster computations.

  4. Many-body wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Chasman, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    In the past few years, we developed many-body variational wave functions that allow one to treat pairing and particle-hole two-body interactions on an equal footing. The complexity of these wave functions depends on the number of levels included in the valence space, but does not depend on the number of nucleons in the system. By using residual interaction strengths (e.g. the quadrupole interaction strength or pairing interaction strength) as generator coordinates, one gets many different wave functions, each having a different expectation value for the relevant interaction mode. These wave functions are particularly useful when one is dealing with a situation in which the mean-field approximation is inadequate. Because the same basis states are used in the construction of the many-body wave functions, it is possible to calculate overlaps and interaction matrix elements for the many-body wave functions (which are not in general orthogonal) easily. The valence space can contain a large number of single-particle basis states, when there are constants of motion that can be used to break the levels up into groups. We added a cranking term to the many-body Hamiltonian and modified the projection procedure to get states of good signature before variation. In our present implementation, each group is limited to eight pairs of single-particle levels. We are working on ways of increasing the number of levels that can be included in each group. We are also working on including particle-particle residual interaction modes, in addition to pairing, in our Hamiltonian.

  5. Wave-function functionals for the density

    SciTech Connect

    Slamet, Marlina; Pan Xiaoyin; Sahni, Viraht

    2011-11-15

    We extend the idea of the constrained-search variational method for the construction of wave-function functionals {psi}[{chi}] of functions {chi}. The search is constrained to those functions {chi} such that {psi}[{chi}] reproduces the density {rho}(r) while simultaneously leading to an upper bound to the energy. The functionals are thereby normalized and automatically satisfy the electron-nucleus coalescence condition. The functionals {psi}[{chi}] are also constructed to satisfy the electron-electron coalescence condition. The method is applied to the ground state of the helium atom to construct functionals {psi}[{chi}] that reproduce the density as given by the Kinoshita correlated wave function. The expectation of single-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub i}r{sub i}{sup n}, n=-2,-1,1,2, W={Sigma}{sub i}{delta}(r{sub i}) are exact, as must be the case. The expectations of the kinetic energy operator W=-(1/2){Sigma}{sub i}{nabla}{sub i}{sup 2}, the two-particle operators W={Sigma}{sub n}u{sup n}, n=-2,-1,1,2, where u=|r{sub i}-r{sub j}|, and the energy are accurate. We note that the construction of such functionals {psi}[{chi}] is an application of the Levy-Lieb constrained-search definition of density functional theory. It is thereby possible to rigorously determine which functional {psi}[{chi}] is closer to the true wave function.

  6. Wave aberration function and its definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zverev, V. A.; Rytova, E. S.; Timoshchuk, I. N.

    2011-06-01

    A definition of a wave aberration as a phase shift upon composition of light waves in the image of a point is given using the concept of point eikonal. An expression that determines the total differential of a wave aberration function is obtained and the condition of its integrability is determined. The sequence of the wave aberration function definition at the known functions of the meridional and sagittal components of lateral aberration is presented.

  7. The destructive impact of the rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamin, Roman

    2013-04-01

    In our talk rogue waves at the ocean will be considered. By means of numerical modeling dangerous impact of rogue waves on the ships and oil rigs is calculated. Cases when these waves can bring in accident are considered. Using statistics of emergence of waves (see [1]-[2]), it is possible to estimate risks in each case. These results can be used for safety of the ships and oil rigs from rogue waves. References [1] V.E. Zakharov, A.I. Dyachenko, R.V. Shamin. How probability for freak wave formation can be found // THE EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL - SPECIAL TOPICS Volume 185, Number 1, 113-124, DOI: 10.1140/epjst/e2010-01242-y [2] V.E. Zakharov, R.V. Shamin. Statistics of rogue waves in computer experiments // JETP Letters, 2012, V. 96, Issue 1, pp 66-69.

  8. Factorization and recomposition of molecular wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, R.

    2016-09-01

    Some situations in the determination of molecular wave functions require to go beyond the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation, with the wave function written as the product of an electronic wave function depending parametrically on the nuclear coordinates and a nuclear wave function. Such situations are usually treated by combining BO products. This form of the wave function leads to coupled equations which determine the nuclear factors of these products. There is another possibility: writing the exact molecular wave function as a single product having formally the same structure as a BO product. This approach has been at the origin of recent developments. We reconsider this problem with the aim of looking at the solutions of the coupled equations which determine the electronic factor of the factorization scheme. It is shown that these coupled equations can be reduced precisely to those encountered with the usual combination of diabatic BO products.

  9. Impact produced stress waves in composites

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, B.; Johnson, J.; Addessio, F.; Hixson, R.

    1997-05-01

    The Nonhomogenized Dynamic Method of Cells (NHDMOC) is used to study the propagation of stress waves through laminates. The accuracy of the theory is tested by applying it to a plate-impact experiment and checking its ability to resolve a propagation shock wave front. The theory is then compared to Lagrangian hydrodynamic calculations, where it is found that the NHDMOC consistently requires less fine spatial and temporal grids, and less artificial viscosity to control numerical noise. The theory is then used to treat the impact of an epoxy-graphite bilaminate. When the viscoelastic properties of the epoxy are accounted for, the theory agrees well with the experiment.

  10. Spatial wave functions of photon and electron

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhlov, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    The quantum mechanical model of the photon and electron is considered. The photon is conceived of as a particle moving with the speed of light which is accompanied by the wave function of the photon spreading out with an infinite speed. The wave function of the electron is introduced in terms of virtual photons tied to the electron. A description of electrostatic and magnetostatic interactions is given through the wave functions of electrons. The approach provides an explanation of the results of recent experiments measuring the speed of propagation of the bound magnetic field.

  11. On single nucleon wave functions in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Talmi, Igal

    2011-05-06

    The strong and singular interaction between nucleons, makes the nuclear many body theory very complicated. Still, nuclei exhibit simple and regular features which are simply described by the shell model. Wave functions of individual nucleons may be considered just as model wave functions which bear little resemblance to the real ones. There is, however, experimental evidence for the reality of single nucleon wave functions. There is a simple method of constructing such wave functions for valence nucleons. It is shown that this method can be improved by considering the polarization of the core by the valence nucleon. This gives rise to some rearrangement energy which affects the single valence nucleon energy within the nucleus.

  12. The evolution of piecewise polynomial wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Mark

    2017-01-01

    For a non-relativistic particle, we consider the evolution of wave functions that consist of polynomial segments, usually joined smoothly together. These spline wave functions are compact (that is, they are initially zero outside a finite region), but they immediately extend over all available space as they evolve. The simplest splines are the square and triangular wave functions in one dimension, but very complicated splines have been used in physics. In general the evolution of such spline wave functions can be expressed in terms of antiderivatives of the propagator; in the case of a free particle or an oscillator, all the evolutions are expressed exactly in terms of Fresnel integrals. Some extensions of these methods to two and three dimensions are discussed.

  13. Deuteron wave function and OPE potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, S.; Rosa-Clot, M.

    1987-06-01

    The deuteron wave function is calculated integrating from outside the Schredinger equation using as input its asymptotic behaviour. Some potentials are tested and the one pion exchange potential (OPEP) is shown to be the main responsible of the wave function structure up to distances of about 1 fm. The relevance of the short range part of the potential is analyzed and it is shown that a substantial enhancement of the OPEP central part is needed in the deuteron channel.

  14. Weak measurement and Bohmian conditional wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Norsen, Travis; Struyve, Ward

    2014-11-15

    It was recently pointed out and demonstrated experimentally by Lundeen et al. that the wave function of a particle (more precisely, the wave function possessed by each member of an ensemble of identically-prepared particles) can be “directly measured” using weak measurement. Here it is shown that if this same technique is applied, with appropriate post-selection, to one particle from a perhaps entangled multi-particle system, the result is precisely the so-called “conditional wave function” of Bohmian mechanics. Thus, a plausibly operationalist method for defining the wave function of a quantum mechanical sub-system corresponds to the natural definition of a sub-system wave function which Bohmian mechanics uniquely makes possible. Similarly, a weak-measurement-based procedure for directly measuring a sub-system’s density matrix should yield, under appropriate circumstances, the Bohmian “conditional density matrix” as opposed to the standard reduced density matrix. Experimental arrangements to demonstrate this behavior–and also thereby reveal the non-local dependence of sub-system state functions on distant interventions–are suggested and discussed. - Highlights: • We study a “direct measurement” protocol for wave functions and density matrices. • Weakly measured states of entangled particles correspond to Bohmian conditional states. • Novel method of observing quantum non-locality is proposed.

  15. The Wave Function and Quantum Reality

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Shan

    2011-03-28

    We investigate the meaning of the wave function by analyzing the mass and charge density distributions of a quantum system. According to protective measurement, a charged quantum system has effective mass and charge density distributing in space, proportional to the square of the absolute value of its wave function. In a realistic interpretation, the wave function of a quantum system can be taken as a description of either a physical field or the ergodic motion of a particle. The essential difference between a field and the ergodic motion of a particle lies in the property of simultaneity; a field exists throughout space simultaneously, whereas the ergodic motion of a particle exists throughout space in a time-divided way. If the wave function is a physical field, then the mass and charge density will be distributed in space simultaneously for a charged quantum system, and thus there will exist gravitational and electrostatic self-interactions of its wave function. This not only violates the superposition principle of quantum mechanics but also contradicts experimental observations. Thus the wave function cannot be a description of a physical field but be a description of the ergodic motion of a particle. For the later there is only a localized particle with mass and charge at every instant, and thus there will not exist any self-interaction for the wave function. It is further argued that the classical ergodic models, which assume continuous motion of particles, cannot be consistent with quantum mechanics. Based on the negative result, we suggest that the wave function is a description of the quantum motion of particles, which is random and discontinuous in nature. On this interpretation, the square of the absolute value of the wave function not only gives the probability of the particle being found in certain locations, but also gives the probability of the particle being there. The suggested new interpretation of the wave function provides a natural realistic

  16. Coulomb wave functions in momentum space

    DOE PAGES

    Eremenko, V.; Upadhyay, N. J.; Thompson, I. J.; ...

    2015-10-15

    We present an algorithm to calculate non-relativistic partial-wave Coulomb functions in momentum space. The arguments are the Sommerfeld parameter η, the angular momentum l, the asymptotic momentum q and the 'running' momentum p, where both momenta are real. Since the partial-wave Coulomb functions exhibit singular behavior when p → q, different representations of the Legendre functions of the 2nd kind need to be implemented in computing the functions for the values of p close to the singularity and far away from it. The code for the momentum-space Coulomb wave functions is applicable for values of vertical bar eta vertical barmore » in the range of 10-1 to 10, and thus is particularly suited for momentum space calculations of nuclear reactions.« less

  17. Coulomb wave functions in momentum space

    SciTech Connect

    Eremenko, V.; Upadhyay, N. J.; Thompson, I. J.; Elster, Ch.; Nunes, F. M.; Arbanas, G.; Escher, J. E.; Hlophe, L.

    2015-10-15

    We present an algorithm to calculate non-relativistic partial-wave Coulomb functions in momentum space. The arguments are the Sommerfeld parameter η, the angular momentum l, the asymptotic momentum q and the 'running' momentum p, where both momenta are real. Since the partial-wave Coulomb functions exhibit singular behavior when p → q, different representations of the Legendre functions of the 2nd kind need to be implemented in computing the functions for the values of p close to the singularity and far away from it. The code for the momentum-space Coulomb wave functions is applicable for values of vertical bar eta vertical bar in the range of 10-1 to 10, and thus is particularly suited for momentum space calculations of nuclear reactions.

  18. Meaning of the nuclear wave function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, John D.; Miller, Gerald A.

    2016-07-01

    Background: The intense current experimental interest in studying the structure of the deuteron and using it to enable accurate studies of neutron structure motivate us to examine the four-dimensional space-time nature of the nuclear wave function and the various approximations used to reduce it to an object that depends only on three spatial variables. Purpose: The aim is to determine if the ability to understand and analyze measured experimental cross sections is compromised by making the reduction from four to three dimensions. Method: Simple, exactly calculable, covariant models of a bound-state wave-state wave function (a scalar boson made of two constituent-scalar bosons) with parameters chosen to represent a deuteron are used to investigate the accuracy of using different approximations to the nuclear wave function to compute the quasielastic scattering cross section. Four different versions of the wave function are defined (light-front-spectator, light-front, light-front with scaling, and nonrelativistic) and used to compute the cross sections as a function of how far off the mass shell (how virtual) is the struck constituent. Results: We show that making an exact calculation of the quasielastic scattering cross section involves using the light-front-spectator wave function. All of the other approaches fail to reproduce the model exact calculation if the value of Bjorken x differs from unity. The model is extended to consider an essential effect of spin to show that constituent nucleons cannot be treated as being on their mass shell even when taking the matrix element of a "good" current. Conclusions: Developing realistic light-front-spectator wave functions to meet the needs of current and planned experiments is a worthwhile activity.

  19. Wigner functions for evanescent waves.

    PubMed

    Petruccelli, Jonathan C; Tian, Lei; Oh, Se Baek; Barbastathis, George

    2012-09-01

    We propose phase space distributions, based on an extension of the Wigner distribution function, to describe fields of any state of coherence that contain evanescent components emitted into a half-space. The evanescent components of the field are described in an optical phase space of spatial position and complex-valued angle. Behavior of these distributions upon propagation is also considered, where the rapid decay of the evanescent components is associated with the exponential decay of the associated phase space distributions. To demonstrate the structure and behavior of these distributions, we consider the fields generated from total internal reflection of a Gaussian Schell-model beam at a planar interface.

  20. Measurement of Oblique Impact-generated Shear Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, J. M.; Schultz, P. H.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental strain measurements reveal that oblique impacts can generate shear waves with displacements as large as those in the P-wave. Large oblique impacts may thus be more efficient sources of surface disruption than vertical impacts. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Constructibility of the Universal Wave Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotin, Arkady

    2016-10-01

    This paper focuses on a constructive treatment of the mathematical formalism of quantum theory and a possible role of constructivist philosophy in resolving the foundational problems of quantum mechanics, particularly, the controversy over the meaning of the wave function of the universe. As it is demonstrated in the paper, unless the number of the universe's degrees of freedom is fundamentally upper bounded (owing to some unknown physical laws) or hypercomputation is physically realizable, the universal wave function is a non-constructive entity in the sense of constructive recursive mathematics. This means that even if such a function might exist, basic mathematical operations on it would be undefinable and subsequently the only content one would be able to deduce from this function would be pure symbolical.

  2. Designing electron wave functions in assembled nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Christopher Ryan

    We use the scanning tunneling microscope to not only to map electron wave functions but also to engineer them. By assembling nanostructures from individual atoms and molecules, we confine two-dimensional electronic states into closed electron resonators, or "quantum corrals". Precise control over the geometry of these structures allows electronic states to be tailored to suit particular experiments. Specifically, we design wave functions that enable studies of normally inaccessible quantum phases. First, we create pairs of quantum corrals with shapes drawn from contemporary mathematics. Exploiting special topological relationships between these structures, we retrieve internal quantum phase of electron wave functions without using interferometry. Second, we demonstrate that adding a single atom to a quantum corral can cause its electronic states to recombine into coherent superpositions. The real-space position of the additional atom controls abstract superposition phase angles, enabling arbitrary time-independent superpositions to be created. Third, we study geometric phase by creating a series of quantum corrals that traverse a closed path through a parameter space. Tracking the corral wave functions reveals a phase shift depending solely on the path taken, directly visualizing Berry's phase evolution in a quantum system. Finally, we extend beyond closed electron resonators and engineer wave functions in open nanostructures. We show that arbitrary patterns can be encoded into electronic states, creating a new form of holography on the nanoscale. We exhibit letters written in electron density rather than with atomic matter, and show that multiple letters may be simultaneously embedded at different energies in the same region of space. Because the wavelength of the electrons diminishes as energy is increased, this technique allows local information densities that exceed the conventionally assumed limit of 1 bit per atom. Taken together, the results in this thesis

  3. Impact of 'functional food'.

    PubMed

    Guesry, Pierre René

    2005-01-01

    'Functional Food' is not a new concept but it became more important recently due to the collapse of most social health system because 'Functional Foods' allow low cost prevention of numerous diseases. 'Functional Foods' are different from 'Neutraceuticals' which remain drug based with poor taste whereas 'Functional Foods' remain good food which could be consumed for years, but in addition have a disease prophylactic function. They are becoming particularly important for the prevention of food allergy in 'at risk' population, obesity, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases and particularly high blood pressure and atherosclerosis, but also for cancer prevention. The newest trend is that governments and health authorities allow food manufacturers to make health prevention related claims on mass media.

  4. Waves in periodic dissipative laminate metamaterial generated by plate impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Pedro Franco; Benson, David J.; Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated numerically the nature of high amplitude stress waves generated by plate impact on Al/W viscoplastic laminates with different cell sizes. Weakly attenuating localized travelling waves, closely resembling solitary waves, quickly form near the impacted surface at relatively short duration of incoming pulse. They have properties similar to solitary solutions of the Korteweg-de Vries equation with the dispersive and nonlinear parameters connected to laminate properties. The peak temperature in the localized stress wave is dramatically different than the temperature corresponding to the shock wave at the same pressure, reflecting different paths of loading. Increase of the duration of the incoming pulse results in a train of solitary pulses or in oscillatory stationary shock like stress waves. The leading front of the shock like stress wave is closely described by the rising part of solitary stress wave.

  5. Wave function methods for fractional electrons.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Stephan N; Yang, Weitao

    2013-08-21

    Determining accurate chemical potentials is of considerable interest in various chemical and physical contexts: from small molecular charge-transfer complexes to bandgap in bulk materials such as semi-conductors. Chemical potentials are typically evaluated either by density functional theory, or, alternatively, by computationally more intensive Greens function based GW computations. To calculate chemical potentials, the ground state energy needs to be defined for fractional charges. We thus explore an extension of wave function theories to fractional charges, and investigate the ionization potential and electron affinity as the derivatives of the energy with respect to the electron number. The ultimate aim is to access the chemical potential of correlated wave function methods without the need of explicitly changing the numbers of electrons, making the approach readily applicable to bulk materials. We find that even though second order perturbation theory reduces the fractional charge error considerably compared to Hartree-Fock and standard density functionals, higher order perturbation theory is more accurate and coupled-cluster approaches are even more robust, provided the electrons are bound at the Hartree-Fock level. The success of post-HF approaches to improve over HF relies on two equally important aspects: the integer values are more accurate and the Coulomb correlation between the fractionally occupied orbital and all others improves the straight line behavior significantly as identified by a correction to Hartree-Fock. Our description of fractional electrons is also applicable to fractional spins, illustrating the ability of coupled-cluster singles and doubles to deal with two degenerate fractionally occupied orbitals, but its inadequacy for three and more fractional spins, which occur, for instance, for spherical atoms and when dissociating double bonds. Our approach explores the realm of typical wave function methods that are applied mostly in molecular

  6. Towards a Functional Understanding of PGO Waves

    PubMed Central

    Gott, Jarrod A.; Liley, David T. J.; Hobson, J. Allan

    2017-01-01

    Ponto-Geniculo-Occipital (PGO) waves are biphasic field potentials identified in a range of mammalian species that are ubiquitous with sleep, but can also be identified in waking perception and eye movement. Their role in REM sleep and visual perception more broadly may constitute a promising avenue for further research, however what was once an active field of study has recently fallen into stasis. With the reality that invasive recordings performed on animals cannot be replicated in humans; while animals themselves cannot convey experience to the extent required to elucidate how PGO waves factor into awareness and behavior, innovative solutions are required if significant research outcomes are to ever be realized. Advances in non-invasive imaging technologies and sophistication in imaging methods now offer substantial scope to renew the study of the electrophysiological substrates of waking and dreaming perception. Among these, Magnetoencephalogram (MEG) stands out through its capacity to measure deep brain activations with high temporal resolution. With the current trend in sleep and dream research to produce translational findings of psychopathological and medical significance, in addition to the clear links that PGO wave generation sites share, pharmacologically, with receptors involved in expression of mental illness; there is a strong case to support scientific research into PGO waves and develop a functional understanding of their broader role in human perception. PMID:28316568

  7. Towards a Functional Understanding of PGO Waves.

    PubMed

    Gott, Jarrod A; Liley, David T J; Hobson, J Allan

    2017-01-01

    Ponto-Geniculo-Occipital (PGO) waves are biphasic field potentials identified in a range of mammalian species that are ubiquitous with sleep, but can also be identified in waking perception and eye movement. Their role in REM sleep and visual perception more broadly may constitute a promising avenue for further research, however what was once an active field of study has recently fallen into stasis. With the reality that invasive recordings performed on animals cannot be replicated in humans; while animals themselves cannot convey experience to the extent required to elucidate how PGO waves factor into awareness and behavior, innovative solutions are required if significant research outcomes are to ever be realized. Advances in non-invasive imaging technologies and sophistication in imaging methods now offer substantial scope to renew the study of the electrophysiological substrates of waking and dreaming perception. Among these, Magnetoencephalogram (MEG) stands out through its capacity to measure deep brain activations with high temporal resolution. With the current trend in sleep and dream research to produce translational findings of psychopathological and medical significance, in addition to the clear links that PGO wave generation sites share, pharmacologically, with receptors involved in expression of mental illness; there is a strong case to support scientific research into PGO waves and develop a functional understanding of their broader role in human perception.

  8. Test of nuclear wave functions for pseudospin symmetry.

    PubMed

    Ginocchio, J N; Leviatan, A

    2001-08-13

    Using the fact that pseudospin is an approximate symmetry of the Dirac Hamiltonian with realistic scalar and vector mean fields, we derive the wave functions of the pseudospin partners of eigenstates of a realistic Dirac Hamiltonian and compare these wave functions with the wave functions of the Dirac eigenstates.

  9. The resonance wave function - is it relevant?

    SciTech Connect

    Elander, Nils; Shilyeava, Ksenia; Volkov, Mikhail; Yarevsky, Evgeny; Rakityansky, Sergei

    2008-04-03

    The physical relevance of the resonance wave function is discussed in view of the complex scaling theory. It is argued that although it is unphysical in the sense that it corresponds to a complex energy it is useful when we want to understand and compute several physical observables. We first review our work on the influence of resonances on a scattering cross sections. We then discuss the partial widths concept as presented by Peshkin, Moiseyev and Lefebvre [J. Chem. Phys. 92 2902 (1990)]. Finally we use this formalism to suggest a way to define a root mean square radius of a resonant state.

  10. Lanczos steps to improve variational wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becca, Federico; Hu, Wen-Jun; Iqbal, Yasir; Parola, Alberto; Poilblanc, Didier; Sorella, Sandro

    2015-09-01

    Gutzwiller-projected fermionic states can be efficiently implemented within quantum Monte Carlo calculations to define extremely accurate variational wave functions for Heisenberg models on frustrated two-dimensional lattices, not only for the ground state but also for low-energy excitations. The application of few Lanczos steps on top of these states further improves their accuracy, allowing calculations on large clusters. In addition, by computing both the energy and its variance, it is possible to obtain reliable estimations of exact results. Here, we report the cases of the frustrated Heisenberg models on square and Kagome lattices.

  11. Wave velocity characteristic for Kenaf natural fibre under impact damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleha, M.; Mahzan, S.; Fitri, Muhamad; Kamarudin, K. A.; Eliza, Y.; Tobi, A. L. Mohd

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to determining the wave velocity characteristics for kenaf fibre reinforced composite (KFC) and it includes both experimental and simulation results. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensor were proposed to be positioned to corresponding locations on the panel. In order to demonstrate the wave velocity, an impacts was introduced onto the panel. It is based on a classical sensor triangulation methodology, combines with experimental strain wave velocity analysis. Then the simulation was designed to replicate panel used in the experimental impacts test. This simulation was carried out using ABAQUS. It was shown that the wave velocity propagates faster in the finite element simulation. Although the experimental strain wave velocity and finite element simulation results do not match exactly, the shape of both waves is similar.

  12. A wave function for stock market returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataullah, Ali; Davidson, Ian; Tippett, Mark

    2009-02-01

    The instantaneous return on the Financial Times-Stock Exchange (FTSE) All Share Index is viewed as a frictionless particle moving in a one-dimensional square well but where there is a non-trivial probability of the particle tunneling into the well’s retaining walls. Our analysis demonstrates how the complementarity principle from quantum mechanics applies to stock market prices and of how the wave function presented by it leads to a probability density which exhibits strong compatibility with returns earned on the FTSE All Share Index. In particular, our analysis shows that the probability density for stock market returns is highly leptokurtic with slight (though not significant) negative skewness. Moreover, the moments of the probability density determined under the complementarity principle employed here are all convergent - in contrast to many of the probability density functions on which the received theory of finance is based.

  13. Green function for three-wave coupling problems

    SciTech Connect

    Molevich, N E

    2001-07-31

    The Green function is found for three-wave coupling problems. The function was used for analysis of parametric amplification in dissipative and active media. It is shown that the parametric increment in active media can become exponential. As an example, the nonstationary stimulated scattering of electromagnetic waves by sound and temperatures waves is considered. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  14. Impacts of wave energy conversion devices on local wave climate: observations and modelling from the Perth Wave Energy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeke, Ron; Hemer, Mark; Contardo, Stephanie; Symonds, Graham; Mcinnes, Kathy

    2016-04-01

    As demonstrated by the Australian Wave Energy Atlas (AWavEA), the southern and western margins of the country possess considerable wave energy resources. The Australia Government has made notable investments in pre-commercial wave energy developments in these areas, however little is known about how this technology may impact local wave climate and subsequently affect neighbouring coastal environments, e.g. altering sediment transport, causing shoreline erosion or accretion. In this study, a network of in-situ wave measurement devices have been deployed surrounding the 3 wave energy converters of the Carnegie Wave Energy Limited's Perth Wave Energy Project. This data is being used to develop, calibrate and validate numerical simulations of the project site. Early stage results will be presented and potential simulation strategies for scaling-up the findings to larger arrays of wave energy converters will be discussed. The intended project outcomes are to establish zones of impact defined in terms of changes in local wave energy spectra and to initiate best practice guidelines for the establishment of wave energy conversion sites.

  15. Impact of mountain gravity waves on infrasound propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Linear theory of acoustic propagation is used to analyze how mountain waves can change the characteristics of infrasound signals. The mountain wave model is based on the integration of the linear inviscid Taylor-Goldstein equation forced by a nonlinear surface boundary condition. For the acoustic propagation we solve the wave equation using the normal mode method together with the effective sound speed approximation. For large-amplitude mountain waves we use direct numerical simulations to compute the interactions between the mountain waves and the infrasound component. It is shown that the mountain waves perturb the low level waveguide, which leads to significant acoustic dispersion. The mountain waves also impact the arrival time and spread of the signals substantially and can produce a strong absorption of the wave signal. To interpret our results we follow each acoustic mode separately and show which mode is impacted and how. We also show that the phase shift between the acoustic modes over the horizontal length of the mountain wave field may yield to destructive interferences in the lee side of the mountain, resulting in a new form of infrasound absorption. The statistical relevance of those results is tested using a stochastic version of the mountain wave model and large enough sample sizes.

  16. Extreme waves impact on the ship mooring near berth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leont'ev, Victor; Nudner, Igor; Semenov, Konstantin; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2013-04-01

    Ensuring safe ships berthing and loading-unloading operations at berths need reliable mooring systems. The choice of its parameters corresponds to calculating of the maximum displacements of the boat, which are caused by external impact of extreme waves, winds, and currents. Ship motions are described by system of differential equations, which contain disturbing, inertia, damping, and restoring forces, which magnitude strongly depends on the berth design and configuration of its elements. The major impact on the boat movements is caused by sea waves. In the given paper, an interaction between sea waves and ship located near the berth is studied. The cross-sectional shape of the boat is assumed to be rectangular and under-berth slope profile is approximated by finite number of steps. Different types of berth constructions are taken into account: containing impermeable or partially permeable front vertical wall, wave attenuation camera behind it with or without under-berth slope. The fluid is assumed ideal and incompressible, and its motion is potential. The stated problem is reduced to the determination of the velocity potential that satisfies the Laplace equation; the boundary condition on the free surface; the condition of non-flux through the impermeable bottom, the ship and berth elements; the condition on the surface of the permeable wall that is in proportionality between the wave flow velocity through the wall and pressure drop from its front to back faces. The problem is solved by dividing of the region into sub-domains with conditions of the hydrodynamic pressure and velocity continuity on its boundaries. In each sub-domain the solution is found using Fourier method in the form of functional series with unknown coefficients which are found from the system of linear algebraic equations. Calculated velocity potentials are used to determine different hydrodynamic characteristics of ship motions, such as horizontal and vertical components of disturbing force

  17. Superoscillating electron wave functions with subdiffraction spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remez, Roei; Tsur, Yuval; Lu, Peng-Han; Tavabi, Amir H.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Arie, Ady

    2017-03-01

    Almost one and a half centuries ago, Abbe [Arch. Mikrosk. Anat. 9, 413 (1873), 10.1007/BF02956173] and shortly after Lord Rayleigh [Philos. Mag. Ser. 5 8, 261 (1879), 10.1080/14786447908639684] showed that, when an optical lens is illuminated by a plane wave, a diffraction-limited spot with radius 0.61 λ /sinα is obtained, where λ is the wavelength and α is the semiangle of the beam's convergence cone. However, spots with much smaller features can be obtained at the focal plane when the lens is illuminated by an appropriately structured beam. Whereas this concept is known for light beams, here, we show how to realize it for a massive-particle wave function, namely, a free electron. We experimentally demonstrate an electron central spot of radius 106 pm, which is more than two times smaller than the diffraction limit of the experimental setup used. In addition, we demonstrate that this central spot can be structured by adding orbital angular momentum to it. The resulting superoscillating vortex beam has a smaller dark core with respect to a regular vortex beam. This family of electron beams having hot spots with arbitrarily small features and tailored structures could be useful for studying electron-matter interactions with subatomic resolution.

  18. Interpreting the wave function of the Universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipler, F. J.

    The Many-Worlds Interpretation of quantum mechanics is used to determine the meaning of the universal wave function of quantum cosmology. More precisely, the Many-Worlds Interpretation is used to distinguish those quantities in quantum cosmology which are measureable, and hence physically meaningful, from those which are not. A number of rather surprising conclusions are drawn from the analysis. All conclusions are illustrated with a closed Friedmann universe quantized in conformal time. The author's quantization procedure allows only one solution to Schrödinger's equation, and this solution solves the Flatness Problem. He shows that the ADM quantization method plus the Hartle-Hawking initial foundary condition gives the same result.

  19. Intercellular Ca2+ Waves: Mechanisms and Function

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Intercellular calcium (Ca2+) waves (ICWs) represent the propagation of increases in intracellular Ca2+ through a syncytium of cells and appear to be a fundamental mechanism for coordinating multicellular responses. ICWs occur in a wide diversity of cells and have been extensively studied in vitro. More recent studies focus on ICWs in vivo. ICWs are triggered by a variety of stimuli and involve the release of Ca2+ from internal stores. The propagation of ICWs predominately involves cell communication with internal messengers moving via gap junctions or extracellular messengers mediating paracrine signaling. ICWs appear to be important in both normal physiology as well as pathophysiological processes in a variety of organs and tissues including brain, liver, retina, cochlea, and vascular tissue. We review here the mechanisms of initiation and propagation of ICWs, the key intra- and extracellular messengers (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and ATP) mediating ICWs, and the proposed physiological functions of ICWs. PMID:22811430

  20. String wave function across a Kasner singularity

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Niz, Gustavo; Turok, Neil

    2010-06-15

    A collision of orbifold planes in 11 dimensions has been proposed as an explanation of the hot big bang. When the two planes are close to each other, the winding membranes become the lightest modes of the theory, and can be effectively described in terms of fundamental strings in a ten-dimensional background. Near the brane collision, the 11-dimensional metric is a Euclidean space times a 1+1-dimensional Milne universe. However, one may expect small perturbations to lead into a more general Kasner background. In this paper we extend the previous classical analysis of winding membranes to Kasner backgrounds, and using the Hamiltonian equations, solve for the wave function of loops with circular symmetry. The evolution across the singularity is regular, and explained in terms of the excitement of higher oscillation modes. We also show there is finite particle production and unitarity is preserved.

  1. Computer network defense through radial wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Ian J.

    The purpose of this research is to synthesize basic and fundamental findings in quantum computing, as applied to the attack and defense of conventional computer networks. The concept focuses on uses of radio waves as a shield for, and attack against traditional computers. A logic bomb is analogous to a landmine in a computer network, and if one was to implement it as non-trivial mitigation, it will aid computer network defense. As has been seen in kinetic warfare, the use of landmines has been devastating to geopolitical regions in that they are severely difficult for a civilian to avoid triggering given the unknown position of a landmine. Thus, the importance of understanding a logic bomb is relevant and has corollaries to quantum mechanics as well. The research synthesizes quantum logic phase shifts in certain respects using the Dynamic Data Exchange protocol in software written for this work, as well as a C-NOT gate applied to a virtual quantum circuit environment by implementing a Quantum Fourier Transform. The research focus applies the principles of coherence and entanglement from quantum physics, the concept of expert systems in artificial intelligence, principles of prime number based cryptography with trapdoor functions, and modeling radio wave propagation against an event from unknown parameters. This comes as a program relying on the artificial intelligence concept of an expert system in conjunction with trigger events for a trapdoor function relying on infinite recursion, as well as system mechanics for elliptic curve cryptography along orbital angular momenta. Here trapdoor both denotes the form of cipher, as well as the implied relationship to logic bombs.

  2. Impact of simulated heat waves on soybean physiology and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With increases in mean global temperatures and associated climate change, extreme temperature events are predicted to increase in both intensity and frequency. Despite the clearly documented negative public health impacts of heat waves, the impact on physiology and yields of key agricultural species...

  3. POSSIBLE EXPERIMENTS ON WAVE FUNCTION LOCALIZATION DUE TO COMPTON SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, Alexander V; Danilov, Viatcheslav V; Gorlov, Timofey V; Liu, Yun; Shishlo, Andrei P; Nagaitsev,

    2013-01-01

    The reduction of a particle s wave function in the process of radiation or light scattering is a longstanding problem. Its solution will give a clue on processes that form, for example, wave functions of electrons constantly emitting synchrotron radiation quanta in storage rings. On a more global scale, it may shed light on wave function collapse due to the process of measurement. In this paper we consider various experimental options using Fermilab electron beams and a possible electron beam from the SNS linac and lasers to detect electron wave function change due to Compton scattering.

  4. Holomorphic wave function of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, H. )

    1990-10-15

    The quantum behavior of the vacuum Bianchi type-IX universe with the cosmological constant is investigated in terms of the Ashtekar variables. An exact solution to the quantum Hamiltonian constraint in the holomorphic representation is given. This solution reduces to the Hartle-Hawking wave function in the spatially isotropic sector and extends in the triad representation to the classically forbidden region where the determinant of the spatial metric becomes negative. The analysis of the quantum Robertson-Walker universe indicates that if the superspace is extended to such a classically forbidden region, the holomorphic representation picks up some restricted class of solutions in general. This observation leads to a new ansatz on the boundary condition of the Universe. In particular, the behavior of the Lorentzian and Euclidean WKB orbits corresponding to the solution suggests a new picture on the semiclassical behavior of the quantum Universe: that the Universe is created from an ensemble of Euclidean mother spacetimes. Further it is pointed out that the solution is a restriction to the spatially homogeneous sector of an almost exact solution to all the quantum constraints in the holomorphic representation for generic vacuum spacetime with the cosmological constant. The latter generic solution has a WKB structure for which the phase is proportional to the Chern-Simons functional.

  5. Impact of Plunging Breaking Wave on a Partially Submerged Cube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A.; Ikeda, C. M.; Duncan, J. H.

    2012-11-01

    The impact of a plunging breaking wave on a partially submerged rigid cube (L = 30 . 5 cm) is studied experimentally in a wave tank that is 14.8 m long, 1.15 m wide and 2.2 m high with a water depth of 0.91 m. A single repeatable plunging breaker is generated from a dispersively focused wave packet (average frequency of 1.14 Hz) that is created with a programmable wave maker. The water surface profiles at the vertical center plane of the cube are measured with a cinematic LIF technique. The cube is centered in the width of the tank and mounted from above with the front face oriented with its normal in the vertical long center plane of the tank and tilted at angles of 0 and 20 degrees downward relative to horizontal. For the range of horizontal cube positions used here, during the wave impact, the water free surface forms a circular arc between the water contact point on the front face of the cube and the wave crest. As the wave impact continues, this arc converges to a point and a fast-moving vertical jet is formed. The effect of the submergence and tilt angle of the cube on the jet formation are explored. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  6. Wave propagation in a plate after impact by a projectile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Raheb, M.; Wagner, P.

    1987-01-01

    The wave propagation in a circular plate after impact by a cylindrical projectile is studied. In the vicinity of impact, the pressure is computed numerically. An intense pressure pulse is generated that peaks 0.2 microns after impact, then drops sharply to a plateau. The response of the plate is determined adopting a modal solution of Mindlin's equations. Velocity and acceleration histories display both propagating and dispersive features.

  7. Physical measurements of breaking wave impact on a floating wave energy converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hann, Martyn R.; Greaves, Deborah M.; Raby, Alison

    2013-04-01

    Marine energy converter must both efficiently extract energy in small to moderate seas and also successfully survive storms and potential collisions. Extreme loads on devices are therefore an important consideration in their design process. X-MED is a SuperGen UKCMER project and is a collaboration between the Universities of Manchester, Edinburgh and Plymouth and the Scottish Association for Marine Sciences. Its objective is to extend the knowledge of extreme loads due to waves, currents, flotsam and mammal impacts. Plymouth Universities contribution to the X-MED project involves measuring the loading and response of a taut moored floating body due to steep and breaking wave impacts, in both long crested and directional sea states. These measurements are then to be reproduced in STAR-CCM+, a commercial volume of fluid CFD solver, so as to develop techniques to predict the wave loading on wave energy converters. The measurements presented here were conducted in Plymouth Universities newly opened COAST laboratories 35m long, 15.5m wide and 3m deep ocean basin. A 0.5m diameter taut moored hemispherical buoy was used to represent a floating wave energy device or support structure. The changes in the buoys 6 degree of freedom motion and mooring loads are presented due to focused breaking wave impacts, with the breaking point of the wave changed relative to the buoy.

  8. Bohmian mechanics without wave function ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé, Albert

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, I critically assess different interpretations of Bohmian mechanics that are not committed to an ontology based on the wave function being an actual physical object that inhabits configuration space. More specifically, my aim is to explore the connection between the denial of configuration space realism and another interpretive debate that is specific to Bohmian mechanics: the quantum potential versus guidance approaches. Whereas defenders of the quantum potential approach to the theory claim that Bohmian mechanics is better formulated as quasi-Newtonian, via the postulation of forces proportional to acceleration; advocates of the guidance approach defend the notion that the theory is essentially first-order and incorporates some concepts akin to those of Aristotelian physics. Here I analyze whether the desideratum of an interpretation of Bohmian mechanics that is both explanatorily adequate and not committed to configuration space realism favors one of these two approaches to the theory over the other. Contrary to some recent claims in the literature, I argue that the quasi-Newtonian approach based on the idea of a quantum potential does not come out the winner.

  9. Imaging the wave functions of adsorbed molecules.

    PubMed

    Lüftner, Daniel; Ules, Thomas; Reinisch, Eva Maria; Koller, Georg; Soubatch, Serguei; Tautz, F Stefan; Ramsey, Michael G; Puschnig, Peter

    2014-01-14

    The basis for a quantum-mechanical description of matter is electron wave functions. For atoms and molecules, their spatial distributions and phases are known as orbitals. Although orbitals are very powerful concepts, experimentally only the electron densities and -energy levels are directly observable. Regardless whether orbitals are observed in real space with scanning probe experiments, or in reciprocal space by photoemission, the phase information of the orbital is lost. Here, we show that the experimental momentum maps of angle-resolved photoemission from molecular orbitals can be transformed to real-space orbitals via an iterative procedure which also retrieves the lost phase information. This is demonstrated with images obtained of a number of orbitals of the molecules pentacene (C22H14) and perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (C24H8O6), adsorbed on silver, which are in excellent agreement with ab initio calculations. The procedure requires no a priori knowledge of the orbitals and is shown to be simple and robust.

  10. Wave functions for continuum states of charged fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, S. J.; Macek, J. H.

    1994-02-01

    Briggs's representation [Phys. Rev. A 41, 539 (1990)] of the Mo/ller wave operator for multiparticle wave functions is applied to charged fragments using a limiting procedure to correctly account for the slow decrease of Coulomb interactions with distance. Approximate wave functions used to model (e,2e) angular correlation measurments are obtained. Computed and measured angular correlations are compared to clarify the region of applicability of two approximations.

  11. Waves in Periodic Dissipative Laminate Metamaterial Generated by Plate Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco Navarro, Pedro; Benson, David; Nesterenko, Vitali

    2015-06-01

    Waves generated by plate impact loading of Al/W laminates with different size of cell were investigated numerically depending on the impactor/cell mass ratio. The materials model took into account viscoplastic behavior of materials. It was observed that this mass ratio has a direct impact on the structure of stress pulses traveling through the composite. At the small impactor/cell mass ratio travelling waves closely resembling solitary waves were quickly formed near the impacted surface. They propagate as quasistationary weakly attenuating localized pulses. The properties of these pulses were satisfactory described based on a theoretical model using dispersive and nonlinear parameters of the materials similar to solitary solutions for the Korteweg-de Vries equation (KdV). The temperature at given pressure at the maximum is dramatically different then the temperature corresponding to the shock wave at the same pressure reflecting a different paths of loading. Increase of impactor/cell mass ratio results in the train of solitary like pulses which number increased with the increase of the impactor/cell mass ratio. At large impactor/cell mass ratio oscillatory stationary shock waves were formed. The leading front of these stationary shock waves was closely described by a solitary like pulse observed at small impactor/cell mass ratio. One of the authors (PFN) was supported by UCMexus Fellowship

  12. Shock Waves Impacting Composite Material Plates: The Mutual Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    High-performance, fiber-reinforced polymer composites have been extensively used in structural applications in the last 30 years because of their light weight combined with high specific stiffness and strength at a rather low cost. The automotive industry has adopted these materials in new designs of lightweight vehicles. The mechanical response and characterization of such materials under transient dynamic loading caused with shock impact induced by blast is not well understood. Air blast is associated with a fast traveling shock front with high pressure across followed by a decrease in pressure behind due to expansion waves. The time scales associated with the shock front are typically 103 faster than those involved in the expansion waves. Impingement of blast waves on structures can cause a reflection of the wave off the surface of the structure followed by a substantial transient aerodynamic load, which can cause significant deformation and damage of the structure. These can alter the overpressure, which is built behind the reflected shock. In addition, a complex aeroelastic interaction between the blast wave and the structure develops that can induce reverberation within an enclosure, which can cause substantial overpressure through multiple reflections of the wave. Numerical simulations of such interactions are quite challenging. They usually require coupled solvers for the flow and the structure. The present contribution provides a physics-based analysis of the phenomena involved, a critical review of existing computational techniques together with some recent results involving face-on impact of shock waves on thin composite plates.

  13. Heat waves in urban heat islands: interactions, impacts, and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bou-Zeid, E.; Li, D.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization rates and the intensity of anthropogenic global warming are both on the rise. By the middle of this century, climate change impacts on humans will be largely manifested in urban regions and will result from a combination of global to regional impacts related to greenhouse gas emissions, as well as regional to local impacts related to land-cover changes associated with urbanization. Alarmingly, our understanding of how these two distinct impacts will interact remains very poor. One example, which is the focus of this study, is the interaction of urban heat islands and heat waves. Urban heat islands (UHIs) are spatial anomalies consisting of higher temperatures over built terrain; while their intensity varies with many factors, it consistently increases with city size. UHIs will hence intensify in the future as cities expand. Heat waves are temporal anomalies in the regional temperatures that affect both urban and rural areas; there is high certainty that the frequency and intensity of such waves will increase as a result global warming. However, whether urban and rural temperatures respond in the same way to heat waves remains a critical unanswered question. In this study, a combination of observational and modeling analyses of a heat wave event over the Baltimore-Washington urban corridor reveals synergistic interactions between urban heat islands and heat waves. Not only do heat waves increase the regional temperatures, but they also intensify the difference between urban and rural temperatures. That is, their impact is stronger in cities and the urban heat stress during such waves is larger than the sum of the background urban heat island effect and the heat wave effect. We also develop a simple analytical model of this interaction that suggests that this exacerbated impact in urban areas is primarily to the lack of surface moisture, with low wind speeds also playing a smaller role. Finally, the effectiveness of cool and green roofs as UHI mitigation

  14. Madden Julian Oscillation impacts on global ocean surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Andrew G.; Hendon, Harry H.; Durrant, Tom H.; Hemer, Mark A.

    2015-12-01

    We assess the impact of the tropical Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) on global ocean wind waves using 30 years of wave data from a wave model hindcast that is forced with high resolution surface winds from the NCEP-CFSR reanalysis. We concentrate on the boreal winter season when the MJO has its greatest amplitude and is potentially a source of predictable wave impacts at intra-seasonal lead times. Statistically significant anomalies in significant wave height (Hs), peak wave period (Tp) and zonal wave energy flux (CgE) are found to covary with the intra-seasonal variation of surface zonal wind induced by the MJO as it traverses eastward from the western tropical Indian Ocean to the eastern tropical Pacific. Tp varies generally out of phase with Hs over the life cycle of the MJO, indicating that these MJO-wave anomalies are locally wind-generated rather than remotely generated by ocean swell. Pronounced Hs anomalies develop on the northwest shelf of Australia, where the MJO is known to influence sea level and surface temperatures, and in the western Caribbean Sea and Guatemalan-Panama Seas with enhanced wave anomalies apparent in the vicinity of the Tehuantepec and Papagayo gaps. Significant wave anomalies are also detected in the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans in connection with the MJO teleconnection to the extratropics via atmospheric wave propagation. The impact in the north Atlantic stems from induction of the high phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) about 1 week after MJO convection traverses the Indian Ocean, and the low phase of the NAO about one week after suppressed convection traverses the Indian Ocean. Strong positive Hs anomalies maximize on the Northern European coast in the positive NAO phase and vice versa for the negative NAO phase. The MJO also influences the occurrence of daily low (below the 5th percentile) and high (above the 95th percentile) wave conditions across the tropics and in the North Pacific and North Atlantic

  15. Calculation of the Aharonov-Bohm wave function

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, M.

    1996-08-01

    A calculation of the Aharonov-Bohm wave function is presented. The result is an asymptotic series of confluent hypergeometric functions which is finite at the forward direction. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. Effect of Forcing Function on Nonlinear Acoustic Standing Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkheiner, Joshua R.; Li, Xiao-Fan; Raman, Ganesh; Daniels, Chris; Steinetz, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear acoustic standing waves of high amplitude have been demonstrated by utilizing the effects of resonator shape to prevent the pressure waves from entering saturation. Experimentally, nonlinear acoustic standing waves have been generated by shaking an entire resonating cavity. While this promotes more efficient energy transfer than a piston-driven resonator, it also introduces complicated structural dynamics into the system. Experiments have shown that these dynamics result in resonator forcing functions comprised of a sum of several Fourier modes. However, previous numerical studies of the acoustics generated within the resonator assumed simple sinusoidal waves as the driving force. Using a previously developed numerical code, this paper demonstrates the effects of using a forcing function constructed with a series of harmonic sinusoidal waves on resonating cavities. From these results, a method will be demonstrated which allows the direct numerical analysis of experimentally generated nonlinear acoustic waves in resonators driven by harmonic forcing functions.

  17. Impact of plunging breaking waves on a partially submerged cube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A.; Ikeda, C.; Duncan, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    The impact of a deep-water plunging breaking wave on a partially submerged cube is studied experimentally in a tank that is 14.8 m long and 1.2 m wide with a water depth of 0.91 m. The breakers are created from dispersively focused wave packets generated by a programmable wave maker. The water surface profile in the vertical center plane of the cube is measured using a cinematic laser-induced fluorescence technique with movie frame rates ranging from 300 to 4,500 Hz. The pressure distribution on the front face of the cube is measured with 24 fast-response sensors simultaneously with the wave profile measurements. The cube is positioned vertically at three heights relative to the mean water level and horizontally at a distance from the wave maker where a strong vertical water jet is formed. The portion of the water surface between the contact point on the front face of the cube and the wave crest is fitted with a circular arc and the radius and vertical position of the fitted circle is tracked during the impact. The vertical acceleration of the contact point reaches more than 50 times the acceleration of gravity and the pressure distribution just below the free surface shows a localized high-pressure region with a very high vertical pressure gradient. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research under grant N000141110095.

  18. Double plane wave reverse time migration with plane wave Green's function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.; Sen, M. K.; Stoffa, P. L.

    2015-12-01

    Reverse time migration (RTM) is effective in obtaining complex subsurface structures from seismic data. By solving the two-way wave equation, RTM can use entire wavefield for imaging. Although powerful computer are becoming available, the conventional pre-stack shot gather RTM is still computationally expensive. Solving forward and backward wavefield propagation for each source location and shot gather is extremely time consuming, especially for large seismic datasets. We present an efficient, accurate and flexible plane wave RTM in the frequency domain where we utilize a compressed plane wave dataset, known as the double plane wave (DPW) dataset. Provided with densely sampled seismic dataset, shot gathers can be decomposed into source and receiver plane wave components with minimal artifacts. The DPW RTM is derived under the Born approximation and utilizes frequency domain plane wave Green's function for imaging. Time dips in the shot profiles can help to estimate the range of plane wave components present in shot gathers. Therefore, a limited number of plane wave Green's functions are needed for imaging. Plane wave Green's functions can be used for imaging both source and receiver plane waves. Source and receiver reciprocity can be used for imaging plane wave components at no cost and save half of the computation time. As a result, the computational burden for migration is substantially reduced. Plane wave components can be migrated independently to recover specific targets with given dips, and ray parameter common image gathers (CIGs) can be generated after migration directly. The ray parameter CIGs can be used to justify the correctness of velocity models. Subsurface anisotropy effects can also be included in our imaging condition, provided with plane wave Green's functions in the anisotropic media.

  19. Joint inversion of body wave receiver function and Rayleigh wave ellipticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, J.; Ni, S.; Chu, R.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, surface wave dispersion has been used to image lithospheric structure jointly with receiver function, or Rayleigh wave ellipticity (Julia et al., 2000; Lin et al., 2012). Because surface wave dispersion is the total propagation effect of the travel path, the joint inversion relies on dense seismic arrays or high seismicity to obtain local velocity structure. However, both receiver function and Rayleigh wave ellipticity are single station measurements with localized sensitivities and could be combined for joint inversion naturally. In this study we explored the feasibility of the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave ellipticity and receiver function. We performed sensitivity tests with forward modeling, and found that the receiver function is sensitive to sharp velocity interfaces but shows weak sensitivity to long wavelength structure, almost complementary to Rayleigh wave ellipticity. Therefore, joint inversion with two single-station measurements provides tighter constraints on the velocity structure beneath the seismic station. A joint inversion algorithm based on the Fast Simulated Annealing method is developed to invert Rayleigh wave ellipticity and receiver function for the lithospheric structure. Application of the algorithm to the Indian Craton and the Williston Basin in the United States demonstrates its effectiveness in reducing the non-uniqueness of the inversion. However, the joint inversion is not sensitive to average crustal velocity, suggesting the need to combine surface wave dispersion, receiver function and Rayleigh wave ellipticity to more accurately resolve the velocity structure. ReferenceJuliá, J., C. Ammon, R. Herrmann, and A. Correig, 2000. Joint inversion of receiver function and surface wave dispersion observations, Geophys. J. Int., 143(1), 99-112. Lin F.C., Schmandt B. and Tsai V.C., 2012. Joint inversion of Rayleigh wave phase velocity and ellipticity using USArray: constraining velocity and density structure in the upper

  20. Impact of Fog on Electromagnetic Wave Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Jonathon; Fleisch, Daniel

    2002-04-01

    This experiment was designed to explore the impact of fog on electromagnetic radiation, in particular microwaves and infrared light. For years law enforcement agencies have used microwave radiation (radar guns) to measure the speed of vehicles, and the last ten years has seen increased use of LIDAR, which uses 905-nm infrared radiation rather than microwaves. To evaulate the effect of fog on the operation of these devices, we have constructed a fog chamber with microwave and optical portals to allow light from a HeNe laser and 10.6-GHz microwaves to propagate through various densities of fog. Data is acquired using Vernier Logger Pro and analyzed using MATLAB and Mathematica. Using the attenuation of the laser light to determine fog density, the impact of fog on the signal-to-noise ratio of both microwave and IR devices may be quantified, and the maximum useful range may be calculated.

  1. Breaking wave impact forces on truss support structures for offshore wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieślikiewicz, Witold; Gudmestad, Ove T.; Podrażka, Olga

    2014-05-01

    total and local force transducers which measured the response of the structure to the impact force. Also, the free surface elevations, the water particle velocity and the water particle acceleration were recorded during the WaveSlam experiment. Both the total and the local force data have been analysed using the Frequency Response Function method, which has been already applied to the estimation of the wave slamming forces. The results of this classical approach were compared to the calculated slamming forces based on Goda and Wienke and Oumeraci theories. Slamming wave forces and slamming coefficients calculated using both models appeared to be very much larger than those obtained from the analysed recorded data, therefore there is a need for further research. Details of this research and modelling results will be presented in the final poster.

  2. Estimating Subglacial Structure Using P-Wave Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, C.; Ammon, C. J.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Ramirez, C.; Nyblade, A.

    2017-02-01

    Reverberations of teleseismic compressional (P-) waves within a glacier or ice sheet may mask signals associated with crustal structure beneath the ice. We remove the signal associated with the ice from teleseismic P-waves using a wavefield downward continuation and decomposition technique that depends on known ice layer properties such as ice thickness, velocity, and attenuation. We test the method using data from nine stations in Antarctica and one station in Greenland. We deconvolve the downward-continued seismic wave vectors to create P-wave receiver functions that minimize the ice-layer reverberations in order to better measure signals from deeper structures. The subsurface P-wave receiver functions have similar sensitivities to crustal structure as those calculated from stations installed on bedrock. Synthetic experiments indicate subsurface P-wave receiver functions can constrain crustal structure more tightly than surface P-wave receiver functions when ice layer properties are known. We model the subsurface P-wave receiver functions using a Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion and constrain the product of crustal thickness and the column-average crustal-slowness beneath the stations. Our subglacial shear-speed and thickness estimates are consistent with previous investigations at most stations. At station SUMG in south-central Greenland, our results suggest a thicker crust than from previous estimates.

  3. Density functional calculations of spin-wave dispersion curves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, Leonard; Niu, Qian

    1998-03-01

    Extending the density functional method of Kubler et al( J. Kubler et al, J. Phys. F 18, 469 (1983) and J. Phys. Condens. Matter 1, 8155 (1989). ) for calcuating spin density wave ground states (but not making their atomic sphere approximation which requires a constant spin polarization direction in each WS sphere) we dicuss the calculation of frozen spin-wave eigenfunctions and their total energies. From these and the results of Niu's talk, we describe the calculation of spin-wave frequencies.

  4. Wave functions of elliptical quantum dots in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Daming; Lorke, Axel

    2015-03-01

    We use the variational principle to obtain the wave functions of elliptical quantum dots under the influence of an external magnetic field. For the first excited states, whose wave functions have recently been mapped experimentally, we find a simple expression, based on a linear combination of the wave functions in the absence of a magnetic field. The results illustrate how a magnetic field breaks the x-y symmetry and mixes the corresponding eigenstates. The obtained eigenenergies agree well with those obtained by more involved analytical and numerical methods.

  5. Boundary conditions on internal three-body wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Kevin A.; Littlejohn, Robert G.

    1999-10-01

    For a three-body system, a quantum wave function {Psi}{sub m}{sup {ell}} with definite {ell} and m quantum numbers may be expressed in terms of an internal wave function {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} which is a function of three internal coordinates. This article provides necessary and sufficient constraints on {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} to ensure that the external wave function {Psi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} is analytic. These constraints effectively amount to boundary conditions on {chi}{sub k}{sup {ell}} and its derivatives at the boundary of the internal space. Such conditions find similarities in the (planar) two-body problem where the wave function (to lowest order) has the form r{sup |m|} at the origin. We expect the boundary conditions to prove useful for constructing singularity free three-body basis sets for the case of nonvanishing angular momentum.

  6. Nonstandard jump functions for radially symmetric shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, Roy S.; Tucker, Don H.; Stanescu, Dan

    2008-10-01

    Nonstandard analysis is applied to derive generalized jump functions for radially symmetric, one-dimensional, magnetogasdynamic shock waves. It is assumed that the shock wave jumps occur on infinitesimal intervals, and the jump functions for the physical parameters occur smoothly across these intervals. Locally integrable predistributions of the Heaviside function are used to model the flow variables across a shock wave. The equations of motion expressed in nonconservative form are then applied to derive unambiguous relationships between the jump functions for the physical parameters for two families of self-similar flows. It is shown that the microstructures for these families of radially symmetric, magnetogasdynamic shock waves coincide in a nonstandard sense for a specified density jump function

  7. General Green's function formalism for layered systems: Wave function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shu-Hui; Yang, Wen; Chang, Kai

    2017-02-01

    The single-particle Green's function (GF) of mesoscopic structures plays a central role in mesoscopic quantum transport. The recursive GF technique is a standard tool to compute this quantity numerically, but it lacks physical transparency and is limited to relatively small systems. Here we present a numerically efficient and physically transparent GF formalism for a general layered structure. In contrast to the recursive GF that directly calculates the GF through the Dyson equations, our approach converts the calculation of the GF to the generation and subsequent propagation of a scattering wave function emanating from a local excitation. This viewpoint not only allows us to reproduce existing results in a concise and physically intuitive manner, but also provides analytical expressions of the GF in terms of a generalized scattering matrix. This identifies the contributions from each individual scattering channel to the GF and hence allows this information to be extracted quantitatively from dual-probe STM experiments. The simplicity and physical transparency of the formalism further allows us to treat the multiple reflection analytically and derive an analytical rule to construct the GF of a general layered system. This could significantly reduce the computational time and enable quantum transport calculations for large samples. We apply this formalism to perform both analytical analysis and numerical simulation for the two-dimensional conductance map of a realistic graphene p -n junction. The results demonstrate the possibility of observing the spatially resolved interference pattern caused by negative refraction and further reveal a few interesting features, such as the distance-independent conductance and its quadratic dependence on the carrier concentration, as opposed to the linear dependence in uniform graphene.

  8. Impact Localization Using Lamb Wave and Spiral FSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimal, Nischal

    Wear and tear exists in almost every physical infrastructure. Modern day science has something in its pocket to early detect such wear and tear known as Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). SHM features a key role in tracking a structural failure and could prevent loss of human lives and money. The size and prices of presently available defect detection devices make them not suitable for on-site SHM. The exploitation of directional transducers and Lamb wave propagation for SHM has been proposed. The basis of the project was to develop an accurate localization algorithm and implementation of Lamb waves to detect the crack present in the plate like structures. In regards, the use of Frequency Steerable Acoustic Transducer (FSAT) was studied. The theory governing the propagation of Lamb wave was reviewed. The derivation of the equations and dispersion curve of Lamb waves are included. FSAT was studied from both theoretical and application view of point. The experiments carried out give us better understanding of the FSAT excitation and Lamb wave generation and detection. The Lamb wave generation and crack localization algorithm was constructed and with the proposed algorithm, simulated impacts are detected.

  9. Do Heat Waves have an Impact on Terrestrial Water Storage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brena-Naranjo, A.; Teuling, R.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent works have investigated the impact of heat waves on the surface energy and carbon balance. However, less attention has been given to the impacts on terrestrial hydrology. During the summer of 2010, the occurrence of an exceptional heat wave affected severely the Northern Hemisphere. The extension (more than 2 million km2) and severity of this extreme event caused substantial ecosystem damage (more than 1 million ha of forest fires), economic and human losses (~500 billion USD and more than 17 million of indirect deaths, respectively). This work investigates for the first time the impacts of the 2010 summer heat wave on terrestrial water storage. Our study area comprises three different regions where air temperature records were established or almost established during the summer: Western Russia, the Middle East and Eastern Sahel. Anomalies of terrestrial water storage derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were used to infer water storage deficits during the 2003-2013 period. Our analysis shows that Russia experienced the most severe water storage decline, followed by the Middle East, whereas Eastern Sahel was not significantly affected. The impact of the heat wave was spatially uniform in Russia but highly variable in the Middle East, with the Northern part substantially more affected than the Southern region. Lag times between maxima air temperatures and lower water storage deficits for Russia and the Middle East were approximately two and seven months, respectively. The results suggest that the response of terrestrial water storage to heat waves is stronger in energy-limited environments than in water-limited regions. Such differences in the magnitude and timing between meteorological and hydrological extremes can be explained by the propagation time between atmospheric water demand and natural or anthropogenic sources of water storage.

  10. Impact of Functionally Graded Cylinders: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, S. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work funded under the Grant NAG3-2411 during the 04/05/2000-04/04/2001 period. The objective of this one-year project was to generalize the theoretical framework of the two-dimensional higher-order theory for the analysis of cylindrical functionally graded materials/structural components employed in advanced aircraft engines developed under past NASA Glenn funding. The completed generalization significantly broadens the theory's range of applicability through the incorporation of dynamic impact loading capability into its framework. Thus, it makes possible the assessment of the effect of damage due to fuel impurities, or the presence of submicron-level debris, on the life of functionally graded structural components. Applications involving advanced turbine blades and structural components for the reusable-launch vehicle (RLV) currently under development will benefit from the completed work. The theory's predictive capability is demonstrated through a numerical simulation of a one-dimensional wave propagation set up by an impulse load in a layered half-plane. Full benefit of the completed generalization of the higher-order theory described in this report will be realized upon the development of a related computer code.

  11. Calculation of electron wave functions and refractive index of Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Min; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Tao

    2008-10-01

    The radial wave functions of inner electron shell and outer electron shell of a Ne atom were obtained by the approximate analytical method and tested by calculating the ground state energy of the Ne atom. The equivalent volume of electron cloud and the refractive index of Ne were calculated. The calculated refractive index agrees well with the experimental result. Relationship between the refractive index and the wave function of Ne was discovered.

  12. Multi-time wave functions for quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Petrat, Sören; Tumulka, Roderich

    2014-06-15

    Multi-time wave functions such as ϕ(t{sub 1},x{sub 1},…,t{sub N},x{sub N}) have one time variable t{sub j} for each particle. This type of wave function arises as a relativistic generalization of the wave function ψ(t,x{sub 1},…,x{sub N}) of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. We show here how a quantum field theory can be formulated in terms of multi-time wave functions. We mainly consider a particular quantum field theory that features particle creation and annihilation. Starting from the particle–position representation of state vectors in Fock space, we introduce multi-time wave functions with a variable number of time variables, set up multi-time evolution equations, and show that they are consistent. Moreover, we discuss the relation of the multi-time wave function to two other representations, the Tomonaga–Schwinger representation and the Heisenberg picture in terms of operator-valued fields on space–time. In a certain sense and under natural assumptions, we find that all three representations are equivalent; yet, we point out that the multi-time formulation has several technical and conceptual advantages. -- Highlights: •Multi-time wave functions are manifestly Lorentz-covariant objects. •We develop consistent multi-time equations with interaction for quantum field theory. •We discuss in detail a particular model with particle creation and annihilation. •We show how multi-time wave functions are related to the Tomonaga–Schwinger approach. •We show that they have a simple representation in terms of operator valued fields.

  13. Factorized molecular wave functions: Analysis of the nuclear factor

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, R.

    2015-06-07

    The exact factorization of molecular wave functions leads to nuclear factors which should be nodeless functions. We reconsider the case of vibrational perturbations in a diatomic species, a situation usually treated by combining Born-Oppenheimer products. It was shown [R. Lefebvre, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 074106 (2015)] that it is possible to derive, from the solutions of coupled equations, the form of the factorized function. By increasing artificially the interstate coupling in the usual approach, the adiabatic regime can be reached, whereby the wave function can be reduced to a single product. The nuclear factor of this product is determined by the lowest of the two potentials obtained by diagonalization of the potential matrix. By comparison with the nuclear wave function of the factorized scheme, it is shown that by a simple rectification, an agreement is obtained between the modified nodeless function and that of the adiabatic scheme.

  14. Improved variational wave functions for few-body nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.; Arriaga, A.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1995-08-01

    We continued to work on improvements to our variational wave functions for use in Monte Carlo calculations of few-body nuclei. These trial functions include central, spin, isospin, tensor, and spin-orbit two-body correlations and three-body correlations for the three-nucleon potential. In the last two years we studied a variety of extra three-body correlations. Our search for possible forms was guided by comparisons made with 34-channel Faddeev wave functions provided by the Los Alamos-Iowa group. The new trial functions reduce the discrepancy with exact Faddeev calculations in {sup 3}H and Green`s Function Monte Carlo (GFMC) calculations in {sup 4}He by about 40%. This work is now being written up for publication. We hope to use similar comparisons with GFMC calculations in the six-body nuclei to find further improvements for the light p-shell nuclei, where the variational wave functions are not as good.

  15. Impact of density information on Rayleigh surface wave inversion results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Julian; Tsoflias, Georgios; Miller, Richard D.; Peterie, Shelby; Morton, Sarah; Xia, Jianghai

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the impact of density on the estimation of inverted shear-wave velocity (Vs) using the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method. We considered the forward modeling theory, evaluated model sensitivity, and tested the effect of density information on the inversion of seismic data acquired in the Arctic. Theoretical review, numerical modeling and inversion of modeled and real data indicated that the density ratios between layers, not the actual density values, impact the determination of surface-wave phase velocities. Application on real data compared surface-wave inversion results using: a) constant density, the most common approach in practice, b) indirect density estimates derived from refraction compressional-wave velocity observations, and c) from direct density measurements in a borehole. The use of indirect density estimates reduced the final shear-wave velocity (Vs) results typically by 6-7% and the use of densities from a borehole reduced the final Vs estimates by 10-11% compared to those from assumed constant density. In addition to the improved absolute Vs accuracy, the resulting overall Vs changes were unevenly distributed laterally when viewed on a 2-D section leading to an overall Vs model structure that was more representative of the subsurface environment. It was observed that the use of constant density instead of increasing density with depth not only can lead to Vs overestimation but it can also create inaccurate model structures, such as a low-velocity layer. Thus, optimal Vs estimations can be best achieved using field estimates of subsurface density ratios.

