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Sample records for weakest rubber compounds

  1. Improving rubber concrete by waste organic sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Chou, Liang-Hisng; Lin, Chun-Nan; Lu, Chun-Ku; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Lee, Maw-Tien

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the use of crumb tyres as additives to concrete was investigated. For some time, researchers have been studying the physical properties of concrete to determine why the inclusion of rubber particles causes the concrete to degrade. Several methods have been developed to improve the bonding between rubber particles and cement hydration products (C-S-H) with the hope of creating a product with an improvement in mechanical strength. In this study, the crumb tyres were treated with waste organic sulfur compounds from a petroleum refining factory in order to modify their surface properties. Organic sulfur compounds with amphiphilic properties can enhance the hydrophilic properties of the rubber and increase the intermolecular interaction forces between rubber and C-S-H. In the present study, a colloid probe of C-S-H was prepared to measure these intermolecular interaction forces by utilizing an atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that rubber particles treated with waste organic sulfur compounds became more hydrophilic. In addition, the intermolecular interaction forces increased with the adsorption of waste organic sulfur compounds on the surface of the rubber particles. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of concrete samples that included rubber particles treated with organic sulfur compound also increased significantly.

  2. Amino acid modifiers in guayule rubber compounds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tire producers are increasingly interested in biobased materials, including rubber but also as compounding chemicals. An alternative natural rubber for tire use is produced by guayule, a woody desert shrub native to North America. Alternative compounding chemicals include naturally-occurring amino a...

  3. Bulk Viscoelastic Contribution to the Wet Sliding Friction of Rubber Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiao-Dong

    2002-03-01

    An efficient stopping of an automobile on a wet highway in a rainy day is of obvious importance to the safety of the driving public. Here tire tread made of filled rubber compounds plays an essential role in detremining the wet traction performance. Even though significant progress has been made in improving this tire performance character and much knowledge has been accumulated, there still lacks a coherent fundamental understanding on this dynamic process. Consequently there currently exist no accurate guidelines for designing rubber compounds for better wet traction, and for predicting the wet traction performance of a rubber compound. In this experimental study, a portable British Pendulum Skid Tester has been employed to examine in the laboratory how the rubber compound material properties affect its wet sliding friction on a concrete surface. A dramatic dispaly of the impacts from the compound bulk viscoelastic properties has been observed for the first time. This observation will be discussed in relation to previous results discussed in the literature.

  4. Durability Testing of Tank Track Rubber Compounds under Cyclic Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-15

    depiction of time-to-failure vs applied ( engineering ) stress for 15TP-14AX rubber compounds in creep experiments at 23"C. (After McKenna (1...behavior of the 15TP-14AX rubber was carried out at 23, 75, 125 and 175 OC. The logarithm of the time to failure vs. the applied ( engineering ) stress is...4 3I. I I 5 10 15 a/MPa Figure 3-7 Semilogarith±ic depiction of time-to--failure vs applied ( engineering ) stress for 15TP-14AX rubber compounds in

  5. Deuterium permeation through EPDM rubber compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The permeation of deuterium through a specially formulated compound of ethylene propylene diene rubber was measured in the temperature range of 26/degree/C to 120/degree/C. The results were similar to permeation through two commercial compounds of this elastomer. Permeation was reduced after gamma irradiation (in the presence of hydrogen gas to simulate a tritium exposure). However the reduction was smaller than that experienced by the two commercial compounds. Radiation damage is apparently less severe in the special compound. It is possible that mechanical properties such as compression set may be influenced less by ionizing radiation in this compound as compared withmore » the commercial compounds. 4 figs., 1 tab.« less

  6. Characteristics of styrene-butadiene rubber/silica/Nanoprene compounds for application in tire tread.

    PubMed

    Seo, Byeongho; Kang, Jonghyub; Jang, Sukhee; Kang, Yonggu; Kim, Wonho

    2013-03-01

    Nanoprene is made from chemically cross-linked rubber particles, and has many hydroxyl groups on the surface of the particles. It is speculated that the Nanoprene could reduce the silica-silica network formation by introducing hydrogen bonding between the silanol group of silica and the hydroxyl group of Nanoprene. In this study, the styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/silica compounds with two types of the Nanoprene (BM75OH, BM15OH) were evaluated and it could be well explained by the concept of the volume fraction of filler or the volume fraction of rubber. If the Nanoprene applied to the compound is considered as a kind of filler, the minimum torque values and bound rubber contents of the un-vulcanized compounds, the swelling ratio and the stress-strain relationship of the vulcanized compounds could be well explained by the volume fraction of filler (phi(F)). If Nanoprene is considered as a kind of rubber such as SBR, the properties such as peak tan delta, Payne effect, tan delta at 0 degrees C and 60 degrees C, and abrasion resistance could be well explained by the volume fraction of rubber (phi'(R)). However, the improvement of silica dispersion by addition of the Nanoprene particles in the compounds was not significant. The application of BM75OH as a polymer to the tread compound will be suitable for winter tires. In addition, the compound with BM15OH as an additive will be suitable as a tread compound for summer tires.

  7. Fabrication of T142 Tank Track Pads for Evaluation of a Rubber-Kevlar Composite Compound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    fully developed with highly saturated rubbers such as butyl or ROYALENE® ( EPDM ) A-3 ...PERIOD COVERED Fabrication of T142 Tank Track Pads for Evaluation of a Rubber -Kevlar Composite FINAL Compound S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR...developed for evaluation in T142 tank track pads. Bonding of the rubber to the fiber was achieved by addition of bonding agents to the compound. 175, T142

  8. Effect of carbon black composition with sludge palm oil on the curing characteristic and mechanical properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, R.; Nurazzi, N. Mohd; Huzaifah, M.

    2017-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of utilizing sludge palm oil (SPO) as processing oil, with various amount of carbon black as its reinforcing filler, and its effects on the curing characteristics and mechanical properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber (NR/SBR) compound. Rubber compound with fixed 15 pphr of SPO loading, and different carbon black loading from 20 to 50 pphr, was prepared using two roll mills. The cure characteristics and mechanical tests that have been conducted are the scorch and cure time analysis, tensile strength and tear strength. Scorch time (ts5) and cure time (t90) of the compound increases with the increasing carbon black loading. The mechanical properties of NR/SBR compound viz. the tensile strength, modulus at 300% strain and tear strength were also improved by the increasing carbon black loading.

  9. Friction characteristics of 20 x 4.4, type 7, aircraft tires constructed with different tread rubber compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreher, R. C.; Yager, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    A test program was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility to evaluate the friction characteristics of 20 x 4.4, type, aircraft tires constructed with experimental cut-resistant, tread rubber compounds. These compounds consisted of different blends of natural rubber (NR) and an alfin catalyzed styrene-butadiene copolymer rubber (SBR). One tire having a blend of 30 SBR and 70 NR and another having a blend of 60 SBR and 40 NR in the tread were tested together with a standard production tire with no SBR content in the tread rubber. The results of this investigation indicated that the test tires constructed with the special cut-resistant tread rubber compositions did not suffer any significant degradation in tire friction capability when compared with the standard tire. In general, tire friction capability decreased with increasing speed and surface wetness condition. As yaw angle increased, tire braking capability decreased while tire cornering capability increased. Tread-wear data based on number of brake cycles, however, suggested that the tires with alfin SBR blends experienced significantly greater wear than the standard production tire.

  10. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) seed oil toxicity effect and Linamarin compound analysis.

    PubMed

    Salimon, Jumat; Abdullah, Bashar Mudhaffar; Salih, Nadia

    2012-06-13

    The lipid fraction of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (kunth. Muell)) seed was extracted and analyzed for toxicological effect. The toxicological compound such as linamarin in rubber seed oil (RSO) extracted using different solvents, such as hexane (RSOh), mixture of chloroform + methanol (RSOchl+mth) and ethanol (RSOeth) were also studied. Various methods analysis such as Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and colorimetric methods were carried out to determine the present of such compounds. FTIR spectrum of RSO did not show any presence of cyanide peak. The determination of cyanide by using colorimetric method was demonstrated no response of the cyanide in RSO and didn't show any colored comparing with commercial cyanide which observed blue color. The results showed that no functional groups such as cyanide (C ≡ N) associated with linamarin were observed. Toxicological test using rats was also conducted to further confirm the absence of such compounds. RSO did not show any toxic potential to the rats. Bioassay experiments using shrimps had been used as test organisms to evaluate the toxicity of linamarin extract from RSO(h,) RSO(chl+mth) and RSO(eth) and LC50 were found to be (211.70 %, 139.40 %, and 117.41 %, respectively). This can be attributed no hazardous linamarin were found in RSO.

  11. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) seed oil toxicity effect and Linamarin compound analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The lipid fraction of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (kunth. Muell)) seed was extracted and analyzed for toxicological effect. The toxicological compound such as linamarin in rubber seed oil (RSO) extracted using different solvents, such as hexane (RSOh), mixture of chloroform + methanol (RSOchl+mth) and ethanol (RSOeth) were also studied. Various methods analysis such as Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and colorimetric methods were carried out to determine the present of such compounds. Results FTIR spectrum of RSO did not show any presence of cyanide peak. The determination of cyanide by using colorimetric method was demonstrated no response of the cyanide in RSO and didn’t show any colored comparing with commercial cyanide which observed blue color. The results showed that no functional groups such as cyanide (C ≡ N) associated with linamarin were observed. Toxicological test using rats was also conducted to further confirm the absence of such compounds. RSO did not show any toxic potential to the rats. Bioassay experiments using shrimps had been used as test organisms to evaluate the toxicity of linamarin extract from RSOh, RSOchl+mth and RSOeth and LC50 were found to be (211.70 %, 139.40 %, and 117.41 %, respectively). Conclusions This can be attributed no hazardous linamarin were found in RSO. PMID:22694753

  12. Study on small molecular organic compounds pyrolysed from rubber seed oil and its sodium soap.

    PubMed

    Fernando, T L D; Prashantha, M A B; Amarasinghe, A D U S

    2016-01-01

    Rubber seed oil (RSO) and its sodium soap were pyrolysed in a batch reactor to obtain low molar mass organic substances. The pyrolitic oil of RSO was redistilled and the distillates were characterized by GC-MS and FTIR. Density, acid value, saponification value and ester values were also measured according to the ASTM standard methods. A similar analysis was done for samples taken out at different time intervals from the reaction mixture. Industrially important low molar mass alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, cyclic compounds and carboxylic acids were identified in the pyrolysis process of rubber seed oil. However, pyrolysis of the sodium soap of rubber seed oil gave a mixture of hydrocarbons in the range of C14-C17 and hence it has more applications as a fuel.

  13. Managing Your Team's Weakest Link.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Do you have a poor-performing employee on your medical practice team? If so, you're not alone. Unfortunately, this is a problem that many medical practice managers face. This article describes the best strategies for managing your team's weakest link. It explores common yet very difficult circumstances that cause low employee performance and that test the patience, heart, and skills of a practice manager. It guides readers through a process of self-discovery to determine whether their negative biases or grudges may be causing employees to perform poorly. It suggests several possible other reasons for weak employee performance, including problems with the job, practice, leadership, communication, and fit between the employee and the job. This article also suggests the best strategy for communicating concerns about performance to the weakest-link employee. It offers guidance to practice managers about protecting their time and energy when handling a poor performer. It provides a simple formula for calculating the cost of a low-performing employee, 10 possible personal reasons for the employee's poor work performance, specific questions to ask to uncover the reasons for poor performance, and an eight-rule strategy for confronting poor performance effectively. Finally, this article offers practice managers a practical strategy for handling resistance from their weakest link, illustrated with a sample dialogue.

  14. Evaluation of a rubber-compound diaphragm for acoustic fisheries surveys: Effects on dual-beam signal intensity and beam patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleischer, Guy W.; Argyle, R.L.; Nester, R.T.; Dawson, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of rubber-compound windows for fisheries acoustics must consider operating frequency and ambient water temperatures. Signal attenuation by the rubber becomes pronounced with increased frequency and decreased temperature. Based on our results, a 420 k Hz system could be expected to lose up to 3-4 dB in colder water through a 5.1-cm thick rubber diaphragm. At 120 k Hz, signal loss was negligible and would undoubtedly also be inconsequential for even lower frequencies used in fisheries applications (e.g., 70, 38 k Hz).

  15. Leaching of zinc compound from rubber stoppers into the contents of automatic atropine injectors.

    PubMed

    Ellin, R I; Kaminskis, A; Zvirblis, P; Sultan, W E; Shutz, M B; Matthews, R

    1985-07-01

    This report describes how a material within the cartridge of an automatic injector contaminated its contents. On prolonged storage, a formulation that contained atropine produced lethality in mice. The toxic material originated from zinc compounds that were present in the rubber stopper and plunger of the container and that subsequently leached into the formulation. The contents of cartridges that contained greater than or equal to 0.75 mg/mL of solubilized zinc were lethal to at least 20% of the mice tested; those that contained 0.42 mg/mL showed no lethality. The problem resulted from the physicochemical properties of the rubber, not the concentration of zinc used in the vulcanization process.

  16. Effects of alkanolamide loading on swelling, rheometric and tensile properties of chloroprene rubber compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surya, I.; Ismail, H.

    2018-02-01

    The effects of Alkanolamide (ALK) addition on swelling, rheometric and tensile properties of unfilled chloroprene rubber (CR) compounds were investigated. The ALK was prepared from Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Stearin and diethanolamine and -together with magnesium and zinc oxides- incorporated into the CR compounds. The ALK loadings were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 phr. It was found that ALK enhanced the cure rate and torque difference of the CR compounds. ALK also enhanced the tensile modulus and tensile strength; especially up to a 1.5 phr loading. The swelling test proved that the 1.5 phr of ALK exhibited the highest degree of crosslink density which caused the highest in tensile modulus and tensile strength.

  17. Investigation of surface halide modification of nitrile butadiene rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhareva, K. V.; Mikhailov, I. A.; Andriasyan, Yu O.; Mastalygina, E. E.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The investigation is devoted to the novel technology of surface halide modification of rubber samples based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). 1,1,2-trifluoro-1,2,2-trichlorethane was used as halide modifier. The developed technology is characterized by production stages reduction to one by means of treating the rubber compound with a halide modifier. The surface halide modification of compounds based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) was determined to result in increase of resistance to thermal oxidation and aggressive media. The conducted research revealed the influence of modification time on chemical resistance and physical-mechanical properties of rubbers under investigation.

  18. Degree of Mechanochemical Devulcanization of Model Styrene-Butadiene Rubber Compounds Containing Different Amount of Poly-, Di- and Monosulphidic Bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangari, Samra; Anita, Hill; Dumitru, Pavel

    2004-03-01

    There have been significant attempts to devulcanize waste elastomers to facilitate reusing these valuable resources in applications requiring the unique properties of rubber. The difficulty in recycling of elastomers has traditionally been with devulcanizing the elastomer without comprising its properties due to degradation of main chains. This research aimed to devulcanize model styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) compounds, which had various amounts of poly-, di- and monosulfidic crosslinks using a mechanochemical process. Three model compounds were prepared using SBR using a laboratory two-roll mill. They were then vulcanized in a compression molding press at 140r C. The prepared vulcanized compounds were then ground and devulcanized in an internal mixer using a chemical mixture at a constant rotor speed and temperature. The crosslink density of the compounds before and after the devulcanization was calculated using volume-swelling measurements. The obtained data was used to establish the correlation between crosslink density of the compounds and the degree of devulcanization. The results showed that mechanochemical devulcanization caused a significant decrease in the crosslink density of the compounds by breaking the sulfidic linkages. The break up of polysulfidic crosslinks was predominant, meaning that mechanochemical process selectively affected different types of crosslinks.

  19. Development of Improved Rubber Compounds for Use in Weapon Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-01

    temperature properties, oil resistance or resistance to aging were noted for the Japanese elastomers. Rubber For Use In Liquid Propellants Results of a...gun systems. However. EPDM . Hydrln. Butyl EPRVxton an3 Nitroso rubbers were indicated as likely choices. Vulc.nlzates based on the last three of... rubber already in use. An EPDM vulcanizate, Nordel 1070, could be used in liquid propeliant gun systans in which hydrazine is used as an oxidizer

  20. Fabrication of Wood-Rubber Composites Using Rubber Compound as a Bonding Agent Instead of Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Dongwei; Xu, Min; Cai, Liping; Shi, Sheldon Q.

    2016-01-01

    Differing from the hot-pressing method in the manufacturing of traditional wood-rubber composites (WRCs), this study was aimed at fabricating WRCs using rubber processing to improve water resistance and mechanical properties. Three steps were used to make WRCs, namely, fiber-rubber mixing, tabletting, and the vulcanization molding process. Ninety-six WRC panels were made with wood fiber contents of 0%–50% at rotor rotational speeds of 15–45 rpm and filled coefficients of 0.55–0.75. Four regression equations, i.e., the tensile strength (Ts), elongation at break (Eb), hardness (Ha) and rebound resilience (Rr) as functions of fiber contents, rotational speed and filled coefficient, were derived and a nonlinear programming model were developed to obtain the optimum composite properties. Although the Ts, Eb and Rr of the panels were reduced, Ha was considerably increased by 17%–58% because of the wood fiber addition. Scanning electron microscope images indicated that fibers were well embedded in rubber matrix. The 24 h water absorption was only 1%–3%, which was much lower than commercial wood-based composites. PMID:28773591

  1. Fabrication of Wood-Rubber Composites Using Rubber Compound as a Bonding Agent Instead of Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dongwei; Xu, Min; Cai, Liping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2016-06-14

    Differing from the hot-pressing method in the manufacturing of traditional wood-rubber composites (WRCs), this study was aimed at fabricating WRCs using rubber processing to improve water resistance and mechanical properties. Three steps were used to make WRCs, namely, fiber-rubber mixing, tabletting, and the vulcanization molding process. Ninety-six WRC panels were made with wood fiber contents of 0%-50% at rotor rotational speeds of 15-45 rpm and filled coefficients of 0.55-0.75. Four regression equations, i.e. , the tensile strength ( T s), elongation at break ( E b), hardness ( H a) and rebound resilience ( R r) as functions of fiber contents, rotational speed and filled coefficient, were derived and a nonlinear programming model were developed to obtain the optimum composite properties. Although the T s, E b and R r of the panels were reduced, H a was considerably increased by 17%-58% because of the wood fiber addition. Scanning electron microscope images indicated that fibers were well embedded in rubber matrix. The 24 h water absorption was only 1%-3%, which was much lower than commercial wood-based composites.

  2. [Total analysis of organic rubber additives].

    PubMed

    He, Wen-Xuan; Robert, Shanks; You, Ye-Ming

    2010-03-01

    In the present paper, after middle pressure chromatograph separation using both positive phase and reversed-phase conditions, the organic additives in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified by infrared spectrometer. At the same time, by using solid phase extraction column to maintain the main component-fuel oil in organic additves to avoid its interfering with minor compounds, other organic additves were separated and analysed by GC/Ms. In addition, the remaining active compound such as benzoyl peroxide was identified by CC/Ms, through analyzing acetone extract directly. Using the above mentioned techniques, soften agents (fuel oil, plant oil and phthalte), curing agent (benzoylperoxide), vulcanizing accelerators (2-mercaptobenzothiazole, ethyl thiuram and butyl thiuram), and antiagers (2, 6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol and styrenated phenol) in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified. Although the technique was established in ethylene-propylene rubber system, it can be used in other rubber system.

  3. Structural characterization of rubber from jackfruit and euphorbia as a model of natural rubber.

    PubMed

    Mekkriengkrai, Dararat; Ute, Koiichi; Swiezewska, Ewa; Chojnacki, Tadeusz; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Sakdapipanich, Jitladda T

    2004-01-01

    A structural study of low molecular weight rubbers from Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Painted spurge (Euphorbia heterophylla) was carried out as model compounds of natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis. The rubber content of latex from Jackfruit was 0.4-0.7%, which is very low compared with that of 30-35% in the latex from Hevea tree. The rubber from Jackfruit latex was low molecular weight with narrow unimodal molecular weight distribution (MWD), whereas that obtained from E. heterophylla showed very broad MWD. The 1H and 13C NMR analyses showed that Jackfruit rubber consists of a dimethylallyl group and two trans-isoprene units connected to a long sequence of cis-isoprene units. The alpha-terminal group of Jackfruit rubber was presumed to be composed of a phosphate group based on the presence of 1H NMR signal at 4.08 ppm corresponding to the terminal =CH-CH2OP group.

  4. Cure characteristics, crosslink density and degree of filler dispersion of kaolin-filled natural rubber compounds in the presence of alkanolamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surya, I.; Hayeemasae, N.; Ginting, M.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of alkanolamide (ALK) addition on cure characteristics, crosslink density and degree of filler dispersion of kaolin-filled natural rubber (NR) compounds were investigated. The kaolin filler was incorporated into NR compounds with a fixed loading, 30.0 phr. The ALK was prepared from Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Stearin (RBDPS), a waste product of cooking oil production, and diethanolamine. The ALK is an oily material and added into the filled NR compounds as a rubber additive at different loadings, 0.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0. The kaolin-filled NR compounds with and without ALK were vulcanized using a semi-efficient vulcanization system. It was found that ALK decreased the scorch and cure times and improved filler dispersion of the kaolin-filled NR compounds. The higher the ALK loading, the shorter were the scorch and cure times. It was also found that ALK increased the crosslink density of kaolin-filled NR compound up to 5.0 phr of loading. Due to its oily properties, The ALK acted as an internal plasticizer which decreased the minimum torque and improved the degree of kaolin dispersion in NR phases. The higher the ALK loading; the lower the minimum torque and better the filler dispersion.