  16. Donor wave functions in Si gauged by STM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, A. L.; Salfi, J.; Bocquel, J.; Voisin, B.; Rogge, S.; Capaz, Rodrigo B.; Calderón, M. J.; Koiller, Belita

    2016-01-01

    The triumph of effective mass theory in describing the energy spectrum of dopants does not guarantee that the model wave functions will withstand an experimental test. Such wave functions have recently been probed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy, revealing localized patterns of resonantly enhanced tunneling currents. We show that the shape of the conducting splotches resembles a cut through Kohn-Luttinger (KL) hydrogenic envelopes, which modulate the interfering Bloch states of conduction electrons. All the nonmonotonic features of the current profile are consistent with the charge density fluctuations observed between successive {001 } atomic planes, including a counterintuitive reduction of the symmetry—a heritage of the lowered point group symmetry at these planes. A model-independent analysis of the diffraction figure constrains the value of the electron wave vector to k0=(0.82 ±0.03 ) (2 π /aSi) . Unlike prior measurements, averaged over a sizable density of electrons, this estimate is obtained directly from isolated electrons. We further investigate the model-specific anisotropy of the wave function envelope, related to the effective mass anisotropy. This anisotropy appears in the KL variational wave function envelope as the ratio between Bohr radii b /a . We demonstrate that the central-cell-corrected estimates for this ratio are encouragingly accurate, leading to the conclusion that the KL theory is a valid model not only for energies but for wave functions as well.

  17. Remote Sensing of the Impact of Waves on Sea Ice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    The NASA / JPL efforts are intended to closely align with modeling efforts to seek the optimum and most reliable methods to quantify the impacted sea...THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 In the first two years of the effort, NASA / JPL will analyze...will focus on data analysis from the field campaign and comparisons and possible parameterization into the wave-ice models. NASA / JPL will be

  18. Impact of coronary bifurcation morphology on wave propagation

    PubMed Central

    Rivolo, Simone; Hadjilucas, Lucas; Sinclair, Matthew; van Horssen, Pepijn; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen; Wesolowski, Roman; Chiribiri, Amedeo; Smith, Nicolas P.

    2016-01-01

    The branching pattern of the coronary vasculature is a key determinant of its function and plays a crucial role in shaping the pressure and velocity wave forms measured for clinical diagnosis. However, although multiple scaling laws have been proposed to characterize the branching pattern, the implications they have on wave propagation remain unassessed to date. To bridge this gap, we have developed a new theoretical framework by combining the mathematical formulation of scaling laws with the wave propagation theory in the pulsatile flow regime. This framework was then validated in multiple species using high-resolution cryomicrotome images of porcine, canine, and human coronary networks. Results demonstrate that the forward well-matchedness (no reflection for pressure/flow waves traveling from the coronary stem toward the microcirculation) is a salient feature in the coronary vasculature, and this result remains robust under many scenarios of the underlying pulse wave speed distribution assumed in the network. This result also implies a significant damping of the backward traveling waves, especially for smaller vessels (radius, <0.3 mm). Furthermore, the theoretical prediction of increasing area ratios (ratio between the area of the mother and daughter vessels) in more symmetric bifurcations found in the distal circulation was confirmed by experimental measurements. No differences were observed by clustering the vessel segments in terms of transmurality (from epicardium to endocardium) or perfusion territories (left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery). PMID:27402665

  19. Parametric dependence of ocean wave-radar modulation transfer functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Cross, A.

    1983-01-01

    Microwave techniques at X and L band were used to determine the dependence of ocean-wave radar modulation transfer functions (MTFs) on various environmental and radar parameters during the Marine Remote Sensing experiment of 1979 (MARSEN 79). These MIF are presented, as are coherence functions between the AM and FM parts of the backscattered microwave signal. It is shown that they both depend on several of these parameters. Besides confirming many of the properties of transfer functions reported by previous authors, indications are found that MTFs decrease with increasing angle between wave propagation and antenna-look directions but are essentially independent of small changes in air-sea temperature difference. However, coherence functions are much smaller when the antennas are pointed perpendicular to long waves. It is found that X band transfer functions measured with horizontally polarized microwave radiation have larger magnitudes than those obtained by using vertical polarization.

  20. Impact of sea-level rise and coral mortality on the wave dynamics and wave forces on barrier reefs.

    PubMed

    Baldock, T E; Golshani, A; Callaghan, D P; Saunders, M I; Mumby, P J

    2014-06-15

    A one-dimensional wave model was used to investigate the reef top wave dynamics across a large suite of idealized reef-lagoon profiles, representing barrier coral reef systems under different sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios. The modeling shows that the impacts of SLR vary spatially and are strongly influenced by the bathymetry of the reef and coral type. A complex response occurs for the wave orbital velocity and forces on corals, such that the changes in the wave dynamics vary reef by reef. Different wave loading regimes on massive and branching corals also leads to contrasting impacts from SLR. For many reef bathymetries, wave orbital velocities increase with SLR and cyclonic wave forces are reduced for certain coral species. These changes may be beneficial to coral health and colony resilience and imply that predicting SLR impacts on coral reefs requires careful consideration of the reef bathymetry and the mix of coral species.

  1. Rossby wave Green's functions in an azimuthal wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. M.; Duba, C. T.; Hu, Q.

    2016-05-01

    Green's functions for Rossby waves in an azimuthal wind are obtained, in which the stream-function $\\psi$ depends on $r$, $\\phi$ and $t$, where $r$ is cylindrical radius and $\\phi$ is the azimuthal angle in the $\\beta$-plane relative to the easterly direction, in which the $x$-axis points east and the $y$-axis points north. The Rossby wave Green's function with no wind is obtained using Fourier transform methods, and is related to the previously known Green's function obtained for this case, which has a different but equivalent form to the Green's function obtained in the present paper. We emphasize the role of the wave eikonal solution, which plays an important role in the form of the solution. The corresponding Green's function for a rotating wind with azimuthal wind velocity ${\\bf u}=\\Omega r{\\bf e}_\\phi$ ($\\Omega=$const.) is also obtained by Fourier methods, in which the advective rotation operator in position space is transformed to a rotation operator in ${\\bf k}$ transform space. The finite Rossby deformation radius is included in the analysis. The physical characteristics of the Green's functions are delineated and applications are discussed. In the limit as $\\Omega\\to 0$, the rotating wind Green's function reduces to the Rossby wave Green function with no wind.

  2. Simulations of Wave Propagation in the Jovian Atmosphere after SL9 Impact Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, Jarrad W.; Palotai, C.; Korycansky, D.; Harrington, J.

    2013-10-01

    Our previous numerical investigations into Jovian impacts, including the Shoemaker Levy- 9 (SL9) event (Korycansky et al. 2006 ApJ 646. 642; Palotai et al. 2011 ApJ 731. 3), the 2009 bolide (Pond et al. 2012 ApJ 745. 113), and the ephemeral flashes caused by smaller impactors in 2010 and 2012 (Hueso et al. 2013; Submitted to A&A), have covered only up to approximately 3 to 30 seconds after impact. Here, we present further SL9 impacts extending to minutes after collision with Jupiter’s atmosphere, with a focus on the propagation of shock waves generated as a result of the impact events. Using a similar yet more efficient remapping method than previously presented (Pond et al. 2012; DPS 2012), we move our simulation results onto a larger computational grid, conserving quantities with minimal error. The Jovian atmosphere is extended as needed to accommodate the evolution of the features of the impact event. We restart the simulation, allowing the impact event to continue to progress to greater spatial extents and for longer times, but at lower resolutions. This remap-restart process can be implemented multiple times to achieve the spatial and temporal scales needed to investigate the observable effects of waves generated by the deposition of energy and momentum into the Jovian atmosphere by an SL9-like impactor. As before, we use the three-dimensional, parallel hydrodynamics code ZEUS-MP 2 (Hayes et al. 2006 ApJ.SS. 165. 188) to conduct our simulations. Wave characteristics are tracked throughout these simulations. Of particular interest are the wave speeds and wave positions in the atmosphere as a function of time. These properties are compared to the characteristics of the HST rings to see if shock wave behavior within one hour of impact is consistent with waves observed at one hour post-impact and beyond (Hammel et al. 1995 Science 267. 1288). This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant AST-1109729 and NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program Grant

  3. Delta function excitation of waves in the earth's ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidmar, R. J.; Crawford, F. W.; Harker, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    Excitation of the earth's ionosphere by delta function current sheets is considered, and the temporal and spatial evolution of wave packets is analyzed for a two-component collisional F2 layer. Approximations of an inverse Fourier-Laplace transform via saddle point methods provide plots of typical wave packets. These illustrate cold plasma wave theory and may be used as a diagnostic tool since it is possible to relate specific features, e.g., the frequency of a modulation envelope, to plasma parameters such as the electron cyclotron frequency. It is also possible to deduce the propagation path length and orientation of a remote radio beacon.

  4. New approach to folding with the Coulomb wave function

    SciTech Connect

    Blokhintsev, L. D.; Savin, D. A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.

    2015-05-15

    Due to the long-range character of the Coulomb interaction theoretical description of low-energy nuclear reactions with charged particles still remains a formidable task. One way of dealing with the problem in an integral-equation approach is to employ a screened Coulomb potential. A general approach without screening requires folding of kernels of the integral equations with the Coulomb wave. A new method of folding a function with the Coulomb partial waves is presented. The partial-wave Coulomb function both in the configuration and momentum representations is written in the form of separable series. Each term of the series is represented as a product of a factor depending only on the Coulomb parameter and a function depending on the spatial variable in the configuration space and the momentum variable if the momentum representation is used. Using a trial function, the method is demonstrated to be efficient and reliable.

  5. Quantifying impacts of heat waves on power grid operation

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Xinda; Wu, Di; Rice, Jennie S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Lu, Ning

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is projected to cause an increase in the severity and frequency of extreme weather events such as heat waves and droughts. Such changes present planning and operating challenges and risks to many economic sectors. In the electricity sector, statistics of extreme events in the past have been used to help plan for future peak loads, determine associated infrastructure requirements, and evaluate operational risks, but industry-standard planning tools have yet to be coupled with or informed by temperature models to explore the impacts of the "new normal" on planning studies. For example, high ambient temperatures during heat waves reduce the output capacity and efficiency of gas fired combustion turbines just when they are needed most to meet peak demands. This paper describes the development and application of a production cost and unit commitment model coupled to high resolution, hourly temperature data and a temperature dependent load model. The coupled system has the ability to represent the impacts of hourly temperatures on load conditions and available capacity and efficiency of combustion turbines, and therefore capture the potential impacts on system reliability and production cost. Ongoing work expands this capability to address the impacts of water availability and temperature on power grid operation.

  6. Impact of boat-generated waves on intertidal estuarine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanpain, O.; Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Gomit, G.; Calluaud, D.; David, L.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrodynamics in the macrotidal Seine estuary (France) are controlled by the semi-diurnal tidal regime modulated seasonally by the fluvial discharge. Wind effect on sediment transport (through wind waves and swell) is observed at the mouth of the estuary. Over the last century, authorities have put emphasis on facilitating economic exchanges by means of embankment building and increased dredging activity. These developments led to allow and secure sea vessel traffic in the Seine estuary (from its mouth to the port of Rouen, 125 km upstream) but they also resulted in a change of estuarine hydrodynamics and sediment transport features. A riversides restoration policy has been recently started by port authorities. In this context, the objective of the field-based study presented is to connect vessel characteristics (i.e. speed, draft...), boat-generated waves and their sedimentary impacts. Such information will be used by stakeholders to manage riverside. The natural intertidal site of interest is located in the fluvial freshwater part of the Seine estuary characterized by a 4.5 m maximum tidal range. The foreshore slope is gently decreasing and surface sediments are composed of fine to coarse sand with occasional mud drapes. In order to decipher boat-generated events, the sampling strategy is based on continuous ADV measurements coupled with a turbidimeter and an altimeter to study sediment dynamics. These instruments are settled in the lower part of the foreshore (i) to obtain a significant dataset (i.e. oceanic instruments are not measuring in air) on a zone statically affected by boat waves and (ii) because most of boat traffic occurs during early flood or late ebb period. Spatial variations are assessed along a cross-section through grain-size analysis of surface sediments and topography measurements using pole technique. Results enhance hydrodynamic and sedimentary impacts of boat-generated waves compared respectively to tidal and wind effects. Long

  7. Embedding beyond electrostatics—The role of wave function confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nâbo, Lina J.; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Holmgaard List, Nanna; Solanko, Lukasz M.; Wüstner, Daniel; Kongsted, Jacob

    2016-09-01

    We study excited states of cholesterol in solution and show that, in this specific case, solute wave-function confinement is the main effect of the solvent. This is rationalized on the basis of the polarizable density embedding scheme, which in addition to polarizable embedding includes non-electrostatic repulsion that effectively confines the solute wave function to its cavity. We illustrate how the inclusion of non-electrostatic repulsion results in a successful identification of the intense π → π∗ transition, which was not possible using an embedding method that only includes electrostatics. This underlines the importance of non-electrostatic repulsion in quantum-mechanical embedding-based methods.

  8. Sharp Regularity Results for Coulombic Many-Electron Wave Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournais, Søren; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Maria; Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Thomas; Sørensen, Thomas Østergaard

    2005-04-01

    We show that electronic wave functions ψ of atoms and molecules have a representation ψ=ϕ, where is an explicit universal factor, locally Lipschitz, and independent of the eigenvalue and the solution ψ itself, and ϕ has second derivatives which are locally in L∞. This representation turns out to be optimal as can already be demonstrated with the help of hydrogenic wave functions. The proofs of these results are, in an essential way, based on a new elliptic regularity result which is of independent interest. Some identities that can be interpreted as cusp conditions for second order derivatives of ψ are derived.

  9. Evolution of wave function in a dissipative system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Li-Hua; Sun, Chang-Pu

    1994-01-01

    For a dissipative system with Ohmic friction, we obtain a simple and exact solution for the wave function of the system plus the bath. It is described by the direct product in two independent Hilbert space. One of them is described by an effective Hamiltonian, the other represents the effect of the bath, i.e., the Brownian motion, thus clarifying the structure of the wave function of the system whose energy is dissipated by its interaction with the bath. No path integral technology is needed in this treatment. The derivation of the Weisskopf-Wigner line width theory follows easily.

  10. On the asymptotic evolution of finite energy Airy wave functions.

    PubMed

    Chamorro-Posada, P; Sánchez-Curto, J; Aceves, A B; McDonald, G S

    2015-06-15

    In general, there is an inverse relation between the degree of localization of a wave function of a certain class and its transform representation dictated by the scaling property of the Fourier transform. We report that in the case of finite energy Airy wave packets a simultaneous increase in their localization in the direct and transform domains can be obtained as the apodization parameter is varied. One consequence of this is that the far-field diffraction rate of a finite energy Airy beam decreases as the beam localization at the launch plane increases. We analyze the asymptotic properties of finite energy Airy wave functions using the stationary phase method. We obtain one dominant contribution to the long-term evolution that admits a Gaussian-like approximation, which displays the expected reduction of its broadening rate as the input localization is increased.

  11. Pain's Impact on Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breau, L. M.; Camfield, C. S.; McGrath, P. J.; Finley, G. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pain interferes with the functioning of typical children, but no study has examined its effect on children with pre-existing intellectual disabilities (ID). Methods: Caregivers of 63 children observed their children for 2-h periods and recorded in 1-week diaries: pain presence, cause, intensity and duration. Caregivers also recorded…

  12. Helicon Wave Physics Impacts on Electrodeless Thruster Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.

    2007-01-01

    Effective generation of helicon waves for high density plasma sources is determined by the dispersion relation and plasma power balance. Helicon wave plasma sources inherently require an applied magnetic field of .01-0.1 T, an antenna properly designed to couple to the helicon wave in the plasma, and an rf power source in the 10-100 s of MHz, depending on propellant choice. For a plasma thruster, particularly one with a high specific impulse (>2000 s), the physics of the discharge would also have to address the use of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating and magnetic expansion. In all cases the system design includes an optimized magnetic field coil, plasma source chamber, and antenna. A preliminary analysis of such a system, calling on experimental data where applicable and calculations where required, has been initiated at Glenn Research Center. Analysis results showing the mass scaling of various components as well as thruster performance projections and their impact on thruster size are discussed.

  13. Helicon Wave Physics Impacts on Electrodeless Thruster Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James

    2003-01-01

    Effective generation of helicon waves for high density plasma sources is determined by the dispersion relation and plasma power balance. Helicon wave plasma sources inherently require an applied magnetic field of .01-0.1 T, an antenna properly designed to couple to the helicon wave in the plasma, and an rf power source in the 10-100 s of MHz, depending on propellant choice. For a plasma thruster, particularly one with a high specific impulse (>2000 s), the physics of the discharge would also have to address the use of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating and magnetic expansion. In all cases the system design includes an optimized magnetic field coil, plasma source chamber, and antenna. A preliminary analysis of such a system, calling on experimental data where applicable and calculations where required, has been initiated at Glenn Research Center. Analysis results showing the mass scaling of various components as well as thruster performance projections and their impact on thruster size are discussed.

  14. How close can we get waves to wave functions, including potential?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faletič, Sergej

    2016-05-01

    In the following article we show that mechanical waves on a braced string can have the same shapes as important wave functions in introductory quantum mechanics. A braced string is a string with additional transversal springs that serve as external "potential". The aim is not to suggest teaching quantum mechanics with these analogies. Instead, the aim is to provide students with some additional relevant experience in wave mechanics before they are introduced to quantum mechanics. We show how this experience can be used in a constructivist sense as the basis for building quantum concepts. We consider energy transfer along such string and show that penetration of a wave into a region with high "potential" is not unexpected. We also consider energy transfer between two such strings and show that it can appear point-like even though the wave is an extended object. We also suggest that applying quantization of energy transfer to wave phenomena can explain some of the more difficult to accept features of quantum mechanics.

  15. Simulation of wind wave growth with reference source functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badulin, Sergei I.; Zakharov, Vladimir E.; Pushkarev, Andrei N.

    2013-04-01

    We present results of extensive simulations of wind wave growth with the so-called reference source function in the right-hand side of the Hasselmann equation written as follows First, we use Webb's algorithm [8] for calculating the exact nonlinear transfer function Snl. Second, we consider a family of wind input functions in accordance with recent consideration [9] ( )s S = ?(k)N , ?(k) = ? ? ?- f (?). in k 0 ?0 in (2) Function fin(?) describes dependence on angle ?. Parameters in (2) are tunable and determine magnitude (parameters ?0, ?0) and wave growth rate s [9]. Exponent s plays a key role in this study being responsible for reference scenarios of wave growth: s = 4-3 gives linear growth of wave momentum, s = 2 - linear growth of wave energy and s = 8-3 - constant rate of wave action growth. Note, the values are close to ones of conventional parameterizations of wave growth rates (e.g. s = 1 for [7] and s = 2 for [5]). Dissipation function Sdiss is chosen as one providing the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?5 at high frequency range [3] (parameter ?diss fixes a dissipation scale of wind waves) Sdiss = Cdissμ4w?N (k)θ(? - ?diss) (3) Here frequency-dependent wave steepness μ2w = E(?,?)?5-g2 makes this function to be heavily nonlinear and provides a remarkable property of stationary solutions at high frequencies: the dissipation coefficient Cdiss should keep certain value to provide the observed power-law tails close to the Phillips spectrum E(?) ~ ?-5. Our recent estimates [3] give Cdiss ? 2.0. The Hasselmann equation (1) with the new functions Sin, Sdiss (2,3) has a family of self-similar solutions of the same form as previously studied models [1,3,9] and proposes a solid basis for further theoretical and numerical study of wave evolution under action of all the physical mechanisms: wind input, wave dissipation and nonlinear transfer. Simulations of duration- and fetch-limited wind wave growth have been carried out within the above model setup to check its

  16. Calculation of the nucleon structure function from the nucleon wave function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussar, Paul E.

    1993-01-01

    Harmonic oscillator wave functions have played an historically important role in our understanding of the structure of the nucleon, most notably by providing insight into the mass spectra of the low-lying states. High energy scattering experiments are known to give us a picture of the nucleon wave function at high-momentum transfer and in a frame in which the nucleon is traveling fast. A simple model that crosses the twin bridges of momentum scale and Lorentz frame that separate the pictures of the nucleon wave function provided by the deep inelastic scattering data and by the oscillator model is presented.

  17. Crustal structure of North Dakota from joint inversion of surface wave dispersion and teleseismic P-wave reciever functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Braden Michael

    Studying and determining crustal structure of the Earth is important for understanding the interior of the Earth. Using methods like receiver functions and surface wave dispersion allows the determination of differences in structure and composition through the crust. Jointly inverting receiver functions and surface wave dispersion reduces the error and over-interpretation of the crustal structure estimation. Receiver functions and surface wave dispersion invert well together because receiver functions are very sensitive to velocity contrasts and vertical travel times, and surface wave dispersion is sensitive to average velocity and insensitive to sharp velocity contrasts. By jointly inverting receiver functions and surface wave dispersion, shear wave velocity profiles can be created to determine the properties of the crustal structure and velocity contrasts. With the use of IRIS Transportable Array stations data throughout the United States, this thesis takes a closer look at the crustal structure of North Dakota through the joint inversion of surface wave dispersion and teleseismic P-wave receiver functions. The receiver functions in North Dakota show shallow sediment effects that affect the joint inversion process. In western North Dakota the Williston basin and in eastern North Dakota the Red River Valley cause ringing effects in the receiver functions. The shallow sediments in North Dakota control and overpower the rest of the crustal signal in the receiver functions, and thus affect the ability of determining the crustal shear wave velocity structure of North Dakota through the joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion, thus the use of background geology is necessary.

  18. Vector Meson Form Factors and Wave Functions from Holographic QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Hovhannes Grigoryan; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2007-10-10

    Based on the holographic dual model of QCD, we study 2- and 3-point functions of vector currents and derive form factors as well as wave functions for the vector mesons. As a result, generalized vector-meson dominance representation for form factors is obtained with a very specific VMD pattern. The calculated electric radius of the rho-meson is shown to be in a good agreement with predictions from lattice QCD.

  19. An APL function for modeling p-wave induced liquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doehring, Donald O.; Charlie, Wayne A.; Veyera, George E.

    This paper presents an APL function that models particle acceleration, velocity, displacement, and porewater pressure responses induced by the passage of compressional waves through water-saturated soil. Inputs to the function include: mass of soil elements, boundary conditions, spring constants, damping ratio, forces applied to the first element, threshold strain and a time increment. Output closely approximates the results of laboratory and field measurements of this phenomenon.

  20. New Offshore Approach to Reduce Impact of Tsunami Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anant Chatorikar, Kaustubh

    2016-07-01

    The world is facing an increasing frequency and intensity of natural disaster that has devastating impacts on society. As per International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR), it has been observed that over five million people were killed or affected in last 10 years and huge amount of economic losses occurred due to natural disaster. The 2011 tsunami in Japan showed a tremendous setback to existing technology of tsunami protection. More than 25,000 lives have been lost, Apart from that the damage to the nuclear power stations has severely affected the nearby populace and marine life. After the 2004 tsunami, world's effort has been concentrated on early warning and effective mitigation plans to defend against tsunami. It is anybody's guess as to what would have happened if such natural calamity specifically tsunami of such magnitude strikes our nation as country has already suffered from it in 2004 and seen its disastrous effects. But the point is what if such calamity strikes the mega cities like Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata again where there is extensive human habitation and conventional warning systems and mitigation methods are not effective when it comes to huge population of these cities, destruction caused by it will be worse than nuclear weapon strike as there is also very high possibility of deaths due to stampede. This paper talks about an idea inspired from daily routine and its relation with fundamental physics as well as method of its deployment is discussed. According to this idea when wave will strike the coast, aim is not to stop it but to reduce its impact within the permissible impact limits of existing infrastructure by converting it into foam wave with help of surfactants, thereby saving human lives as well as complications of Mitigation.

  1. An Investigation of Wave Impact Duration in High-Speed Planing Craft in Rough Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Engineering Department Technical Report AN INVESTIGATION OF WAVE IMPACT DURATION IN HIGH-SPEED PLANING CRAFT IN ROUGH WATER by Michael R. Riley, The...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AN INVESTIGATION OF WAVE IMPACT DURATION IN HIGH-SPEED PLANING CRAFT IN ROUGH WATER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT This report summarizes the investigation of wave impact duration. Example data plots are

  2. Extracting the Green Function Between two Stations From Coda Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.; Campillo, M.

    2001-12-01

    The imaging of the Earth crust often requires active experiments since natural sources implied numerous uncertainties concerning location, origin time and propagation effects outside of the region of interest. We propose to extract the Green function between two seismic stations where earthquake codas are recorded. We make use of the same principle that was applied in helioseismology and recently in acoustics. We demonstrated that, for records in Mexico, the late coda is made up of multiply scattered waves that verify the principle of equipartition (Shapiro et al., 2000, Hennino et al., 2001). Equipartition means that all modes of propagation are statistically equally represented in the wave field. Under this assumption and considering that we use a set of sources that sample the whole space, it can be shown that the average cross correlation between the records of every earthquake at the two stations is an approximation of the Green function between the two stations. We use records from stations of the Mexican national network to test this idea. We use 108 time windows of late coda records at stations YAIG and PLIG. The stacking of the cross correlation indicates that a low frequency coherent signal is present with a signal to noise ratio that was of about 0.3 for a single signal and therefore raises to about 3 after stacking. We know the structure of the crust in the region from Rayleigh wave dispersion analysis and we compute the theoretical Green function. The Green function between two points at the surface is widely dominated by the Rayleigh wave. The signal that we extracted from coda presents the characteristics expected: elliptical polarization in the radial-vertical plane and adequate group velocity. We conclude that we effectively extracted the Rayleigh wave from a limited set of coda records. There are several limitations when applying this technique to seismological data but the preliminary results of the practical application presented here are

  3. Computation of correlation functions and wave function projections in the context of quantum trajectory dynamics.

    PubMed

    Garashchuk, Sophya

    2007-04-21

    The de Broglie-Bohm formulation of the Schrodinger equation implies conservation of the wave function probability density associated with each quantum trajectory in closed systems. This conservation property greatly simplifies numerical implementations of the quantum trajectory dynamics and increases its accuracy. The reconstruction of a wave function, however, becomes expensive or inaccurate as it requires fitting or interpolation procedures. In this paper we present a method of computing wave packet correlation functions and wave function projections, which typically contain all the desired information about dynamics, without the full knowledge of the wave function by making quadratic expansions of the wave function phase and amplitude near each trajectory similar to expansions used in semiclassical methods. Computation of the quantities of interest in this procedure is linear with respect to the number of trajectories. The introduced approximations are consistent with approximate quantum potential dynamics method. The projection technique is applied to model chemical systems and to the H+H(2) exchange reaction in three dimensions.

  4. Wave impact on walls with/without parapets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandsen, Jannette; Tremblay, Olivier; Xharde, Regis

    2015-11-01

    This work is concerned with coastline protection. The usage of vertical walls is examined for various wave trains. The effect of parapets is further studied to minimize overtopping. The results presented are based on large scale flume experiments (Quebec) with a geometric scaling of 1:4. The beach has a slope 1:10. The beach material is highly absorbing and contains a mix of sand-gravel-cobble. Steel plates are mounted locally at the beach top to eliminate effect from local scour. The critical cases found relates to the plunging breakers breaking directly impacting the wall. Entrapped air-pocket(s) under the breaking wave contribute to the run-up energy through compressibility effects and bubble burst physics even from relatively small air-pockets. Highly localized wall pressures greater than 1 MPa and 10 m run-up are easily developed even with moderate amplitude waves at the inlet. The max. peak pressure on the wall identified caused either by water or entrained air pressure is typically greater than 1 MPa occurring in the order of 0.1 ms. The pressure distributions contain either single, double or triple peaks occurring typically above/at mean flume water depth and at around the local water depth in front of the wall. Furthermore, it was identified that the cases with maximum pressure on the wall does not necessarily give the maximum jet velocity (equivalent to vertical force considered in design of parapets). This work is supported by Le ministere des Transports du Quebec, and Le ministere de la Securite publique du Quebec, Canada.

  5. Deducing spectroscopic factors from wave-function asymptotics

    SciTech Connect

    Capel, P.; Danielewicz, P.; Nunes, F. M.

    2010-11-15

    In a coupled-channel model, we explore the effects of coupling between configurations on the radial behavior of the wave function and, in particular, on the spectroscopic factor (SF) and the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC). We evaluate the extraction of a SF from the ratio of the ANC of the coupled-channel model to that of a single-particle approximation of the wave function. We perform this study within a core+n collective model, which includes two states of the core that connect by a rotational coupling. To get additional insights, we also use a simplified model that takes a {delta} function for the coupling potential. Calculations are performed for {sup 11}Be. Fair agreement is obtained between the SF inferred from the single-particle approximation and the one obtained within the coupled-channel models. Significant discrepancies are observed only for large coupling strength and/or large admixture, that is, a small SF. This suggests that reliable SFs can be deduced from the wave-function asymptotics when the structure is dominated by one configuration, that is, for a large SF.

  6. Estimating Moho depth utilizing S-wave receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, S.; Rychert, C.; Harmon, N.

    2014-12-01

    H-k stacking method [Zhu and Kanamori, 2000] is a widely used grid search technique for estimating the Moho depth (H) and Vp/Vs (k) beneath a given station. The H-k surface reaches a maximum when the optimum H and k values are used, which is assumed to be the average crustal structure beneath the seismic station. In general, the method is employed in conjunction with P-wave receiver functions. Here, we investigate the usability of H-k stacking method with S-to-P (Sp) conversions and S-wave reverberations within the crust, employing an extended multi-taper deconvolution. We apply the method to southern California, using data recorded between 1990-2011. We compare results with those of prior studies that used P-to-S (Ps) conversions [Zhu and Kanamori, 2000; Yan and Clayton, 2007], applying a smoothing length of 0.5 degrees to reflect lateral Sp sensitivity. P-waves have better potential to resolve lateral variations in Moho depth owing to the higher frequency content and the geometry of Ps ray path. Our results from Sp conversions are in broad agreement with those from Ps, affirming that S-wave receiver functions can be used in conjunction with the H-k stacking method. Consistent with the P-wave receiver function results, crust is thinner beneath the central Transverse Range (30 km) with respect to eastern Transverse Range (33 km) and Peninsular Region (35 km). Our Moho depth observations (35 km) are more compatible with those of Yan and Clayton [2007] (~35 km) than Zhu and Kanamori [2000] (~30 km) beneath Sierra Nevada, most probably due to a larger data set this study and Yan and Clayton [2007] use. Also, results from this study are deeper than those from Ps for the Salton Trough (30-35 km vs. 25 km). In this case, broad receiver function waveform characteristics suggest a more gradual impedance change across the Moho discontinuity and/or a multi-layered crust. We suggest that a combination of P- and S-wave receiver functions can yield more robust crustal thickness

  7. Many-body lattice wave functions from conformal blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Sebastián; Rodríguez-Laguna, Javier; Tu, Hong-Hao; Sierra, Germán

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a general framework to construct many-body lattice wave functions starting from the conformal blocks (CBs) of rational conformal field theories (RCFTs). We discuss the different ways of encoding the physical degrees of freedom of the lattice system using both the internal symmetries of the theory and the fusion channels of the CBs. We illustrate this construction both by revisiting the known Haldane-Shastry model and by providing a novel implementation for the Ising RCFT. In the latter case, we find a connection to the Ising transverse field (ITF) spin chain via the Kramers-Wannier duality and the Temperley-Lieb-Jones algebra. We also find evidence that the ground state of the finite-size critical ITF Hamiltonian corresponds exactly to the wave function obtained from CBs of spin fields.

  8. Wave function analysis of MHC-peptide interactions.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Constanza; Obregón, Mateo; Balbín, Alejandro; Villaveces, José Luis; Patarroyo, Manuel E

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out an analysis of the wave function data for three MHC-peptide complexes: HLA-DRbeta1*0101-HA, HLA-DRbeta1*0401-HA and HLA-DRbeta1*0401-Col. We used quantum chemistry computer programs to generate wave function coefficients for these complexes, from which we obtained both molecular and atomic orbital data for both pocket and peptide amino acids within each pocket region. From these discriminated data, interaction molecular orbitals (IMOs) were identified as those with large and similar atomic orbital coefficient contributions from both pocket and peptide amino acids. The present results correlate well with our previous research where only electrostatic moments were used to explore molecular component interactions. Furthermore, we show a quantum chemical methodology to produce more fine-grained results concerning amino acid behavior in the MHC-peptide interaction.

  9. GPView: A program for wave function analysis and visualization.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tian; Wang, Ping

    2016-11-01

    In this manuscript, we will introduce a recently developed program GPView, which can be used for wave function analysis and visualization. The wave function analysis module can calculate and generate 3D cubes for various types of molecular orbitals and electron density of electronic excited states, such as natural orbitals, natural transition orbitals, natural difference orbitals, hole-particle density, detachment-attachment density and transition density. The visualization module of GPView can display molecular and electronic (iso-surfaces) structures. It is also able to animate single trajectories of molecular dynamics and non-adiabatic excited state molecular dynamics using the data stored in existing files. There are also other utilities to extract and process the output of quantum chemistry calculations. The GPView provides full graphic user interface (GUI), so it very easy to use. It is available from website http://life-tp.com/gpview.

  10. Spin-orbit decomposition of ab initio nuclear wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Calvin W.

    2015-03-01

    Although the modern shell-model picture of atomic nuclei is built from single-particle orbits with good total angular momentum j , leading to j -j coupling, decades ago phenomenological models suggested that a simpler picture for 0 p -shell nuclides can be realized via coupling of the total spin S and total orbital angular momentum L . I revisit this idea with large-basis, no-core shell-model calculations using modern ab initio two-body interactions and dissect the resulting wave functions into their component L - and S -components. Remarkably, there is broad agreement with calculations using the phenomenological Cohen-Kurath forces, despite a gap of nearly 50 years and six orders of magnitude in basis dimensions. I suggest that L -S decomposition may be a useful tool for analyzing ab initio wave functions of light nuclei, for example, in the case of rotational bands.

  11. Configuration interaction wave functions: A seniority number approach

    SciTech Connect

    Alcoba, Diego R.; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E.; Oña, Ofelia B.

    2014-06-21

    This work deals with the configuration interaction method when an N-electron Hamiltonian is projected on Slater determinants which are classified according to their seniority number values. We study the spin features of the wave functions and the size of the matrices required to formulate states of any spin symmetry within this treatment. Correlation energies associated with the wave functions arising from the seniority-based configuration interaction procedure are determined for three types of molecular orbital basis: canonical molecular orbitals, natural orbitals, and the orbitals resulting from minimizing the expectation value of the N-electron seniority number operator. The performance of these bases is analyzed by means of numerical results obtained from selected N-electron systems of several spin symmetries. The comparison of the results highlights the efficiency of the molecular orbital basis which minimizes the mean value of the seniority number for a state, yielding energy values closer to those provided by the full configuration interaction procedure.

  12. Anatomy of quantum critical wave functions in dissipative impurity problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blunden-Codd, Zach; Bera, Soumya; Bruognolo, Benedikt; Linden, Nils-Oliver; Chin, Alex W.; von Delft, Jan; Nazir, Ahsan; Florens, Serge

    2017-02-01

    Quantum phase transitions reflect singular changes taking place in a many-body ground state; however, computing and analyzing large-scale critical wave functions constitutes a formidable challenge. Physical insights into the sub-Ohmic spin-boson model are provided by the coherent-state expansion (CSE), which represents the wave function by a linear combination of classically displaced configurations. We find that the distribution of low-energy displacements displays an emergent symmetry in the absence of spontaneous symmetry breaking while experiencing strong fluctuations of the order parameter near the quantum critical point. Quantum criticality provides two strong fingerprints in critical low-energy modes: an algebraic decay of the average displacement and a constant universal average squeezing amplitude. These observations, confirmed by extensive variational matrix-product-state (VMPS) simulations and field theory arguments, offer precious clues into the microscopics of critical many-body states in quantum impurity models.

  13. Sensory Function: Insights From Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Kern, David W.; Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Chen, Rachel C.; Schumm, L. Philip; McClintock, Martha K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Sensory function, a critical component of quality of life, generally declines with age and influences health, physical activity, and social function. Sensory measures collected in Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) survey focused on the personal impact of sensory function in the home environment and included: subjective assessment of vision, hearing, and touch, information on relevant home conditions and social sequelae as well as an improved objective assessment of odor detection. Method. Summary data were generated for each sensory category, stratified by age (62–90 years of age) and gender, with a focus on function in the home setting and the social consequences of sensory decrements in each modality. Results. Among both men and women, older age was associated with self-reported impairment of vision, hearing, and pleasantness of light touch. Compared with women, men reported significantly worse hearing and found light touch less appealing. There were no gender differences for vision. Overall, hearing loss seemed to have a greater impact on social function than did visual impairment. Discussion. Sensory function declines across age groups, with notable gender differences for hearing and light touch. Further analysis of sensory measures from NSHAP Wave 2 may provide important information on how sensory declines are related to health, social function, quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in this nationally representative sample of older adults. PMID:25360015

  14. Correlated wave functions for three-particle systems with Coulomb interaction - The muonic helium atom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, K.-N.

    1977-01-01

    A computational procedure for calculating correlated wave functions is proposed for three-particle systems interacting through Coulomb forces. Calculations are carried out for the muonic helium atom. Variational wave functions which explicitly contain interparticle coordinates are presented for the ground and excited states. General Hylleraas-type trial functions are used as the basis for the correlated wave functions. Excited-state energies of the muonic helium atom computed from 1- and 35-term wave functions are listed for four states.

  15. Lattice effects on Laughlin wave functions and parent Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, Ivan; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Sierra, Germán; Nielsen, Anne E. B.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate lattice effects on wave functions that are lattice analogs of bosonic and fermionic Laughlin wave functions with number of particles per flux ν =1 /q in the Landau levels. These wave functions are defined analytically on lattices with μ particles per lattice site, where μ may be different than ν . We give numerical evidence that these states have the same topological properties as the corresponding continuum Laughlin states for different values of q and for different fillings μ . These states define, in particular, particle-hole symmetric lattice fractional quantum Hall states when the lattice is half filled. On the square lattice it is observed that for q ≤4 this particle-hole symmetric state displays the topological properties of the continuum Laughlin state at filling fraction ν =1 /q , while for larger q there is a transition towards long-range ordered antiferromagnets. This effect does not persist if the lattice is deformed from a square to a triangular lattice, or on the kagome lattice, in which case the topological properties of the state are recovered. We then show that changing the number of particles while keeping the expression of these wave functions identical gives rise to edge states that have the same correlations in the bulk as the reference lattice Laughlin states but a different density at the edge. We derive an exact parent Hamiltonian for which all these edge states are ground states with different number of particles. In addition this Hamiltonian admits the reference lattice Laughlin state as its unique ground state of filling factor 1 /q . Parent Hamiltonians are also derived for the lattice Laughlin states at other fillings of the lattice, when μ ≤1 /q or μ ≥1 -1 /q and when q =4 also at half filling.

  16. Hydrodynamic Waves and Correlation Functions in Dusty Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Wang, Xiaogang

    1997-11-01

    A hydrodynamic description of strongly coupled dusty plasmas is given when physical quantities vary slowly in space and time and the system can be assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The linear waves in such a system are analyzed. In particular, a dispersion equation is derived for low-frequency dust acoustic waves, including collisional damping effects, and compared with experimental results. The linear response of the system is calculated from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and the hydrodynamic equations. The requirement that these two calculations coincide constrains the particle correlation function for slowly varying perturbations [L. P. Kadanoff and P. C. Martin, Ann. Phys. 24, 419 (1963)]. It is shown that in the presence of the slow dust-acoustic waves, the dust auto-correlation function is of the Debye-Hekel form and the shielding distance is the dust Debye length. In the short-wavelength regime, an integral equation is derived from kinetic theory and solved numerically to yield particle correlation functions that display ``liquid-like'' behavior and have been observed experimentally [R. A.. Quinn, C. Cui, J. Goree, J. B. Pieper, H. Thomas and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Rev. E 53, R2049 (1996)].

  17. A critical survey of wave propagation and impact in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moon, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    A review of the field of stress waves in composite materials is presented covering the period up to December 1972. The major properties of waves in composites are discussed and a summary is made of the major experimental results in this field. Various theoretical models for analysis of wave propagation in laminated, fiber and particle reinforced composites are surveyed. The anisotropic, dispersive and dissipative properties of stress pulses and shock waves in such materials are reviewed. A review of the behavior of composites under impact loading is presented along with the application of wave propagation concepts to the determination of impact stresses in composite plates.

  18. Wave function for harmonically confined electrons in time-dependent electric and magnetostatic fields.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Chen, Jin-Wang; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht

    2014-01-14

    We derive via the interaction "representation" the many-body wave function for harmonically confined electrons in the presence of a magnetostatic field and perturbed by a spatially homogeneous time-dependent electric field-the Generalized Kohn Theorem (GKT) wave function. In the absence of the harmonic confinement - the uniform electron gas - the GKT wave function reduces to the Kohn Theorem wave function. Without the magnetostatic field, the GKT wave function is the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function. We further prove the validity of the connection between the GKT wave function derived and the system in an accelerated frame of reference. Finally, we provide examples of the application of the GKT wave function.

  19. Hertzian impact: experimental study of the force pulse and resulting stress waves.

    PubMed

    McLaskey, Gregory C; Glaser, Steven D

    2010-09-01

    Ball impact has long been used as a repeatable source of stress waves in solids. The amplitude and frequency content of the waves are a function of the force-time history, or force pulse, that the ball imposes on the massive body. In this study, Glaser-type conical piezoelectric sensors are used to measure vibrations induced by a ball colliding with a massive plate. These measurements are compared with theoretical estimates derived from a marriage of Hertz theory and elastic wave propagation. The match between experiment and theory is so close that it not only facilitates the absolute calibration the sensors but it also allows the limits of Hertz theory to be probed. Glass, ruby and hardened steel balls 0.4 to 2.5 mm in diameter were dropped onto steel, glass, aluminum, and polymethylmethacrylate plates at a wide range of approach velocities, delivering frequencies up to 1.5 MHz into these materials. Effects of surface properties and yielding of the plate material were analyzed via the resulting stress waves and simultaneous measurements of the ball's coefficient of restitution. The sensors are sensitive to surface normal displacements down to about +/-1 pm in the frequency range of 20 kHz to over 1 MHz.

  20. Theory of steady-state plane tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kyuregyan, A. S.

    2013-07-15

    The effect of band-to-band and trap-assisted tunneling on the properties of steady-state plane ionization waves in p{sup +}-n-n{sup +} structures is theoretically analyzed. It is shown that such tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves do not differ in a qualitative sense from ordinary impact ionization waves propagating due to the avalanche multiplication of uniformly distributed seed electrons and holes. The quantitative differences of tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves from impact ionization waves are reduced to a slightly different relation between the wave velocity u and the maximum field strength E{sub M} at the front. It is shown that disregarding impact ionization does not exclude the possibility of the existence of tunneling-assisted ionization waves; however, their structure radically changes, and their velocity strongly decreases for the same E{sub M}. A comparison of the dependences u(E{sub M}) for various ionization-wave types makes it possible to determine the conditions under which one of them is dominant. In conclusion, unresolved problems concerning the theory of tunneling-assisted impact ionization waves are discussed and the directions of further studies are outlined.

  1. Irregular wave functions of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintgen, D.; Hoenig, A.

    1989-01-01

    The highly excited irregular wave functions of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field are investigated analytically, with wave function scarring by periodic orbits considered quantitatively. The results obtained confirm that the contributions of closed classical orbits to the spatial wave functions vanish in the semiclassical limit. Their disappearance, however, is slow. This discussion is illustrated by numerical examples.

  2. The impact of heat waves on children's health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiwei; Sheffield, Perry E; Su, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyu; Bi, Yan; Tong, Shilu

    2014-03-01

    Young children are thought to be particularly sensitive to heat waves, but relatively less research attention has been paid to this field to date. A systematic review was conducted to elucidate the relationship between heat waves and children's health. Literature published up to August 2012 were identified using the following MeSH terms and keywords: "heatwave", "heat wave", "child health", "morbidity", "hospital admission", "emergency department visit", "family practice", "primary health care", "death" and "mortality". Of the 628 publications identified, 12 met the selection criteria. The existing literature does not consistently suggest that mortality among children increases significantly during heat waves, even though infants were associated with more heat-related deaths. Exposure to heat waves in the perinatal period may pose a threat to children's health. Pediatric diseases or conditions associated with heat waves include renal disease, respiratory disease, electrolyte imbalance and fever. Future research should focus on how to develop a consistent definition of a heat wave from a children's health perspective, identifying the best measure of children's exposure to heat waves, exploring sensitive outcome measures to quantify the impact of heat waves on children, evaluating the possible impacts of heat waves on children's birth outcomes, and understanding the differences in vulnerability to heat waves among children of different ages and from different income countries. Projection of the children's disease burden caused by heat waves under climate change scenarios, and development of effective heat wave mitigation and adaptation strategies that incorporate other child protective health measures, are also strongly recommended.

  3. The impact of heat waves on children's health: a systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Sheffield, Perry E.; Su, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyu; Bi, Yan; Tong, Shilu

    2014-03-01

    Young children are thought to be particularly sensitive to heat waves, but relatively less research attention has been paid to this field to date. A systematic review was conducted to elucidate the relationship between heat waves and children's health. Literature published up to August 2012 were identified using the following MeSH terms and keywords: "heatwave", "heat wave", "child health", "morbidity", "hospital admission", "emergency department visit", "family practice", "primary health care", "death" and "mortality". Of the 628 publications identified, 12 met the selection criteria. The existing literature does not consistently suggest that mortality among children increases significantly during heat waves, even though infants were associated with more heat-related deaths. Exposure to heat waves in the perinatal period may pose a threat to children's health. Pediatric diseases or conditions associated with heat waves include renal disease, respiratory disease, electrolyte imbalance and fever. Future research should focus on how to develop a consistent definition of a heat wave from a children's health perspective, identifying the best measure of children's exposure to heat waves, exploring sensitive outcome measures to quantify the impact of heat waves on children, evaluating the possible impacts of heat waves on children's birth outcomes, and understanding the differences in vulnerability to heat waves among children of different ages and from different income countries. Projection of the children's disease burden caused by heat waves under climate change scenarios, and development of effective heat wave mitigation and adaptation strategies that incorporate other child protective health measures, are also strongly recommended.

  4. Climate change impact on wave energy in the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamranzad, Bahareh; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir; Chegini, Vahid; Yeganeh-Bakhtiary, Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Excessive usage of fossil fuels and high emission of greenhouse gases have increased the earth's temperature, and consequently have changed the patterns of natural phenomena such as wind speed, wave height, etc. Renewable energy resources are ideal alternatives to reduce the negative effects of increasing greenhouse gases emission and climate change. However, these energy sources are also sensitive to changing climate. In this study, the effect of climate change on wave energy in the Persian Gulf is investigated. For this purpose, future wind data obtained from CGCM3.1 model were downscaled using a hybrid approach and modification factors were computed based on local wind data (ECMWF) and applied to control and future CGCM3.1 wind data. Downscaled wind data was used to generate the wave characteristics in the future based on A2, B1, and A1B scenarios, while ECMWF wind field was used to generate the wave characteristics in the control period. The results of these two 30-yearly wave modelings using SWAN model showed that the average wave power changes slightly in the future. Assessment of wave power spatial distribution showed that the reduction of the average wave power is more in the middle parts of the Persian Gulf. Investigation of wave power distribution in two coastal stations (Boushehr and Assalouyeh ports) indicated that the annual wave energy will decrease in both stations while the wave power distribution for different intervals of significant wave height and peak period will also change in Assalouyeh according to all scenarios.

  5. A Critical Examination of Wind-Wave Spectral Functional Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E.; Long, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally, data from random ocean waves are presented in spectral functions. The spectra are the result of Fourier analysis. Fourier spectral analysis has dominated data analysis for, at least, the last hundred years. It has been the standard method for is examining the global amplitude-frequency distributions. Although Fourier transform valid under extremely general conditions, there are some crucial restrictions for the Fourier spectral analysis. The system must be linear, and the data must be stationary- otherwise, the resulting spectrum will make little physical sense. The stationarity requirement is also a common required criterion for most of other available data analysis methods. Nevertheless, few, if any, natural phenomena are linear and stationary. To compound these complications is the imperfection of our probes or numerical schemes the interactions of the imperfect probes even with a perfect linear system can make the final data nonlinear. Furthermore, all the available data are usually of finite duration. Under these conditions, Fourier analysis is of limited use, For lack of alternatives, however, Fourier analysis is still used to process such data. The loose application of Fourier analysis and the insouciant adoption of the stationary and linear assumptions may lead to misleading conclusions. Ocean waves are know to be nonlinear, and the wind system generating the wave field are seldom stationary- As a result, the traditional examination of the spectral form hardly made physical sense. A new method for analyzing nonlinear and nonstationary data has been developed. The key part is the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method with which any complicated data set can be decomposed into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) that serve as the basis of the representation of the data, This decomposition method is adaptive, and, therefore, highly efficient. The IMFs admit well-behaved Hilbert transforms, and yield instantaneous

  6. Coupling of WRF meteorological model to WAM spectral wave model through sea surface roughness at the Balearic Sea: impact on wind and wave forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolosana-Delgado, R.; Soret, A.; Jorba, O.; Baldasano, J. M.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.

    2012-04-01

    Meteorological models, like WRF, usually describe the earth surface characteristics by tables that are function of land-use. The roughness length (z0) is an example of such approach. However, over sea z0 is modeled by the Charnock (1955) relation, linking the surface friction velocity u*2 with the roughness length z0 of turbulent air flow, z0 = α-u2* g The Charnock coefficient α may be considered a measure of roughness. For the sea surface, WRF considers a constant roughness α = 0.0185. However, there is evidence that sea surface roughness should depend on wave energy (Donelan, 1982). Spectral wave models like WAM, model the evolution and propagation of wave energy as a function of wind, and include a richer sea surface roughness description. Coupling WRF and WAM is thus a common way to improve the sea surface roughness description of WRF. WAM is a third generation wave model, solving the equation of advection of wave energy subject to input/output terms of: wind growth, energy dissipation and resonant non-linear wave-wave interactions. Third generation models work on the spectral domain. WAM considers the Charnock coefficient α a complex yet known function of the total wind input term, which depends on the wind velocity and on the Charnock coefficient again. This is solved iteratively (Janssen et al., 1990). Coupling of meteorological and wave models through a common Charnock coefficient is operationally done in medium-range met forecasting systems (e.g., at ECMWF) though the impact of coupling for smaller domains is not yet clearly assessed (Warner et al, 2010). It is unclear to which extent the additional effort of coupling improves the local wind and wave fields, in comparison to the effects of other factors, like e.g. a better bathymetry and relief resolution, or a better circulation information which might have its influence on local-scale meteorological processes (local wind jets, local convection, daily marine wind regimes, etc.). This work, within the

  7. Impact wave deposits provide new constraints on the location of the K/T boundary impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Boynton, W. V.

    1988-01-01

    All available evidence is consistent with an impact into oceanic crust terminating the Cretaceous Period. Although much of this evidence is incompatible with an endogenic origin, some investigators still feel that a volcanic origin is possible for the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary clay layers. The commonly cited evidence for a large impact stems from delicate clay layers and their components and the impact site has not yet been found. Impact sites have been suggested all over the globe. The impact is felt to have occurred near North America by: the occurrence of a 2 cm thick ejecta layer only at North American locales, the global variation of shocked quartz grain sizes peaking in North America, the global variation of spinel compositions with most refractory compositions occurring in samples from the Pacific region and possibly uniquely severe plant extinctions in the North American region. The K/T boundary interval was investigated as preserved on the banks of the Brazos River, Texas. The K/T fireball and ejecta layers with associated geochemical anomalies were found interbedded with this sequence which apparently allows a temporal resolution 4 orders of magnitude greater than typical K/T boundary sections. A literature search reveals that such coarse deposits are widely preserved at the K/T boundary. Impact wave deposits have not been found elsewhere on the globe, suggesting the impact occurred between North and South America. The coarse deposits preserved in Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) holes 151-3 suggest the impact occurred nearby. Subsequent tectonism has complicated the picture.

  8. Stress wave propagation in a composite beam subjected to transverse impact.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wei-Yang; Song, Bo; Jin, Huiqing

    2010-08-01

    Composite materials, particularly fiber reinforced plastic composites, have been extensively utilized in many military and industrial applications. As an important structural component in these applications, the composites are often subjected to external impact loading. It is desirable to understand the mechanical response of the composites under impact loading for performance evaluation in the applications. Even though many material models for the composites have been developed, experimental investigation is still needed to validate and verify the models. It is essential to investigate the intrinsic material response. However, it becomes more applicable to determine the structural response of composites, such as a composite beam. The composites are usually subjected to out-of-plane loading in applications. When a composite beam is subjected to a sudden transverse impact, two different kinds of stress waves, longitudinal and transverse waves, are generated and propagate in the beam. The longitudinal stress wave propagates through the thickness direction; whereas, the propagation of the transverse stress wave is in-plane directions. The longitudinal stress wave speed is usually considered as a material constant determined by the material density and Young's modulus, regardless of the loading rate. By contrast, the transverse wave speed is related to structural parameters. In ballistic mechanics, the transverse wave plays a key role to absorb external impact energy [1]. The faster the transverse wave speed, the more impact energy dissipated. Since the transverse wave speed is not a material constant, it is not possible to be calculated from stress-wave theory. One can place several transducers to track the transverse wave propagation. An alternative but more efficient method is to apply digital image correlation (DIC) to visualize the transverse wave propagation. In this study, we applied three-pointbending (TPB) technique to Kolsky compression bar to facilitate

  9. The Condensate Wave Function of a Trapped Atomic Gas

    PubMed Central

    Dalfovo, F.; Pitaevskii, L.; Stringari, S.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss various properties of the ground state of a Bose-condensed dilute gas confined by an external potential. We devote particular attention to the role played by the interaction in determining the kinetic energy of the system and the aspect ratio of the velocity distribution. The structure of the wave function near the classical turning point is discussed and the drawback of the Thomas-Fermi approximation is explicitly pointed out. We consider also states with quantized vorticity and calculate the critical angular velocity for the production of vortices. The presence of vortex states is found to increases the stability of the condensate in the case of attractive interactions. PMID:27805106

  10. Ultrasonic characterization of functionally gradient materials with leaky Rayleigh wave

    SciTech Connect

    Kawashima, Koichiro; Takenouchi, Naoki; Awaji, Hideo; Nishikawa, Tadahiro

    1999-12-02

    Young's modulus of functionally gradient Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni ceramics, which was formed by centrifugal casting and has gradient of the elastic properties along a particular direction on the surface, is estimated by velocity measurement of the leaky Rayleigh and longitudinal waves. Those velocities were measured every 1mm with a line focused PVDF transducer, of which central frequency, focal length and width are 36MHz, 5mm and 8mm. Thus measured Young's modulus varies from 370GPa (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} rich side) to 200GPa (Ni rich side)

  11. Impact of ENSO on seasonal variations of Kelvin Waves and mixed Rossby-Gravity Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhman, Saeful; Lubis, Sandro W.; Setiawan, Sonni

    2017-01-01

    Characteristics of atmospheric equatorial Kelvin waves and mixed Rossby-Gravity (MRG) waves as well as their relationship with tropical convective activity associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) were analyzed. Kelvin waves and MRG waves were identified by using a Space-Time Spectral Analysis (STSA) technique, where the differences in the strength of both waves were quantified by taking the wave spectrum differences for each ENSO phase. Our result showed that Kelvin wave activity is stronger during an El Nino years, whereas the MRG wave activity is stronger during the La Nina years. Seasonal variations of Kelvin wave activity occurs predominantly in MAM over the central to the east Pacific in the El Nino years, while the strongest seasonal variation of MRG wave activity occus in MAM and SON over the northern and southern Pacific during La Nina years. The local variation of Kelvin wave and MRG wave activities are found to be controlled by variation in lower level atmospheric convection induced by sea surface temperature in the tropical Pacific Ocean.

  12. The "JK-only" approximation in density matrix functional and wave function theory.

    PubMed

    Kollmar, Christian

    2004-12-15

    Various energy functionals applying the "JK-only" approximation which leads to two-index two-electron integrals instead of four-index two-electron integrals in the electron-electron interaction term of the electronic energy are presented. Numerical results of multiconfiguration self-consistent field calculations for the best possible "JK-only" wave function are compared to those obtained from the pair excitation multiconfiguration self-consistent (PEMCSCF) method and two versions of density matrix functional theory. One of these is derived making explicit use of some necessary conditions for N representability of the second-order density matrix. It is shown that this method models the energy functional based on the best possible "JK-only" wave function with good accuracy. The calculations also indicate that only a minor fraction of the total correlation energy is incorporated by "JK-only" approaches for larger molecules.

  13. Simulation of asteroid impact on ocean surfaces, subsequent wave generation and the effect on US shorelines

    SciTech Connect

    Ezzedine, Souheil M.; Lomov, Ilya; Miller, Paul L.; Dennison, Deborah S.; Dearborn, David S.; Antoun, Tarabay H.

    2015-05-19

    As part of a larger effort involving members of several other organizations, we have conducted numerical simulations in support of emergency-response exercises of postulated asteroid ocean impacts. We have addressed the problem from source (asteroid entry) to ocean impact (splash) to wave generation, propagation and interaction with the U.S. shoreline. We simulated three impact sites. The first site is located off the east coast by Maryland's shoreline. The second site is located off of the West coast, the San Francisco bay. The third set of sites are situated in the Gulf of Mexico. Asteroid impacts on the ocean surface are conducted using LLNL's hydrocode GEODYN to create the impact wave source for the shallow water wave propagation code, SWWP, a shallow depth averaged water wave code.

  14. Simulation of asteroid impact on ocean surfaces, subsequent wave generation and the effect on US shorelines

    DOE PAGES

    Ezzedine, Souheil M.; Lomov, Ilya; Miller, Paul L.; ...

    2015-05-19

    As part of a larger effort involving members of several other organizations, we have conducted numerical simulations in support of emergency-response exercises of postulated asteroid ocean impacts. We have addressed the problem from source (asteroid entry) to ocean impact (splash) to wave generation, propagation and interaction with the U.S. shoreline. We simulated three impact sites. The first site is located off the east coast by Maryland's shoreline. The second site is located off of the West coast, the San Francisco bay. The third set of sites are situated in the Gulf of Mexico. Asteroid impacts on the ocean surface aremore » conducted using LLNL's hydrocode GEODYN to create the impact wave source for the shallow water wave propagation code, SWWP, a shallow depth averaged water wave code.« less

  15. Wave functions for fractional Chern insulators in disk geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ai-Lei; Luo, Wei-Wei; Wang, Yi-Fei; Gong, Chang-De

    2015-12-01

    Recently, fractional Chern insulators (FCIs), also called fractional quantum anomalous Hall (FQAH) states, have been theoretically established in lattice systems with topological flat bands. These systems exhibit similar fractionalization phenomena to the conventional fractional quantum Hall (FQH) systems. Using the mapping relationship between the FQH states and the FCI/FQAH states, we construct the many-body wave functions of the fermionic FCI/FQAH states in disk geometry with the aid of the generalized Pauli principle (GPP) and Jack polynomials. Compared with the ground state by the exact diagonalization method, the wave-function overlap is higher than 0.97, even when the Hilbert space dimension is as large as 3 × 106. We also use the GPP and the Jack polynomials to construct edge excitations for the fermionic FCI/FQAH states. The quasi-degeneracy sequences of fermionic FCI/FQAH systems reproduce the prediction of the chiral Luttinger liquid theory, complementing the exact diagonalization results with larger lattice sizes and more particles.

  16. Green's function formalism for calculating spin-wave spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryasetiawan, F.; Karlsson, K.

    1999-09-01

    We propose a formalism for calculating ab initio spin-wave spectra which is based on the many-body temperature Green's function. The main quantity to be calculated is the linear magnetic susceptibility from which all magnetic excitations involving the creation of an additional spin in the system can formally be obtained. The Schwinger functional derivative technique is employed in calculating the self-energy. The approach avoids both the assumption of local spins (Heisenberg model) and the use of a local exchange and correlation interaction (local-density approximation). Starting from the GW approximation we obtain a Bethe-Salpeter equation for the kernel describing the interaction between electrons in both spin channels. However, this kernel exhibits a nonlocal screened interaction.

  17. The impact energy of a moored tanker under the action of regular waves

    SciTech Connect

    Yu-Cheng Li

    1982-09-01

    The influence that factors such as mooring line conditions, fender arrangements, dolphin arrangements, degree of ship loading, waves of long period, wave direction, and wind on the impact energy of a moored tanker were studied. Based on systematic test data, a semi-empirical formula was developed to calculate the impact energy of the moored ship on the berthing facilities under the action of regular waves. It was shown by experiment that this method is suitable for calculating the impact energy of moored ships of capacities as great as 200 X 10/sup 3/ t.

  18. Propagation of impact-induced shock waves in porous sandstone using mesoscale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GÜLdemeister, Nicole; WÜNnemann, Kai; Durr, Nathanael; Hiermaier, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Generation and propagation of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> by meteorite <span class="hlt">impact</span> is significantly affected by material properties such as porosity, water content, and strength. The objective of this work was to quantify processes related to the shock-induced compaction of pore space by numerical modeling, and compare the results with data obtained in the framework of the Multidisciplinary Experimental and Modeling <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Research Network (MEMIN) <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments. We use mesoscale models resolving the collapse of individual pores to validate macroscopic (homogenized) approaches describing the bulk behavior of porous and water-saturated materials in large-scale models of crater formation, and to quantify localized shock amplification as a result of pore space crushing. We carried out a suite of numerical models of planar shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation through a well-defined area (the "sample") of porous and/or water-saturated material. The porous sample is either represented by a homogeneous unit where porosity is treated as a state variable (macroscale model) and water content by an equation of state for mixed material (ANEOS) or by a defined number of individually resolved pores (mesoscale model). We varied porosity and water content and measured thermodynamic parameters such as shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity and particle velocity on meso- and macroscales in separate simulations. The mesoscale models provide additional data on the heterogeneous distribution of peak shock pressures as a consequence of the complex superposition of reflecting rarefaction <span class="hlt">waves</span> and shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> originating from the crushing of pores. We quantify the bulk effect of porosity, the reduction in shock pressure, in terms of Hugoniot data as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of porosity, water content, and strength of a quartzite matrix. We find a good agreement between meso-, macroscale models and Hugoniot data from shock experiments. We also propose a combination of a porosity compaction model (ɛ-α model) that was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4240S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4240S"><span>Experimental study of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the nearshore structures during extreme coastal floods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sriram, Venkatachalam; Didenkulova, Ira; Pelinovsky, Efim; Rodin, Artem; Didenkulov, Oleg; Sergeeva, Anna; Nair Vishnu, Reghunathan; Sundar, Vallam; Annamalaisamy Sannasiraj, Sannasi</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We study the dynamics of strongly nonlinear <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the coastal zone and their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on coasts during flash floods and tsunami. For this we use analytical theory of strongly nonlinear <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation along the slope and compare it with the data of experiments carried out in shallow water flume of IIT Madras (72 m long, 2 m wide and up to 2 m deep). Different kinds of <span class="hlt">waves</span> like elongated solitons, N-<span class="hlt">waves</span> are simulated and its run-up and <span class="hlt">impact</span> force on the idealized structure on the slope are evaluated. Different numerical models (CLAWPACK, pseudospectral code for solving nonlinear evolutional equations and FNPT model) areused to describe strongly nonlinear <span class="hlt">waves</span> along the slope. Results of numerical simulations are compared with predictions of analytical theory and with the data of experiments. The results presented here are the preliminary results obtained within DST - RFBR joint project "<span class="hlt">Impact</span> of waterborne debris on the nearshore structures during extreme coastal floods".</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRA..118.5039B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRA..118.5039B"><span>Magnetospheric electron-velocity-distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> information from <span class="hlt">wave</span> observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benson, Robert F.; ViñAs, Adolfo F.; Osherovich, Vladimir A.; Fainberg, Joseph; Purser, Carola M.; Adrian, Mark L.; Galkin, Ivan A.; Reinisch, Bodo W.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The electron-velocity-distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> was determined to be highly non-Maxwellian and more appropriate to a kappa distribution, with κ ≈ 2.0, near magnetic midnight in the low-latitude magnetosphere just outside a stable plasmasphere during extremely quiet geomagnetic conditions. The kappa results were based on sounder-stimulated Qn plasma resonances using the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) on the IMAGE satellite; the state of the plasmasphere was determined from IMAGE/EUV observations. The Qn resonances correspond to the maximum frequencies of Bernstein-mode <span class="hlt">waves</span> that are observed between the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency in the frequency domain above the upper-hybrid frequency. Here we present the results of a parametric investigation that included suprathermal electrons in the electron-velocity-distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> used in the plasma-<span class="hlt">wave</span> dispersion equation to calculate the Qn frequencies for a range of kappa and fpe/fce values for Qn resonances from Q1 to Q9. The Qn frequencies were also calculated using a Maxwellian distribution, and they were found to be greater than those calculated using a kappa distribution with the frequency differences increasing with increasing n for a fixed κ and with decreasing κ for a fixed n. The calculated fQn values have been incorporated into the RPI BinBrowser software providing a powerful tool for rapidly obtaining information on the nature of the magnetospheric electron-velocity-distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> and the electron number density Ne. This capability enabled accurate (within a few percent) in situ Ne determinations to be made along the outbound orbital track as IMAGE moved away from the plasmapause. The extremely quiet geomagnetic conditions allowed IMAGE/EUV-extracted counts to be compared with the RPI-determined orbital-track Ne profile. The comparisons revealed remarkably similar Ne structures.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8724E..0ID','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8724E..0ID"><span>Colombian ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span> and coasts modeled by special <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duque Tisnés, Simón</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Modeling the ocean bottom and surface of both Atlantic and Pacific Oceans near the Colombian coast is a subject of increasing attention due to the possibility of finding oil deposits that haven't been discovered, and as a way of monitoring the ocean limits of Colombia with other countries not only covering the possibility of naval intrusion but as a chance to detect submarine devices that are used by illegal groups for different unwished purposes. In the development of this topic it would be necessary to use Standard Hydrodynamic Equations to model the mathematical shape of ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span> that will take differential equations forms. Those differential equations will be solved using computer algebra software and methods. The mentioned solutions will involve the use of Special <span class="hlt">Functions</span> such as Bessel <span class="hlt">Functions</span>, Whittaker, Heun, and so on. Using the Special <span class="hlt">Functions</span> mentioned above, the obtained results will be simulated by numerical methods obtaining the typical patterns around the Colombian coasts (both surface and bottom). Using this simulation as a non-perturbed state, any change in the patter could be taken as an external perturbation caused by a strange body or device in an specific area or region modeled, building this simulation as an ocean radar or an unusual object finder. It's worth mentioning that the use of stronger or more rigorous methods and more advanced Special <span class="hlt">Functions</span> would generate better theoretical results, building a more accurate simulation model that would lead to a finest detection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S23A2211L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S23A2211L"><span>Epicenter Location of Regional Seismic Events Using Love <span class="hlt">Wave</span> and Rayleigh <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Ambient Seismic Noise Green's <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Levshin, A. L.; Barmin, M. P.; Moschetti, M. P.; Mendoza, C.; Ritzwoller, M. H.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We describe a novel method to locate regional seismic events based on exploiting Empirical Green's <span class="hlt">Functions</span> (EGF) that are produced from ambient seismic noise. Elastic EGFs between pairs of seismic stations are determined by cross-correlating long time-series of ambient noise recorded at the two stations. The EGFs principally contain Rayleigh <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the vertical-vertical cross-correlations and Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the transverse-transverse cross-correlations. Earlier work (Barmin et al., "Epicentral location based on Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> empirical Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> from ambient seismic noise", Geophys. J. Int., 2011) showed that group time delays observed on Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> EGFs can be exploited to locate to within about 1 km moderate sized earthquakes using USArray Transportable Array (TA) stations. The principal advantage of the method is that the ambient noise EGFs are affected by lateral variations in structure similarly to the earthquake signals, so the location is largely unbiased by 3-D structure. However, locations based on Rayleigh <span class="hlt">waves</span> alone may be biased by more than 1 km if the earthquake depth is unknown but lies between 2 km and 7 km. This presentation is motivated by the fact that group time delays for Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> are much less affected by earthquake depth than Rayleigh <span class="hlt">waves</span>; thus exploitation of Love <span class="hlt">wave</span> EGFs may reduce location bias caused by uncertainty in event depth. The advantage of Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> to locate seismic events, however, is mitigated by the fact that Love <span class="hlt">wave</span> EGFs have a smaller SNR than Rayleigh <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Here, we test the use of Love and Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> EGFs between 5- and 15-sec period to locate seismic events based on the USArray TA in the western US. We focus on locating aftershocks of the 2008 M 6.0 Wells earthquake, mining blasts in Wyoming and Montana, and small earthquakes near Norman, OK and Dallas, TX, some of which may be triggered by hydrofracking or injection wells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23844401','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23844401"><span>The environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon array operating in the Black Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diaconu, Sorin; Rusu, Eugen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm consisting of <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged <span class="hlt">wave</span> model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy converter and simulations considering a <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm consisting of six <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon devices. Comparisons of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm than the significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height. Finally, the possible <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3690912','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3690912"><span>The Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon Array Operating in the Black Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rusu, Eugen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The present work describes a study related to the influence on the shoreline dynamics of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm consisting of <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon devices operating in the western side of the Black Sea. Based on historical data analysis of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate, the most relevant environmental conditions that could occur were defined, and for these cases, simulations with SWAN spectral phase averaged <span class="hlt">wave</span> model were performed. Two situations were considered for the most representative patterns: model simulations without any <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy converter and simulations considering a <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm consisting of six <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon devices. Comparisons of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> model outputs have been carried out in both geographical and spectral spaces. The results show that although a significant influence appears near the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm, this gradually decreases to the coast line level. In order to evaluate the influence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm on the longshore currents, a nearshore circulation modeling system was used. In relative terms, the longshore current velocities appear to be more sensitive to the presence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> farm than the significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height. Finally, the possible <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the marine flora and fauna specific to the target area was also considered and discussed. PMID:23844401</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614392S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614392S"><span>The stability of freak <span class="hlt">waves</span> with regard to external <span class="hlt">impact</span> and perturbation of initial data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smirnova, Anna; Shamin, Roman</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We investigate solutions of the equations, describing freak <span class="hlt">waves</span>, in perspective of stability with regard to external <span class="hlt">impact</span> and perturbation of initial data. The modeling of freak <span class="hlt">waves</span> is based on numerical solution of equations describing a non-stationary potential flow of the ideal fluid with a free surface. We consider the two-dimensional infinitely deep flow. For <span class="hlt">waves</span> modeling we use the equations in conformal variables. The variant of these equations is offered in [1]. Mathematical correctness of these equations was discussed in [2]. These works establish the uniqueness of solutions, offer the effective numerical solution calculation methods, prove the numerical convergence of these methods. The important aspect of numerical modeling of freak <span class="hlt">waves</span> is the stability of solutions, describing these <span class="hlt">waves</span>. In this work we study the questions of stability with regards to external <span class="hlt">impact</span> and perturbation of initial data. We showed the stability of freak <span class="hlt">waves</span> numerical model, corresponding to the external <span class="hlt">impact</span>. We performed series of computational experiments with various freak <span class="hlt">wave</span> initial data and random external <span class="hlt">impact</span>. This <span class="hlt">impact</span> means the power density on free surface. In each experiment examine two <span class="hlt">waves</span>: the <span class="hlt">wave</span> that was formed by external <span class="hlt">impact</span> and without one. In all the experiments we see the stability of equation`s solutions. The random external <span class="hlt">impact</span> practically does not change the time of freak <span class="hlt">wave</span> formation and its form. Later our work progresses to the investigation of solution's stability under perturbations of initial data. We take the initial data that provide a freak <span class="hlt">wave</span> and get the numerical solution. In common we take the numerical solution of equation with perturbation of initial data. The computing experiments showed that the freak <span class="hlt">waves</span> equations solutions are stable under perturbations of initial data.So we can make a conclusion that freak <span class="hlt">waves</span> are stable relatively external perturbation and perturbation of initial data both. 1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AnPhy.379...34L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AnPhy.379...34L"><span>The one loop gluon emission light cone <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lappi, T.; Paatelainen, R.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Light cone perturbation theory has become an essential tool to calculate cross sections for various small- x dilute-dense processes such as deep inelastic scattering and forward proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions. Here we set out to do one loop calculations in an explicit helicity basis in the four dimensional helicity scheme. As a first process we calculate light cone <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for one gluon emission to one-loop order in Hamiltonian perturbation theory on the light front. We regulate ultraviolet divergences with transverse dimensional regularization and soft divergences using a cut-off on longitudinal momentum. We show that when all the renormalization constants are combined, the ultraviolet divergences can be absorbed into the standard QCD running coupling constant, and give an explicit expression for the remaining finite part.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005595','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005595"><span>Dominant partition method. [based on a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> formalism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dixon, R. M.; Redish, E. F.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>By use of the L'Huillier, Redish, and Tandy (LRT) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> formalism, a partially connected method, the dominant partition method (DPM) is developed for obtaining few body reductions of the many body problem in the LRT and Bencze, Redish, and Sloan (BRS) formalisms. The DPM maps the many body problem to a fewer body one by using the criterion that the truncated formalism must be such that consistency with the full Schroedinger equation is preserved. The DPM is based on a class of new forms for the irreducible cluster potential, which is introduced in the LRT formalism. Connectivity is maintained with respect to all partitions containing a given partition, which is referred to as the dominant partition. Degrees of freedom corresponding to the breakup of one or more of the clusters of the dominant partition are treated in a disconnected manner. This approach for simplifying the complicated BRS equations is appropriate for physical problems where a few body reaction mechanism prevails.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26792267','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26792267"><span>Human brain networks <span class="hlt">function</span> in connectome-specific harmonic <span class="hlt">waves</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Atasoy, Selen; Donnelly, Isaac; Pearson, Joel</p> <p>2016-01-21</p> <p>A key characteristic of human brain activity is coherent, spatially distributed oscillations forming behaviour-dependent brain networks. However, a fundamental principle underlying these networks remains unknown. Here we report that <span class="hlt">functional</span> networks of the human brain are predicted by harmonic patterns, ubiquitous throughout nature, steered by the anatomy of the human cerebral cortex, the human connectome. We introduce a new technique extending the Fourier basis to the human connectome. In this new frequency-specific representation of cortical activity, that we call 'connectome harmonics', oscillatory networks of the human brain at rest match harmonic <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns of certain frequencies. We demonstrate a neural mechanism behind the self-organization of connectome harmonics with a continuous neural field model of excitatory-inhibitory interactions on the connectome. Remarkably, the critical relation between the neural field patterns and the delicate excitation-inhibition balance fits the neurophysiological changes observed during the loss and recovery of consciousness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016FBS....57..729M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016FBS....57..729M"><span>From Bethe-Salpeter <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> to Generalised Parton Distributions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mezrag, C.; Moutarde, H.; Rodríguez-Quintero, J.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We review recent works on the modelling of generalised parton distributions within the Dyson-Schwinger formalism. We highlight how covariant computations, using the impulse approximation, allows one to fulfil most of the theoretical constraints of the GPDs. Specific attention is brought to chiral properties and especially the so-called soft pion theorem, and its link with the Axial-Vector Ward-Takahashi identity. The limitation of the impulse approximation are also explained. Beyond impulse approximation computations are reviewed in the forward case. Finally, we stress the advantages of the overlap of lightcone <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, and possible ways to construct covariant GPD models within this framework, in a two-body approximation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21544647','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21544647"><span>Probing dissociative molecular dications by mapping vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Puettner, R.; Sekushin, V.; Kaindl, G.; Arion, T.; Lischke, T.; Mucke, M.; Hergenhahn, U.; Foerstel, M.; Bradshaw, A. M.</p> <p>2011-04-15</p> <p>We present high-resolution photoelectron-Auger-electron coincidence spectra of methane (CH{sub 4}). Since the vibrational structure in the photoelectron spectrum is resolved, the Auger spectra corresponding to different vibrational levels can be separated. The seven final states of CH{sub 4}{sup 2+} are either dissociative or metastable, but in any case are populated in a repulsive part of their potential-energy curve via the Auger decay. The Auger line shapes can therefore be obtained by mapping the vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the core-hole state into energy space. We have implemented this connection in the data analysis. By simultaneously fitting the different Auger spectra, detailed information on the energies of the dicationic states and their repulsive potential-energy curves is derived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..95a2141Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..95a2141Z"><span>Probing spontaneous <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> collapse with entangled levitating nanospheres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Tiancai; Li, Jie</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wave-function</span> collapse models are considered to be the modified theories of standard quantum mechanics at the macroscopic level. By introducing nonlinear stochastic terms in the Schrödinger equation, these models (different from standard quantum mechanics) predict that it is fundamentally impossible to prepare macroscopic systems in macroscopic superpositions. The validity of these models can only be examined by experiments, and hence efficient protocols for these kinds of experiments are greatly needed. Here we provide a protocol that is able to probe the postulated collapse effect by means of the entanglement of the center-of-mass motion of two nanospheres optically trapped in a Fabry-Pérot cavity. We show that the collapse noise results in a large reduction of the steady-state entanglement, and the entanglement, with and without the collapse effect, shows distinguishable scalings with certain system parameters, which can be used to determine unambiguously the effect of these models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4735826','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4735826"><span>Human brain networks <span class="hlt">function</span> in connectome-specific harmonic <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Atasoy, Selen; Donnelly, Isaac; Pearson, Joel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A key characteristic of human brain activity is coherent, spatially distributed oscillations forming behaviour-dependent brain networks. However, a fundamental principle underlying these networks remains unknown. Here we report that <span class="hlt">functional</span> networks of the human brain are predicted by harmonic patterns, ubiquitous throughout nature, steered by the anatomy of the human cerebral cortex, the human connectome. We introduce a new technique extending the Fourier basis to the human connectome. In this new frequency-specific representation of cortical activity, that we call ‘connectome harmonics', oscillatory networks of the human brain at rest match harmonic <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns of certain frequencies. We demonstrate a neural mechanism behind the self-organization of connectome harmonics with a continuous neural field model of excitatory–inhibitory interactions on the connectome. Remarkably, the critical relation between the neural field patterns and the delicate excitation–inhibition balance fits the neurophysiological changes observed during the loss and recovery of consciousness. PMID:26792267</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NuPhA.925..161P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NuPhA.925..161P"><span>Color spin <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of heavy tetraquark states</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Woosung; Lee, Su Houng</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Using the variational method, we calculate the mass of the JP=1+udbbarbbar tetraquark containing two identical heavy antiquarks in a nonrelativistic potential model with color confinement and spin hyperfine interaction. In particular, we extend a previous investigation of the model by Brink and Stancu by investigating the effect of including the color anti-sextet component of the diquark configuration as well as using several more Gaussian parametrization for the L=0 part of the spatial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. We find that for the heavy tetraquark, the 66bar component among the color singlet bases is negligible and that the previously used specific Gaussian spatial configuration is good enough in obtaining the ground state energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25192095','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25192095"><span>Correlated electron-nuclear dynamics with conditional <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Albareda, Guillermo; Appel, Heiko; Franco, Ignacio; Abedi, Ali; Rubio, Angel</p> <p>2014-08-22</p> <p>The molecular Schrödinger equation is rewritten in terms of nonunitary equations of motion for the nuclei (or electrons) that depend parametrically on the configuration of an ensemble of generally defined electronic (or nuclear) trajectories. This scheme is exact and does not rely on the tracing out of degrees of freedom. Hence, the use of trajectory-based statistical techniques can be exploited to circumvent the calculation of the computationally demanding Born-Oppenheimer potential-energy surfaces and nonadiabatic coupling elements. The concept of the potential-energy surface is restored by establishing a formal connection with the exact factorization of the full <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. This connection is used to gain insight from a simplified form of the exact propagation scheme.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005NCimB.120..521C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005NCimB.120..521C"><span><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>' discernibility and the role of fluctuations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Casas, M.; Lamberti, P. W.; Plastino, A.; Plastino, A. R.; Roston, G.</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>The question of distinguishability of quantum states is at the heart of quantum information processing, an issue is here addressed with reference to different distances in probability space vis-a-vis metrics in Hilbert's one. We provide further reconfirmation of Wootters' hypothesis: the possibility that statistical fluctuations in the outcomes of measurements be regarded as responsible for the Hilbert-space structure of quantum mechanics, a view that becomes here considerably strengthened. We show that distances between neighboring states, whether of statistical or Hilbert's metric origin, have as a lower bound Fisher's measure, up to second-order approximation. As a consequence, the structure of the vicinity of a given quantum state is to a large extent determined by the fluctuations of the pertinent observables. It is also shown that Tsallis' non-extensivity parameter q can be used as a tool for increasing discernibility between <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21386708','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21386708"><span>Relation between equal-time and light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miller, Gerald A.; Tiburzi, Brian C.</p> <p>2010-03-15</p> <p>The relation between equal-time and light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is studied using models for which the four-dimensional solution of the Bethe-Salpeter <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> can be obtained. The popular prescription of defining the longitudinal momentum fraction using the instant-form free kinetic energy and third component of momentum is found to be incorrect except in the nonrelativistic limit. One may obtain light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> from rest-frame, instant-form <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> by boosting the latter <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> to the infinite momentum frame. Despite this difficulty, we prove a relation between certain integrals of the equal-time and light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5361411','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5361411"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Hypertension on Cognitive <span class="hlt">Function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Iadecola, Costantino; Yaffe, Kristine; Biller, José; Bratzke, Lisa C.; Faraci, Frank M.; Gorelick, Philip B.; Gulati, Martha; Kamel, Hooman; Knopman, David S.; Launer, Lenore J.; Saczynski, Jane S.; Seshadri, Sudha; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background Age-related dementia, most commonly caused by Alzheimer disease or cerebrovascular factors (vascular dementia), is a major public health threat. Chronic arterial hypertension is a well-established risk factor for both types of dementia, but the link between hypertension and its treatment and cognition remains poorly understood. In this scientific statement, a multidisciplinary team of experts examines the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of hypertension on cognition to assess the state of the knowledge, to identify gaps, and to provide future directions. Methods Authors with relevant expertise were selected to contribute to this statement in accordance with the American Heart Association conflict-of-interest management policy. Panel members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise, reviewed the literature, and summarized the available data. Results Hypertension disrupts the structure and <span class="hlt">function</span> of cerebral blood vessels, leads to ischemic damage of white matter regions critical for cognitive <span class="hlt">function</span>, and may promote Alzheimer pathology. There is strong evidence of a deleterious influence of midlife hypertension on late-life cognitive <span class="hlt">function</span>, but the cognitive <span class="hlt">impact</span> of late-life hypertension is less clear. Observational studies demonstrated a cumulative effect of hypertension on cerebrovascular damage, but evidence from clinical trials that antihypertensive treatment improves cognition is not conclusive. Conclusions After carefully reviewing the literature, the group concluded that there were insufficient data to make evidence-based recommendations. However, judicious treatment of hypertension, taking into account goals of care and individual characteristics (eg, age and comorbidities), seems justified to safeguard vascular health and, as a consequence, brain health. PMID:27977393</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22560331','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22560331"><span>Photon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> formalism for analysis of Mach–Zehnder interferometer and sum-frequency generation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ritboon, Atirach; Daengngam, Chalongrat; Pengpan, Teparksorn</p> <p>2016-08-15</p> <p>Biakynicki-Birula introduced a photon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> similar to the matter <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that satisfies the Schrödinger equation. Its second quantization form can be applied to investigate nonlinear optics at nearly full quantum level. In this paper, we applied the photon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> formalism to analyze both linear optical processes in the well-known Mach–Zehnder interferometer and nonlinear optical processes for sum-frequency generation in dispersive and lossless medium. Results by photon <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> formalism agree with the well-established Maxwell treatments and existing experimental verifications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21039502','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21039502"><span>About Essence of the <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> on Atomic Level and in Superconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nikulov, A. V.</p> <p>2007-12-03</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> was proposed for description of quantum phenomena on the atomic level. But now it is well known that quantum phenomena are observed not only on atomic level and the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is used for description of macroscopic quantum phenomena, such as superconductivity. The essence of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> on level elementary particles was and is the subject of heated argument among founders of quantum mechanics and other physicists. This essence seems more clear in superconductor. But impossibility of probabilistic interpretation of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in this case results to obvious contradiction of quantum principles with some fundamental principles of physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21541610','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21541610"><span>Higher twist parton distributions from light-cone <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Braun, V. M.; Lautenschlager, T.; Pirnay, B.; Manashov, A. N.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>We explore the possibility to construct higher-twist parton distributions in a nucleon at some low reference scale from convolution integrals of the light-cone <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> (WFs). To this end we introduce simple models for the four-particle nucleon WFs involving three valence quarks and a gluon with total orbital momentum zero, and estimate their normalization (WF at the origin) using QCD sum rules. We demonstrate that these WFs provide one with a reasonable description of both polarized and unpolarized parton densities at large values of the Bjorken variable x{>=}0.5. Twist-three parton distributions are then constructed as convolution integrals of qqqg and the usual three-quark WFs. The cases of the polarized structure <span class="hlt">function</span> g{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}) and single transverse spin asymmetries are considered in detail. We find that the so-called gluon pole contribution to twist-three distributions relevant for single spin asymmetry vanishes in this model, but is generated perturbatively at higher scales by the evolution, in the spirit of Glueck-Reya-Vogt parton distributions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448638','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448638"><span>Riemann {zeta} <span class="hlt">function</span> from <span class="hlt">wave</span>-packet dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mack, R.; Schleich, W. P.; Dahl, J. P.; Moya-Cessa, H.; Strunz, W. T.; Walser, R.</p> <p>2010-09-15</p> <p>We show that the time evolution of a thermal phase state of an anharmonic oscillator with logarithmic energy spectrum is intimately connected to the generalized Riemann {zeta} <span class="hlt">function</span> {zeta}(s,a). Indeed, the autocorrelation <span class="hlt">function</span> at a time t is determined by {zeta}({sigma}+i{tau},a), where {sigma} is governed by the temperature of the thermal phase state and {tau} is proportional to t. We use the JWKB method to solve the inverse spectral problem for a general logarithmic energy spectrum; that is, we determine a family of potentials giving rise to such a spectrum. For large distances, all potentials display a universal behavior; they take the shape of a logarithm. However, their form close to the origin depends on the value of the Hurwitz parameter a in {zeta}(s,a). In particular, we establish a connection between the value of the potential energy at its minimum, the Hurwitz parameter and the Maslov index of JWKB. We compare and contrast exact and approximate eigenvalues of purely logarithmic potentials. Moreover, we use a numerical method to find a potential which leads to exact logarithmic eigenvalues. We discuss possible realizations of Riemann {zeta} <span class="hlt">wave</span>-packet dynamics using cold atoms in appropriately tailored light fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Th%26Ae..23...43V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Th%26Ae..23...43V"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of incident Mach <span class="hlt">wave</span> on supersonic boundary layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vaganov, A. V.; Ermolaev, Yu. G.; Kolosov, G. L.; Kosinov, A. D.; Panina, A. V.; Semionov, N. V.; Yatskikh, A. A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Results of an experimental study of the excitation of high-intensity disturbances by a weak external shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> in laminar boundary layer on flat-plate models with sharp and blunted leading edges at M = 2.5 are reported. The field of disturbances produced by a 2D sticker in turbulent boundary layer on the wall of wind-tunnel test section in the free stream is shown to have the form of an N-<span class="hlt">wave</span>. It is found that, on the blunted plate, the intensity of pulsations produced by weak external shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> in boundary layer several times exceeds the intensity of pulsations produced in boundary layer on the model with a sharp leading edge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5501K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5501K"><span>P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> Receiver <span class="hlt">Functions</span> reveal the Bohemian Massif crust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kampfova Exnerova, Hana; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Vecsey, Ludek</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In this study we present initial results of P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> Receiver <span class="hlt">Functions</span> (RF) calculated from broad-band waveforms of teleseismic events recorded by temporary and permanent stations in the Bohemian Massif (BM, Central Europe). Temporary arrays BOHEMA I (2001-2003), BOHEMA II (2004-2005) and BOHEMA III (2005-2006) operated during passive seismic experiments oriented towards studying velocity structure of the lithosphere and the upper mantle. Receiver <span class="hlt">Functions</span> show relative response of the Earth structure under a seismic station and nowadays represent frequently-used method to retrieve structure of the crust, whose knowledge is needed in various studies of the upper mantle. The recorded waveforms are composites of direct P and P-to-S converted <span class="hlt">waves</span> that reverberate in the structure beneath the receiver (Ammon, 1997). The RFs are sensitive to seismic velocity contrast and are thus suited to identifying velocity discontinuities in the crust, including the Mohorovičić discontinuity (Moho). Relative travel-time delays of the converted phases detected in the RFs are transformed into estimates of discontinuity depths assuming external information on the vp/vs and P velocity. To evaluate RFs we use the Multiple-taper spectral correlation (MTC) method (Park and Levin, 2000) and process signals from teleseismic events at epicentral distances of 30 - 100° with magnitude Mw > 5.5. Recordings are filtered with Butterworth band-pass filter of 2 - 8 s. To select automatically signals which are strong enough, we calculate signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) in two steps. In the first step we calculate SNR for signals from intervals (-1s, 3s)/(-10s, -2s), where P-arrival time represent time zero. In the second step we broaden the intervals and calculate SNR for (-1s, 9s)/(-60s, -2s). We also employ forward modelling of the RFs using Interactive Receiver <span class="hlt">Functions</span> Forward Modeller (IRFFM) (Tkalčić et al., 2010) to produce, in the first step, one-dimensional velocity models under</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27829697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27829697"><span>Experiments with claw models explain the <span class="hlt">function</span> of the <span class="hlt">waving</span> display of Ilyoplax pusilla (Brachyura: Dotillidae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Izumi, Daichi; Kawano, Yoko; Henmi, Yasuhisa</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Males of the dotillid crab, Ilyoplax pusilla, perform <span class="hlt">waving</span> displays during the reproductive season. Unlike many fiddler crabs (genus Uca), however, the <span class="hlt">function</span> of the <span class="hlt">waving</span> display is unclear for this species. Experiments using <span class="hlt">waving</span> and static claw models over short (10 cm) and long (25 cm) distances were conducted to investigate responses by wandering females to artificial <span class="hlt">waving</span> signals. In long-distance choice experiments, presuming undirected <span class="hlt">waving</span> to unseen females as broadcast <span class="hlt">waving</span>, females were equally likely to approach the <span class="hlt">waving</span> and static claw sections during the non-reproductive season, but significantly more females (65 %) chose the <span class="hlt">waving</span> claw section during the reproductive season. In short-distance choice experiments, presuming directed courtship <span class="hlt">waving</span> toward a particular female, there was no significant difference between the <span class="hlt">waving</span> and static claw models during the non-reproductive season, but significantly more females (88 %) chose the <span class="hlt">waving</span> claw during the reproductive season. These results suggest that one <span class="hlt">function</span> of the <span class="hlt">waving</span> display of I. pusilla is mate attraction and that <span class="hlt">waving</span> from a short distance is more effective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830014054','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830014054"><span><span class="hlt">Wave</span> propagation in graphite/epoxy laminates due to <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tan, T. M.; Sun, C. T.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The low velocity <span class="hlt">impact</span> response of graphite-epoxy laminates is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A nine-node isoparametric finite element in conjunction with an empirical contact law was used for the theoretical investigation. Flat laminates subjected to pendulum <span class="hlt">impact</span> were used for the experimental investigation. Theoretical results are in good agreement with strain gage experimental data. The collective results of the investigation indicate that the theoretical procedure describes the <span class="hlt">impact</span> response of the laminate up to about 150 in/sec. <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25106876','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25106876"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of trauma on neutrophil <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hazeldine, Jon; Hampson, Peter; Lord, Janet M</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A well described consequence of traumatic injury is immune dysregulation, where an initial increase in immune activity is followed by a period of immune depression, the latter leaving hospitalised trauma patients at an increased risk of nosocomial infections. Here, we discuss the emerging role of the neutrophil, the most abundant leucocyte in human circulation and the first line of defence against microbial challenge, in the initiation and propagation of the inflammatory response to trauma. We review the findings of the most recent studies to have investigated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of trauma on neutrophil <span class="hlt">function</span> and discuss how alterations in neutrophil biology are being investigated as potential biomarkers by which to predict the outcome of hospitalised trauma patients. Furthermore, with trauma-induced changes in neutrophil biology linked to the development of such post-traumatic complications as multiple organ failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome, we highlight an area of research within the field of trauma immunology that is gaining considerable interest: the manipulation of neutrophil <span class="hlt">function</span> as a means by which to potentially improve patient outcome.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23636903','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23636903"><span>When does nutrition <span class="hlt">impact</span> respiratory <span class="hlt">function</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Allen, Karen S; Mehta, Ishan; Cavallazzi, Rodrigo</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Nutrition therapy is an essential aspect of patient care and an important determinant of outcomes in the ICU. Nutrition can <span class="hlt">impact</span> respiratory <span class="hlt">function</span> in a myriad of ways. Under- and overfeeding are two well-established ways by which nutrition impinges on respiratory <span class="hlt">function</span>. Route of feeding, method of feeding, and carbohydrate composition of the diet are also other key factors regarding nutrition that influence outcomes in ICU patients. Recent studies are now elucidating the role of immune therapy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. In the ICU, nutrition dogmas, such as the necessity of checking gastric residual volumes or utilizing full-calorie enteric feeds, as opposed to trophic feeds, are constantly being challenged by innovative clinical studies. Basic research brings the prospect of testing new approaches for ICU patients, such as the use of antioxidants to prevent diaphragm weakness in these patients. In this review article, we evaluate the recent observational and randomized control trials to critically appraise the evidence regarding nutrition in the ICU.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011928','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011928"><span>Sedimentological effects of tsunamis, with particular reference to <span class="hlt">impact</span>-generated and volcanogenic <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bourgeois, Joanne; Wiberg, Patricia L.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Impulse-generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> (tsunamis) may be produced, at varying scales and global recurrence intervals (RI), by several processes. Meteorite-water <span class="hlt">impacts</span> will produce tsunamis, and asteroid-scale <span class="hlt">impacts</span> with associated mega-tsunamis may occur. A bolide-water <span class="hlt">impact</span> would undoubtedly produce a major tsunami, whose sedimentological effects should be recognizable. Even a bolide-land <span class="hlt">impact</span> might trigger major submarine landslides and thus tsunamis. In all posulated scenarios for the K/T boundary event, then, tsunamis are expected, and where to look for them must be determined, and how to distinguish deposits from different tsunamis. Also, because tsunamis decrease in height as they move away from their source, the proximal effects will differ by perhaps orders of magnitude from distal effects. Data on the characteristics of tsunamis at their origin are scarce. Some observations exist for tsunamis generated by thermonuclear explosions and for seismogenic tsunamis, and experimental work was conducted on <span class="hlt">impact</span>-generated tsunamis. All tsunamis of interest have <span class="hlt">wave</span>-lengths of 0(100) km and thus behave as shallow-water <span class="hlt">waves</span> in all ocean depths. Typical <span class="hlt">wave</span> periods are 0(10 to 100) minutes. The effect of these tsunamis can be estimated in the marine and coastal realm by calculating boundary shear stresses (expressed as U*, the shear velocity). An event layer at the K/T boundary in Texas occurs in mid-shelf muds. Only a large, long-period <span class="hlt">wave</span> with a <span class="hlt">wave</span> height of 0(50) m, is deemed sufficient to have produced this layer. Such <span class="hlt">wave</span> heights imply a nearby volcanic explosion on the scale of Krakatau or larger, or a nearby submarine landslide also of great size, or a bolide-water <span class="hlt">impact</span> in the ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.12604055Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.12604055Z"><span>The universal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> interpretation of string theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhi Gang, Sha; Xiu, Rulin</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>In this work, we will show that a deeper understanding of space-time provided by both quantum physics and general relativity can lead to a new way to understand string theory. This new way of understanding and applying string theory, the universal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> interpretation of string theory (UWFIST), may yield to a more powerful string theory and testable prediction. We will show how to derive UWFIST and what new result we can obtain from UWFIST. We will demonstrate that UWFIST indicates that the observed space-time and all phenomena are the projections from the world-sheet hologram. UWFIST provides the possible source for dark energy and dark matter and the explanation about why the dark energy and dark matter is beyond the detection of our current detector. We will show that UWFIST may also yield correct prediction of the cosmological constant to be of the order 10-121 in the unit of Planck scale. It may also help us understand and derive the energy source for inflation and the flatness of our observed 4-dimensional universe. UWFIST may also make other testable predictions that may be detected by interferometers. We conclude that UWFIST has the potential to make string theory a more powerful physics theory that can yield testable predictions. It is worth further investigation by more physicists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyC..518....1H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyC..518....1H"><span>Excitation spectra and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of quasiparticle bound states in bilayer Rashba superconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Higashi, Yoichi; Nagai, Yuki; Yoshida, Tomohiro; Kato, Masaru; Yanase, Youichi</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We study the excitation spectra and the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of quasiparticle bound states at a vortex and an edge in bilayer Rashba superconductors under a magnetic field. In particular, we focus on the quasiparticle states at the zero energy in the pair-density <span class="hlt">wave</span> state in a topologically non-trivial phase. We numerically demonstrate that the quasiparticle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> with zero energy are localized at both the edge and the vortex core if the magnetic field exceeds the critical value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711496M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711496M"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span> action on the structure of material on the beach in Calypsobyen (Spitsbergen)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mędrek, Karolina; Herman, Agnieszka; Moskalik, Mateusz; Rodzik, Jan; Zagórski, Piotr</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The research was conducted during the XXVI Polar Expedition of Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin on Spitsbergen. It involved recording water <span class="hlt">wave</span> action in the Bellsund Strait, and taking daily photographs of the beach on its shore in Calypsobyen. The base of polar expeditions of UMCS, Calypsobyen, is located on the coast of Calypsostranda, developed by raised marine terraces. Weakly resistant Tertiary sandstones occur in the substrate, covered with glacigenic sediments and marine gravels. No skerries are encountered along this section of the accumulation coast. The shore is dominated by gravel deposits. The bottom slopes gently. The recording of <span class="hlt">wave</span> action was performed from 8 July to 27 August 2014 by means of a pressure based MIDAS WTR <span class="hlt">Wave</span> and Tide Recorder set at a depth of 10 m at a distance of about 1 km from the shore. The obtained data provided the basis for the calculation of the significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height, and the corresponding mean <span class="hlt">wave</span> period . These parameters reflect <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy and <span class="hlt">wave</span> level, having a considerable <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the dynamics of coastal processes and the type and grain size of sediments accumulated on the beach. Material consisting of medium gravel and seaweed appeared on the beach at high values of significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height and when the corresponding mean <span class="hlt">wave</span> period showed average values. The contribution of fine, gravel-sandy material grew with an increase in mean period and a decrease in significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height. At maximum values of mean period and low values of significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height, the beach was dominated by well-sorted fine-grained gravel. The lowest mean periods resulted in the least degree of sorting of the sediment (from very coarse sand to medium gravel). The analysis of data from the <span class="hlt">wave</span> and tide recorder set and their comparison with photographs of the beach suggest that <span class="hlt">wave</span> action, and particularly <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy manifested in significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height, has a considerable <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the type and grain size of material</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDG14001W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DFDG14001W"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a Deepwater <span class="hlt">Wave</span> on a Wall with Finite Vertical Extent</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, An; Duncan, James H.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a dispersively focused 2D plunging breaker (average <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency 1.15 Hz) on a 2D wall that is 45 cm high and 30 cm thick is studied experimentally. The temporal evolution of the water surface profile upstream of the wall is measured with a cinematic LIF technique using frame rates up to 4,500 Hz. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> pressures on the wall are measured simultaneously at sample rates up to 900 kHz. The wall is located horizontally 6.41 m from the <span class="hlt">wave</span> maker in all cases and the submergence of the bottom surface of the wall is varied. It is found that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> behavior varies dramatically with the wall submergence. When the bottom is submerged by 13.3 cm, a flip-through <span class="hlt">impact</span> occurs. In this case, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> evolves without <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking and a vertical jet is formed. When the wall is submerged by less than 4.5 cm, small-amplitude components in the <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet interact with the bottom of the wall before the main crest arrives. Ripples reflected during this interaction modify the behavior of the incoming breaker significantly. When the bottom of the wall is located sufficiently high above the mean water level, the first interaction occurs when the undisturbed <span class="hlt">wave</span> crest collides with the wall. The highest pressures are observed in this case. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21254401','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21254401"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of cosmic neutrinos on the gravitational-<span class="hlt">wave</span> background</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mangilli, Anna; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio</p> <p>2008-10-15</p> <p>We obtain the equation governing the evolution of the cosmological gravitational-<span class="hlt">wave</span> background, accounting for the presence of cosmic neutrinos, up to second order in perturbation theory. In particular, we focus on the epoch during radiation dominance, after neutrino decoupling, when neutrinos yield a relevant contribution to the total energy density and behave as collisionless ultrarelativistic particles. Besides recovering the standard damping effect due to neutrinos, a new source term for gravitational <span class="hlt">waves</span> is shown to arise from the neutrino anisotropic stress tensor. The importance of such a source term, so far completely disregarded in the literature, is related to the high velocity dispersion of neutrinos in the considered epoch; its computation requires solving the full second-order Boltzmann equation for collisionless neutrinos.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.145f4107H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.145f4107H"><span>Exact density <span class="hlt">functional</span> and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> embedding schemes based on orbital localization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hégely, Bence; Nagy, Péter R.; Ferenczy, György G.; Kállay, Mihály</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Exact schemes for the embedding of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> theory (WFT) methods into lower-level DFT or WFT approaches are introduced utilizing orbital localization. First, a simple modification of the projector-based embedding scheme of Manby and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A507 (2014)] is proposed. We also use localized orbitals to partition the system, but instead of augmenting the Fock operator with a somewhat arbitrary level-shift projector we solve the Huzinaga-equation, which strictly enforces the Pauli exclusion principle. Second, the embedding of WFT methods in local correlation approaches is studied. Since the latter methods split up the system into local domains, very simple embedding theories can be defined if the domains of the active subsystem and the environment are treated at a different level. The considered embedding schemes are benchmarked for reaction energies and compared to quantum mechanics (QM)/molecular mechanics (MM) and vacuum embedding. We conclude that for DFT-in-DFT embedding, the Huzinaga-equation-based scheme is more efficient than the other approaches, but QM/MM or even simple vacuum embedding is still competitive in particular cases. Concerning the embedding of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods, the clear winner is the embedding of WFT into low-level local correlation approaches, and WFT-in-DFT embedding can only be more advantageous if a non-hybrid density <span class="hlt">functional</span> is employed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/809126','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/809126"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of tropospheric planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> variability on stratospheric ozone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McElroy, Michael B.; Schneider, Hans R.</p> <p>2002-06-25</p> <p>The goal of this project was to improve understanding of the role of the stratosphere in inducing long-term variations of the chemical composition of the troposphere. Changes in stratospheric transport occur on decadel timescales in response to changes in the structure of planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns, forced in the troposphere. For many important tracers, such as column amounts of ozone, this variability of the transport leads to changes with signatures very similar to those induced by anthropogenic releases of chemicals into the atmosphere. During this project, a new interactive two-dimensional model of the dynamics, chemistry and radiation of the stratosphere was developed. The model was used to interpret available data of tracers. It was found that a fairly coherent picture of tracer distributions is obtained when a layer of reduced gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag is assumed for the lower stratosphere. The results suggest that the power of models to predict variability in tracer transport in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere is limited until current theories of gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking have been refined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6532E..08G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6532E..08G"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of ultrasonic guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> transducer design on health monitoring of composite structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Huidong; Rose, Joseph L.</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Structural health monitoring of composite materials will lead to a significant safety and economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the aircraft and aerospace industries. Ultrasonic guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> based methods are becoming popular because of an excellent compromise between coverage area and sensitivity for localized damage detection. The transducers currently used in composite health monitoring are designed mostly in an empirical manner. The work presented in this paper provides an analytical procedure to study the <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitation phenomenon in composite laminates. A hybrid semi-analytical finite element method and global matrix method is used to obtained the guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> modal solutions. A normal mode expansion technique is then used to simulate the guided <span class="hlt">waves</span> excited from a surface mounted piezoelectric transducer with transient loading. Parametric studies are performed to obtain the guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> mode tuning characteristics and to study the influence of piezoelectric wafer geometry on <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitation. In an inverse problem, an appropriate loading pattern can be designed to achieve selective guided <span class="hlt">wave</span> mode excitation for improved sensitivity and/or penetration power in the health monitoring of composites. A <span class="hlt">wave</span> field reconstruction algorithm based on normal mode expansion is also introduced in this paper. This method is also very computationally efficient compared with the commonly used finite element method in <span class="hlt">wave</span> field excitation simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25132676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25132676"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of complex blast <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the human head: a computational study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Long Bin; Chew, Fatt Siong; Tse, Kwong Ming; Chye Tan, Vincent Beng; Lee, Heow Pueh</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Head injuries due to complex blasts are not well examined because of limited published articles on the subject. Previous studies have analyzed head injuries due to <span class="hlt">impact</span> from a single planar blast <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Complex or concomitant blasts refer to <span class="hlt">impacts</span> usually caused by more than a single blast source, whereby the blast <span class="hlt">waves</span> may <span class="hlt">impact</span> the head simultaneously or consecutively, depending on the locations and distances of the blast sources from the subject, their blast intensities, the sequence of detonations, as well as the effect of blast <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflections from rigid walls. It is expected that such scenarios will result in more serious head injuries as compared to <span class="hlt">impact</span> from a single blast <span class="hlt">wave</span> due to the larger effective duration of the blast. In this paper, the utilization of a head-helmet model for blast <span class="hlt">impact</span> analyses in Abaqus(TM) (Dassault Systemes, Singapore) is demonstrated. The model is validated against studies published in the literature. Results show that the skull is capable of transmitting the blast <span class="hlt">impact</span> to cause high intracranial pressures (ICPs). In addition, the pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> from a frontal blast may enter through the sides of the helmet and wrap around the head to result in a second <span class="hlt">impact</span> at the rear. This study recommended better protection at the sides and rear of the helmet through the use of foam pads so as to reduce <span class="hlt">wave</span> entry into the helmet. The consecutive frontal blasts scenario resulted in higher ICPs compared with <span class="hlt">impact</span> from a single frontal blast. This implied that blast impingement from an immediate subsequent pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> would increase severity of brain injury. For the unhelmeted head case, a peak ICP of 330 kPa is registered at the parietal lobe which exceeds the 235 kPa threshold for serious head injuries. The concurrent front and side blasts scenario yielded lower ICPs and skull stresses than the consecutive frontal blasts case. It is also revealed that the additional side blast would only significantly affect ICPs at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1983/0917/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1983/0917/report.pdf"><span>Sketches of a hammer-<span class="hlt">impact</span>, spiked-base, shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hasbrouck, W.P.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Generation of shear <span class="hlt">waves</span> in shallow seismic investigations (those to depths usually less than 100 m) can be accomplished by horizontally striking with a hammer either the end of a wood plank or metal structure embedded at the ground surface. The dimensioned sketches of this report are of a steel, hammer-<span class="hlt">impact</span>, spiked-base, shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> source. It has been used on outcrops and in a desert environment and for conducting experiments on the effect of rotating source direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22309110','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22309110"><span>Coherent cooling of atoms in a frequency-modulated standing laser <span class="hlt">wave</span>: <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and stochastic trajectory approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Argonov, V. Yu.</p> <p>2014-11-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a moderately cold atom in a stationary near-resonant standing light <span class="hlt">wave</span> delocalizes very fast due to <span class="hlt">wave</span> packet splitting. However, we show that frequency modulation of the field can suppress packet splitting for some atoms whose specific velocities are in a narrow range. These atoms remain localized in a small space for a long time. We demonstrate and explain this effect numerically and analytically. We also demonstrate that the modulated field can not only trap but also cool the atoms. We perform a numerical experiment with a large atomic ensemble having wide initial velocity and energy distributions. During the experiment, most of atoms leave the <span class="hlt">wave</span> while the trapped atoms have a narrow energy distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..DMP.D1091S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..DMP.D1091S"><span>Method to compute <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> evolution from microscopic to macroscopic distances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sternberg, James</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>The treatment of loosely bound and continuum electrons in atomic collisions has provided challenges for calculations of these systems. These challenges have not been fully overcome for ion- atom collisions since electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> evolve from microscopic to macroscopic distances. One major source of difficulty is that solutions to the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation contain an essential singularity at infinity which makes numerical modeling of these systems difficult for large distances. We have identified this essential singularity and developed a method to treat these systems which is extremely efficient and stable. The method is Gallelian invariant, which avoids any ambiguity about what the proper frame of reference should be. It also avoids numerical inaccuracies induced by reflection or absorption at finite boundaries. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can easily be propagated out to macroscopic distances instead of only approximately 100 au. Finally, the results are consistent with the hidden crossing theory at low <span class="hlt">impact</span> energies and the Born theory at high energies. In both regimes the electron distribution agree qualitatively with experiment.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26854874','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26854874"><span>Efficient and Flexible Computation of Many-Electron <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> Overlaps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Plasser, Felix; Ruckenbauer, Matthias; Mai, Sebastian; Oppel, Markus; Marquetand, Philipp; González, Leticia</p> <p>2016-03-08</p> <p>A new algorithm for the computation of the overlap between many-electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is described. This algorithm allows for the extensive use of recurring intermediates and thus provides high computational efficiency. Because of the general formalism employed, overlaps can be computed for varying <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> types, molecular orbitals, basis sets, and molecular geometries. This paves the way for efficiently computing nonadiabatic interaction terms for dynamics simulations. In addition, other application areas can be envisaged, such as the comparison of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> constructed at different levels of theory. Aside from explaining the algorithm and evaluating the performance, a detailed analysis of the numerical stability of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> overlaps is carried out, and strategies for overcoming potential severe pitfalls due to displaced atoms and truncated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93t5153M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93t5153M"><span>Fractal dimensions of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and local spectral measures on the Fibonacci chain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Macé, Nicolas; Jagannathan, Anuradha; Piéchon, Frédéric</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We present a theoretical framework for understanding the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and spectrum of an extensively studied paradigm for quasiperiodic systems, namely the Fibonacci chain. Our analytical results, which are obtained in the limit of strong modulation of the hopping amplitudes, are in good agreement with published numerical data. In the perturbative limit, we show a symmetry of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> under permutation of site and energy indices. We compute the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> renormalization factors and from them deduce analytical expressions for the fractal exponents corresponding to individual <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, as well as their global averages. The multifractality of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is seen to appear at next-to-leading order in ρ . Exponents for the local spectral density are given, in extremely good accord with numerical calculations. Interestingly, our analytical results for exponents are observed to describe the system rather well even for values of ρ well outside the domain of applicability of perturbation theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4785508','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4785508"><span>Efficient and Flexible Computation of Many-Electron <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> Overlaps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A new algorithm for the computation of the overlap between many-electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is described. This algorithm allows for the extensive use of recurring intermediates and thus provides high computational efficiency. Because of the general formalism employed, overlaps can be computed for varying <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> types, molecular orbitals, basis sets, and molecular geometries. This paves the way for efficiently computing nonadiabatic interaction terms for dynamics simulations. In addition, other application areas can be envisaged, such as the comparison of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> constructed at different levels of theory. Aside from explaining the algorithm and evaluating the performance, a detailed analysis of the numerical stability of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> overlaps is carried out, and strategies for overcoming potential severe pitfalls due to displaced atoms and truncated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are presented. PMID:26854874</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.......156D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.......156D"><span>Lithospheric structure beneath Eastern Africa from joint inversion of receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> and Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dugda, Mulugeta Tuji</p> <p></p> <p>Crust and upper mantle structure beneath eastern Africa has been investigated using receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> and surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> dispersion measurements to understand the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the hotspot tectonism found there on the lithospheric structure of the region. In the first part of this thesis, I applied H-kappa stacking of receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span>, and a joint inversion of receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> and Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> group velocities to determine the crustal parameters under Djibouti. The two methods give consistent results. The crust beneath the GEOSCOPE station ATD has a thickness of 23+/-1.5 km and a Poisson's ratio of 0.31+/-0.02. Previous studies give crustal thickness beneath Djibouti to be between 8 and 10 km. I found it necessary to reinterprete refraction profiles for Djibouti from a previous study. The crustal structure obtained for ATD is similar to adjacent crustal structure in many other parts of central and eastern Afar. The high Poisson's ratio and Vp throughout most of the crust indicate a mafic composition, suggesting that the crust in Afar consists predominantly of new igneous rock emplaced during the late synrift stage where extension is accommodated within magmatic segments by diking. In the second part of this thesis, the seismic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath Ethiopia and Djibouti has been investigated by jointly inverting receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> and Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> group velocities to obtain new constraints on the thermal structure of the lithosphere. Crustal structure from the joint inversion for Ethiopia and Djibouti is similar to previously published models. Beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and Afar, the lithospheric mantle has a maximum shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity of 4.1-4.2 km/s and extends to a depth of at most 50 km. In comparison to the lithosphere away from the East African Rift System in Tanzania, where the lid extends to depths of ˜100-125 km and has a maximum shear velocity of 4.6 km/s, the mantle lithosphere under the Ethiopian Plateau</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008IJBm...52..733K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008IJBm...52..733K"><span>Decreased <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the 2003 heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on mortality in the Czech Republic: an improved response?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kyselý, Jan; Kříž, Bohumír</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>The paper examines <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on mortality of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in 2003, the hottest summer on record in the Czech Republic, and compares them with previous similar events. While most summer heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> over the period since 1986 were associated with significantly elevated mortality, this was not the case for three out of the four heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in 2003. The relatively weak mortality response was particularly noteworthy for the most severe heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> which occurred in the first 10 days of August 2003 and resulted in enormous excess mortality in some western European countries. A mortality displacement effect and short-term adaptation to heat contributed to the reduced mortality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> that followed after previous relatively warm periods. However, the decreased mortality response of the 2003 heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> compared to previous heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the 1990s is also likely to have arisen from positive health-care and other socio-economic changes in the post-communist central European region over the past decade, as well as a better public awareness of heat-related risks due to enhanced media coverage and regular biometeorological forecast and warnings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcDyn..65.1547Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcDyn..65.1547Z"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sea surface currents in <span class="hlt">wave</span> power potential modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Kallos, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Kalogeri, Christina; Liakatas, Aristotelis; Stylianou, Stavros</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sea surface currents to the estimation and modeling of <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy potential over an area of increased economic interest, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, is investigated in this work. High-resolution atmospheric, <span class="hlt">wave</span>, and circulation models, the latter downscaled from the regional Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) of the Copernicus marine service (former MyOcean regional MFS system), are utilized towards this goal. The modeled data are analyzed by means of a variety of statistical tools measuring the potential changes not only in the main <span class="hlt">wave</span> characteristics, but also in the general distribution of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy and the <span class="hlt">wave</span> parameters that mainly affect it, when using sea surface currents as a forcing to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> models. The obtained results prove that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the sea surface currents is quite significant in <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy-related modeling, as well as temporally and spatially dependent. These facts are revealing the necessity of the utilization of the sea surface currents characteristics in renewable energy studies in conjunction with their meteo-ocean forecasting counterparts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1245M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1245M"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of intense inward and outward ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> radial diffusion on the Van Allen belts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mann, Ian; Ozeke, Louis; Rae, I. Jonathan; Murphy, Kyle</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>During geomagnetic storms, the power in ultra-low frequency (ULF) <span class="hlt">waves</span> can be orders of magnitude larger than that predicted by statistics determined from an entire solar cycle. This is especially true during the main phase and early recovery phase. These periods of enhanced storm-time ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> power can have significant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the morphology and structure of the Van Allen belts. Either fast inward or outward radial diffusion can result, depending on the profiles of the electron phase space density and the outer boundary condition at the edge of the belts. Small changes in the time sequence of powerful ULF <span class="hlt">waves</span>, and the time sequence of any magnetopause shadowing or the recovery of plamasheet sources relative to the ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> occurrence, have a remarkable <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the resulting structure of the belts. The overall <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the enhanced ULF <span class="hlt">wave</span> power is profound, but the response can be very different depending on the available source flux in the plasmasheet. We review these <span class="hlt">impacts</span> by examining ultra-relativistic electron dynamics during seemingly different storms during the Van Allen Probe era, including during the Baker et al. third radiation belt, and show the observed behaviour can be largely explained by differences in the time sequence of events described above.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21322904','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21322904"><span>On Dissipation <span class="hlt">Function</span> of Ocean <span class="hlt">Waves</span> due to Whitecapping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zakharov, V. E.; Korotkevich, A. O.; Prokofiev, A. O.</p> <p>2009-09-09</p> <p>The Hasselmann kinetic equation provides a statistical description of <span class="hlt">waves</span> ensemble. Several catastrophic events are beyond statistical model. In the case of gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the surface of the deep fluid may be the most frequent and important events of such kind are whitecapping and <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking. It was shown earlier that such effects leads to additional dissipation in the energy contaning region around <span class="hlt">waves</span> spectral peak, which can be simulated by means of empiric dissipative term in kinetic equation. In order to find dependence of this term with respect to nonlinearity in the system (steepness of the surface) we preformed two numerical experiments: weakly nonlinear one in the framework of 3D hydrodynamics and fully nonlinear one for 2D hydrodynamic. In spite of significantly different models and initial conditions, both these experiments yielded close results. Obtained data can be used to define analytical formula for dependence of the dissipative term of dissipation coefficient with respect to mean steepness of the surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16674212','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16674212"><span>Correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the ground and some excited states of the iron atom.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buendía, E; Gálvez, F J; Sarsa, A</p> <p>2006-04-21</p> <p>We study the states arising from the [Ar]4s(2)3d6 and [Ar]4s(1)3d7 configurations of iron atom with explicitly correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is the product of the Jastrow correlation factor times a model <span class="hlt">function</span> obtained within the parametrized optimized effective potential framework. A systematic analysis of the dependence of both the effective potential and the correlation factor on the configuration and on the term is carried out. The ground state of both, the cation, Fe+, and anion, Fe-, are calculated with correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and the ionization potential and the electron affinity are obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20875704','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20875704"><span>Failure <span class="hlt">Wave</span> in DEDF and Soda-Lime Glass during Rod <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Orphal, D. L.; Behner, Th.; Hohler, V.; Anderson, C. E. Jr.; Templeton, D. W.</p> <p>2006-07-28</p> <p>Investigations of glass by planar, and classical and symmetric Taylor <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments reveal that failure <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity vF depends on <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity, geometry, and type of glass. vF typically increases with <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity vP to between cS and cL or to {radical}2cS (shear and longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity). This paper reports initial results of an investigation of failure <span class="hlt">waves</span> associated with gold rod <span class="hlt">impact</span> on high-density (DEDF) glass and soda-lime glass. Data are obtained by visualizing simultaneously the failure propagation in the glass with a high-speed camera and the rod penetration velocity u with flash radiography. Results for DEDF glass are reported for vP between 1.2 and 2.0 km/s, those for soda-lime glass with vP {approx_equal}1.3 km/s. It is shown that vF > u, and that in the case of DEDF glass vF/u decreases from ; 1.38 to 1.13 with increasing vp. In addition, several Taylor tests were performed. For both DEDF and soda-lime glass the vF-values, found here as well as vF- data reported in the literature, reveal that--for equal pressures--the failure <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocities determined from Taylor tests or planar-<span class="hlt">impact</span> tests are distinctly greater than those observed during steady-state rod penetration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.8299H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.8299H"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of stratospheric ozone depletion and recovery on <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the boreal winter stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Dingzhu; Tian, Wenshou; Xie, Fei; Wang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Jiankai</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>This paper uses a state-of-the-art general circulation model to study the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the stratospheric ozone depletion from 1980 to 2000 and the expected partial ozone recovery from 2000 to 2020 on the propagation of planetary <span class="hlt">waves</span> in December, January, and February. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH), the stratospheric ozone depletion leads to a cooler and stronger Antarctic stratosphere, while the stratospheric ozone recovery has the opposite effects. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH), the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the stratospheric ozone depletion on polar stratospheric temperature are not opposite to that of the stratospheric ozone recovery; i.e., the stratospheric ozone depletion causes a weak cooling and the stratospheric ozone recovery causes a statistically significant cooling. The stratospheric ozone depletion leads to a weakening of the Arctic polar vortex, while the stratospheric ozone recovery leads to a strengthening of the Arctic polar vortex. The cooling of the Arctic polar vortex is found to be dynamically induced via modulating the planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity by stratospheric ozone increases. Particularly interesting is that stratospheric ozone changes have opposite effects on the stationary and transient <span class="hlt">wave</span> fluxes in the NH stratosphere. The analysis of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> refractive index and Eliassen-Palm flux in the NH indicates (1) that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> refraction in the stratosphere cannot fully explain <span class="hlt">wave</span> flux changes in the Arctic stratosphere and (2) that stratospheric ozone changes can cause changes in <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the northern midlatitude troposphere which in turn affect <span class="hlt">wave</span> fluxes in the NH stratosphere. In the SH, the radiative cooling (warming) caused by stratospheric ozone depletion (recovery) produces a larger (smaller) meridional temperature gradient in the midlatitude upper troposphere, accompanied by larger (smaller) zonal wind vertical shear and larger (smaller) vertical gradients of buoyancy frequency. Hence, there are more (fewer) transient <span class="hlt">waves</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GPC...119...71A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GPC...119...71A"><span>Projections of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> with high <span class="hlt">impact</span> on human health in Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Amengual, A.; Homar, V.; Romero, R.; Brooks, H. E.; Ramis, C.; Gordaliza, M.; Alonso, S.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Climate change will result in more intense, more frequent and longer lasting heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The most hazardous conditions emerge when extreme daytime temperatures combine with warm night-time temperatures, high humidities and light winds for several consecutive days. Here, we assess present and future heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on human health in Europe. Present daily physiologically equivalent temperatures (PET) are derived from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. PET allows to specifically focus on heat-related risks on humans. Regarding projections, a suite of high-resolution regional climate models - run under SRES A1B scenario - has been used. A quantile-quantile adjustment is applied to the daily simulated PET to correct biases in individual model climatologies and a multimodel ensemble strategy is adopted to encompass model errors. Two types of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> differently <span class="hlt">impacting</span> human health - strong and extreme stress - are defined according to specified thresholds of thermal stress and duration. Heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> number, frequency, duration and amplitude are derived for each type. Results reveal relatively strong correlations between the spatial distribution of strong and extreme heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> amplitudes and mortality excess for the 2003 European summer. Projections suggest a steady increase and a northward extent of heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> attributes in Europe. Strong stress heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequencies could increase more than 40 days, lasting over 20 days more by 2075-2094. Amplitudes might augment up to 7 °C per heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> day. Important increases in extreme stress heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> attributes are also expected: up to 40 days in frequency, 30 days in duration and 4 °C in amplitude. We believe that with this information at hand policy makers and stakeholders on vulnerable populations to heat stress can respond more effectively to the future challenges imposed by climate warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1058H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1058H"><span>Life's <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on the Soil Production <span class="hlt">Function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harrison, Emma; Willenbring, Jane; Brocard, Gilles</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>]. The depth of soil mixing in the soil profiles we collect is shown by the homogenization of 10Be concentrations in grains. Mixing changes the residence time of grains in soil. The length of this residence time is a critical component in the rate of weathering reactions, the mechanism by which material is lost to chemical dissolution and leaching. Additionally, mixing may drive the value of the diffusion coefficient, which determines the flux of sediment out of the soil mantle in the geomorphic soil production <span class="hlt">function</span>. Life actively <span class="hlt">impacts</span> the soil-hillslope system, and quantifying these effects is an essential modification of a fundamental paradigm in the geomorphology of soil-mantled landscapes. [1] Heimsath et al. 1997. Nature 388:358-361 [2] Zou et al., 1995. Forest Ecol. and Management 78:147-157 [3] Pett-Ridge et al., 2009. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73:25-43 [4] Hidy et al. 2010. Geochem. Geophys., Geosys. 11 [5] González et al. 2007. Eur. J. Soil Biol. 43:S24-S32</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23995621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23995621"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on mortality in Croatia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zaninović, Ksenija; Matzarakis, Andreas</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The aim of this work was to determine the criteria for heat loads associated with an increase in mortality in different climatic regions of Croatia. The relationship between heat stress and mortality was analysed for the period 1983-2008. The input series is excess mortality defined as the deviations of mortality from expected values determined by means of a Gaussian filter of 183 days. The assessment of the thermal environment was performed by means of physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The curve depicting the relationship between mortality and temperature has a U shape, with increased mortality in both the cold and warm parts of the scale but more pronounced in the warm part. The threshold temperature for increased mortality was determined using a scatter plot and fitting data by means of moving average of mortality; the latter is defined as the temperature at which excess mortality becomes significant. The values are higher in the continental part of Croatia than at the coast due to the refreshing influence of the sea during the day. The same analysis on a monthly basis shows that at the beginning of the warm season increased mortality occurs at a lower temperature compared with later on in the summer, and the difference is up to 15 °C between August and April. The increase in mortality is highest during the first 3-5 days and after that it decreases and falls below the expected value. Long-lasting heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> present an increased risk, but in very long heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> the increase in mortality is reduced due to mortality displacement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..SHK.C5003O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..SHK.C5003O"><span>Failure <span class="hlt">Wave</span> in DEDF and Soda-Lime Glass During Rod <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orphal, Dennis; Behner, Thilo; Anderson, Charles; Templeton, Douglas</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>Investigations of glass by planar, and classical and symmetric Taylor <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments reveal that failure <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity U/F depends on <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity, geometry, and the type of glass. U/F typically increases with <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity to between ˜ 1.4 C/S and C/L (shear and longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocities, respectively). This paper reports the results of direct high-speed photographic measurements of the failure <span class="hlt">wave</span> for gold rod <span class="hlt">impact</span> from 1.2 and 2.0 km/s on DEDF glass (C/S = 2.0, C/L =3.5 km/s). The average rod penetration velocity, u, was measured using flash X-rays. Gold rods eliminated penetrator strength effects. U/F for gold rod <span class="hlt">impact</span> on DEDF is ˜ 1.0-1.2 km/s, which is considerably less than C/S. The increase of u with <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity is greater than that of U/F. These results are confirmed by soda-lime glass <span class="hlt">impact</span> on a gold rod at an <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity of 1300 m/s. Similar results are found in``edge-on-<span class="hlt">impact</span>'' tests; U/F values of 1.4 km/s and 2.4-2.6 km/s in soda-lime glass are reported for W-alloy rod <span class="hlt">impact</span>, considerably less than C/S (3.2 km/s) [1,2]. [1] Bless, et. al.(1990) AIP Proc. Shock Comp. Cond. Matter---1989, pp. 939-942 (1990) [2] E. L. Zilberbrand, et. al. (1999) Int. J. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Engng., 23, 995-1001 (1999).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=95909&keyword=work+AND+study+AND+balance&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90813033&CFTOKEN=58380005','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=95909&keyword=work+AND+study+AND+balance&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90813033&CFTOKEN=58380005"><span><span class="hlt">IMPACTS</span> OF URBANIZATION ON WATERSHED HYDROLOGIC <span class="hlt">FUNCTION</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Although urbanization has a major <span class="hlt">impact</span> on watershed hydrology, there have not been studies to quantify basic hydrological relationships that are altered by the addition of impervious surfaces. The USDA-ARS and USEPA-ORD-NRMRL have initiated a pilot program to study the <span class="hlt">impacts</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...5E8041C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...5E8041C"><span>Longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> control in single quantum dots with an applied magnetic field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cao, Shuo; Tang, Jing; Gao, Yunan; Sun, Yue; Qiu, Kangsheng; Zhao, Yanhui; He, Min; Shi, Jin-An; Gu, Lin; Williams, David A.; Sheng, Weidong; Jin, Kuijuan; Xu, Xiulai</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Controlling single-particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in single semiconductor quantum dots is in demand to implement solid-state quantum information processing and spintronics. Normally, particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be tuned transversely by an perpendicular magnetic field. We report a longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> control in single quantum dots with a magnetic field. For a pure InAs quantum dot with a shape of pyramid or truncated pyramid, the hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> always occupies the base because of the less confinement at base, which induces a permanent dipole oriented from base to apex. With applying magnetic field along the base-apex direction, the hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> shrinks in the base plane. Because of the linear changing of the confinement for hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> from base to apex, the center of effective mass moves up during shrinking process. Due to the uniform confine potential for electrons, the center of effective mass of electrons does not move much, which results in a permanent dipole moment change and an inverted electron-hole alignment along the magnetic field direction. Manipulating the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> longitudinally not only provides an alternative way to control the charge distribution with magnetic field but also a new method to tune electron-hole interaction in single quantum dots.