  5. Study on a Haptic Sensor Using MCF (Magnetic Compound Fluid) Electric Conductive Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yaoyang; Shimada, Kunio

    To provide a new composite material having a high degree of sensitivity regarding both electrical conduction and temperature for the field of robotics or sensing, we have developed magnetic rubber that contains a network-like magnetic cluster. We compared the temperature response of MCF rubber with others rubbers made under various experimental conditions, allowing us to find an optimum condition for making MCF rubber. The temperature response was obtained by an experimental equation. We also compared the electric conductivity of MCF rubber with that of ordinary electric conductive rubber and found that its electric sensitivity was lower at a small deformation, but increased at larger deformations. Therefore, MCF rubber has proven itself effective as a switching sensor when a small deformation is applied.

  6. A study of the role of fillers in silicone rubber compounds for outdoor insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Luiz Henrique

    Polymeric materials are being used as a housing material on high voltage outdoor insulation as an alternative to porcelain or glass in line insulators, surge arresters, station posts, and bushings. Among the polymeric materials in use, silicone rubber has proven to have good aging performance under polluted conditions by keeping low levels of leakage current by virtue of its hydrophobicity. However, the exposure of polymeric materials to contaminated and humid environments can lead to certain surface conditions that reduces hydrophobicity increasing leakage current levels, giving rise to dry band arcing. Dry band arcing produces heat, which can result in tracking or erosion of the housing material. Although this dry band arcing does not harm porcelain or glass housings, it will erode pure silicone rubber to such an extent that its application in outdoor environments is not, practical. Fillers are added to silicone rubber to improve tracking and erosion resistance. Among the filler choices, alumina trihydrate (ATH) and silica have been extensively adopted in the compounding of polymeric housings. ATH is a flame retardant that has a molecular water in its formulation. Whenever the surface temperature of an ATH filled polymer reaches approximately 220°C, the water of hydration is released from the ATH molecule, what is recognized as an efficient way to cool down the surface, for example, in the case of dry band arcing. Alternatively, silica has very good bonding with the polymer backbone, imparting mechanical strength to the composite matrix. In addition, fillers such as ATH or silica increase the thermal conductivity of silicone rubber composites, which facilitates moving the heat away from its source, that is, from the origin of dry band arcing. Although heat is considered to be the main degradation factor when dry band arcing occurs, very little information is available on the thermal performance of filled silicone rubber. The standard methods available to test

  7. Contact dermatitis caused by a new rubber compound detected in canvas shoes.

    PubMed

    Hulstaert, Eva; Bergendorff, Ola; Persson, Christina; Goossens, An; Gilissen, Liesbeth; Engfeldt, Malin; Bruze, Magnus; Schuttelaar, Marie L; Meijer, Joost M; Lapeere, Hilde

    2018-01-01

    In 2015 and 2016, female patients in Flanders consulted a dermatologist because they developed skin lesions after wearing a specific brand of canvas shoes. To identify the culprit allergen in the shoes. Eighteen young females aged 14-22 years presented with itching and erythematous to purple-coloured eczematous lesions on both feet. They were patch tested by 10 dermatologists with the European baseline series. Some patients underwent testing with additional series. Pieces of the shoe fabrics were tested in 11 of 18 patients. Chemical analysis of the shoe materials was performed. Finally, patients were tested with a thin-layer chromatogram of the shoe extracts and dilutions of the suspected rubber compound. All 18 patients showed positive reactions to thiuram mix. Ten of 11 patients reacted to a piece of shoe fabric. Chemical analysis showed the presence of dimethylthiocarbamylbenzothiazole sulfide (DMTBS). No thiurams were detected. Four patients tested with the chromatogram developed positive reactions to DMTBS. Positive reactions to low concentrations were observed in the 4 patients tested with a DMTBS dilution series; one patient reacted to 0.00001% in acetone. DMTBS, the culprit allergen, is a component formed during rubber vulcanization that probably cross-reacts with the thiuram mix. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Mechanistic study of the rubber-brass adhesion interphase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashirgade, Akshay

    Brass-plated steel tire cords form an essential strengthening component of a radial automobile tire. Adhesion between rubber compound and brass-plated steel tire cord is crucial in governing the overall performance of tires. The rubber-brass interfacial adhesion is influenced by the chemical composition and thickness of the interfacial layer. It has been shown that the interfacial layer consists mainly of sulfides and oxides of copper and zinc. This thesis discusses the effect of changes in the chemical composition and the structure of the interfacial layers due to addition of adhesion promoter resins. Grazing incidence X-Ray Diffraction (GIXRD) experiments were run on sulfidized polished brass coupons previously bonded to six experimental rubber compounds. It was confirmed that heat and humidity conditions lead to physical and chemical changes of the rubber-steel tire cord interfacial layer, closely related to the degree of rubber-brass adhesion. Morphological transformation of the interfacial layer led to loss of adhesion after aging. The adhesion promoter resins inhibit unfavorable morphological changes in the interfacial layer thus stabilizing it during aging and prolonging failure. Tire cord adhesion tests illustrated that the one-component resins improved adhesion after aging using a rubber compound with lower cobalt loading. Based on the acquired diffraction profiles, these resins were also found to impede crystallization of the sulfide layer after aging leading to improved adhesion. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) depth profiles, SEM micrographs and AFM images strongly corroborated the findings from GIXRD. FTIR was utilized in a novel way to understand the degradation mechanism due to aging. A model for rubber and interfacial layer degradation is proposed to illustrate the effect of aging and the one-component resins. This interfacial analysis adds valuable new information to our understanding of the complex nature of the rubber-brass bonding

  9. Neutron absorbing room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber compositions

    DOEpatents

    Zoch, Harold L.

    1979-11-27

    A neutron absorbing composition comprising a one-component room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber composition or a two-component room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber composition in which the composition contains from 25 to 300 parts by weight based on the base silanol or vinyl containing diorganopolysiloxane polymer of a boron compound or boron powder as the neutron absorbing ingredient. An especially useful boron compound in this application is boron carbide.

  10. Chemistry of rubber processing and disposal.

    PubMed Central

    Bebb, R L

    1976-01-01

    The major chemical changes during the processing of rubber occur with the breakdown in mastication and during vulcanization of the molded tire. There is little chemical change during the compounding, calendering, extrusion, and molding steps. Reclaiming is the process of converting scrap rubber into an unsaturated, processible product that can be vulcanized with sulfur. Pyrolysis of scrap rubber yields a complex mixture of liquids, gas, and residue in varying ratios dependent on the nature of the scrap and the conditions of pyrolysis. PMID:799964

  11. Effects of alkanolamide addition on crosslink density, mechanical and morphological properties of chloroprene rubber compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surya, I.; Hayeemasae, N.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of alkanolamide (ALK) addition on crosslink density, mechanical and morphological properties of unfilled polychloroprene rubber (CR) compounds were investigated. The ALK was prepared from Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Stearin (RBDPS) and diethanolamine and -together with magnesium and zinc oxides-incorporated into the unfilled CR compounds. The ALK loadings were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 phr. It was found that ALK enhanced crosslink density, tensile modulus, tensile strength and hardness especially up to a 1.5 phr loading. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) proved that the 1.5 phr of ALK exhibited the greatest matrix tearing line and surface roughness, due to the highest degree of crosslink density and mechanical properties.

  12. Effect of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber and silica masterbatch for tyre application

    SciTech Connect

    Azira, A. A., E-mail: azira@lgm.gov.my; Kamal, M. M., E-mail: mazlina@lgm.gov.my; Verasamy, D., E-mail: devaraj@lgm.gov.my

    The availability of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber (ENR-LC) has provided a better opportunity for using epoxidised natural rubber (ENR) with silica to reinforce natural rubber for tyre application. ENR-LC mixed directly with silica to rubber by high speed stirrer without using any coupling agent. Some rubber compounds were prepared by mixing a large amount of precipitated amorphous white silica with natural rubber. The silica was prepared in aqueous dispersion and the filler was perfectly dispersed in the ENR-LC. The performance of the composites was evaluated in this work for the viability of ENR-LC/Si in tyre compounding. Compounding was carried outmore » on a two roll mill, where the additives and curing agents was later mixed. Characterization of these composites was performed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for dispersion as well as mechanical testing. C-ENR/Si showed efficient as primary reinforcing filler in ENR with regard to modulus and tensile strength, resulting on an increase in the stiffness of the rubbers compared to ENR latex. Overall improvement in the mechanical properties for the ENR-LC over the control crosslinked rubber sample was probably due to synergisms of silica reinforcement and crosslinking of the polymeric matrix phase.« less

  13. Effect of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber and silica masterbatch for tyre application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azira, A. A.; Verasamy, D.; Kamal, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    The availability of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber (ENR-LC) has provided a better opportunity for using epoxidised natural rubber (ENR) with silica to reinforce natural rubber for tyre application. ENR-LC mixed directly with silica to rubber by high speed stirrer without using any coupling agent. Some rubber compounds were prepared by mixing a large amount of precipitated amorphous white silica with natural rubber. The silica was prepared in aqueous dispersion and the filler was perfectly dispersed in the ENR-LC. The performance of the composites was evaluated in this work for the viability of ENR-LC/Si in tyre compounding. Compounding was carried out on a two roll mill, where the additives and curing agents was later mixed. Characterization of these composites was performed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for dispersion as well as mechanical testing. C-ENR/Si showed efficient as primary reinforcing filler in ENR with regard to modulus and tensile strength, resulting on an increase in the stiffness of the rubbers compared to ENR latex. Overall improvement in the mechanical properties for the ENR-LC over the control crosslinked rubber sample was probably due to synergisms of silica reinforcement and crosslinking of the polymeric matrix phase.

  14. Occupational exposure to rubber vulcanization products during repair of rubber conveyor belts in a brown coal mine.

    PubMed

    Gromiec, Jan P; Wesołowski, Wiktor; Brzeźnicki, Sławomir; Wróblewska-Jakubowska, Krystyna; Kucharska, Małgorzata

    2002-12-01

    Several hundred chemical compounds were found in workroom environments in the rubber industry, but most of the published exposure data relate to the production of tyres; information from the "non-tyre" sections are very limited, if any. This study was carried out to identify chemical substances and measure their air concentrations in the repair shop of a brown coal mine in which damaged rubber conveyor belts were repaired. GC-MS and HPLC analysis of stationary air samples resulted in identification of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons to C12, PAHs, alcohols, phenols, ketones, heterocyclic nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Quantitative evaluation of occupational exposure included determination of organic compound vapours collected on charcoal (GC-MSD), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPLC), N-nitrosoamines and other amines (GC-NPD) and DNPH derivatives of aldehydes (HPLC) in the breathing zone of workers representing all job titles. The concentrations of investigated compounds were very low. Carcinogenic substances: N-nitrosoamines, benzene, PAHs were not present in workroom air in concentrations exceeding limits of detection of the analytical methods being applied; concentrations of methylisobutylketone, tetrachloroethylene, naphtha, aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and aldehydes were much lower than the respective occupational exposure limit values. The results indicate much lower exposure than that reported in the production of tyres and other fabricated rubber products.

  15. 'Weakest Link' as a Cognitive Vulnerability Within the Hopelessness Theory of Depression in Chinese University Students.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jing; Qiu, Yu; He, Yini; Cui, Lixia; Auerbach, Randy P; McWhinnie, Chad M; Yao, Shuqiao

    2016-02-01

    The current study tested the cognitive vulnerability-stress component of hopelessness theory using a 'weakest link' approach (e.g. an individual is as cognitively vulnerable to depression as his or her most depressogenic attributional style makes him or her) in a sample of Chinese university students. Participants included 520 students in Changsha. During an initial assessment, participants completed measures assessing weakest link, depressive symptoms and occurrence of negative events once a month for 6 months. Results from hierarchical linear modelling analyses showed that higher levels of weakest link scores were associated with greater increases in depressive symptoms following the occurrence of negative events. Higher weakest link level was associated with greater increases in depressive symptoms over time. These results provide support for the applicability of the 'weakest link' approach to the hopelessness theory to Chinese university students. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The effect of antioxidant concentration of N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline and mixing time of physical properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties and microstructure on natural rubber compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiarto

    2017-03-01

    Study the influence of high concentrations of antioxidants N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (IPPD) and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline (TMQ) and the mixing time of the vulcanization physical properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties and structure micro on natural rubber compound has been done. The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of anti-oxidants types IPPD and TMQ and mixing time of vulcanization of the physical properties, mechanical properties, microstructure and elemental composition of the synthesis of natural rubber compound. Processes of vulcanization with variations in the concentration of antioxidant IPPD and TMQ: 2, 3, and 4 grams and mixing time: 20, 30, and 40 minutes. Analysis characterization of physical properties and mechanical properties of natural rubber compound showed that the maturity value 0,499Nm (TMQ) and 0.489 Nm (IPPD), Mooney viscosity value of 26.7 (TMQ) and 20.8 (IPPD), the value of the elongation at break 583.75 % (IPPD), and 552.63% (TMQ) as well as the value of tensile strength of 28.108 M.Pa (TMQ), and 27.986 M.Pa (IPPD). Analysis of thermal properties of natural rubber compound antioxidant IPPD with DTA shows there are three endothermic peak on the curve that is temperature 405°C, 550°C and 660°C and tested by TGA showed that the curve of the total reduction in the sample are 81.745% and compound rubber antioxidant TMQ with the analysis of DTA also contained 3 endothermic peak at a temperature 397,21°C, 514,02°C, and 610,27°C and TGA analysis shows the curve of the total sample of 82.356% reduction. Gsi fun group analysis rubber-antioxidant compound IPPD / TMQ with FTIR spectrophotometer shows some typical infrared absorption peak at the wave number (1 / λ) 833-895 cm-1 for cluster / CH bonds, 1,313 cm-1 for group / single bond Si-O, 1368 cm-1 to g ugus / single bond CC, 1507 cm-1, for cluster / bond C = C, 1665 cm-1For cluster / bond-C = O, 2128 cm-1 is the group / bond CN single, 3371

  17. A Weakest-Link Approach for Fatigue Limit of 30CrNiMo8 Steels (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    34Application of a Weakest-Link Concept to the Fatigue Limit of the Bearing Steel Sae 52100 in a Bainitic Condition," Fatigue and Fracture of...AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2011-4206 A WEAKEST-LINK APPROACH FOR FATIGUE LIMIT OF 30CrNiMo8 STEELS (PREPRINT) S. Ekwaro-Osire and H.V. Kulkarni Texas...2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A WEAKEST-LINK APPROACH FOR FATIGUE LIMIT OF 30CrNiMo8 STEELS (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT

  18. Comparative studies on crosslinked and uncrosslinked natural rubber biodegradation by Pseudomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ram Vinod; Das, Mithu; Banerjee, Rintu; Bhowmick, Anil K

    2006-12-01

    A comparative study on biodegradation of di-cumyl peroxide (DCP) crosslinked and uncrosslinked natural rubber by Pseudomonas sp. was carried out. Decrease in organic carbon content along with the changes in tensile strength of the treated rubber, both DCP crosslinked and uncrosslinked natural rubber, indicated rubber hydrocarbon utilization by the Pseudomonas sp. A decrease in 60.88% MPa and 41.66% MPa was observed after five month's old treated uncrosslinked natural rubber and DCP crosslinked rubber, respectively. Biodegradation was more pronounced in natural uncrosslinked rubber, which was further confirmed by the formation of aldehydic compounds with decrease in CH2 stretching frequencies.

  19. Microbial detoxification of waste rubber material by wood-rotting fungi.

    PubMed

    Bredberg, Katarina; Andersson, B Erik; Landfors, Eva; Holst, Olle

    2002-07-01

    The extensive use of rubber products, mainly tires, and the difficulties to recycle those products, has resulted in world wide environmental problems. Microbial devulcanisation is a promising way to increase the recycling of rubber materials. One obstacle is that several microorganisms tested for devulcanisation are sensitive to rubber additives. A way to overcome this might be to detoxify the rubber material with fungi prior to the devulcanisation. In this study, 15 species of white-rot and brown-rot fungi have been screened with regard to their capacity to degrade an aromatic model compound in the presence of ground waste tire rubber. The most effective fungus, Resinicium bicolor, was used for detoxification of rubber material. Increase in growth of the desulfurising bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in presence of the rubber treated with Resinicium bicolor compared to untreated rubber demonstrated that detoxification with fungi is possible.

  20. Weakest Link’ as a Cognitive Vulnerability Within the Hopelessness Theory of Depression in Chinese University Students

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jing; Qiu, Yu; He, Yini; Cui, Lixia; Auerbach, Randy P.; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Yao, Shuqiao

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested the cognitive vulnerability–stress component of hopelessness theory using a ‘weakest link’ approach (e.g. an individual is as cognitively vulnerable to depression as his or her most depressogenic attributional style makes him or her) in a sample of Chinese university students. Participants included 520 students in Changsha. During an initial assessment, participants completed measures assessing weakest link, depressive symptoms and occurrence of negative events once a month for 6 months. Results from hierarchical linear modelling analyses showed that higher levels of weakest link scores were associated with greater increases in depressive symptoms following the occurrence of negative events. Higher weakest link level was associated with greater increases in depressive symptoms over time. These results provide support for the applicability of the ‘weakest link’ approach to the hopelessness theory to Chinese university students. PMID:24639362

  1. Research on a haptic sensor made using MCF conductive rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yaoyang; Shimada, Kunio

    2008-05-01

    To provide a new composite material having a high electrical sensitivity in the fields of robotics and sensing, a magnetic rubber having network-like magnetic clusters was developed by utilizing a magnetic compound fluid (MCF). MCF rubber with small deformations can provide an effective sensor. In this paper, we report many experiments in which changes of the MCF rubber's resistance were observed when the rubber was compressed and a deformation was generated; we then made a trial haptic sensor using the MCF conductive rubber and performed many experiments to observe changes of the electrical resistance of the sensor. The results of experiments showed that the proposed sensor made with MCF conductive rubber is useful for sensing small amounts of pressure or small deformations.

  2. Research on a haptic sensor made using MCF conductive rubber.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yaoyang; Shimada, Kunio

    2008-05-21

    To provide a new composite material having a high electrical sensitivity in the fields of robotics and sensing, a magnetic rubber having network-like magnetic clusters was developed by utilizing a magnetic compound fluid (MCF). MCF rubber with small deformations can provide an effective sensor. In this paper, we report many experiments in which changes of the MCF rubber's resistance were observed when the rubber was compressed and a deformation was generated; we then made a trial haptic sensor using the MCF conductive rubber and performed many experiments to observe changes of the electrical resistance of the sensor. The results of experiments showed that the proposed sensor made with MCF conductive rubber is useful for sensing small amounts of pressure or small deformations.

  3. Elastomer Compound Developed for High Wear Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, D.; Feuer, H.; Flanagan, D.; Rodriguez, G.; Teets, A.; Touchet, P.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Army is currently spending 300 million dollars per year replacing rubber track pads. An experimental rubber compound has been developed which exhibits 2 to 3 times greater service life than standard production pad compounds. To improve the service life of the tank track pads various aspects of rubber chemistry were explored including polymer, curing and reinforcing systems. Compounds that exhibited superior physical properties based on laboratory data were then fabricated into tank pads and field tested. This paper will discuss the compounding studies, laboratory data and field testing that led to the high wear elastomer compound.

  4. Compounding of Phosphazenes for Military Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    Filler Evaluation Sulfur-Cured Phosphazene Rubber Polymer Kl7621 by Batch Number (in grams) Properties of Polyphosphazene Films Low Temperature...different compounding ingredients, bin aging , and different curing cycles . Some of these compounds recipes are defined in Table A-1 in the Appendix.S... rubber , and butyl rubber can compete, and these polymers have other deficienci es such as l ack of oi l resistance and/or flammability. Terpolymer. Test

  5. Phase Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Cyclic Butylene Terephthalate Oligomer-Containing Rubbers: Effect of Mixing Temperature.

    PubMed

    Halász, István Zoltán; Bárány, Tamás

    2016-08-24

    In this work, the effect of mixing temperature (T mix ) on the mechanical, rheological, and morphological properties of rubber/cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT) oligomer compounds was studied. Apolar (styrene butadiene rubber, SBR) and polar (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, NBR) rubbers were modified by CBT (20 phr) for reinforcement and viscosity reduction. The mechanical properties were determined in tensile, tear, and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMTA) tests. The CBT-caused viscosity changes were assessed by parallel-plate rheometry. The morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CBT became better dispersed in the rubber matrices with elevated mixing temperatures (at which CBT was in partially molten state), which resulted in improved tensile properties. With increasing mixing temperature the size of the CBT particles in the compounds decreased significantly, from few hundred microns to 5-10 microns. Compounding at temperatures above 120 °C and 140 °C for NBR and SBR, respectively, yielded reduced tensile mechanical properties most likely due to the degradation of the base rubber. The viscosity reduction by CBT was more pronounced in mixes with coarser CBT dispersions prepared at lower mixing temperatures.

  6. Interfacial interaction between the epoxidized natural rubber and silica in natural rubber/silica composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tiwen; Jia, Zhixin; Luo, Yuanfang; Jia, Demin; Peng, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    The epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) as an interfacial modifier was used to improve the mechanical and dynamical mechanical properties of NR/silica composites. In order to reveal the interaction mechanism between ENR and silica, the ENR/Silica model compound was prepared by using an open mill and the interfacial interaction of ENR with silica was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and stress-strain testing. The results indicated that the ring-opening reaction occurs between the epoxy groups of ENR chains and Si-OH groups on the silica surfaces and the covalent bonds are formed between two phases, which can improve the dispersion of silica in the rubber matrix and enhance the interfacial combination between rubber and silica. The ring-opening reaction occurs not only in vulcanization process but also in mixing process, meanwhile, the latter seems to be more important due to the simultaneous effects of mechanical force and temperature.