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22253412','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22253412"><span>Coherent molecular transistor: Control through variation of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ernzerhof, Matthias</p> <p>2014-03-21</p> <p>In quantum interference transistors (QUITs), the current through the device is controlled by variation of the gate component of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that interferes with the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> component joining the source and the sink. Initially, mesoscopic QUITs have been studied and more recently, QUITs at the molecular scale have been proposed and implemented. Typically, in these devices the gate lead is subjected to externally adjustable physical parameters that permit interference control through modifications of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Here, we present an alternative model of a molecular QUIT in which the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is directly considered as a variable and the transistor operation is discussed in terms of this variable. This implies that we specify the gate current as well as the phase of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> component and calculate the resulting current through the source-sink channel. Thus, we extend on prior works that focus on the phase of the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> component as a control parameter while having zero or certain discrete values of the current. We address a large class of systems, including finite graphene flakes, and obtain analytic solutions for how the gate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> controls the transistor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25624018','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25624018"><span>Longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> control in single quantum dots with an applied magnetic field.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cao, Shuo; Tang, Jing; Gao, Yunan; Sun, Yue; Qiu, Kangsheng; Zhao, Yanhui; He, Min; Shi, Jin-An; Gu, Lin; Williams, David A; Sheng, Weidong; Jin, Kuijuan; Xu, Xiulai</p> <p>2015-01-27</p> <p>Controlling single-particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in single semiconductor quantum dots is in demand to implement solid-state quantum information processing and spintronics. Normally, particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be tuned transversely by an perpendicular magnetic field. We report a longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> control in single quantum dots with a magnetic field. For a pure InAs quantum dot with a shape of pyramid or truncated pyramid, the hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> always occupies the base because of the less confinement at base, which induces a permanent dipole oriented from base to apex. With applying magnetic field along the base-apex direction, the hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> shrinks in the base plane. Because of the linear changing of the confinement for hole <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> from base to apex, the center of effective mass moves up during shrinking process. Due to the uniform confine potential for electrons, the center of effective mass of electrons does not move much, which results in a permanent dipole moment change and an inverted electron-hole alignment along the magnetic field direction. Manipulating the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> longitudinally not only provides an alternative way to control the charge distribution with magnetic field but also a new method to tune electron-hole interaction in single quantum dots.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SSCom..83..725A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SSCom..83..725A"><span>Comparison of quasi-Hartree-Fock <span class="hlt">wave-functions</span> for lithium hydride</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asthalter, T.; Weyrich, W.; Harker, A. H.; Kunz, A. B.; Orlando, R.; Pisani, C.</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>We compare the Hartree-Fock <span class="hlt">wave-functions</span> for crystalline LiH obtained either with a standard Crystalline-Orbital—LCAO procedure or following the Adams-Gilbert-Kunz (AGK) prescription. Total energy, band-structure, reciprocal form factors [ B( r)] are taken as a reference, for checking the quality of the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span>. The influence of the inclusion of high angular-quantum-number <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the AGK basis set is explored.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM44B..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM44B..06S"><span><span class="hlt">Wave</span> Distribution <span class="hlt">Functions</span> of Plasmaspheric Hiss and their Effects on Radiation Belt Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santolik, O.; Ripoll, J. F.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Plasmaspheric hiss is formed by whistler-mode <span class="hlt">waves</span> which play an important role in the dynamics the Earth's radiation belts, specifically in connection with the slot region between the inner and outer Van Allen belts. The origin of plasmaspheric hiss is still a subject of discussions and these <span class="hlt">waves</span> are known for their complex propagation properties. They are often far from a single plane <span class="hlt">wave</span> approximation, forming a continuous distribution of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy density with respect to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> vector direction (<span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>). Analysis of polarization and propagation parameters of these <span class="hlt">waves</span> provides us with inputs for modeling of radiation belt dynamics. We use the data of the <span class="hlt">Waves</span> instrument of Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) onboard the Van Allen Probes spacecraft, to analyze simultaneous measurements of all electric and magnetic field components, together with measurements of the plasma density based on the determination of the upper hybrid resonance frequency. Using this unique data set we estimate the <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span> of plasmaspheric hiss and we model the effects of these <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the decay rates of radiation belt electrons through quasilinear pitch angle diffusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26482393','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26482393"><span>Propagation of ultrasonic Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in nonhomogeneous elastic <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kiełczyński, P; Szalewski, M; Balcerzak, A; Wieja, K</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>This paper presents a theoretical study of the propagation behavior of ultrasonic Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in nonhomogeneous <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded elastic materials, which is a vital problem in the mechanics of solids. The elastic properties (shear modulus) of a semi-infinite elastic half-space vary monotonically with the depth (distance from the surface of the material). The Direct Sturm-Liouville Problem that describes the propagation of Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in nonhomogeneous elastic <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded materials is formulated and solved by using two methods: i.e., (1) Finite Difference Method, and (2) Haskell-Thompson Transfer Matrix Method. The dispersion curves of phase and group velocity of surface Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in inhomogeneous elastic graded materials are evaluated. The integral formula for the group velocity of Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> in nonhomogeneous elastic graded materials has been established. The effect of elastic non-homogeneities on the dispersion curves of Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> is discussed. Two Love <span class="hlt">wave</span> waveguide structures are analyzed: (1) a nonhomogeneous elastic surface layer deposited on a homogeneous elastic substrate, and (2) a semi-infinite nonhomogeneous elastic half-space. Obtained in this work, the phase and group velocity dispersion curves of Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating in the considered nonhomogeneous elastic waveguides have not previously been reported in the scientific literature. The results of this paper may give a deeper insight into the nature of Love <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagation in elastic nonhomogeneous <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded materials, and can provide theoretical guidance for the design and optimization of Love <span class="hlt">wave</span> based devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRE..119.2177H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRE..119.2177H"><span>In situ measurements of <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced pressure <span class="hlt">waves</span> in sandstone targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoerth, Tobias; Schäfer, Frank; Nau, Siegfried; Kuder, Jürgen; Poelchau, Michael H.; Thoma, Klaus; Kenkmann, Thomas</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>In the present study we introduce an innovative method for the measurement of <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced pressure <span class="hlt">waves</span> within geological materials. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> experiments on dry and water-saturated sandstone targets were conducted at a velocity of 4600 m/s using 12 mm steel projectiles to investigate amplitudes, decay behavior, and speed of the <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating through the target material. For this purpose a special kind of piezoresistive sensor capable of recording transient stress pulses within solid brittle materials was developed and calibrated using a Split-Hopkinson pressure bar. Experimental <span class="hlt">impact</span> parameters (projectile size and speed) were kept constant and yielded reproducible signal curves in terms of rise time and peak amplitudes. Pressure amplitudes decreased by 3 orders of magnitude within the first 250 mm (i.e., 42 projectile radii). The attenuation for water-saturated sandstone is higher compared to dry sandstone which is attributed to dissipation effects caused by relative motion between bulk material and interstitial water. The proportion of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy radiated as seismic energy (seismic efficiency) is in the order of 10-3. The present study shows the feasibility of real-time measurements of <span class="hlt">waves</span> caused by hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on geological materials. Experiments of this kind lead to a better understanding of the processes in the crater subsurface during a hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012064','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012064"><span>The East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection in the North Atlantic: Climate <span class="hlt">Impact</span> and Relation to Rossby <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lim, Young-Kwon</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Large-scale winter teleconnection of the East Atlantic - West Russia (EA-WR) over the Atlantic and surrounding regions is examined in order to quantify its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on temperature and precipitation and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for its existence. A rotated empirical orthogonal <span class="hlt">function</span> (REOF) analysis of the upper-tropospheric monthly height field captures successfully the EA-WR pattern and its interannual variation, with the North Atlantic Oscillation as the first mode. EA-WRs climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> extends from eastern North America to Eurasia. The positive (negative) EA-WR produces positive (negative) temperature anomalies over the eastern US, western Europe and Russia east of Caspian Sea, with negative (positive) anomalies over eastern Canada, eastern Europe including Ural Mountains and the Middle East. These anomalies are largely explained by lower-tropospheric temperature advections. Positive (negative) precipitation anomalies are found over the mid-latitude Atlantic and central Russia around 60E, where lower-level cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation anomaly is dominant. The eastern Canada and the western Europe are characterized by negative (positive) precipitation anomalies.The EA-WR is found to be closely associated with Rossby <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> activity fluxes show that it is strongly tied to large-scale stationary <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Furthermore, a stationary <span class="hlt">wave</span> model (SWM) forced with vorticity transients in the mid-latitude Atlantic (approximately 40N) or diabatic heat source over the subtropical Atlantic near the Caribbean Sea produces well-organized EA-WR-like <span class="hlt">wave</span> patterns, respectively. Sensitivity tests with the SWM indicate improvement in the simulation of the EA-WR when the mean state is modified to have a positive NAO component that enhances upper-level westerlies between 40-60N.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19905450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19905450"><span>Emergence of acoustic <span class="hlt">waves</span> from vorticity fluctuations: <span class="hlt">impact</span> of non-normality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>George, Joseph; Sujith, R I</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Chagelishvili et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3178 (1997)] discovered a linear mechanism of acoustic <span class="hlt">wave</span> emergence from vorticity fluctuations in shear flows. This paper illustrates how this "nonresonant" phenomenon is related to the non-normality of the operator governing the linear dynamics of disturbances in shear flows. The non-self-adjoint nature of the governing operator causes the emergent acoustic <span class="hlt">wave</span> to interact strongly with the vorticity disturbance. Analytical expressions are obtained for the nondivergent vorticity perturbation. A discontinuity in the x component of the velocity field corresponding to the vorticity disturbance was originally identified to be the cause of acoustic <span class="hlt">wave</span> emergence. However, a different mechanism is proposed in this paper. The correct "acoustic source" is identified and the reason for the abrupt nature of <span class="hlt">wave</span> emergence is explained. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of viscous damping is also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14611366','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14611366"><span>Anomalous <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> statistics on a one-dimensional lattice with power-law disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Titov, M; Schomerus, H</p> <p>2003-10-24</p> <p>Within a general framework, we discuss the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> statistics in the Lloyd model of Anderson localization on a one-dimensional lattice with a Cauchy distribution for random on-site potential. We demonstrate that already in leading order in the disorder strength, there exists a hierarchy of anomalies in the probability distributions of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, the conductance, and the local density of states, for every energy which corresponds to a rational ratio of wavelength to lattice constant. Power-law rather than log-normal tails dominate the short-distance <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> statistics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740041796&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740041796&hterms=wave+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwave%2Benergy"><span>Degenerate RS perturbation theory. [Rayleigh-Schroedinger energies and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hirschfelder, J. O.; Certain, P. R.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A concise, systematic procedure is given for determining the Rayleigh-Schroedinger energies and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of degenerate states to arbitrarily high orders even when the degeneracies of the various states are resolved in arbitrary orders. The procedure is expressed in terms of an iterative cycle in which the energy through the (2n + 1)-th order is expressed in terms of the partially determined <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> through the n-th order. Both a direct and an operator derivation are given. The two approaches are equivalent and can be transcribed into each other. The direct approach deals with the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> (without the use of formal operators) and has the advantage that it resembles the usual treatment of nondegenerate perturbations and maintains close contact with the basic physics. In the operator approach, the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are expressed in terms of infinite-order operators which are determined by the successive resolution of the space of the zeroth-order <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA535005','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA535005"><span>A New Methodology for the Extension of the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Data Assimilation on Ocean <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Prediction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Lionello et al. (1995); Greenslade and Young (2005); Abdalla et al. (2005); and Skandrani et al. (2004). Despite the substantial progress achieved in this...predictions. Ann Geophys 24:2451–2460 Greenslade D, Young I (2005) The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of inhomogenous background errors on a global <span class="hlt">wave</span> data assimilation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhFl...22e6101L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhFl...22e6101L"><span>Evolution of the air cavity during a depressurized <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span>. I. The kinematic flow field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lugni, C.; Miozzi, M.; Brocchini, M.; Faltinsen, O. M.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>This paper describes a systematic experimental study of the role of the ambient pressure on <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> events in depressurized environments. A <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> event of "mode (b)" [see Lugni et al., "<span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> loads: The role of the flip-through," Phys. Fluids 18, 122101 (2006)] causes entrapment of an air cavity. Here the topological and kinematic aspects of its oscillation and evolution toward collapse into a mixture of water and air bubbles are studied, while Part II [Lugni et al., "Evolution of the air cavity during a depressurized <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span>. II. The dynamic field," Phys. Fluids 22, 056102 (2010)] focuses on the dynamic features of the flow. Four distinct stages characterize the flow evolution: (1) the closure of the cavity onto the wall, (2) the isotropic compression/expansion of the cavity, (3) its anisotropic compression/expansion, and (4) the rise of the cavity up the wall. The first two stages are mainly governed by the air leakage, the last two by the surrounding hydrodynamic flow, which contributes to compressing the bubble horizontally and to convecting it up the wall. Ullage pressure affects the ratio between the minimum and maximum cavity areas. An ullage pressure of 2.5% of the atmospheric pressure leads to an area ratio of about 360% of the equivalent ratio at atmospheric conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcMod..96..126R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcMod..96..126R"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of assimilating altimeter data on <span class="hlt">wave</span> predictions in the western Iberian coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rusu, Liliana; Guedes Soares, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The present work describes the implementation of a methodology based on the optimal interpolation method for assimilating the altimeter data in a regional <span class="hlt">wave</span> forecasting system. The main objective is to improve the <span class="hlt">wave</span> predictions in the western Iberian coastal environment. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> modelling system considered is based on WAM, for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation, and on SWAN for the coastal transformation and delivers daily forecast products. An analysis scheme was first applied to the hindcast runs, when the observations and the simulations were blended within a time window of one day. The objective is to validate the methodology proposed and to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> produced by this scheme on the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> predictions. Corrections are applied to the output of the SWAN model, and consequently, the data assimilation scheme is executed independently of the model simulations. As a second step, the data assimilation scheme is applied to operational runs, when the analysis fields are used as a first guess for the next simulations. The procedure considered uses the observations provided by the multi-satellite altimeter data. Both satellite data and in-situ observations are used for the quality assessment. The results show that the assimilation scheme works correctly and all the statistical parameters evaluated have better values in the case of the assimilated significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height scalar field. As expected, by increasing the amount of the data assimilated, the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> predictions is enhanced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..94j3012E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..94j3012E"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the tidal p -g instability on the gravitational <span class="hlt">wave</span> signal from coalescing binary neutron stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Weinberg, Nevin N.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Recent studies suggest that coalescing neutron stars are subject to a fluid instability involving the nonlinear coupling of the tide to p modes and g modes. Its influence on the inspiral dynamics and thus the gravitational <span class="hlt">wave</span> signal is, however, uncertain because we do not know precisely how the instability saturates. Here we construct a simple, physically motivated model of the saturation that allows us to explore the instability's <span class="hlt">impact</span> as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of the model parameters. We find that for plausible assumptions about the saturation, current gravitational <span class="hlt">wave</span> detectors might miss >70 % of events if only point particle waveforms are used. Parameters such as the chirp mass, component masses, and luminosity distance might also be significantly biased. On the other hand, we find that relatively simple modifications to the point particle waveform can alleviate these problems and enhance the science that emerges from the detection of binary neutron stars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..APR.C3003E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..APR.C3003E"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the tidal p-g instability on the gravitational <span class="hlt">wave</span> signal from coalescing binary neutron stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Weinberg, Nevin</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Recent studies suggest that coalescing neutron stars are subject to a fluid instability involving the nonlinear coupling of the tide to p-modes and g-modes. The instability's influence on the inspiral dynamics and thus the gravitational <span class="hlt">wave</span> signal is, however, uncertain because we do not know precisely how the it saturates. I discuss recent work in which we construct a simple, physically motivated model of the saturation and explore the instability's <span class="hlt">impact</span> as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of the model parameters. We find that for plausible assumptions about the saturation, current gravitational <span class="hlt">wave</span> detectors might miss more than 70% of events if only point particle waveforms are used. Parameters such as the chirp mass, component masses, and luminosity distance might also be significantly biased. On the other hand, we find that relatively simple modifications to the point particle waveform can alleviate these problems and enhance the science that emerges from the detection of binary neutron stars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1538990','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1538990"><span>Prenatal exposure to ultrasound <span class="hlt">waves</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> neuronal migration in mice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ang, Eugenius S. B. C.; Gluncic, Vicko; Duque, Alvaro; Schafer, Mark E.; Rakic, Pasko</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Neurons of the cerebral neocortex in mammals, including humans, are generated during fetal life in the proliferative zones and then migrate to their final destinations by following an inside-to-outside sequence. The present study examined the effect of ultrasound <span class="hlt">waves</span> (USW) on neuronal position within the embryonic cerebral cortex in mice. We used a single BrdU injection to label neurons generated at embryonic day 16 and destined for the superficial cortical layers. Our analysis of over 335 animals reveals that, when exposed to USW for a total of 30 min or longer during the period of their migration, a small but statistically significant number of neurons fail to acquire their proper position and remain scattered within inappropriate cortical layers and/or in the subjacent white matter. The magnitude of dispersion of labeled neurons was variable but systematically increased with duration of exposure to USW. These results call for a further investigation in larger and slower-developing brains of non-human primates and continued scrutiny of unnecessarily long prenatal ultrasound exposure. PMID:16901978</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160005618&hterms=acoustic+speaker&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dacoustic%2Bspeaker','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160005618&hterms=acoustic+speaker&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dacoustic%2Bspeaker"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Acoustic Standing <span class="hlt">Waves</span> on Structural Responses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kolaini, Ali R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>For several decades large reverberant chambers and most recently direct field acoustic testing have been used in the aerospace industry to test larger structures with low surface densities such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify them and to detect faults in the design and fabrication. It has been reported that in reverberant chamber and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes may strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware (Reference 1). In this paper results from a recent reverberant chamber acoustic test of a composite reflector are discussed. These results provide further convincing evidence of the acoustic standing <span class="hlt">wave</span> and structural modes coupling phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to alert test organizations to this phenomenon so that they can account for the potential increase in structural responses and ensure that flight hardware undergoes safe testing. An understanding of the coupling phenomenon may also help minimize the over and/or under testing that could pose un-anticipated structural and flight qualification issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSA13A2313Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSA13A2313Z"><span>Improvement of stratospheric balloon positioning and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on Antarctic gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> parameter estimation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, W.; Haase, J. S.; Hertzog, A.; Lou, Y.; Vincent, R. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> (GWs) play an important role in transferring energy and momentum from the troposphere to the middle atmosphere. However, shorter period GWs are generally not explicitly resolved in general circulation models but need to be parameterized instead. Super pressure balloons, which float on the isopycnal surfaces, provide a direct access to measure GW characteristics as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span> intrinsic frequency that are needed for these parameterizations. The 30 s sampling rate of the GPS receivers carried on the balloons deployed in 2010 Concordiasi campaign in the Antarctic region is much higher compared to the previous campaigns and can cover the full range of the GW spectrum. Two among 19 balloons in the Concordiasi campaign are also equipped with the high-accuracy dual-frequency GPS receivers initially developed for GPS radio occultation research in addition to the regular single-frequency receivers, which enables us to expect a better accuracy of balloon positions for the purpose of GW momentum flux estimates. The positions are estimated using the Precise Point Positioning with Ambiguity Resolution (PPPAR) method based on the GPS data. Improvements of the positions are significant, from ~3-10 m to ~0.1-0.2 m in 3-D positions, which makes it possible to resolve the Eulerian pressure independently of height for the estimation of the intrinsic phase speed. The <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the position improvements on the final GW parameters (momentum flux and intrinsic phase speed) retrievals are highlighted, with ~0.54 mPa difference of the mean absolute momentum flux in Antarctic region and considerable difference in the distribution of the intrinsic phase speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADP013894','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADP013894"><span>Fractional Cylindrical <span class="hlt">Functions</span> Implementation for Electromagnetic <span class="hlt">Waves</span> Scattering Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-09-01</p> <p>IMPLEMENTATION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC <span class="hlt">WAVES</span> SCATTERING ANALYSIS D.V. Golovin , D.O. Batrakov. Kharkov National University, Ukraine Dmitry.O.Batrakov...N2 8. P. 1483. [2] Vorontsov A.A., Mirovitskaya S.D/I Radiotechnika i Electronika (in Russian) 1986. V.31. No 12. P. 2330. [3] Golovin D.V., Batrakov</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930001612','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930001612"><span>Data synthesis and display programs for <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Storey, L. R. O.; Yeh, K. J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>At the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) software was written to synthesize and display artificial data for use in developing the methodology of <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution analysis. The software comprises two separate interactive programs, one for data synthesis and the other for data display.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..MARH21013M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..MARH21013M"><span>Accelerating self consistent field convergence by rubber sheeting of initial electronic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matthews, G. Eric; Holzwarth, N. A. W.; Martin, George; Keeling, Briana; Agopsowicz, Douglas</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>We develop an algorithm for generating better initial electronic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> estimates for density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory calculations following atomic movement. First principles molecular dynamics and atomic relaxation calculations involve successive movements of atoms followed by self consistent field (SCF) solutions for electronic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The SCF solutions converge most rapidly when starting from reasonably good estimates. Often estimates are generated directly from the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the previous atomic positions without adjustments for effects of position changes. Such estimates result in fast convergence to the correct <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for small atomic movements, but for larger movements, convergence may be much slower. We present a method for improving the estimates of the new <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> by using information from the movement of the atoms. Our algorithm is based on the ``rubber-sheeting'' method used in overlaying satellite imagery on geographic maps. A warping <span class="hlt">function</span> is calculated that stretches and shrinks different regions of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> so that regions near nuclei are dragged along with the atoms. These estimates yield faster convergence for cases studied thus far.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2852C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2852C"><span>Gravity <span class="hlt">Waves</span> characteristics and their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on turbulent transport above an Antarctic Ice Sheet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cava, Daniela; Giostra, Umberto; Katul, Gabriel</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Turbulence within the stable boundary layer (SBL) remains a ubiquitous feature of many geophysical flows, especially over glaciers and ice-sheets. Although numerous studies have investigated various aspects of the boundary layer motion during stable atmospheric conditions, a unified picture of turbulent transport within the SBL remains elusive. In a strongly stratified SBL, turbulence generation is frequently associated with interactions with sub-meso scale motions that are often a combination of gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> (GWs) and horizontal modes. While some progress has been made in the inclusion of GW parameterisation within global models, description and parameterisation of the turbulence-<span class="hlt">wave</span> interaction remain an open question. The discrimination between <span class="hlt">waves</span> and turbulence is a focal point needed to make progress as these two motions have different properties with regards to heat, moisture and pollutant transport. In fact, the occurrence of GWs can cause significant differences and ambiguities in the interpretation of turbulence statistics and fluxes if not a priori filtered from the analysis. In this work, the characteristics of GW and their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on turbulent statistics were investigated using wind velocity components and scalars collected above an Antarctic Ice sheet during an Austral Summer. Antarctica is an ideal location for exploring the characteristics of GW because of persistent conditions of strongly stable atmospheric stability in the lower troposphere. Periods dominated by wavy motions have been identified by analysing time series measured by fast response instrumentation. The GWs nature and features have been investigated using Fourier cross-spectral indicators. The detected <span class="hlt">waves</span> were frequently characterised by variable amplitude and period; moreover, they often produced non-stationarity and large intermittency in turbulent fluctuations that can significantly alter the estimation of turbulence statistics in general and fluxes in particular. A multi</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3659130','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3659130"><span>What is the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of electromagnetic <span class="hlt">waves</span> on epileptic seizures?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cinar, Nilgun; Sahin, Sevki; Erdinc, Oguz O.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background The effects of electromagnetic <span class="hlt">waves</span> (EMWs) on humans and their relationship with various disorders have been investigated. We aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to different frequencies of EMWs in various durations in a mouse epilepsy model induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Material/Methods A total of 180 4-week-old male mice weighing 25–30 g were used in this study. Each experimental group consisted of 10 mice. They were exposed to 900, 700, 500, 300, and 100 MHz EMWs for 20 hours, 12 hours and 2 hours. Following electromagnetic radiation exposure, 60 mg/kg of PTZ was injected intraperitoneally to all mice. Each control was also injected with PTZ without any exposure to EMW. The latency of initial seizure and most severe seizure onset were compared with controls. Results The shortest initial seizure latency was noted in the 12-hour group, followed by the 700 MHz. The mean initial seizure latencies in the 2-hour EMW exposed group was significantly shorter compared to that in the 12- and 20-hour groups. There was no significant difference between 12- and 20-hour EMW exposed groups. There was a significant difference between control and 2- and 10-hour EMW exposed groups. No statistically significant differences were noted in mean latencies of the most severe seizure latency, following 20-, 12-, and 2- hour EMW exposed groups and control groups. Conclusions Our findings suggest that acute exposure to EMW may facilitate epileptic seizures, which may be independent of EMW exposure time. This information might be important for patients with epilepsy. Further studies are needed. PMID:23676765</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OcDyn.tmp...21G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OcDyn.tmp...21G"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of climate changes on ocean surface gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> over the eastern Canadian shelf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, Lanli; Sheng, Jinyu</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>A numerical study is conducted to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of climate changes on ocean surface gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> over the eastern Canadian shelf (ECS). The "business-as-usual" climate scenario known as Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5 is considered in this study. Changes in the ocean surface gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> over the study region for the period 1979-2100 are examined based on 3 hourly ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span> simulated by the third-generation ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span> model known as WAVEWATCHIII. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> model is driven by surface winds and ice conditions produced by the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4). The whole study period is divided into the present (1979-2008), near future (2021-2050) and far future (2071-2100) periods to quantify possible future changes of ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span> over the ECS. In comparison with the present ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span> conditions, the time-mean significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> heights (H s ) are expected to increase over most of the ECS in the near future and decrease over this region in the far future period. The time-means of the annual 5% largest H s are projected to increase over the ECS in both near and far future periods due mainly to the changes in surface winds. The future changes in the time-means of the annual 5% largest H s and 10-m wind speeds are projected to be twice as strong as the changes in annual means. An analysis of inverse <span class="hlt">wave</span> ages suggests that the occurrence of wind seas is projected to increase over the southern Labrador and central Newfoundland Shelves in the near future period, and occurrence of swells is projected to increase over other areas of the ECS in both the near and far future periods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcMod..97..109T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcMod..97..109T"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of topographic internal lee <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag on an eddying global ocean model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trossman, David S.; Arbic, Brian K.; Richman, James G.; Garner, Stephen T.; Jayne, Steven R.; Wallcraft, Alan J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of topographic internal lee <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag (<span class="hlt">wave</span> drag hereafter) on several aspects of the low-frequency circulation in a high-resolution global ocean model forced by winds and air-sea buoyancy fluxes is examined here. The HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) is run at two different horizontal resolutions (one nominally 1/12° and the other 1/25°). <span class="hlt">Wave</span> drag, which parameterizes both topographic blocking and the generation of lee <span class="hlt">waves</span> arising from geostrophic flow impinging upon rough topography, is inserted into the simulations as they run. The parameterization used here affects the momentum equations and hence the structure of eddy kinetic energy. Lee <span class="hlt">waves</span> also have implications for diapycnal mixing in the ocean, though the parameterization does not directly modify the density. Total near-bottom energy dissipation due to <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag and quadratic bottom boundary layer drag is nearly doubled, and the energy dissipation due to quadratic bottom drag is reduced by about a factor of two, in simulations with an inserted <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag compared to simulations having only quadratic bottom drag. With the insertion of <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag, the kinetic energy is reduced in the abyss and in a three-dimensional global integral. Deflection by partial topographic blocking is inferred to be one reason why the near-bottom kinetic energy can increase in locations where there is little change in dissipation by quadratic bottom drag. Despite large changes seen in the abyss, the changes that occur near the sea surface are relatively small upon insertion of <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag into the simulations. Both the sea surface height variance and geostrophic surface kinetic energy are reduced on global average by more than twice the seasonal variability in these diagnostics. Alterations in the intensified jet positions brought about by inserting <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag are not distinguishable from the temporal variability of jet positions. Various statistical measures suggest that applying <span class="hlt">wave</span> drag only within a fixed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910054235&hterms=ju&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dju','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910054235&hterms=ju&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dju"><span>Scattering of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> by a crack in composite plate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ju, T. H.; Datta, S. K.; Shah, A. H.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The surface responses due to <span class="hlt">impact</span> load on an infinite uniaxial graphite/epoxy plate with and without delamination cracks are investigated both in time and frequency domain by using a hybrid method combining the finite element discretization of the near-field with boundary integral representation of the field outside a contour enclosing completely the crack. This combined method leads to a set of linear unsymmetric complex matrix equations which are solved to obtain the response in the frequency domain by biconjugate gradient method. The time domain response is then obtained by using an FFT. In order to capture the time-domain characteristics accurately, high order finite elements have been used. Also, both the six node singular elements and eight node transition elements are used around the crack tips to model the crack-tip singularity. It is shown that from the numerical results for surface responses both depth and length of this crack can be identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415794','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415794"><span>On the accuracy of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods for calculating vertical ionization energies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McKechnie, Scott; Booth, George H.; Cohen, Aron J.; Cole, Jacqueline M.</p> <p>2015-05-21</p> <p>The best practice in computational methods for determining vertical ionization energies (VIEs) is assessed, via reference to experimentally determined VIEs that are corroborated by highly accurate coupled-cluster calculations. These reference values are used to benchmark the performance of density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods: Hartree-Fock theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and Electron Propagator Theory (EPT). The core test set consists of 147 small molecules. An extended set of six larger molecules, from benzene to hexacene, is also considered to investigate the dependence of the results on molecule size. The closest agreement with experiment is found for ionization energies obtained from total energy difference calculations. In particular, DFT calculations using exchange-correlation <span class="hlt">functionals</span> with either a large amount of exact exchange or long-range correction perform best. The results from these <span class="hlt">functionals</span> are also the least sensitive to an increase in molecule size. In general, ionization energies calculated directly from the orbital energies of the neutral species are less accurate and more sensitive to an increase in molecule size. For the single-calculation approach, the EPT calculations are in closest agreement for both sets of molecules. For the orbital energies from DFT <span class="hlt">functionals</span>, only those with long-range correction give quantitative agreement with dramatic failing for all other <span class="hlt">functionals</span> considered. The results offer a practical hierarchy of approximations for the calculation of vertical ionization energies. In addition, the experimental and computational reference values can be used as a standardized set of benchmarks, against which other approximate methods can be compared.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..93f2125R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..93f2125R"><span>Characterizing the parent Hamiltonians for a complete set of orthogonal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>: An inverse quantum problem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramezanpour, A.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We study the inverse problem of constructing an appropriate Hamiltonian from a physically reasonable set of orthogonal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for a quantum spin system. Usually, we are given a local Hamiltonian and our goal is to characterize the relevant <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and energies (the spectrum) of the system. Here, we take the opposite approach; starting from a reasonable collection of orthogonal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, we try to characterize the associated parent Hamiltonians, to see how the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and the energy values affect the structure of the parent Hamiltonian. Specifically, we obtain (quasi) local Hamiltonians by a complete set of (multilayer) product states and a local mapping of the energy values to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. On the other hand, a complete set of tree <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> (having a tree structure) results to nonlocal Hamiltonians and operators which flip simultaneously all the spins in a single branch of the tree graph. We observe that even for a given set of basis states, the energy spectrum can significantly change the nature of interactions in the Hamiltonian. These effects can be exploited in a quantum engineering problem optimizing an objective <span class="hlt">functional</span> of the Hamiltonian.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93k5105S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93k5105S"><span><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of symmetry-protected topological phases from conformal field theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scaffidi, Thomas; Ringel, Zohar</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We propose a method for analyzing two-dimensional symmetry-protected topological (SPT) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> using a correspondence with conformal field theories (CFTs) and integrable lattice models. This method generalizes the CFT approach for the fractional quantum Hall effect wherein the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> amplitude is written as a many-operator correlator in the CFT. Adopting a bottom-up approach, we start from various known microscopic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of SPTs with discrete symmetries and show how the CFT description emerges at large scale, thereby revealing a deep connection between group cocycles and critical, sometimes integrable, models. We show that the CFT describing the bulk <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is often also the one describing the entanglement spectrum, but not always. Using a plasma analogy, we also prove the existence of hidden quasi-long-range order for a large class of SPTs. Finally, we show how response to symmetry fluxes is easily described in terms of the CFT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JChPh.103.3000K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JChPh.103.3000K"><span>Improved Roothaan-Hartree-Fock <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for atoms and ions with N <= 54</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koga, Toshikatsu; Watanabe, Shinya; Kanayama, Katsutoshi; Yasuda, Ryuji; Thakkar, Ajit J.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>Improved Roothaan-Hartree-Fock <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are reported for the ground states of all the neutral atoms from He to Xe, singly charged cations from Li+ to Cs+, and stable singly charged anions from H- to I-. Our neutral atom <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are an improvement over those of Clementi and Roetti [At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 177 (1974)], Bunge et al. [Phys. Rev. A 46, 3691 (1992)] and Koga et al. [Phys. Rev. A 47, 4510 (1993)]. The ion <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are an improvement over those of Clementi and Roetti, and Koga et al. [J. Phys. B 26, 2529 (1993)]. In all cases, the current <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> predict energies within 1.3×10-5 hartrees of the numerical Hartree-Fock limit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28049299','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28049299"><span>Four-body correlation embedded in antisymmetrized geminal power <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kawasaki, Airi; Sugino, Osamu</p> <p>2016-12-28</p> <p>We extend the Coleman's antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) to develop a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> theory that can incorporate up to four-body correlation in a region of strong correlation. To facilitate the variational determination of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, the total energy is rewritten in terms of the traces of geminals. This novel trace formula is applied to a simple model system consisting of one dimensional Hubbard ring with a site of strong correlation. Our scheme significantly improves the result obtained by the AGP-configuration interaction scheme of Uemura et al. and also achieves more efficient compression of the degrees of freedom of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. We regard the result as a step toward a first-principles <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> theory for a strongly correlated point defect or adsorbate embedded in an AGP-based mean-field medium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Schrodinger&pg=5&id=EJ215015','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Schrodinger&pg=5&id=EJ215015"><span>Continuity Conditions on Schrodinger <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> at Discontinuities of the Potential.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Branson, David</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Several standard arguments which attempt to show that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and its derivative must be continuous across jump discontinuities of the potential are reviewed and their defects discussed. (Author/HM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..453..305L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..453..305L"><span><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for dissipative harmonically confined electrons in a time-dependent electric field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lai, Meng-Yun; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Li, Yu-Qi</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We investigate the many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a dissipative system of interacting particles confined by a harmonic potential and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field. Applying the method of Yu and Sun (1994), it is found that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent (TD) Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical damped driven equation of motion, plus an addition fluctuation term due to the Brownian motion. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> reduces to that of the Harmonic Potential Theorem (HPT) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in the absence of the dissipation. An example of application of the results derived is also given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27276688','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27276688"><span>Second-Order Perturbation Theory for Generalized Active Space Self-Consistent-Field <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Dongxia; Li Manni, Giovanni; Olsen, Jeppe; Gagliardi, Laura</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>A multireference second-order perturbation theory approach based on the generalized active space self-consistent-field (GASSCF) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is presented. Compared with the complete active space (CAS) and restricted active space (RAS) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, GAS <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are more flexible and can employ larger active spaces and/or different truncations of the configuration interaction expansion. With GASSCF, one can explore chemical systems that are not affordable with either CASSCF or RASSCF. Perturbation theory to second order on top of GAS <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> (GASPT2) has been implemented to recover the remaining electron correlation. The method has been benchmarked by computing the chromium dimer ground-state potential energy curve. These calculations show that GASPT2 gives results similar to CASPT2 even with a configuration interaction expansion much smaller than the corresponding CAS expansion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017FBS....58....4R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017FBS....58....4R"><span>Revival of the Phase-Amplitude Description of a Quantum-Mechanical <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rawitscher, George</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The phase-amplitude description of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is formulated by means of a new linear differential-integral equation, which is valid in the region of turning points. A numerical example for a Coulomb potential is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611722','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21611722"><span>Analysis of Real Ship Rolling Dynamics under <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Excitement Force Composed of Sums of Cosine <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y. S.; Cai, F.; Xu, W. M.</p> <p>2011-09-28</p> <p>The ship motion equation with a cosine <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitement force describes the slip moments in regular <span class="hlt">waves</span>. A new kind of <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitement force model, with the form as sums of cosine <span class="hlt">functions</span> was proposed to describe ship rolling in irregular <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Ship rolling time series were obtained by solving the ship motion equation with the fourth-order-Runger-Kutta method. These rolling time series were synthetically analyzed with methods of phase-space track, power spectrum, primary component analysis, and the largest Lyapunove exponent. Simulation results show that ship rolling presents some chaotic characteristic when the <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitement force was applied by sums of cosine <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The result well explains the course of ship rolling's chaotic mechanism and is useful for ship hydrodynamic study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017FBS....58...87V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017FBS....58...87V"><span>Nonperturbative Strange Sea in Proton Using <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> Inspired by Light Front Holography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vega, Alfredo; Schmidt, Ivan; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We use different light-front <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> (two inspired by the AdS/QCD formalism), together with a model of the nucleon in terms of meson-baryon fluctuations to calculate the nonperturbative (intrinsic) contribution to the s(x) - bar{s}(x) asymmetry of the proton sea. The holographic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for an arbitrary number of constituents, recently derived by us, give results quite close to known parametrizations that appear in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2958218','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2958218"><span>GPCR <span class="hlt">functional</span> selectivity has therapeutic <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mailman, Richard B.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A plethora of in vitro data have shown that certain ligands may have the property of causing differential activation of signaling pathways mediated via a single receptor (“<span class="hlt">functional</span> selectivity”). It remains unclear, however, whether <span class="hlt">functionally</span> selective properties are meaningful in vivo. Data with experimental compounds that are <span class="hlt">functionally</span> selective at the dopamine D2L receptor in vitro suggest that these properties may predict their atypical behavioral actions. Moreover, the novel antipsychotic drug aripiprazole is commonly believed to be a D2 partial agonist, yet data clearly show aripiprazole is <span class="hlt">functionally</span> selective in vitro. It is proposed that the effects of aripiprazole in animals and man can only be reconciled with its <span class="hlt">functionally</span> selective D2 properties, not its partial D2 agonism. Together, these data provide support for the hypothesis that compounds with <span class="hlt">functionally</span> selective properties in vitro are likely to have novel actions in vivo, opening doors to new avenues of drug discovery. PMID:17629962</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0440/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0440/"><span>A test of a mechanical multi-<span class="hlt">impact</span> shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> seismic source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Worley, David M.; Odum, Jack K.; Williams, Robert A.; Stephenson, William J.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>We modified two gasoline-engine-powered earth tampers, commonly used as compressional-(P) <span class="hlt">wave</span> seismic energy sources for shallow reflection studies, for use as shear(S)-<span class="hlt">wave</span> energy sources. This new configuration, termed ?Hacker? (horizontal Wacker?), is evaluated as an alternative to the manual sledgehammer typically used in conjunction with a large timber held down by the front wheels of a vehicle. The Hacker maximizes the use of existing equipment by a quick changeover of bolt-on accessories as opposed to the handling of a separate source, and is intended to improve the depth of penetration of S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> data by stacking hundreds of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> over a two to three minute period. Records were made with a variety of configurations involving up to two Hackers simultaneously then compared to a reference record made with a sledgehammer. Preliminary results indicate moderate success by the higher amplitude S-<span class="hlt">waves</span> recorded with the Hacker as compared to the hammer method. False triggers generated by the backswing of the Hacker add unwanted noise and we are currently working to modify the device to eliminate this effect. Correlation noise caused by insufficient randomness of the Hacker <span class="hlt">impact</span> sequence is also a significant noise problem that we hope to reduce by improving the coupling of the Hacker to the timber so that the operator has more control over the <span class="hlt">impact</span> sequence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JChPh..96.6850G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JChPh..96.6850G"><span>Natural orbitals from single and double excitation configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>: their use in second-order configuration interaction and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> incorporating limited triple and quadruple excitations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grev, Roger S.; Schaefer, Henry F., III</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>As an alternative to orbitals obtained from a molecular complete-active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, we have investigated the use of natural orbitals (NOs) obtained from configuration interaction (CI) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> including all single and double excitations (CISD) for use in multireference CI (MRCI) studies. The specific MRCI methods investigated are (1) second-order CI (SOCI), which includes all single and double excitations with respect to a full CI in the valence space and (2) a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that includes all single and double excitations out of a valence space CISD reference <span class="hlt">function</span>. The latter <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> can also be described as a single-double-triple-quadruple excitation CI in which only two electrons are allowed to simultaneously reside outside of the valence space, ``which we call CISD[TQ].'' Comparison is made with CASSCF-SOCI and full CI results for NH2 (2B1), CH3 (2A`2), and SiH2 (1B1) at equilibrium bond distances (Re) 1.5 and 2.0Re, and with full CI results for the dissociation energy of N2. The dissociation energies of N2 and C2 are also obtained using large atomic natural orbital basis sets and the results compared to CASSCF-SOCI and internally contracted MRCI results. In all, the MRCI results with CISD NOs are very similar to the CASSCF-MRCI results, and at geometries where the reference <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is dominant, the relatively compact CISD[TQ] method yields results that are very close to SOCI. In addition to their ease of generation, the CISD NOs offer the added advantage of allowing for truncation of the CI configuration list on an orbital basis by simply deleting high-lying virtual orbitals. The errors introduced by this truncation are almost quantitatively obtained at the CISD level of theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4909275','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4909275"><span>Modeling the Pulse Signal by <span class="hlt">Wave</span>-Shape <span class="hlt">Function</span> and Analyzing by Synchrosqueezing Transform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Chun-Li; Yang, Yueh-Lung; Wu, Wen-Hsiang; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chang, Hen-Hong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We apply the recently developed adaptive non-harmonic model based on the <span class="hlt">wave</span>-shape <span class="hlt">function</span>, as well as the time-frequency analysis tool called synchrosqueezing transform (SST) to model and analyze oscillatory physiological signals. To demonstrate how the model and algorithm work, we apply them to study the pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> signal. By extracting features called the spectral pulse signature, and based on <span class="hlt">functional</span> regression, we characterize the hemodynamics from the radial pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> signals recorded by the sphygmomanometer. Analysis results suggest the potential of the proposed signal processing approach to extract health-related hemodynamics features. PMID:27304979</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSA41A2043T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSA41A2043T"><span>Modeling study of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of inertial gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> forcing in middle atmosphere polar region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, B.; Liu, H.; Chu, X.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The 'cold pole' problem refers to the cold bias of polar stratosphere temperature in the Southern Hemisphere in most general circulation models (GCMs) and chemistry climate models (CCMs) during the winter and spring. Accompanying the 'cold pole' is the excessively strong jet in the stratosphere and late vortex breaking. It is a long-standing problem in most models, implying the lack of <span class="hlt">wave</span> forcing in the southern stratosphere. In current study we investigate the feasibility of using parameterized inertial gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> forcing to reduce the cold bias. The NCAR Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM 4.0) is used for this study. A new scheme that parameterizes inertial gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> is included in the WACCM. Although the inertial gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> are likely to break in the stratosphere and <span class="hlt">impact</span> the middle atmosphere circulation, they are not well resolved by the model nor properly parameterized. Using the new gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> scheme, the simulated wintertime temperature is ~20 K warmer in the southern polar region while the simulated wintertime zonal wind jet is about 10 to 30 m/s slower than the originals. Also, the polar vortex in the Southern Hemisphere breaks earlier and the wind reversal level during spring is lower. All these changes make the WACCM simulations closer to ERA-40, suggesting that additional gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> are able to reduce the 'cold pole' bias.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAMS...77.1497C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAMS...77.1497C"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> and Responses to the 1995 Heat <span class="hlt">Wave</span>: A Call to Action.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Changnon, Stanley A.; Kunkel, Kenneth E.; Reinke, Beth C.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>The short but intense heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> in mid-July 1995 caused 830 deaths nationally, with 525 of these deaths in Chicago. Many of the dead were elderly. and the event raised great concern over why it happened. Assessment of causes for the heat <span class="hlt">wave</span>-related deaths in Chicago revealed many factors were at fault, including an inadequate local heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> warning system, power failures, questionable death assessments, inadequate ambulance service and hospital facilities, the heat island, an aging population, and the inability of many persons to properly ventilate their residences due to fear of crime or a lack of resources for fans or air conditioning. Heat-related deaths appear to be on the increase in the United States. Heat-related deaths greatly exceed those caused by other life-threatening weather conditions. Analysis of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and responses to this heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> reveals a need to 1) define the heat island conditions during heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> for all major cities is a means to improve forecasts of threatening conditions, 2) develop a nationally uniform means for classifying heat-related deaths, 3) improve warning systems that are designed around local conditions of large cities, and 4) increase research on the meteorological and climatological aspects of heat stress and heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60.1367Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm...60.1367Z"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on nonaccidental deaths in Jinan, China, and associated risk factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jun; Liu, Shouqin; Han, Jing; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Yueling; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Ying</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>An ecological study and a case-crossover analysis were conducted to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on nonaccidental deaths, and to identify contributing factors of population vulnerability to heat-related deaths in Jinan, China. Daily death data and meteorological data were collected for summer months (June to August) of 2012-2013. Excess mortality was calculated and multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the increased risk of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on deaths. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to estimate the odd ratios (ORs) of risk factors and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> were related to 24.88 % excess deaths of total nonaccidental deaths and 31.33 % excess deaths of circulatory diseases, with an OR of 16.07 (95 % CI 8.80-23.33) for total nonaccidental deaths and 12.46 (95 % CI 7.39-17.53) for deaths of circulatory diseases. The case-crossover analysis indicated that older people were more likely to die during heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> (OR = 1.233, 95 % CI 1.076-1.413) and more deaths occurred outside a hospital during heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> (OR = 1.142, 95 % CI 1.006-1.296). In conclusion, heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> have caused excess deaths and significantly increased the risk of circulatory deaths. The risk factors identified in our study have implications for public health interventions to reduce heat-related mortality during extreme heat events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdWR...93..326T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdWR...93..326T"><span>Experimental investigation of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of macroalgal mats on the <span class="hlt">wave</span> and current dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tambroni, N.; Figueiredo da Silva, J.; Duck, R. W.; McLelland, S. J.; Venier, C.; Lanzoni, S.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Macroalgal mats of Ulva intestinalis are becoming increasingly common in many coastal and estuarine intertidal habitats, thus it is important to determine whether they increase flow resistance, promote bed stability and therefore reduce the risk of erosion favoring tidal flooding or degradation of coastal lagoons. Venier et al. (2012) [6] studied the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of macroalgal mats of Ulva intestinalis on flow dynamics and sediment stability for uniform flow. Here we extend their experimental work to the case of vegetation under the combined action of <span class="hlt">waves</span> and currents. These hydrodynamic conditions are very common in many shallow coastal environments and lagoons. The experimental facility employed in the present study and the series of flow runs are the same as that used by Venier et al. (2012)[6]. However, <span class="hlt">waves</span> have been superposed to uniform current flowing firstly over a mobile sediment bed covered with U. intestinalis, then over a bare sediment surface. For the depth, <span class="hlt">wave</span> and current conditions considered in the experiments, the time-averaged vertical profile of horizontal velocity for the case of coexisting <span class="hlt">waves</span> and current turns out to be very close to that observed for a pure current, both with and without vegetation. However, contrary to what was observed in the case of a unidirectional current, in the presence of <span class="hlt">waves</span> the time averaged velocity profile is only weakly influenced by the vegetation, whose main effect is to attenuate velocity oscillations induced by <span class="hlt">waves</span> and to slightly increase the overall bed roughness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94w5144C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94w5144C"><span>Auxiliary-field-based trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in quantum Monte Carlo calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Chia-Chen; Rubenstein, Brenda M.; Morales, Miguel A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) algorithms have long relied on Jastrow factors to incorporate dynamic correlation into trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. While Jastrow-type <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> have been widely employed in real-space algorithms, they have seen limited use in second-quantized QMC methods, particularly in projection methods that involve a stochastic evolution of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in imaginary time. Here we propose a scheme for generating Jastrow-type correlated trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for auxiliary-field QMC methods. The method is based on decoupling the two-body Jastrow into one-body projectors coupled to auxiliary fields, which then operate on a single determinant to produce a multideterminant trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. We demonstrate that intelligent sampling of the most significant determinants in this expansion can produce compact trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that reduce errors in the calculated energies. Our technique may be readily generalized to accommodate a wide range of two-body Jastrow factors and applied to a variety of model and chemical systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1342009','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1342009"><span>Auxiliary-field-based trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in quantum Monte Carlo calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chang, Chia -Chen; Rubenstein, Brenda M.; Morales, Miguel A.</p> <p>2016-12-19</p> <p>Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) algorithms have long relied on Jastrow factors to incorporate dynamic correlation into trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. While Jastrow-type <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> have been widely employed in real-space algorithms, they have seen limited use in second-quantized QMC methods, particularly in projection methods that involve a stochastic evolution of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in imaginary time. Here we propose a scheme for generating Jastrow-type correlated trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for auxiliary-field QMC methods. The method is based on decoupling the two-body Jastrow into one-body projectors coupled to auxiliary fields, which then operate on a single determinant to produce a multideterminant trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. We demonstrate that intelligent sampling of the most significant determinants in this expansion can produce compact trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that reduce errors in the calculated energies. Lastly, our technique may be readily generalized to accommodate a wide range of two-body Jastrow factors and applied to a variety of model and chemical systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Icar...62..339M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985Icar...62..339M"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> cratering mechanics - Relationship between the shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> and excavation flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Melosh, H. J.</p> <p>1985-05-01</p> <p>This paper describes the relationship between the shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> produced by an <span class="hlt">impact</span> and the excavation flow that opens the crater. The excavation flow velocity is shown to be a nearly constant fraction of the peak particle velocity in the <span class="hlt">wave</span>. The existence of an excavation flow is due to thermodynamically irreversible processes in the shock. The excavation flow velocity is thus very sensitive to nonideal constitutive effects such as porosity, plastic yielding, and unreversed phase transformations. Cratering computations that do not model these effects correctly may produce misleading results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..92u4507L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..92u4507L"><span>Coordinated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for the ground state of liquid 4He</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lutsyshyn, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present a variational ansatz for the ground state of a strongly correlated Bose system. This ansatz goes beyond the Jastrow-Feenberg <span class="hlt">functional</span> form and explicitly enforces coordination shells in the structure of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. We apply this ansatz to liquid helium-4 with a simple three-variable parametrization of the pair <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The optimized <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is found to give an excellent description of the mid-range correlations in the fluid. We also demonstrate the possibility to use this ansatz to study inhomogeneous systems. The phase separation and free surface emerge naturally in this <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, even though it is constructed of short-range two-body <span class="hlt">functions</span> and does not contain one-body terms. Because no explicit description of the surface is necessary, this provides a powerful description tool for cluster states.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010avh..confE...7K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010avh..confE...7K"><span>The 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> in South Korea: mortality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and recurrence probability in a changing climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kysely, J.; Kim, J.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The study deals with mortality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the July-August 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> in the population of South Korea, including the megacity of Seoul (with the population exceeding 10 million for the city and 20 million for the metropolitan area), and estimates recurrence probability of the heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> in a changing climate in terms of simulations of daily temperature series with a stochastic model. The 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> is found exceptional with respect to both climatological characteristics and the mortality effects: significantly elevated mortality occurred in all population groups, including children up to 14 years of age, and the total death toll exceeded 3000 in the Korean population, which ranks the 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> among the worst weather-related disasters in East Asia. The estimate represents net excess mortality as no mortality displacement effect appeared. A comparison with other documented natural disasters shows that the death toll of the heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> was much higher than those of the most disastrous floodings and typhoons over Korean Peninsula in the 20th century. The mortality response was stronger in males than females although males are found to be less vulnerable during average heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. A climatological analysis reveals that the July-August 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> might be considered an extremely rare event with a return period in the order of hundreds of years if stationarity of temperature time series is assumed. However, under a more realistic assumption of gradual warming related to climate change, recurrence probability of an event analogous to the 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> sharply rises for near-future time horizons. If warming of 0.04°C/year is assumed over 2001-2060, the recurrence interval of a very long spell of days with temperature exceeding a high threshold (as in the 1994 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span>) is estimated to decrease to around 40 (10) years in the 2021-2030 (2041-2050) decade. This emphasizes the need for setting up an efficient heat-watch-warning system in this area in order to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..260..320Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..260..320Y"><span>Experimental study on <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation through granular materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yasui, Minami; Matsumoto, Eri; Arakawa, Masahiko</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> are supposed to cause movements of regolith particles, resulting in modifications of asteroidal surfaces. The imparted seismic energy is thus a key parameter to determining the scale and magnitude of this seismic shaking process. It is important to study the propagation velocity, attenuation rate, and vibration period of the <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> to estimate the seismic energy. Hence, we conducted <span class="hlt">impact</span> cratering experiments at Kobe University using a 200-μm glass beads target to simulate a regolith layer, and measured the <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> using three accelerometers set on the target surface at differences ranging from 3.2 to 12.7 cm. The target was <span class="hlt">impacted</span> with three kinds of projectiles at ∼100 m s-1 using a one-stage gas gun. The propagation velocity of the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> in the beads target was 108.9 m s-1, and the maximum acceleration, gmax, in the unit of m s-2, measured by each accelerometer showed good correlation with the distance from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> point normalized by the crater radius, x/R, irrespective of projectile type. They also were fitted by one power-law equation, gmax = 102.19 (x/R)-2.21. The half period of the first peak of the measured seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> was ∼0.72 ms, and this duration was almost consistent with the penetration time of each projectile into the target. According to these measurements, we estimated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> seismic efficiency factor, that is, the ratio of seismic energy to kinetic energy of the projectile, to be almost constant, 5.7 × 10-4 inside the crater rim, while it exponentially decreased with distance from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> point outside the crater rim. At a distance quadruple of the crater radius, the efficiency factors were 4.4 × 10-5 for polycarbonate projectile and 9.5 × 10-5 for alumina and stainless steel projectiles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CSR...120...14M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CSR...120...14M"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of enhanced central Pacific ENSO on <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate and headland-bay beach morphology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mortlock, Thomas R.; Goodwin, Ian D.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Wave</span> climate and Pacific basin coastal behaviour associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is understood at a reconnaissance level, but the coastal response to different central Pacific (CP) versus eastern Pacific (EP) flavours of ENSO is unknown. We show that CP ENSO events produce different patterns of directional <span class="hlt">wave</span> power to EP ENSO along the southeast Australian shelf and southwest Pacific region, because of significant variability in trade-wind <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation. The modulation of the trade wind <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate during CP ENSO has thus far been neglected in existing coastal process studies. We also show that coastal change between CP and EP ENSO cannot be inferred from shifts in the deepwater <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate. This is because variability in trade wind <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation is masked in deepwater by the persistence of high power extra-tropical <span class="hlt">waves</span> that have reduced <span class="hlt">impact</span> on nearshore processes due to high <span class="hlt">wave</span> refraction. Morphodynamic modelling in a headland-bay beach indicates that CP ENSO leads to higher coastal erosion potential and slower post-storm recovery than EP ENSO during an El Niño/La Niña cycle. We show that the alongshore variability in beach morphological type can be used to model the static equilibrium planform response for each ENSO phase. Results indicate that shoreline response to ENSO in most headland-bay beach coasts is not as simple as the existing paradigm that (anti-) clockwise rotation occurs during El Niño (La Niña). Our methods provide a second-order approach to project coastal response and predict the discrete shoreline rotations for ENSO flavours.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4960G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.4960G"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of ENSO on <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking and Southern Annular Mode events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gong, Tingting; Feldstein, Steven; Luo, Dehai</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>This study examines the relationship between Southern Annular Mode (SAM) events and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) using daily ERA-40 data. The data coverage spans the years 1979 through 2002, for the austral spring and summer seasons. The focus of this study is on the question of why positive SAM events dominate during La Niña and negative SAM events during El Niño. A composite analysis is performed on the zonal-mean zonal wind, Elliassen-Palm fluxes, and two diagnostic variables, the meridional potential vorticity gradient, a quantity that is used to estimate the likelihood of <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking, and a <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking index, which is used to evaluate the frequency of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking. On the equatorward side of the eddy-driven jet, positive SAM events are associated with strong anticyclonic <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking, and negative SAM events with weak anticyclonic <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking. On the poleward side of the eddy-driven jet, positive SAM events coincide with little <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking and negative SAM events by weak cyclonic <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking. These <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking events are found to occur far from the critical latitudes. With the exception of the El Nino and La Nina years, these SAM events decayed within 7 to 10 days of their establishment through mixing. The results of this investigation suggest that the background zonal-mean flow associated with La Niña (El Niño) is preconditioned for strong (weak) anticyclonic <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking on the equatorward side of the eddy-driven jet, the type of <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking that is found to drive positive (negative) SAM events. A probability density <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis indicates that strong (weak) anticyclonic <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking takes place with a much higher frequency during La Niña (El Niño). It is suggested that these <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking characteristics, and their dependency on the background flow, can explain the strong preference for SAM events of one phase during ENSO. The analysis also showed that austral spring SAM events that coincide with ENSO are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CoPhC.178..621F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CoPhC.178..621F"><span>EDF: Computing electron number probability distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span> in real space from molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Francisco, E.; Pendás, A. Martín; Blanco, M. A.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Given an N-electron molecule and an exhaustive partition of the real space ( R) into m arbitrary regions Ω,Ω,…,Ω ( ⋃i=1mΩ=R), the edf program computes all the probabilities P(n,n,…,n) of having exactly n electrons in Ω, n electrons in Ω,…, and n electrons ( n+n+⋯+n=N) in Ω. Each Ω may correspond to a single basin (atomic domain) or several such basins (<span class="hlt">functional</span> group). In the later case, each atomic domain must belong to a single Ω. The program can manage both single- and multi-determinant <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are read in from an aimpac-like <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> description ( .wfn) file (T.A. Keith et al., The AIMPAC95 programs, http://www.chemistry.mcmaster.ca/aimpac, 1995). For multi-determinantal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> a generalization of the original .wfn file has been introduced. The new format is completely backwards compatible, adding to the previous structure a description of the configuration interaction (CI) coefficients and the determinants of correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Besides the .wfn file, edf only needs the overlap integrals over all the atomic domains between the molecular orbitals (MO). After the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities are computed, edf obtains from them several magnitudes relevant to chemical bonding theory, such as average electronic populations and localization/delocalization indices. Regarding spin, edf may be used in two ways: with or without a splitting of the P(n,n,…,n) probabilities into α and β spin components. Program summaryProgram title: edf Catalogue identifier: AEAJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5387 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 52 381 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3176557','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3176557"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Stone Removal on Renal <span class="hlt">Function</span>: A Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wood, Kyle; Keys, Tristan; Mufarrij, Patrick; Assimos, Dean G</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Stone removal can improve renal <span class="hlt">function</span> by eradicating obstruction and, in certain cases, an underlying infection. Stone-removing procedures, however, may negatively <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">functional</span> integrity. Many things may <span class="hlt">impact</span> the latter, including the procedures used, the methods of assessing <span class="hlt">function</span>, the time when these assessments are made, the occurrence of complications, the baseline condition of the kidney, and patient-related factors. In the majority of cases, little significant <span class="hlt">functional</span> impairment occurs. However, there are gaps in our knowledge of this subject, including the cumulative effects of multiple procedures violating the renal parenchyma and long-term <span class="hlt">functional</span> outcomes. PMID:21935339</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28125226','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28125226"><span>Potential <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Embedding Theory at the Correlated <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> Level. 2. Error Sources and Performance Tests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheng, Jin; Yu, Kuang; Libisch, Florian; Dieterich, Johannes M; Carter, Emily A</p> <p>2017-03-14</p> <p>Quantum mechanical embedding theories partition a complex system into multiple spatial regions that can use different electronic structure methods within each, to optimize trade-offs between accuracy and cost. The present work incorporates accurate but expensive correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> (CW) methods for a subsystem containing the phenomenon or feature of greatest interest, while self-consistently capturing quantum effects of the surroundings using fast but less accurate density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) approximations. We recently proposed two embedding methods [for a review, see: Acc. Chem. Res. 2014 , 47 , 2768 ]: density <span class="hlt">functional</span> embedding theory (DFET) and potential <span class="hlt">functional</span> embedding theory (PFET). DFET provides a fast but non-self-consistent density-based embedding scheme, whereas PFET offers a more rigorous theoretical framework to perform fully self-consistent, variational CW/DFT calculations [as defined in part 1, CW/DFT means subsystem 1(2) is treated with CW(DFT) methods]. When originally presented, PFET was only tested at the DFT/DFT level of theory as a proof of principle within a planewave (PW) basis. Part 1 of this two-part series demonstrated that PFET can be made to work well with mixed Gaussian type orbital (GTO)/PW bases, as long as optimized GTO bases and consistent electron-ion potentials are employed throughout. Here in part 2 we conduct the first PFET calculations at the CW/DFT level and compare them to DFET and full CW benchmarks. We test the performance of PFET at the CW/DFT level for a variety of types of interactions (hydrogen bonding, metallic, and ionic). By introducing an intermediate CW/DFT embedding scheme denoted DFET/PFET, we show how PFET remedies different types of errors in DFET, serving as a more robust type of embedding theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4713765','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4713765"><span>The effects of extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy on frozen shoulder patients’ pain and <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Park, Chan; Lee, Sangyong; Yi, Chae-Woo; Lee, Kwansub</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] The present study was conducted to examine the effects of extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy on frozen shoulder patients’ pain and <span class="hlt">functions</span>. [Subjects] In the present study, 30 frozen shoulder patients were divided into two groups: an extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy group of 15 patients and a conservative physical therapy group of 15 patients. [Methods] Two times per week for six weeks, the extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy group underwent extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy, and the conservative physical therapy group underwent general physical therapy. Visual analog scales were used to measure frozen shoulder patients’ pain, and patient-specific <span class="hlt">functional</span> scales were used to evaluate the degree of <span class="hlt">functional</span> disorders. [Results] In intra-group comparisons, the two groups showed significant decreases in terms of visual analog scales and patient-specific <span class="hlt">functional</span> scales, although the extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy group showed significantly lower scores than the conservative physical therapy group. [Conclusion] Extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy is considered an effective intervention for improving frozen shoulder patients’ pain and <span class="hlt">functions</span>. PMID:26834326</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2135701','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2135701"><span>AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SHOCK <span class="hlt">WAVES</span> RESULTING FROM THE <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> OF HIGH VELOCITY MISSILES ON ANIMAL TISSUES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Harvey, E. Newton; McMillen, J. Howard</p> <p>1947-01-01</p> <p>The spark shadowgram method of studying shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> is described. It has been used to investigate the properties of such <span class="hlt">waves</span> produced by the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a high velocity missile on the surface of water. The method can be adapted for study of behavior of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> in tissue by placing the tissue on a water surface or immersing it in water. Spark shadowgrams then reveal <span class="hlt">waves</span> passing from tissue to water or reflected from tissue surfaces. Reflection and transmission of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> from muscle, liver, stomach, and intestinal wall are compared with reflection from non-living surfaces such as gelatin gel, steel, plexiglas, cork, and air. Because of its heterogeneous structure, <span class="hlt">waves</span> transmitted by tissue are dispersed and appear as a series of wavelets. When the accoustical impedance (density x <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity) of a medium is less than that in which the <span class="hlt">wave</span> is moving, reflection will occur with inversion of the <span class="hlt">wave</span>; i.e., a high pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> will become a low pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span>. This inversion occurs at an air surface and is illustrated by shadowgrams of reflection from stomach wall, from a segment of colon filled with gas, and from air-filled rubber balloons. Bone (human skull and beef ribs) shows good reflection and some transmission of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span>. When steel is directly hit by a missile, clearly visible elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span> pass from metal to water, but a similar direct hit on bone does not result in elastic <span class="hlt">waves</span> strong enough to be detected by a spark shadowgram. PMID:19871617</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S21B2397X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S21B2397X"><span>Studying Regional <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Source Time <span class="hlt">Functions</span> Using the Empirical Green's <span class="hlt">Function</span> Method: Application to Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, J.; Schaff, D. P.; Chen, Y.; Schult, F.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Reliably estimated source time <span class="hlt">functions</span> (STFs) from high-frequency regional waveforms, such as Lg, Pn and Pg, provide important input for seismic source studies, explosion detection and discrimination, and minimization of parameter trade-off in attenuation studies. We have searched for candidate pairs of larger and small earthquakes in and around China that share the same focal mechanism but significantly differ in magnitudes, so that the empirical Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> (EGF) method can be applied to study the STFs of the larger events. We conducted about a million deconvolutions using waveforms from 925 earthquakes, and screened the deconvolved traces to exclude those that are from event pairs that involved different mechanisms. Only 2,700 traces passed this screening and could be further analyzed using the EGF method. We have developed a series of codes for speeding up the final EGF analysis by implementing automations and user-graphic interface procedures. The codes have been fully tested with a subset of screened data and we are currently applying them to all the screened data. We will present a large number of deconvolved STFs retrieved using various phases (Lg, Pn, Sn and Pg and coda) with information on any directivities, any possible dependence of pulse durations on the <span class="hlt">wave</span> types, on scaling relations for the pulse durations and event sizes, and on the estimated source static stress drops.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3915308S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3915308S"><span>Beyond receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span>: Passive source reverse time migration and inverse scattering of converted <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shang, Xuefeng; de Hoop, Maarten V.; van der Hilst, Robert D.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>We present a <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation prestack depth migration to image crust and mantle structures using multi-component earthquake data recorded at dense seismograph arrays. Transmitted P and S <span class="hlt">waves</span> recorded on the surface are back propagated using an elastic <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation solver. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> modes are separated after the reverse-time continuation of the wavefield from the surface, and subjected to a (cross-correlation type) imaging condition forming an inverse scattering transform. Reverse time migration (RTM) does not make assumptions about the presence or properties of interfaces - notably, it does not assume that interfaces are (locally) horizontal. With synthetic experiments, and different background models, we show that passive source RTM can reconstruct dipping and vertically offset interfaces even in the presence of complex <span class="hlt">wave</span> phenomena (such as caustics and point diffraction) and that its performance is superior to traditional receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis, e.g., common conversion point (CCP) stacking, in complex geological environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23005556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23005556"><span>Mathieu <span class="hlt">function</span> solutions for photoacoustic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in sinusoidal one-dimensional structures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Binbin; Diebold, Gerald J</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The photoacoustic effect for a one-dimensional structure, the sound speed of which varies sinusoidally in space, is shown to be governed by an inhomogeneous Mathieu equation with the forcing term dependent on the spatial and temporal properties of the exciting optical radiation. New orthogonality relations, traveling <span class="hlt">wave</span> Mathieu <span class="hlt">functions</span>, and solutions to the inhomogeneous Mathieu equation are found, which are used to determine the character of photoacoustic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in infinite and finite length phononic structures. Floquet solutions to the Mathieu equation give the positions of the band gaps, the damping of the acoustic <span class="hlt">waves</span> within the band gaps, and the dispersion relation for photoacoustic <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The solutions to the Mathieu equation give the photoacoustic response of the structure, show the space equivalent of subharmonic generation and acoustic confinement when <span class="hlt">waves</span> are excited within band gaps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11908005R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJWC.11908005R"><span>Mineral Dust <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Short- and Long-<span class="hlt">Wave</span> Radiation and Comparison with Ceres Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Romano, Salvatore; Perrone, Maria Rita</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Clear-sky downward and upward radiative flux measurements both in the short- and in the long-<span class="hlt">wave</span> spectral range have been used to estimate and analyze the radiation changes at the surface due to the mineral dust advection at a Central Mediterranean site. Then, short- and long-<span class="hlt">wave</span> radiative fluxes retrieved from the CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) radiometer sensors operating on board the EOS (Earth Observing System) AQUA and TERRA platforms have been used to evaluate the mineral dust radiative <span class="hlt">impact</span> at the top of the atmosphere. Satellite-derived radiative fluxes at the surface have been compared with corresponding ground-based flux measurements, collocated in space and time, to better support and understand the desert dust radiative <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Results referring to the year 2012 are reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950043549&hterms=Kanamori&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DKanamori%252C','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950043549&hterms=Kanamori&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DKanamori%252C"><span>Atmospheric gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ingersoll, A. P.; Kanamori, H.; Dowling, T. E.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>We study the effect of the Jovian water cloud on internal gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> generated by the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9). Vertical structure follows Voyager data to the 1-bar level, a moist adiabat from 1 to 5 bars, and a dry adiabat below the 5-bar level. The <span class="hlt">waves</span> are trapped in the moist layer and propagate horizontally. Their speed is related to the vertical integral of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency, and varies as the square root of the water abundance (130 m/s for solar composition). The amplitudes are large, e.g., +/- 1 K at a distance of 8000 km for an energy of 10(exp 27) ergs. The circular ripples should be detectable one or two days after the <span class="hlt">impact</span> in thermal infrared and visible images.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26868180','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26868180"><span>Cerebral <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity and Mayer <span class="hlt">waves</span> in mice: Phenomena and separability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bumstead, Jonathan R; Bauer, Adam Q; Wright, Patrick W; Culver, Joseph P</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity is a growing neuroimaging approach that analyses the spatiotemporal structure of spontaneous brain activity, often using low-frequency (<0.08 Hz) hemodynamics. In addition to these fluctuations, there are two other low-frequency hemodynamic oscillations in a nearby spectral region (0.1-0.4 Hz) that have been reported in the brain: vasomotion and Mayer <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Despite how close in frequency these phenomena exist, there is little research on how vasomotion and Mayer <span class="hlt">waves</span> are related to or affect resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity. In this study, we analyze spontaneous hemodynamic fluctuations over the mouse cortex using optical intrinsic signal imaging. We found spontaneous occurrence of oscillatory hemodynamics ∼0.2 Hz consistent with the properties of Mayer <span class="hlt">waves</span> reported in the literature. Across a group of mice (n = 19), there was a large variability in the magnitude of Mayer <span class="hlt">waves</span>. However, regardless of the magnitude of Mayer <span class="hlt">waves</span>, <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity patterns could be recovered from hemodynamic signals when filtered to the lower frequency band, 0.01-0.08 Hz. Our results demonstrate that both Mayer <span class="hlt">waves</span> and resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity patterns can co-exist simultaneously, and that they can be separated by applying bandpass filters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CoPhC.191...33R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CoPhC.191...33R"><span>A spectral Phase-Amplitude method for propagating a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> to large distances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rawitscher, George</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The phase and amplitude (Ph-A) of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> vary slowly with distance, in contrast to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> that can be highly oscillatory. Hence the Ph-A representation of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> requires far fewer computational mesh points than the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> itself. In 1930 Milne presented an equation for the phase and the amplitude <span class="hlt">functions</span> (which is different from the one developed by Calogero), and in 1962 Seaton and Peach solved these equations iteratively. The objective of the present study is to implement Seaton and Peach's iteration procedure with a spectral Chebyshev expansion method, and at the same time present a non-iterative analytic solution to an approximate version of the iterative equations. The iterations converge rapidly for the case of attractive potentials. Two numerical examples are given: (1) for a potential that decreases with distance as 1 /r3, and (2) a Coulomb potential ∝ 1 / r. In both cases the whole radial range of [0-2000] requires only between 25 and 100 mesh points and the corresponding accuracy is between 10-3 and 10-6. The 0th iteration (which is the WKB approximation) gives an accuracy of 10-2. This spectral method permits one to calculate a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> out to large distances reliably and economically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21389174','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21389174"><span>Effect of single-particle splitting in the exact <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of the isovectorial pairing Hamiltonian</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lerma H, S.</p> <p>2010-07-15</p> <p>The structure of the exact <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of the isovectorial pairing Hamiltonian with nondegenerate single-particle levels is discussed. The way that the single-particle splittings break the quartet condensate solution found for N=Z nuclei in a single degenerate level is established. After a brief review of the exact solution, the structure of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is analyzed and some particular cases are considered where a clear interpretation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> emerges. An expression for the exact <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in terms of the isospin triplet of pair creators is given. The ground-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is analyzed as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of pairing strength, for a system of four protons and four neutrons. For small and large values of the pairing strength a dominance of two-pair (quartets) scalar couplings is found, whereas for intermediate values enhancements of the nonscalar couplings are obtained. A correlation of these enhancements with the creation of Cooper-like pairs is observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1342009-auxiliary-field-based-trial-wave-functions-quantum-monte-carlo-calculations','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1342009-auxiliary-field-based-trial-wave-functions-quantum-monte-carlo-calculations"><span>Auxiliary-field-based trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in quantum Monte Carlo calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Chang, Chia -Chen; Rubenstein, Brenda M.; Morales, Miguel A.</p> <p>2016-12-19</p> <p>Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) algorithms have long relied on Jastrow factors to incorporate dynamic correlation into trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. While Jastrow-type <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> have been widely employed in real-space algorithms, they have seen limited use in second-quantized QMC methods, particularly in projection methods that involve a stochastic evolution of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in imaginary time. Here we propose a scheme for generating Jastrow-type correlated trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for auxiliary-field QMC methods. The method is based on decoupling the two-body Jastrow into one-body projectors coupled to auxiliary fields, which then operate on a single determinant to produce a multideterminant trial wavemore » <span class="hlt">function</span>. We demonstrate that intelligent sampling of the most significant determinants in this expansion can produce compact trial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that reduce errors in the calculated energies. Lastly, our technique may be readily generalized to accommodate a wide range of two-body Jastrow factors and applied to a variety of model and chemical systems.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986JPhB...19L.639F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986JPhB...19L.639F"><span>The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for the ground state of H</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fontenelle, Marcia T.; Gallas, Jason A. C.; Gallas, Marcia R.</p> <p>1986-10-01</p> <p>The ground-state energy of H(-) is investigated using a variational <span class="hlt">function</span> proposed by Wu and Tsai (1985). Contrary to the conclusions of Wu and Tsai, it is found that the Wu and Tsai <span class="hlt">function</span> produces results comparable with a previous calculation of Williamson (1942). Furthermore, the explicit formulas given in the present paper can easily be applied to the helium isoelectronic series.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=function+AND+atoms&pg=2&id=EJ187590','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=function+AND+atoms&pg=2&id=EJ187590"><span>Completeness of the Coulomb <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> in Quantum Mechanics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mukunda, N.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Gives an explicit and elementary proof that the radial energy eigenfunctions for the hydrogen atom in quantum mechanics, bound and scattering states included, form a complete set. The proof uses some properties of the confluent hypergeometric <span class="hlt">functions</span> and the Cauchy residue theorem from analytic <span class="hlt">function</span> theory. (Author/GA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890005634','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890005634"><span>A planetary ultra hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impact</span> mechanics and shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> science facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ahrens, Thomas J.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Using the concept of intercepting orbits from a pair of Space Station serviced free flyers, a class of <span class="hlt">impact</span> and shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> experiments pertinent to planetary science can be performed. One proposed free flying vehicle is an impactor dispensor, and the second is the <span class="hlt">impact</span> laboratory. How collision is achieved by utilizing essentially twice orbital velocity is demonstrated. The impactor dispensor contains a series of small flyer plates or other projectiles which are launched into the trajectory of the impactor laboratory at appropriate positions. The impactor laboratory is a large <span class="hlt">impact</span> tank similar to those in terrestrial gun laboratories, except that it contains a supply of targets and instrumentation such as high speed cameras, flash X-ray apparatus, and digital recorders. Shock and isentropic pressures of up to 20 Mbar are achievable with such a system which provides 15 km/sec <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocities for precisely oriented projectiles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22922803K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...22922803K"><span>Evolution of double white dwarf binaries undergoing direct-<span class="hlt">impact</span> accretion: Implications for gravitational <span class="hlt">wave</span> astronomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kremer, Kyle; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.; Kalogera, Vassiliki</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>For close double white dwarf binaries, the mass-transfer phenomenon known as direct-<span class="hlt">impact</span> accretion (when the mass transfer stream <span class="hlt">impacts</span> the accretor directly rather than forming a disc) may play a pivotal role in the long-term evolution of the systems. In this analysis, we explore the long-term evolution of white dwarf binaries accreting through direct-<span class="hlt">impact</span> and explore implications of such systems to gravitational <span class="hlt">wave</span> astronomy. We cover a broad range of parameter space which includes initial component masses and the strength of tidal coupling, and show that these systems, which lie firmly within the LISA frequency range, show strong negative chirps which can last as long as several million years. Detections of double white dwarf systems in the direct-<span class="hlt">impact</span> phase by detectors such as LISA would provide astronomers with unique ways of probing the physics governing close compact object binaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212307A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212307A"><span>Multicriteria analysis to evaluate <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy converters based on their environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>: an Italian case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azzellino, Arianna; Contestabile, Pasquale; Lanfredi, Caterina; Vicinanza, Diego</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The exploitation of renewable energy resources is fast becoming a key objective in many countries. Countries with coastlines have particularly valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, <span class="hlt">waves</span> and offshore wind. Due to the visual <span class="hlt">impact</span> of siting large numbers of energy generating devices (eg. wind turbines) in terrestrial landscapes, considerable attention is now being directed towards coastal waters. Due to their environmental sensitivity, the selection of the most adequate location for these systems is a critical factor. Multi-criteria analysis allows to consider a wide variety of key characteristics (e.g. water depth, distance to shore, distance to the electric grid in land, geology, environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span>) that may be converted into a numerical index of suitability for different WEC devices to different locations. So identifying the best alternative between an offshore or a onshore device may be specifically treated as a multicriteria problem. Special enphasisi should be given in the multicriteria analysis to the environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> issues. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy prospective in the Italian seas is relatively low if compared to the other European countries faced to the ocean. Based on the <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate, the Alghero site, (NW Sardinia, Italy) is one of the most interesting sites for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy perspective (about 10 kW/m). Alghero site is characterized by a high level of marine biodiversity. In 2002 the area northern to Alghero harbour (Capo Caccia-Isola Piana) was established a Marine Protected Area (MPA). It could be discussed for this site how to choose between the onshore/offshore WEC alternative. An offshore device like <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dragon (http://www.wavedragon.net/) installed at -65m depth (width=300m and length=170 m) may approximately produce about 3.6 GWh/y with a total cost of about 9,000,000 €. On the other hand, an onshore device like SSG (http://waveenergy.no/), employed as crown wall for a vertical breakwater to enlarge the present</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28085067','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28085067"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Heat <span class="hlt">Waves</span> on Occurrence and Severity of Construction Accidents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rameezdeen, Rameez; Elmualim, Abbas</p> <p>2017-01-11</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat stress on human health has been extensively studied. Similarly, researchers have investigated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat stress on workers' health and safety. However, very little work has been done on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat stress on occupational accidents and their severity, particularly in South Australian construction. Construction workers are at high risk of injury due to heat stress as they often work outdoors, undertake hard manual work, and are often project based and sub-contracted. Little is known on how heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> could <span class="hlt">impact</span> on construction accidents and their severity. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat stress on accidents, this study analysed 29,438 compensation claims reported during 2002-2013 within the construction industry of South Australia. Claims reported during 29 heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in Adelaide were compared with control periods to elicit differences in the number of accidents reported and their severity. The results revealed that worker characteristics, type of work, work environment, and agency of accident mainly govern the severity. It is recommended that the implementation of adequate preventative measures in small-sized companies and civil engineering sites, targeting mainly old age workers could be a priority for Work, Health and Safety (WHS) policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5295321','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5295321"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Heat <span class="hlt">Waves</span> on Occurrence and Severity of Construction Accidents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rameezdeen, Rameez; Elmualim, Abbas</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat stress on human health has been extensively studied. Similarly, researchers have investigated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat stress on workers’ health and safety. However, very little work has been done on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat stress on occupational accidents and their severity, particularly in South Australian construction. Construction workers are at high risk of injury due to heat stress as they often work outdoors, undertake hard manual work, and are often project based and sub-contracted. Little is known on how heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> could <span class="hlt">impact</span> on construction accidents and their severity. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat stress on accidents, this study analysed 29,438 compensation claims reported during 2002–2013 within the construction industry of South Australia. Claims reported during 29 heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in Adelaide were compared with control periods to elicit differences in the number of accidents reported and their severity. The results revealed that worker characteristics, type of work, work environment, and agency of accident mainly govern the severity. It is recommended that the implementation of adequate preventative measures in small-sized companies and civil engineering sites, targeting mainly old age workers could be a priority for Work, Health and Safety (WHS) policies. PMID:28085067</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3219142','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3219142"><span>Influence of coastal vegetation on the 2004 tsunami <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> in west Aceh</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Laso Bayas, Juan Carlos; Marohn, Carsten; Dercon, Gerd; Dewi, Sonya; Piepho, Hans Peter; Joshi, Laxman; van Noordwijk, Meine; Cadisch, Georg</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In a tsunami event human casualties and infrastructure damage are determined predominantly by seaquake intensity and offshore properties. On land, <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy is attenuated by gravitation (elevation) and friction (land cover). Tree belts have been promoted as “bioshields” against <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span>. However, given the lack of quantitative evidence of their performance in such extreme events, tree belts have been criticized for creating a false sense of security. This study used 180 transects perpendicular to over 100 km on the west coast of Aceh, Indonesia to analyze the influence of coastal vegetation, particularly cultivated trees, on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the 2004 tsunami. Satellite imagery; land cover maps; land use characteristics; stem diameter, height, and planting density; and a literature review were used to develop a land cover roughness coefficient accounting for the resistance offered by different land uses to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> advance. Applying a spatial generalized linear mixed model, we found that while distance to coast was the dominant determinant of <span class="hlt">impact</span> (casualties and infrastructure damage), the existing coastal vegetation in front of settlements also significantly reduced casualties by an average of 5%. In contrast, dense vegetation behind villages endangered human lives and increased structural damage. Debris carried by the backwash may have contributed to these dissimilar effects of land cover. For sustainable and effective coastal risk management, location of settlements is essential, while the protective potential of coastal vegetation, as determined by its spatial arrangement, should be regarded as an important livelihood provider rather than just as a bioshield. PMID:22065751</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22065751','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22065751"><span>Influence of coastal vegetation on the 2004 tsunami <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> in west Aceh.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laso Bayas, Juan Carlos; Marohn, Carsten; Dercon, Gerd; Dewi, Sonya; Piepho, Hans Peter; Joshi, Laxman; van Noordwijk, Meine; Cadisch, Georg</p> <p>2011-11-15</p> <p>In a tsunami event human casualties and infrastructure damage are determined predominantly by seaquake intensity and offshore properties. On land, <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy is attenuated by gravitation (elevation) and friction (land cover). Tree belts have been promoted as "bioshields" against <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span>. However, given the lack of quantitative evidence of their performance in such extreme events, tree belts have been criticized for creating a false sense of security. This study used 180 transects perpendicular to over 100 km on the west coast of Aceh, Indonesia to analyze the influence of coastal vegetation, particularly cultivated trees, on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the 2004 tsunami. Satellite imagery; land cover maps; land use characteristics; stem diameter, height, and planting density; and a literature review were used to develop a land cover roughness coefficient accounting for the resistance offered by different land uses to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> advance. Applying a spatial generalized linear mixed model, we found that while distance to coast was the dominant determinant of <span class="hlt">impact</span> (casualties and infrastructure damage), the existing coastal vegetation in front of settlements also significantly reduced casualties by an average of 5%. In contrast, dense vegetation behind villages endangered human lives and increased structural damage. Debris carried by the backwash may have contributed to these dissimilar effects of land cover. For sustainable and effective coastal risk management, location of settlements is essential, while the protective potential of coastal vegetation, as determined by its spatial arrangement, should be regarded as an important livelihood provider rather than just as a bioshield.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5812634','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5812634"><span>Initial survey of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span> for plasmaspheric hiss observed by ISEE 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Storey, L.R.O. ); Lefeuvre, F.; Parrot, M.; Cairo, L. ); Anderson, R.R. )</p> <p>1991-11-01</p> <p>Multicomponent ELF/VLF <span class="hlt">wave</span> data from the ISEE 1 satellite have been analyzed with the aim of identifying the generation mechanism of plasmaspheric hiss, and especially of determining whether it involves <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation of cyclic trajectories. The data were taken from four passes of the satellite, of which two were close to the geomagnetic equatorial plane and two were farther from it; all four occurred during magnetically quiet periods. The principal method of analysis was calculation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The <span class="hlt">waves</span> appear to have been generated over a wide range of altitudes within the plasmasphere, and most, though not all, of them were propagating obliquely with respect to the Earth's magnetic field. On one of the passes near the equator, some <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy was observed at small <span class="hlt">wave</span> normal angles, and these <span class="hlt">waves</span> may have been propagating on cyclic trajectories. Even here, however, obliquely propagating <span class="hlt">waves</span> were predominant, a finding that is difficult to reconcile with the classical quasi-linear generation mechanism or its variants. The conclusion is that another mechanism, probably nonlinear, must have been generating most of the hiss observed on these four passes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28341995','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28341995"><span>Performance of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and density <span class="hlt">functional</span> methods for water hydrogen bond spin-spin coupling constants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>García de la Vega, J M; Omar, S; San Fabián, J</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Spin-spin coupling constants in water monomer and dimer have been calculated using several <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and density <span class="hlt">functional</span>-based methods. CCSD, MCSCF, and SOPPA <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> methods yield similar results, specially when an additive approach is used with the MCSCF. Several <span class="hlt">functionals</span> have been used to analyze their performance with the Jacob's ladder and a set of <span class="hlt">functionals</span> with different HF exchange were tested. <span class="hlt">Functionals</span> with large HF exchange appropriately predict (1) J O H , (2) J H H and (2h) J O O couplings, while (1h) J O H is better calculated with <span class="hlt">functionals</span> that include a reduced fraction of HF exchange. Accurate <span class="hlt">functionals</span> for (1) J O H and (2) J H H have been tested in a tetramer water model. The hydrogen bond effects on these intramolecular couplings are additive when they are calculated by SOPPA(CCSD) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and DFT methods. Graphical Abstract Evaluation of the additive effect of the hydrogen bond on spin-spin coupling constants of water using WF and DFT methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2275...21R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994SPIE.2275...21R"><span>Millimeter-<span class="hlt">wave</span> nondestructive evaluation of glass fiber/epoxy composites subjected to <span class="hlt">impact</span> fatigue</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Radford, Donald W.; Ganchev, Stoyan I.; Qaddoumi, Nasser; Beauregard, Guy; Zoughi, Reza</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>The useful life of a glass fiber/epoxy composite subjected to <span class="hlt">impact</span> fatigue loading is an important issue in the future design of numerous industrial components. Lifetime predictions have been a problem particularly due to the difficulties encountered in monitoring damage accumulation in composites. It is hypothesized that there is a build up of micro damage, such as matrix micro-cracks and micro-delaminations, even though there is no apparent change in material compliance. A critical level is finally reached at which time the properties of the composite begin to fall and compliance change is evident. In this study the apparent compliance change and the type of damage accumulation is investigated. To measure the compliance change, a test unit was developed that uses a dynamic load measuring system. The load cell measures the load throughout each <span class="hlt">impact</span> pulse and the compliance and energy absorbed by the specimen is then related to the recorded curve. Initially no change in the <span class="hlt">impact</span> pulse was apparent; however, after a finite number of cycles the peak load and area under each <span class="hlt">impact</span> pulse drop, indicating an increase in compliance. Unfortunately, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> load does not provide information on the form and degree of damage. Thus, millimeter <span class="hlt">wave</span> nondestructive investigation is used, in conjunction with <span class="hlt">impact</span> fatigue tests, to examine microstructural aspects of damage initiation and growth. The millimeter <span class="hlt">wave</span> scanning technique results in detectable damage growth throughout the <span class="hlt">impact</span> fatigue test. Damage size and growth patterns specific to composites are obvious, and after significant damage can be related to the observable macro damage. Continued development of these investigative techniques promises to enhance the ability of detecting defects and damage growth in fiber reinforced composite materials as well as improving the understanding of <span class="hlt">impact</span> fatigue initiation in these complex materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..94b2212A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvE..94b2212A"><span>Breather turbulence versus soliton turbulence: Rogue <span class="hlt">waves</span>, probability density <span class="hlt">functions</span>, and spectral features</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akhmediev, N.; Soto-Crespo, J. M.; Devine, N.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Turbulence in integrable systems exhibits a noticeable scientific advantage: it can be expressed in terms of the nonlinear modes of these systems. Whether the majority of the excitations in the system are breathers or solitons defines the properties of the turbulent state. In the two extreme cases we can call such states "breather turbulence" or "soliton turbulence." The number of rogue <span class="hlt">waves</span>, the probability density <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the chaotic <span class="hlt">wave</span> fields, and their physical spectra are all specific for each of these two situations. Understanding these extreme cases also helps in studies of mixed turbulent states when the <span class="hlt">wave</span> field contains both solitons and breathers, thus revealing intermediate characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27627303','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27627303"><span>Breather turbulence versus soliton turbulence: Rogue <span class="hlt">waves</span>, probability density <span class="hlt">functions</span>, and spectral features.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akhmediev, N; Soto-Crespo, J M; Devine, N</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Turbulence in integrable systems exhibits a noticeable scientific advantage: it can be expressed in terms of the nonlinear modes of these systems. Whether the majority of the excitations in the system are breathers or solitons defines the properties of the turbulent state. In the two extreme cases we can call such states "breather turbulence" or "soliton turbulence." The number of rogue <span class="hlt">waves</span>, the probability density <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the chaotic <span class="hlt">wave</span> fields, and their physical spectra are all specific for each of these two situations. Understanding these extreme cases also helps in studies of mixed turbulent states when the <span class="hlt">wave</span> field contains both solitons and breathers, thus revealing intermediate characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21981520','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21981520"><span>Equality of bulk <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and edge correlations in some topological superconductors: a spacetime derivation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shankar, R; Vishwanath, Ashvin</p> <p>2011-09-02</p> <p>For certain systems, the N-particle ground-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the bulk happen to be exactly equal to the N-point spacetime correlation <span class="hlt">functions</span> at the edge, in the infrared limit. We show why this had to be so for a class of topological superconductors, beginning with the p+ip state in D=2+1. Varying the chemical potential as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of Euclidean time between weak and strong pairing states is shown to extract the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Then a Euclidean rotation that exchanges time and space and approximate Lorentz invariance lead to the edge connection. This framework readily generalizes to other dimensions. We illustrate it with a D=3+1 example, superfluid 3He- B, and a p-<span class="hlt">wave</span> superfluid in D=1+1. Our method works only when the particle number is not conserved, as in superconductors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CoPhC.212..280S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CoPhC.212..280S"><span>A Fortran program to calculate the matrix elements of the Coulomb interaction involving hydrogenic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarkadi, L.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The program MTRXCOUL [1] calculates the matrix elements of the Coulomb interaction between a charged particle and an atomic electron, ∫ψf∗ (r) | R - r | - 1ψi(r) d r. Bound-free transitions are considered, and non-relativistic hydrogenic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are used. In this revised version a bug discovered in the F3Y CPC Program Library (PL) subprogram [2] is fixed. Furthermore, the COULCC CPC PL subprogram [3] applied for the calculations of the radial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the free states and the Bessel <span class="hlt">functions</span> is replaced by the CPC PL subprogram DCOUL [4].</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830013626','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830013626"><span>Transient difference solutions of the inhomogeneous <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation: Simulation of the Green's <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baumeiste, K. J.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A time-dependent finite difference formulation to the inhomogeneous <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation is derived for plane <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation with harmonic noise sources. The difference equation and boundary conditions are developed along with the techniques to simulate the Dirac delta <span class="hlt">function</span> associated with a concentrated noise source. Example calculations are presented for the Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> and distributed noise sources. For the example considered, the desired Fourier transformed acoustic pressures are determined from the transient pressures by use of a ramping <span class="hlt">function</span> and an integration technique, both of which eliminates the nonharmonic pressure associated with the initial transient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994PhRvA..49.4229S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994PhRvA..49.4229S"><span>Density differences for near-Hartree-Fock atomic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmider, Hartmut; Sagar, Robin P.; Smith, Vedene H., Jr.</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>The widely used near-Hartree-Fock <span class="hlt">functions</span> of Clementi and Roetti [At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 177 (1974)] are compared with the newer <span class="hlt">functions</span> of Bunge et al. [At. Data Nucl. Tables 53, 113 (1993)] by means of different measures of <span class="hlt">functional</span> distance on the charge density ρ for the atoms He to Xe. The results are correlated with the energy improvement, and an empriical relation between the linear deviation in the first derivative of ρ and the total energy is reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714498D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714498D"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of boat generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> over an estuarine intertidal zone of the Seine estuary (France)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deloffre, Julien; Lafite, Robert</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Water movements in macrotidal estuaries are controlled by the tidal regime modulated seasonally by the fluvial discharge. Wind effect on hydrodynamics and sediment transport is also reported at the mouth. Besides estuaries are frequently man altered our knowledge on the human <span class="hlt">impact</span> on hydrodynamics and sediment transport is less extended. As an example on the Seine estuary (France) port authorities have put emphasis on facilitating economic exchanges by means of embankment building and increased dredging activity over the last century. These developments led to secure sea vessel traffic in the Seine estuary but they also resulted in a change of estuarine hydrodynamics and sediment transport features. Consequences of boat generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> are varied: increased water turbidity and sediment transfer, release of nutrient and contaminants in the water column, harmful to users, ecosystems and infrastructures generating important maintenance spending. The aim of this study is to analyse the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of boat generated <span class="hlt">waves</span> on sediment transport over an intertidal area. The studied site is located on the left bank in the fluvial part of the Seine estuary. On this site the maximum tidal range ranges between 1.25 and 3.5m respectively during neap and spring tide. The sampling strategy is based on continuous ADV acquisition at 4Hz coupled with turbidimeter and altimeter measurements (1 measurement every minute) in order to decipher sediment dynamics during one year. Our results indicate that sediment dynamics are controlled by river flow while medium term scale evolution is dependent on tidal range and short term dynamics on sea-vessels <span class="hlt">waves</span>. 64% of boat passages generated significant sediment reworking (from few mm.min-1 to 3cm.min-1). This reworking rate is mainly controlled by two parameters: (i) water height on the site and (ii) vessels characteristics; in particular the distance between seabed and keel that generate a Bernoulli <span class="hlt">wave</span> (with maximum amplitude of 0.6m</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22224217','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22224217"><span>Dynamical model for longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in light-front holographic QCD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chabysheva, Sophia S.; Hiller, John R.</p> <p>2013-10-15</p> <p>We construct a Schrödinger-like equation for the longitudinal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a meson in the valence qq{sup -bar} sector, based on the ’t Hooft model for large-N two-dimensional QCD, and combine this with the usual transverse equation from light-front holographic QCD, to obtain a model for mesons with massive quarks. The computed <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are compared with the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> ansatz of Brodsky and de Téramond and used to compute decay constants and parton distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The basis <span class="hlt">functions</span> used to solve the longitudinal equation may be useful for more general calculations of meson states in QCD. -- Highlights: •Provide relativistic quark model based on light-front holographic QCD. •Incorporate dependence on quark mass. •Consistent with the Brodsky–de Téramond quark-<span class="hlt">wave-function</span> ansatz. •Compute meson decay constants and parton distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span>. •Illustrate use of basis <span class="hlt">functions</span> that could be convenient for more general numerical calculations in light-front QCD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993PhRvA..47.4510K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993PhRvA..47.4510K"><span>Roothaan-Hartree-Fock <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for atoms with Z<=54</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koga, Toshikatsu; Tatewaki, Hiroshi; Thakkar, Ajit J.</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>The widely used Roothaan-Hartree-Fock <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of Clementi and Roetti [At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14, 177 (1974)] for the atoms from He through Xe are improved by reoptimization of the exponents of the Slater-type basis <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The largest improvement in the energy is 0.053 hartree for Cd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4957B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4957B"><span>Drought <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> as intermediate step towards drought damage assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bachmair, Sophie; Svensson, Cecilia; Prosdocimi, Ilaria; Hannaford, Jamie; Helm Smith, Kelly; Svoboda, Mark; Stahl, Kerstin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>While damage or vulnerability <span class="hlt">functions</span> for floods and seismic hazards have gained considerable attention, there is comparably little knowledge on drought damage or loss. On the one hand this is due to the complexity of the drought hazard affecting different domains of the hydrological cycle and different sectors of human activity. Hence, a single hazard indicator is likely not able to fully capture this multifaceted hazard. On the other hand, drought <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are often non-structural and hard to quantify or monetize. Examples are impaired navigability of streams, restrictions on domestic water use, reduced hydropower production, reduced tree growth, and irreversible deterioration/loss of wetlands. Apart from reduced crop yield, data about drought damage or loss with adequate spatial and temporal resolution is scarce, making the development of drought damage <span class="hlt">functions</span> difficult. As an intermediate step towards drought damage <span class="hlt">functions</span> we exploit text-based reports on drought <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from the European Drought <span class="hlt">Impact</span> report Inventory and the US Drought <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Reporter to derive surrogate information for drought damage or loss. First, text-based information on drought <span class="hlt">impacts</span> is converted into timeseries of absence versus presence of <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, or number of <span class="hlt">impact</span> occurrences. Second, meaningful hydro-meteorological indicators characterizing drought intensity are identified. Third, different statistical models are tested as link <span class="hlt">functions</span> relating drought hazard indicators with drought <span class="hlt">impacts</span>: 1) logistic regression for drought <span class="hlt">impacts</span> coded as binary response variable; and 2) mixture/hurdle models (zero-inflated/zero-altered negative binomial regression) and an ensemble regression tree approach for modeling the number of drought <span class="hlt">impact</span> occurrences. Testing the predictability of (number of) drought <span class="hlt">impact</span> occurrences based on cross-validation revealed a good agreement between observed and modeled (number of) <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for regions at the scale of federal states or</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP13A0817L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP13A0817L"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> Of Coral Structures On <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Directional Spreading Across A Shallow Reef Flat - Lizard Island, Northern Great Barrier Reef</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leon, J. X.; Baldock, T.; Callaghan, D. P.; Hoegh-guldberg, O.; Mumby, P.; Phinn, S. R.; Roelfsema, C. M.; Saunders, M. I.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Coral reef hydrodynamics operate at several and overlapping spatial-temporal scales. <span class="hlt">Waves</span> have the most important forcing <span class="hlt">function</span> on shallow (< 5 m) reefs as they drive most ecological and biogeochemical processes by exerting direct physical stress, directly mixing water (temperature and nutrients) and transporting sediments, nutrients and plankton. Reef flats are very effective at dissipating <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy and providing an important ecosystem service by protecting highly valued shorelines. The effectiveness of reef flats to dissipate <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy is related to the extreme hydraulic roughness of the benthos and substrate composition. Hydraulic roughness is usually obtained empirically from frictional-dissipation calculations, as detailed field measurements of bottom roughness (e.g. chain-method or profile gauges) is a very labour and time-consuming task. In this study we measured the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of coral structures on <span class="hlt">wave</span> directional spreading. Field data was collected during October 2012 across a reef flat on Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> surface levels were measured using an array of self-logging pressure sensors. A rapid in situ close-range photogrammetric method was used to create a high-resolution (0.5 cm) image mosaic and digital elevation model. Individual coral heads were extracted from these datasets using geo-morphometric and object-based image analysis techniques. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> propagation was modelled using a modified version of the SWAN model which includes the measured coral structures in 2m by 1m cells across the reef. The approach followed a cylinder drag approach, neglecting skin friction and inertial components. Testing against field data included bed skin friction. Our results show, for the first time, how the variability of the reef benthos structures affects <span class="hlt">wave</span> dissipation across a shallow reef flat. This has important implications globally for coral reefs, due to the large extent of their area occupied by reef flats, particularly, as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20066646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20066646"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of lightning strikes on hospital <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mortelmans, Luc J M; Van Springel, Gert L J; Van Boxstael, Sam; Herrijgers, Jan; Hoflacks, Stefaan</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Two regional hospitals were struck by lightning during a one-month period. The first hospital, which had 236 beds, suffered a direct strike to the building. This resulted in a direct spread of the power peak and temporary failure of the standard power supply. The principle problems, after restoring standard power supply, were with the fire alarm system and peripheral network connections in the digital radiology systems. No direct <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the hardware could be found. Restarting the servers resolved all problems. The second hospital, which had 436 beds, had a lightning strike on the premises and mainly experienced problems due to induction. All affected installations had a cable connection from outside in one way or another. The power supplies never were endangered. The main problem was the failure of different communication systems (telephone, radio, intercom, fire alarm system). Also, the electronic entrance control went out. During the days after the lightening strike, multiple software problems became apparent, as well as failures of the network connections controlling the technical support systems. There are very few ways to prepare for induction problems. The use of fiber-optic networks can limit damage. To the knowledge of the authors, these are the first cases of lightning striking hospitals in medical literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614017S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614017S"><span>Modelling rock-avalanche induced <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">waves</span>: Sensitivity of the model chains to model parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schaub, Yvonne; Huggel, Christian</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>New lakes are forming in high-mountain areas all over the world due to glacier recession. Often they will be located below steep, destabilized flanks and are therefore exposed to <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from rock-/ice-avalanches. Several events worldwide are known, where an outburst flood has been triggered by such an <span class="hlt">impact</span>. In regions such as in the European Alps or in the Cordillera Blanca in Peru, where valley bottoms are densely populated, these far-travelling, high-magnitude events can result in major disasters. Usually natural hazards are assessed as single hazardous processes, for the above mentioned reasons, however, development of assessment and reproduction methods of the hazardous process chain for the purpose of hazard map generation have to be brought forward. A combination of physical process models have already been suggested and illustrated by means of lake outburst in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, where on April 11th 2010 an ice-avalanche of approx. 300'000m3 triggered an <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span>, which overtopped the 22m freeboard of the rock-dam for 5 meters and caused and outburst flood which travelled 23 km to the city of Carhuaz. We here present a study, where we assessed the sensitivity of the model chain from ice-avalanche and <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> to single parameters considering rock-/ice-avalanche modeling by RAMMS and <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> modeling by IBER. Assumptions on the initial rock-/ice-avalanche volume, calibration of the friction parameters in RAMMS and assumptions on erosion considered in RAMMS were parameters tested regarding their influence on overtopping parameters that are crucial for outburst flood modeling. Further the transformation of the RAMMS-output (flow height and flow velocities on the shoreline of the lake) into an inflow-hydrograph for IBER was also considered a possible source of uncertainties. Overtopping time, volume, and <span class="hlt">wave</span> height as much as mean and maximum discharge were considered decisive parameters for the outburst flood modeling and were therewith</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7011899','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7011899"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of ozone depletion on immune <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jeevan, A.; Kripke, M.L. . Dept. of Immunology)</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Depletion of stratospheric ozone is expected to lead to an increase in the amount of UV-B radiation present in sunlight. In addition to its well known ability to cause skin cancer, UV-B radiation has been shown to alter the immune system. The immune system is the body's primary defense mechanism against infectious diseases and protects against the development of certain types of cancer. Any impairment of immune <span class="hlt">function</span> may jeopardize health by increasing susceptibility to infectious diseases, increasing the severity of infections, or delaying recovery for infections. In addition, impaired immune <span class="hlt">function</span> can increase the incidence of certain cancers, particularly cancers of the skin. Research carried out with laboratory animals over the past 15 years has demonstrated that exposure of the skin to UV-B radiation can suppress certain types of immune responses. These include rejection of UV-induced skin cancers and melanomas, contact allergy reactions to chemicals, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to microbial and other antigens, and phagocytosis and elimination of certain bacteria from lymphoid tissues. Recent studies with mycobacterial infection of mice demonstrated that exposure to UV-B radiation decreased the delayed hypersensitivity response to mycobacterial antigens and increased the severity of infection. In humans, UV-B radiation has also been shown to impair the contact allergy response. These studies demonstrate that UV radiation can decrease immune responses in humans and laboratory and raise the possibility that increased exposure to UV-B radiation could adversely affect human health by increasing the incidence or severity of certain infectious diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1637.1381S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1637.1381S"><span>Hormonal profile <span class="hlt">impact</span> on female sexual <span class="hlt">function</span> in young women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Female sexual <span class="hlt">function</span> is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual <span class="hlt">function</span>. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493611','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493611"><span>Quantifying local exciton, charge resonance, and multiexciton character in correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of multichromophoric systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Casanova, David; Krylov, Anna I.</p> <p>2016-01-07</p> <p>A new method for quantifying the contributions of local excitation, charge resonance, and multiexciton configurations in correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of multichromophoric systems is presented. The approach relies on fragment-localized orbitals and employs spin correlators. Its utility is illustrated by calculations on model clusters of hydrogen, ethylene, and tetracene molecules using adiabatic restricted-active-space configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. In addition to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis, this approach provides a basis for a simple state-specific energy correction accounting for insufficient description of electron correlation. The decomposition scheme also allows one to compute energies of the diabatic states of the local excitonic, charge-resonance, and multi-excitonic character. The new method provides insight into electronic structure of multichromophoric systems and delivers valuable reference data for validating excitonic models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..DMP.W1065P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..DMP.W1065P"><span>Application of Coulomb <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> DVR to Atomic Systems in Strong Laser Fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peng, Liang-You; Starace, Anthony F.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>We present an efficient and accurate grid method for solving the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation (TDSE) for atomic systems interacting with short laser pulses. The radial part of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is expanded in a DVR (Discrete Variable Representation) basis constructed from the positive energy Coulomb <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. The time propagation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is implemented using the well-known Arnoldi method. Compared with the usual finite difference (FD) discretization scheme for the radial coordinate, this method requires fewer grid points and handles naturally the Coulomb singularity at the origin. As examples, the method is shown to give accurate ionization rates for both H and H^- over a wide range of laser parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21745527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21745527"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of flavonoids on thyroid <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Souza Dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Gonçalves, Carlos Frederico Lima; Vaisman, Mário; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds of natural occurrence produced by plants that are largely consumed both for therapeutic purposes and as food. Experimental data have shown that many flavonoids could inhibit thyroperoxidase activity, decreasing thyroid hormones levels thus increasing TSH and causing goiter. In humans, infants fed with soy formula have been shown to develop goiter. However, in post-menopausal women soy intake did not affect thyroid <span class="hlt">function</span>. In thyroid tumor cell line, flavonoids were shown to inhibit cell growth, but they can also decrease radioiodine uptake, that could reduce the efficacy of radioiodine therapy. Flavonoids could also affect the availability of thyroid hormones to target tissues, by inhibiting deiodinase activity or displacing T4 from transthyretin. Thus, flavonoids have been shown to interfere with many aspects of the thyroid hormones synthesis and availability in in vivo and in vitro models. In the present article, we review and synthesize the literature on the effects of flavonoids on thyroid and discuss the possible relevance of these effects for humans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090016&hterms=antigravity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dantigravity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090016&hterms=antigravity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dantigravity"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of weightlessness on muscle <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tischler, M. E.; Slentz, M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The most studied skeletal muscles which depend on gravity, "antigravity" muscles, are located in the posterior portion of the legs. Antigravity muscles are characterized generally by a different fiber type composition than those which are considered nonpostural. The gravity-dependent <span class="hlt">function</span> of the antigravity muscles makes them particularly sensitive to weightlessness (unweighting) resulting in a substantial loss of muscle protein, with a relatively greater loss of myofibrillar (structural) proteins. Accordingly alpha-actin mRNA decreases in muscle of rats exposed to microgravity. In the legs, the soleus seems particularly responsive to the lack of weight-bearing associated with space flight. The loss of muscle protein leads to a decreased cross-sectional area of muscle fibers, particularly of the slow-twitch, oxidative (SO) ones compared to fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) or oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) fibers. In some muscles, a shift in fiber composition from SO to FOG has been reported in the adaptation to spaceflight. Changes in muscle composition with spaceflight have been associated with decreased maximal isometric tension (Po) and increased maximal shortening velocity. In terms of fuel metabolism, results varied depending on the pathway considered. Glucose uptake, in the presence of insulin, and activities of glycolytic enzymes are increased by space flight. In contrast, oxidation of fatty acids may be diminished. Oxidation of pyruvate, activity of the citric acid cycle, and ketone metabolism in muscle seem to be unaffected by microgravity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H41A1157R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H41A1157R"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of updated green vegetation fraction data on WRF simulations of the 2006 European heat <span class="hlt">wave</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Refslund, J.; Dellwik, E.; Hahmann, A. N.; Barlage, M. J.; Boegh, E.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Climate change studies suggest an increase in heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> occurrences over Europe in the coming decades. Extreme events with excessive heat and associated drought will <span class="hlt">impact</span> vegetation growth and health and lead to alterations in the partitioning of the surface energy. In this study, the atmospheric conditions during the heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> year 2006 over Europe were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. To account for the drought effects on the vegetation, new high-resolution green vegetation fraction (GVF) data were developed for the domain using NDVI data from MODIS satellite observations. Many empirical relationships exist to convert NDVI to GVF and both a linear and a quadratic formulation were evaluated. The new GVF product has a spatial resolution of 1 km2 and a temporal resolution of 8 days. To minimize <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from low-quality satellite retrievals in the NDVI series, as well as for comparison with the default GVF climatology in WRF, a new background climatology using 10 recent years of observations was also developed. The annual time series of the new GVF climatology was compared to the default WRF GVF climatology at 18 km2 grid resolution for the most common land use classes in the European domain. The new climatology generally has higher GVF levels throughout the year, in particular an extended autumnal growth season. Comparison of 2006 GVF with the climatology clearly indicates vegetation stresses related to heat and drought. The GVF product based on a quadratic NDVI relationship shows the best agreement with the magnitude and annual range of the default input data, in addition to including updated seasonality for various land use classes. The new GVF products were tested in WRF and found to work well for the spring of 2006 where the difference between the default and new GVF products was small. The WRF 2006 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> simulations were verified by comparison with daily gridded observations of mean, minimum and maximum temperature and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E.301T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E.301T"><span>Radio-<span class="hlt">wave</span> emission due to hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and its correlation with optical observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takano, T.; Maki, K.; Yamori, A.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes the most interesting phenomena of radio-<span class="hlt">wave</span> emission due to hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. A projectile of polycarbonate with 1.1 g weight was accelerated by a rail gun to 3.8 km/sec, and hit two targets which are a 2 mm thick aluminum plate upstream and a 45 mm diameter aluminum column downstream, respectively. The projectile first breaks wires to give a triggering signal to a data recorder, then penetrates the aluminum plate, and finally hit the column, The emitted radio-<span class="hlt">waves</span> propagate through the chamber window, and are received by antennas at each frequency band. The receivers in 22 GHz- and 2 GHz-bands consist of a low noise amplifier, a mixer, a local oscillator and an IF amplifier , respectively. The receiver in 1 MHz-band is a simple RF amplifier. The outputs of all receivers are fed to a data recorder which is actually a high-speed digital oscilloscope with a large amount of memory. The radio-<span class="hlt">waves</span> were successfully recorded in 22 GHz-band with 500 MHz bandwidth, in 2 GHz-band with 300 MHz bandwidth, and in 1MHz-band. The waveforms in 22 GHz- and 2 GHz-bands coincide well each other, and are composed of two groups of sharp impulses with a separation of about 20 micro seconds. The width of an impulse is less than 2 n sec. which is the resolution limit of the data recorder. We carried out optical observations using an ultra-high speed camera simultaneously through another window of the chamber. The time interval between scenes is 2 micro sec. We can see a faint light of the projectile before the first <span class="hlt">impact</span> to the plate, and then a brilliant gas exploding backward from the plate and forward to the column. After hitting the column target, the brilliant gas flows to the chamber wall and is reflected back to make a mixture with dark gas in the chamber. Excellent correlation between radio-<span class="hlt">wave</span> emission and the observed optical phenomena was obtained in the experiment. It is easily conceived that the radio-<span class="hlt">waves</span> consist of quite a wide frequency</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25877570','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25877570"><span>Automatic determination of important mode-mode correlations in many-mode vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>König, Carolin; Christiansen, Ove</p> <p>2015-04-14</p> <p>We introduce new automatic procedures for parameterizing vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) and vibrational configuration interaction <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Importance measures for individual mode combinations in the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> are derived based on upper bounds to Hamiltonian matrix elements and/or the size of perturbative corrections derived in the framework of VCC. With a threshold, this enables an automatic, system-adapted way of choosing which mode-mode correlations are explicitly parameterized in the many-mode <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. The effect of different importance measures and thresholds is investigated for zero-point energies and infrared spectra for formaldehyde and furan. Furthermore, the direct link between important mode-mode correlations and coordinates is illustrated employing water clusters as examples: Using optimized coordinates, a larger number of mode combinations can be neglected in the correlated many-mode vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> than with normal coordinates for the same accuracy. Moreover, the fraction of important mode-mode correlations compared to the total number of correlations decreases with system size. This underlines the potential gain in efficiency when using optimized coordinates in combination with a flexible scheme for choosing the mode-mode correlations included in the parameterization of the correlated many-mode vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. All in all, it is found that the introduced schemes for parameterizing correlated many-mode vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> lead to at least as systematic and accurate calculations as those using more standard and straightforward excitation level definitions. This new way of defining approximate calculations offers potential for future calculations on larger systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OptEn..56a1023G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017OptEn..56a1023G"><span>Use of laser shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> to test piezochromic coatings for <span class="hlt">impact</span> detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gehring, Florian; Boustie, Michel; Touchard, Fabienne; Chocinski-Arnault, Laurence; Guinard, Stéphane; Senani, Sophie</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The design of piezochromic pigments is a promising way to adjust smart painting and therefore to develop a "visual" <span class="hlt">impact</span> detection coating. This paper deals with the possibility to use laser shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> to test piezochromic coatings for <span class="hlt">impact</span> detection. For that purpose, an experimental setup was developed in order to obtain compressive load in the coating thanks to the impedance mismatch between selected materials. An analytical modeling was used to validate the proposed method. The experimental investigation coupled with finite-element modeling on four smart coatings showed that these coatings can reveal <span class="hlt">impact</span> location by a significant change of color if a relevant pressure threshold is reached. The results presented in this work are promising and demonstrate the ability of the proposed laser shock method for characterizing the pressure thresholds of piezochromic smart paintings. It opens the door for studying future smart paintings with different critical pressure levels, depending on the targeted application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025827','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025827"><span>Shock-<span class="hlt">wave</span>-induced fracturing of calcareous nannofossils from the Chesapeake Bay <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>,</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Fractured calcareous nannofossils of the genus Discoaster from synimpact sediments within the Chesapeake Bay <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater demonstrate that other petrographic shock indicators exist for the cratering process in addition to quartz minerals. Evidence for shock-induced taphonomy includes marginal fracturing of rosette-shaped Discoaster species into pentagonal shapes and pressure- and temperature-induced dissolution of ray tips and edges of discoasters. Rotational deformation of individual crystallites may be the mechanism that produces the fracture pattern. Shock-<span class="hlt">wave</span>-fractured calcareous nannofossils were recovered from synimpact matrix material representing tsunami or resurge sedimentation that followed <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Samples taken from cohesive clasts within the crater rubble show no evidence of shock-induced fracturing. The data presented here support growing evidence that microfossils can be used to determine the intensity and timing of wet-<span class="hlt">impact</span> cratering.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21085197','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21085197"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of internal <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the spatial distribution of Planktothrix rubescens (cyanobacteria) in an alpine lake.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cuypers, Yannis; Vinçon-Leite, Brigitte; Groleau, Alexis; Tassin, Bruno; Humbert, Jean-François</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>The vertical and horizontal distribution of the cyanobacterium, Planktothrix rubescens, was studied in a deep alpine lake (Lac du Bourget) in a 2-year monitoring program with 11 sampling points, and a 24-h survey at one sampling station. This species is known to proliferate in the metalimnic layer of numerous deep mesotrophic lakes in temperate areas, and also to produce hepatotoxins. When looking at the distribution of P. rubescens at the scale of the entire lake, we found large variations (up to 10  m) in the depth of the biomass peak in the water column. These variations were closely correlated to isotherm displacements. We also found significant variations in the distribution of the cyanobacterial biomass in the northern and southern parts of the lake. We used a physical modeling approach to demonstrate that two internal <span class="hlt">wave</span> modes can explain these variations. Internal <span class="hlt">waves</span> are generated by wind events, but can still be detected several days after the end of these events. Finally, our 24-h survey at one sampling point demonstrated that the V1H1 sinusoidal motion could evolve into nonlinear fronts. All these findings show that internal <span class="hlt">waves</span> have a major <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the distribution of P. rubescens proliferating in the metalimnic layer of a deep lake, and that this process could influence the growth of this species by a direct <span class="hlt">impact</span> on light availability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFDL16005W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DFDL16005W"><span><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on a Wall: Comparison of Experiments with Similarity Solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, A.; Duncan, J. H.; Lathrop, D. P.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a steep water <span class="hlt">wave</span> on a fixed partially submerged cube is studied with experiments and theory. The temporal evolution of the water surface profile upstream of the front face of the cube in its center plane is measured with a cinematic laser-induced fluorescence technique using frame rates up to 4,500 Hz. For a small range of cube positions, the surface profiles are found to form a nearly circular arc with upward curvature between the front face of the cube and a point just downstream of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> crest. As the crest approaches the cube, the effective radius of this portion of the profile decreases rapidly. At the same time, the portion of the profile that is upstream of the crest approaches a straight line with a downward slope of about 15°. As the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> continues, the circular arc shrinks to zero radius with very high acceleration and a sudden transition to a high-speed vertical jet occurs. This flow singularity is modeled with a power-law scaling in time, which is used to create a time-independent system of equations of motion. The scaled governing equations are solved numerically and the similarly scaled measured free surface shapes, are favorably compared with the solutions. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RSPSA.47260423W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RSPSA.47260423W"><span>Size distributions of sprays produced by violent <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on vertical sea walls</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Watanabe, Y.; Ingram, D. M.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>When a steep, breaking <span class="hlt">wave</span> hits a vertical sea wall in shallow water, a flip-through event may occur, leading to the formation of an up-rushing planar jet. During such an event, a jet of water is ejected at a speed many times larger than the approaching <span class="hlt">wave</span>'s celerity. As the jet rises, the bounded fluid sheet ruptures to form vertical ligaments which subsequently break up to form droplets, creating a polydisperse spray. Experiments in the University of Hokkaido's 24 m flume measured the resulting droplet sizes using image analysis of high-speed video. Consideration of the mechanisms forming spray droplets shows that the number density of droplet sizes is directly proportional to a power p of the droplet radius: where p=-5/2 during the early break-up stage and p=-2 for the fully fragmented state. This was confirmed by experimental observations. Here, we show that the recorded droplet number density follows the lognormal probability distribution with parameters related to the elapsed time since the initial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span>. This statistical model of polydisperse spray may provide a basis for modelling droplet advection during <span class="hlt">wave</span> overtopping events, allowing atmospheric processes leading to enhanced fluxes of mass, moisture, heat and momentum in the spray-mediated marine boundary layer over coasts to be described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27843403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27843403"><span>Size distributions of sprays produced by violent <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on vertical sea walls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Watanabe, Y; Ingram, D M</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>When a steep, breaking <span class="hlt">wave</span> hits a vertical sea wall in shallow water, a flip-through event may occur, leading to the formation of an up-rushing planar jet. During such an event, a jet of water is ejected at a speed many times larger than the approaching <span class="hlt">wave</span>'s celerity. As the jet rises, the bounded fluid sheet ruptures to form vertical ligaments which subsequently break up to form droplets, creating a polydisperse spray. Experiments in the University of Hokkaido's 24 m flume measured the resulting droplet sizes using image analysis of high-speed video. Consideration of the mechanisms forming spray droplets shows that the number density of droplet sizes is directly proportional to a power p of the droplet radius: where p=-5/2 during the early break-up stage and p=-2 for the fully fragmented state. This was confirmed by experimental observations. Here, we show that the recorded droplet number density follows the lognormal probability distribution with parameters related to the elapsed time since the initial <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span>. This statistical model of polydisperse spray may provide a basis for modelling droplet advection during <span class="hlt">wave</span> overtopping events, allowing atmospheric processes leading to enhanced fluxes of mass, moisture, heat and momentum in the spray-mediated marine boundary layer over coasts to be described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26483919','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26483919"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Sound on Electroencephalographic <span class="hlt">Waves</span> during Sleep in Patients Suffering from Tinnitus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pedemonte, Marisa; Testa, Martín; Díaz, Marcela; Suárez-Bagnasco, Diego</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Based on the knowledge that sensory processing continues during sleep and that a relationship exists between sleep and learning, a new strategy for treatment of idiopathic subjective tinnitus, consisted of customized sound stimulation presented during sleep, was tested. It has been previously shown that this treatment induces a sustained decrease in tinnitus intensity; however, its effect on brain activity has not yet been studied. In this work, we compared the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sound stimulation in tinnitus patients in the different sleep stages. Ten patients with idiopathic tinnitus were treated with sound stimulation mimicking tinnitus during sleep. Power spectra and intra- and inter-hemispheric coherence of electroencephalographic <span class="hlt">waves</span> from frontal and temporal electrodes were measured with and without sound stimulation for each sleep stage (stages N2 with sleep spindles; N3 with slow <span class="hlt">wave</span> sleep and REM sleep with Rapid Eye Movements). The main results found were that the largest number of changes, considering both the power spectrum and <span class="hlt">wave׳s</span> coherence, occurred in stages N2 and N3. The delta and theta bands were the most changed, with important changes also in coherence of spindles during N2. All changes were more frequent in temporal areas. The differences between the two hemispheres do not depend, at least exclusively, on the side where the tinnitus is perceived and, hence, of the stimulated side. These results demonstrate that sound stimulation during sleep in tinnitus patients׳ influences brain activity and open an avenue for investigating the mechanism underlying tinnitus and its treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20639832','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20639832"><span>Kinetic correlation in the final-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in photo-double-ionization of He</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Otranto, S.; Garibotti, C. R.</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>We evaluate the triply differential cross section (TDCS) for photo-double-ionization of helium. We use a final continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> which correlates the motion of the three particles, through an expansion in products of two-body Coulomb <span class="hlt">functions</span>. This <span class="hlt">function</span> satisfies a set of appropriate physical conditions in the coalescence points, in addition to the correct asymptotic behavior condition. We analyze the effect of this correlation in the TDCS and compare our results with experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493145','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493145"><span>Orthogonality of embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for different states in frozen-density embedding theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zech, Alexander; Wesolowski, Tomasz A.; Aquilante, Francesco</p> <p>2015-10-28</p> <p>Other than lowest-energy stationary embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> obtained in Frozen-Density Embedding Theory (FDET) [T. A. Wesolowski, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012504 (2008)] can be associated with electronic excited states but they can be mutually non-orthogonal. Although this does not violate any physical principles — embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are only auxiliary objects used to obtain stationary densities — working with orthogonal <span class="hlt">functions</span> has many practical advantages. In the present work, we show numerically that excitation energies obtained using conventional FDET calculations (allowing for non-orthogonality) can be obtained using embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are strictly orthogonal. The used method preserves the mathematical structure of FDET and self-consistency between energy, embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, and the embedding potential (they are connected through the Euler-Lagrange equations). The orthogonality is built-in through the linearization in the embedded density of the relevant components of the total energy <span class="hlt">functional</span>. Moreover, we show formally that the differences between the expectation values of the embedded Hamiltonian are equal to the excitation energies, which is the exact result within linearized FDET. Linearized FDET is shown to be a robust approximation for a large class of reference densities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26520497','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26520497"><span>Orthogonality of embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for different states in frozen-density embedding theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zech, Alexander; Aquilante, Francesco; Wesolowski, Tomasz A</p> <p>2015-10-28</p> <p>Other than lowest-energy stationary embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> obtained in Frozen-Density Embedding Theory (FDET) [T. A. Wesolowski, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012504 (2008)] can be associated with electronic excited states but they can be mutually non-orthogonal. Although this does not violate any physical principles--embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are only auxiliary objects used to obtain stationary densities--working with orthogonal <span class="hlt">functions</span> has many practical advantages. In the present work, we show numerically that excitation energies obtained using conventional FDET calculations (allowing for non-orthogonality) can be obtained using embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which are strictly orthogonal. The used method preserves the mathematical structure of FDET and self-consistency between energy, embedded <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, and the embedding potential (they are connected through the Euler-Lagrange equations). The orthogonality is built-in through the linearization in the embedded density of the relevant components of the total energy <span class="hlt">functional</span>. Moreover, we show formally that the differences between the expectation values of the embedded Hamiltonian are equal to the excitation energies, which is the exact result within linearized FDET. Linearized FDET is shown to be a robust approximation for a large class of reference densities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18503486','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18503486"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of real-world stress on cardiorespiratory resting <span class="hlt">function</span> during sleep in daily life.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sakakibara, Masahito; Kanematsu, Takayoshi; Yasuma, Fumihiko; Hayano, Junichiro</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>To examine if real-world stress affects the restorative <span class="hlt">function</span> of sleep in daily life, we studied the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of college examinations on cardiorespiratory resting <span class="hlt">function</span> during sleep. In healthy college students, at 1 week before, the day before, and the first day of semester-end examinations pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> signal during sleep at their own residences was measured continuously with a wristband-shaped wireless transdermal photoelectric sensor. The cardiorespiratory resting <span class="hlt">function</span> was assessed quantitatively as the power of a high-frequency component of pulse rate variability, a surrogate measure of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Changes in anxiety were also evaluated with a state anxiety questionnaire. On the day before the examinations, compared with 1 week before, the score of state anxiety increased and the HF component of pulse rate variability decreased. Among college students, anxiety about college examinations may be accompanied by suppression of the cardiorespiratory resting <span class="hlt">function</span> during sleep.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA475734','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA475734"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Breast Cancer on Adolescent <span class="hlt">Function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Adolescent <span class="hlt">Function</span> PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Frances Marcus Lewis, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Washington...From - To) 1 JUL 2006 - 30 JUN 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Breast Cancer on Adolescent <span class="hlt">Function</span> 5b. GRANT...primary aim of this study was to test a theoretically derived predictive model of adolescent <span class="hlt">functioning</span> to maternal breast cancer. Standardized</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010062168&hterms=Dirac&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DDirac','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010062168&hterms=Dirac&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DDirac"><span>Second-Order Moller-Plesset Perturbation Theory for Molecular Dirac-Hartree-Fock <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dyall, Kenneth G.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Moller-Plesset perturbation theory is developed to second order for a selection of Kramers restricted Dirac-Hartree-Fock closed and open-shell reference <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The open-shell <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> considered are limited to those with no more than two electrons in open shells, but include the case of a two-configuration SCF reference. Denominator shifts are included in the style of Davidson's OPT2 method. An implementation which uses unordered integrals with labels is presented, and results are given for a few test cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NJPh...19a3016C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017NJPh...19a3016C"><span>A system’s <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is uniquely determined by its underlying physical state</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Colbeck, Roger; Renner, Renato</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We address the question of whether the quantum-mechanical <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> Ψ of a system is uniquely determined by any complete description Λ of the system’s physical state. We show that this is the case if the latter satisfies a notion of ‘free choice’. This notion requires that certain experimental parameters—those that according to quantum theory can be chosen independently of other variables—retain this property in the presence of Λ. An implication of this result is that, among all possible descriptions Λ of a system’s state compatible with free choice, the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> {{\\Psi }} is as objective as Λ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24972050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24972050"><span><span class="hlt">Wave</span> propagation analysis of edge cracked circular beams under <span class="hlt">impact</span> force.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akbaş, Şeref Doğuşcan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents responses of an edge circular cantilever beam under the effect of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> force. The beam is excited by a transverse triangular force impulse modulated by a harmonic motion. The Kelvin-Voigt model for the material of the beam is used. The cracked beam is modelled as an assembly of two sub-beams connected through a massless elastic rotational spring. The considered problem is investigated within the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory by using energy based finite element method. The system of equations of motion is derived by using Lagrange's equations. The obtained system of linear differential equations is reduced to a linear algebraic equation system and solved in the time domain by using Newmark average acceleration method. In the study, the effects of the location of crack, the depth of the crack, on the characteristics of the reflected <span class="hlt">waves</span> are investigated in detail. Also, the positions of the cracks are calculated by using reflected <span class="hlt">waves</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4074072','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4074072"><span><span class="hlt">Wave</span> Propagation Analysis of Edge Cracked Circular Beams under <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Force</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Akbaş, Şeref Doğuşcan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents responses of an edge circular cantilever beam under the effect of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> force. The beam is excited by a transverse triangular force impulse modulated by a harmonic motion. The Kelvin–Voigt model for the material of the beam is used. The cracked beam is modelled as an assembly of two sub-beams connected through a massless elastic rotational spring. The considered problem is investigated within the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory by using energy based finite element method. The system of equations of motion is derived by using Lagrange's equations. The obtained system of linear differential equations is reduced to a linear algebraic equation system and solved in the time domain by using Newmark average acceleration method. In the study, the effects of the location of crack, the depth of the crack, on the characteristics of the reflected <span class="hlt">waves</span> are investigated in detail. Also, the positions of the cracks are calculated by using reflected <span class="hlt">waves</span>. PMID:24972050</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.9340E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.9340E"><span><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> properties of a single and a system of magnetic flux tube(s) oscillations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Esmaeili, Shahriar; Nasiri, Mojtaba; Dadashi, Neda; Safari, Hossein</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>In this study, the properties of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the MHD oscillations for a single and a system of straight flux tubes are investigated. Magnetic flux tubes with a straight magnetic field and longitudinal density stratification were considered in zero-β approximation. A single three-dimensional <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation (eigenvalue problem) is solved for longitudinal component of the perturbed magnetic field using the finite element method. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> (eigenfunction of <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation) of the MHD oscillations are categorized into sausage, kink, helical kink, and fluting modes. Exact recognition of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and the frequencies of oscillations can be used in coronal seismology and also helps to the future high-resolution instruments that would be designed for studying the properties of the solar loop oscillations in details. The properties of collective oscillations of nonidentical and identical system of flux tubes and their interactions are studied. The ratios of frequencies, the oscillation frequencies of a system of flux tubes to their equivalent monolithic tube (ω sys/ω mono), are obtained between 0.748 and 0.841 for a system of nonidentical tubes, whereas the related ratios of frequencies for a system of identical flux tubes are fluctuated around 0.761.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......242G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......242G"><span>Joint inversion of surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> dispersion and receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> for crustal structure in Oklahoma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, Hao</p> <p></p> <p>The surge in seismicity in Oklahoma starting in 2008 raises questions about the actual locations of the earthquakes in the upper crust. The key to answering this is an improved crustal model that explains as many observations as possible. Love and Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> dispersion, teleseismic P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> and some unique transverse motions observed at distances less than 100 km that are characteristics of rays reverberating in a basin provide data to derive the crustal model. The surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> dispersion data set consists of over 300,000 Love/Rayleigh phase/group values obtained from ambient noise cross-correlation of BH channels of the 133 Transportable Array (TA) stations of Earthscope to periods as short as 2 seconds. Station coverage is dense enough to perform the tomography on a 25*25 km grid that should be able to image shallow geological structures. In addition, receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> were obtained using teleseismic data recorded from 3 US Geological Survey Networks (GS) stations and 6 Oklahoma Seismic Network (OK) stations from 2011 to 2014. The 1-D S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity models derived by the joint inversion of surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> dispersion and receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> with geological constraints are tested by fitting the independent transverse seismograms. This test also provides constraints on the earthquake depths in relation to the geological structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhB...49r2004F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhB...49r2004F"><span>Advanced multiconfiguration methods for complex atoms: I. Energies and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Froese Fischer, Charlotte; Godefroid, Michel; Brage, Tomas; Jönsson, Per; Gaigalas, Gediminas</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Multiconfiguration <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> expansions combined with configuration interaction methods are a method of choice for complex atoms where atomic state <span class="hlt">functions</span> are expanded in a basis of configuration state <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Combined with a variational method such as the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) or multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF), the associated set of radial <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be optimized for the levels of interest. The present review updates the variational MCHF theory to include MCDHF, describes the multireference single and double process for generating expansions and the systematic procedure of a computational scheme for monitoring convergence. It focuses on the calculations of energies and <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> from which other atomic properties can be predicted such as transition rates, hyperfine structures and isotope shifts, for example.