  7. Mechanical and morphological properties of kenaf powder filled natural rubber latex foam

    SciTech Connect

    Karim, Ahmad Fikri Abdul, E-mail: a.fikri-89@yahoo.com; Ariff, Zulkifli Mohamad; Ismail, Hanafi

    This research is carried out by incorporate kenaf powder with natural rubber latex (NRL) compound and is foamed to make natural rubber latex foam (NRLF) by using a well known technique called Dunlop method. Different loading of kenaf powder was added to NRL compound and was foamed to make NRLF. The tensile properties, and morphology of kenaf filled NRLF was studied. Increase in kenaf loading reduced the tensile strength and elongation at break and of a compound. Modulus at 100% elongation of the compound increased with increased in filler loading. The morphological and micro structural characterization has been performed bymore » using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)« less

  8. Mechanical and morphological properties of kenaf powder filled natural rubber latex foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Ahmad Fikri Abdul; Ismail, Hanafi; Ariff, Zulkifli Mohamad

    2015-07-01

    This research is carried out by incorporate kenaf powder with natural rubber latex (NRL) compound and is foamed to make natural rubber latex foam (NRLF) by using a well known technique called Dunlop method. Different loading of kenaf powder was added to NRL compound and was foamed to make NRLF. The tensile properties, and morphology of kenaf filled NRLF was studied. Increase in kenaf loading reduced the tensile strength and elongation at break and of a compound. Modulus at 100% elongation of the compound increased with increased in filler loading. The morphological and micro structural characterization has been performed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  9. Rubber industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszak, Maciej

    2018-03-01

    Following chapter presents short introductory description of rubber and rubber industry. The main problem of rubber industry is the way of the usage of spent tires. Furthermore very important group of problems arise considering the metal and nonmetal additives which are significant component of the vulcanized rubber. The key attention is dedicated to typical ways of rubber usage in utilization and recovery of metals from spent rubber materials concentrating specifically on used tires processing. The method of recovery of rare metals from rubber tires was described. The rubber debris finds widest use in the field of waste metal solutions processing. The environmental pollution caused by metals poses serious threat to humans. Several applications of the use of waste rubber debris to remove metals from environmental waters were described. Moreover, the agriculture usage of waste tire rubber debris is described, presenting systems where the rubber material can be useful as a soil replacement.

  10. Circuit racing, track texture, temperature and rubber friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, R. S.; Gruber, P.; Fina, E.

    2016-04-01

    Some general observations relating to tyre shear forces and road surfaces are followed by more specific considerations from circuit racing. The discussion then focuses on the mechanics of rubber friction. The classical experiments of Grosch are outlined and the interpretations that can be put on them are discussed. The interpretations involve rubber viscoelasticity, so that the vibration properties of rubber need to be considered. Adhesion and deformation mechanisms for energy dissipation at the interface between rubber and road and in the rubber itself are highlighted. The enquiry is concentrated on energy loss by deformation or hysteresis subsequently. Persson's deformation theory is outlined and the material properties necessary to apply the theory to Grosch's experiments are discussed. Predictions of the friction coefficient relating to one particular rubber compound and a rough surface are made using the theory and these are compared with the appropriate results from Grosch. Predictions from Persson's theory of the influence of nominal contact pressure on the friction coefficient are also examined. The extent of the agreement between theory and experiment is discussed. It is concluded that there is value in the theory but that it is far from complete. There is considerable scope for further research on the mechanics of rubber friction.

  11. Phase Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Cyclic Butylene Terephthalate Oligomer-Containing Rubbers: Effect of Mixing Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Halász, István Zoltán; Bárány, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the effect of mixing temperature (Tmix) on the mechanical, rheological, and morphological properties of rubber/cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT) oligomer compounds was studied. Apolar (styrene butadiene rubber, SBR) and polar (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, NBR) rubbers were modified by CBT (20 phr) for reinforcement and viscosity reduction. The mechanical properties were determined in tensile, tear, and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMTA) tests. The CBT-caused viscosity changes were assessed by parallel-plate rheometry. The morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CBT became better dispersed in the rubber matrices with elevated mixing temperatures (at which CBT was in partially molten state), which resulted in improved tensile properties. With increasing mixing temperature the size of the CBT particles in the compounds decreased significantly, from few hundred microns to 5–10 microns. Compounding at temperatures above 120 °C and 140 °C for NBR and SBR, respectively, yielded reduced tensile mechanical properties most likely due to the degradation of the base rubber. The viscosity reduction by CBT was more pronounced in mixes with coarser CBT dispersions prepared at lower mixing temperatures. PMID:28773841

  12. Mechanical Properties of Graphene-Rubber Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhar, N. A. M.; Ramli, M. M.; Hambali, N. A. M. A.; Aziz, A. A.; Mat Isa, S. S.; Danial, N. S.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.

    2017-11-01

    This research focused on development of wearable sensor device by using Prevulcanized Natural Rubber (PV) and Epoxidized Natural Rubber (ENR 50) latex incorporated with graphene oxide (GO), graphene paste, graphene powder and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) powder. The compounding formulation and calculation were based on phr (parts per hundred rubber) and all the samples were then tested for mechanical properties using Instron 5565 machine. It was found that the sonication effects on tensile strength may have better quality of tensile strength compared to non-sonicated GO. For PV incorporate GO, the optimum loading was best determined at loading 1.5 phr with or without sonication and similar result was recorded for PV/G. For ENR 50 incorporate graphene paste and rGO powder nanocomposite shows the best optimum was at 3.0 phr with 24 hours’ sonication.

  13. Antifungal Compound Isolated from Catharanthus roseus L. (Pink) for Biological Control of Root Rot Rubber Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zahari, R; Halimoon, N; Ahmad, M F; Ling, S K

    2018-01-01

    Rigidoporus microporus, Ganoderma philippii, and Phellinus noxius are root rot rubber diseases and these fungi should be kept under control with environmentally safe compounds from the plant sources. Thus, an antifungal compound isolated from Catharanthus roseus was screened for its effectiveness in controlling the growth of these fungi. The antifungal compound isolated from C. roseus extract was determined through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Each C. roseus of the DCM extracts was marked as CRD1, CRD2, CRD3, CRD4, CRD5, CRD6, and CRD7, respectively. TLC results showed that all of the C. roseus extracts peaked with red colour at Rf = 0.61 at 366 nm wavelength, except for CRD7. The CRD4 extract was found to be the most effective against R. microporus and G. philippii with inhibition zones of 3.5 and 1.9 mm, respectively, compared to that of other extracts. These extracts, however, were not effective against P. noxius. The CRD4 extract contained ursolic acid that was detected by NMR analysis and the compound could be developed as a biocontrol agent for controlling R. microporus and G. philippii. Moreover, little or no research has been done to study the effectiveness of C. roseus in controlling these fungi.

  14. Presence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Rubber Packaging Materials and in Parenteral Formulations Stored in Bottles With Rubber Stoppers.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Denise; Viana, Carine; Barichello, Marcia M; de Moura, Juliane F; de Carvalho, Leandro M; Nascimento, Paulo C

    2017-08-01

    Rubber closures are the primary packaging material for sterile preparations intended for repeated use. Important features of rubber closures are achieved after additives are added to the elastomeric material that compounds the rubber. Among these additives is carbon black. Because of its origin, carbon black may contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has identified 16 priority PAHs on the basis of concerns that they cause or might cause cancer in animals and humans. Regulatory agencies impose carbon black purity specifications based on limits for total PAHs (0.5 mg/kg) and benzo[a]pyrene (5 μg/kg) or benzo[a]pyrene only (250 μg/kg). PAHs in rubber packaging used for pharmaceutical formulations and in parenteral products stored in containers with rubber stoppers were investigated. To this end, the method proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-based on high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and fluorescence detection-was adapted to determine the levels of PAHs in rubber stoppers (gray and red) and in lipid emulsions and amino acid solutions stored in bottles with rubber stoppers. The rubber materials were shown to contain 12 PAHs, in concentrations ranging from 0.25-3.31 µg/g. Only 1 of 18 samples (11 amino acid solutions and 7 lipid emulsions) was uncontaminated. The most prevalent contaminants were pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, and fluoranthene. The total PAH concentrations in the samples ranged from 0.11-5.96 µg/mL. Components of parenteral nutrition may be contaminated with PAHs, and rubber stoppers represent a potential source of these contaminants.

  15. Influence of Rubber Size on Properties of Crumb Rubber Mortars

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yong; Zhu, Han

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the properties and applications of rubber cement-based materials are well documented. The sizes of rubbers used in these materials varied. However, information about the effects of rubber size on the properties of rubber cement-based materials, especially pore structure, mechanical strengths, and drying shrinkage properties, remains limited. Three groups of rubber with major particle sizes of 2–4 mm, 1–3 mm, and 0–2 mm were selected in this study. This paper presents experimental studies on the effects of rubber size on the consistency, fresh density, pore structure, mechanical properties, and drying shrinkage properties of crumb rubber mortars (CRMs). Results demonstrated that the consistency and fresh density of CRMs decreased with the rubber size. As to the pore structure, the total pore volume increased with the decrease of the rubber size. By contrast, the influence of the rubber size on the mesopore (<50 nm) volume is not as significant as that of the rubber content. The mechanical properties of CRMs decreased with the rubber size. Low rubber stiffness and large pore volumes, especially those of small sized rubbers, contribute to the reduction of CRMs strength. The drying shrinkage of CRM increases as the rubber size decreases. The influences of rubber size on capillary tension are not significant. Thus, the shrinkage increases with the decrease of rubber size mainly because of its function in the deformation modulus reduction of CRMs. PMID:28773649

  16. Health aspects of the curing of synthetic rubbers.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, D A; Rappaport, S

    1976-01-01

    A commonly used tread rubber formulation was cured in the laboratory under conditions simulating vulcanization in the Bag-O-Matic press. Volatile emissions were collected on charcoal and analyzed by combined GC-mass spectrometry. The compounds identified were either contaminants present in the raw material or reaction products. Some of these compounds were also identified in charcoal tube samples collected in the atmosphere of the industrial operations. Estimates based on the loss of weight of rubber during curing were used to predict airborne concentrations and compared to the concentrations actually found. The literature of the toxicity of raw materials and effluents was reviewed, and no acute or chronic toxicological effects would be anticipated. Information concerning potential carcinogenicity was not available and could not be evaluated. PMID:1026417

  17. Rubber friction on road surfaces: Experiment and theory for low sliding speeds

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, B.; Persson, B. N. J.; Oh, Y. R.

    We study rubber friction for tire tread compounds on asphalt road surfaces. The road surface topographies are measured using a stylus instrument and atomic force microscopy, and the surface roughness power spectra are calculated. The rubber viscoelastic modulus mastercurves are obtained from dynamic mechanical analysis measurements and the large-strain effective modulus is obtained from strain sweep data. The rubber friction is measured at different temperatures and sliding velocities, and is compared to the calculated data obtained using the Persson contact mechanics theory. We conclude that in addition to the viscoelastic deformations of the rubber surface by the road asperities, theremore » is an important contribution to the rubber friction from shear processes in the area of contact. The analysis shows that the latter contribution may arise from rubber molecules (or patches of rubber) undergoing bonding-stretching-debonding cycles as discussed in a classic paper by Schallamach.« less

  18. Down-Regulation of Small Rubber Particle Protein Expression Affects Integrity of Rubber Particles and Rubber Content in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum

    PubMed Central

    Hillebrand, Andrea; Post, Janina J.; Wurbs, David; Wahler, Daniela; Lenders, Malte; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Prüfer, Dirk; Gronover, Christian Schulze

    2012-01-01

    The biosynthesis of rubber is thought to take place on the surface of rubber particles in laticifers, highly specialized cells that are present in more than 40 plant families. The small rubber particle protein (SRPP) has been supposed to be involved in rubber biosynthesis, and recently five SRPPs (TbSRPP1–5) were identified in the rubber-producing dandelion species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum. Here, we demonstrate by immunogold labeling that TbSRPPs are localized to rubber particles, and that rubber particles mainly consist of TbSRPP3, 4 and 5 as shown by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis. We also carried out an RNA-interference approach in transgenic plants to address the function of TbSRPPs in rubber biosynthesis as well as rubber particle morphology and stability. TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic T. brevicorniculatum plants showed a 40–50% reduction in the dry rubber content, but neither the rubber weight average molecular mass nor the polydispersity of the rubber were affected. Although no phenotypical differences to wild-type particles could be observed in vivo, rubber particles from the TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic lines were less stable and tend to rapidly aggregate in expelling latex after wounding of laticifers. Our results prove that TbSRPPs are very crucial for rubber production in T. brevicorniculatum, probably by contributing to a most favourable and stable rubber particle architecture for efficient rubber biosynthesis and eventually storage. PMID:22911861

  19. The "weakest link" as an indicator of cognitive vulnerability differentially predicts symptom dimensions of anxiety in adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junyi; Wang, Danyang; Cui, Lixia; McWhinnie, Chad M; Wang, Li; Xiao, Jing

    2017-08-01

    This multiwave longitudinal study examined the cognitive vulnerability-stress component of hopelessness theory to differentially predict symptom dimensions of anxiety using a "weakest link" approach in a sample of adolescents from Hunan Province, China. Baseline and 6-month follow-up data were obtained from 553 middle-school students. During an initial assessment, participants completed measures of assessing their weakest links, anxious symptoms, and the occurrence of stress. Participants subsequently completed measures assessing stress, and anxious symptoms one a month for six months. Higher weakest link scores were associated with greater increases in the harm avoidance and separation anxiety/panic dimensions, but not the physical or social anxiety dimension, of anxious symptoms following stress in Chinese adolescents. These results support the applicability of the "weakest link" approach, derived from hopelessness theory, in Chinese adolescents. Weakest link scores as cognitive vulnerability factors may play a role in the development of anxious symptoms, especially in the cognitive dimensions (e.g., harm avoidance and separation anxiety/panic). Our findings also have potential value in explaining the effectiveness of cognitive relevant therapy in treating the cognitive dimensions of anxious symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on cord/rubber interface at elevated temperatures by H-pull test method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidi, M.; Afshar, F.; Mohammadi, N.; Pourmahdian, S.

    2005-08-01

    Cords are used as reinforcing materials in rubber compounds. To increase cord/rubber interfacial adhesion, they are coated by an adhesive (usually based on resorcinol-formaldehyde-latex). These composites are used in many sectors such as tire and belt industries. Cord/rubber adhesion strength is an important aspect to determine the durability of system. Due to temperature increase during running tires, the adhesion energy becomes different from initial one. To study cord/rubber interface at elevated temperatures, H-adhesion test method was used. H-pull test is a simple method for adhesion evaluation at ambient temperature, so it is usually used for material quality control. In this research, cord/rubber systems were vulcanized at different temperatures and H-adhesion of samples were evaluated at elevated temperatures. Also cord/rubber interface was studied by ATR analyze to determine interfacial interactions kind.

  1. Identification of a Taraxacum brevicorniculatum rubber elongation factor protein that is localized on rubber particles and promotes rubber biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Laibach, Natalie; Hillebrand, Andrea; Twyman, Richard M; Prüfer, Dirk; Schulze Gronover, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Two protein families required for rubber biosynthesis in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum have recently been characterized, namely the cis-prenyltransferases (TbCPTs) and the small rubber particle proteins (TbSRPPs). The latter were shown to be the most abundant proteins on rubber particles, where rubber biosynthesis takes place. Here we identified a protein designated T. brevicorniculatum rubber elongation factor (TbREF) by using mass spectrometry to analyze rubber particle proteins. TbREF is homologous to the TbSRPPs but has a molecular mass that is atypical for the family. The promoter was shown to be active in laticifers, and the protein itself was localized on the rubber particle surface. In TbREF-silenced plants generated by RNA interference, the rubber content was significantly reduced, correlating with lower TbCPT protein levels and less TbCPT activity in the latex. However, the molecular mass of the rubber was not affected by TbREF silencing. The colloidal stability of rubber particles isolated from TbREF-silenced plants was also unchanged. This was not surprising because TbREF depletion did not affect the abundance of TbSRPPs, which are required for rubber particle stability. Our findings suggest that TbREF is an important component of the rubber biosynthesis machinery in T. brevicorniculatum, and may play a role in rubber particle biogenesis and influence rubber production. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Properties of natural rubber/attapulgite composites prepared by latex compounding method: Effect of filler loading

    SciTech Connect

    Muttalib, Siti Nadzirah Abdul, E-mail: sitinadzirah.amn@gmail.com; Othman, Nadras, E-mail: srnadras@usm.my; Ismail, Hanafi, E-mail: ihanafi@usm.my

    This paper reports on the effect of filler loading on properties of natural rubber (NR)/attapulgite (ATP) composites. The NR/ATP composites were prepared by latex compounding method. It is called as masterbatch. The masterbatch was subsequently added to the NR through melt mixing process. The vulcanized NR/ATP composites were subjected to mechanical, swelling and morphological tests. All the results were compared with NR/ATP composites prepared by conventional system. The composites from masterbatch method showed better results compared to composites prepared by conventional method. They have higher tensile properties, elongation at break and tear strength. The images captured through scanning electron microscopymore » test revealed the improvement of tensile strength in masterbatch NR/ATP composites. It can be seen clearly that masterbatch NR/ATP have better filler dispersion compared to conventional method NR/ATP composites.« less

  3. Tough Rubber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Sue

    1994-01-01

    Describes the benefits of using rubber floor coverings in a gym's free-weight and cardiovascular equipment areas. Tips on purchasing a rubber floor are highlighted as is an annotated list of suppliers and their rubber flooring products. (GR)

  4. The effect of filler on the protein content and interferences in rubber latices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhida, A. R.; Hassan, Aziz

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that the application of commercial fillers like calcium carbonate has widely been used in natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves as well as other dipped products such as balloons, condom and catheters. The main reason of adding the fillers into the rubber compound was as cheapening aid and to improve the end-product properties. Due to its functional benefit, many studies have been conducted on the application and beneficial usage of fillers in natural rubber (NR) compounds and natural rubber latex (NRL) dipped goods namely gloves. However most of the studies were basically emphasizing on the effect of fillers on the physical properties and surface morphology of rubber. Not many studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of filler on the protein content in NRL products. Earlier work by other workers has only been concentrating on the effect of nano-sized calcium carbonate fillers in NR latex gloves. Because of the concern on the issue of latex protein allergy; it is thus important to study the effect of filler on protein content and its interferences in the rubber lattices. This paper will seek to elaborate on the effect of filler content on the total protein and extractable protein (EP) content of NR latex films at various filler loadings before and after ageing. The effect of interferences by filler that was mixed into the NR latex on the total nitrogen and EP content were also measured and shown.

  5. Characterization of rubber particles and rubber chain elongation in Taraxacum koksaghyz

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Natural rubber is a biopolymer with exceptional qualities that cannot be completely replaced using synthetic alternatives. Although several key enzymes in the rubber biosynthetic pathway have been isolated, mainly from plants such as Hevea brasiliensis, Ficus spec. and the desert shrub Parthenium argentatum, there have been no in planta functional studies, e.g. by RNA interference, due to the absence of efficient and reproducible protocols for genetic engineering. In contrast, the Russian dandelion Taraxacum koksaghyz, which has long been considered as a potential alternative source of low-cost natural rubber, has a rapid life cycle and can be genetically transformed using a simple and reliable procedure. However, there is very little molecular data available for either the rubber polymer itself or its biosynthesis in T. koksaghyz. Results We established a method for the purification of rubber particles - the active sites of rubber biosynthesis - from T. koksaghyz latex. Photon correlation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed an average particle size of 320 nm, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed that isolated rubber particles contain poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) with a purity >95%. Size exclusion chromatography indicated that the weight average molecular mass (w) of T. koksaghyz natural rubber is 4,000-5,000 kDa. Rubber particles showed rubber transferase activity of 0.2 pmol min-1 mg-1. Ex vivo rubber biosynthesis experiments resulted in a skewed unimodal distribution of [1-14C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) incorporation at a w of 2,500 kDa. Characterization of recently isolated cis-prenyltransferases (CPTs) from T. koksaghyz revealed that these enzymes are associated with rubber particles and are able to produce long-chain polyprenols in yeast. Conclusions T. koksaghyz rubber particles are similar to those described for H. brasiliensis. They contain very pure, high molecular mass poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) and

  6. Standard Rubbers for Chemical Defense Research. Volume 1. Formulation and Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    by the military services. There is a growing need to determine the susceptibility of diese materials to the chemical threats anticipated from the...leading to a very weak signal which contains little spectral information. An alternative method involves very rapid pyrolysis of the rubber specimen to...After nitrogen gas purge of the pyrolysis cell, a small chunk of the rubber compound was heated at 600’C for 60 seconds by use of a Foxboro Pyro

  7. Impact of extractables from rubber closures on protein stability under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Richter, Carolin; Lipperheide, Cornelia; Lipke, Uwe; Lamprecht, Alf

    2018-06-09

    Commercially available, uncoated elastomeric closures were examined in regard to a potential contribution of extracted compounds from the rubber stoppers to protein aggregation under worst-case conditions. All rubber stoppers were confirmed to comply with Ph. Eur. quality requirements. Extraction with 2-propanol under reflux-conditions for 3 h led to closure-specific extraction profiles of the tested samples. One type of rubber stopper exhibited a considerably greater number and higher content of extractables. Four extracted compounds were identified as trialkyl benzene-1, 2, 4-tricarboxylates (trivial name: trimellitates), a substance class which is increasingly established as an alternative to phthalates. A highly concentrated aqueous solution of total extractables from this rubber stopper facilitated the formation of soluble and non-soluble high-molecular aggregates when incubated with model biopharmaceuticals (recombinant human immunoglobulin G (IgG) and recombinant erythropoietin (EPO)) under stress conditions (IgG: 60-64°C for 130 min, EPO: 55°C for 8 days). Furthermore, it was shown that the surfactant concentration (polysorbate 20, 0.1 m/v % vs. 1.0 m/v %) decisively influenced the formation of high-molecular aggregates. In case of EPO, the 10 fold increased concentration of surfactant was sufficient to prevent the aggregate formation completely. This study suggests the necessity of revisiting the current test system of Ph. Eur. monograph 3.2.9 for appropriate rubber stopper quality evaluation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Rubber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishen, Anoop

    1989-01-01

    This review covers methods for identification, characterization, and determination of rubber and materials in rubber. Topics include: general information, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal methods, gel permeation chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, analysis related to safety and health, and…

  9. Identification of natural rubber and characterization of rubber biosynthetic activity in fig tree.

    PubMed

    Kang, H; Kang, M Y; Han, K H

    2000-07-01

    Natural rubber was extracted from the fig tree (Ficus carica) cultivated in Korea as part of a survey of rubber producing plants. Fourier transform infrared and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of samples prepared by successive extraction with acetone and benzene confirmed that the benzene-soluble residues are natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene. The rubber content in the latex of fig tree was about 4%, whereas the rubber content in the bark, leaf, and fruit was 0.3%, 0.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. Gel-permeation chromatography revealed that the molecular size of the natural rubber from fig tree is about 190 kD. Similar to rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), rubber biosynthesis in fig tree is tightly associated with rubber particles. The rubber transferase in rubber particles exhibited a higher affinity for farnesyl pyrophosphate than for isopentenyl pyrophosphate, with apparent K(m) values of 2.8 and 228 microM, respectively. Examination of latex serum from fig tree by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed major proteins of 25 and 48 kD in size, and several proteins with molecular mass below 20 and above 100 kD. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequencing and immunochemical analyses revealed that the 25- and 48-kD proteins were novel and not related to any other suggested rubber transferases. The effect of EDTA and Mg(2+) ion on in vitro rubber biosynthesis in fig tree and rubber tree suggested that divalent metal ion present in the latex serum is an important factor in determining the different rubber biosynthetic activities in fig tree and rubber tree.