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhB...50d4005M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhB...50d4005M"><span>Catastrophes in non-equilibrium many-particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>: universality and critical scaling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mumford, J.; Kirkby, W.; O’Dell, D. H. J.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>As part of the quest to uncover universal features of quantum dynamics, we study catastrophes that form in simple many-particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> following a quench, focusing on two-mode systems that include the two-site Bose–Hubbard model, and under some circumstances optomechanical systems and the Dicke model. When the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is plotted in Fock space certain characteristic shapes, that we identify as cusp catastrophes, appear under generic conditions. In the vicinity of a cusp the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> takes on a universal structure described by the Pearcey <span class="hlt">function</span> and obeys scaling relations which depend on the total number of particles N. In the thermodynamic limit (N\\to ∞ ) the cusp becomes singular, but at finite N it is decorated by an interference pattern. This pattern contains an intricate network of vortex–antivortex pairs, initiating a theory of topological structures in Fock space. In the case where the quench is a δ-kick the problem can be solved analytically and we obtain scaling exponents for the size and position of the cusp, as well as those for the amplitude and characteristic length scales of its interference pattern. Finally, we use these scalings to describe the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in the critical regime of a {{{Z}}}2 symmetry-breaking dynamical phase transition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMEP24A..06L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMEP24A..06L"><span>Analysis of the erosion of marsh boundaries produced by wind-<span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> in a shallow tidal basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lanzoni, S.; Santalucia, M.; D'Alpaos, A.; Marani, M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Salt-marsh ecosystems play a crucial role in the eco-geomorphological evolution of intertidal areas acting as a fundamental buffer against the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of coastal storms, filtering nutrients and pollutants from tidal waters, and providing critical habitats for rare vegetation species and essential nursery areas for fishes and crustaceans. Recent observations of marsh degradation worldwide highlight the importance to improve our understanding of the chief processes responsible for their deterioration. The erosion of marsh boundaries produced by wind-<span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the marsh edge is generally agreed to be the most important process driving marsh degradation and disappearance. We have studied long-term changes of salt-marsh boundaries in the Venice Lagoon based on the analysis of sequential aerial photographs, dating from 1955, 1970, and 2002, coupled with modelling of local wind-<span class="hlt">wave</span> dynamics by way of a point <span class="hlt">wave</span> model. We have observed that a positive correlation exists between rates of marsh-boundary retreat, established by the analysis of sequential aerial photographs, and the averaged power of the <span class="hlt">impacting</span> wind <span class="hlt">waves</span>, computed through the <span class="hlt">wave</span> model. We have also carried out a dimensional analysis which suggests the existence of a linear relationship between the eroded volume of marsh sediment and the averaged <span class="hlt">wave</span> power. Annually eroded volumes of marsh sediment, determined on the basis of remote sensed data and bathymetric survey, plotted versus the computed averaged power of the <span class="hlt">impacting</span> wind <span class="hlt">waves</span> support the existence of such a relationship.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16848577','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16848577"><span>An analysis of the accuracy of an initial value representation surface hopping <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in the interaction and asymptotic regions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sergeev, Alexey; Herman, Michael F</p> <p>2006-07-14</p> <p>The behavior of an initial value representation surface hopping <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is examined. Since this method is an initial value representation for the semiclassical solution of the time independent Schrodinger equation for nonadiabatic problems, it has computational advantages over the primitive surface hopping <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. The primitive <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> has been shown to provide transition probabilities that accurately compare with quantum results for model problems. The analysis presented in this work shows that the multistate initial value representation surface hopping <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> should approach the primitive result in asymptotic regions and provide transition probabilities with the same level of accuracy for scattering problems as the primitive method.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ChOE...28..791Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ChOE...28..791Z"><span>Comparative study of different SPH schemes on simulating violent water <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> flows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Xing; Ma, Qing-wei; Duan, Wen-yang</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Free surface flows are of significant interest in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). However, violent water <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> simulation especially when free surface breaks or <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on solid wall can be a big challenge for many CFD techniques. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) has been reported as a robust and reliable method for simulating violent free surface flows. Weakly compressible SPH (WCSPH) uses an equation of state with a large sound speed, and the results of the WCSPH can induce a noisy pressure field and spurious oscillation of pressure in time history for <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> problem simulation. As a remedy, the truly incompressible SPH (ISPH) technique was introduced, which uses a pressure Poisson equation to calculate the pressure. Although the pressure distribution in the whole field obtained by ISPH is smooth, the stability of the techniques is still an open discussion. In this paper, a new free surface identification scheme and solid boundary handling method are introduced to improve the accuracy of ISPH. This modified ISPH is used to study dam breaking flow and violent tank sloshing flows. On the comparative study of WCSPH and ISPH, the accuracy and efficiency are assessed and the results are compared with the experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17249862','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17249862"><span>Using an r-dependent Gaussian width in calculations of the globally uniform semiclassical <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Herman, Michael F; Sergeev, Alexey</p> <p>2007-01-21</p> <p>The globally uniform semiclassical <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> expresses the solution to the time independent Schrodinger equation in terms of fixed width Gaussian <span class="hlt">wave</span> packets traveling along a set of trajectories. There is a globally uniform <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> (GUWF) for each value of the Gaussian width parameter gamma. Numerical data show that a small Gaussian width is needed in some regions to obtain accurate results, while a broad Gaussian width provides better results in other regions. Since there is a semiclassically valid GUWF for every positive value of gamma, it is reasonable to employ the GUWF corresponding to a Gaussian width that provides good results at each value of r. A criterion for the r dependent choice of gamma is proposed and tested on one and two dimensional model problems. The results show that the use of an r dependent gamma in the GUWF results in improved accuracy for the model problems considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3279432','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3279432"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Heat Islands on Mortality in Paris during the August 2003 Heat <span class="hlt">Wave</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Dousset, Bénédicte; Bretin, Philippe; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Giraudet, Emmanuel; Beaudeau, Pascal</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background: Heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> have a drastic <span class="hlt">impact</span> on urban populations, which could increase with climate change. Objectives: We evaluated new indicators of elderly people’s exposure to heat in Paris, from a public health prevention perspective, using satellite thermal images. Methods: We used a time series of 61 images from the satellites of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) taken from 1 to 13 August 2003 to produce thermal indicators of minimum, maximum, and mean surface temperatures and diurnal temperature amplitude, with different lags between the meteorological data and the health <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Health data came from a case–control study involving 241 people ≥ 65 years of age who died in the city of Paris or the nearby suburban area of Val-de-Marne during the August 2003 heat <span class="hlt">wave</span>, and 241 controls who were matched to cases on age, sex, and residential zone. For each person, we integrated the thermal indicators in a conditional logistic regression model, adjusted for age and other potential confounders. We computed odds ratios (ORs) comparing the 90th and 50th percentiles of the temperature differences between cases and controls for various indicators. Results: Mortality risk was significantly associated with exposure for two indicators: minimum temperatures averaged for 1–13 August [for a 0.41°C increase, OR = 2.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 4.16] and minimum temperature averaged on the day of death and the 6 preceding days (for a 0.51°C increase: OR = 2.24; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.87). Conclusions: Our results support the influence of night temperatures on the health <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in urban areas. Urban heat exposure indicators based on satellite imagery have the potential to identify areas with higher risk of death, which could inform intervention decisions by key stakeholders. PMID:21885383</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..94f2512P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..94f2512P"><span>Coupled-cluster Green's <span class="hlt">function</span>: Analysis of properties originating in the exponential parametrization of the ground-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peng, Bo; Kowalski, Karol</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>In this paper we derive basic properties of the Green's-<span class="hlt">function</span> matrix elements stemming from the exponential coupled-cluster (CC) parametrization of the ground-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. We demonstrate that all intermediates used to express the retarded (or, equivalently, ionized) part of the Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> in the ω representation can be expressed only through connected diagrams. Similar properties are also shared by the first-order ω derivative of the retarded part of the CC Green's <span class="hlt">function</span>. Moreover, the first-order ω derivative of the CC Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> can be evaluated analytically. This result can be generalized to any order of ω derivatives. Through the Dyson equation, derivatives of the corresponding CC self-energy operator can be evaluated analytically. In analogy to the CC Green's <span class="hlt">function</span>, the corresponding CC self-energy operator can be represented by connected terms. Our analysis can easily be generalized to the advanced part of the CC Green's <span class="hlt">function</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8406976','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8406976"><span>Electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> emitting products and "Kikoh" potentiate human leukocyte <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Niwa, Y; Iizawa, O; Ishimoto, K; Jiang, X; Kanoh, T</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>Tourmaline (electric stone, a type of granite stone), common granite stone, ceramic disks, hot spring water and human palmar energy (called "Kikoh" in Japan and China), all which emit electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared region (wavelength 4-14 microns). These materials were thus examined for effects on human leukocyte activity and on lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. It was revealed that these materials significantly increased intracellular calcium ion concentration, phagocytosis, and generation of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils, and the blastogenetic response of lymphocytes to mitogens. Chemotactic activity by neutrophils was also enhanced by exposure to tourmaline and the palm of "Kikohshi" i.e., a person who heals professionally by the laying on of hands. Despite the increase in reactive oxygen species generated by neutrophils, lipid peroxidation from unsaturated fatty acid was markedly inhibited by these four materials. The results suggest that materials emitting electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared range, which are widely used in Japan for cosmetic, therapeutic, and preservative purposes, appear capable of potentiating leukocyte <span class="hlt">functions</span> without promoting oxidative injury.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993IJBm...37..133N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993IJBm...37..133N"><span>Electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> emitting products and ``Kikoh'' potentiate human leukocyte <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Niwa, Yukie; Iizawa, Osamu; Ishimoto, Koichi; Jiang, Xiaoxia; Kanoh, Tadashi</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>Tourmaline (electric stone, a type of granite stone), common granite stone, ceramic disks, hot spring water and human palmar energy (called “Kikoh” in Japan and China), all which emit electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared region (wavelength 4 14 µm). These materials were thus examined for effects on human leukocyte activity and on lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. It was revealed that these materials significantly increased intracellular calcium ion concentration, phagocytosis, and generation of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils, and the blastogenetic response of lymphocytes to mitogens. Chemotactic activity by neutrophils was also enhanced by exposure to tourmaline and the palm of “Kikohshi” i.e., a person who heals professionally by the laying on of hands. Despite the increase in reactive oxygen species generated by neutrophils, lipid peroxidation from unsaturated fatty acid was markedly inhibited by these four materials. The results suggest that materials emitting electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared range, which are widely used in Japan for cosmetic, therapeutic, and preservative purposes, appear capable of potentiating leukocyte <span class="hlt">functions</span> without promoting oxidative injury.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P11B2081K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.P11B2081K"><span>Inversion of the Chelyabinsk seismic surface <span class="hlt">waves</span> and comparative constraints on the generation of seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> by atmospheric <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Earth and Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karakostas, F. G.; Rakoto, V.; Lognonne, P. H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Meteor <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are a very important seismic source for planetary seismology, since their locations and, in some cases, their occurence times can be accurately known from orbiters, tracking or optical observations. Their importance becomes greater in the case of a seismic experiment with one seismometer, as the SEIS (Seismic Experiment of Interior Structure) of the future Martian mission "InSight", as the known location allows a direct inversion of differential travel times and <span class="hlt">wave</span> forms in terms of structure. Meteor <span class="hlt">impacts</span> generate body and surface seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> when they reach the surface of a planet. But when they explode into the atmosphere, due to ablation, they generate shock <span class="hlt">waves</span>, which are converted into linear, seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the solid part and acoustic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the atmosphere. This effect can be modeled when the amplitude of Rayleigh and other Spheroidal normal modes is made with the atmospheric/ground coupling effects. In this study, meteor <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are modeled as seismic sources in a comparative analysis for the cases of Earth and Mars. Using the computed seismograms, calculated by the summation of the normal modes of the full planet (e.g. with atmosphere) the properties of the seismic source can be obtained. Its duration is typically associated to the radiation duration of shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> until they reach the linear regime of propagation. These transition times are comparatively analyzed, for providing constraints on the seismic source duration on Earth and Mars. In the case of Earth, we test our approach with the Chelyabinsk superbolide. The computed seismograms are used in order to perform the inversion of the source, by comparison with the data of the Global Seismographic Network. The results are interpreted and compared with other observations. In the case of Mars, equivalent sources are similarly modeled in different atmospheric, <span class="hlt">impact</span> size and lithospheric conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24815265','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24815265"><span>Analysis and measurement of the modulation transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> of harmonic shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> induced phase encoding imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McAleavey, Stephen A</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> induced phase encoding (SWIPE) imaging generates ultrasound backscatter images of tissue-like elastic materials by using traveling shear <span class="hlt">waves</span> to encode the lateral position of the scatters in the phase of the received echo. In contrast to conventional ultrasound B-scan imaging, SWIPE offers the potential advantages of image formation without beam focusing or steering from a single transducer element, lateral resolution independent of aperture size, and the potential to achieve relatively high lateral resolution with low frequency ultrasound. Here a Fourier series description of the phase modulated echo signal is developed, demonstrating that echo harmonics at multiples of the shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency reveal target k-space data at identical multiples of the shear wavenumber. Modulation transfer <span class="hlt">functions</span> of SWIPE imaging systems are calculated for maximum shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> acceleration and maximum shear constraints, and compared with a conventionally focused aperture. The relative signal-to-noise ratio of the SWIPE method versus a conventionally focused aperture is found through these calculations. Reconstructions of wire targets in a gelatin phantom using 1 and 3.5 MHz ultrasound and a cylindrical shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> source are presented, generated from the fundamental and second harmonic of the shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> modulation frequency, demonstrating weak dependence of lateral resolution with ultrasound frequency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.162A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.162A"><span>Past analogs of recent climate anomalies and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in Portugal. Droughts, storms and heat <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alcoforado, M. J.; Nunes, M. F.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>An indexed reconstruction of precipitation variability, based on documentary and instrumental data, has been done for southern Portugal starting in 1675. The descriptions of the extreme events in the documentary sources have also supplied information about their <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. We will compare past and recent extreme weather events in Portugal, their causes and their <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on society. We have selected periods of winter droughts, of storms that triggered great floods and of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. There are a number of documentary sources dating from 1693-94 indicating that that there was no rainfall from December 1693 to at least November 1694 with the exception of light showers in June. Several pro-pluvia rogations ceremonies took place all over the country, even in the Northwest that is generally rainy. There are numerous descriptions of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of droughts on agriculture, of shortage of cereals, of escalating prices and the subsequent generalised famine. An analogy will be made for the 20th century using the 1980-81 winter drought that lasted roughly the same time and which also had severe social and economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The decrease in production of hydroelectric energy (50% below average) between January and July 1981 is also pointed out. In both cases, the lack of rainfall was partly due to a ridge that stayed over the Eastern Atlantic and kept Iberia in aerologic shelter. Apart from urban flash floods there are two types of floods in Portugal: (i) floods from the big river basins (Tagus, Mondego and Douro) that are due to the frequent passage of westerly frontal depressions during days or weeks; and (ii) floods of the small river basins due to convective depressions that affect small areas. The December 1739 flood, caused by the overflow of the great rivers, will be compared with the ones that occurred in February 1978. Both were caused by intensive precipitation all over the country at a time when the soil was already saturated with water from previous rainfall. The damages</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvA..89b3418F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvA..89b3418F"><span>Explicit schemes for time propagating many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frapiccini, Ana Laura; Hamido, Aliou; Schröter, Sebastian; Pyke, Dean; Mota-Furtado, Francisca; O'Mahony, Patrick F.; Madroñero, Javier; Eiglsperger, Johannes; Piraux, Bernard</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Accurate theoretical data on many time-dependent processes in atomic and molecular physics and in chemistry require the direct numerical ab initio solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, thereby motivating the development of very efficient time propagators. These usually involve the solution of very large systems of first-order differential equations that are characterized by a high degree of stiffness. In this contribution, we analyze and compare the performance of the explicit one-step algorithms of Fatunla and Arnoldi. Both algorithms have exactly the same stability <span class="hlt">function</span>, therefore sharing the same stability properties that turn out to be optimum. Their respective accuracy, however, differs significantly and depends on the physical situation involved. In order to test this accuracy, we use a predictor-corrector scheme in which the predictor is either Fatunla's or Arnoldi's algorithm and the corrector, a fully implicit four-stage Radau IIA method of order 7. In this contribution, we consider two physical processes. The first one is the ionization of an atomic system by a short and intense electromagnetic pulse; the atomic systems include a one-dimensional Gaussian model potential as well as atomic hydrogen and helium, both in full dimensionality. The second process is the decoherence of two-electron quantum states when a time-independent perturbation is applied to a planar two-electron quantum dot where both electrons are confined in an anharmonic potential. Even though the Hamiltonian of this system is time independent the corresponding differential equation shows a striking stiffness which makes the time integration extremely difficult. In the case of the one-dimensional Gaussian potential we discuss in detail the possibility of monitoring the time step for both explicit algorithms. In the other physical situations that are much more demanding in term of computations, we show that the accuracy of both algorithms depends strongly on the degree</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=box&pg=5&id=EJ1014570','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=box&pg=5&id=EJ1014570"><span>Three-Dimensional Visualization of <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> for Rotating Molecule: Plot of Spherical Harmonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Teramae, Hiroyuki; Nagashima, Umpei</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>At an early stage of learning quantum chemistry, undergraduate students usually encounter the concepts of the particle in a box, the harmonic oscillator, and then the particle on a sphere. Rotational levels of a diatomic molecule can be well approximated by the energy levels of the particle on a sphere. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the particle in a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993ADNDT..54....1G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993ADNDT..54....1G"><span>Orbital and Total Atomic Momentum Expectation Values with Roothaan-Hartree-Fock <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>García de la Vega, J. M.; Miguel, B.</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>Orbital and total momentum expectation values are computed using the Roothaan-Hartree-Fock <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of Clementi and Roetti. These values are calculated analytically and may be used to study the quality of basis sets. Tabulations for ground and excited states of atoms from Z = 2 to Z = 54 are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=192783&keyword=numerical+AND+methods+AND+application&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90806395&CFTOKEN=93168155','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=192783&keyword=numerical+AND+methods+AND+application&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90806395&CFTOKEN=93168155"><span>Frequency-Domain Green's <span class="hlt">Functions</span> for Radar <span class="hlt">Waves</span> in Heterogeneous 2.5D Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Green’s <span class="hlt">functions</span> for radar <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating in heterogeneous media may be calculated in the frequency domain using a hybrid of two numerical methods. The model is defined in the Cartesian coordinate system, and its electromagnetic properties may vary in the x and z directions, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21293358','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21293358"><span>The Use of the Information <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> in a Drift Dependent Option Price: A Simple Example</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Haven, Emmanuel</p> <p>2009-03-10</p> <p>This paper briefly describes how a drift-dependent option price is obtained, following the work of Tan. We briefly argue how the information <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> concept, which has now been used in various financial settings, can be used in this type of option price.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ237412.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ237412.pdf"><span>Alternative Form of the Hydrogenic <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> for an Extended, Uniformly Charged Nucleus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ley-Koo, E.; And Others</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Presented are forms of harmonic oscillator attraction and Coulomb <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> which can be explicitly constructed and which lead to numerical results for the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the atomic system. The Schrodinger equation and its solution and specific cases of muonic atoms illustrating numerical calculations are included.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMPSo..99..272G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JMPSo..99..272G"><span>Nonlinear <span class="hlt">waves</span> in lattice materials: Adaptively augmented directivity and <span class="hlt">functionality</span> enhancement by modal mixing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ganesh, R.; Gonella, S.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The motive of this work is to understand the complex spatial characteristics of finite-amplitude elastic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in periodic structures and leverage the unique opportunities offered by nonlinearity to activate complementary <span class="hlt">functionalities</span> and design adaptive spatial <span class="hlt">wave</span> manipulators. The underlying assumption is that the magnitude of <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation is small with respect to the length scale of the structure under consideration, albeit large enough to elicit the effects of finite deformation. We demonstrate that the interplay of dispersion, nonlinearity and modal complexity involved in the generation and propagation of higher harmonics gives rise to secondary <span class="hlt">wave</span> packets that feature multiple characteristics, one of which conforms to the dispersion relation of the corresponding linear structure. This provides an opportunity to engineer desired <span class="hlt">wave</span> characteristics through a geometric and topological design of the unit cell, and results in the ability to activate complementary <span class="hlt">functionalities</span>, typical of high frequency regimes, while operating at low frequencies of excitation - an effect seldom observed in linear periodic structures. The ability to design adaptive switches is demonstrated here using lattice configurations whose response is characterized by geometric and/or material nonlinearities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21115744','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21115744"><span>Executive <span class="hlt">function</span> following child stroke: the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of lesion location.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Long, Brian; Spencer-Smith, Megan M; Jacobs, Rani; Mackay, Mark; Leventer, Richard; Barnes, Chris; Anderson, Vicki</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Child stroke is a major cause of death in children, although limited information exists on neurobehavioral <span class="hlt">functioning</span> of stroke survivors. Executive <span class="hlt">function</span> (important for goal-directed behavior) is thought to be vulnerable to early insults such as stroke because of its widespread representation in the immature brain. This study investigated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of lesion location on executive skills. Twenty-eight children diagnosed with stroke at least 18 months before assessment were recruited. Lesion characteristics were coded from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Neurobehavioral assessment focused on cognitive and everyday executive skills. Deficits were found in the context of overall normal intellectual <span class="hlt">functioning</span> (M = 91.60; SD = 19.40). Generally, insults involving frontal and extra-frontal regions <span class="hlt">impacted</span> equally on cognitive performance. Everyday deficits were marginally more prominent following frontal insult. Subcortical frontal lesions were associated with impairments in everyday executive skills. Results provide further support for the diffuse representation of executive <span class="hlt">function</span> in the immature brain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25669504','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25669504"><span>Comparing thermal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods for multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree simulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lorenz, U; Saalfrank, P</p> <p>2014-01-28</p> <p>We compare two methods for creating stochastic temperature <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that can be used for Multi-Configuration Time-Dependent Hartree (MCTDH) simulations. In the first method, the MCTDH coefficients are chosen randomly, while the other method uses a single Hartree product of random single-particle <span class="hlt">functions</span> (SPFs). We find that using random SPFs dramatically improves convergence for a model system for surface sticking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255217','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255217"><span>Comparing thermal <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods for multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lorenz, U.; Saalfrank, P.</p> <p>2014-01-28</p> <p>We compare two methods for creating stochastic temperature <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> that can be used for Multi-Configuration Time-Dependent Hartree (MCTDH) simulations. In the first method, the MCTDH coefficients are chosen randomly, while the other method uses a single Hartree product of random single-particle <span class="hlt">functions</span> (SPFs). We find that using random SPFs dramatically improves convergence for a model system for surface sticking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017FBS....58...51G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017FBS....58...51G"><span>Three-Body <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> in the Continuum: Application to the Repulsive Coulomb Case</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garrido, E.; Kievsky, A.; Viviani, M.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>In this work we describe a method that permits to obtain full three-body continuum <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> regardless the short- or long-range character of the two-body potentials involved. Within this method all the possible incoming channels are automatically taken into account. When applied to systems where only the repulsive Coulomb interaction enters the method provides the corresponding regular three-body Coulomb <span class="hlt">functions</span>, from which their irregular partners can be obtained.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4431247','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4431247"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Monitoring in Soil Using a Dynamic Fiber Sensor Based on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cui, Qingsong; Pamukcu, Sibel; Pervizpour, Mesut</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> response of soil due to a ball drop is monitored on a 30.5 cm by 30.5 cm square soil box using a fiber sensor with dynamic strain sensing capability. The experiments are conducted in real time using a simple one-laser one-modulator configuration with stimulated Brillouin scattering. The embedded BOTDA sensor grid successfully monitored the distribution and evolution of the inner strains of a sand bed during a mass <span class="hlt">impact</span> on its surface. The measurement of the distributed dynamic strains was possible in several milliseconds and with 1 cm actual location resolution. This paper presents a time-domain signal analysis utilized for determining the dynamic strains in embedded fiber sensor. The results demonstrate the method to be a promising one for detection of subsurface vibration and movement in geotechnical Structure Health Monitoring (SHM). PMID:25856327</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25856327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25856327"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> monitoring in soil using a dynamic fiber sensor based on stimulated brillouin scattering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cui, Qingsong; Pamukcu, Sibel; Pervizpour, Mesut</p> <p>2015-04-08</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">wave</span> response of soil due to a ball drop is monitored on a 30.5 cm by 30.5 cm square soil box using a fiber sensor with dynamic strain sensing capability. The experiments are conducted in real time using a simple one-laser one-modulator configuration with stimulated Brillouin scattering. The embedded BOTDA sensor grid successfully monitored the distribution and evolution of the inner strains of a sand bed during a mass <span class="hlt">impact</span> on its surface. The measurement of the distributed dynamic strains was possible in several milliseconds and with 1 cm actual location resolution. This paper presents a time-domain signal analysis utilized for determining the dynamic strains in embedded fiber sensor. The results demonstrate the method to be a promising one for detection of subsurface vibration and movement in geotechnical Structure Health Monitoring (SHM).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CMaPh.342..965G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CMaPh.342..965G"><span>Universal Probability Distribution for the <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> of a Quantum System Entangled with its Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goldstein, Sheldon; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Mastrodonato, Christian; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghì, Nino</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>A quantum system (with Hilbert space {H}1) entangled with its environment (with Hilbert space {H}2) is usually not attributed to a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> but only to a reduced density matrix {ρ1}. Nevertheless, there is a precise way of attributing to it a random <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> {ψ1}, called its conditional <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, whose probability distribution {μ1} depends on the entangled <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> {ψ in H1 ⊗ H2} in the Hilbert space of system and environment together. It also depends on a choice of orthonormal basis of H2 but in relevant cases, as we show, not very much. We prove several universality (or typicality) results about {μ1}, e.g., that if the environment is sufficiently large then for every orthonormal basis of H2, most entangled states {ψ} with given reduced density matrix {ρ1} are such that {μ1} is close to one of the so-called GAP (Gaussian adjusted projected) measures, {GAP(ρ1)}. We also show that, for most entangled states {ψ} from a microcanonical subspace (spanned by the eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian with energies in a narrow interval {[E, E+ δ E]}) and most orthonormal bases of H2, {μ1} is close to {GAP({tr}2 ρ_{mc})} with {ρ_{mc}} the normalized projection to the microcanonical subspace. In particular, if the coupling between the system and the environment is weak, then {μ1} is close to {GAP(ρ_β)} with {ρ_β} the canonical density matrix on H1 at inverse temperature {β=β(E)}. This provides the mathematical justification of our claim in Goldstein et al. (J Stat Phys 125: 1193-1221, 2006) that GAP measures describe the thermal equilibrium distribution of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..SHK.Y6004E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..SHK.Y6004E"><span>Development of a shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> adhesion test for composite bonds by laser pulsed and mechanical <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ecault, Romain; Boustie, Michel; Touchard, Fabienne; Arrigoni, Michel; Berthe, Laurent; CNRS Collaboration</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Evaluating the bonding quality of composite material is becoming one of the main challenges faced by aeronautic industries. This work aims the development of a technique using shock <span class="hlt">wave</span>, which would enable to quantify the bonding mechanical quality. Laser shock experiments were carried out. This technique enables high tensile stress generation in the thickness of composite bond without any mechanical contact. The resulting damage has been quantified using different method such as confocal microscopy, ultrasound and cross section observation. The discrimination between a correct bond and a weak bond was possible thanks to these experiments. Nevertheless, laser sources are not well adapted for optimization of such a test since it has often fixed parameters. That is why mechanical <span class="hlt">impacts</span> bonded composites were also performed in this work. By changing the thickness of aluminum projectiles, the tensile stresses generated by the shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation were moved toward the composite/bond interface. The observations made prove that the optimization of the technique is possible. The key parameters for the development of a bonding test using shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> have been identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.500k2022E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.500k2022E"><span>Development of a shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> adhesion test for composite bonds by pulsed laser and mechanical <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ecault, R.; Boustie, M.; Touchard, F.; Arrigoni, M.; Berthe, L.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Evaluating the bonding quality of composite material is becoming one of the main challenges faced by aeronautic industries. This work aims to the development of a technique using shock <span class="hlt">wave</span>, which would enable to quantify the bonding mechanical quality. Laser shock experiments were carried out. This technique enables high tensile stress generation in the thickness of composite bonds. The resulting damage has been quantified using different methods such as confocal microscopy, ultrasound and cross section observation. The discrimination between a correct bond and a weak bond was possible thanks to these experiments. Nevertheless, laser sources are not well adapted for optimization of such a test because of often fixed settings. That is why mechanical <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on bonded composites were also performed in this work. By changing the thickness of aluminum projectiles, the generated tensile stresses by the shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation were moved toward the composite/bond interface. The made observations prove that the technique optimization is possible. The key parameters for the development of a bonding test using shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> have been identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5036765','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5036765"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Heat <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Definitions on the Added Effect of Heat <span class="hlt">Waves</span> on Cardiovascular Mortality in Beijing, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dong, Wentan; Zeng, Qiang; Ma, Yue; Li, Guoxing; Pan, Xiaochuan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> are associated with increased mortality, however, few studies have examined the added effect of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Moreover, there is limited evidence for the influence of different heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> definitions (HWs) on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, the capital of China. The aim of this study was to find the best HW definitions for cardiovascular mortality, and we examined the effect modification by an individual characteristic on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, a typical northern city in China. We applied a Poisson generalized additive approach to estimate the differences in cardiovascular mortality during heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> (using 12 HWs) compared with non-heat-<span class="hlt">wave</span> days in Beijing from 2006 to 2009. We also validated the model fit by checking the residuals to ensure that the autocorrelation was successfully removed. In addition, the effect modifications by individual characteristics were explored in different HWs. Our results showed that the associations between heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> and cardiovascular mortality differed from different HWs. HWs using the 93th percentile of the daily average temperature (27.7 °C) and a duration ≥5 days had the greatest risk, with an increase of 18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 6%, 31%) in the overall population, 24% (95% CI: 10%, 39%) in an older group (ages ≥65 years), and 22% (95% CI: 3%, 44%) in a female group. The added effect of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> was apparent after 5 consecutive heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> days for the overall population and the older group. Females and the elderly were at higher risk than males and younger subjects (ages <65 years). Our findings suggest that heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> definitions play a significant role in the relationship between heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> and cardiovascular mortality. Using a suitable definition may have implications for designing local heat early warning systems and protecting the susceptible populations during heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. PMID:27657103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27657103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27657103"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Heat <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Definitions on the Added Effect of Heat <span class="hlt">Waves</span> on Cardiovascular Mortality in Beijing, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dong, Wentan; Zeng, Qiang; Ma, Yue; Li, Guoxing; Pan, Xiaochuan</p> <p>2016-09-21</p> <p>Heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> are associated with increased mortality, however, few studies have examined the added effect of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Moreover, there is limited evidence for the influence of different heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> definitions (HWs) on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, the capital of China. The aim of this study was to find the best HW definitions for cardiovascular mortality, and we examined the effect modification by an individual characteristic on cardiovascular mortality in Beijing, a typical northern city in China. We applied a Poisson generalized additive approach to estimate the differences in cardiovascular mortality during heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> (using 12 HWs) compared with non-heat-<span class="hlt">wave</span> days in Beijing from 2006 to 2009. We also validated the model fit by checking the residuals to ensure that the autocorrelation was successfully removed. In addition, the effect modifications by individual characteristics were explored in different HWs. Our results showed that the associations between heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> and cardiovascular mortality differed from different HWs. HWs using the 93th percentile of the daily average temperature (27.7 °C) and a duration ≥5 days had the greatest risk, with an increase of 18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 6%, 31%) in the overall population, 24% (95% CI: 10%, 39%) in an older group (ages ≥65 years), and 22% (95% CI: 3%, 44%) in a female group. The added effect of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> was apparent after 5 consecutive heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> days for the overall population and the older group. Females and the elderly were at higher risk than males and younger subjects (ages <65 years). Our findings suggest that heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> definitions play a significant role in the relationship between heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> and cardiovascular mortality. Using a suitable definition may have implications for designing local heat early warning systems and protecting the susceptible populations during heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24964297','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24964297"><span>Harvesting broadband kinetic <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy from mechanical triggering/vibration and water <span class="hlt">waves</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wen, Xiaonan; Yang, Weiqing; Jing, Qingshen; Wang, Zhong Lin</p> <p>2014-07-22</p> <p>We invented a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) that is based on a wavy-structured Cu-Kapton-Cu film sandwiched between two flat nanostructured PTFE films for harvesting energy due to mechanical vibration/<span class="hlt">impacting</span>/compressing using the triboelectrification effect. This structure design allows the TENG to be self-restorable after <span class="hlt">impact</span> without the use of extra springs and converts direct <span class="hlt">impact</span> into lateral sliding, which is proved to be a much more efficient friction mode for energy harvesting. The working mechanism has been elaborated using the capacitor model and finite-element simulation. Vibrational energy from 5 to 500 Hz has been harvested, and the generator's resonance frequency was determined to be ∼100 Hz at a broad full width at half-maximum of over 100 Hz, producing an open-circuit voltage of up to 72 V, a short-circuit current of up to 32 μA, and a peak power density of 0.4 W/m(2). Most importantly, the wavy structure of the TENG can be easily packaged for harvesting the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy from water <span class="hlt">waves</span>, clearly establishing the principle for ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy harvesting. Considering the advantages of TENGs, such as cost-effectiveness, light weight, and easy scalability, this approach might open the possibility for obtaining green and sustainable energy from the ocean using nanostructured materials. Lastly, different ways of agitating water were studied to trigger the packaged TENG. By analyzing the output signals and their corresponding fast Fourier transform spectra, three ways of agitation were evidently distinguished from each other, demonstrating the potential of the TENG for hydrological analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1083482.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1083482.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Functional</span> <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Adult Literacy Programme on Rural Women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mbah, Blessing Akaraka</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This study assessed the <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of adult literacy programme among rural women participants in Ishielu Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study was made up of 115 adult instructors and 2,408 adult learners giving a total of 2,623. The sample…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MAR.D1002H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MAR.D1002H"><span>Density <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Study of the Transport and Electronic Properties of <span class="hlt">Waved</span> Graphene Nanoribbons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hammouri, Mahmoud; Vasiliev, Igor</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>First principles ab initio calculations are employed to study the electronic and transport properties of <span class="hlt">waved</span> graphene nanoribbons. Our calculations are performed using the SIESTA and TRANSIESTA density <span class="hlt">functional</span> electronic structure codes. We find that the band gaps of graphene nanoribbons with symmetrical edges change very slightly with the increasing compression, whereas the band gaps of nanoribbons with asymmetrical edges change significantly. The computed IV-characteristics of the <span class="hlt">waved</span> graphene nanoribbons with different compression ratios reveal the effect of compression on the transport properties of graphene nanoribbons. Supported by NMSU GREG Award and by NSF CHE-1112388.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..70..122D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..70..122D"><span>Lamb <span class="hlt">wave</span> Propagation in <span class="hlt">Functionally</span> Graded Piezoelectric Material Created by Internal Temperature Gradient</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dammak, Y.; Thomas, J. H.; Ghozlen, M. H. Ben</p> <p></p> <p>This work presents a theoretical study of the propagation behavior of lamb <span class="hlt">wave</span> in a <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded piezoelectric material (FGPM). The piezoelectric material is polarized when the six fold symmetry axis is put along the propagation direction x1 and the material properties change gradually perpendicularly to the plate. The FGPM behavior is created by forming a temperature variation across the plate. The ordinary differential equation (ODE) and the Stiffness Matrix Method (SMM) are used to investigate the propagation of the lowest-order symmetric (S0) and antisymmetric (A0) Lamb <span class="hlt">wave</span> modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S31C2358K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S31C2358K"><span>Preliminary Results for Crustal Structure in Southeastern Africa from P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> Receiver <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kachingwe, M.; Nyblade, A.; Mulibo, G. D.; Mulowezi, A.; Kunkuta, E.; De Magalhães, V.; Wiens, D. A.; Wysession, M. E.; Julia, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The crustal structure of southeastern Africa is investigated by modeling P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> using H-k stacking and joint inversion methods. P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> are analyzed for 29 broadband seismic stations in Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique. Estimates for the Moho depth and Poisson's ratio are determined from H-k stacking, and estimates for the shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity are determined by the joint inversion of receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> and surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> dispersion. Preliminary results show that Moho depths beneath southeastern Africa range from 32 km to 51 km. Thicker crust is found in Proterozoic terrains, such as the Irumide Belt, while thinner crust is found in reworked Archean terrains, such as the Bangweulu Block. These results are consistent with previous studies and global averages for Precambrian terrains. The preliminary results also show a range of Poisson's ratios from 0.2 to 0.3. These new results for southeastern Africa are being combined with similar results from elsewhere in eastern and southern Africa to improve our understanding of African crustal structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JAP....77.2889C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JAP....77.2889C"><span>Field representations in uniaxial bianisotropic-ferrite medium by cylindrical vector <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Dajun; Lin, Weigan; Zhao, Yushen</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>The uniaxial bianisotropic-ferrite medium is a generalization of the well-studied magnetically biased ferrite and uniaxial material. It can be manufactured either by immersing randomly oriented short helices and Ω-shaped particles in a magnetically biased ferrite, or by arranging short conductive helices in a magnetized ferrite in a certain manner. It has potential applications in microwave technology, antenna design, and antireflection shielding. In the present consideration, based on the concept of characteristic <span class="hlt">waves</span> and the method of angular spectral expansion, field representations in uniaxial bianisotropic-ferrite medium are developed. The analysis reveals the solutions of source-free Maxwell's equations for uniaxial bianisotropic-ferrite medium can be represented in sum-integral forms of the circular cylindrical vector <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The addition theorem of vector <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for uniaxial bianisotropic-ferrite medium can be straightforwardly derived from that of vector <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> for isotropic medium. An application of the proposed theory in scattering is presented to show how to use these formulations in a practical way.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSH41B1788L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMSH41B1788L"><span>Kinetic Alfvén <span class="hlt">wave</span> and ion velocity distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the solar wind</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, X.; Lu, Q.; Chen, Y.; Li, B.; Xia, L.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Using 1D test particle simulations, the effect of a kinetic Alfvén <span class="hlt">wave</span> on the velocity distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> of protons in the collisionless solar wind is investigated. We first use linear Vlasov theory to obtain the property of a kinetic Alfvén <span class="hlt">wave</span> numerically (the <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagates in the direction almost perpendicular to the background magnetic field). We then numerically simulate how the <span class="hlt">wave</span> will shape the proton velocity distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>. It is found that Landau resonance may be able to generate two components in the initially Maxwellian proton velocity distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>: a tenuous beam component along the direction of the background magnetic field and a core component. The streaming speed of the beam relative to the core proton component is about 1.2 -- 1.3 Alfvén speed. However, no perpendicular ion heating is observed from the simulation. Reference: Li, X., Lu, Q.M., Chen, Y., Li, B., Xia, L.D., ApJ, 719, L190, 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2938863','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2938863"><span>Enhancing Slow <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Sleep with Sodium Oxybate Reduces the Behavioral and Physiological <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Sleep Loss</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Walsh, James K.; Hall-Porter, Janine M.; Griffin, Kara S.; Dodson, Ehren R.; Forst, Elizabeth H.; Curry, Denise T.; Eisenstein, Rhody D.; Schweitzer, Paula K.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Study Objectives: To investigate whether enhancement of slow <span class="hlt">wave</span> sleep (SWS) with sodium oxybate reduces the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sleep deprivation. Design: Double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled design Setting: Sleep research laboratory Participants: Fifty-eight healthy adults (28 placebo, 30 sodium oxybate), ages 18-50 years. Interventions: A 5-day protocol included 2 screening/baseline nights and days, 2 sleep deprivation nights, each followed by a 3-h daytime (08:00-11:00) sleep opportunity and a recovery night. Sodium oxybate or placebo was administered prior to each daytime sleep period. Multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), psychomotor vigilance test (PVT), Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), and Profile of Mood States were administered during waking hours. Measurements and Results: During daytime sleep, the sodium oxybate group had more SWS, more EEG spectral power in the 1-9 Hz range, and less REM. Mean MSLT latency was longer for the sodium oxybate group on the night following the first daytime sleep period and on the day following the second day sleep period. Median PVT reaction time was faster in the sodium oxybate group following the second day sleep period. The change from baseline in SWS was positively correlated with the change in MSLT and KSS. During recovery sleep the sodium oxybate group had less TST, SWS, REM, and slow <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity (SWA) than the placebo group. Conclusions: Pharmacological enhancement of SWS with sodium oxybate resulted in a reduced response to sleep loss on measures of alertness and attention. In addition, SWS enhancement during sleep restriction appears to result in a reduced homeostatic response to sleep loss. Citation: Walsh JK; Hall-Porter JM; Griffin KS; Dodson ER; Forst EH; Curry DT; Eisenstein RD; Schweitzer PK. Enhancing slow <span class="hlt">wave</span> sleep with sodium oxybate reduces the behavioral and physiological <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sleep loss. SLEEP 2010;33(9):1217-1225. PMID:20857869</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRG..117.2029H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRG..117.2029H"><span>Catastrophic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of typhoon <span class="hlt">waves</span> on coral communities in the Ryukyu Islands under global warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hongo, Chuki; Kawamata, Hideki; Goto, Kazuhisa</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Typhoon-generated storm <span class="hlt">waves</span> generally cause mechanical damage to coral communities on present-day reefs, and the magnitude and extent of damage is predicted to increase in the near future as a result of global warming. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of potential future scenarios of reef ecosystems is of prime interest. This study assesses the current status of coral communities on Ibaruma reef, Ryukyu Islands, on the basis of field observations, engineering and fluid dynamic models, and calculations of <span class="hlt">wave</span> motion, and predicts the potential effects of a super-extreme typhoon (incident <span class="hlt">wave</span> height,H = 20 m; <span class="hlt">wave</span> period, T = 20 s) on the reef. On the present-day reef, massive corals occur in shallow lagoons and tabular corals occur from the reef crest to the reef slope. The observed distribution of corals, which is frequently attacked by moderate (H = 10 m, T = 10 s) and extreme (H = 10 m, T = 15 s) typhoons, is consistent with the predictions of engineering models. Moreover, this study indicates that if a super-extreme typhoon attacks the reef in the near future, massive corals will survive in the shallow lagoons but tabular corals on the reef crest and reef slope will be severely <span class="hlt">impacted</span>. The findings imply that super-extreme typhoons will cause a loss of species diversity, as the tabular corals are important reef builders and are critical to the maintenance of reef ecosystems. Consequently, reef restoration is a key approach to maintaining reef ecosystems in the wake of super-extreme typhoons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160007473&hterms=proton&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dproton','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160007473&hterms=proton&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dproton"><span>A Proton-Cyclotron <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Storm Generated by Unstable Proton Distribution <span class="hlt">Functions</span> in the Solar Wind</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wicks, R. T.; Alexander, R. L.; Stevens, M.; Wilson, L. B., III; Moya, P. S.; Vinas, A.; Jian, L. K.; Roberts, D. A.; O’Modhrain, S.; Gilbert, J. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We use audification of 0.092 seconds cadence magnetometer data from the Wind spacecraft to identify <span class="hlt">waves</span> with amplitudes greater than 0.1 nanoteslas near the ion gyrofrequency (approximately 0.1 hertz) with duration longer than 1 hour during 2008. We present one of the most common types of event for a case study and find it to be a proton-cyclotron <span class="hlt">wave</span> storm, coinciding with highly radial magnetic field and a suprathermal proton beam close in density to the core distribution itself. Using linear Vlasov analysis, we conclude that the long-duration, large-amplitude <span class="hlt">waves</span> are generated by the instability of the proton distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>. The origin of the beam is unknown, but the radial field period is found in the trailing edge of a fast solar wind stream and resembles other events thought to be caused by magnetic field footpoint motion or interchange reconnection between coronal holes and closed field lines in the corona.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21366652','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21366652"><span><span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of a microwave-driven Bose-Einstein magnon condensate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rezende, Sergio M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>It has been observed experimentally that a magnon gas in a film of yttrium-iron garnet at room temperature driven by a microwave field exhibits Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) when the driving power exceeds a critical value. In a previous paper we presented a model for the dynamics of the magnon system in <span class="hlt">wave</span>-vector space that provides firm theoretical support for the formation of the BEC. Here we show that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of the magnon condensate in configuration space satisfies a Gross-Pitaevskii equation similarly to other BEC systems. The theory is consistent with the previous model in <span class="hlt">wave</span>-vector space, and its results are in qualitative agreement with recent measurements of the spatial distribution of the magnon condensate driven by a nonuniform microwave field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4802343','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4802343"><span>Multi-spectral Metasurface for Different <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Control of Reflection <span class="hlt">Waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Cheng; Pan, Wenbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Xiangang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Metasurface have recently generated much interest due to its strong manipulation of electromagnetic <span class="hlt">wave</span> and its easy fabrication compared to bulky metamaterial. Here, we propose the design of a multi-spectral metasurface that can achieve beam deflection and broadband diffusion simultaneously at two different frequency bands. The metasurface is composed of two-layered metallic patterns backed by a metallic ground plane. The top-layer metasurface utilizes the cross-line structures with two different dimensions for producing 0 and π reflection phase response, while the bottom-layer metasurface is realized by a topological morphing of the I-shaped patterns for creating the gradient phase distribution. The whole metasurface is demonstrated to independently control the reflected <span class="hlt">waves</span> to realize different <span class="hlt">functions</span> at two bands when illuminated by a normal linear-polarized <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Both simulation and experimental results show that the beam deflection is achieved at K-band with broadband diffusion at X-Ku band. PMID:27001206</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22490071','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22490071"><span>Dust heating by Alfvén <span class="hlt">waves</span> using non-Maxwellian distribution <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zubia, K.; Shah, H. A.; Yoon, P. H.</p> <p>2015-08-15</p> <p>Quasilinear theory is employed in order to evaluate the resonant heating rate by Alfvén <span class="hlt">waves</span>, of multiple species dust particles in a hot, collisionless, and magnetized plasma, with the underlying assumption that the dust velocity distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> can be modeled by a generalized (r, q) distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>. The kinetic linear dispersion relation for the electromagnetic dust cyclotron Alfvén <span class="hlt">waves</span> is derived, and the dependence of the heating rate on the magnetic field, mass, and density of the dust species is subsequently investigated. The heating rate and its dependence on the spectral indices r and q of the distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> are also investigated. It is found that the heating is sensitive to negative value of spectral index r.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.tmp...48M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PApGe.tmp...48M"><span>The Uniqueness of Single Data <span class="hlt">Function</span>, Multiple Model <span class="hlt">Functions</span>, Inverse Problems Including the Rayleigh <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dispersion Problem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Menke, William</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>We prove that the problem of inverting Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> phase velocity <span class="hlt">functions</span> c( k ) , where k is wavenumber, for density ρ ( z ) , rigidity μ ( z ) and Lamé parameter λ ( z ) , where z is depth, is fully non-unique, at least in the highly-idealized case where the base Earth model is an isotropic half space. The model <span class="hlt">functions</span> completely trade off. This is one special case of a common inversion scenario in which one seeks to determine several model <span class="hlt">functions</span> from a single data <span class="hlt">function</span>. We explore the circumstances under which this broad class of problems is unique, starting with very simple scenarios, building up to the somewhat more complicated (and common) case where data and model <span class="hlt">functions</span> are related by convolutions, and then finally, to scale-independent problems (which include the Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> problem). The idealized cases that we examine analytically provide insight into the kinds of nonuniqueness that are inherent in the much more complicated problems encountered in modern geophysical imaging (though they do not necessarily provide methods for solving those problems). We also define what is meant by a Backus and Gilbert resolution kernel in this kind of inversion and show under what circumstances a unique localized average of a single model <span class="hlt">function</span> can be constructed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034716','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034716"><span>Frequency-domain Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> for radar <span class="hlt">waves</span> in heterogeneous 2.5D media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ellefsen, K.J.; Croize, D.; Mazzella, A.T.; McKenna, J.R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> for radar <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating in heterogeneous 2.5D media might be calculated in the frequency domain using a hybrid method. The model is defined in the Cartesian coordinate system, and its electromagnetic properties might vary in the x- and z-directions, but not in the y-direction. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> propagation in the x- and z-directions is simulated with the finite-difference method, and <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation in the y-direction is simulated with an analytic <span class="hlt">function</span>. The absorbing boundaries on the finite-difference grid are perfectly matched layers that have been modified to make them compatible with the hybrid method. The accuracy of these numerical Greens <span class="hlt">functions</span> is assessed by comparing them with independently calculated Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span>. For a homogeneous model, the magnitude errors range from -4.16% through 0.44%, and the phase errors range from -0.06% through 4.86%. For a layered model, the magnitude errors range from -2.60% through 2.06%, and the phase errors range from -0.49% through 2.73%. These numerical Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span> might be used for forward modeling and full waveform inversion. ?? 2009 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T11D2915C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T11D2915C"><span>The structure of continental crust: comparison of body <span class="hlt">wave</span> apparent incidence angle and receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cunningham, E. E.; Lekic, V.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The dense coverage of the EarthScope USArray presents an unprecedented opportunity to systematically investigate the structure of the continental crust across different tectonic regimes. Receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis of body <span class="hlt">wave</span> arrivals can isolate converted phases (Ps or Sp) produced across velocity discontinuities beneath a seismometer and constrain relative vertical density and seismic velocity variations. Analysis of receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> computed for stations across the footprint of the USArray can be used to constrain both the strength and topography of crustal interfaces. However, complications in receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis arise from trade-offs among compressional (Vp) and shear (Vs) <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity variations, as well as reverberations caused by sediment-dominated regions within the United States. We show that by measuring the apparent incidence angle of P <span class="hlt">waves</span> - their relative amplitude on the vertical and radial components of the seismogram - computed for different time-windows, we can obtain an estimate of crustal Vs layering at each station. The calculated Vs estimate is in terms of absolute as opposed to relative velocity variations and is independent of Vp. Using synthetic waveforms, we quantify to what extent absolute velocity inferences obtained using the apparent-incidence angle method are affected by multiple reverberations in shallow layers. We then use both synthetics and data to evaluate the potential of the apparent incidence method for constraining anisotropy, and compare it to receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Finally, we compare and contrast results from receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> and apparent incidence angle analyses in different tectonic settings across North America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.130A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.130A"><span>The distribution of <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the inner magnetosphere as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of solar wind parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aryan, Homayon; Balikhin, Michael A.; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Yearby, Keith</p> <p></p> <p>Energetic electrons within the Earth’s radiation belts represent a serious hazard to geostationary satellites. The interactions of electrons with chorus <span class="hlt">waves</span> play an important role in both the acceleration and loss of radiation belt electrons. Studies of the evolution of energetic electron fluxes rely heavily on numerical codes in order to model energy and pitch angle diffusion due to electron interaction with plasma <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the frame of quasilinear approximation. Application of these codes requires knowledge of statistical <span class="hlt">wave</span> models to present <span class="hlt">wave</span> distributions in the magnetosphere. A number of such models are based on CRESS, Cluster, THEMIS and other mission data. These models present <span class="hlt">wave</span> distributions as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of L-shell, magnetic local time, magnetic latitude and geomagnetic activity expressed by geomagnetic indices (Kp or Ae). However, it has been shown by G. Reeves and co-authors that only 50% of geomagnetic storms increase flux of relativistic electrons at GEO while 20% cause a decrease. This emphasizes the importance of including solar wind parameters in addition to geomagnetic indices. The present study examines almost four years (01, January, 2004 to 29, September, 2007) of STAFF (Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuation) data from Double Star TC1 combined with geomagnetic indices and solar wind parameters from OMNI database in order to present a comprehensive model of chorus <span class="hlt">wave</span> intensities as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of L-shell, magnetic local time, magnetic latitude, geomagnetic indices and solar wind parameters. The results show that chorus emission is not only sub-storm dependent but also dependent upon solar wind parameters with solar wind velocity evidently the most influential solar wind parameter. The largest peak intensities are observed for lower band chorus during active conditions, high solar wind velocity, low density and high pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94k5166H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94k5166H"><span>Majorana <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> oscillations, fermion parity switches, and disorder in Kitaev chains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hegde, Suraj S.; Vishveshwara, Smitha</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We study the decay and oscillations of Majorana fermion <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> and ground-state (GS) fermion parity in one-dimensional topological superconducting lattice systems. Using a Majorana transfer matrix method, we find that Majorana <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> properties are encoded in the associated Lyapunov exponent, which in turn is the sum of two independent components: a "superconducting component," which characterizes the gap induced decay, and the "normal component," which determines the oscillations and response to chemical potential configurations. The topological phase transition separating phases with and without Majorana end modes is seen to be a cancellation of these two components. We show that Majorana <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> oscillations are completely determined by an underlying nonsuperconducting tight-binding model and are solely responsible for GS fermion parity switches in finite-sized systems. These observations enable us to analytically chart out <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> oscillations, the resultant GS parity configuration as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of parameter space in uniform wires, and special parity switch points where degenerate zero energy Majorana modes are restored in spite of finite size effects. For disordered wires, we find that band oscillations are completely washed out leading to a second localization length for the Majorana mode and the remnant oscillations are randomized as per Anderson localization physics in normal systems. Our transfer matrix method further allows us to (i) reproduce known results on the scaling of midgap Majorana states and demonstrate the origin of its log-normal distribution, (ii) identify contrasting behavior of disorder-dependent GS parity switches for the cases of even versus odd number of lattice sites, and (iii) chart out the GS parity configuration and associated parity switch points as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of disorder strength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23664225','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23664225"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of severe burns on skeletal muscle mitochondrial <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Porter, Craig; Herndon, David N; Sidossis, Labros S; Børsheim, Elisabet</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Severe burns induce a pathophysiological response that affects almost every physiological system within the body. Inflammation, hypermetabolism, muscle wasting, and insulin resistance are all hallmarks of the pathophysiological response to severe burns, with perturbations in metabolism known to persist for several years post injury. Skeletal muscle is the principal depot of lean tissue within the body and as the primary site of peripheral glucose disposal, plays an important role in metabolic regulation. Following a large burn, skeletal muscle <span class="hlt">functions</span> as and endogenous amino acid store, providing substrates for more pressing <span class="hlt">functions</span>, such as the synthesis of acute phase proteins and the deposition of new skin. Subsequently, burn patients become cachectic, which is associated with poor outcomes in terms of metabolic health and <span class="hlt">functional</span> capacity. While a loss of skeletal muscle contractile proteins per se will no doubt negatively <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">functional</span> capacity, detriments in skeletal muscle quality, i.e. a loss in mitochondrial number and/or <span class="hlt">function</span> may be quantitatively just as important. The goal of this review article is to summarise the current understanding of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of thermal trauma on skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and <span class="hlt">function</span>, to offer direction for future research concerning skeletal muscle mitochondrial <span class="hlt">function</span> in patients with severe burns, and to renew interest in the role of these organelles in metabolic dysfunction following severe burns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4821617B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4821617B"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> upon Venus' thermal structure in the thermosphere based upon VTGCM simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brecht, Amanda; Bougher, Stephen W.; Parkinson, Chris; Shields, Drew; Liu, Hanli</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Observations of the Venusian thermal structure have been conducted by Venus Express (VEx) and its multiple instruments (i.e. SOIR, SPICAV, and VIRTIS). These VEx observations are being combined with ground based observations to create a single comprehensive database. Thus far, these observations are continuing to reveal the significant variability of Venus' upper atmosphere structure, thereby motivating an analysis of the driver(s) of this variability. A likely driver of this variability is <span class="hlt">wave</span> deposition. Evidence of <span class="hlt">waves</span> has been observed, but these <span class="hlt">waves</span> have not been completely analyzed to understand how and where they are important.The Venus Thermospheric General Circulation Model (VTGCM) will be utilized to examine the role planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> play in driving Venus' thermosphere structure and variability (~80 - 200 km). Planetary-scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> (Kelvin and Rossby <span class="hlt">waves</span>) have been incorporated at the lower boundary of the VTGCM. The atmospheric response to these <span class="hlt">waves</span> will be analyzed and presented. Specifically, the simulated thermal structure will be presented with and without planetary scale <span class="hlt">waves</span> (e.g. Kelvin and Rossby <span class="hlt">waves</span>) to (1) characterize the magnitude of change; structural change; and location of greatest <span class="hlt">impact</span> and (2) compare with VEx and ground based observations. Since the thermal structure is strongly dependent on the global circulation, the corresponding wind and density distributions (e.g. CO2 and CO) will also be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Executive+AND+function&pg=5&id=EJ956485','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Executive+AND+function&pg=5&id=EJ956485"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of IQ Discrepancy on Executive <span class="hlt">Function</span> in High-<span class="hlt">Functioning</span> Autism: Insight into Twice Exceptionality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kalbfleisch, M. Layne; Loughan, Ashlee R.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We examined the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of IQ discrepancy (IQD) within (1) and above (1+) one standard deviation on executive <span class="hlt">function</span> in HFA using the BRIEF. We hypothesized that IQD would benefit executive <span class="hlt">function</span>. IQD 1 is hallmarked by deficits in BRIEF indices and subscales inhibit, shift, initiate, working memory, planning and organization, and monitor…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011881','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011881"><span>The seismic response of an aquifer to the propagation of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> generated shock <span class="hlt">wave</span>: A possible trigger of the Martian outflow channels?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Leyva, Ivett A.; Clifford, Stephen M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Aquifer dilation from shock <span class="hlt">waves</span> produced by the 8.4 magnitude Alaskan earthquake of 1964 led to water and sediment ejection from the ground up to 400 km away from the earthquake's epicenter. Groundwater disturbances were observed as far away as Perry, Florida (approximately 5500 km), where well water fluctuations with an amplitude of as much as 2.3 m were reported. The martian cratering record provides evidence that the planet has experienced numerous seismic events of a similar, and often much greater, magnitude. Given this fact, and the photogeologic evidence for abundant water in the early crust, the response of a basalt aquifer to the propagation of compressional <span class="hlt">waves</span> (P-<span class="hlt">waves</span>) produced by <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in the 33-1000 km diameter size range were investigated. The resulting one-dimensional changes in effective stress and pore pressure were calculated - as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of both distance and time - based on the following assumptions: (1) that all of the seismic energy radiated by an <span class="hlt">impact</span> is transmitted as a single compressional <span class="hlt">wave</span>; (2) that both the host rock and groundwater are compressible; and (3) that there is no net flow between the water-filled pores.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25572112','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25572112"><span>Temporomandibular joint disorders' <span class="hlt">impact</span> on pain, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and disability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chantaracherd, P; John, M T; Hodges, J S; Schiffman, E L</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the association between more advanced stages of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) intra-articular disorders ("TMJ intra-articular status"), representing a transition from normal joint structure to TMJ disc displacement with and without reduction (DDwR and DDwoR) to degenerative joint disease (DJD), and patient-reported outcomes of jaw pain, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and disability ("TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span>"). This cross-sectional study included 614 cases from the RDC/TMD Validation Project with at least one temporomandibular disorder (TMD) diagnosis. TMJ intra-articular status was determined by 3 blinded, calibrated radiologists using magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography as one of normal joint structure, DDwR, DDwoR, or DJD, representing the subject's most advanced TMJ diagnosis. TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span> was conceptualized as a latent variable consisting of 1) pain intensity (Characteristic Pain Index from the Graded Chronic Pain Scale [GCPS]), 2) jaw <span class="hlt">function</span> (Jaw <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Limitation Scale), and 3) disability (Disability Points from GCPS). A structural equation model estimated the association of TMJ intra-articular status with the latent measure TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span> as a correlation coefficient in all TMD cases (n = 614) and in cases with a TMD pain diagnosis (n = 500). The correlations between TMJ intra-articular status and TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span> were 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.04 to 0.13) for all TMD cases and 0.07 (95% CI, -0.04 to 0.17) for cases with a pain diagnosis, which are neither statistically significant nor clinically relevant. Conceptualizing worsening of TMJ intra-articular disorders as 4 stages and characterizing <span class="hlt">impact</span> from TMD as a composite of jaw pain, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and disability, this cross-sectional study found no clinically significant association. Models of TMJ intra-articular status other than ours (normal structure → DDwR → DDwoR → DJD) should be explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH53A..08E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNH53A..08E"><span><span class="hlt">Waves</span> generated by Asteroid <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and their effects on US shorelines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ezzedine, S. M.; Miller, P. L.; Dearborn, D. S.; Dennison, D. S.; Glascoe, L. G.; Antoun, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>On February 15, 2013 an undetected ~17-20-m diameter asteroid entered earth's atmosphere and, due to its large entry speed of 18.6 km/s and its shallow entry angle, the asteroid exploded in an airburst over Chelyabinsk, Russia, generating a bright flash, producing many small fragment meteorites and causing a powerful shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> which released the equivalent of ~440 kt TNT of energy. About 16 hours after the Chelyabinsk asteroid, the elongated ~20m by ~40m (~30 m diameter) NEA 2012 DA14 with an estimated mass of 40 kt neared the earth surface at ~28,100km, ~2.2 earth's diameter. These two consecutive events, which were unrelated and had drastically different orbits, generated considerable attention and awareness from the public, confusion among the local residents, and raised the issue of emergency response and preparedness of local, state and government agencies. LLNL and other government agencies have performed numerical simulations of a postulated asteroid <span class="hlt">impact</span> onto the ocean and generated data to support an emergency preparedness exercise. We illustrate the exercise through the application of several codes from source (asteroid entry) to ocean <span class="hlt">impact</span> (splash rim) to <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation, propagation and interaction with the shoreline. Using state-of-the-art high performance computing codes we simulate three <span class="hlt">impact</span> sites; one site is located off the eat coat by Maryland's shoreline and two other sites on the west coast: the San Francisco bay and the Los Angeles bay shorelines, respectively. Simulations were conducted not only under deterministic conditions but also under conditions of uncertainty. Uncertainty assessment of flood hazards zones and structural integrity of infrastructures will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and partially funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL under tracking code 12-ERD</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261712','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261712"><span>Expansion of X-ray form factor for close shell using uncorrelated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>AL-Robayi, Enas M.</p> <p>2013-12-16</p> <p>The atomic scattering factor has been studied for Be+ve, and B+2ve ions using the uncorrelated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> (Hartree-Fock (HF)) for inter particle electronic shells. The physical importance of this factor appears in its relation to several important atomic properties as, the coherent scattering intensity, the total scattering intensity, the incoherent scattering <span class="hlt">function</span>, the coherent scattering cross section, the total incoherent cross section, the nuclear magnetic shielding constant, the geometrical structure factor. Also there is one atomic properties the one particle radial density distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> D(r)has been studied using the partitioning technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22488668','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22488668"><span>Kinetic Alfven <span class="hlt">wave</span> in the presence of kappa distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> in plasma sheet boundary layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shrivastava, G. Ahirwar, G.; Shrivastava, J.</p> <p>2015-07-31</p> <p>The particle aspect approach is adopted to investigate the trajectories of charged particles in the electromagnetic field of kinetic Alfven <span class="hlt">wave</span>. Expressions are found for the dispersion relation, damping/growth rate and associated currents in the presence of kappa distribution <span class="hlt">function</span>. Kinetic effect of electrons and ions are included to study kinetic Alfven <span class="hlt">wave</span> because both are important in the transition region. It is found that the ratio β of electron thermal energy density to magnetic field energy density and the ratio of ion to electron thermal temperature (T{sub i}/T{sub e}), and kappa distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> affect the dispersion relation, damping/growth rate and associated currents in both cases(warm and cold electron limit).The treatment of kinetic Alfven <span class="hlt">wave</span> instability is based on assumption that the plasma consist of resonant and non resonant particles. The resonant particles participate in an energy exchange process, whereas the non resonant particles support the oscillatory motion of the <span class="hlt">wave</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25010084','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25010084"><span>How child's play <span class="hlt">impacts</span> executive <span class="hlt">function</span>--related behaviors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shaheen, Sandra</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Executive <span class="hlt">functions</span> refer to an array of organizing and self-regulating behaviors often associated with maturation of the prefrontal cortex. In fact, young children with rudimentary neurodevelopment of the prefrontal cortex develop ways to inhibit impulses and regulate behavior from a very early age. Can executive <span class="hlt">functioning</span> be <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by intervention, practice, or training? What interventions <span class="hlt">impact</span> development of executive <span class="hlt">function</span> in childhood, and how can these be studied? Several programs are reviewed that propose to positively <span class="hlt">impact</span> executive/self-regulation skills. Evidence-based programs are contrasted with popular programs that have little empirical basis but have apparent wide acceptance by educators and families. As self-regulation has critical implications for later school and life success, interventions may well attenuate the negative consequences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, brain injury, and social stressors. Programs with active play components may be more successful in eliciting improved executive <span class="hlt">function</span> (defined here as self-regulation) because of the importance of motor learning early on and because of the social motivation aspects of learning. Caution is advised in the recommendation of programs where there is little empirical basis to support program claims. Carefully planned outcome studies can help bring the most effective components of programs to the mainstream.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SSRv..tmp...90G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SSRv..tmp...90G"><span>Finite-Difference Modeling of Acoustic and Gravity <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Propagation in Mars Atmosphere: Application to Infrasounds Emitted by Meteor <span class="hlt">Impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garcia, Raphael F.; Brissaud, Quentin; Rolland, Lucie; Martin, Roland; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Spiga, Aymeric; Lognonné, Philippe; Banerdt, Bruce</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The propagation of acoustic and gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> in planetary atmospheres is strongly dependent on both wind conditions and attenuation properties. This study presents a finite-difference modeling tool tailored for acoustic-gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> applications that takes into account the effect of background winds, attenuation phenomena (including relaxation effects specific to carbon dioxide atmospheres) and <span class="hlt">wave</span> amplification by exponential density decrease with height. The simulation tool is implemented in 2D Cartesian coordinates and first validated by comparison with analytical solutions for benchmark problems. It is then applied to surface explosions simulating meteor <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on Mars in various Martian atmospheric conditions inferred from global climate models. The acoustic <span class="hlt">wave</span> travel times are validated by comparison with 2D ray tracing in a windy atmosphere. Our simulations predict that acoustic <span class="hlt">waves</span> generated by <span class="hlt">impacts</span> can refract back to the surface on wind ducts at high altitude. In addition, due to the strong nighttime near-surface temperature gradient on Mars, the acoustic <span class="hlt">waves</span> are trapped in a waveguide close to the surface, which allows a night-side detection of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> at large distances in Mars plains. Such theoretical predictions are directly applicable to future measurements by the INSIGHT NASA Discovery mission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22093281','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22093281"><span>Stigma experiences in bipolar patients: the <span class="hlt">impact</span> upon <span class="hlt">functioning</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thomé, E S; Dargél, A A; Migliavacca, F M; Potter, W A; Jappur, D M C; Kapczinski, F; Ceresér, K M</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of self-rated stigma and <span class="hlt">functioning</span> in patients with bipolar disorder in South Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study. Sixty participants with bipolar disorder were recruited from an outpatient Bipolar Disorder Program. Experiences with and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of perceived stigma were evaluated using the Inventory of Stigmatizing Experiences. <span class="hlt">Functional</span> impairment was assessed with the <span class="hlt">Functioning</span> Assessment Short Test (FAST). Higher scores of self-perceived stigma were correlated with higher FAST scores, indicating more disability. After linear correlation analysis, current depressive symptoms, age at onset of treatment, age at diagnosis and <span class="hlt">functioning</span> were correlated with self-perceived stigma. The study demonstrated a correlation between stigma and poor <span class="hlt">functioning</span> in bipolar disorder. Perceived stigma is really important to individuals with bipolar disorder, both to how they experience their illness and to its results on <span class="hlt">functioning</span>. Potential consequences of such results for mental health care professionals are discussed. Differential clinical features, sociocultural factors and the sample size limit the generalization of the present findings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27051997','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27051997"><span>Dynamics of 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming event and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on cold weather over Eurasia: Role of planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Zelin, Cai; Pogoreltsev, Alexander Ivanovich; Wei, Ke</p> <p>2016-04-07</p> <p>In the present study, we investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of stratospheric planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection on tropospheric weather over Central Eurasia during the 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) event. We analyze EP fluxes and Plumb <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity fluxes to study the two and three dimensional aspects of <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation, respectively. The 2013 SSW event is excited by the combined influence of wavenumber 1 (WN1) and wavenumber 2 (WN2) planetary <span class="hlt">waves</span>, which makes the event an unusual one and seems to have significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on tropospheric weather regime. We observe an extraordinary development of a ridge over the Siberian Tundra and the North Pacific during first development stage (last week of December 2012) and later from the North Atlantic in the second development stage (first week of January 2013), and these <span class="hlt">waves</span> appear to be responsible for the excitation of the WN2 pattern during the SSW. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> packets propagated upward and were then reflected back down to central Eurasia due to strong negative wind shear in the upper stratospheric polar jet, caused by the SSW event. <span class="hlt">Waves</span> that propagated downward led to the formation of a deep trough over Eurasia and brought extreme cold weather over Kazakhstan, the Southern part of Russia and the Northwestern part of China during mid-January 2013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...624174N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...624174N"><span>Dynamics of 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming event and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on cold weather over Eurasia: Role of planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Zelin, Cai; Pogoreltsev, Alexander Ivanovich; Wei, Ke</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In the present study, we investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of stratospheric planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection on tropospheric weather over Central Eurasia during the 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) event. We analyze EP fluxes and Plumb <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity fluxes to study the two and three dimensional aspects of <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation, respectively. The 2013 SSW event is excited by the combined influence of wavenumber 1 (WN1) and wavenumber 2 (WN2) planetary <span class="hlt">waves</span>, which makes the event an unusual one and seems to have significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on tropospheric weather regime. We observe an extraordinary development of a ridge over the Siberian Tundra and the North Pacific during first development stage (last week of December 2012) and later from the North Atlantic in the second development stage (first week of January 2013), and these <span class="hlt">waves</span> appear to be responsible for the excitation of the WN2 pattern during the SSW. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> packets propagated upward and were then reflected back down to central Eurasia due to strong negative wind shear in the upper stratospheric polar jet, caused by the SSW event. <span class="hlt">Waves</span> that propagated downward led to the formation of a deep trough over Eurasia and brought extreme cold weather over Kazakhstan, the Southern part of Russia and the Northwestern part of China during mid-January 2013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4823715','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4823715"><span>Dynamics of 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming event and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on cold weather over Eurasia: Role of planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Zelin, Cai; Pogoreltsev, Alexander Ivanovich; Wei, Ke</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In the present study, we investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of stratospheric planetary <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection on tropospheric weather over Central Eurasia during the 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) event. We analyze EP fluxes and Plumb <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity fluxes to study the two and three dimensional aspects of <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation, respectively. The 2013 SSW event is excited by the combined influence of wavenumber 1 (WN1) and wavenumber 2 (WN2) planetary <span class="hlt">waves</span>, which makes the event an unusual one and seems to have significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on tropospheric weather regime. We observe an extraordinary development of a ridge over the Siberian Tundra and the North Pacific during first development stage (last week of December 2012) and later from the North Atlantic in the second development stage (first week of January 2013), and these <span class="hlt">waves</span> appear to be responsible for the excitation of the WN2 pattern during the SSW. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> packets propagated upward and were then reflected back down to central Eurasia due to strong negative wind shear in the upper stratospheric polar jet, caused by the SSW event. <span class="hlt">Waves</span> that propagated downward led to the formation of a deep trough over Eurasia and brought extreme cold weather over Kazakhstan, the Southern part of Russia and the Northwestern part of China during mid-January 2013. PMID:27051997</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMSA43A1562P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMSA43A1562P"><span>The Transfer <span class="hlt">Function</span> Model (TFM) as a Tool for Simulating Gravity <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Phenomena in the Mesosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Porter, H.; Mayr, H.; Moore, J.; Wilson, S.; Armaly, A.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The Transfer <span class="hlt">Function</span> Model (TFM) is semi-analytical and linear, and it is designed to describe the acoustic gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> (GW) propagating over the globe and from the ground to 600 km under the influence of vertical temperature variations. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> interactions with the flow are not accounted for. With an expansion in terms of frequency-dependent spherical harmonics, the time consuming vertical integration of the conservation equations is reduced to computing the transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> (TF). (The applied lower and upper boundary conditions assure that spurious <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflections will not occur.) The TF describes the dynamical properties of the medium divorced from the complexities of the temporal and horizontal variations of the excitation source. Given the TF, the atmospheric response to a chosen source is then obtained in short order to simulate the GW propagating through the atmosphere over the globe. In the past, this model has been applied to study auroral processes, which produce distinct <span class="hlt">wave</span> phenomena such as: (1) standing lamb modes that propagate horizontally in the viscous medium of the thermosphere, (2) <span class="hlt">waves</span> generated in the auroral oval that experience geometric amplification propagating to the pole where constructive interference generates secondary <span class="hlt">waves</span> that propagate equatorward, (3) ducted modes propagating through the middle atmosphere that leak back into the thermosphere, and (4) GWs reflected from the Earth's surface that reach the thermosphere in a narrow propagation cone. Well-defined spectral features characterize these <span class="hlt">wave</span> modes in the TF to provide analytical understanding. We propose the TFM as a tool for simulating GW in the mesosphere and in particular the features observed in Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC). With present-day computers, it takes less than one hour to compute the TF, so that there is virtually no practical limitation on the source configurations that can be applied and tested in the lower atmosphere. And there is no limitation on</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22489640','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22489640"><span>Metal-ligand delocalization and spin density in the CuCl{sub 2} and [CuCl{sub 4}]{sup 2−} molecules: Some insights from <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Giner, Emmanuel Angeli, Celestino</p> <p>2015-09-28</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to unravel the physical phenomena involved in the calculation of the spin density of the CuCl{sub 2} and [CuCl{sub 4}]{sup 2−} systems using <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods. Various types of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are used here, both variational and perturbative, to analyse the effects <span class="hlt">impacting</span> the spin density. It is found that the spin density on the chlorine ligands strongly depends on the mixing between two types of valence bond structures. It is demonstrated that the main difficulties found in most of the previous studies based on <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> methods come from the fact that each valence bond structure requires a different set of molecular orbitals and that using a unique set of molecular orbitals in a variational procedure leads to the removal of one of them from the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. Starting from these results, a method to compute the spin density at a reasonable computational cost is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.200.1317B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoJI.200.1317B"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of water saturation on seismoelectric transfer <span class="hlt">functions</span>: a laboratory study of coseismic phenomenon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bordes, C.; Sénéchal, P.; Barrière, J.; Brito, D.; Normandin, E.; Jougnot, D.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating in a porous medium, under favourable conditions, generate measurable electromagnetic fields due to electrokinetic effects. It has been proposed, following experimental and numerical studies, that these so-called `seismoelectromagnetic' couplings depend on pore fluid properties. The theoretical frame describing these phenomena are based on the original Biot's theory, assuming that pores are fluid-filled. We study here the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a partially saturated medium on amplitudes of those seismoelectric couplings by comparing experimental data to an effective fluid model. We have built a 1-m-length-scale experiment designed for imbibition and drainage of an homogeneous silica sand; the experimental set-up includes a seismic source, accelerometers, electric dipoles and capacitance probes in order to monitor seismic and seismoelectric fields during water saturation. Apparent velocities and frequency spectra (in the kiloHertz range) are derived from seismic and electrical measurements during experiments in varying saturation conditions. Amplitudes of seismic and seismoelectric <span class="hlt">waves</span> and their ratios (i.e. transfer <span class="hlt">functions</span>) are discussed using a spectral analysis performed by continuous wavelet transform. The experiments reveal that amplitude ratios of seismic to coseismic electric signals remain rather constant as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of the water saturation in the Sw = [0.2-0.9] range, consistently with theoretically predicted transfer <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25969090','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25969090"><span>Travelling-<span class="hlt">wave</span> Mach-Zehnder modulators <span class="hlt">functioning</span> as optical isolators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dong, Po</p> <p>2015-04-20</p> <p>On-chip optical isolators not requiring the use of magneto-optical materials has become a long-standing challenge in integrated optics. Here, we demonstrate that a traditional travelling-<span class="hlt">wave</span> modulator can effectively <span class="hlt">function</span> as an optical isolator, when driven under a prescribed modulation condition. By using an off-shelve lithium niobate modulator, we achieve more than 12.5 dB isolation over an 11.3-THz bandwidth at telecommunication wavelengths with a fiber-to-fiber insertion loss of 5.5 dB, by employing only a single radio-frequency drive signal. We also verify that the proposed active isolator can be <span class="hlt">functional</span> in a laser system to effectively prevent instability due to strong back reflections. Since travelling-<span class="hlt">wave</span> modulators are common devices in III-V and silicon photonics, our simple but efficient architecture may provide a practical solution to non-reciprocal light routing in photonic integrated circuits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22416138','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22416138"><span>Perturbations in vibrational diatomic spectra: Factorization of the molecular <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lefebvre, R.</p> <p>2015-02-21</p> <p>The coupling between two electronic states of a diatomic molecule may lead to an erratic behaviour of the associated vibrational energies. An example is the homogeneous coupling between the valence b′ state and the Rydberg c′ state of the N{sub 2} molecule, both of symmetry {sup 1}Σ{sub u}{sup +}. The standard treatment of such a situation is to write the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> as a sum of two Born-Oppenheimer products. It has recently been argued [L. S. Cederbaum, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 224110 (2013); N. I. Gidopoulos and E. K. U. Gross, Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A 372, 20130059 (2014)] that even in such a case the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> should be representable as a single product, with an electronic factor depending parametrically on nuclear positions and a nuclear factor. We setup such a representation in the case of the perturbations in the N{sub 2} molecule.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.117h6802H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvL.117h6802H"><span>Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions: Role of Topological Nodes in <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> Overlaps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Zhoushen; Balatsky, Alexander V.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>A sudden quantum quench of a Bloch band from one topological phase toward another has been shown to exhibit an intimate connection with the notion of a dynamical quantum phase transition (DQPT), where the returning probability of the quenched state to the initial state—i.e., the Loschmidt echo—vanishes at critical times {t*}. Analytical results to date are limited to two-band models, leaving the exact relation between topology and DQPT unclear. In this Letter, we show that, for a general multiband system, a robust DQPT relies on the existence of nodes (i.e., zeros) in the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> overlap between the initial band and the postquench energy eigenstates. These nodes are topologically protected if the two participating <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> have distinctive topological indices. We demonstrate these ideas in detail for both one and two spatial dimensions using a three-band generalized Hofstadter model. We also discuss possible experimental observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316303','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316303"><span>Second-order corrections to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> at the origin in muonic hydrogen and pionium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ivanov, Vladimir G.; Korzinin, Evgeny Yu.; Karshenboim, Savely G.</p> <p>2009-07-15</p> <p>Nonrelativistic second-order corrections to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> at the origin in muonic and exotic atoms are considered. The corrections are due to the electronic vacuum polarization. Such corrections are of interest due to various effective approaches, which take into account QED and hadronic effects. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> at the origin plays a key role in the calculation of the pionium lifetime, various finite nuclear size effects, and the hyperfine splitting. The results are obtained for the 1s and 2s states in pionic and muonic hydrogen and deuterium and in pionium, a bound system of {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup -}. Applications to the hyperfine structure and the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen are also considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NJPh...18c3025H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NJPh...18c3025H"><span>Probing <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse models with a classically driven mechanical oscillator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ho, Melvyn; Lafont, Ambroise; Sangouard, Nicolas; Sekatski, Pavel</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We show that the interaction of a pulsed laser light with a mechanical oscillator through the radiation pressure results in an opto-mechanical entangled state in which the photon number is correlated with the oscillator position. Interestingly, the mechanical oscillator can be delocalized over a large range of positions when driven by an intense laser light. This provides a simple yet sensitive method to probe hypothetical post-quantum theories including an explicit <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse model, like the Diosi & Penrose model. We propose an entanglement witness to reveal the quantum nature of this opto-mechanical state as well as an optical technique to record the decoherence of the mechanical oscillator. We also report on a detailed feasibility study giving the experimental challenges that need to be overcome in order to confirm or rule out predictions from explicit <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840019214','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840019214"><span>Measurements of ocean <span class="hlt">wave</span> spectra and modulation transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> with the airborne two frequency scatterometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weissman, D. E.; Johnson, J. W.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The directional spectrum and the microwave modulation transfer <span class="hlt">function</span> of ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span> can be measured with the airborne two frequency scatterometer technique. Similar to tower based observations, the aircraft measurements of the Modulation Transfer <span class="hlt">Function</span> (MTF) show that it is strongly affected by both wind speed and sea state. Also detected are small differences in the magnitudes of the MTF between downwind and upwind radar look directions, and variations with ocean wavenumber. The MTF inferred from the two frequency radar is larger than that measured using single frequency, <span class="hlt">wave</span> orbital velocity techniques such as tower based radars or ROWS measurements from low altitude aircraft. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The ability to measure the ocean directional spectrum with the two frequency scatterometer, with supporting MTF data, is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27588874','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27588874"><span>Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions: Role of Topological Nodes in <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> Overlaps.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Zhoushen; Balatsky, Alexander V</p> <p>2016-08-19</p> <p>A sudden quantum quench of a Bloch band from one topological phase toward another has been shown to exhibit an intimate connection with the notion of a dynamical quantum phase transition (DQPT), where the returning probability of the quenched state to the initial state-i.e., the Loschmidt echo-vanishes at critical times {t^{*}}. Analytical results to date are limited to two-band models, leaving the exact relation between topology and DQPT unclear. In this Letter, we show that, for a general multiband system, a robust DQPT relies on the existence of nodes (i.e., zeros) in the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> overlap between the initial band and the postquench energy eigenstates. These nodes are topologically protected if the two participating <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> have distinctive topological indices. We demonstrate these ideas in detail for both one and two spatial dimensions using a three-band generalized Hofstadter model. We also discuss possible experimental observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CoPhC.212..283S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CoPhC.212..283S"><span>Calculation of the matrix elements of the Coulomb interaction involving relativistic hydrogenic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sarkadi, L.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The program MTRDCOUL [1] calculates the matrix elements of the Coulomb interaction between a charged particle and an atomic electron, ∫ ψf∗ (r) ∣ R - r∣-1ψi(r) d r. Bound-free transitions are considered, and relativistic hydrogenic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are used. In this revised version a bug discovered in the F3Y CPC Program Library subprogram [2] is fixed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005NIMPB.235..105J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005NIMPB.235..105J"><span>Atomic radiative transition probabilities using negative-energy orbitals in fully variational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jitrik, Oliverio; Bunge, Carlos F.</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>Transition probabilities have been computed using a variational many-electron theory [R. Jáuregui, C.F. Bunge, E. Ley-Koo, Phys. Rev. A 55 (1997) 1781] incorporating positive-energy and negative-energy orbitals without ambiguities, and absolutely free from variational collapse. The results agree with experiment and with other calculations based on the no-pair Hamiltonian where ad hoc negative-energy orbitals occur in first-order corrections to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..810..343K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..810..343K"><span>Second entanglement and (re)Born <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in Stochastic Electrodynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kracklauer, A. F.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in Quantum Mechanics has properties that render its physical interpretation unclear. On the one hand, its modulus squared is interpreted as a probability density, but, unlike conventional probabilities, it interacts with the material world. In addition, it is thought to have encapsulated nonlocal correlation and, according to modern thought, parallel information in a manner impossible according to classical physics. In this paper, an extended version of Stochastic Electrodynamics is presented which offers conventional models for these otherwise spooky features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..86c5111S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..86c5111S"><span>Convergence of many-body <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> expansions using a plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> basis: From homogeneous electron gas to solid state systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shepherd, James J.; Grüneis, Andreas; Booth, George H.; Kresse, Georg; Alavi, Ali</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Using the finite simulation-cell homogeneous electron gas (HEG) as a model, we investigate the convergence of the correlation energy to the complete-basis-set (CBS) limit in methods utilizing plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> expansions. Simple analytic and numerical results from second-order Møller-Plesset theory (MP2) suggest a 1/M decay of the basis-set incompleteness error where M is the number of plane <span class="hlt">waves</span> used in the calculation, allowing for straightforward extrapolation to the CBS limit. As we shall show, the choice of basis-set truncation when constructing many-electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> is far from obvious, and here we propose several alternatives based on the momentum transfer vector, which greatly improve the rate of convergence. This is demonstrated for a variety of <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> methods, from MP2 to coupled-cluster doubles theory and the random-phase approximation plus second-order screened exchange. Finite basis-set energies are presented for these methods and compared with exact benchmarks. A transformation can map the orbitals of a general solid state system onto the HEG plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> basis and thereby allow application of these methods to more realistic physical problems. We demonstrate this explicitly for solid and molecular lithium hydride.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4336155','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4336155"><span>Temporomandibular Joint Disorders’ <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Pain, <span class="hlt">Function</span>, and Disability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chantaracherd, P.; John, M.T.; Hodges, J.S.; Schiffman, E.L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the association between more advanced stages of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) intra-articular disorders (“TMJ intra-articular status”), representing a transition from normal joint structure to TMJ disc displacement with and without reduction (DDwR and DDwoR) to degenerative joint disease (DJD), and patient-reported outcomes of jaw pain, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and disability (“TMD impact”). This cross-sectional study included 614 cases from the RDC/TMD Validation Project with at least one temporomandibular disorder (TMD) diagnosis. TMJ intra-articular status was determined by 3 blinded, calibrated radiologists using magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography as one of normal joint structure, DDwR, DDwoR, or DJD, representing the subject’s most advanced TMJ diagnosis. TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span> was conceptualized as a latent variable consisting of 1) pain intensity (Characteristic Pain Index from the Graded Chronic Pain Scale [GCPS]), 2) jaw <span class="hlt">function</span> (Jaw <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Limitation Scale), and 3) disability (Disability Points from GCPS). A structural equation model estimated the association of TMJ intra-articular status with the latent measure TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span> as a correlation coefficient in all TMD cases (n = 614) and in cases with a TMD pain diagnosis (n = 500). The correlations between TMJ intra-articular status and TMD <span class="hlt">impact</span> were 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], −0.04 to 0.13) for all TMD cases and 0.07 (95% CI, −0.04 to 0.17) for cases with a pain diagnosis, which are neither statistically significant nor clinically relevant. Conceptualizing worsening of TMJ intra-articular disorders as 4 stages and characterizing <span class="hlt">impact</span> from TMD as a composite of jaw pain, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and disability, this cross-sectional study found no clinically significant association. Models of TMJ intra-articular status other than ours (normal structure → DDwR → DDwoR → DJD) should be explored. PMID:25572112</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27388276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27388276"><span>Sound <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Energy Resulting from the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Water Drops on the Soil Surface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ryżak, Magdalena; Bieganowski, Andrzej; Korbiel, Tomasz</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The splashing of water drops on a soil surface is the first step of water erosion. There have been many investigations into splashing-most are based on recording and analysing images taken with high-speed cameras, or measuring the mass of the soil moved by splashing. Here, we present a new aspect of the splash phenomenon's characterization the measurement of the sound pressure level and the sound energy of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> that propagates in the air. The measurements were carried out for 10 consecutive water drop <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the soil surface. Three soils were tested (Endogleyic Umbrisol, Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol and Haplic Chernozem) with four initial moisture levels (pressure heads: 0.1 kPa, 1 kPa, 3.16 kPa and 16 kPa). We found that the values of the sound pressure and sound <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy were dependent on the particle size distribution of the soil, less dependent on the initial pressure head, and practically the same for subsequent water drops (from the first to the tenth drop). The highest sound pressure level (and the greatest variability) was for Endogleyic Umbrisol, which had the highest sand fraction content. The sound pressure for this soil increased from 29 dB to 42 dB with the next incidence of drops falling on the sample The smallest (and the lowest variability) was for Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol which had the highest clay fraction. For all experiments the sound pressure level ranged from ~27 to ~42 dB and the energy emitted in the form of sound <span class="hlt">waves</span> was within the range of 0.14 μJ to 5.26 μJ. This was from 0.03 to 1.07% of the energy of the incident drops.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4936686','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4936686"><span>Sound <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Energy Resulting from the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Water Drops on the Soil Surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ryżak, Magdalena; Bieganowski, Andrzej; Korbiel, Tomasz</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The splashing of water drops on a soil surface is the first step of water erosion. There have been many investigations into splashing–most are based on recording and analysing images taken with high-speed cameras, or measuring the mass of the soil moved by splashing. Here, we present a new aspect of the splash phenomenon’s characterization the measurement of the sound pressure level and the sound energy of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> that propagates in the air. The measurements were carried out for 10 consecutive water drop <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the soil surface. Three soils were tested (Endogleyic Umbrisol, Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol and Haplic Chernozem) with four initial moisture levels (pressure heads: 0.1 kPa, 1 kPa, 3.16 kPa and 16 kPa). We found that the values of the sound pressure and sound <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy were dependent on the particle size distribution of the soil, less dependent on the initial pressure head, and practically the same for subsequent water drops (from the first to the tenth drop). The highest sound pressure level (and the greatest variability) was for Endogleyic Umbrisol, which had the highest sand fraction content. The sound pressure for this soil increased from 29 dB to 42 dB with the next incidence of drops falling on the sample The smallest (and the lowest variability) was for Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol which had the highest clay fraction. For all experiments the sound pressure level ranged from ~27 to ~42 dB and the energy emitted in the form of sound <span class="hlt">waves</span> was within the range of 0.14 μJ to 5.26 μJ. This was from 0.03 to 1.07% of the energy of the incident drops. PMID:27388276</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24445484','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24445484"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heat, cold, and heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> on hospital admissions in eight cities in Korea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Son, Ji-Young; Bell, Michelle L; Lee, Jong-Tae</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Although the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of temperature on mortality is well documented, relatively fewer studies have evaluated the associations of temperature with morbidity outcomes such as hospital admissions, and most studies were conducted in North America or Europe. We evaluated weather and hospital admissions including specific causes (allergic disease, asthma, selected respiratory disease, and cardiovascular disease) in eight major cities in Korea from 2003 to 2008. We also explored potential effect modification by individual characteristics such as sex and age. We used hierarchical modeling to first estimate city-specific associations between heat, cold, or heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> and hospitalizations, and then estimated overall effects. Stratified analyses were performed by cause of hospitalization, sex, and age (0-14, 15-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years). Cardiovascular hospitalizations were significantly associated with high temperature, whereas hospitalizations for allergic disease, asthma, and selected respiratory disease were significantly associated with low temperature. The overall heat effect for cardiovascular hospitalization was a 4.5% (95% confidence interval 0.7, 8.5%) increase in risk comparing hospitalizations at 25 to 15 °C. For cold effect, the overall increase in risk of hospitalizations comparing 2 with 15 °C was 50.5 (13.7, 99.2%), 43.6 (8.9, 89.5%), and 53.6% (9.8, 114.9%) for allergic disease, asthma, and selected respiratory disease, respectively. We did not find statistically significant effects of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> compared with nonheat <span class="hlt">wave</span> days. Our results suggest susceptible populations such as women and younger persons. Our findings provide suggestive evidence that both high and low ambient temperatures are associated with the risk of hospital admissions, particularly in women or younger person, in Korea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NHESS..16.2373S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NHESS..16.2373S"><span>Coastal flooding: <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">waves</span> on storm surge during extremes - a case study for the German Bight</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Staneva, Joanna; Wahle, Kathrin; Koch, Wolfgang; Behrens, Arno; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana; Stanev, Emil V.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>This study addresses the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of wind, <span class="hlt">waves</span>, tidal forcing and baroclinicity on the sea level of the German Bight during extreme storm events. The role of <span class="hlt">wave</span>-induced processes, tides and baroclinicity is quantified, and the results are compared with in situ measurements and satellite data. A coupled high-resolution modelling system is used to simulate wind <span class="hlt">waves</span>, the water level and the three-dimensional hydrodynamics. The models used are the <span class="hlt">wave</span> model WAM and the circulation model GETM. The two-way coupling is performed via the OASIS3-MCT coupler. The effects of wind <span class="hlt">waves</span> on sea level variability are studied, accounting for <span class="hlt">wave</span>-dependent stress, <span class="hlt">wave</span>-breaking parameterization and <span class="hlt">wave</span>-induced effects on vertical mixing. The analyses of the coupled model results reveal a closer match with observations than for the stand-alone circulation model, especially during the extreme storm Xaver in December 2013. The predicted surge of the coupled model is significantly enhanced during extreme storm events when considering <span class="hlt">wave</span>-current interaction processes. This <span class="hlt">wave</span>-dependent approach yields a contribution of more than 30 % in some coastal areas during extreme storm events. The contribution of a fully three-dimensional model compared with a two-dimensional barotropic model showed up to 20 % differences in the water level of the coastal areas of the German Bight during Xaver. The improved skill resulting from the new developments justifies further use of the coupled-<span class="hlt">wave</span> and three-dimensional circulation models in coastal flooding predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvB..84t5308B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvB..84t5308B"><span>Extracting the density profile of an electronic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in a quantum dot</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boyd, Erin E.; Westervelt, Robert M.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>We use a model of a one-dimensional nanowire quantum dot to demonstrate the feasibility of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) imaging technique that can extract both the energy of an electron state and the amplitude of its <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> using a single instrument. This imaging technique can probe electrons that are buried beneath the surface of a low-dimensional semiconductor structure and provide valuable information for the design of quantum devices. A conducting SPM tip, acting as a movable gate, measures the energy of an electron state using Coulomb blockade spectroscopy. When the tip is close to the nanowire dot, it dents the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> Ψ(x) of the quantum state, changing the electron's energy by an amount proportional to |Ψ(x)|2. By recording the change in energy as the SPM tip is moved along the length of the dot, the density profile of the electronic <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> can be found along the length of the quantum dot.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMP....54k2102N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMP....54k2102N"><span>Emergence of complex and spinor <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in scale relativity. I. Nature of scale variables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nottale, Laurent; Célérier, Marie-Noëlle</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>One of the main results of scale relativity as regards the foundation of quantum mechanics is its explanation of the origin of the complex nature of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. The scale relativity theory introduces an explicit dependence of physical quantities on scale variables, founding itself on the theorem according to which a continuous and non-differentiable space-time is fractal (i.e., scale-divergent). In the present paper, the nature of the scale variables and their relations to resolutions and differential elements are specified in the non-relativistic case (fractal space). We show that, owing to the scale-dependence which it induces, non-differentiability involves a fundamental two-valuedness of the mean derivatives. Since, in the scale relativity framework, the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is a manifestation of the velocity field of fractal space-time geodesics, the two-valuedness of velocities leads to write them in terms of complex numbers, and yields therefore the complex nature of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, from which the usual expression of the Schrödinger equation can be derived.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARL22009C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARL22009C"><span>Many-body Localization Transition in Rokhsar-Kivelson-type <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Xiao; Yu, Xiongjie; Cho, Gil Young; Clark, Bryan; Fradkin, Eduardo</p> <p></p> <p>We construct a family of many-body <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> to study the many-body localization phase transition. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> have a Rokhsar-Kivelson form, in which the weight for the configurations are chosen from the Gibbs weights of a classical spin glass model, known as the Random Energy Model, multiplied by a random sign structure to represent a highly excited state. These <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> show a phase transition into an MBL phase. In addition, we see three regimes of entanglement scaling with subsystem size: scaling with entanglement corresponding to an infinite temperature thermal phase, constant scaling, and a sub-extensive scaling between these limits. Near the phase transition point, the fluctuations of the Renyi entropies are non-Gaussian. We find that Renyi entropies with different Renyi index transition into the MBL phase at different points and have different scaling behavior, suggesting a multifractal behavior. This work was supported in part by DMR-1064319 and DMR-1408713 (XC,GYC,EF) at the University of Illinois, PHY11-25915 at KITP (EF), DOE, SciDAC FG02-12ER46875 (BKC and XY), and the Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project of Korea Government (GYC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22217845','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22217845"><span>Emergence of complex and spinor <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in scale relativity. I. Nature of scale variables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nottale, Laurent; Célérier, Marie-Noëlle</p> <p>2013-11-15</p> <p>One of the main results of scale relativity as regards the foundation of quantum mechanics is its explanation of the origin of the complex nature of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. The scale relativity theory introduces an explicit dependence of physical quantities on scale variables, founding itself on the theorem according to which a continuous and non-differentiable space-time is fractal (i.e., scale-divergent). In the present paper, the nature of the scale variables and their relations to resolutions and differential elements are specified in the non-relativistic case (fractal space). We show that, owing to the scale-dependence which it induces, non-differentiability involves a fundamental two-valuedness of the mean derivatives. Since, in the scale relativity framework, the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is a manifestation of the velocity field of fractal space-time geodesics, the two-valuedness of velocities leads to write them in terms of complex numbers, and yields therefore the complex nature of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, from which the usual expression of the Schrödinger equation can be derived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21028257','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21028257"><span>Computing <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of nonlinear Schroedinger equations: A time-independent approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chang, S.-L.; Chien, C.-S. Jeng, B.-W.</p> <p>2007-09-10</p> <p>We present a novel algorithm for computing the ground-state and excited-state solutions of M-coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations (MCNLS). First we transform the MCNLS to the stationary state ones by using separation of variables. The energy level of a quantum particle governed by the Schroedinger eigenvalue problem (SEP) is used as an initial guess to computing their counterpart of a nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLS). We discretize the system via centered difference approximations. A predictor-corrector continuation method is exploited as an iterative method to trace solution curves and surfaces of the MCNLS, where the chemical potentials are treated as continuation parameters. The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be easily obtained whenever the solution manifolds are numerically traced. The proposed algorithm has the advantage that it is unnecessary to discretize or integrate the partial derivatives of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be computed for any time scale. Numerical results on the ground-state and excited-state solutions are reported, where the physical properties of the system such as isotropic and nonisotropic trapping potentials, mass conservation constraints, and strong and weak repulsive interactions are considered in our numerical experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8646E..0CK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8646E..0CK"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation delay on latency in optical communication systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Kanno, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yuki; Kitayama, Ken-ichi</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Latency is an important figure to describe performance of transmission systems for particular applications, such as data transfer for earthquake early warning, transaction for financial businesses, interactive services such as online games, etc. Latency consists of delay due to signal processing at nodes and transmitters, and of signal propagation delay due to propagation of electromagnetic <span class="hlt">waves</span>. The lower limit of the latency in transmission systems using conventional single mode fibers (SMFs) depends on <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation speed in the SMFs which is slower than c. Photonic crystal fibers, holly fibers and large core fibers can have low effective refractive indices, and can transfer light faster than in SMFs. In free-space optical systems, signals propagate with the speed c, so that the latency could be smaller than in optical fibers. For example, LEO satellites would transmit data faster than optical submarine cables, when the transmission distance is longer than a few thousand kilometers. This paper will discuss combination of various transmission media to reduce negative <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the latency, as well as applications of low-latency systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070021694','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070021694"><span>Working With the <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Equation in Aeroacoustics: The Pleasures of Generalized <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Farassat, F.; Brentner, Kenneth S.; Dunn, mark H.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The theme of this paper is the applications of generalized <span class="hlt">function</span> (GF) theory to the <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation in aeroacoustics. We start with a tutorial on GFs with particular emphasis on viewing <span class="hlt">functions</span> as continuous linear <span class="hlt">functionals</span>. We next define operations on GFs. The operation of interest to us in this paper is generalized differentiation. We give many applications of generalized differentiation, particularly for the <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation. We discuss the use of GFs in finding Green s <span class="hlt">function</span> and some subtleties that only GF theory can clarify without ambiguities. We show how the knowledge of the Green s <span class="hlt">function</span> of an operator L in a given domain D can allow us to solve a whole range of problems with operator L for domains situated within D by the imbedding method. We will show how we can use the imbedding method to find the Kirchhoff formulas for stationary and moving surfaces with ease and elegance without the use of the four-dimensional Green s theorem, which is commonly done. Other subjects covered are why the derivatives in conservation laws should be viewed as generalized derivatives and what are the consequences of doing this. In particular we show how we can imbed a problem in a larger domain for the identical differential equation for which the Green s <span class="hlt">function</span> is known. The primary purpose of this paper is to convince the readers that GF theory is absolutely essential in aeroacoustics because of its powerful operational properties. Furthermore, learning the subject and using it can be fun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6177..104A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6177..104A"><span>Crack detection in a wheel end spindle using <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation via modal <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and piezo actuation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ackers, Spencer; Evans, Ronald; Johnson, Timothy; Kess, Harold; White, Jonathan; Adams, Douglas E.; Brown, Pam</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>This research demonstrates two methodologies for detecting cracks in a metal spindle housed deep within a vehicle wheel end assembly. First, modal <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are imposed on the hub of the wheel in the longitudinal direction to produce broadband elastic <span class="hlt">wave</span> excitation spectra out to 7000 Hz. The response data on the flange is collected using 3000 Hz bandwidth accelerometers. It is shown using frequency response analysis that the crack produces a filter, which amplifies the elastic response of the surrounding components of the wheel assembly. Experiments on wheel assemblies mounted on the vehicle with the vehicle lifted off the ground are performed to demonstrate that the modal <span class="hlt">impact</span> method can be used to nondestructively evaluate cracks of varying depths despite sources of variability such as the half shaft angular position relative to the non-rotating spindle. Second, an automatic piezo-stack actuator is utilized to excite the wheel hub with a swept sine signal extending from 20 kHz. Accelerometers are then utilized to measure the response on the flange. It is demonstrated using frequency response analysis that the crack filters <span class="hlt">waves</span> traveling from the hub to the flange. A simple finite element model is used to interpret the experimental results. Challenges discussed include variability from assembly to assembly, the variability in each assembly, and the high amount of damping present in each assembly due to the transmission gearing, lubricant, and other components in the wheel end. A two-channel measurement system with a graphical user interface for detecting cracks was also developed and a procedure was created to ensure that operators properly perform the test.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1342319','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1342319"><span>Coupled-cluster Green's <span class="hlt">function</span>: Analysis of properties originating in the exponential parametrization of the ground-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peng, Bo; Kowalski, Karol</p> <p>2016-12-23</p> <p>In this paper we derive basic properties of the Green’s <span class="hlt">function</span> matrix elements stemming from the exponential coupled cluster (CC) parametrization of the ground-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. We demon- strate that all intermediates used to express retarded (or equivalently, ionized) part of the Green’s <span class="hlt">function</span> in the ω-representation can be expressed through connected diagrams only. Similar proper- ties are also shared by the first order ω-derivatives of the retarded part of the CC Green’s <span class="hlt">function</span>. This property can be extended to any order ω-derivatives of the Green’s <span class="hlt">function</span>. Through the Dyson equation of CC Green’s <span class="hlt">function</span>, the derivatives of corresponding CC self-energy can be evaluated analytically. In analogy to the CC Green’s <span class="hlt">function</span>, the corresponding CC self-energy is expressed in terms of connected diagrams only. Moreover, the ionized part of the CC Green’s func- tion satisfies the non-homogeneous linear system of ordinary differential equations, whose solution may be represented in the exponential form. Our analysis can be easily generalized to the advanced part of the CC Green’s <span class="hlt">function</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.148A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.148A"><span>Spatial <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in mortality. Evaluating current risks and future threats</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andrade, H.; Canario, P.; Nogueira, H.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in morbidity and mortality are largely known. Climate Change is expected to increase the climate health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in summer while the winter will be probably favored. The health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of extreme thermal events are mainly studied at a national or regional level, considering macro or mesoscale thermal features. But it can be assumed that local variations in mortality must exist, associated, in one hand, with local climatic differences, due to features such as land use and urbanization and, in other hand, with vulnerability factors (depending on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of populations). A model of hazard - vulnerability - risk was developed, to analyze the spatial variations of mortality in extreme thermal events, at the level of city district, in the Lisbon metropolitan area (Portugal). In that model, risk is considered as the product of hazard and vulnerability. Daily mortality data by sex, age and cause of death was supplied by the Health National Authority. The research is yet on-going. In our model, hazard is represented mainly by temperature and air pollution (the influence of other atmospheric variables that affect the human energy balance, such as solar radiation and wind speed should be tested too). Small scale variation of meteorological features, in extreme thermal events, were simulated with a Regional Atmospheric Model (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) and the results were validated and calibrated using observation data from an urban network of termo-higrometers placed in sites with different urban characteristics. Vulnerability is a result on personal sensitivity and exposure. Personal sensitivity is assessed considering individual constitutional and demographic factors as well as socio, cultural and economic variables. Daily mobility determines the population exposure to heat. Since many of these variables are redundant, a set of indicators, including a multiple deprivation index, was used. A</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G33A0815D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.G33A0815D"><span>Crustal thickness estimation in the Maule Region (Chile) from P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dannowski, A.; Grevemeyer, I.; Thorwart, M. M.; Rabbel, W.; Flueh, E. R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>A temporary passive seismic network of 31 broad-band stations was deployed in the region around Talca and Constitución between 35°S to 36°S latitude and 71°W to 72.5°W longitude. The network was operated between March and October 2008. Thus, we recorded data prior the magnitude Mw=8.8 earthquake of 27 February 2010 at a latitude of the major slip and surface uplift. The experiment was conducted to address fundamental questions on deformation processes, crustal and mantle structures, and fluid flow. We present first results of a teleseismic P receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> study that covers the coastal region and reaches to the Andes. The aim is to determine the structure and thickness of the continental crust and constrain the state of hydration of the mantle wedge. The P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> technique requires large teleseismic earthquakes from different distances and backazimuths. A few percent of the incident P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> energy from a teleseismic event will be converted into S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> (Ps) at significant and relatively sharp discontinuities beneath the station. A small converted S phase is produced that arrives at the station within the P <span class="hlt">wave</span> coda directly after the direct P-<span class="hlt">wave</span>. The converted Ps phase and their crustal multiples contain information about crustal properties, such as Moho depth and the crustal vp/vs ratio. We use teleseismic events with magnitudes mb > 5.5 at epicentral distances between 30° and 95° to examine P-to-S converted seismic phases. Our preliminary results provide new information about the thickness of the continental crust beneath the coastal region in Central Chile. At most of the stations we observed significant energy from P to S converted <span class="hlt">waves</span> between 4 and 5 s after the direct P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> within a positive phase interpreted as the Moho, occurring at 35 to 40 km. Thus, the great Maule earthquake of 27 February 2010 nucleated up-dip of the continental Moho and hence ruptured along a plate contact between subducted sediments and continental crust</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4075296','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4075296"><span>Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cavalcanti-Galdino, M.K.; da Silva, J.A.; Mendes, L.C.; dos Santos, N.A.; Simas, M.L.B.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity <span class="hlt">function</span> (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions. PMID:24676473</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24676473','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24676473"><span>Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cavalcanti-Galdino, M K; Silva, J A da; Mendes, L C; Santos, N A da; Simas, M L B</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity <span class="hlt">function</span> (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-<span class="hlt">wave</span> gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..543..625C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..543..625C"><span>Probability density <span class="hlt">functions</span> of the stream flow discharge in linearized diffusion <span class="hlt">wave</span> models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Ching-Min; Yeh, Hund-Der</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>This article considers stream flow discharge moving through channels subject to the lateral inflow and described by a linearized diffusion <span class="hlt">wave</span> equation. The variability of lateral inflow is manifested by random fluctuations in time, which is the only source of uncertainty as to flow discharge quantification. The stochastic nature of stream flow discharge is described by the probability density <span class="hlt">function</span> (PDF) obtained using the theory of distributions. The PDF of the stream flow discharge depends on the hydraulic properties of the stream flow, such as the <span class="hlt">wave</span> celerity and hydraulic diffusivity as well as the temporal correlation scale of the lateral inflow rate fluctuations. The focus in this analysis is placed on the influence of the temporal correlation scale and the <span class="hlt">wave</span> celerity coefficient on the PDF of the flow discharge. The analysis demonstrates that a larger temporal correlation scale causes an increase of PDF of the lateral inflow rate and, in turn, the PDF of the flow discharge which is also affected positively by the <span class="hlt">wave</span> celerity coefficient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014acm..conf..595Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014acm..conf..595Y"><span>Experimental study on the <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating through granular materials: Implications for a future asteroid mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yasui, M.; Matsumoto, E.; Arakawa, M.; Matsue, K.; Kobayashi, N.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Introduction: A seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> survey is a direct method to investigate the sub-surface structures of solid bodies, so we measured and analyzed these seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating through these interiors. Earthquake and Moonquake are the only two phenomena that have been observed to explore these interiors until now, while the future surveys on the other bodies, (solid planets and/or asteroids) are now planned. To complete a seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> survey during the mission period, an artificial method that activates the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> is necessary and one candidate is a projectile collision on the target body. However, to utilize the artificial seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> generated on the target body, the relationship between the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy and the amplitude and the decay process of the seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> should be examined. If these relationships are clarified, we can estimate the required sensitivity of seismometers installed on the target body and the possible distance from the seismic origin measurable for the seismometer. Furthermore, if we can estimate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> energy from the observed seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span>, we expect to be able to estimate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> flux of impactors that collided on the target body. McGarr et al. (1969) did <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments by using the lexan projectile and two targets, quartz sand and sand bonded by epoxy cement, at 0.8-7 km/s. They found a difference of seismic <span class="hlt">wave</span> properties between the two targets, and calculated the conversion efficiency to discuss the capability of detection of seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the Moon. However, they did not examine the excitation and propagation properties of the seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in detail. In this study, we carried out <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments in the laboratory to observe the seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> by accelerometers, and examined the effects of projectile properties on the excitation and propagation properties of the seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Experimental methods: We made <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments by using a one-stage gas gun at Kobe University. Projectiles were a polycarbonate cylinder</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828059','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828059"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of kudzu and puerarin on sperm <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gray, Sandra L; Lackey, Brett R; Boone, William R</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The goal of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of kudzu (Pueraria mirifica) and the isoflavone puerarin in <span class="hlt">functional</span> toxicological tests on spermatozoa and to assess the affinity of extracts and pure isoflavones for estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and -beta (ERα, ERβ) in receptor binding assays. Capacitation, acrosome reaction and chromatin decondensation in spermatozoa were analyzed using microscopic analysis. Kudzu, but not puerarin, reduced motility of sperm. Puerarin reduced the percent spontaneous acrosome reaction in spermatozoa. The pathways used by kudzu that affect sperm <span class="hlt">function</span> are not fully mirrored by puerarin. Puerarin, kudzu and its other phytoestrogenic components displayed preferential affinity for ERβ, however the diverse effects of kudzu and puerarin on sperm <span class="hlt">function</span> implicate the involvement of multiple signaling systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.676..250A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tectp.676..250A"><span>Crustal structure of Nigeria and Southern Ghana, West Africa from P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akpan, Ofonime; Nyblade, Andrew; Okereke, Chiedu; Oden, Michael; Emry, Erica; Julià, Jordi</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We report new estimates of crustal thickness (Moho depth), Poisson's ratio and shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> velocities for eleven broadband seismological stations in Nigeria and Ghana. Data used for this study came from teleseismic earthquakes recorded at epicentral distances between 30° and 95° and with moment magnitudes greater than or equal to 5.5. P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> were modeled using the Moho Ps arrival times, H-k stacking, and joint inversion of receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> and Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> group velocities. The average crustal thickness of the stations in the Neoproterozoic basement complex of Nigeria is 36 km, and 23 km for the stations in the Cretaceous Benue Trough. The crustal structure of the Paleoproterozoic Birimian Terrain, and Neoproterozoic Dahomeyan Terrain and Togo Structural Unit in southern Ghana is similar, with an average Moho depth of 44 km. Poisson's ratios for all the stations range from 0.24 to 0.26, indicating a bulk felsic to intermediate crustal composition. The crustal structure of the basement complex in Nigeria is similar to the average crustal structure of Neoproterozoic terrains in other parts of Africa, but the two Neoproterozoic terrains in southern Ghana have a thicker crust with a thick mafic lower crust, ranging in thickness from 12 to 17 km. Both the thicker crust and thick mafic lower crustal section are consistent with many Precambrian suture zones, and thus we suggest that both features are relict from the collisional event during the formation of Gondwana.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20709387','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20709387"><span>I=2 pion scattering length from two-pion <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aoki, S.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kanaya, K.; Yamazaki, T.; Fukugita, M.; Ishikawa, K-I.; Okawa, M.; Ishizuka, N.; Kuramashi, Y.; Ukawa, A.; Yoshie, T.; Kaneko, T.</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>We calculate the two-pion <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in the ground state of the I=2 S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> system and find the interaction range between two pions, which allows us to examine the validity of the necessary condition for the finite-volume method for the scattering length proposed by Luescher. We work in the quenched approximation employing a renormalization group improved gauge action for gluons and an improved Wilson action for quarks at 1/a=1.207(12) GeV on 16{sup 3}x80, 20{sup 3}x80, and 24{sup 3}x80 lattices. We conclude that the necessary condition is satisfied within the statistical errors for the lattice sizes L{>=}24 (3.92 fm) when the quark mass is in the range that corresponds to m{sub {pi}}{sup 2}=0.273-0.736 GeV{sup 2}. We obtain the scattering length with a smaller statistical error from the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> than from the two-pion time correlator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4988587','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4988587"><span>Transient neuronal coactivations embedded in globally propagating <span class="hlt">waves</span> underlie resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Matsui, Teppei; Murakami, Tomonari; Ohki, Kenichi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Resting-state <span class="hlt">functional</span> connectivity (FC), which measures the correlation of spontaneous hemodynamic signals (HemoS) between brain areas, is widely used to study brain networks noninvasively. It is commonly assumed that spatial patterns of HemoS-based FC (Hemo-FC) reflect large-scale dynamics of underlying neuronal activity. To date, studies of spontaneous neuronal activity cataloged heterogeneous types of events ranging from <span class="hlt">waves</span> of activity spanning the entire neocortex to flash-like activations of a set of anatomically connected cortical areas. However, it remains unclear how these various types of large-scale dynamics are interrelated. More importantly, whether each type of large-scale dynamics contributes to Hemo-FC has not been explored. Here, we addressed these questions by simultaneously monitoring neuronal calcium signals (CaS) and HemoS in the entire neocortex of mice at high spatiotemporal resolution. We found a significant relationship between two seemingly different types of large-scale spontaneous neuronal activity—namely, global <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating across the neocortex and transient coactivations among cortical areas sharing high FC. Different sets of cortical areas, sharing high FC within each set, were coactivated at different timings of the propagating global <span class="hlt">waves</span>, suggesting that spatial information of cortical network characterized by FC was embedded in the phase of the global <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Furthermore, we confirmed that such transient coactivations in CaS were indeed converted into spatially similar coactivations in HemoS and were necessary to sustain the spatial structure of Hemo-FC. These results explain how global <span class="hlt">waves</span> of spontaneous neuronal activity propagating across large-scale cortical network contribute to Hemo-FC in the resting state. PMID:27185944</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24458018','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24458018"><span>Characterization of a setup to test the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of high-amplitude pressure <span class="hlt">waves</span> on living cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Mischa; Kahlert, Ulf; Wessolleck, Johanna; Maciaczyk, Donata; Merkt, Benjamin; Maciaczyk, Jaroslaw; Osterholz, Jens; Nikkhah, Guido; Steinhauser, Martin O</p> <p>2014-01-24</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of pressure <span class="hlt">waves</span> on cells may provide several possible applications in biology and medicine including the direct killing of tumors, drug delivery or gene transfection. In this study we characterize the physical properties of mechanical pressure <span class="hlt">waves</span> generated by a nanosecond laser pulse in a setup with well-defined cell culture conditions. To systematically characterize the system on the relevant length and time scales (micrometers and nanoseconds) we use photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) and obtain velocity profiles of the cell culture vessel at the passage of the pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span>. These profiles serve as input for numerical pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> simulations that help to further quantify the pressure conditions on the cellular length scale. On the biological level we demonstrate killing of glioblastoma cells and quantify experimentally the pressure threshold for cell destruction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3900925','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3900925"><span>Characterization of a Setup to test the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of High-Amplitude Pressure <span class="hlt">Waves</span> on Living Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Mischa; Kahlert, Ulf; Wessolleck, Johanna; Maciaczyk, Donata; Merkt, Benjamin; Maciaczyk, Jaroslaw; Osterholz, Jens; Nikkhah, Guido; Steinhauser, Martin O.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of pressure <span class="hlt">waves</span> on cells may provide several possible applications in biology and medicine including the direct killing of tumors, drug delivery or gene transfection. In this study we characterize the physical properties of mechanical pressure <span class="hlt">waves</span> generated by a nanosecond laser pulse in a setup with well-defined cell culture conditions. To systematically characterize the system on the relevant length and time scales (micrometers and nanoseconds) we use photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) and obtain velocity profiles of the cell culture vessel at the passage of the pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span>. These profiles serve as input for numerical pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> simulations that help to further quantify the pressure conditions on the cellular length scale. On the biological level we demonstrate killing of glioblastoma cells and quantify experimentally the pressure threshold for cell destruction. PMID:24458018</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E3849S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E3849S"><span>Characterization of a Setup to test the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of High-Amplitude Pressure <span class="hlt">Waves</span> on Living Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Mischa; Kahlert, Ulf; Wessolleck, Johanna; Maciaczyk, Donata; Merkt, Benjamin; Maciaczyk, Jaroslaw; Osterholz, Jens; Nikkhah, Guido; Steinhauser, Martin O.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of pressure <span class="hlt">waves</span> on cells may provide several possible applications in biology and medicine including the direct killing of tumors, drug delivery or gene transfection. In this study we characterize the physical properties of mechanical pressure <span class="hlt">waves</span> generated by a nanosecond laser pulse in a setup with well-defined cell culture conditions. To systematically characterize the system on the relevant length and time scales (micrometers and nanoseconds) we use photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) and obtain velocity profiles of the cell culture vessel at the passage of the pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span>. These profiles serve as input for numerical pressure <span class="hlt">wave</span> simulations that help to further quantify the pressure conditions on the cellular length scale. On the biological level we demonstrate killing of glioblastoma cells and quantify experimentally the pressure threshold for cell destruction.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC51B0417S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC51B0417S"><span>Using NASA Earth Science Datasets for National Climate Assessment Indicators: Urban <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Heat <span class="hlt">Waves</span> Associated with Climate Change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sadoff, N.; Weber, S.; Zell, E. R.; de Sherbinin, A. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Climate-induced heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> have been increasing globally in the past 5-10 years and are projected to continue increasing throughout the 21st century. In urban areas, heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> are exacerbated by the non-climate stressor of urban heat islands (UHIs). The vulnerability of a city's population to heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> reflects exposure to extreme heat events, sensitivity of the population to <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, such as adverse health effects, and adaptive capacity to prepare for and respond to heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Socially and economically vulnerable populations are especially at risk to the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>, due to increasing energy costs, air pollution, and heat-related illness and mortality. NASA earth science datasets, combined with socioeconomic data, can be used to create indicators that characterize vulnerability to urban heat events and address the effectiveness of adaptation measures designed to reduce local temperatures. The indicator development process should include engagement from local stakeholders and end users from the onset to ensure local relevance and, ultimately, indicator uptake and sustainability. This presentation will explore the process of working with urban stakeholders in Philadelphia to develop a set of policy-relevant, interdisciplinary vulnerability indicators focused on extreme heat events in urban areas. Ambient and land surface temperature, land cover classifications, NDVI, and US Census data are used to create a basket of indicators that reflect urban heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> duration and intensity, UHI exposure, socioeconomic vulnerability, and adaptation effectiveness. These indicators can be assessed at the city level and also comparatively among different parts of a city to help quantify and track heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on vulnerable populations and the effectiveness of adaptation measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21175871','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21175871"><span>Electron energy distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span> in low-pressure oxygen plasma columns sustained by propagating surface <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stafford, L.; Margot, J.; Moisan, M.; Khare, R.; Donnelly, V. M.</p> <p>2009-01-12</p> <p>Electron energy distribution <span class="hlt">functions</span> (EEDFs) were measured in a 50 mTorr oxygen plasma column sustained by propagating surface <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Trace-rare-gas-optical-emission spectroscopy was used to derive EEDFs by selecting lines to extract ''electron temperature''(T{sub e}) corresponding to either lower energy electrons that excite high-lying levels through stepwise excitation via metastable states or higher energy electrons that excite emission directly from the ground state. Lower energy T{sub e}'s decreased from 8 to 5.5 eV with distance from the <span class="hlt">wave</span> launcher, while T{sub e}{approx_equal}6 eV for higher energy electrons and T{sub e}>20 eV for a high-energy tail. Mechanisms for such EEDFs are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93k5124D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93k5124D"><span>Quantum quench in two dimensions using the variational Baeriswyl <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dóra, Balázs; Haque, Masudul; Pollmann, Frank; Hetényi, Balázs</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>By combining the Baeriswyl <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> with equilibrium and time-dependent variational principles, we develop a nonequilibrium formalism to study quantum quenches for two-dimensional spinless fermions with nearest-neighbor hopping and repulsion. The variational ground-state energy, the charge-density <span class="hlt">wave</span> (CDW) order parameter, and the short-time dynamics agree convincingly with the results of numerically exact simulations. We find that, depending on the initial and final interaction strength, the quenched system either exhibits oscillatory behavior or relaxes to a time-independent steady state. The time-averaged expectation value of the CDW order parameter rises sharply when crossing from the steady-state regime to the oscillating regime, indicating that the system, being nonintegrable, shows signs of thermalization with an effective temperature above or below the equilibrium critical temperature, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18533637','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18533637"><span>Density <span class="hlt">functional</span> calculations of Pd nanoparticles using a plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> method.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Viñes, Francesc; Illas, Francesc; Neyman, Konstantin M</p> <p>2008-09-25</p> <p>We deal with usage of plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> density <span class="hlt">functional</span> calculations of crystallites formed of 100-200 transition metal atoms to mimic larger experimentally treated particles. A series of model Pd clusters containing up to 225 atoms is chosen as an example. We focused on the description of size-dependent geometric parameters and binding energies of these clusters as compared with previous benchmark calculations; evolution of the particle electronic structure with increasing size has also been addressed. The high performance of the plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> calculations for transition-metal nanoparticles has been documented. Implications of this work on broadening opportunities to design and study realistic models of catalytic systems are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPCM...29b4001H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPCM...29b4001H"><span>Linear-scaling density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory using the projector augmented <span class="hlt">wave</span> method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hine, Nicholas D. M.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Quantum mechanical simulation of realistic models of nanostructured systems, such as nanocrystals and crystalline interfaces, demands computational methods combining high-accuracy with low-order scaling with system size. Blöchl’s projector augmented <span class="hlt">wave</span> (PAW) approach enables all-electron (AE) calculations with the efficiency and systematic accuracy of plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> pseudopotential calculations. Meanwhile, linear-scaling (LS) approaches to density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) allow for simulation of thousands of atoms in feasible computational effort. This article describes an adaptation of PAW for use in the LS-DFT framework provided by the ONETEP LS-DFT package. ONETEP uses optimisation of the density matrix through in situ-optimised local orbitals rather than the direct calculation of eigenstates as in traditional PAW approaches. The method is shown to be comparably accurate to both PAW and AE approaches and to exhibit improved convergence properties compared to norm-conserving pseudopotential methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvB..83x5122Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvB..83x5122Y"><span>Linear density response <span class="hlt">function</span> in the projector augmented <span class="hlt">wave</span> method: Applications to solids, surfaces, and interfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yan, Jun; Mortensen, Jens. J.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.; Thygesen, Kristian S.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>We present an implementation of the linear density response <span class="hlt">function</span> within the projector-augmented <span class="hlt">wave</span> method with applications to the linear optical and dielectric properties of both solids, surfaces, and interfaces. The response <span class="hlt">function</span> is represented in plane <span class="hlt">waves</span> while the single-particle eigenstates can be expanded on a real space grid or in atomic-orbital basis for increased efficiency. The exchange-correlation kernel is treated at the level of the adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) and crystal local field effects are included. The calculated static and dynamical dielectric <span class="hlt">functions</span> of Si, C, SiC, AlP, and GaAs compare well with previous calculations. While optical properties of semiconductors, in particular excitonic effects, are generally not well described by ALDA, we obtain excellent agreement with experiments for the surface loss <span class="hlt">function</span> of graphene and the Mg(0001) surface with plasmon energies deviating by less than 0.2 eV. Finally, the method is applied to study the influence of substrates on the plasmon excitations in graphene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPCM...29a5002I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPCM...29a5002I"><span>Decay length of surface-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> on Bi(1 1 1)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ishida, H.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We calculate the decay length in surface normal direction of the surface-state <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> on a clean Bi(1 1 1) surface as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of two-dimensional (2D) <span class="hlt">wave</span> vector \\mathbf{k} along the {\\bar Γ }-\\bar{M} line. For this purpose, we perform a first-principles density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) calculation for semi-infinite Bi(1 1 1) by employing the surface embedded Green’s <span class="hlt">function</span> technique. The decay length of the two surface bands is found to be  ∼24 Bi bilayers at \\bar{M} , while it remains less than 5 Bi bilayers when \\mathbf{k} is away from \\bar{M} and {\\bar Γ } . At {\\bar Γ } , the degenerate surface bands are split from the upper boundary energy of the projected bulk valence bands only by 5 meV. In spite of this, the decay length of these bands at {\\bar Γ } is less than 10 Bi bilayers due to the large effective mass (small curvature) of the highest valence band in the surface normal direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21544540','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21544540"><span>Progress at the interface of <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> and density-<span class="hlt">functional</span> theories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gidopoulos, Nikitas I.</p> <p>2011-04-15</p> <p>The Kohn-Sham (KS) potential of density-<span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) emerges as the minimizing effective potential in a variational scheme that does not involve fixing the unknown single-electron density. Using Rayleigh Schroedinger (RS) perturbation theory (PT), we construct ab initio approximations for the energy difference, the minimization of which determines the KS potential directly - thereby bypassing DFT's traditional algorithm to search for the density that minimizes the total energy. From second-order RS PT, we obtain variationally stable energy differences to be minimized, solving the severe problem of variational collapse of orbital-dependent exchange-correlation <span class="hlt">functionals</span> based on second-order RS PT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9526T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9526T"><span>Crustal thickness variation beneath the Romanian seismic network from Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> dispersion and receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tataru, Dragos; Grecu, Bogdan; Zaharia, Bogdan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Variations in crustal thickness in Romania where determined by joint inversion of P <span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> (RFs) and Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> group velocity dispersion. We present new models of shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity structure of the crust beneath Romanian broad band stations. The data set consist in more than 500 teleseismic earthquake with epicentral distance between 30° and 95°, magnitude greater than 6 and a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 3 for the P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> pulse. Most epicenters are situated along the northern Pacific Rim and arrive with backazimuths (BAZs) between 0° and 135° at the Romanian seismic network. We combine receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> with fundamental-mode of the Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> group velocities to further constrain the shear-<span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity structure.To extract the group velocities we applied the Multiple Filter Technique analysis to the vertical components of the earthquakes recordings. This technique allowed us to identify the Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> fundamental mode and to compute the dispersion curves of the group velocities at periods between 10 and 150 s allowing us to resolve shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocities to a depth of 100 km. The time-domain iterative deconvolution procedure of Ligorrıa and Ammon (1999) was employed to deconvolve the vertical component of the teleseismic P waveforms from the corresponding horizontal components and obtain radial and transverse receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> at each broadband station. The data are inverted using a joint, linearized inversion scheme (Hermann, 2002) which accounts for the relative influence of each set of observations, and allows a trade-off between fitting the observations, constructing a smooth model, and matching a priori constraints. The results show a thin crust for stations located inside the Pannonian basin (28-30 km) and a thicker crust for those in the East European Platform (36-40 km). The stations within the Southern and Central Carpathian Orogen are characterized by crustal depths of ~35 km. For stations located in the Northern</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T23B4670R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T23B4670R"><span>Constraining the Lithospheric Structure of the Central Andes Using P- and S- <span class="hlt">wave</span> Receiver <span class="hlt">Functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryan, J. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Central Andean Plateau (CAP) has elevations in excess of 3 km, and is part of the Andean Cordillera that resulted in part from shortening along the western edge of South America as it was compressed between the subducting Nazca plate and underthrusting Brazilian cratonic lithosphere. We calculated P- and S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> for the Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) temporary deployment of broadband seismometers in the Bolivian orocline (12°-20°S) region to investigate crustal thickness and lithospheric structure. Migration of the receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> is done using common conversion point (CCP) stacks through a 3D shear velocity model from ambient noise tomography (Ward et al., 2013). The P- and S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> provide similar estimates of the depth to Moho under the CAP. Crustal thicknesses include 60-65 km thick crust underneath the Bolivian Altiplano, crust that varies from ~70 km to ~50 km underneath the Eastern Cordillera and Interandean zone, and thins to 50 to 40 km crust in the Subandes and the edge of the foreland. The variable crustal thickness of the Eastern Cordillera and Interandean zone ranges from >70 km associated with the Los Frailes volcanic field at 19°-20°S to ~55 km beneath the 6 km peaks of the Cordillera Real at ~16°S. From our S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span>, that have no multiples that can interfere with deeper structure, we also identify structures below the Moho. Along a SW-NE line that runs near La Paz where we have our highest station density, the S-<span class="hlt">wave</span> CCP receiver-<span class="hlt">function</span> stacks show a strong negative polarity arrival at a depth of ~120 km from the eastern edge of the Altiplano to the Subandean zone. We suggest this may be a good candidate for the base of the CAP lithosphere. In addition, above this depth the mantle is strongly layered, suggesting that there is not a simple high velocity mantle lithosphere associated with the continental lithosphere underthrusting the Andean orogen</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950007530','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950007530"><span>The <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and minimum uncertainty <span class="hlt">function</span> of the bound quadratic Hamiltonian system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yeon, Kyu Hwang; Um, Chung IN; George, T. F.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The bound quadratic Hamiltonian system is analyzed explicitly on the basis of quantum mechanics. We have derived the invariant quantity with an auxiliary equation as the classical equation of motion. With the use of this invariant it can be determined whether or not the system is bound. In bound system we have evaluated the exact eigenfunction and minimum uncertainty <span class="hlt">function</span> through unitary transformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ECSS...88..249S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ECSS...88..249S"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of internal <span class="hlt">waves</span> on sound propagation off Bhimilipatnam, east coast of India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sridevi, B.; Ramana Murty, T. V.; Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, M. M. M.; Maneesha, K.; Sujith Kumar, S.; Prasanna, P. L.</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Internal <span class="hlt">waves</span> (IW) are identified off Bhimilipatnam, east coast of India, from the time series CTD (hourly interval) and thermistor chain data (2 min interval) collected during 23-25 Feb 2007. The measurements were carried out at 94 m water depth on the continental shelf edge. These data sets are used to describe the characteristics of IW and their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on acoustic fields. Garrett and Munk (GM) model has been used to predict the characteristics of low frequency (LF) IW with space and time. Active IW are seen in the layers 54 m-94 m with a velocity of 0.548 km h -1 and the wavelengths of the order of 0.03 km-21.8 km. The model could capture the IW features in the thermocline region accurately than at the bottom. This could be due to the limitation of the model which considers linearity. High frequency IW observed at the bottom could be due to the advection of tidal currents over the shallow irregular bottom in the presence of stratification. The study emphasizes linear IW rather than transient non-linear <span class="hlt">waves</span> induced by tidal interaction with topography. Acoustic simulation results for low frequency IW field reveal that the intensity loss anomaly of eigenrays was found to be 2.86 dB-15.59 dB in the water column and maximum (38.48 dB) was observed at the bottom due to the bottom interaction. Our results are well compared with those reported earlier from simulation and acoustic field experiments in the Northern Indian Ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1356M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1356M"><span>Indexes to anticipate negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> in urban Mediterranean environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monteiro, A. M.; Carvalho, C. V.; Velho, S. V.; Sousa, C. S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>This study intention is to understand what might be the better indexes to anticipate health deterioration during temperature extreme events in a urban Mediterranean environment like Porto. To do this we look to the effects of the July 2006 Heat <span class="hlt">Wave</span> using the Heat Index on the Mortality (All Causes) and Morbidity (All Causes, Respiratory and Circulatory diseases) in general, and in people over 74 years and by Gender, in Porto. The Poisson Generalized Additive Regression model was used in order to estimate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Apparent Temperature (Heat Index) and Daily Mortality and Morbidity during the July 2006 Heat <span class="hlt">Wave</span>. Daily Mortality, Morbidity and Heat Index was correlated with lags of Apparent Temperature up to 7 days using Pearson correlation. For a 1°C increase in mean Apparent Temperature we observed a 2.7% (95%CI:1.7-3.6%) increase in Mortality (for All Causes), 1.7% (95%CI:0.6-2.9%) in Respiratory Morbidity, 2,2% (95%CI:0.4-4.1%) in Women Respiratory Morbidity, 5,4% (95%CI:1.1-6.6%) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Morbidity and 7,5% (95%CI:1.3-14.1%) in Women Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Morbidity, for the entire population. For people ≥ 75 years, our work showed a 3,3% increase (95%CI:1.7-5.0%) in Respiratory Morbidity, 2,7% (95%CI:0.4-5.1%) in Men Respiratory Morbidity, 3,9% (95%CI:1.6-6.3%) in Women Respiratory Morbidity, 7.0% (95%CI:1.1-13.2%) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and 9.0% (95%CI:0.3-18.5%) in Women Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. We conclude that the use of Heat Index in a Mediterranean Tempered Climate enabled the identification of the effects of the July 2006 Heat <span class="hlt">Wave</span> in Mortality due to All Causes and in Respiratory Morbidity of the General Population, as well as in Respiratory Morbidity of individuals with more than 74 years of age.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28106419','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28106419"><span>Probing the Nodal Structure of Landau Level <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> in Real Space.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bindel, J R; Ulrich, J; Liebmann, M; Morgenstern, M</p> <p>2017-01-06</p> <p>The inversion layer of p-InSb(110) obtained by Cs adsorption of 1.8% of a monolayer is used to probe the Landau level <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> within smooth potential valleys by scanning tunneling spectroscopy at 14 T. The nodal structure becomes apparent as a double peak structure of each spin polarized first Landau level, while the zeroth Landau level exhibits a single peak per spin level only. The real space data show single rings of the valley-confined drift states for the zeroth Landau level and double rings for the first Landau level. The result is reproduced by a recursive Green <span class="hlt">function</span> algorithm using the potential landscape obtained experimentally. We show that the result is generic by comparing the local density of states from the Green <span class="hlt">function</span> algorithm with results from a well-controlled analytic model based on the guiding center approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvL.118a6803B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvL.118a6803B"><span>Probing the Nodal Structure of Landau Level <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Functions</span> in Real Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bindel, J. R.; Ulrich, J.; Liebmann, M.; Morgenstern, M.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The inversion layer of p -InSb (110 ) obtained by Cs adsorption of 1.8% of a monolayer is used to probe the Landau level <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> within smooth potential valleys by scanning tunneling spectroscopy at 14 T. The nodal structure becomes apparent as a double peak structure of each spin polarized first Landau level, while the zeroth Landau level exhibits a single peak per spin level only. The real space data show single rings of the valley-confined drift states for the zeroth Landau level and double rings for the first Landau level. The result is reproduced by a recursive Green <span class="hlt">function</span> algorithm using the potential landscape obtained experimentally. We show that the result is generic by comparing the local density of states from the Green <span class="hlt">function</span> algorithm with results from a well-controlled analytic model based on the guiding center approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026667','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026667"><span>Shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity variation across the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, from receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> inversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bannister, S.; Bryan, C.J.; Bibby, H.M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), New Zealand is a region characterized by very high magma eruption rates and extremely high heat flow, which is manifest in high-temperature geothermal waters. The shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity structure across the region is inferred using non-linear inversion of receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span>, which were derived from teleseismic earthquake data. Results from the non-linear inversion, and from forward synthetic modelling, indicate low S velocities at ???6- 16 km depth near the Rotorua and Reporoa calderas. We infer these low-velocity layers to represent the presence of high-level bodies of partial melt associated with the volcanism. Receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> at other stations are complicated by reverberations associated with near-surface sedimentary layers. The receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> data also indicate that the Moho lies between 25 and 30 km, deeper than the 15 ?? 2 km depth previously inferred for the crust-mantle boundary beneath the TVZ. ?? 2004 RAS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26SS....3..295S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26SS....3..295S"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> and cloud nucleation threshold on stratospheric water and tropical tropospheric cloud fraction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schoeberl, Mark; Dessler, Andrew; Ye, Hao; Wang, Tao; Avery, Melody; Jensen, Eric</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Using the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and MERRA-2 reanalysis winds, temperatures, and anvil cloud ice, we explore the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of varying the cloud nucleation threshold relative humidity (RH) and high-frequency gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> on stratospheric water vapor (H2O) and upper tropical tropopause cloud fraction (TCF). Our model results are compared to 2008/2009 winter TCF derived from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization and H2O observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The RH threshold affects both model H2O and TCF, while high-frequency gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> mostly <span class="hlt">impact</span> TCF. Adjusting the nucleation RH and the amplitude of high-frequency gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> allows us to tune the model to observations. Reasonable observational agreement is obtained with a nucleation threshold between 130% and 150% RH consistent with airborne observations. For the MERRA reanalysis, we lower the tropopause temperature by 0.5 K roughly consistent with GPS radio occultation measurements and include ~0.1 K high-frequency gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> temperature oscillations in order to match TCF and H2O observations. For MERRA-2 we do not need to adjust the tropopause temperature nor add gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span>, because there are sufficient high-frequency temperature oscillations already present in the MERRA-2 reanalysis to reproduce the observed TCF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1001456','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1001456"><span>Binding Energy of d¹º Transition Metals to Alkenes By <span class="hlt">Wave</span> <span class="hlt">Function</span> Theory and Density <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Averkiev, Boris B; Zhao, Yan; Truhlar, Donald G</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>The structures of Pd(PH₃)₂ and Pt(PH₃)₂ complexes with ethene and conjugated CnH<sub>n+2</sub> systems (n=4, 6, 8, and 10) were studied. Their binding energies were calculated using both <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> theory (WFT) and density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT). Previously it was reported that the binding energy of the alkene to the transition metal does not depend strongly on the size of the conjugated C<sub>n</sub>H<sub>n+2</sub> ligand, but that DFT methods systematically underestimate the binding energy more and more significantly as the size of the conjugated system is increased. Our results show that recently developed density <span class="hlt">functionals</span> predict the binding energy for these systems much more accurately. New benchmark calculations carried out by the coupled cluster method based on Brueckner orbitals with double excitations and a quasiperturbative treatment of connected triple excitations (BCCD(T)) with a very large basis set agree even better with the DFT predictions than do the previous best estimates. The mean unsigned error in absolute and relative binding energies of the alkene ligands to Pd(PH₃)₂ is 2.5 kcal/mol for the ωB97 and M06 density <span class="hlt">functionals</span> and 2.9 kcal/mol for the M06-L <span class="hlt">functional</span>. Adding molecular mechanical damped dispersion yields even smaller mean unsigned errors: 1.3 kcal/mol for the M06-D <span class="hlt">functional</span>, 1.5 kcal/mol for M06- L-D, and 1.8 kcal/mol for B97-D and ωB97X-D. The new <span class="hlt">functionals</span> also lead to improved accuracy for the analogous Pt complexes. These results show that recently developed density <span class="hlt">functionals</span> may be very useful for studying catalytic systems involving Pd d¹º centers and alkenes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/969079','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/969079"><span>Subspace accelerated inexact Newton method for large scale <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> calculations in Density <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fattebert, J</p> <p>2008-07-29</p> <p>We describe an iterative algorithm to solve electronic structure problems in Density <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Theory. The approach is presented as a Subspace Accelerated Inexact Newton (SAIN) solver for the non-linear Kohn-Sham equations. It is related to a class of iterative algorithms known as RMM-DIIS in the electronic structure community. The method is illustrated with examples of real applications using a finite difference discretization and multigrid preconditioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22004019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22004019"><span>Executive <span class="hlt">function</span> following child stroke: the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of lesion size.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Long, Brian; Anderson, Vicki; Jacobs, Rani; Mackay, Mark; Leventer, Richard; Barnes, Chris; Spencer-Smith, Megan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Childhood stroke is increasingly recognized as a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality; however, limited information exists regarding neurobehavioral sequelae. Executive <span class="hlt">function</span> (EF), important for problem solving, reasoning, social awareness, and adaptive behavior, may be particularly vulnerable to early brain lesions such as stroke, due to its protracted development. This study investigated: (i) the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of childhood stroke on EF; and (ii) the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of lesion size on EF outcome. Twenty-eight children diagnosed with stroke at least 12 months prior to assessment were recruited. Neurobehavioral assessment focused on cognitive and behavioral aspects of EF. Lesion volume was determined from standard ratings of brain pathology based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Deficits in cognitive aspects of EF were detected in attentional control, cognitive flexibility and information processing. Difficulties in behavioral aspects of EF were most striking, with problems identified across a wide range of behaviors. Lesion size <span class="hlt">impacted</span> on EF, with large lesions (greater than 25% of brain volume) proving the most detrimental.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.S11E0339C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFM.S11E0339C"><span>Empirical Synthesis of Green <span class="hlt">functions</span> from the correlation of diffuse <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Campillo, M.; Larose, E.; Margerin, L.; Paul, A.; van Tiggelen, B.; Derode, A.; Abers, G.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>We show the existence of long range field correlations in the seismic coda of regional records in both Mexico and Alaska. The cross-correlation tensor between the coda records at two points is measured for a set of distant earthquakes. Remarkably, while individual correlations have a random character, the source- averaged correlations exhibit deterministic arrivals that obey the same symmetry rules as the Green tensor between the two points. In addition, the arrival times of these <span class="hlt">waves</span> coincide with propagating surface <span class="hlt">waves</span> between the two stations. Thus, we propose to identify the averaged correlation signals with the surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> part of the Green tensor. However, while time reversal symmetry theoretically imposes that the Green <span class="hlt">function</span> appears at both negative and positive times, we find experimentally this symmetry to be broken when the distribution of earthquakes is not isotropic around the stations. We explain this observation by the long lasting anisotropy of the diffuse field. This point is further discussed in a companion paper where we prove both experimentally and theoretically that a dominant flux of energy coming from the source can persist in the late coda. Finally, we show that averaged cross-correlations of ambient noise enable the reconstruction of some coherent arrivals. These examples illustrate a novel empirical method that provides synthetic seismograms between two stations, without the knowledge of the precise location and origin times of the sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MeSol..49..253K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MeSol..49..253K"><span>Estimates of azimuthal numbers associated with elementary elliptic cylinder <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kovalev, V. A.; Radaev, Yu. N.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The paper deals with issues related to the construction of solutions, 2 π-periodic in the angular variable, of the Mathieu differential equation for the circular elliptic cylinder harmonics, the associated characteristic values, and the azimuthal numbers needed to form the elementary elliptic cylinder <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. A superposition of the latter is one possible form for representing the analytic solution of the thermoelastic <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation problem in long waveguides with elliptic cross-section contour. The classical Sturm-Liouville problem for the Mathieu equation is reduced to a spectral problem for a linear self-adjoint operator in the Hilbert space of infinite square summable two-sided sequences. An approach is proposed that permits one to derive rather simple algorithms for computing the characteristic values of the angular Mathieu equation with real parameters and the corresponding eigenfunctions. Priority is given to the application of the most symmetric forms and equations that have not yet been used in the theory of the Mathieu equation. These algorithms amount to constructing a matrix diagonalizing an infinite symmetric pentadiagonal matrix. The problem of generalizing the notion of azimuthal number of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagating in a cylindrical waveguide to the case of elliptic geometry is considered. Two-sided mutually refining estimates are constructed for the spectral values of the Mathieu differential operator with periodic and half-periodic (antiperiodic) boundary conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA630981','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA630981"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Ocean <span class="hlt">Waves</span> on the Atmospheric Surface Layer: Simulations and Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-06-07</p> <p>fluxes carried by <span class="hlt">wave</span>-correlated winds and currents; (2) enhanced small-scale, turbulent en­ ergy, mixing, and dissipation due both to enhanced...<span class="hlt">wave</span>-correlated wind and current shears and to <span class="hlt">wave</span> breaking; and (3) <span class="hlt">wave</span>-averaged influences due to mean Lagrangian currents (Stokes drift) that give...during the low- wind CBLAST field campaign. APPROACH We are investigating interactions among the ABL, OBL, and the connecting air-sea interface us­ ing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSeis.tmp....2P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSeis.tmp....2P"><span>Mantle upwelling beneath Madagascar: evidence from receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> analysis and shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> splitting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paul, Jonathan D.; Eakin, Caroline M.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Crustal receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> have been calculated from 128 events for two three-component broadband seismomenters located on the south coast (FOMA) and in the central High Plateaux (ABPO) of Madagascar. For each station, crustal thickness and V p /V s ratio were estimated from H- κ plots. Self-consistent receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> from a smaller back-azimuthal range were then selected, stacked and inverted to determine shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity structure as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of depth. These results were corroborated by guided forward modeling and by Monte Carlo error analysis. The crust is found to be thinner (39 ± 0.7 km) beneath the highland center of Madagascar compared to the coast (44 ± 1.6 km), which is the opposite of what would be expected for crustal isostasy, suggesting that present-day long wavelength topography is maintained, at least in part, dynamically. This inference of dynamic support is corroborated by shear <span class="hlt">wave</span> splitting analyses at the same stations, which produce an overwhelming majority of null results (>96 %), as expected for vertical mantle flow or asthenospheric upwelling beneath the island. These findings suggest a sub-plate origin for dynamic support.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22038781','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22038781"><span>Extracting elements of molecular structure from the all-particle <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Matyus, Edit; Reiher, Markus; Hutter, Juerg; Mueller-Herold, Ulrich</p> <p>2011-11-28</p> <p>Structural information is extracted from the all-particle (non-Born-Oppenheimer) <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> by calculating radial and angular densities derived from n-particle densities. As a result, one- and two-dimensional motifs of classical molecular structure can be recognized in quantum mechanics. Numerical examples are presented for three- (H{sup -}, Ps{sup -}, H{sub 2}{sup +}), four- (Ps{sub 2}, H{sub 2}), and five-particle (H{sub 2}D{sup +}) systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94t1410N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94t1410N"><span>Relativistic k .p Hamiltonians for centrosymmetric topological insulators from ab initio <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nechaev, I. A.; Krasovskii, E. E.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We present a method to microscopically derive a small-size k .p Hamiltonian in a Hilbert space spanned by physically chosen ab initio spinor <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. Without imposing any complementary symmetry constraints, our formalism equally treats three- and two-dimensional systems and simultaneously yields the Hamiltonian parameters and the true Z2 topological invariant. We consider bulk crystals and thin films of Bi2Se3 , Bi2Te3 , and Sb2Te3 . It turns out that the effective continuous k .p models with open boundary conditions often incorrectly predict the topological character of thin films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NJPh...18j3040G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NJPh...18j3040G"><span>Unravelling the noise: the discrimination of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse models under time-continuous measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Genoni, Marco G.; Duarte, O. S.; Serafini, Alessio</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Inspired by the notion that environmental noise is in principle observable, while fundamental noise due to spontaneous localization would not be, we study the estimation of the diffusion parameter induced by <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse models under continuous monitoring of the environment. We take into account finite measurement efficiencies and, in order to quantify the advantage granted by monitoring, we analyse the quantum Fisher information associated with such a diffusion parameter, identify optimal measurements in limiting cases, and assess the performance of such measurements in more realistic conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JAP...101h1714R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JAP...101h1714R"><span>Imaging correlated <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of few-electron quantum dots: Theory and scanning tunneling spectroscopy experimentsa)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rontani, Massimo; Molinari, Elisa; Maruccio, Giuseppe; Janson, Martin; Schramm, Andreas; Meyer, Christian; Matsui, Tomohiro; Heyn, Christian; Hansen, Wolfgang; Wiesendanger, Roland</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>We show both theoretically and experimentally that scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) images of semiconductor quantum dots may display clear signatures of electron-electron correlation. We apply many-body tunneling theory to a realistic model, which fully takes into account correlation effects and dot anisotropy. Comparing measured STS images of freestanding InAs quantum dots with those calculated by the full configuration interaction method, we explain the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> sequence in terms of images of one- and two-electron states. The STS map corresponding to double charging is significantly distorted by electron correlation with respect to the noninteracting case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21528562','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21528562"><span>Evaluation of partial widths and branching ratios from resonance <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goldzak, Tamar; Gilary, Ido; Moiseyev, Nimrod</p> <p>2010-11-15</p> <p>A quantum system in a given resonance state has different open channels for decay. Partial widths are the decay rates of the resonance (metastable) state into the different open channels. Here we present a rigorous derivation of the partial widths from the solution of a time-dependent Schroedinger equation with outgoing boundary conditions. We show that the sum of the partial widths obtained from the resonance <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> is equal to the total width. The difference with respect to previous studies on partial widths and branching ratios is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6750M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.6750M"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of soil degradation on soil <span class="hlt">functioning</span> in Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montanarella, Luca</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The European Commission has presented in September 2006 its Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection.The Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection consists of a Communication from the Commission to the other European Institutions, a proposal for a framework Directive (a European law), and an <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment. The Communication (COM(2006) 231) sets the frame. It defines the relevant soil <span class="hlt">functions</span> for Europe and identifies the major threats. It explains why further action is needed to ensure a high level of soil protection, sets the overall objective of the Strategy and explains what kind of measures must be taken. It establishes a ten-year work program for the European Commission. The proposal for a framework Directive (COM(2006) 232) sets out common principles for protecting soils across the EU. Within this common framework, the EU Member States will be in a position to decide how best to protect soil and how use it in a sustainable way on their own territory. The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment (SEC (2006) 1165 and SEC(2006) 620) contains an analysis of the economic, social and environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the different options that were considered in the preparatory phase of the strategy and of the measures finally retained by the Commission. Since 2006 a large amount of new evidence has allowed to further document the extensive negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of soil degradation on soil <span class="hlt">functioning</span> in Europe. Extensive soil erosion, combined with a constant loss of soil organic carbon, have raised attention to the important role soils are playing within the climate change related processes. Other important processes are related to the loss of soil biodiversity, extensive soil sealing by housing and infrastructure, local and diffuse contamination by agricultural and industrial sources, compaction due to unsustainable agricultural practices and salinization by unsustainable irrigation practices. The extended <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment by the European Commission has attempted to quantify in monetary terms the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1793f0017P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1793f0017P"><span>On a novel graded areal density solution to facilitate ramp <span class="hlt">wave</span> generation in plate-<span class="hlt">impact</span> studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Painter, J. D.; Fitzmaurice, B. C.; Goff, M.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Wood, D. C.; Pinto, T.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Building on a substantial body of work on <span class="hlt">functionally</span> graded materials in the literature, it has been previously shown that the use of graded areal density impactors, in conjunction with buffer materials, allows generation of ramp-<span class="hlt">wave</span> loading profiles in <span class="hlt">impacted</span> targets. Such off-principle-Hugoniot loading paths are of particular interest where control of one or more state variables (e.g. temperature) is desirable during the loading event. Previous attempts to produce suitable graded areal density impactors have focused on rapid prototyping techniques such as 3D printing. While suitable for small-scale production of impactors, such technologies are relatively immature. Instead, here a novel approach to creating graded areal density structures - TWI Ltd.'s novel surface modification process, Surfi-Sculpt®, with a nominal surface spike distribution of 1.5 per mm2, has been employed to produce the required impactors. Initial experimental results are presented highlighting the potential of this experimental approach; further, these results -combined with basic hydrocode simulations - are used to postulate idealised structures which would allow useful loading paths such as the Adiabat to be readily accessed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19152092','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19152092"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of rheumatic diseases on sexual <span class="hlt">function</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tristano, Antonio G</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Sexuality is a complex aspect of the human being's life and is more than of only the sexual act. Normal sexual <span class="hlt">functioning</span> consists of sexual activity with transition through the phases from arousal to relaxation with no problems, and with a feeling of pleasure, fulfillment and satisfaction. Rheumatic diseases may affect all aspects of life including sexual <span class="hlt">functioning</span>. The reasons for disturbing sexual <span class="hlt">functioning</span> are multifactorial and comprise disease-related factors as well as therapy. In rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis patients, pain and depression could be the principal factors contributing to sexual dysfunction. On the other hand, in women with Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis sexual dysfunction is apparently most associated to vaginal discomfort or pain during intercourse. Finally, sexual dysfunction in patients with fibromyalgia could be principally associated with depression, but the characteristic symptoms of fibromyalgia (generalized pain, stiffness, fatigue and poor sleep) may contribute to the occurrence of sexual dysfunction. The treatment of sexual dysfunction will depend on the specific patient's symptoms, however, there are some general recommendations including: exploring different positions, using analgesics drug, heat and muscle relaxants before sexual activity and exploring alternative methods of sexual expression. This is a systemic review about the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of several rheumatic diseases on sexual <span class="hlt">functioning</span>. There are no previous overviews about this topic so far.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5080166','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5080166"><span>Effect of extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy on the shoulder joint <span class="hlt">functional</span> status of patients with calcific tendinitis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwak, Kwang-Il</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] This study aimed to analyze the effect of extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy on the shoulder <span class="hlt">function</span> of patients with calcific tendinitis through a 12-week follow-up. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 34 patients with calcific tendinitis participated in this study. In the extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy group, 18 patients received 6-week extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy and 12-week follow-up. The Constant-Murley scale was used to evaluate shoulder joint <span class="hlt">function</span>. [Results] Analysis of variance showed a significant difference between the measurement periods. The independent t-test showed significant differences between the groups at 2, 6, and 12 weeks. [Conclusion] Extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy can be an effective treatment method for calcific tendinitis that affects patients’ shoulder <span class="hlt">function</span>. PMID:27799684</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..92i4511K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..92i4511K"><span>Manipulation and visualization of two-dimensional phase distribution of vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in solid parahydrogen crystal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Katsuki, Hiroyuki; Ohmori, Kenzo; Horie, Toru; Yanagi, Hisao; Ohmori, Kenji</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Solid parahydrogen, which is known to have an exceptionally long vibrational coherence lifetime as a molecular solid, offers an ideal testbed to perform coherent control experiments in the condensed phase. Here we demonstrate the spatial manipulation and visualization of the relative phase of vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> in solid parahydrogen. Spatial distribution of vibrational excitation is generated by femtosecond impulsive Raman excitation. It is shown that the imprinted initial phase can be manipulated by <span class="hlt">wave</span>-front modulation of the excitation laser pulses with a spatial light modulator. An interferometric measurement is used to convert the spatial phase distribution of the vibrational <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> to the amplitude distribution. We have confirmed that the spatial profile of the scattered anti-Stokes pulse reveals the spatial phase distribution of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>. The read-and-write scheme demonstrated in this experiment is applicable to a broad range of Raman memory systems accessible by Λ -type transitions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21230503','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21230503"><span>Intercellular calcium <span class="hlt">waves</span> in the fire-diffuse-fire framework: Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> for gap-junctional coupling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harris, Jamie; Timofeeva, Yulia</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Calcium is a crucial component in a plethora of cellular processes involved in cell birth, life, and death. Intercellular calcium <span class="hlt">waves</span> that can spread through multiple cells provide one form of cellular communication mechanism between various parts of cell tissues. Here we introduce a simple, yet biophysically realistic model for the propagation of intercellular calcium <span class="hlt">waves</span> based on the fire-diffuse-fire type model for calcium dynamics. Calcium release sites are considered to be discretely distributed along individual linear cells that are connected by gap junctions and a solution of this model can be found in terms of the Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> for this system. We develop the "sum-over-trips" formalism that takes into account the boundary conditions at gap junctions providing a generalization of the original sum-over-trips approach for constructing the response <span class="hlt">function</span> for branched neural dendrites. We obtain the exact solution of the Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> in the Laplace (frequency) domain for an infinite array of cells and show that this Green's <span class="hlt">function</span> can be well approximated by its truncated version. This allows us to obtain an analytical traveling <span class="hlt">wave</span> solution for an intercellular calcium <span class="hlt">wave</span> and analyze the speed of solitary <span class="hlt">wave</span> propagation as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of physiologically important system parameters. Periodic and irregular traveling <span class="hlt">waves</span> can be also sustained by the proposed model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811146H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811146H"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of extreme hydro-meteorological conditions on ecosystem <span class="hlt">functioning</span> and productivity patterns across Australia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huete, Alfredo; Ma, Xuanlong; Xie, Zunyi; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>As Earth's climate continues to change, the frequency and intensity of warm droughts, extreme precipitation patterns, and heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> will alter in potentially different ways, ecosystem structure and <span class="hlt">functioning</span> with major <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on carbon and water balance, and food security. The extreme hydro-meteorological conditions that are presently <span class="hlt">impacting</span> Australia approach those anticipated with future climate change and thus provide unique opportunities to study ecological sensitivity and <span class="hlt">functional</span> responses and cross-biome productivity changes using contemporary, in-situ and satellite observational datasets. Here, we combined satellite vegetation index products from MODIS and AVHRR, total water storage (TWS) from the GRACE twin satellites, precipitation data and in-situ tower flux measurements to characterise ecosystem sensitivity, and analyse climate change <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on ecosystem productivity and resilience. Recent advances in eddy covariance tower flux measurements and spatially contiguous remote sensing data provide innovative and promising capabilities to extend ecosystem <span class="hlt">functioning</span> and productivity studies from local to regional and continental scales. In general, Australia exhibited ecosystem-level shifts in water demands with water availability across wet and dry years, and over all biomes analysed (arid grasslands to humid forests). In the drier years, higher ecosystem water use efficiencies (WUEe) enabled plants to maintain higher levels of productivity than would otherwise be expected for the lower amounts of rainfall and available water. Further, there were unique, <span class="hlt">functional</span> class-specific coping strategies to drought and water availability. With prolonged warm drought conditions, biomes became increasingly water-limited and WUEe continued to increase until reaching a 'dry edge' threshold, a cross biome maximum WUEe, that cannot be sustained with further reductions in water availability and could potentially break down ecosystem resilience and induce</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRC..11011006V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRC..11011006V"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of high-frequency <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the ocean altimeter range bias</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vandemark, D.; Chapron, B.; Elfouhaily, T.; Campbell, J. W.</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>New aircraft observations are presented on the range determination error in satellite altimetry associated with ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Laser-based measurements of the cross correlation between the gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> slope and elevation are reported for the first time. These observations provide direct access to a long, O(10 m), gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> statistic central to nonlinear <span class="hlt">wave</span> theory prediction of the altimeter sea state bias. Coincident Ka-band radar scattering data are used to estimate an electromagnetic (EM) range bias analogous to that in satellite altimetry. These data, along with ancillary wind and <span class="hlt">wave</span> slope variance estimates, are used alongside existing theory to evaluate the extent of long- versus short-<span class="hlt">wave</span>, O(cm), control of the bias. The longer <span class="hlt">wave</span> bias contribution to the total EM bias is shown to range from 25 to as much as 100%. Moreover, on average the term is linearly related to wind speed and to the gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> slope variance, consistent with WNL theory. The EM bias associated with interactions between long and short <span class="hlt">waves</span> is obtained assuming the effect is additive to the independently observed long-<span class="hlt">wave</span> factor. This second component is also a substantial contributor, is observed to be quadratic in wind speed or <span class="hlt">wave</span> slope, and dominates at moderate wind speeds. The behavior is shown to be consistent with EM bias prediction based in hydrodynamic modulation theory. Study implications for improved correction of the on-orbit satellite sea state bias are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3645B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.3645B"><span>Climate extremes in urban area and their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on human health: the summer heat <span class="hlt">waves</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baldi, Marina</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p> Shanghai, which is particularly prone to heat <span class="hlt">waves</span>, recorded the hottest summer in over 50 years. During the event, the maximum number of daily deaths was 317, 42% above the non-heat day average, even though an heat warning system in operation. In this study results from the analysis of heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> events in Italian cities is presented. Indices representative of extremely hot conditions have been taken into account and results of the analysis of indices such as the number of summer days (SU), number of tropical nights (TR), maxima and minima of daily maximum and minimum temperatures (TXx, TXn, TNx, TNn, respectively), exceedances over fixed thresholds is presented. Results show a clear increase in the past decades of the numbers of days affected by heat events. Some considerations are also presented about the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on human health of the longest events occurred in the Country.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93b4112O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93b4112O"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of interface stiffness in surface-<span class="hlt">wave</span> resonances on nanostrip-attached substrates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogi, Hirotsugu; Masuda, Shoichi; Nagakubo, Akira; Nakamura, Nobutomo; Hirao, Masahiko; Kondou, Kouta; Ono, Teruo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Surface <span class="hlt">waves</span> are often excited by interdigitated transducers consisting of many nanostrips attached on a substrate, and it has been recognized that the mass and stiffness of the attached nanostrips affect surface-<span class="hlt">wave</span> resonances to some extent. Here, we reveal the more noticeable influence of the interfacial stiffness between strips and substrate at high frequencies. This influence is confirmed by exciting and detecting surface-<span class="hlt">wave</span> resonances up to ˜6 GHz by picosecond ultrasound spectroscopy. The resonance frequency significantly decreases and attenuation increases as the interfacial stiffness decreases for silicon substrate. However, low-attenuation branches appear along the Rayleigh-<span class="hlt">wave</span>-resonance dispersion curve for silica substrate, and the resonance frequencies remain nearly identical to those of the Rayleigh <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Previous models fail to reproduce these surface-<span class="hlt">wave</span> resonance behaviors. The proposed theoretical model, involving the interfacial stiffness, consistently explained them, indicating the importance of the interface bond strength in designing surface-<span class="hlt">wave</span> resonators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1130241','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1130241"><span>Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis of <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Future Heat <span class="hlt">Waves</span> on Mortality in the Eastern United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wu, Jianyong; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Yang; Fu, Joshua S.; Johnson, Brent; Huang, Cheng; Kim, Young-Min; Liu, Yang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: It is anticipated that climate change will influence heat-related mortality in the future. However, the estimation of excess mortality attributable to future heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> is subject to large uncertainties, which have not been examined under the latest greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Objectives: We estimated the future heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> on mortality in the eastern United States (~ 1,700 counties) under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and analyzed the sources of uncertainties. Methods Using dynamically downscaled hourly temperature projections in 2057-2059, we calculated heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> days and episodes based on four heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> metrics, and estimated the excess mortality attributable to them. The sources of uncertainty in estimated excess mortality were apportioned using a variance-decomposition method. Results: In the eastern U.S., the excess mortality attributable to heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> could range from 200-7,807 with the mean of 2,379 persons/year in 2057-2059. The projected average excess mortality in RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios was 1,403 and 3,556 persons/year, respectively. Excess mortality would be relatively high in the southern and eastern coastal areas. The major sources of uncertainty in the estimates are relative risk of heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> mortality, the RCP scenarios, and the heat <span class="hlt">wave</span> definitions. Conclusions: The estimated mortality risks from future heat <span class="hlt">waves</span> are likely an order of magnitude higher than its current level and lead to thousands of deaths each year under the RCP8.5 scenario. The substantial spatial variability in estimated county-level heat mortality suggests that effective mitigation and adaptation measures should be developed based on spatially resolved data.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvA..81c2508G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvA..81c2508G"><span>Pseudospectral calculation of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of helium and the negative hydrogen ion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grabowski, Paul E.; Chernoff, David F.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>We study the numerical solution of the nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation for two-electron atoms in ground and excited S states using pseudospectral (PS) methods of calculation. The calculation achieves convergence rates for the energy, Cauchy error in the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, and variance in local energy that are exponentially fast for all practical purposes. The method requires three separate subdomains to handle the <span class="hlt">wave</span> function’s cusplike behavior near the two-particle coalescences. The use of three subdomains is essential to maintaining exponential convergence and is more computationally efficient than a single subdomain. A comparison of several different treatments of the cusps suggests that the simplest prescription is sufficient. We investigate two alternate methods for handling the semi-infinite domain, one which involves a sequence of truncated versions of the domain and the other which employs an algebraic mapping of the semi-infinite domain to a finite one and imposes no explicit cutoffs on the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>. The latter prescription proves superior. For many purposes it proves unnecessary to handle the three-particle coalescence in a special way. The presence of logarithmic terms in the exact solution is expected to limit the convergence to being nonexponential but the only clear evidence of that is the rate of convergence of derivatives near the three-particle coalescence point. Higher resolution than achieved in this work will ultimately be needed to see its limiting effect on other measures of error. As developed and applied here the PS method has many virtues: no explicit assumptions need be made about the asymptotic behavior of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> near cusps or at large distances, the local energy (Hψ/ψ) is exactly equal to the calculated global energy at all collocation points, local errors go down everywhere with increasing resolution, the effective basis using Chebyshev polynomials is complete and simple, and the method is easily extensible to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001EOSTr..82..565K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001EOSTr..82..565K"><span>Seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span> generated by aircraft <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and building collapses at World Trade Center, New York City</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Won-Young; Sykes, L. R.; Armitage, J. H.; Xie, J. K.; Jacob, K. H.; Richards, P. G.; West, M.; Waldhauser, F.; Armbruster, J.; Seeber, L.; Du, W. X.; Lerner-Lam, A.</p> <p></p> <p>Seismologists sometimes do their work of data acquisition and analysis against a tragic background. Usually, the context is fieldwork far from home, in an area subjected to the natural but sometimes devastating effects of an earthquake. But in the present case, we are in our own New York City area; that is, the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, in Palisades, N.Y; and the context is inhuman actions against people and the fabric of our society.As the appalling events of September 11 unfolded, we found that we had recorded numerous seismic signals from two plane <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and building collapses of the two World Trade Center (WTC) towers, often at times different than those being reported elsewhere. Collapses of the two WTC towers generated large seismic <span class="hlt">waves</span>, observed in five states and up to 428 km away The north tower collapse was the largest seismic source and had local magnitude ML 2.3. From this, we infer that ground shaking of the WTC towers was not a major contributor to the collapse or damage to surrounding buildings. But unfortunately, we also conclude that from the distance at which our own detections were made (the nearest station is 34 km away at Palisades) it is not possible to infer (with detail sufficient to meet the demands of civil engineers in an emergency situation) just what the near-in ground motions must have been.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5361028','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5361028"><span>The effects of extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy on the pain and <span class="hlt">function</span> of patients with degenerative knee arthritis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Sangyong; Choi, SeokJoo; Choi, Yoon-Hee; Lee, Kwansub</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy on the pain and <span class="hlt">function</span> of patients with degenerative knee arthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with degenerative knee arthritis were divided into a conservative physical therapy group (n=10) and an extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy group (n=10). Both groups received general conservative physical therapy, and the extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy was additionally treated with extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy after receiving conservative physical therapy. Both groups were treated three times a week over a four-week period. The visual analogue scale was used to evaluate pain in the knee joints of the subjects, and the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index was used to evaluate the <span class="hlt">function</span> of the subjects. [Results] The comparison of the visual analogue scale and Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores within each group before and after the treatment showed statistically significant declines in scores in both the conservative physical therapy group and extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy group. A group comparison after the treatment showed statistically significant differences in these scores in the extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy group and the conservative physical therapy group. [Conclusion] extracorporeal shock <span class="hlt">wave</span> therapy may be a useful nonsurgical intervention for reducing the pain of patients with degenerative knee arthritis and improving these patients’ <span class="hlt">function</span>. PMID:28356649</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28183735','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28183735"><span>New insights into the regulatory <span class="hlt">function</span> of CYFIP1 in the context of <span class="hlt">WAVE</span>- and FMRP-containing complexes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abekhoukh, Sabiha; Sahin, H Bahar; Grossi, Mauro; Zongaro, Samantha; Maurin, Thomas; Madrigal, Irene; Kazue-Sugioka, Daniele; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Carrera, Pilar; Stachon, Andrea; Scherer, Steven; Nascimento, Maria Rita Drula Do; Trembleau, Alain; Arroyo, Ignacio; Peter, Szatmari; Smith, Isabel M; Milà, Montserrat; Smith, Adam C; Giangrande, Angela; Caillé, Isabelle; Bardoni, Barbara</p> <p>2017-02-09</p> <p>CYtoplasmic FMRP Interacting Protein 1 (CYFIP1) is a candidate gene for intellectual disability (ID), autism, schizophrenia and epilepsy. It is a member of a family of proteins that is very conserved during evolution, sharing high homology with dCYFIP, its Drosophila homolog. CYFIP1 interacts with the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), whose absence causes the Fragile X Syndrome, and with the translation initiation factor eIF4E. It is a member of the <span class="hlt">WAVE</span> Regulatory Complex (WRC), thus representing a link between translational regulation and actin cytoskeleton. Here, we present data showing a correlation between mRNA levels of CYFIP1 and other members of the WRC. This suggests a tight regulation of the levels of the WRC members not only by post-translational mechanisms, as previously hypothesized. Moreover, we studied the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of loss of <span class="hlt">function</span> of both CYFIP1 and FMRP on neuronal growth and differentiation in two animal models, fly and mouse. We show that these two proteins antagonize each other's <span class="hlt">function</span> not only during neuromuscular junction growth in the fly but also during new neuronal differentiation in the olfactory bulb of adult mice. Mechanistically, FMRP and CYFIP1 modulate mTor signaling in an antagonistic manner, likely via independent pathways, supporting the results obtained in mouse as well as in fly at the morphological level. Collectively, our results illustrate a new model to explain the cellular roles of FMRP and CYFIP1 and the molecular significance of their interaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EPJB...87..193G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EPJB...87..193G"><span>The relations among Shannon information entropy, quantum discord, concurrence and localization properties of one-dimensional single-electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gong, Longyan; Zheng, Yongcui; Wang, Haihong; Cheng, Weiwen; Zhao, Shengmei</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Shannon information entropy (SE), concurrence (CC), quantum discord (QD) and localization properties for various one-dimensional one-electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> are intensively studied, respectively. They include Gaussian <span class="hlt">functions</span>, power-law <span class="hlt">functions</span>, and <span class="hlt">functions</span> in the Anderson model and the Harper ones. For all these <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>, we find that SE, CC and QD increase as the localization length of a <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> increases, respectively. There are linear or quadratic relationships between two of them. Therefore, we can confirm for the analyzed models that SE, CC and QD are statistically equivalent quantities to reflect the localization properties of <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> though they are different measures of quantum information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308267','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308267"><span>Ergodicity breaking and <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> statistics in disordered interacting systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>De Luca, Andrea</p> <p>2014-08-20</p> <p>We present the study of the structure of many-body eigenfunctions in a one-dimensional disordered spin chain. We discuss the choice of an appropriate basis in the Hilbert space, where the problem can be seen as an Anderson model defined on a high-dimensional non-trivial graph, determined by the many-body Hamiltonian. The comparison with the usual behavior of <span class="hlt">wave-functions</span> in finite dimensional Anderson localization allows us to put in light the main differences of the many-body case. At high disorder, the typical eigenfunctions do not seem to localize though they occupy a infinitesimal portion of the Hilbert space in the thermodynamic limit. We perform a detailed analysis of the distribution of the <span class="hlt">wave-function</span> coefficients and their peculiar scaling in the small and large disorder phase. We propose a criterion to identify the position of the transition by looking at the long tails of these distributions. The results coming from exact diagonalization show signs of breaking of ergodicity when the disorder reaches a critical value that agrees with the estimation of the many-body localization transition in the same model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/894780','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/894780"><span>Crustal Structure of Iraq from Receiver <span class="hlt">Functions</span> and Surface <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Dispersion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gok, R; Mahdi, H; Al-Shukri, H; Rodgers, A J</p> <p>2006-08-31</p> <p>We report the crustal structure of Iraq, located in the northeastern Arabian plate, estimated by joint inversion of P-<span class="hlt">wave</span> receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> and surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> group velocity dispersion. Receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> were computed from teleseismic recordings at two temporary broadband seismic stations in Mosul (MSL) and Baghdad (BHD), separated by approximately 360 km. Group velocity dispersion curves at the sites were derived from continental-scale tomography of Pasyanos (2006). The inversion results show that the crustal thicknesses are 39 km at MSL and 43 km at BHD. Both sites reveal low velocity surface layers consistent with sedimentary thickness of about 3 km at station MSL and 7 km at BHD, agreeing well with the existing models. Ignoring the sediments, the crustal velocities and thicknesses are remarkably similar between the two stations, suggesting that the crustal structure of the proto-Arabian Platform in northern Iraq was uniform before subsidence and deposition of the sediments in the Cenozoic. Deeper low velocity sediments at BHD are expected to result in higher ground motions for earthquakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18729341','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18729341"><span>Extracting covalent and ionic structures from usual delocalized <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>: the electron-expansion methodology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Papanikolaou, P; Karafiloglou, P</p> <p>2008-09-18</p> <p>We present easily programmable expansions, allowing the calculation of the weights of local covalent and ionic structures of a chemical bond from usual delocalized <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span>; they are obtained in the framework of the electron-expansion methodology, in which the hole conditions (involved by definition in a covalent or ionic structure) are expanded in terms involving only electrons. From the derived relations, true for both HF and correlated levels, one can also express the covalency/ionicity and the localization of a usual two-electron two-center (2e/2c) bond in terms of electronic populations. The three-electron populations are crucial for bond localization. On the contrary, in 2e/2c bonding, and particularly in Charge-Shift bonds (which show enhanced covalent-ionic interactions) although the three-electron populations can be non-negligible, they are not important for the covalency/ionicity of these bonds. Numerical applications and discussion are given for correlated MO <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">functions</span> of butadiene, hexatriene, and pyrrole molecules on the basis of both natural atomic orbitals (NAOs) (orthogonal orbitals) and pre-NAOs (nonorthogonal orbitals).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SHPMP..53....9Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SHPMP..53....9Z"><span>Niels Bohr on the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> and the classical/quantum divide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zinkernagel, Henrik</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>It is well known that Niels Bohr insisted on the necessity of classical concepts in the account of quantum phenomena. But there is little consensus concerning his reasons, and what he exactly meant by this. In this paper, I re-examine Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics, and argue that the necessity of the classical can be seen as part of his response to the measurement problem. More generally, I attempt to clarify Bohr's view on the classical/quantum divide, arguing that the relation between the two theories is that of mutual dependence. An important element in this clarification consists in distinguishing Bohr's idea of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> as symbolic from both a purely epistemic and an ontological interpretation. Together with new evidence concerning Bohr's conception of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> collapse, this sets his interpretation apart from both standard versions of the Copenhagen interpretation, and from some of the reconstructions of his view found in the literature. I conclude with a few remarks on how Bohr's ideas make much sense also when modern developments in quantum gravity and early universe cosmology are taken into account.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..94d2708G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvA..94d2708G"><span>Determination of the exchange interaction energy from the polarization expansion of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gniewek, Piotr; Jeziorski, Bogumił</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The exchange contribution to the energy of the hydrogen atom interacting with a proton is calculated from the polarization expansion of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> using the conventional surface-integral formula and two formulas involving volume integrals: the formula of the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) and the variational formula recommended by us. At large internuclear distances R , all three formulas yield the correct expression -(2 /e ) R e-R , but they approximate it with very different convergence rates. In the case of the SAPT formula, the convergence is geometric with the error falling as 3-K, where K is the order of the applied polarization expansion. The error of the surface-integral formula decreases exponentially as aK/(K +1 ) , where a =ln2 - 1/2. The variational formula performs best, its error decays as K1 /2[aK/(K+1 ) ] 2 . These convergence rates are much faster than those resulting from approximating the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> through the multipole expansion. This shows the efficiency of the partial resummation of the multipole series effected by the polarization expansion. Our results demonstrate also the benefits of incorporating the variational principle into the perturbation theory of molecular interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1322012','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1322012"><span>Final Report for Project: <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of stratification and non-equilibrium winds and <span class="hlt">waves</span> on hub-height winds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Patton, Edward G.</p> <p>2015-07-14</p> <p>This project used a combination of turbulence-resolving large-eddy simulations, single-column modeling (where turbulence is parameterized), and currently available observations to improve, assess, and develop a parameterization of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of non-equilibrium <span class="hlt">wave</span> states and stratification on the buoy-observed winds to establish reliable wind data at the turbine hub-height level. Analysis of turbulence-resolving simulations and observations illuminates the non-linear coupling between the atmosphere and the undulating sea surface. This analysis guides modification of existing boundary layer parameterizations to include <span class="hlt">wave</span> influences for upward extrapolation of surface-based observations through the turbine layer. Our surface roughness modifications account for the interaction between stratification and the effects of swell’s amplitude and wavelength as well as swell’s relative motion with respect to the mean wind direction. The single-column version of the open source Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model (Skamarock et al., 2008) serves as our platform to test our proposed planetary boundary layer parameterization modifications that account for <span class="hlt">wave</span> effects on marine atmospheric boundary layer flows. WRF has been widely adopted for wind resource analysis and forecasting. The single column version is particularly suitable to development, analysis, and testing of new boundary layer parameterizations. We utilize WRF’s single-column version to verify and validate our proposed modifications to the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) boundary layer parameterization (Nakanishi and Niino, 2004). We explore the implications of our modifications for two-way coupling between WRF and <span class="hlt">wave</span> models (e.g.,Wavewatch III). The newly implemented parameterization accounting for marine atmospheric boundary layer-<span class="hlt">wave</span> coupling is then tested in three-dimensional WRF simulations at grid sizes near 1 km. These simulations identify the behavior of simulated winds at the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhPl...24b2111T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhPl...24b2111T"><span>Longitudinal dielectric <span class="hlt">function</span> and dispersion relation of electrostatic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in relativistic plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Touil, B.; Bendib, A.; Bendib-Kalache, K.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The longitudinal dielectric <span class="hlt">function</span> is derived analytically from the relativistic Vlasov equation for arbitrary values of the relevant parameters z = m c 2 / T , where m is the rest electron mass, c is the speed of light, and T is the electron temperature in energy units. A new analytical approach based on the Legendre polynomial expansion and continued fractions was used. Analytical expression of the electron distribution <span class="hlt">function</span> was derived. The real part of the dispersion relation and the damping rate of electron plasma <span class="hlt">waves</span> are calculated both analytically and numerically in the whole range of the parameter z . The results obtained improve significantly the previous results reported in the literature. For practical purposes, explicit expressions of the real part of the dispersion relation and the damping rate in the range z > 30 and strongly relativistic regime are also proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7703876','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7703876"><span>Postpartum early discharge: <span class="hlt">impact</span> on maternal fatigue and <span class="hlt">functional</span> ability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith-Hanrahan, C; Deblois, D</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a postpartum early discharge program, with home follow-up by hospital nursing staff, on the maternal fatigue and <span class="hlt">functional</span> ability of low-risk mothers with healthy neonates. A quasi-experimental design was used. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups receiving the early-discharge program (hospital stay less than 60 hours plus home follow-up by hospital-based nurses; n = 35) or traditional hospital care (hospital stay more than 60 hours and no home follow-up by hospital staff; n = 17). A third group emerged from those originally assigned to traditional care but later transferred to early discharge due to bed shortages (n = 29). The Rhoten Fatigue Scale and the Inventory of <span class="hlt">Functional</span> Status After Childbirth were used to collect the data at discharge and 1 and 6 weeks postpartum period. No significant differences between groups were found, suggesting that early discharge with adequate home follow-up does not affect the low-risk mother's fatigue and <span class="hlt">functional</span> ability to any significantly greater extent than traditional care. It was also noted that, regardless of type of care, the proportion of subjects reporting severe fatigue was relatively large (25%, 31%, and 19% at discharge, 1 and 6 weeks postpartum period), highlighting the need for further study of maternal fatigue in the postpartum period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4598186','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4598186"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of surgical excisions on human gastric slow <span class="hlt">wave</span> conduction, defined by high-resolution electrical mapping and in-silico modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Du, Peng; Hameed, Ahmer; Angeli, Timothy R.; Lahr, Christopher; Abell, Thomas L.; Cheng, Leo K.; O’Grady, Gregory</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Gastric contractions are coordinated by slow <span class="hlt">waves</span>, generated by interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Gastric surgery affects slow <span class="hlt">wave</span> conduction, potentially contributing to post-operative gastric dysfunction. However, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of gastric cuts on slow <span class="hlt">waves</span> has not been comprehensively evaluated. This study aimed to define consequences of surgical excisions on gastric slow <span class="hlt">waves</span> by applying high-resolution (HR) electrical mapping and in-silico modeling. Methods Patients undergoing gastric stimulator implantation (n=10) underwent full-thickness stapled excisions (25×15 mm, distal corpus) for histological evaluation, enabling HR mapping (256 electrodes; 36cm2) over and adjacent to excisions. A biophysically-based in-silico model of bi-directionally coupled ICC networks was developed and applied to investigate the underlying conduction mechanisms and importance of excision orientation. Results Normal gastric slow <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagated aborally (3.0±0.2 cycles/min). Excisions induced complete conduction block and wavelets that rotated around blocks, then propagated rapidly circumferentially distal to blocks (8.5±1.2 vs normal 3.6±0.4 mm s−1; p<0.01). This ‘conduction anisotropy’ homeostatically restored antegrade propagating gastric wavefronts distal to excisions. Excisions were associated with complex dysrhythmias in 5 patients: retrograde propagation (3/10), ectopics (3/10), <span class="hlt">functional</span> blocks (2/10) and collisions (1/10). Simulations demonstrated conduction anisotropy emerged from bidirectional coupling within ICC layers and showed transverse incision length and orientation correlated to degree of conduction distortion. Conclusions Orienting incisions in the longitudinal gastric axis causes least disruption to electrical conduction and motility. However, if transverse incisions are made, a homeostatic mechanism of gastric conduction anisotropy compensates by restoring aborally-propagating wavefronts. Complex dysrhythmias accompanying excisions could</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21141665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21141665"><span>The ecology of seamounts: structure, <span class="hlt">function</span>, and human <span class="hlt">impacts</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clark, Malcolm R; Rowden, Ashley A; Schlacher, Thomas; Williams, Alan; Consalvey, Mireille; Stocks, Karen I; Rogers, Alex D; O'Hara, Timothy D; White, Martin; Shank, Timothy M; Hall-Spencer, Jason M</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In this review of seamount ecology, we address a number of key scientific issues concerning the structure and <span class="hlt">function</span> of benthic communities, human <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, and seamount management and conservation. We consider whether community composition and diversity differ between seamounts and continental slopes, how important dispersal capabilities are in seamount connectivity, what environmental factors drive species composition and diversity, whether seamounts are centers of enhanced biological productivity, and whether they have unique trophic architecture. We discuss how vulnerable seamount communities are to fishing and mining, and how we can balance exploitation of resources and conservation of habitat. Despite considerable advances in recent years, there remain many questions about seamount ecosystems that need closer integration of molecular, oceanographic, and ecological research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ARMS....2..253C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ARMS....2..253C"><span>The Ecology of Seamounts: Structure, <span class="hlt">Function</span>, and Human <span class="hlt">Impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clark, Malcolm R.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Schlacher, Thomas; Williams, Alan; Consalvey, Mireille; Stocks, Karen I.; Rogers, Alex D.; O'Hara, Timothy D.; White, Martin; Shank, Timothy M.; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In this review of seamount ecology, we address a number of key scientific issues concerning the structure and <span class="hlt">function</span> of benthic communities, human <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, and seamount management and conservation. We consider whether community composition and diversity differ between seamounts and continental slopes, how important dispersal capabilities are in seamount connectivity, what environmental factors drive species composition and diversity, whether seamounts are centers of enhanced biological productivity, and whether they have unique trophic architecture. We discuss how vulnerable seamount communities are to fishing and mining, and how we can balance exploitation of resources and conservation of habitat. Despite considerable advances in recent years, there remain many questions about seamount ecosystems that need closer integration of molecular, oceanographic, and ecological research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411961P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1411961P"><span>PICASSO: Lithosphere Structure in the Western Mediterranean from Ps Receiver <span class="hlt">Functions</span> and Rayleigh <span class="hlt">Wave</span> Tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Palomeras, I.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Humphreys, E.; Miller, M. S.; Carbonell, R.; Gallart, J.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The western Mediterranean is a diffuse plate boundary separating the African and Eurasian plates. Cenozoic deformation is centered on the Gibraltar arc and Alboran Sea, and occupies a wide area from the southern Iberian Massif in Spain to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco. We present a model of the lithospheric structure of this region derived from Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> tomography and Ps receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span>, using data from the PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) linear broadband array of ~100 seismographs. This array is deployed from central Spain to the Morocco-Algerian border. We complement these data with some of that recorded by IberArray, an areal broadband array, operated by the Spanish seismological community, covering the same region with a uniform 50 km x 50 km grid of stations. Rayleigh phase velocities have been measured from 20-167s period using the two-plane-<span class="hlt">wave</span> method to remove complications due to multi-pathing, and finite-frequency kernels to improve lateral resolution. The phase velocities were inverted for 1D structure on a 0.25 by 0.25 degree grid. Ps receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> at 1Hz and 2Hz were calculated for the same area using water-level and time-domain iterative deconvolution, and were then CCP stacked. The Rayleigh <span class="hlt">wave</span> shear velocity model, jointly interpreted with the discontinuity structure from the CCP stack, shows the first-order lithospheric structure, and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). From north to south along the PICASSO profile: The lithosphere is ~120 km thick beneath the Iberian Massif, where it has the highest shear velocity, 4.45 km/s. To the south the lithosphere thins dramatically beneath the Betic Mountains to ~85 km, and then varies in thickness and decreases in velocity beneath the Alboran Sea and Gibraltar Arc. The thinnest lithosphere, ~60 km, is observed beneath the Rif mountains and Middle Atlas, with a low velocity feature (4.2 km/s) at ~60 km depth beneath a site of Late Cenozoic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.S13B1991B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.S13B1991B"><span>Ambient noise recovery of surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> Green's <span class="hlt">functions</span>: Application at Hawaiian volcanoes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ballmer, S.; Wolfe, C. J.; Okubo, P.; Haney, M. M.; Thurber, C. H.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Hazard assessment of Hawaiian volcanoes critically depends on the understanding of their evolution and dynamics. Previous studies suggest that ambient seismic noise analyses may aid in volcano research and monitoring. Green’s <span class="hlt">functions</span> derived from ambient noise have been used to perform tomography of the shallow structures (< 5 km depth) at other volcanoes [1, 2]. Moreover, these Green’s <span class="hlt">functions</span> have been used to monitor very small shallow velocity perturbations prior to eruptions [3]. This promising technique, however, has not yet been applied to any Hawaiian volcano. Here, we examine data from the USGS Hawaii Volcano Observatory short-period seismic network to assess the potential of such ambient noise analyses to constrain spatial velocity heterogeneity and temporal perturbations at Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes. We have obtained continuous seismic data from May 2007 through April 2008. This time period includes two important volcanic events. 1) The Father’s Day dike intrusion into Kilauea’s east rift zone that occurred on June 17, 2007. 2) The Kilauea summit eruption of March 19, 2008 and the high summit activity (that includes high tremor levels) that has since followed. The success of any noise study of temporal velocity perturbations will depend critically on whether stable Green’s <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be recovered. However, for applications at Hawaii it is possible that during some time frames high volcanic tremor levels may distort ambient noise records and hence limit the results. Using the technical approach described in [2], we plan to examine numerous station pairs to determine the times when stable Green’s <span class="hlt">functions</span> can be extracted from noise (0.1-1 Hz) that is typically made up of Rayleigh <span class="hlt">waves</span> created by wind-generated ocean <span class="hlt">waves</span>. As a first step, we investigate the period around the 2007 dike intrusion to evaluate the applicability of noise interferometry to Kilauea volcano. [1] Brenguier, F., N. M. Shapiro, M. Campillo, A. Nercessian</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA482362','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA482362"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Ocean <span class="hlt">Waves</span> on the Atmospheric Surface Layer: Simulations and Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-06-06</p> <p>with the mean wind speed. The simulation model is based on (i) an asymptotic theory for the conservative dynamical effects of <span class="hlt">waves</span> on the <span class="hlt">wave</span>...their role in upper ocean dynamics . We note that low-Reynolds number direct numerical simulation (DNS) and LES have previously been used to examine...entrainment dynamics in the daytime convective atmospheric boundary layer (Sullivan et al. 1998). Thus our simulations show that surface <span class="hlt">waves</span> can</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A53E..08B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A53E..08B"><span>Four years of gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> monitoring in Antarctica : <span class="hlt">Impact</span> for global atmospheric studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blanc, E.; Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The development of the Infrasound International Monitoring System, used for the verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, offers a powerful way to measure, permanently and at a global scale, the atmospheric <span class="hlt">waves</span> at different latitudes. Infrasound stations using several microbarometers are very sensitive acoustic antennas, measuring the main characteristics of infrasound <span class="hlt">waves</span> including velocity and direction of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> front. Associated with new data processing methods, a global analysis of the atmospheric disturbances is now possible in a large frequency range. The networks if mostly sensitive to infrasound in the range 0.01 to 10 Hz, but most of gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span>, which are characterized by very large amplitudes, are also detected by the network. The Antarctic stations are especially interesting for the study of gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span>, because they are controlled by the polar vortex, and because they are rarely disturbed by the low latitude mountain gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> activity which is less important than in the Northern hemisphere. The monitoring of the gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> activity in the Antarctica station I27DE from 2003 up to 2007 reveals two active gravity <span class="hlt">wave</span> systems. The first one, characterized by an azimuth from East, is produced in the troposphere by the wind blowing over mountains. The second system, characterized by an azimuth from West, is correlated with the wind and the temperature gradients in the lower stratosphere and is related with the polar stratospheric vortex. During magnetic storms infrasound <span class="hlt">waves</span> are generally observed with a North azimuth at frequencies from 0.5 Hz to few Hz, however, gravity <span class="hlt">waves</span> are generally not observed. A strong <span class="hlt">wave</span> system has been observed coming from North only once in January 2005 several days after a major magnetic storm. The origin of this <span class="hlt">wave</span> system in terms of magnetic storm or other processes related with the global dynamics of the stratosphere is discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22252855','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22252855"><span>Compact two-electron <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for bond dissociation and Van der Waals interactions: A natural amplitude assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Giesbertz, Klaas J. H.; Leeuwen, Robert van</p> <p>2014-05-14</p> <p>Electron correlations in molecules can be divided in short range dynamical correlations, long range Van der Waals type interactions, and near degeneracy static correlations. In this work, we analyze for a one-dimensional model of a two-electron system how these three types of correlations can be incorporated in a simple <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> of restricted <span class="hlt">functional</span> form consisting of an orbital product multiplied by a single correlation <span class="hlt">function</span> f (r{sub 12}) depending on the interelectronic distance r{sub 12}. Since the three types of correlations mentioned lead to different signatures in terms of the natural orbital (NO) amplitudes in two-electron systems, we make an analysis of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> in terms of the NO amplitudes for a model system of a diatomic molecule. In our numerical implementation, we fully optimize the orbitals and the correlation <span class="hlt">function</span> on a spatial grid without restrictions on their <span class="hlt">functional</span> form. Due to this particular form of the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span>, we can prove that none of the amplitudes vanishes and moreover that it displays a distinct sign pattern and a series of avoided crossings as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of the bond distance in agreement with the exact solution. This shows that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> ansatz correctly incorporates the long range Van der Waals interactions. We further show that the approximate <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> gives an excellent binding curve and is able to describe static correlations. We show that in order to do this the correlation <span class="hlt">function</span> f (r{sub 12}) needs to diverge for large r{sub 12} at large internuclear distances while for shorter bond distances it increases as a <span class="hlt">function</span> of r{sub 12} to a maximum value after which it decays exponentially. We further give a physical interpretation of this behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22227858','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22227858"><span>On the fully nonlinear acoustic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in a plasma with positrons beam <span class="hlt">impact</span> and superthermal electrons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ali Shan, S.; El-Tantawy, S. A.; Moslem, W. M.</p> <p>2013-08-15</p> <p>Arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic <span class="hlt">waves</span> in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of cold positive ions, superthermal electrons, and positrons beam are reported. The basic set of fluid equations is reduced to an energy-balance like equation. The latter is numerically analyzed to examine the existence regions for solitary and shock <span class="hlt">waves</span>. It is found that only solitary <span class="hlt">waves</span> can propagate, however, the model cannot support shocks. The effects of superthermality and beam parameters (via, positrons concentration and streaming velocity) on the existence region, as well as solitary <span class="hlt">wave</span> profile have been discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhD...46.5001M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhD...46.5001M"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of eddy currents on the dispersion relation of surface spin <span class="hlt">waves</span> in thin conducting magnetic films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maksymov, I. S.; Kostylev, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We propose a rigorous solution to a long-standing problem of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of eddy currents on the dispersion relation of surface spin <span class="hlt">waves</span> propagating in thin conducting magnetic films. Our results confirm the prediction of the Almeida-Mill's exchange-free theory that the inclusion of the eddy-current contribution results in a deviation of the dispersion curve for the fundamental mode from the Damon-Eshbach law and a substantial linewidth broadening in a large <span class="hlt">wave</span> vector range. We show that the decrease in the spin-<span class="hlt">wave</span> frequency is due to an increase in the in-plane component of the dynamic magnetic field within the conducting film. The decrease in the frequency is accompanied by a drastic change in the asymmetry of the modal profiles for the <span class="hlt">waves</span>. This effect is not observable in magneto-insulating films and therefore it is unambiguously attributed to eddy currents that appear in conducting films only. We also show that the <span class="hlt">wave</span> vector range in which eddy currents affect the dispersion curve is strongly correlated with the value of the film conductivity. This result holds for conducting films with the thickness 10-100 nm, which are considered promising for future magnonic and spintronic applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121..410H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRC..121..410H"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">wave</span>-induced Coriolis-Stokes forcing on satellite-derived ocean surface currents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hui, Zhenli; Xu, Yongsheng</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Ocean surface currents estimated from the satellite data consist of two terms: Ekman currents from the wind stress and geostrophic currents from the sea surface height (SSH). But the classical Ekman model does not consider the <span class="hlt">wave</span> effects. By taking the <span class="hlt">wave</span>-induced Coriolis-Stokes forcing into account, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">waves</span> (primarily the Stokes drift) on ocean surface currents is investigated and the <span class="hlt">wave</span>-modified currents are formed. The products are validated by comparing with OSCAR currents and Lagrangian drifter velocity. The result shows that our products with the Stokes drift are better adapted to the in situ Lagrangian drifter currents. Especially in the Southern Ocean region (40°S-65°S), 90% (91%) of the zonal (meridional) currents have been improved compared with currents that do not include Stokes drift. The correlation (RMSE) in the Southern Ocean has also increased (decreased) from 0.78 (13) to 0.81 (10.99) for the zonal component and 0.76 (10.87) to 0.79 (10.09) for the meridional component. This finding provides the evidence that <span class="hlt">waves</span> indeed play an important role in the ocean circulation, and need to be represented in numerical simulations of the global ocean circulation. This article was corrected on 10 FEB 2016. See the end of the full text for details.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024623','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024623"><span>Crustal structure beneath western and eastern Iceland from surface <span class="hlt">waves</span> and receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Du, Z.; Foulger, G.R.; Julian, B.R.; Allen, R.M.; Nolet, G.; Morgan, W.J.; Bergsson, B.H.; Erlendsson, P.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Ragnarsson, S.; Stefansson, R.; Vogfjord, K.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>We determine the crustal structures beneath 14 broad-band seismic stations, deployed in western, eastern, central and southern Iceland, using surface <span class="hlt">wave</span> dispersion curves and receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span>. We implement a method to invert receiver <span class="hlt">functions</span> using constraints obtained from genetic algorithm inversion of surface <span class="hlt">waves</span>. Our final models satisfy both data sets. The thickness of the upper crust, as defined by the velocity horizon Vs = 3.7 km s-1, is fairly uniform at ???6.5-9 km beneath the Tertiary intraplate areas of western and eastern Iceland, and unusually thick at 11 km beneath station HOT22 in the far south of Iceland. The depth to the base of the lower crust, as defined by the velocity horizon Vs = 4.1 km s-1 is ???20-26 km in western Iceland and ???27-33 km in eastern Iceland. These results agree with those of explosion profiles that detect a thinner crust beneath western Iceland than beneath eastern Iceland. An earlier report of a substantial low-velocity zone beneath the Middle Volcanic Zone in the lower crust is confirmed by a similar observation beneath an additional station there. As was found in previous receiver <span class="hlt">function</span> studies, the most reliable feature of the results is the clear division into an upper sequence that is a few kilometres thick where velocity gradients are high, and a lower, thicker sequence where velocity gradients are low. The transition to typical mantle velocities is variable, and may range from being very gradational to being relatively sharp and clear. A clear Moho, by any definition, is rarely seen, and there is thus uncertainty in estimates of the thickness of the crust in many areas. Although a great deal of seismic data are now available constraining the structures of the crust and upper mantle beneath Iceland, their geological nature is not well understood.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JChPh.126v4104M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JChPh.126v4104M"><span>Two-state model based on the block-localized <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mo, Yirong</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>The block-localized <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> (BLW) method is a variant of ab initio valence bond method but retains the efficiency of molecular orbital methods. It can derive the <span class="hlt">wave</span> <span class="hlt">function</span> for a diabatic (resonance) state self-consistently and is available at the Hartree-Fock (HF) and density <span class="hlt">functional</span> theory (DFT) levels. In this work we present a two-state model based on the BLW method. Although numerous empirical and semiempirical two-state models, such as the Marcus-Hush two-state model, have been proposed to describe a chemical reaction process, the advantage of this BLW-based two-state model is that no empirical parameter is required. Important quantities such as the electronic coupling energy, structural weights of two diabatic states, and excitation energy can be uniquely derived from the energies of two diabatic states and the adiabatic state at the same HF or DFT level. Two simple examples of formamide and thioformamide in the gas phase and aqueous solution were presented and discussed. The solvation of formamide and thioformamide was studied with the combined ab initio quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical Monte Carlo simulations, together with the BLW-DFT calculations and analyses. Due to the favorable solute-solvent electrostatic interaction, the contribution of the ionic resonance structure to the ground state of formamide and thioformamide significantly increases, and for thioformamide the ionic form is even more stable than the covalent form. Thus, thioformamide in aqueous solution is essentially ionic rather than covalent. Although our two-state model in general underestimates the electronic excitation energies, it can predict relative solvatochromic shifts well. For instance, the intense π →π* transition for formamide upon solvation undergoes a redshift of 0.3eV, compared with the experimental data (0.40-0.5eV).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21503796','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21503796"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of IQ discrepancy on executive <span class="hlt">function</span> in high-<span class="hlt">functioning</span> autism: insight into twice exceptionality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kalbfleisch, M Layne; Loughan, Ashlee R</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>We examined the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of IQ discrepancy (IQD) within (1) and above (1+) one standard deviation on executive <span class="hlt">function</span> in HFA using the BRIEF. We hypothesized that IQD would benefit executive <span class="hlt">function</span>. IQD 1 is hallmarked by deficits in BRIEF indices and subscales inhibit, shift, initiate, working memory, planning and organization, and monitor (MANCOVA, p < .003, corrected). As IQD increases to 1+, deficits are fewer, corresponding to subscales inhibit, shift, and initiate. Pearson correlations (p < .004, corrected) identify significant relationships for FSIQ and BRIEF Global Composite (r = -.66, p = .002) and Metacognition subscales plan/organize (r = -.64, p = .003) and monitor (r = -.63, p = .004). Results suggest IQD 1+ favoring verbal IQ may support these aspects of executive <span class="hlt">function</span> in HFA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21A0497R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21A0497R"><span>Past, present and future of <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate, storms and morphological <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on sandy coasts: Spain and Wales coasts examples.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rangel-Buitrago, N. G.; Anfuso, G.; Phillips, M.; Thomas, T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Coastal response to climate events is very important for both socio-economic and environmental reasons. In order to carry out a correct coastal management program, it is important to provide realistic analysis of the natural variability and trend associated with climatic events (i.e. hurricanes, storms). In a scenario of rising sea level and increasing <span class="hlt">wave</span> heights, the coastline will suffer huge <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in terms of erosion and flooding especially with respect to low-lying regions that may partly or entirely disappear. This work deals with the analysis of a 22 year long <span class="hlt">wave</span> buoy dataset recorded at Cadiz (SW Spain) and Tenby (S Wales, UK) with the objective of find the existing relationships between <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate and coastal response. The analysis consisted in the characterization of winter <span class="hlt">wave</span> climate, extreme <span class="hlt">waves</span> and storms characteristics and distribution and their relationships with regional cycles (Teleconnection Patterns) such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index, the East Atlantic (EA) pattern and the Arctic Oscillation (AO), among others. <span class="hlt">Wave</span> climate showed clear cyclic variations in average monthly significant <span class="hlt">wave</span> height (Hs). Winter <span class="hlt">waves</span> rapidly increased in height, reaching peak values (Hs = 1.2 m, Cadiz, Hs = 2.1 m, Tenby) between December and January. Energy patterns calculated using the equation of <span class="hlt">wave</span> energy flux, showed average values of 37 kW/m and 155 kW/m respectively, during winter. In the same way, storm characterization in each study area was carried out using the Storm Power Index (Dolan and Davis, 1992) and five classes were obtained, from class I (weak) to V (extreme). Storm occurrence probability was 95% for class I (i.e. almost one event per year) to 5 % for class V. The return period for class V was 25 years and ranged from 5 to 8 years for classes III and IV storms, e.g. significant and severe events. Classes I and II showed a period of recurrence ranging from 1 to 3 years. For both areas high energy <span class="hlt">wave</span> values were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26085172','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26085172"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of plant domestication on rhizosphere microbiome assembly and <span class="hlt">functions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pérez-Jaramillo, Juan E; Mendes, Rodrigo; Raaijmakers, Jos M</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The rhizosphere microbiome is pivotal for plant health and growth, providing defence against pests and diseases, facilitating nutrient acquisition and helping plants to withstand abiotic stresses. Plants can actively recruit members of the soil microbial community for positive feedbacks, but the underlying mechanisms and plant traits that drive microbiome assembly and <span class="hlt">functions</span> are largely unknown. Domestication of plant species has substantially contributed to human civilization, but also caused a strong decrease in the genetic diversity of modern crop cultivars that may have affected the ability of plants to establish beneficial associations with rhizosphere microbes. Here, we review how plants shape the rhizosphere microbiome and how domestication may have <span class="hlt">impacted</span> rhizosphere microbiome assembly and <span class="hlt">functions</span> via habitat expansion and via changes in crop management practices, root exudation, root architecture, and plant litter quality. We also propose a "back to the roots" framework that comprises the exploration of the microbiome of indigenous plants and their native habitats for the identification of plant and microbial traits with the ultimate goal to reinstate beneficial associations that may have been undermined during plant domestication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5024585','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5024585"><span>Bioelectric <span class="hlt">impact</span> of pathological angiogenesis on vascular <span class="hlt">function</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Puro, Donald G.; Kohmoto, Ryohsuke; Fujita, Yasushi; Gardner, Thomas W.; Padovani-Claudio, Dolly A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Pathological angiogenesis, as seen in many inflammatory, immune, malignant, and ischemic disorders, remains an immense health burden despite new molecular therapies. It is likely that further therapeutic progress requires a better understanding of neovascular pathophysiology. Surprisingly, even though transmembrane voltage is well known to regulate vascular <span class="hlt">function</span>, no previous bioelectric analysis of pathological angiogenesis has been reported. Using the perforated-patch technique to measure vascular voltages in human retinal neovascular specimens and rodent models of retinal neovascularization, we discovered that pathological neovessels generate extraordinarily high voltage. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that voltage from aberrantly located preretinal neovascular complexes is transmitted into the intraretinal vascular network. With extensive neovascularization, this voltage input is substantial and boosts the membrane potential of intraretinal blood vessels to a suprahyperpolarized level. Coincident with this suprahyperpolarization, the vasomotor response to hypoxia is fundamentally altered. Instead of the compensatory dilation observed in the normal retina, arterioles constrict in response to an oxygen deficiency. This anomalous vasoconstriction, which would potentiate hypoxia, raises the possibility that the bioelectric <span class="hlt">impact</span> of neovascularization on vascular <span class="hlt">function</span> is a previously unappreciated pathophysiological mechanism to sustain hypoxia-driven angiogenesis. PMID:27551068</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24623048','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24623048"><span>Human adipocyte <span class="hlt">function</span> is <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by mechanical cues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pellegrinelli, V; Heuvingh, J; du Roure, O; Rouault, C; Devulder, A; Klein, C; Lacasa, M; Clément, E; Lacasa, D; Clément, K</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Fibrosis is a hallmark of human white adipose tissue (WAT) during obesity-induced chronic inflammation. The <span class="hlt">functional</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> of increased interstitial fibrosis (peri-adipocyte fibrosis) on adjacent adipocytes remains unknown. Here we developed a novel in vitro 3D culture system in which human adipocytes and decellularized material of adipose tissue (dMAT) from obese subjects are embedded in a peptide hydrogel. When cultured with dMAT, adipocytes showed decreased lipolysis and adipokine secretion and increased expression/production of cytokines (IL-6, G-CSF) and fibrotic mediators (LOXL2 and the matricellular proteins THSB2 and CTGF). Moreover, some alterations including lipolytic activity and fibro-inflammation also occurred when the adipocyte/hydrogel culture was mechanically compressed. Notably, CTGF expression levels correlated with the amount of peri-adipocyte fibrosis in WAT from obese individuals. Moreover, dMAT-dependent CTGF promoter activity, which depends on β1-integrin/cytoskeleton pathways, was enhanced in the presence of YAP, a mechanosensitive co-activator of TEAD transcription factors. Mutation of TEAD binding sites abolished the dMAT-induced promoter activity. In conclusion, fibrosis may negatively affect human adipocyte <span class="hlt">function</span> via mechanosensitive molecules, in part stimulated by cell deformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22370134','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22370134"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of chromospheric activity on observed initial mass <span class="hlt">functions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stassun, Keivan G.; Scholz, Aleks; Dupuy, Trent J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Using recently established empirical calibrations for the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of chromospheric activity on the radii, effective temperatures, and estimated masses of active low-mass stars and brown dwarfs, we reassess the shape of the initial mass <span class="hlt">function</span> (IMF) across the stellar/substellar boundary in the Upper Sco star-forming region (age ∼ 5-10 Myr). We adjust the observed effective temperatures to warmer values using the observed strength of the chromospheric Hα emission, and redetermine the estimated masses of objects using pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks in the H-R diagram. The effect of the activity-adjusted temperatures is to shift the objects to higher masses by 3%-100%. While the slope of the resulting IMF at substellar masses is not strongly changed, the peak of the IMF does shift from ≈0.06 to ≈0.11 M {sub ☉}. Moreover, for objects with masses ≲ 0.2 M {sub ☉}, the ratio of brown dwarfs to stars changes from ∼80% to ∼33%. These results suggest that activity corrections are essential for studies of the substellar mass <span class="hlt">function</span>, if the masses are estimated from spectral types or from effective temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20088628','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20088628"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of depression on workplace <span class="hlt">functioning</span> and disability costs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Katon, Wayne</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Until recently, the negative effect that major depressive disorder (MDD) has on interpersonal and workplace <span class="hlt">functioning</span> had not been widely studied. Traditionally, the goals for treating MDD have also not focused on the commonly associated increases in healthcare utilization for somatic symptoms (ie, headache, abdominal pain) and poorly controlled comorbid medical illnesses, which lead to higher healthcare costs. This article reviews the extensive data collected during the past 10 years that have quantified the <span class="hlt">impact</span> that MDD has on these outcomes, suggesting that patients with MDD have significant decrements in <span class="hlt">function</span>, particularly those with comorbid general medical conditions. Also reviewed is the literature presenting evidence from randomized trials of systematic and collaborative treatment efforts that optimize treatment response and, in turn, decrease interpersonal disability, long-term healthcare costs, and the costs associated with lost productivity and absenteeism in the workplace. Such treatment models include algorithmically derived treatment alternatives and collaborative care models, which use a team approach to ensure treatment adherence and to monitor symptom response and side effects. The benefits of using disability assessment measures in conjunction with routine monitoring of depressive symptoms are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5322949','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5322949"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of seasonality and air pollutants on carotid-femoral pulse <span class="hlt">wave</span> velocity and <span class="hlt">wave</span> reflection in hypertensive patients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stea, Francesco; Massetti, Luciano; Taddei, Stefano; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Objective The effects of seasonality on blood pressure (BP) and