  10. Elastic MCF Rubber with Photovoltaics and Sensing on Hybrid Skin (H-Skin) for Artificial Skin by Utilizing Natural Rubber: Third Report on Electric Charge and Storage under Tension and Compression †.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kunio

    2018-06-06

    In the series of studies on new types of elastic and compressible artificial skins with hybrid sensing functions, photovoltaics, and battery, we have proposed a hybrid skin (H-Skin) by utilizing an electrolytically polymerized magnetic compound fluid (MCF) made of natural rubber latex (NR-latex). By using the experimental results in the first and second reports, we have clarified the feasibility of electric charge at irradiation, and that without illumination under compression and elongation. The former was explained in a wet-type MCF rubber solar cell by developing a tunneling theory together with an equivalent electric circuit model. The latter corresponds to the battery rather than to the solar cell. As for the MCF rubber battery, depending on the selected agent type, we can make the MCF rubber have higher electricity and lighter weight. Therefore, the MCF rubber has an electric charge and storage whether at irradiation or not.

  11. In-depth proteome analysis of the rubber particle of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    PubMed

    Dai, Longjun; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Nie, Zhiyi; Duan, Cuifang; Zeng, Rizhong

    2013-05-01

    The rubber particle is a special organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. To better understand the biological functions of rubber particles and to identify the candidate rubber biosynthesis-related proteins, a comprehensive proteome analysis was performed on H. brasiliensis rubber particles using shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling approaches-resulting in a thorough report on the rubber particle proteins. A total of 186 rubber particle proteins were identified, with a range in relative molecular mass of 3.9-194.2 kDa and in isoelectric point values of 4.0-11.2. The rubber particle proteins were analysed for gene ontology and could be categorised into eight major groups according to their functions: including rubber biosynthesis, stress- or defence-related responses, protein processing and folding, signal transduction and cellular transport. In addition to well-known rubber biosynthesis-related proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT), many proteins were firstly identified to be on the rubber particles, including cyclophilin, phospholipase D, cytochrome P450, small GTP-binding protein, clathrin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, annexin, ABC transporter, translationally controlled tumour protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and several homologues of REF, SRPP and CPT. A procedure of multiple reaction monitoring was established for further protein validation. This comprehensive proteome data of rubber particles would facilitate investigation into molecular mechanisms of biogenesis, self-homeostasis and rubber biosynthesis of the rubber particle, and might serve as valuable biomarkers in molecular breeding studies of H. brasiliensis and other alternative rubber-producing species.

  12. Identification of Natural Rubber and Characterization of Rubber Biosynthetic Activity in Fig Tree1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hunseung; Kang, Min Young; Han, Kyung-Hwan

    2000-01-01

    Natural rubber was extracted from the fig tree (Ficus carica) cultivated in Korea as part of a survey of rubber producing plants. Fourier transform infrared and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of samples prepared by successive extraction with acetone and benzene confirmed that the benzene-soluble residues are natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene. The rubber content in the latex of fig tree was about 4%, whereas the rubber content in the bark, leaf, and fruit was 0.3%, 0.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. Gel-permeation chromatography revealed that the molecular size of the natural rubber from fig tree is about 190 kD. Similar to rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), rubber biosynthesis in fig tree is tightly associated with rubber particles. The rubber transferase in rubber particles exhibited a higher affinity for farnesyl pyrophosphate than for isopentenyl pyrophosphate, with apparent Km values of 2.8 and 228 μm, respectively. Examination of latex serum from fig tree by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed major proteins of 25 and 48 kD in size, and several proteins with molecular mass below 20 and above 100 kD. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequencing and immunochemical analyses revealed that the 25- and 48-kD proteins were novel and not related to any other suggested rubber transferases. The effect of EDTA and Mg2+ ion on in vitro rubber biosynthesis in fig tree and rubber tree suggested that divalent metal ion present in the latex serum is an important factor in determining the different rubber biosynthetic activities in fig tree and rubber tree. PMID:10889262

  13. Effect of organo-clay on the dielectric relaxation response of silicone rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharavi, N.; Razzaghi-Kashani, M.; Golshan-Ebrahimi, N.

    2010-02-01

    Dielectric elastomers are light weight, low-cost, highly deformable and fast response smart materials capable of converting electrical energy into mechanical work or vice versa. Silicone rubber is a well-known dielectric elastomer which is used as actuator, and in order to enhance the efficiency of this smart material, compounding of silicone rubber with various fillers can be carried out. The effect of organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) nano-clay on improvement of dielectric properties, actuation stress and its relaxation response was considered in this study. OMMT was dispersed in room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber, and a composite film was cast. Using an in-house actuation set-up, it was shown that the actuation stress for a given electric field intensity is higher for composites than that for pristine silicone rubber. Also, the time-dependent actuation response of the samples was evaluated, and it was shown that the characteristic relaxation time of the actuation stress for composites is less than for the pristine rubber as a result of OMMT addition.

  14. Exposure to rubber fume and rubber process dust in the general rubber goods, tyre manufacturing and retread industries.

    PubMed

    Dost, A A; Redman, D; Cox, G

    2000-08-01

    This study assesses the current patterns and levels of exposure to rubber fume and rubber process dust in the British rubber industry and compares and contrasts the data obtained from the general rubber goods (GRG), retread tire (RT) and new tire (NT) sectors. A total of 179 rubber companies were visited and data were obtained from 52 general rubber goods, 29 retread tire and 7 new tire manufacturers. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire and included a walk-through inspection of the workplace to assess the extent of use of control measures and the nature of work practices being employed. The most recent (predominantly 1995-97) exposure monitoring data for rubber fume and rubber process dust were obtained from these companies; no additional sampling was conducted for the purpose of this study. In addition to the assessment of exposure data, evaluation of occupational hygiene reports for the quality of information and advice was also carried out.A comparison of the median exposures for processes showed that the order of exposure to rubber fume (E, in mg m(-3)) is: E(moulding) (0.40) approximately E(extrusion) (0.33)>E(milling) (0.18) for GRG; E(press) (0. 32)>E(extrusion) (0.19)>E(autoclave) (0.10) for RT; and E(press) (0. 22) approximately E(all other) (0.22) for NT. The order of exposure to rubber fume between sectors was E(GRG) (0.40)>E(RT) (0.32)>E(NT) (0.22). Median exposures to rubber process dust in the GRG was E(weighing) (4.2)>E(mixing) (1.2) approximately E(milling) (0.8) approximately E(extrusion) (0.8) and no significant difference (P=0. 31) between GRG and NT sectors. The findings compare well with the study carried out in the Netherlands [Kromhout et al. (1994), Annals of Occupational Hygiene 38(1), 3-22], and it is suggested that the factors governing the significant differences noted between the three sectors relate principally to the production and task functions and also to the extent of controls employed. Evaluation of occupational

  15. Industrial waste treatment and application in rubber production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugacheva, I. N.; Popova, L. V.; Repin, P. S.; Molokanova, L. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper provides for the relevance of various industrial waste treatment and application, as well as their secondary commercialization. It considers treatment of secondary polymer materials turning to additives applied in rubber production, in particular, in production of conveyor and V-type belts used in mechanical engineering. It is found that oligomers obtained from petroleum by-products can be used as an impregnating compound for fiber materials. Such adhesive treatment prior to introduction of impregnating compounds into elastomeric materials improves adhesion and complements performance of obtained composites.

  16. Adhesion and friction between glass and rubber in the dry state and in water: role of contact hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, S; Tada, T; Persson, B N J

    2018-06-27

    We study the contact mechanics between 3 different tire tread compounds and a smooth glass surface in water. We study both adhesion and sliding friction at low-sliding speeds. For 2 of the compounds the rubber-glass contact in water is hydrophobic and we observe adhesion, and slip-stick sliding friction dynamics. For one compound the contact is hydrophilic, resulting in vanishing adhesion, and steady-state (or smooth) sliding dynamics. We also show the importance of dynamical scrape, both on the macroscopic level and at the asperity level, which reduces the water film thickness between the solids during slip. The experiments show that the fluid is removed much faster from the rubber-glass asperity contact regions for a hydrophobic contact than for a hydrophilic contact. We also study friction on sandblasted glass in water. In this case all the compounds behave similarly and we conclude that no dewetting occur in the asperity contact regions. We propose that this is due to the increased surface roughness which reduces the rubber-glass binding energy.

  17. The Effect of Particles on Electrolytically Polymerized Thin Natural MCF Rubber for Soft Sensors Installed in Artificial Skin.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kunio; Mochizuki, Osamu; Kubota, Yoshihiro

    2017-04-19

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of particles as filler in soft rubber sensors installed in artificial skin. We examine sensors made of natural rubber (NR-latex) that include magnetic particles of Ni and Fe₃O₄ using magnetic compound fluid (MCF). The 1-mm thickness of the electrolytically polymerized MCF rubber makes production of comparatively thin rubber sensors feasible. We first investigate the effect of magnetic particles Ni and Fe₃O₄ on the curing of MCF rubber. Next, in order to adjust the electric properties of the MCF rubber, we adopt Al₂O₃ dielectric particles. We investigate the effect of Al₂O₃ particles on changes in electric current, voltage and temperature of electrolytically polymerized MCF rubber liquid, and on the electric properties under the application of normal and shear forces. By adjusting the ratio of Ni, Fe₃O₄, Al₂O₃ and water in MCF rubber with Al₂O₃, it is possible to change the electric properties.

  18. Application of Lignin as Antioxidant in Styrene Butadiene Rubber Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shusheng; Cheng, Xiansu

    2010-11-01

    Lignin isolated from enzymatic hydrolyzed cornstalks (EHL) is a renewable natural polymer, and rubber is one of the most important polymer materials. The application of EHL in rubber industry is of great significance. The influence of EHL and antioxidant RD on the vulcanizing characteristics, thermal oxidative aging stability under free condition, and water extraction resistance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) were investigated. The effect of EHL/antioxidant D composite antioxidant on the thermal oxidative ageing of SBR was also evaluated. Results showed that the protection of SBR from thermal oxidative aging by EHL/antioxidant D composite antioxidant was superior to that of antioxidant D. This is because EHL molecules have hindered phenol group and have excellent auxiliary antioxidant role with antioxidant D. Moreover, the influence of EHL on the vulcanizing characteristics of SBR compounds was better than that of antioxidant RD, and EHL can reduce the cure rate and increase the optimum cure time. It is because that the EHL molecules have hindered phenol group and methoxy group, which can form a special structure to capture free radical and terminate the chain reaction. The retained tensile strength of SBR compounds with EHL was similar to that of the samples with antioxidant RD, while the retained elongation at break of SBR compounds with EHL was higher than that of the samples with antioxidant RD. In addition, the SBR compounds with EHL have a good water extraction resistance property, which was similar to the samples with antioxidant RD. This is because EHL have large molecular weight, good stability and low solubility in water. In conclusion, due to the low price, abundant resources, non-toxic and pollution-free, etc., EHL will have broad application prospect.

  19. Preparation of sulfonic acid-containing rubbers from natural rubber vulcanizates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonsawat, Worapong; Poompradub, Sirilux; Ngamcharussrivichai, Chawalit

    2014-06-01

    In this work, a series of sulfonic acid-containing rubbers were prepared by aqueous phase oxidation of natural rubber vulcanizates in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and formic acid (HCOOH). The starting vulcanizates were neatly prepared via an efficient vulcanization (EV) system by varying mass ratio of N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfonamide (CBS), as an accelerator, to sulfur. The oxidation conditions were controlled at the molar ratio of H2O2: HCOOH = 1:1, the concentration of H2O2 = 15 wt.%, the temperature = 50 °C, and the reaction time = 3 h. The rubber materials before and after the oxidation were characterized for their physicochemical properties by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, bomb calorimetry, acid-base titration and swelling measurements. The results indicated the presence of sulfonic acid group in the oxidized rubbers, generated by the oxidative cleaves of sulfide crosslinks in the rubber vulcanizates. The oxidation decreased the sulfur content of the rubber in which the level of sulfur loss was determined by the CBS/sulfur ratio. Moreover, the acidity of the oxidized products was correlated with the amount of sulfur remaining.

  20. Exposure to aged crumb rubber reduces survival time during a stress test in earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    PubMed

    Pochron, Sharon; Nikakis, Jacqueline; Illuzzi, Kyra; Baatz, Andrea; Demirciyan, Loriana; Dhillon, Amritjot; Gaylor, Thomas; Manganaro, Alexa; Maritato, Nicholas; Moawad, Michael; Singh, Rajwinder; Tucker, Clara; Vaughan, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Solid waste management struggles with the sustainable disposal of used tires. One solution involves shredding used tires into crumb rubber and using the material as infill for artificial turf. However, crumb rubber contains hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and heavy metals, and it travels into the environment. Earthworms living in soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber gained 14% less body weight than did earthworms living in uncontaminated soil, but the impact of aged crumb rubber on the earthworms is unknown. Since many athletic fields contain aged crumb rubber, we compared the body weight, survivorship, and longevity in heat and light stress for earthworms living in clean topsoil to those living in topsoil contaminated with aged crumb rubber. We also characterized levels of metals, nutrients, and micronutrients of both soil treatments and compared those to published values for soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber. Consistent with earlier research, we found that contaminated soil did not inhibit microbial respiration rates. Aged crumb rubber, like new crumb rubber, had high levels of zinc. However, while exposure to aged crumb rubber did not reduce earthworm body weight as did exposure to new crumb rubber, exposure to aged crumb rubber reduced earthworm survival time during a stress test by a statistically significant 38 min (16.2%) relative to the survival time for worms that had lived in clean soil. Aged crumb rubber and new crumb rubber appear to pose similar toxic risks to earthworms. This study suggests an environmental cost associated with the current tire-recycling solution.

  1. Effect of non-rubber constituents on Guayule and Hevea rubber intrinsic properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To meet the increasing demand for natural rubber (NR), currently sourced from the tropical rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, and address price volatility and steadily increasing labor costs, alternate rubber-producing species are in commercial development. One of these, guayule (Parthenium argentatum)...

  2. Morphological explanation of high tear resistance of EPDM/NR rubber blends.

    PubMed

    Gögelein, Christoph; Beelen, Henri Jacob Hubert; van Duin, Martin

    2017-06-14

    The fatigue properties of cross-linked blends of ethylene propylene diene rubber (EPDM) with low natural rubber (NR) content and reinforced with carbon black (CB) are studied. It is found that such EPDM/NR compounds have superior crack growth resistance and fatigue lifetime. For low NR contents, transmission electron microscopy reveals that the NR phase forms small droplets of 20-50 nm. Remarkably, these droplets are even smaller than the primary CB particles. Atomic force microscopy shows that the the NR phase droplets have a higher loss factor and a smaller elastic modulus than the surrounding EPDM matrix. Rheometer measurements are used to study the effect of the phase morphology on the rubber mechanical properties. These rheological data are compared with the prediction of the Eshelby model describing the effect of elastic inclusions on solids. A complex interplay between the rubber phase morphology and the solubility of both the sulfur cross-linking system and CB is observed, which cannot be predicted theoretically. It is proposed that the soft NR droplets effectively inhibit the crack propagation in the EPDM matrix.

  3. Method for the addition of vulcanized waste rubber to virgin rubber products

    DOEpatents

    Romine, Robert A.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a method of using enzymes from thiophyllic microbes for selectively breaking the sulfur rubber cross-link bonds in vulcanized rubber. The process is halted at the sulfoxide or sulfone step so that a devulcanized layer is reactive with virgin rubber.

  4. Microwave treatment of vulcanized rubber

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G [Aiken, SC; Schulz, Rebecca L [Aiken, SC; Clark, David E [Gainesville, FL; Folz, Diane C [Gainesville, FL

    2002-07-16

    A process and resulting product is provided in which a vulcanized solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has select chemical bonds broken by microwave radiation. The direct application of microwaves in combination with uniform heating of the crumb rubber renders the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger particle sizes and/or loading levels of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures to produce recycled composite products with good properties.

  5. Hazardous organic chemicals in rubber recycled tire playgrounds and pavers.

    PubMed

    Llompart, Maria; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Pablo Lamas, J; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Roca, Enrique; Dagnac, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the presence of hazardous organic chemicals in surfaces containing recycled rubber tires is investigated. Direct material analyses using solvent extraction, as well as SPME analysis of the vapour phase above the sample, were carried out. Twenty-one rubber mulch samples were collected from nine different playgrounds. In addition, seven commercial samples of recycled rubber pavers were acquired in a local store of a multinational company. All samples were extracted by ultrasound energy, followed by analysis of the extract by GC-MS. The analysis confirmed the presence of a large number of hazardous substances including PAHs, phthalates, antioxidants (e.g. BHT, phenols), benzothiazole and derivatives, among other chemicals. The study evidences the high content of toxic chemicals in these recycled materials. The concentration of PAHs in the commercial pavers was extremely high, reaching values up to 1%. In addition, SPME studies of the vapour phase above the samples confirm the volatilisation of many of those organic compounds. Uses of recycled rubber tires, especially those targeting play areas and other facilities for children, should be a matter of regulatory concern. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Method for the addition of vulcanized waste rubber to virgin rubber products

    DOEpatents

    Romine, R.A.; Snowden-Swan, L.J.

    1997-01-28

    The invention is a method of using enzymes from thiophyllic microbes for selectively breaking the sulfur rubber cross-link bonds in vulcanized rubber. The process is halted at the sulfoxide or sulfone step so that a devulcanized layer is reactive with virgin rubber. 8 figs.

  7. Nonaqueous ozonation of vulcanized rubber

    DOEpatents

    Serkiz, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    A process and resulting product is provided in which a solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has the surface functional groups oxidized by ozonation using a nonpolar solvent. The ozonation process renders the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger loading levels of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures.

  8. The rubber tree genome reveals new insights into rubber production and species adaptation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chaorong; Yang, Meng; Fang, Yongjun; Luo, Yingfeng; Gao, Shenghan; Xiao, Xiaohu; An, Zewei; Zhou, Binhui; Zhang, Bing; Tan, Xinyu; Yeang, Hoong-Yeet; Qin, Yunxia; Yang, Jianghua; Lin, Qiang; Mei, Hailiang; Montoro, Pascal; Long, Xiangyu; Qi, Jiyan; Hua, Yuwei; He, Zilong; Sun, Min; Li, Wenjie; Zeng, Xia; Cheng, Han; Liu, Ying; Yang, Jin; Tian, Weimin; Zhuang, Nansheng; Zeng, Rizhong; Li, Dejun; He, Peng; Li, Zhe; Zou, Zhi; Li, Shuangli; Li, Chenji; Wang, Jixiang; Wei, Dong; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Luo, Wei; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian; Huang, Huasun

    2016-05-23

    The Para rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is an economically important tropical tree species that produces natural rubber, an essential industrial raw material. Here we present a high-quality genome assembly of this species (1.37 Gb, scaffold N50 = 1.28 Mb) that covers 93.8% of the genome (1.47 Gb) and harbours 43,792 predicted protein-coding genes. A striking expansion of the REF/SRPP (rubber elongation factor/small rubber particle protein) gene family and its divergence into several laticifer-specific isoforms seem crucial for rubber biosynthesis. The REF/SRPP family has isoforms with sizes similar to or larger than SRPP1 (204 amino acids) in 17 other plants examined, but no isoforms with similar sizes to REF1 (138 amino acids), the predominant molecular variant. A pivotal point in Hevea evolution was the emergence of REF1, which is located on the surface of large rubber particles that account for 93% of rubber in the latex (despite constituting only 6% of total rubber particles, large and small). The stringent control of ethylene synthesis under active ethylene signalling and response in laticifers resolves a longstanding mystery of ethylene stimulation in rubber production. Our study, which includes the re-sequencing of five other Hevea cultivars and extensive RNA-seq data, provides a valuable resource for functional genomics and tools for breeding elite Hevea cultivars.

  9. Construction of Pará rubber tree genome and multi-transcriptome database accelerates rubber researches.

    PubMed

    Makita, Yuko; Kawashima, Mika; Lau, Nyok Sean; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Matsui, Minami

    2018-01-19

    Natural rubber is an economically important material. Currently the Pará rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis is the main commercial source. Little is known about rubber biosynthesis at the molecular level. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies brought draft genomes of three rubber cultivars and a variety of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data. However, no current genome or transcriptome databases (DB) are organized by gene. A gene-oriented database is a valuable support for rubber research. Based on our original draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis RRIM600, we constructed a rubber tree genome and transcriptome DB. Our DB provides genome information including gene functional annotations and multi-transcriptome data of RNA-seq, full-length cDNAs including PacBio Isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq), ESTs and genome wide transcription start sites (TSSs) derived from CAGE technology. Using our original and publically available RNA-seq data, we calculated co-expressed genes for identifying functionally related gene sets and/or genes regulated by the same transcription factor (TF). Users can access multi-transcriptome data through both a gene-oriented web page and a genome browser. For the gene searching system, we provide keyword search, sequence homology search and gene expression search; users can also select their expression threshold easily. The rubber genome and transcriptome DB provides rubber tree genome sequence and multi-transcriptomics data. This DB is useful for comprehensive understanding of the rubber transcriptome. This will assist both industrial and academic researchers for rubber and economically important close relatives such as R. communis, M. esculenta and J. curcas. The Rubber Transcriptome DB release 2017.03 is accessible at http://matsui-lab.riken.jp/rubber/ .

  10. Morphology, mechanical, cross-linking, thermal, and tribological properties of nitrile and hydrogenated nitrile rubber/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composites prepared by melt compounding: The effect of acrylonitrile content and hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likozar, Blaž; Major, Zoltan

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to prepare nanocomposites by mixing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with nitrile and hydrogenated nitrile elastomers (NBR and HNBR). Utilization of transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques (SAXS and WAXS) for advanced morphology observation of conducting filler-reinforced nitrile and hydrogenated nitrile rubber composites is reported. Principal results were increases in hardness (maximally 97 Shore, type A), elastic modulus (maximally 981 MPa), tensile strength (maximally 27.7 MPa), elongation at break (maximally 216%), cross-link density (maximally 7.94 × 1028 m-3), density (maximally 1.16 g cm-3), and tear strength (11.2 kN m-1), which were clearly visible at particular acrylonitrile contents both for unhydrogenated and hydrogenated polymers due to enhanced distribution of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and their aggregated particles in the applied rubber matrix. Conclusion was that multi-walled carbon nanotubes improved the performance of nitrile and hydrogenated nitrile rubber nanocomposites prepared by melt compounding.

  11. The Effect of Particles on Electrolytically Polymerized Thin Natural MCF Rubber for Soft Sensors Installed in Artificial Skin

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Kunio; Mochizuki, Osamu; Kubota, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of particles as filler in soft rubber sensors installed in artificial skin. We examine sensors made of natural rubber (NR-latex) that include magnetic particles of Ni and Fe3O4 using magnetic compound fluid (MCF). The 1-mm thickness of the electrolytically polymerized MCF rubber makes production of comparatively thin rubber sensors feasible. We first investigate the effect of magnetic particles Ni and Fe3O4 on the curing of MCF rubber. Next, in order to adjust the electric properties of the MCF rubber, we adopt Al2O3 dielectric particles. We investigate the effect of Al2O3 particles on changes in electric current, voltage and temperature of electrolytically polymerized MCF rubber liquid, and on the electric properties under the application of normal and shear forces. By adjusting the ratio of Ni, Fe3O4, Al2O3 and water in MCF rubber with Al2O3, it is possible to change the electric properties. PMID:28422061

  12. The weakest t-norm based intuitionistic fuzzy fault-tree analysis to evaluate system reliability.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mohit; Yadav, Shiv Prasad

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a new approach of intuitionistic fuzzy fault-tree analysis is proposed to evaluate system reliability and to find the most critical system component that affects the system reliability. Here weakest t-norm based intuitionistic fuzzy fault tree analysis is presented to calculate fault interval of system components from integrating expert's knowledge and experience in terms of providing the possibility of failure of bottom events. It applies fault-tree analysis, α-cut of intuitionistic fuzzy set and T(ω) (the weakest t-norm) based arithmetic operations on triangular intuitionistic fuzzy sets to obtain fault interval and reliability interval of the system. This paper also modifies Tanaka et al.'s fuzzy fault-tree definition. In numerical verification, a malfunction of weapon system "automatic gun" is presented as a numerical example. The result of the proposed method is compared with the listing approaches of reliability analysis methods. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hardness and compression resistance of natural rubber and synthetic rubber mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arguello, J. M.; Santos, A.

    2016-02-01

    This project aims to mechanically characterize through compression resistance and shore hardness tests, the mixture of hevea brasiliensis natural rubber with butadiene synthetic rubber (BR), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and ethylene-propylene-diene monomer rubber (EPDM). For each of the studied mixtures were performed 10 tests, each of which increased by 10% the content of synthetic rubber in the mixture; each test consisted of carrying out five tests of compression resistance and five tests of shore hardness. The specimens were vulcanized on a temperature of 160°C, during an approximate time of 15 minutes, and the equipment used in the performance of the mechanical tests were a Shimadzu universal machine and a digital durometer. The results show that the A shore hardness increases directly proportional, with a linear trend, with the content of synthetic BR, SBR or EPDM rubber present in the mixture, being the EPDM the most influential. With respect to the compression resistance is observed that the content of BR or SBR increase this property directly proportional through a linear trend; while the EPDM content also increases but with a polynomial trend.

  14. Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, D. F.

    The word "rubber" immediately brings to mind materials that are highly flexible and will snap back to their original shape after being stretched. In this chapter a variety of materials are discussed that possess this odd characteristics. There will also be a discussion on the mechanism of this "elastic retractive force." Originally, rubber meant the gum collected from a tree growing in Brazil. The term "rubber" was coined for this material by the English chemist Joseph Priestley, who noted that it was effective for removing pencil marks from paper. Today, in addition to Priestley's natural product, many synthetic materials are made that possess these characteristics and many other properties. The common features of these materials are that they are made up of long-chain molecules that are amorphous (not crystalline), and the chains are above their glass transition temperature at room temperature.

  15. Development of a Hybrid Piezo Natural Rubber Piezoelectricity and Piezoresistivity Sensor with Magnetic Clusters Made by Electric and Magnetic Field Assistance and Filling with Magnetic Compound Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Kunio; Saga, Norihiko

    2017-01-01

    Piezoelements used in robotics require large elasticity and extensibility to be installed in an artificial robot skin. However, the piezoelements used until recently are vulnerable to large forces because of the thin solid materials employed. To resolve this issue, we utilized a natural rubber and applied our proposed new method of aiding with magnetic and electric fields as well as filling with magnetic compound fluid (MCF) and doping. We have verified the piezoproperties of the resulting MCF rubber. The effect of the created magnetic clusters is featured in a new two types of multilayered structures of the piezoelement. By measuring the piezoelectricity response to pressure, the synergetic effects of the magnetic clusters, the doping and the electric polymerization on the piezoelectric effect were clarified. In addition, by examining the relation between the piezoelectricity and the piezoresistivity created in the MCF piezo element, we propose a hybrid piezoelement. PMID:28208625

  16. Friction characteristics of three 30 by 11.5-14.5, type 8, aircraft tires with various tread groove patterns and rubber compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.; Mccarty, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    A test program was conducted to evaluate friction performance and wear characteristics on wet runways of three 30 x 11.5-14.5, type, aircraft tires having two different tread patterns and natural rubber contents. All test tires had the standard three circumferential groove tread, but two had molded transverse grooves which extended from shoulder to shoulder. The tread rubber content of the two tires with transverse grooves differed in that one had a 100 percent natural rubber tread and the other had a rubber tread composition that was 30 percent synthetic and 70 percent natural. The third test tire had the conventional 100 percent natural rubber tread. Results indicate that the differences in tire tread design and rubber composition do not significantly affect braking and cornering friction capability on wet or dry surfaces. Braking performance of the tires decreases with increased speed, with increased yaw angle and, at higher speeds, with increased wetness of the surface.

  17. Determination of thermophysical characteristics of vulcanizable rubber products by the mathematical modeling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, S. G.; Pyatakov, Y. V.; Karmanova, O. V.; Maslov, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The studies of the vulcanization kinetics of elastomers were carried out using a Truck tyre tread rubber compound. The formal kinetic scheme of vulcanization of rubbers sulfur-accelerator curing system was used which generalizes the set of reactions occurring in the curing process. A mathematical model is developed for determining the thermal parameters vulcanizable mixture comprising algorithms for solving direct and inverse problems for system of equations of heat conduction and kinetics of the curing process. The performance of the model is confirmed by the results of numerical experiments on model examples.

  18. Rubber Reclamation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2007-01-01

    The safety and health hazards related to recycling of used rubber, due to the scarcity and high price of virgin rubber are reported. Various threats like stagnant water pools trapped in tires leading to diseases and ignited tires, which become very difficult to extinguish and generating smoke that is extremely detrimental to the environment, have…

  19. Rubber friction directional asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, A.; Dorogin, L.; Steenwyk, B.; Warhadpande, A.; Motamedi, M.; Fortunato, G.; Ciaravola, V.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2016-12-01

    In rubber friction studies it is usually assumed that the friction force does not depend on the sliding direction, unless the substrate has anisotropic properties, like a steel surface grinded in one direction. Here we will present experimental results for rubber friction, where we observe a strong asymmetry between forward and backward sliding, where forward and backward refer to the run-in direction of the rubber block. The observed effect could be very important in tire applications, where directional properties of the rubber friction could be induced during braking.

  20. Enhancement of MCF Rubber Utilizing Electric and Magnetic Fields, and Clarification of Electrolytic Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Kunio

    2017-01-01

    Many sensors require mechanical durability to resist immense or impulsive pressure and large elasticity, so that they can be installed in or assimilated into the outer layer of artificial skin on robots. Given these demanding requirements, we adopted natural rubber (NR-latex) and developed a new method (NM) for curing NR-latex by the application of a magnetic field under electrolytic polymerization. The aim of the present work is to clarify the new manufacturing process for NR-latex embedded with magnetic compound fluid (MCF) as a conductive filler, and the contribution of the optimization of the new process for sensor. We first clarify the effect of the magnetic field on the enhancement of the NR-latex MCF rubber created by the alignment of magnetic clusters of MCF. Next, SEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and XPS are used for morphological and microscopic observation of the electrolytically polymerized MCF rubber, and a chemical approach measuring pH and ORP of the MCF rubber liquid was used to investigate the process of electrolytic polymerization with a physical mode. We elucidate why the MCF rubber produced by the NM is enhanced with high sensitivity and long-term stability. This process of producing MCF rubber by the NM is closely related to the development of a highly sensitive sensor. PMID:28375182

  1. Morphology and thermal stability of nano titanium dioxide filled natural rubber prepared by latex mixing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayeemasae, N.; Surya, I.; Ismail, H.

    2018-02-01

    This paper deals with the morphology and thermal stability of nano Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) filled natural rubber composites. This study also suggests a new method of incorporating TiO2. Aqueous dispersions of nano TiO2at the loadings of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 phr were dispersed in natural rubber latex, the resulting compounds were then dried prior to mixing it with other ingredients on a two-roll mill. By applying this technique, the homogeneity of the compound is significantly improved. This can be clearly seen from the morphology observed. Adding TiO2 results in shifting the decomposition temperature and char residue irrespective of the loadings of nano TiO2.

  2. Elastic MCF Rubber with Photovoltaics and Sensing for Use as Artificial or Hybrid Skin (H-Skin): 1st Report on Dry-Type Solar Cell Rubber with Piezoelectricity for Compressive Sensing.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kunio

    2018-06-05

    Ordinary solar cells are very difficult to bend, squash by compression, or extend by tensile strength. However, if they were to possess elastic, flexible, and extensible properties, in addition to piezo-electricity and resistivity, they could be put to effective use as artificial skin installed over human-like robots or humanoids. Further, it could serve as a husk that generates electric power from solar energy and perceives any force or temperature changes. Therefore, we propose a new type of artificial skin, called hybrid skin (H-Skin), for a humanoid robot having hybrid functions. In this study, a novel elastic solar cell is developed from natural rubber that is electrolytically polymerized with a configuration of magnetic clusters of metal particles incorporated into the rubber, by applying a magnetic field. The material thus produced is named magnetic compound fluid rubber (MCF rubber) that is elastic, flexible, and extensible. The present report deals with a dry-type MCF rubber solar cell that uses photosensitized dye molecules. First, the photovoltaic mechanism in the material is investigated. Next, the changes in the photovoltaic properties of its molecules due to irradiation by visible light are measured under compression. The effect of the compression on its piezoelectric properties is investigated.

  3. Multilayer graphene rubber nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartel, Bernhard; Frasca, Daniele; Schulze, Dietmar; Wachtendorf, Volker; Krafft, Bernd; Morys, Michael; Böhning, Martin; Rybak, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Multilayer Graphene (MLG), a nanoparticle with a specific surface of BET = 250 m2/g and thus made of only approximately 10 graphene sheets, is proposed as a nanofiller for rubbers. When homogenously dispersed, it works at low loadings enabling the replacement of carbon black (CB), increase in efficiency, or reduction in filler concentration. Actually the appropriate preparation yielded nanocomposites in which just 3 phr are sufficient to significantly improve the rheological, curing and mechanical properties of different rubbers, as shown for Chlorine-Isobutylene-Isoprene Rubber (CIIR), Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Natural Rubber (NR), and Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR). A mere 3 phr of MLG tripled the Young's modulus of CIIR, an effect equivalent to 20 phr of carbon black. Similar equivalents are observed for MLG/CB mixtures. MLG reduces gas permeability, increases thermal and electrical conductivities, and retards fire behavior. The later shown by the reduction in heat release rate in the cone calorimeter. The higher the nanofiller concentration is (3 phr, 5 phr, and 10 phr was investigated), the greater the improvement in the properties of the nanocomposites. Moreover, the MLG nanocomposites improve stability of mechanical properties against weathering. An increase in UV-absorption as well as a pronounced radical scavenging are proposed and were proved experimentally. To sum up, MLG is interesting as a multifunctional nanofiller and seems to be quite ready for rubber development.

  4. Advances in rubber/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhixin; Guo, Baochun; Jia, Demin

    2014-02-01

    The research advances in rubber/halloysite nanotubes (rubber/HNTs) nanocomposites are reviewed. HNTs are environmentally-friendly natural nanomaterials, which could be used to prepare the rubber-based nanocomposites with high performance and low cost. Unmodified HNTs could be adopted to prepare the rubber/HNTs composites with improved mechanical properties, however, the rubber/HNTs nanocomposites with fine morphology and excellent properties were chiefly prepared with various modifiers by in situ mixing method. A series of rubber/HNTs nanocomposites containing several rubbers (SBR, NR, xSBR, NBR, PU) and different modifiers (ENR, RH, Si69, SA, MAA, ILs) have been investigated. The results showed that all the rubber/HNTs nanocomposites achieved strong interfacial interaction via interfacial covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds or multiple interactions, realized significantly improved dispersion of HNTs at nanoscale and exhibited excellent mechanical performances and other properties.

  5. Electrospinning of PVC with natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Muhammad Hariz; Mohamed, Mahathir; Abdullah, Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was mixed with natural rubbers which are liquid natural rubber (LNR), liquid epoxidised natural rubber (LENR) and liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) for a preparation of a fine non-woven fiber's mat. PVC and each natural rubbers(PVC:LENR, PVC:LNR and PVC:LENRA) were mixed based on ratio of 70:30. Electrospinning method was used to prepare the fiber. The results show that the spinnable concentration of PVC/ natural rubber/THF solution is 16 wt%. The morphology, diameter, structure and degradation temperature of electrospun fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM photos showed that the morphology and diameter of the fibers were mainly affected by the addition of natural rubber. TGA results suggested that PVC electrospun fiber has higher degradation temperature than those electrospun fibers that contain natural rubber.

  6. A Weakest Precondition Approach to Robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balliu, Musard; Mastroeni, Isabella

    With the increasing complexity of information management computer systems, security becomes a real concern. E-government, web-based financial transactions or military and health care information systems are only a few examples where large amount of information can reside on different hosts distributed worldwide. It is clear that any disclosure or corruption of confidential information in these contexts can result fatal. Information flow controls constitute an appealing and promising technology to protect both data confidentiality and data integrity. The certification of the security degree of a program that runs in untrusted environments still remains an open problem in the area of language-based security. Robustness asserts that an active attacker, who can modify program code in some fixed points (holes), is unable to disclose more private information than a passive attacker, who merely observes unclassified data. In this paper, we extend a method recently proposed for checking declassified non-interference in presence of passive attackers only, in order to check robustness by means of weakest precondition semantics. In particular, this semantics simulates the kind of analysis that can be performed by an attacker, i.e., from public output towards private input. The choice of semantics allows us to distinguish between different attacks models and to characterize the security of applications in different scenarios.

  7. Degradation of blending vulcanized natural rubber and nitril rubber (NR/NBR) by dimethyl ether through variation of elastomer ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputra, A. H.; Juneva, S.; Sari, T. I.; Cifriadi, A.

    2018-04-01

    Dimethyl ether can cause degradation of the rubber material seal in some applications. In order to use of natural rubber in industry, research about a blending of natural rubber (NR) and nitrile rubber (NBR) to produce rubber to meet the standard seal material application were conducted. This study will observe the degradation mechanisms that occur in the blending natural rubber and nitrile rubber (NR/NBR) by dimethyl ether. Nitrile rubber types used in this study is medium quality nitrile rubber with 33% of acrylonitrile content (NBR33). The observed parameters are percent change in mass, mechanical properties and surface morphology. This study is limited to see the effect of variation vulcanized blending ratio (NR/NBR33) against to swelling. The increase of nitrile rubber (NBR33) ratio of blending rubber vulcanized can reduce the tensile strength and elongation. The best elastomer variation was obtained after comparing with the standard feasibility material of seal is rubber vulcanized blending (NR/NBR33) with ratio 40:60 NR: NBR.

  8. Electrospinning of PVC with natural rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, Muhammad Hariz; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Mohamed, Mahathir

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was mixed with natural rubbers which are liquid natural rubber (LNR), liquid epoxidised natural rubber (LENR) and liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) for a preparation of a fine non-woven fiber’s mat. PVC and each natural rubbers(PVC:LENR, PVC:LNR and PVC:LENRA) were mixed based on ratio of 70:30. Electrospinning method was used to prepare the fiber. The results show that the spinnable concentration of PVC/ natural rubber/THF solution is 16 wt%. The morphology, diameter, structure and degradation temperature of electrospun fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM photos showed that the morphologymore » and diameter of the fibers were mainly affected by the addition of natural rubber. TGA results suggested that PVC electrospun fiber has higher degradation temperature than those electrospun fibers that contain natural rubber.« less

  9. Chemicals used in the rubber industry. An overview.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, L

    1983-01-01

    Hundreds of chemicals illustrative of many structural and use categories are employed in the rubber industry. The present overview has centered on the structural features of a number of compounds representative of several select use categories, eg, vulcanizing agents, accelerators, antioxidants, antiozonants, and blowing agents, with focus on the nature of their impurities, their chemical degradation, and by-products, as well as on those chemicals that can be converted to N-nitrosamines.

  10. Environmental exposure to preformed nitroso compounds.

    PubMed

    Tricker, A R; Spiegelhalder, B; Preussmann, R

    1989-01-01

    In the human environment, nitrosatable amine precursors to N-nitroso compounds and nitrosating species such as nitrite and oxides of nitrogen are abundant. As a result, the formation of N-nitroso compounds and human exposure to these compounds show a rather complex pattern. The largest known human exposures to exogenous N-nitrosamines occur in the work place. This is particularly evident in the rubber and tyre manufacturing industry and in metal cutting and grinding shops. Nearly all industries which are concerned with the production and/or use of amines have a related nitrosamine problem. Outside the industrial environment, commodities such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, rubber and household products, which are either prepared from amines or contain high concentrations of amino compounds, may be subject to contamination by low concentrations of N-nitroso compounds. This contamination may result from the use of contaminated starting materials, in particular amines, or from the formation of N-nitroso compounds during manufacturing processes. A similar problem exists with agricultural chemicals. As our knowledge of the occurrence and formation of N-nitroso compounds in the environment increases, preventive measures can be introduced, particularly in manufacturing industries, to reduce the levels of human exposure to nitrosamines in the work place and to protect the consumer from nitrosamine exposure from household commodities.

  11. Comparative studies on the mechanical properties of natural rubber and natural rubber filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, R.; Ibrahim, A.; Rusop, M.; Adnan, A.

    2018-05-01

    The present article compares the mechanical properties of natural rubber (NR) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled natural rubber composites. Four types of nanocomposite specimens are fabricated with different MWCNT loadings: 0 wt% (pure natural rubber), 1 wt%, 3 wt%, and 5 wt%. The specimens are tested for their mechanical properties. It is observed that the tensile strength, hardness and elongation break of CNTs filled rubber composites are remarkably higher than that of raw rubber indicating the inherent reinforcing potential of CNTs. Percentage of the elongation at break of rubber CNTs composites is lower than that of raw rubber.

  12. Acute and chronic pain in calves after different methods of rubber-ring castration.

    PubMed

    Becker, Johanna; Doherr, Marcus G; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Bodmer, Michèle; Zanolari, Patrik; Steiner, Adrian

    2012-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different methods of rubber-ring castration on acute and chronic pain in calves. Sixty-three 4-6 week-old calves were randomly and sequentially allocated to one of five groups: Group RR (traditional rubber ring castration); group BRR (combination of one rubber ring with Burdizzo); group Rcut (one rubber ring applied with the scrotal tissue and rubber ring removed on day 9); group 3RR (three rubber rings placed one above the other around the scrotal neck); and group CO (controls; sham-castrated). All calves received 0.2 mL/kg bodyweight lidocaine 2%, injected into the spermatic cords and around the scrotal neck 15 min before castration. The presence of acute and chronic pain was assessed using plasma cortisol concentrations, response to palpation of scrotal area, time from castration until complete wound healing, and behavioural signs. Calves of group 3RR showed severe swelling and inflammation, and licking of the scrotal area occurred significantly more often than in groups Rcut and CO. Technique 3RR was discontinued for welfare reasons before the end of the study. All castration groups had significantly more pain upon palpation than calves of group CO, but palpation elicited markedly less pain in group Rcut than in the other castration groups. The most rapid healing time and shortest duration of chronic pain after castration was achieved in group Rcut. For welfare reasons, the Rcut technique should be considered as a valuable alternative to traditional rubber ring castration of calves at 4-6 weeks of age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards development of lignin reinforced elastomeric compounds with reduced energy dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahl, Kushal

    This research deals with development of lignin as reinforcing filler for elastomeric compounds. Lignins are naturally abundant and cost competitive wood derivatives possessing strong mechanical properties and offering reactive functional groups on their surfaces. The presence of the functional groups imparts polarity to the lignin molecules and makes them incompatible with non-polar elastomers. Also, the large particle size of lignin does not produce desired mechanical reinforcement. The present study deals with solving the outstanding issues associated with the use of lignin as fillers for polymeric compounds. In addition, the work specifically focuses on producing rubber compounds with reduced energy dissipation via partial replacement of carbon black with lignin. The first part of this study is devoted to suppression of the polarity of lignin and achievement of compatibility with rubber matrix via modification of lignosulfonates (LS) with cyclohexylamine (CA). CA reduces the polarity of lignin via interactions originating from proton transfer and hydrogen bonding. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the attachment of CA on the surfaces of lignin. The mechanical properties of rubber compounds increase substantially along with improvement in cure properties and increase in crosslink density in the presence of LS particles modified with CA. The tensile strength and storage modulus show an increase by 45% and 41% respectively. The values of the 100% modulus and elongation at break also improve by 35% and 60% respectively. The second part of this study exploits the non-covalent interactions between lignin and carbon black (CB) for the design of novel hybrid filler particles exhibiting lower energy loss in rubber compounds. The hybrid fillers offer unique morphology consisting of coating layers of lignin on carbon black particle aggregates. It is found that such coating layers are formed due to pi-pi interactions between lignin and carbon black. Raman

  14. New sulfenamide accelerators derived from 'safe' amines for the rubber and tyre industry.

    PubMed

    Wacker, C D; Spiegelhalder, B; Preussmann, R

    1991-01-01

    A reduction of the high exposures to N-nitrosamines in the rubber and tyre industry is possible using the concept of 'safe' amines, in which vulcanization accelerators contain amine moieties that are both difficult to nitrosate and, on nitrosation, yield noncarcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. The toxicological and technological properties of more than 50 benzothiazole sulfenamides derived from 'safe' amines have been evaluated. Some of the new compounds show excellent vulcanization properties and seem suitable as replacements for traditional accelerators in this class of compounds.

  15. Interaggregate Interaction in Filled Rubber

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    from a black masterbatch (Carbomix 1848 from the Copolymer Rubber and Chemical Corporation). The masterbatch was unmilled (SBR-83-0), passed 5 times...Vanderbilt Company) 3 97% 1,2-polybutadiene (Firestone Tire and Rubber Company) 4 Carbomix 1848 Masterbatch (Copolymer Rubber and Chemical Corporation) 14

  16. The functional analyses of the cis-prenyltransferase and the rubber elongation factor in rubber biosynthesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is an essential plant derived commodity required for the manufacture of numerous industrial, medical and household items. Rubber is synthesized and sequestered on cytsolic vesicles known as rubber particles. When provided with farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and is...

  17. Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber

    DOEpatents

    Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.; Bagheri, R.

    1997-12-02

    Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figs.

  18. Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber

    DOEpatents

    McInnis, E.L.; Scharff, R.P.; Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.

    1995-01-17

    Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figures.

  19. Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber

    DOEpatents

    McInnis, E.L.; Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.

    1996-04-09

    Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figs.

  20. Infrared Spectroscopic Study on Structural Change and Interfacial Interaction in Rubber Composites Filled with Silica-Kaolin Hybrid Fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Guan, J.; Hu, H.; Gao, H.; Zhang, L.

    2016-07-01

    A series of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber/polybutadiene rubber composites was prepared with nanometer silica and micron kaolin by a dry modification process, mechanical compounding, and mold vulcanization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the structural changes and interfacial interactions in composites. The results showed that the "seesaw" structure was formed particularly with the incorporation of silica particles in the preparation process, which would be beneficial to the dispersibility of fillers in the rubber matrix. The kaolinite platelets were generally arranged in directional alignment. Kaolinite with smaller particle size and low-defect structure was more stable in preparation, but kaolinite with larger particle size and high defect structure tended to change the crystal structure. The composite prepared in this research exhibited excellent mechanical and thermal properties.

  1. Adhesion of nitrile rubber to UV-assisted surface chemical modified PET fabric, part II: Interfacial characterization of MDI grafted PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavizadeh, Mahmoud; Jamshidi, Masoud

    2016-08-01

    Fiber to rubber adhesion is an important subject in rubber industry. It is well known that surface treatment (i.e. physical, mechanical and chemical) is an effective method to improve interfacial bonding of fibers and/or fabrics to rubbers. UV irradiation is an effective method which has been used to increase fabric-rubber interfacial interactions. In this research UV assisted chemical modification of PET fabrics was used to increase PET to nitrile rubber (NBR) adhesion. Nitrile rubber is a perfect selection as fuel and oil resistant rubber. However it has weak bonding to PET fabric. For this purpose PET fabric was carboxylated under UV irradiation and then methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was grafted on carboxylated PET. The chemical composition of the fabric before and after surface treatment was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sectional morphology of the experimental PET fibers and the interface between rubber compound and PET fabric was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphology and structure of the product were analyzed by an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). FTIR-ATR and H NMR analysis were used to assess surface modifications on the PET irradiated fabrics.

  2. Chlorinolysis reclaims rubber of waste tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufresne, E. R.; Tervet, J. H.; Hull, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    Process reclaims rubber and reduces sulfur content by using chlorine gas to oxidize sulfur bonds in preference to other bonds. Rubber does not have poor hysteresis and abrasion resistance like conventionally reclaimed rubber and is suitable for premium radial tires. Chlorinated rubber is less susceptible to swelling by oils and may be used as paint ingredient.

  3. Silencing the lettuce homologs of small rubber particle protein does not influence natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Romit; Qu, Yang; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-05-01

    Natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, is an important raw material in chemical industries, but its biosynthetic mechanism remains elusive. Natural rubber is known to be synthesized in rubber particles suspended in laticifer cells in the Brazilian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In the rubber tree, rubber elongation factor (REF) and its homolog, small rubber particle protein (SRPP), were found to be the most abundant proteins in rubber particles, and they have been implicated in natural rubber biosynthesis. As lettuce (Lactuca sativa) can synthesize natural rubber, we utilized this annual, transformable plant to examine in planta roles of the lettuce REF/SRPP homologs by RNA interference. Among eight lettuce REF/SRPP homologs identified, transcripts of two genes (LsSRPP4 and LsSRPP8) accounted for more than 90% of total transcripts of REF/SRPP homologs in lettuce latex. LsSRPP4 displays a typical primary protein sequence as other REF/SRPP, while LsSRPP8 is twice as long as LsSRPP4. These two major LsSRPP transcripts were individually and simultaneously silenced by RNA interference, and relative abundance, polymer molecular weight, and polydispersity of natural rubber were analyzed from the LsSRPP4- and LsSRPP8-silenced transgenic lettuce. Despite previous data suggesting the implications of REF/SRPP in natural rubber biosynthesis, qualitative and quantitative alterations of natural rubber could not be observed in transgenic lettuce lines. It is concluded that lettuce REF/SRPP homologs are not critically important proteins in natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of Weakest Link Probabilistic Framework for Fatigue Notch Factor to Aero Engine Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-25

    11 distributed cyclic microplasticity . Recent approaches have been developed to incorporate these finite process zone effects at notches [25, 26...the distribution of microvoids [50] or microplasticity [51]. According to the hypotheses on which the weakest link theory is based, given a structure...high cycle fatigue regime, where scatter of heterogeneous microplasticity in the fatigue specimen is a common occurrence. The probability of success

  5. Organic filler from golden apple snails shells to improve the silicone rubber insulator properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepsila, Sujirat; Suksri, Amnart

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates the effect of an addition of filler compound using golden apple snail shell as an organic filler to the silicone rubber insulator. The filler obtained from golden apple snail shell is found mostly contained calcium carbonate. The organic calcium carbonate (CaCO3) with particle size of 45, 75, 100 and 300 micron were prepared. Sample of silicone rubber that were filled with fillers were tested under ASTM D638-02a type standard for mechanical test. Also, electrical test such as I-V characteristics (ASTM D257-07) and dry arc test according to ASTM D495-14 have been performed. The results revealed that using larger particle size of organic filler obtained from the golden apple snail shell resulted to higher value of dielectric constant as well as higher dielectric strength. Also, the filler helps slow down the tracking activity at an insulator surface due to its crystals of calcium carbonate. However, when using excessive amount of filler, the sample will have a drawbacks in mechanical properties. By using agriculture waste as a filler compound, one can reduced the usage of commercial CaCO3 as an inorganic materials and to lower the investment cost to a final silicone rubber product.

  6. The rubber tree genome shows expansion of gene family associated with rubber biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Nyok-Sean; Makita, Yuko; Kawashima, Mika; Taylor, Todd D.; Kondo, Shinji; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Matsui, Minami

    2016-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg, a member of the family Euphorbiaceae, is the sole natural resource exploited for commercial production of high-quality natural rubber. The properties of natural rubber latex are almost irreplaceable by synthetic counterparts for many industrial applications. A paucity of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of rubber biosynthesis in high yield traits still persists. Here we report the comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the widely planted H. brasiliensis clone, RRIM 600. The genome was assembled based on ~155-fold combined coverage with Illumina and PacBio sequence data and has a total length of 1.55 Gb with 72.5% comprising repetitive DNA sequences. A total of 84,440 high-confidence protein-coding genes were predicted. Comparative genomic analysis revealed strong synteny between H. brasiliensis and other Euphorbiaceae genomes. Our data suggest that H. brasiliensis’s capacity to produce high levels of latex can be attributed to the expansion of rubber biosynthesis-related genes in its genome and the high expression of these genes in latex. Using cap analysis gene expression data, we illustrate the tissue-specific transcription profiles of rubber biosynthesis-related genes, revealing alternative means of transcriptional regulation. Our study adds to the understanding of H. brasiliensis biology and provides valuable genomic resources for future agronomic-related improvement of the rubber tree. PMID:27339202

  7. The rubber tree genome shows expansion of gene family associated with rubber biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lau, Nyok-Sean; Makita, Yuko; Kawashima, Mika; Taylor, Todd D; Kondo, Shinji; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Matsui, Minami

    2016-06-24

    Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg, a member of the family Euphorbiaceae, is the sole natural resource exploited for commercial production of high-quality natural rubber. The properties of natural rubber latex are almost irreplaceable by synthetic counterparts for many industrial applications. A paucity of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of rubber biosynthesis in high yield traits still persists. Here we report the comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the widely planted H. brasiliensis clone, RRIM 600. The genome was assembled based on ~155-fold combined coverage with Illumina and PacBio sequence data and has a total length of 1.55 Gb with 72.5% comprising repetitive DNA sequences. A total of 84,440 high-confidence protein-coding genes were predicted. Comparative genomic analysis revealed strong synteny between H. brasiliensis and other Euphorbiaceae genomes. Our data suggest that H. brasiliensis's capacity to produce high levels of latex can be attributed to the expansion of rubber biosynthesis-related genes in its genome and the high expression of these genes in latex. Using cap analysis gene expression data, we illustrate the tissue-specific transcription profiles of rubber biosynthesis-related genes, revealing alternative means of transcriptional regulation. Our study adds to the understanding of H. brasiliensis biology and provides valuable genomic resources for future agronomic-related improvement of the rubber tree.

  8. Nanocomposites of nitrile (NBR) rubber with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warasitthinon, Nuthathai

    CNTs. It was observed that bound rubber content decreased with increase in CNT content for NBR/CB/CNTs nanocomposites above a loading of 1 phr CNT. In the fourth chapter, the effect of another carbon filler, fullerene, on the properties of HNBR was studied. Fullerenes are conductive and thermally stable due to their three dimensional aromaticity and high reactivity. In this work, the effect of fullerenes (C60) on the properties of HNBR rubber for potential use in aggressive environments was investigated. The vulcanized HNBR rubber with different filler loadings of fullerenes was compared with carbon black (N330). The static mechanical, dynamic mechanical and rheological behavior of the compounds was investigated, along with the vulcanization kinetics study. Increased filler loading of both carbon black and fullerene gave higher modulus and strength. The fullerene filled materials showed improved failure properties.

  9. Asphalt rubber usage guide.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-01-01

    This Asphalt Rubber Usage Guide is intended for use by California Department of Transportation : (Caltrans) design, construction, and maintenance managers and engineers, as well as by field personnel : involved in placement of asphalt rubber paving m...

  10. SIMS depth profiling of rubber-tyre cord bonding layers prepared using 64Zn depleted ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, W. S.; Sykes, D. E.; Smith, G. C.

    2006-07-01

    Zinc oxide and copper/zinc sulphide layers are formed during vulcanisation and moulding of rubber to brass-coated steel tyre reinforcing cords. Previous studies have described how zinc diffuses through the rubber-brass interface to form zinc sulphide, and combines with oxygen to create zinc oxide during dezincification. The zinc is usually assumed to originate in the brass of the tyre cord, however, zinc oxide is also present in the rubber formulation. We reveal how zinc from these sources is distributed within the interfacial bonding layers, before and after heat and humidity ageing. Zinc oxide produced using 64Zn-isotope depleted zinc was mixed in the rubber formulation in place of the natural ZnO and the zinc isotope ratios within the interfacial layers were followed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) depth profiling. Variations in the relative ratios of the zinc isotopes during depth profiling were measured for unaged, heat-aged and humidity-aged wire samples and in each case a relatively large proportion of the zinc incorporated into the interfacial layer as zinc sulphide was shown to have originated from ZnO in the rubber compound.

  11. Determination of silicone rubber and low-density polyethylene diffusion and polymer/water partition coefficients for emerging contaminants.

    PubMed

    Pintado-Herrera, Marina G; Lara-Martín, Pablo A; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Allan, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing interest in assessing the concentration and distribution of new nonregulated organic compounds (emerging contaminants) in the environment. The measurement of freely dissolved concentrations using conventional approaches is challenging because of the low concentrations that may be encountered and their temporally variable emissions. Absorption-based passive sampling enables the estimation of freely dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants of emerging concern in water. In the present study, calibration was undertaken for 2 polymers, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and silicone rubber for 11 fragrances, 5 endocrine-disrupting compounds, 7 ultraviolet (UV) filters, and 8 organophosphate flame retardant compounds. Batch experiments were performed to estimate contaminant diffusion coefficients in the polymers (Dp ), which in general decreased with increasing molecular weight. The values for fragrances, endocrine-disrupting compounds, and UV filters were in ranges similar to those previously reported for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, but were 1 order of magnitude lower for organophosphate flame retardant compounds. Silicone rubber had higher Dp values than LDPE and was therefore selected for further experiments to calculate polymer/water partition coefficients (KPW ). The authors observed a positive correlation between log KPW and log octanol/water partition coefficient values. Field testing of silicone rubber passive samplers was undertaken though exposure in the River Alna (Norway) for an exposure time of 21 d to estimate freely dissolved concentration. Some fragrances and UV filters were predominant over other emerging and regulated contaminants, at levels up to 1600 ng L(-1) for galaxolide and 448 ng L(-1) for octocrylene. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2162-2172. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. Mechanical Performance Test of Rubber-Powder Modified Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan Cong; Gao, Ling Ling

    2018-06-01

    A number of rubber cement concrete specimens that rubber powder dosage different were obtained using same cement, water and fine aggregates, by adjusting the dosage of rubber powder. Then it was used to research the influence of rubber powder dosage on performance of cement concrete by measuring its liquidity, strength and toughness. The results show that: when water-cement ratio was equal and rubber powder replacing the same volume sand, the fluidity of cement concrete almost linear increased with rubber powder dosage increasing. With dosage of rubber powder increasing, compressive strength and flexural strength reduced, but toughness linear growth trend when dosage of rubber powder less 30%.

  13. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triolo, A.; Lo Celso, F.; Negroni, F.; Arrighi, V.; Qian, H.; Lechner, R. E.; Desmedt, A.; Pieper, J.; Frick, B.; Triolo, R.

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface.

  14. Silicone rubber selection for passive sampling of pesticides in water.

    PubMed

    Martin, A; Margoum, C; Randon, J; Coquery, M

    2016-11-01

    Silicone rubber can extract organic compounds with a broad range of polarities (logKow>2-3) from aqueous samples. Such compounds include substances of major concern in the protection of aquatic ecosystems and human health, e.g. pesticides. Silicone rubbers (SRs) with various characteristics have been successfully used in sorptive methods for water sample extraction in the laboratory (SPME, SBSE), and for passive sampling in aquatic environments. However, only few studies have evaluated variability in organic compound sorption due to the origin of SRs, particularly for pesticides. The aim of this study was to select an SR for the extraction of pesticides from water samples by passive sampling. To this end we measured the impact of seven SR formulations on sorption capacity, defined by the partition coefficient (Ksw). Kinetic experiments and sorption isotherms were performed to determine extraction recovery as a selection criterion for SRs, and pesticide partition coefficients. Very large differences in affinity for pesticides were found between two kinds of SRs: "Polymerized SR kits" and "Manufactured SRs". One SR was chosen among the "Manufactured SRs", and the Ksw values of 21 pesticides were determined, filling a gap in the literature (1.50

  15. Comparative numerical study on the optimal vulcanization of rubber compounds through traditional curing and microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Gabriele; Milani, Federico

    2012-12-01

    The main problem in the industrial production process of thick EPM/EPDM elements is constituted by the different temperatures which undergo internal (cooler) and external regions. Indeed, while internal layers remain essentially under-vulcanized, external coating is always over-vulcanized, resulting in an overall average tensile strength insufficient to permit the utilization of the items in several applications where it is required a certain level of performance. Possible ways to improve rubber output mechanical properties include a careful calibration of exposition time and curing temperature in traditional heating or a vulcanization through innovative techniques, such as microwaves. In the present paper, a comprehensive numerical model able to give predictions on the optimized final mechanical properties of vulcanized 2D and 3D thick rubber items is presented and applied to a meaningful example of engineering interest. A detailed comparative numerical study is finally presented in order to establish pros and cons of traditional vulcanization vs microwaves curing.

  16. Contamination of injectable solutions with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole leached from rubber closures.

    PubMed

    Reepmeyer, J C; Juhl, Y H

    1983-11-01

    An impurity, discovered in a sample of digoxin injectable solution commercially packaged in a syringe for single-dose delivery, was found to originate from the rubber closure of the syringe and was identified as 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, a common accelerator for rubber vulcanization. Several similarly packaged injectable solutions of a variety of drugs from various manufacturers were examined and over half contained 2-mercaptobenzothiazole. The compound was identified by UV spectrophotometry (including a pH-dependent shift in its absorbance maximum), by mass spectrometry, and by comparison with standard 2-mercaptobenzothiazole using silica gel and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The presence of this impurity in injectable solutions may have implications with regard to toxicity and may interfere with the assay of digoxin injectable solution by HPLC.

  17. Identification and reconstitution of the rubber biosynthetic machinery on rubber particles from Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Haruhiko; Waki, Toshiyuki; Aoki, Yuichi; Mizuno, Makie; Yanbe, Fumihiro; Ishii, Tomoki; Funaki, Ayuta; Tozawa, Yuzuru; Miyagi-Inoue, Yukino; Fushihara, Kazuhisa; Nakayama, Toru; Takahashi, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) is stored in latex as rubber particles (RPs), rubber molecules surrounded by a lipid monolayer. Rubber transferase (RTase), the enzyme responsible for NR biosynthesis, is believed to be a member of the cis-prenyltransferase (cPT) family. However, none of the recombinant cPTs have shown RTase activity independently. We show that HRT1, a cPT from Heveabrasiliensis, exhibits distinct RTase activity in vitro only when it is introduced on detergent-washed HeveaRPs (WRPs) by a cell-free translation-coupled system. Using this system, a heterologous cPT from Lactucasativa also exhibited RTase activity, indicating proper introduction of cPT on RP is the key to reconstitute active RTase. RP proteomics and interaction network analyses revealed the formation of the protein complex consisting of HRT1, rubber elongation factor (REF) and HRT1-REF BRIDGING PROTEIN. The RTase activity enhancement observed for the complex assembled on WRPs indicates the HRT1-containing complex functions as the NR biosynthetic machinery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19022.001 PMID:27790974

  18. Evaluation of susceptibility of polymer and rubber materials intended into contact with drinking water on biofilm formation

    PubMed

    Szczotko, Maciej; Stankiewicz, Agnieszka; Jamsheer-Bratkowska, Małgorzata

    Plumbing materials in water distribution networks and indoor installations are constantly evolving. The application of new, more economical solutions with plastic materials eliminates the corrosion problems, however, do not fully protect the consumer against secondary microbial contamination of water intended for human consumption caused by the presence of a biofilm on the inner surface of materials applied. National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene conducts research aimed at a comprehensive assessment of this type of materials, resulting their further marketing authorization in Poland. Evaluation and comparison of polymer and rubber materials intended to contact with water for the susceptibility to biofilm formation. Plastic materials (polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride) and rubber compounds (EPDM, NBR), from different manufacturers were evaluated. The study was carried out on 37 samples, which were divided into groups according to the material of which they were made. The testing was conducted according to the method based on conditions of dynamic flow of tap water. The level of bioluminescence in swabs taken from the surface of the tested materials was investigated with a luminometer. Evaluation of plastic materials does not show major objections in terms of hygienic assessment. All materials met the evaluation criteria established for methodology used. In case of rubber compounds, a substantial part clearly exceeded the limit values, which resulted in their negative assessment and elimination of these materials from domestic market. High susceptibility to the formation of biofilm in the group of products made of rubber compounds has been demonstrated. Examined plastic materials, except for several cases, do not revealed susceptibility to biofilm formation, but application of plastics for distribution of water intended for human consumption does not fully protect water from secondary, microbiological contamination. Complete

  19. Hot air vulcanization of rubber profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, J.

    1995-07-01

    Elastomer profiles are deployed in quantity by the automobile industry as seals and wateproofing in coachwork. The high standards demanded by the industry; improvement in weather prediction, noise reduction, restriction of tolerances, together with powerful demand for EPDM force the rubber processing industry into development, particularly of elastomers. Complex proofing systems must also be achieved with extremely complicated profile forms. All too often such profiles have an extremely large surface together with a low cross-section density. They frequently consist of two or three rubber compounds and are steel reinforced. Sometimes they are flocked and coated with a low friction finish.more » Such high-tech seals require an adjustment of the vulcanization method. The consistent trend in the nineties towards lower quantities of elastomer per sealing unit and the dielectric factor, especially with EPDM, has brought an old fashioned vulcanization method once more to the fore, a method developed over the past years to an extremely high standard, namely the hot-air method. This paper describes various vulcanization and curing methods and their relative merits and disadvantages, the Gerlach hot-air concept, the hot air installation concept, and energy saving and efficiency afforded by this technique. 4 figs.« less

  20. The role of the small rubber particle protein in determining rubber yields and polymer length in Russian dandelion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several proteins have been identified and implicated in natural rubber biosynthesis, one of which, the small rubber particle protein (SRPP), was originally identified in Hevea brasiliensis as an abundant protein associated with cytosolic vesicles known as rubber particles. While previous in vitro s...

  1. Morphological and mechanical properties of styrene butadiene rubber/nano copper nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harandi, Maryam Hadizadeh; Alimoradi, Fakhrodin; Rowshan, Gholamhussein; Faghihi, Morteza; Keivani, Maryam; Abadyan, Mohamadreza

    In this research, rubber based nanocomposites with presence of nanoparticle has been studied. Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR)/nanocopper (NC) composites were prepared using two-roll mill method. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed proper dispersion of NC in the SBR matrix without substantial agglomeration of nanoparticles. To evaluate the curing properties of nanocomposite samples, swelling and cure rheometric tests were conducted. Moreover, the rheological studies were carried out over a range of shear rates. The effect of NC particles was examined on the thermal behavior of the SBR using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Furthermore, tensile tests were employed to investigate the capability of nanoparticles to enhance mechanical behavior of the compounds. The results showed enhancement in tensile properties with incorporation of NC to SBR matrix. Moreover, addition of NC increased shear viscosity and curing time of SBR composites.

  2. Chlorinated rubbers with advanced properties for tire industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylov, I. A.; Sukhareva, K. V.; Andriasyan, Yu. O.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper investigates the production and processing of halide-modified chlorinated rubbers, such as isobutylene isoprene rubber and ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer rubber (IIR and EPDM), which are perspective in terms of application in rubber industry. Prospects for their production and application are determined by the specific properties of these rubbers (low gas permeability of IIR, high heat and ozone resistance of EPDM). These properties are governed by the structure of both initial IIR and EPDM and chlorinated rubbers (ChIIR and ChEPDM). A new alternative technology of obtaining chlorinated elastomers based on solid-phase mechanochemical halide modification is proposed. Novel chlorinated polyolefin rubbers obtained by the developed technology show good technological properties under industrial production conditions due to enhanced covulcanization.

  3. Pyrolytic conversion of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons with basic salt catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Wingfield, Jr., Robert C.; Braslaw, Jacob; Gealer, Roy L.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for improving the pyrolytic conversion of waste selected from rubber and plastic to low molecular weight olefinic materials by employing basis salt catalysts in the waste mixture. The salts comprise alkali or alkaline earth compounds, particularly sodium carbonate, in an amount of greater than about 1 weight percent based on the waste feed.

  4. Chemical modifications of liquid natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Nur Hanis Adila; Rasid, Hamizah Md; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2016-11-01

    Liquid natural rubber (LNR) was synthesized via photosentisized degradation of natural rubber (NR). LNR was modified into epoxidized liquid natural rubber (LENR) and hydroxylated liquid natural rubber (LNR-OH) using Na2WO4/CH3COOH/H2O2 catalytic system. Chemical structures of LNR and modified LNRs were characterized using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Integration of 1H NMR was used to calculate the epoxy content (%) of LENR. 1H NMR detected the formation of LNR-OH after prolonged heating and increased of catalyst in oxidation reaction.

  5. Use of rubber crumbs in cement concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longvinenko, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    Rubber crumb obtained from worn out tires has been increasingly used over the last 15-20 years, especially in manufacture of asphalt and cement concrete mixtures. This review pays principal attention to application of the rubber crumb to cement concrete mixtures. Use of the rubber crumb in cement concrete is not as successful as in asphalt concrete mixtures, due to incompatibility problems linked to chemical composition and a significant difference in rigidity between the rubber crumb and concrete mixture aggregates. Different methods are proposed and studied to mitigate the adverse influence and increase the beneficial effects of the rubber crumb when added to cement concrete.

  6. The influence of nano silica particles on gamma-irradiation ageing of elastomers based on chlorosulphonated polyethylene and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marković, G.; Marinović-Cincović, M.; Tanasić, Lj.; Jovanović, V.; Samaržija-Jovanović, S.; Vukić, N.; Budinski-Simendić, J.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this work was to study gamma irradiation ageing of rubber blends based on acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and chlorosulphonated polyethylene rubber (CSM) reinforced by silica nano particles. The NBR/CSM compounds (50: 50, w/w) filled with different content of filler (0-100 phr) were crosslinked by sulfur. The vulcanization characteristics were assessed using the rheometer with an oscillating disk. The vulcanizates were prepared in a hydraulic press. The obtained materials were exposed to the different irradiation doses (100, 200, 300 and 400 kGy). The mechanical properties (hardness, modulus at 100% elongation, tensile strength and elongation at break) and swelling numbers were assessed before and after gamma irradiation ageing.

  7. Amphiphilic semi-interpenetrating polymer networks using pulverized rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahidi, Nima

    Scrap rubber materials provide a significant challenge to either reuse or safe disposal. Every year, millions of tires are discarded to landfills in the United States, consuming a staggering amount of land space, creating a high risk for large fires, breeding mosquitoes that spread diseases, and wasting the planet's natural resources. This situation cannot be sustained. The challenge of reusing scrap rubber materials is mainly due to the crosslinked structure of vulcanized rubber that prevent them from melting and further processing for reuse. The most feasible recycling approach is believed to be a process in which the vulcanized rubber is first pulverized into a fine powder and then incorporated into new products. The production of fine rubber particles is generally accomplished through the use of a cryogenic process that is costly. Therefore, development of a cost effective technology that utilizes a large quantity of the scrap rubber materials to produce high value added materials is an essential element in maintaining a sustainable solution to rubber recycling. In this research, a cost effective pulverization process, solid state shear extrusion (SSSE), was modified and used for continuous pulverization of the rubber into fine particles. In the modified SSSE process, pulverization takes place at high compressive shear forces and a controlled temperature. Furthermore, an innovative particle modification process was developed to enhance the chemical structure and surface properties of the rubber particles for manufacturing of high value added products. Modification of rubber particles was accomplished through the polymerization of a hydrophilic monomer mixture within the intermolecular structure of the hydrophobic rubber particles. The resulting composite particles are considered as amphiphilic particulate phase semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (PPSIPNs). The modified rubber particles are water dispersible and suitable for use in a variety of aqueous media

  8. Elastic MCF Rubber with Photovoltaics and Sensing on Hybrid Skin (H-Skin) for Artificial Skin by Utilizing Natural Rubber: 2nd Report on the Effect of Tension and Compression on the Hybrid Photo- and Piezo-Electricity Properties in Wet-Type Solar Cell Rubber.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kunio

    2018-06-06

    In contrast to ordinary solid-state solar cells, a flexible, elastic, extensible and light-weight solar cell has the potential to be extremely useful in many new engineering applications, such as in the field of robotics. Therefore, we propose a new type of artificial skin for humanoid robots with hybrid functions, which we have termed hybrid skin (H-Skin). To realize the fabrication of such a solar cell, we have continued to utilize the principles of ordinary solid-state wet-type or dye-sensitized solar rubber as a follow-up study to the first report. In the first report, we dealt with both photovoltaic- and piezo-effects for dry-type magnetic compound fluid (MCF) rubber solar cells, which were generated because the polyisoprene, oleic acid of the magnetic fluid (MF), and water served as p- and n- semiconductors. In the present report, we deal with wet-type MCF rubber solar cells by using sensitized dyes and electrolytes. Photoreactions generated through the synthesis of these components were investigated by an experiment using irradiation with visible and ultraviolet light. In addition, magnetic clusters were formed by the aggregation of Fe₃O₄ in the MF and the metal particles created the hetero-junction structure of the semiconductors. In the MCF rubber solar cell, both photo- and piezo-electricity were generated using a physical model. The effects of tension and compression on their electrical properties were evaluated. Finally, we experimentally demonstrated the effect of the distance between the electrodes of the solar cell on photoelectricity and built-in electricity.

  9. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan. SUMMARY: The... on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  10. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... center intended to isolate a tooth from fluids in the mouth during dental procedures, such as filling a... center. The device includes the rubber dam, rubber dam clamp, rubber dam frame, and forceps for a rubber... sexually transmitted diseases through oral sex; those devices are classified as condoms in § 884.5300 of...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... center intended to isolate a tooth from fluids in the mouth during dental procedures, such as filling a... center. The device includes the rubber dam, rubber dam clamp, rubber dam frame, and forceps for a rubber... sexually transmitted diseases through oral sex; those devices are classified as condoms in § 884.5300 of...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... center intended to isolate a tooth from fluids in the mouth during dental procedures, such as filling a... center. The device includes the rubber dam, rubber dam clamp, rubber dam frame, and forceps for a rubber... sexually transmitted diseases through oral sex; those devices are classified as condoms in § 884.5300 of...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... center intended to isolate a tooth from fluids in the mouth during dental procedures, such as filling a... center. The device includes the rubber dam, rubber dam clamp, rubber dam frame, and forceps for a rubber... sexually transmitted diseases through oral sex; those devices are classified as condoms in § 884.5300 of...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... center intended to isolate a tooth from fluids in the mouth during dental procedures, such as filling a... center. The device includes the rubber dam, rubber dam clamp, rubber dam frame, and forceps for a rubber... sexually transmitted diseases through oral sex; those devices are classified as condoms in § 884.5300 of...

  15. Natural rubber (NR) biosynthesis: perspectives from polymer chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Barkakaty, Balaka

    Natural rubber is an important strategic raw material for manufacturing a wide variety of industrial products. There are at least 2,500 different latex-producing plant species; however, only Hevea brasiliensis (the Brazilian rubber tree) is a commercial source. The chemical structure of natural rubber is cis-1,4-polyisoprene, but the exact structure of the head and end groups remains unknown. Since synthetic cis-1,4-polyisoprenes cannot match the superior properties of natural rubber, understanding the chemistry behind the biosynthetic process is key to finding a possible replacement. T his chapter summarizes our current understandings from the perspective of a polymer scientist by comparing synthetic polyisoprenesmore » to natural rubber. The chapter also highlights biomimetic polymerization, research towards a synthetic match of natural rubber and the role of natural rubber in health care.« less

  16. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wen-liang; Chang, Jian-min, E-mail: cjianmin@bjfu.edu.cn; Cai, Li-ping

    Highlights: • Rubber-pyrolysis oil is difficult to be fuel due to high proportion of PAHs. • The efficiency of pyrolysis was increased as the percentage of sawdust increased. • The adding of sawdust improved pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the PAHs content. • Adding sawdust reduced nitrogen/sulfur in oil and was easier to convert to diesel. - Abstract: This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during themore » pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG–FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis–gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2 s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil.« less

  17. Effect of electric field induced alignment and dispersion of functionalized carbon nanotubes on properties of natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jiangshan; He, Yan; Gong, Xiubin

    2018-06-01

    The original equipment and method for orienting multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in natural rubber (NR) by alternating current (AC) electric field were reported in the present study. MWCNTs with various volume fractions were dispersed in the mixture latex which composed of natural rubber, additives and methylbenzene. The application of AC electric field during nanocomposites curing process was used to induce the formation of aligned conductive nanotube networks between the electrodes. The aligned MWCNTs in the composites have a better orientation performance and dispersion quality than these of random MWCNTs by analyzing TEM and SEM images. The effects of MWCNTs anisotropy on thermal conductivity, dielectric properties, and dynamic mechanical properties of NR were studied. The mean value of thermal conductivity of composites loading with aligned MWCNTs was 8.67% higher than that of composites with random MWCNTs due to the anisotropy of aligned MWCNTs. The compounds with aligned MWCNTs possessed low dielectric constant, loss tangents and conductivity, namely a good insulativity. The compounds loading with aligned MWCNTs had lower loss modulus and better dynamic mechanical properties than those with random MWCNTs. This method can make full use of the high thermal conductivity of MWCNTs axis, and expand the application areas of natural rubber like conducting heat in a certain direction with a high efficiency.

  18. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  19. Comprehensive evaluation of the long-term performance of rubberized pavement, phase I : laboratory study of rubberized asphalt mix performance.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-12-01

    Crumb rubber, made from scrap tires, has been introduced into the production of different types of hot : mix asphalt (HMA) in either a wet or dry process. In the wet process, the crumb rubber and binder are : completely mixed to form asphalt rubber (...

  20. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-liang; Chang, Jian-min; Cai, Li-ping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2014-12-01

    This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 27 CFR 21.125 - Rubber hydrocarbon solvent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. 21.125 Section 21.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....125 Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (a) Rubber hydrocarbon solvent is a petroleum derivative. (b...

  2. 27 CFR 21.125 - Rubber hydrocarbon solvent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. 21.125 Section 21.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....125 Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (a) Rubber hydrocarbon solvent is a petroleum derivative. (b...

  3. Radiation degradation of spent butyl rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnov, A. V.; Zavyalov, N. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Sitnikov, N. P.; Smetanin, M. L.; Tarantasov, V. P.; Shadrin, D. N.; Shorikov, I. V.; Liakumovich, A. L.; Miryasova, F. K.

    2002-03-01

    Radiation methods of materials modification applied in technological chains can have significant economical and ecological advantages as compared to the established chemical, thermal and mechanical methods. Each year the problems of nature resources economy through the use of production and consumption wastes acquire a more significant value, as it allows to solve also ecological issues along with economical ones. This is mostly acute in relation to polymeric systems based on saturated rubbers, for example butyl rubber (BR) used in the tyre industry, as due to their high resistance to the action of oxygen, ozone, solar radiation and bacteria, they contaminate the environment for rather a long period. At VNIIEF and KSPU experiments were carried out on application of electron beams with energy from 6 to 10 MeV for radiation destruction of spent rubber based on BR. The radiation-degraded material was tested for re-use in the formulation of initial diaphragm mixture, rubber mixture for producing rubberized fabric and roofing.

  4. Coal Producer's Rubber Waste Processing Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarevich, Evgeniya; Papin, Andrey; Nevedrov, Alexander; Cherkasova, Tatyana; Ignatova, Alla

    2017-11-01

    A large amount of rubber-containing waste, the bulk of which are worn automobile tires and conveyor belts, is produced at coal mining and coal processing enterprises using automobile tires, conveyor belts, etc. The volume of waste generated increases every year and reaches enormous proportions. The methods for processing rubber waste can be divided into three categories: grinding, pyrolysis (high and low temperature), and decomposition by means of chemical solvents. One of the known techniques of processing the worn-out tires is their regeneration, aimed at producing the new rubber substitute used in the production of rubber goods. However, the number of worn tires used for the production of regenerate does not exceed 20% of their total quantity. The new method for processing rubber waste through the pyrolysis process is considered in this article. Experimental data on the upgrading of the carbon residue of pyrolysis by the methods of heavy media separation, magnetic and vibroseparation, and thermal processing are presented.

  5. Evapotranspiration of rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis ) cultivated at two plantation sites in Southeast Asia: RUBBER EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN SE ASIA

    SciTech Connect

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Mudd, Ryan G.; Liu, Wen

    The expansion of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation to higher latitudes and higher elevations in southeast Asia is part of a dramatic shift in the direction of rural land cover change in the region toward more tree covered landscapes. To investigate the possible effects of increasing rubber cultivation in the region on ecosystem services including water cycling, eddy covariance towers were established to measure ecosystem fluxes within two rubber plantations, one each in Bueng Kan, northeastern Thailand, and Kampong Cham, central Cambodia. The results show that evapotranspiration (ET) at both sites is strongly related to variations in available energy and leafmore » area, and moderately controlled by soil moisture. Measured mean annual ET was 1128 and 1272 mm for the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. After adjustment for energy closure, mean annual was estimated to be 1211 and 1459 mm yr at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. Based on these estimates and that of another site in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China, it appears that of rubber is higher than that of other tree dominated land covers in the region, including forest. While measurements by others in non rubber tropical ecosystems indicate that at high net radiation sites is at most only slightly higher than for sites with lower net radiation, mean annual rubber increases strongl with increasing net radiation across the three available rubber plantation observation sites. With the continued expansion of tree dominated land covers, including rubber cultivation, in southeast Asia, the possible association between commercially viable, fast growing tree crop species Giambelluca et al. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Havea brasiliensis) cultivated at two sites in southeast Asia and their relatively high water use raises concerns about potential effects on water and food security.« less

  6. Adding crumb rubber into exterior wall materials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Han; Thong-On, Norasit; Zhang, Xiong

    2002-10-01

    In Arizona US, most houses are built with walls covered by stuccos/coatings/mortars. This paper presents an explorative investigation of adding crumb rubber into stuccos/coatings/mortars. A series of experiments are conducted to examine the thermal and mechanical performance of the crumb rubber mixes. The results show that, the mixes with crumb rubber do exhibit more desirable performances like being high in crack-resistance and thermal insulation, and low in thermal expansion/contraction. The drawback for the crumb rubber mixes is the reduction in compressive strength, but which can be compensated by other means. As a site experiment, an area of 100 square-feet of crumb rubber coatings for two mix designs is sprayed on a tire-adobe wall. After being sprayed more than 14 months, the coatings apparently are in good condition. Significance of this study is that this practice, if accepted, will yield improved products that consume large quantities of crumb rubber.

  7. Effect of type and content of tackifier on adhesion of natural rubber and reclaimed natural rubber based sealant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raethong, P.; Boonkerd, K.

    2017-07-01

    Adhesion property of natural rubber (NR) and reclaimed natural rubber (RNR) based sealant with concrete was studied here. The effect of tackifier type and loading on the tensile properties of the rubber based sealant sandwished between two flat cements was evaluated. There are three different tackifiers including Coumarone-indene resin (CI), petro resin (PE) and gum rosin (GR). The result initially showed that at the 20 phr of tackifier both NR and RNR sealant mixed with CI consumed the highest force to separate the rubber based sealant from the concrete. This might be due to the highest compatiblility between CI and rubber. Regardless of the tackifier type, all NR based sealants showed the cohesive failure while all RNR based sealants only showed the adhesive failure. Moreover, the NR based sealant seemed to be stronger than the RNR based one. When considering the effect of CI loading on the adhesion, it was shown that for both NR and RNR based sealents, the highest stress was observed when the rubber based sealant loaded with the 20 phr of CI.

  8. High frequency testing of rubber mounts.

    PubMed

    Vahdati, Nader; Saunders, L Ken Lauderbaugh

    2002-04-01

    Rubber and fluid-filled rubber engine mounts are commonly used in automotive and aerospace applications to provide reduced cabin noise and vibration, and/or motion accommodations. In certain applications, the rubber mount may operate at frequencies as high as 5000 Hz. Therefore, dynamic stiffness of the mount needs to be known in this frequency range. Commercial high frequency test machines are practically nonexistent, and the best high frequency test machine on the market is only capable of frequencies as high as 1000 Hz. In this paper, a high frequency test machine is described that allows test engineers to study the high frequency performance of rubber mounts at frequencies up to 5000 Hz.

  9. Determination of Hydrophobic Contact Angle of Epoxy Resin Compound Silicon Rubber and Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syakur, Abdul; Hermawan; Sutanto, Heri

    2017-04-01

    Epoxy resin is a thermosetting polymeric material which is very good for application of high voltage outdoor insulator in electrical power system. This material has several advantages, i.e. high dielectric strength, light weight, high mechanical strength, easy to blend with additive, and easy maintenance if compared to that of porcelain and glass outdoor insulators which are commonly used. However, this material also has several disadvantages, i.e. hydrophilic property, very sensitive to aging and easily degraded when there is a flow of contaminants on its surface. The research towards improving the performance of epoxy resin insulation materials were carried out to obtain epoxy resin insulating material with high water repellent properties and high surface tracking to aging. In this work, insulating material was made at room temperature vulcanization, with material composition: Diglycidyl Ether Bisphenol A (DGEBA), Metaphenylene Diamine (MPDA) as hardener with stoichiometric value of unity, and nanosilica mixed with Silicon Rubber (SiR) with 10% (RTV21), 20% (RTV22), 30% (RTV23), 40% (RTV24) and 50% (RTV25) variation. The usage of nanosilica and Silicon Rubber (SIR) as filler was expected to provide hydrophobic properties and was able to increase the value of surface tracking of materials. The performance of the insulator observed were contact angle of hydrophobic surface materials. Tests carried out using Inclined Plane Tracking procedure according to IEC 60-587: 1984 with Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) as contaminants flowed using peristaltic pumps. The results show that hydrophobic contact angle can be determined from each sample, and RTV25 has maximum contact angle among others.

  10. Biotechnological possibilities for waste tyre-rubber treatment.

    PubMed

    Holst, O; Stenberg, B; Christiansson, M

    1998-01-01

    Every year large amounts of spent rubber material, mainly from rubber tyres, are discarded. Of the annual total global production of rubber material, which amounts to 16-17 million tonnes, approximately 65% is used for the production of tyres. About 250 millions spent car tyres are generated yearly in USA only. This huge amount of waste rubber material is an environmental problem of great concern. Various ways to remediate the problem have been proposed. Among these are road fillings and combustion in kilns. Spent tyres, however, comprise valuable material that could be recycled if a proper technique can be developed. One way of recycling old tyres is to blend ground spent rubber with virgin material followed by vulcanization. The main obstacle to this recycling is bad adhesion between the crumb and matrix of virgin rubber material due to little formation of interfacial sulphur crosslinks. Micro-organisms able to break sulphur-sulphur and sulphur-carbon bonds can be used to devulcanize waste rubber in order to make polymer chains on the surface more flexible and facilitate increased binding upon vulcanization. Several species belonging to both Bacteria and Archaea have this ability. Mainly sulphur oxidizing species, such as different species of the genus Thiobacillus and thermoacidophiles of the order of Sulfolobales, have been studied in this context. The present paper will give a background to the problem and an overview of the biotechnological possibilities for solutions of waste rubber as an environmental problem, focusing on microbial desulphurization.

  11. Isolation and identification of some unknown substances in disposable nitrile-butadiene rubber gloves used for food handling.

    PubMed

    Mutsuga, M; Wakui, C; Kawamura, Y; Maitani, T

    2002-11-01

    In Japan, disposable gloves made from nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) are frequently used in contact with foods. In a previous paper, we investigated substances migrating from various gloves made of polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, natural rubber and NBR. Zinc di-n-butyldithiocarbamate (ZDBC), diethyldithiocarbamate (ZDEC) used as vulcanization accelerators, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) used as a plasticizer and many unknown compounds that migrated from NBR gloves into n-heptane were detected by GC/MS. In this paper, six unknown compounds were obtained from one kind of NBR glove by n-hexane extraction and each was isolated by silica gel chromatography. From the results of NMR and mass spectral analysis of the six unknown compounds, their structures are proposed as 1,4-dione-2,5-bis(1,1-dimethylpropyl)cyclohexadiene (1), 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetra methylbutyl)phenol (2), 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (3), 2,4-bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (4), 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)4,6-bis(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (5) and 2,4,6-tris(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (6). Compound 1 was observed in five of the seven kinds of NBR gloves, and compounds 2-4 and 6, which are not listed in Chemical Abstract (CA), were present in four kinds of gloves.

  12. Characterization of Hexsyn, a polyolefin rubber.

    PubMed

    McMillin, C R

    1987-07-01

    Hexsyn is the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company tradename for a polyolefin rubber synthesized from 1-hexene with 3-5% methylhexadiene as the source of residual double bonds for vulcanization. Under license from Goodyear, this same polymer has been manufactured by Lord Corporation for the hinge portion of finger joint prostheses using the tradename Bion. This rubber is currently licensed to the University of Akron and to the Cleveland Clinic Foundation for use in biomedical applications, and is being used primarily for biocompatible and highly fatigue resistant rubber components in ventricular assist and artificial heart systems. Results are presented from the physical, mechanical, and biological characterization of Hexsyn. Procedures are described for the synthesis, compounding, and post-molding extraction for Hexsyn. The physical testing of Hexsyn reported includes determinations of its density at 23 and 37 degrees C, initial hardness and hardness after aging in oxygen, blood, pseudoextracellular fluid and polyethylene glycol 600, typical molecular weights determined by gel permeation chromatography/low angle laser light scattering and intrinsic viscosity, thermal analyses by differential scanning calorimetry of Hexsyn gum, and vulcanized Hexsyn after exposure to blood and blood/fatigue conditions. Also reported are results of differential thermal analyses, thermomechanical analyses of virgin and annealed samples, and thermogravimetric analyses conducted in helium and in air. Dynamic mechanical analyses of Hexsyn include Clash-Berg and Rheovibron tests. Swelling was conducted to determine lot-to-lot and sheet-to-sheet variation for quality control and also a number of solvents were used so that the polymer-solvent interaction parameters could be determined. The permeability of Hexsyn to water, water vapor, and a variety of gases is reported. The permeability by contact angle measurements, refractive index, residual solvent analyses, migration of blood components

  13. Rubber friction: role of the flash temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, B. N. J.

    2006-08-01

    When a rubber block is sliding on a hard rough substrate, the substrate asperities will exert time-dependent deformations of the rubber surface resulting in viscoelastic energy dissipation in the rubber, which gives a contribution to the sliding friction. Most surfaces of solids have roughness on many different length scales, and when calculating the friction force it is necessary to include the viscoelastic deformations on all length scales. The energy dissipation will result in local heating of the rubber. Since the viscoelastic properties of rubber-like materials are extremely strongly temperature dependent, it is necessary to include the local temperature increase in the analysis. At very low sliding velocity the temperature increase is negligible because of heat diffusion, but already for velocities of order 10-2 m s-1 the local heating may be very important. Here I study the influence of the local heating on the rubber friction, and I show that in a typical case the temperature increase results in a decrease in rubber friction with increasing sliding velocity for v>0.01 m s-1. This may result in stick-slip instabilities, and is of crucial importance in many practical applications, e.g. for tyre-road friction and in particular for ABS braking systems.

  14. Rubber friction: role of the flash temperature.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J

    2006-08-16

    When a rubber block is sliding on a hard rough substrate, the substrate asperities will exert time-dependent deformations of the rubber surface resulting in viscoelastic energy dissipation in the rubber, which gives a contribution to the sliding friction. Most surfaces of solids have roughness on many different length scales, and when calculating the friction force it is necessary to include the viscoelastic deformations on all length scales. The energy dissipation will result in local heating of the rubber. Since the viscoelastic properties of rubber-like materials are extremely strongly temperature dependent, it is necessary to include the local temperature increase in the analysis. At very low sliding velocity the temperature increase is negligible because of heat diffusion, but already for velocities of order 10(-2) m s(-1) the local heating may be very important. Here I study the influence of the local heating on the rubber friction, and I show that in a typical case the temperature increase results in a decrease in rubber friction with increasing sliding velocity for v>0.01 m s(-1). This may result in stick-slip instabilities, and is of crucial importance in many practical applications, e.g. for tyre-road friction and in particular for ABS braking systems.

  15. Biodegradation of cis-1,4-Polyisoprene Rubbers by Distinct Actinomycetes: Microbial Strategies and Detailed Surface Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Linos, Alexandros; Berekaa, Mahmoud M.; Reichelt, Rudolf; Keller, Ulrike; Schmitt, Jürgen; Flemming, Hans-Curt; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M.; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Several actinomycetes isolated from nature were able to use both natural rubber (NR) and synthetic cis-1,4-polyisoprene rubber (IR) as a sole source of carbon. According to their degradation behavior, they were divided into two groups. Representatives of the first group grew only in direct contact to the rubber substrate and led to considerable disintegration of the material during cultivation. The second group consisted of weaker rubber decomposers that did not grow adhesively, as indicated by the formation of clear zones (translucent halos) around bacterial colonies after cultivation on NR dispersed in mineral agar. Taxonomic analysis of four selected strains based on 16S rRNA similarity examinations revealed two Gordonia sp. strains, VH2 and Kb2, and one Mycobacterium fortuitum strain, NF4, belonging to the first group as well as one Micromonospora aurantiaca strain, W2b, belonging to the second group. Schiff's reagent staining tests performed for each of the strains indicated colonization of the rubber surface, formation of a bacterial biofilm, and occurrence of compounds containing aldehyde groups during cultivation with NR latex gloves. Detailed analysis by means of scanning electron microscopy yielded further evidence for the two different microbial strategies and clarified the colonization efficiency. Thereby, strains VH2, Kb2, and NF4 directly adhered to and merged into the rubber material, while strain W2b produced mycelial corridors, especially on the surface of IR. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy comprising the attenuated total reflectance technique was applied on NR latex gloves overgrown by cells of the Gordonia strains, which were the strongest rubber decomposers. Spectra demonstrated the decrease in number of cis-1,4 double bonds, the formation of carbonyl groups, and the change of the overall chemical environment, indicating that an oxidative attack at the double bond is the first metabolic step of the biodegradation process. PMID:10742254

  16. Reactivity of sulfide-containing silane toward boehmite and in situ modified rubber/boehmite composites by the silane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tengfei; Zhu, Lixin; Chen, Weiwei; Wu, Siwu; Guo, Baochun; Jia, Demin

    2013-09-01

    The silanization reaction between boehmite (BM) nanoplatelets and bis-[3-(triethoxysilyl)-propyl]-tetrasulfide (TESPT) was characterized in detail. Via such modification process, the grafted sulfide moieties on the BM endow reactivity toward rubber and substantially improved hydrophobicity for BM. Accordingly, TESPT was employed as in situ modifier for the nitrile rubber (NBR)/BM compounds to improve the mechanical properties of the reinforced vulcanizates. The effects of BM content and in situ modification on the mechanical properties, curing characteristics and morphology were investigated. BM was found to be effective in improving the mechanical performance of NBR vulcanizates. The NBR/BM composites could be further strengthened by the incorporation of TESPT. The interfacial adhesion of NBR/BM composites was obviously improved by the addition of TESPT. The substantially improved mechanical performance was correlated to the interfacial reaction and the improved dispersion of BM in rubber matrix.

  17. Cotton-Fiber-Filled Rubber Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Floyd A.

    1987-01-01

    Carbonization of fibers at high temperatures improves strength and erosion resistance. Cotton linters tested as replacement for asbestos filler currently used in rubber insulation in solid rocket motors. Cotton-filled rubber insulation has industrial uses; in some kinds of chemical- or metal-processing equipment, hoses, and protective clothing.

  18. Crack Velocities in Natural Rubber.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    vulcanized natural rubber (3). The surprisingly low value for natural rubber was attributed to highly anisotropic elastic behavior at high strains...Dr. R.L. Rabie Hercules Incorporated WX-2, MS-952 Alleghany Ballistic Lab Los Alamos National Lab. P.O. Box 210 P.O. Box 1663 Washington, D.C. 21502

  19. Practical application of thermoreversibly Cross-linked rubber products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polgar, L. M.; Picchioni, F.; de Ruiter, E.; van Duin, M.

    2017-07-01

    Currently, rubber products cannot simply be reprocessed after their product life, due to the irreversible cross-linking methods traditionally applied. The purpose of this work is to investigate how thermoreversible cross-linking of rubbers via Diels Alder chemistry can be used for the development of recyclable rubber products. Unfortunately, the applicability of the thermoreversible EPM-g-furan/BM system appears to be limited to room temperature applications, because of the rapid deterioration of the compression set at elevated temperatures compared to irreversibly cross-linked EPM. However, the use of EPM rubber modified with thiophene or cyclopentadiene moieties may extend the temperature application range and results in rubber products with acceptable properties. Finally, rubber products generally comprise fillers such as silica, carbon black or fibers. In this context, the reinforcing effect of short cut aramid fibers on the material properties of the newly developed thermoreversibly cross-linked EPM rubbers was also studied. The material properties of the resulting products were found to be comparable to those of a fiber reinforced, peroxide cured reference sample.

  20. Biodiesel production methods of rubber seed oil: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulfah, M.; Mulyazmi; Burmawi; Praputri, E.; Sundari, E.; Firdaus

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of rubber seed as raw material of biodiesel production is seen highly potential in Indonesia. The availability of rubber seeds in Indonesia is estimated about 5 million tons per annum, which can yield rubber seed oil about 2 million tons per year. Due to the demand of edible oils as a food source is tremendous and the edible oil feedstock costs are far expensive to be used as fuel, production of biodiesel from non-edible oils such as rubber seed is an effective way to overcome all the associated problems with edible oils. Various methods for producing biodiesel from rubber seed oil have been reported. This paper introduces an optimum condition of biodiesel production methods from rubber seed oil. This article was written to be a reference in the selection of methods and the further development of biodiesel production from rubber seed oil. Biodiesel production methods for rubber seed oils has been developed by means of homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts, supercritical method, ultrasound, in-situ and enzymatic processes. Production of biodiesel from rubber seed oil using clinker loaded sodium methoxide as catalyst is very interesting to be studied and developed further.

  1. RoxB Is a Novel Type of Rubber Oxygenase That Combines Properties of Rubber Oxygenase RoxA and Latex Clearing Protein (Lcp).

    PubMed

    Birke, Jakob; Röther, Wolf; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2017-07-15

    Only two types of rubber oxygenases, rubber oxygenase (RoxA) and latex clearing protein (Lcp), have been described so far. RoxA proteins (RoxAs) are c -type cytochromes of ≈70 kDa produced by Gram-negative rubber-degrading bacteria, and they cleave polyisoprene into 12-oxo-4,8-dimethyltrideca-4,8-diene-1-al (ODTD), a C 15 oligo-isoprenoid, as the major end product. Lcps are common among Gram-positive rubber degraders and do not share amino acid sequence similarities with RoxAs. Furthermore, Lcps have much smaller molecular masses (≈40 kDa), are b -type cytochromes, and cleave polyisoprene to a mixture of C 20 , C 25 , C 30 , and higher oligo-isoprenoids as end products. In this article, we purified a new type of rubber oxygenase, RoxB Xsp (RoxB of Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y). RoxB Xsp is distantly related to RoxAs and resembles RoxAs with respect to molecular mass (70.3 kDa for mature protein) and cofactor content (2 c -type hemes). However, RoxB Xsp differs from all currently known RoxAs in having a distinctive product spectrum of C 20 , C 25 , C 30 , and higher oligo-isoprenoids that has been observed only for Lcps so far. Purified RoxB Xsp revealed the highest specific activity of 4.5 U/mg (at 23°C) of all currently known rubber oxygenases and exerts a synergistic effect on the efficiency of polyisoprene cleavage by RoxA Xsp RoxB homologs were identified in several other Gram-negative rubber-degrading species, pointing to a prominent function of RoxB for the biodegradation of rubber in Gram-negative bacteria. IMPORTANCE The enzymatic cleavage of rubber (polyisoprene) is of high environmental importance given that enormous amounts of rubber waste materials are permanently released (e.g., by abrasion of tires). Research from the last decade has discovered rubber oxygenase A, RoxA, and latex clearing protein (Lcp) as being responsible for the primary enzymatic attack on the hydrophobic and water-insoluble biopolymer poly( cis -1,4-isoprene) in Gram

  2. Combination biological and microwave treatments of used rubber products

    DOEpatents

    Fliermans, Carl B.; Wicks, George G.

    2002-01-01

    A process and resulting product is provided in which a vulcanized solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has select chemical bonds altered by biotreatment with thermophillic microorganisms selected from natural isolates from hot sulfur springs. Following the biotreatment, microwave radiation is used to further treat the surface and to treat the bulk interior of the crumb rubber. The resulting combined treatments render the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger loading levels and sizes of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures and good properties obtained from the new recycled products.

  3. Butyl rubber O-ring seals: Revision of test procedures for stockpile materials

    SciTech Connect

    Domeier, L.A.; Wagter, K.R.

    1996-12-01

    Extensive testing showed little correlation between test slab and O-ring performance. New procedures, comparable to those used with the traditional test slabs, were defined for hardness, compression set, and tensile property testing on sacrificial O-ring specimens. Changes in target performance values were made as needed and were, in one case, tightened to reflect the O-ring performance data. An additional study was carried out on O-ring and slab performance vs cure cycle and showed little sensitivity of material performance to large changes in curing time. Aging and spectra of certain materials indicated that two sets of test slabs from current vendormore » were accidently made from EPDM rather than butyl rubber. Random testing found no O-rings made from EPDM. As a result, and additional spectroscope test will be added to the product acceptance procedures to verify the type of rubber compound used.« less

  4. Crumb Rubber Recycling in Enhancing Damping Properties of Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugapriya, P.; Ramkrishnan, R.

    2018-02-01

    Damping plays a major role in the design of roadside structures that gets affected due to vibrations transmitted from moving traffic. In this study, fine aggregates were partially replaced with crumb rubber in concrete, at varying percentages of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight. Three different sets of concrete, mixed with crumb rubber were prepared using raw rubber, treated rubber and treated rubber with partial replacement of cement. Cement was partially replaced with Ultra-Fine Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (UFGGBS) for this study. Samples were cast, cured and tested for various properties on the 7th and 28th day. The damping ratio and frequency of the peak value from a number of waves in rubber incorporated beams were found out using a FFT Analyser along with its Strength, Damping and Sorptivity characteristics. SEM analysis was conducted to analyse the micro structural bonding between rubber and concrete. The mode shapes of pavement slabs were modelled and analysed using a FEM tool, ANSYS. From the results, the behaviour of the three sets of rubberized concrete were compared and analysed, and an optimum percentage for crumb rubber and UFGGBS was proposed to achieve best possible damping without compromising the strength properties.

  5. Mechanical properties and durability of crumb rubber concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chylík, Roman; Trtík, Tomáš; Fládr, Josef; Bílý, Petr

    2017-09-01

    This paper is focused on concrete with admixture of rubber powder, generally called crumb rubber concrete (CRC). The inspiration was found in Arizona, where one of the first CRCs has been created. However, Arizona has completely different climates than Central Europe. Could we use the crumb rubber concrete on construction applications in the Central European climate too? The paper evaluates the influence of the rubber powder on material characteristics and durability of CRC. CRCs with various contents of fine and coarse crumb powder were compared. The tested parameters were slump, air content, permeability, resistance of concrete to water with deicing chemicals, compressive and splitting tensile strength. The tests showed that workability, compressive strength and permeability decreased as the amount of rubber increased, but the air content increased as the rubber content increased. Photos of air voids in cement matrix from electron microscope were captured. The results of laboratory tests showed that admixture of rubber powder in concrete could have a positive impact on durability of concrete and concurrently contribute to sustainable development. Considering the lower compressive strength, CRC is recommended for use in applications where the high strength of concrete is not required.

  6. Cream concentrated latex for foam rubber products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suksup, R.; Imkaew, C.; Smitthipong, W.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh natural latex (around 40% rubber and 60% water) can be transformed to concentrated natural latex (around 60% rubber and 40% water) in order to realise economical transportation and easier latex product’s preparation. The concentrated natural latex is an extremely valuable material. It can be applied for many types of products, for example, foam rubber as pillow and mattress, elastic band, etc. Industrially, the concentrated natural latex can be prepared by centrifugation which requires an enormous expensive machine. From the eco-friendly products point of view, most of rubber entrepreneurs in the world try to develop a green rubber product. So, the main objective of this study is to prepare the cream concentrated latex without any sophisticated machine. Thus, we work on a simple, cheap and green method that does not use any expensive machine but uses water-based chemical as sodium alginate to prepare the cream concentrated latex. The optimal amount of sodium alginate in the latex was studied. The main characteristics of the cream concentrated latex were tested by various technics, such as alkalinity, total solid content (TSC), dry rubber content (DRC), etc. We found that there are no significant differences of results between fresh natural latex and cream concentrated latex, except for the TSC and DRC. The TSC and DRC of cream latex are higher than those of fresh natural latex. Finally, we propose a model of natural rubber particle and sodium alginate to form the cream concentrated latex.

  7. Barrier Properties of Layered-Silicate Reinforced Ethylenepropylenediene Monomer/Chloroprene Rubber Nanorubbers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang Mou; Hsieh, Wen Yen; Cheng, Kuo Bin; Lai, Chiu-Chun; Lee, Kuei Chi

    2018-05-09

    The triacetin and nitroglycerin barrier properties of layered-silicate reinforced ethylenepropylenediene monomer/chloroprene rubber (EPDM/CR) nanorubbers were investigated as rocket-propellant inhibitors. EPDM/CR nanorubbers with intercalated structures were formulated and prepared by the melt-compounding method. The triacetin permeability and nitroglycerin absorption were observed to decrease with increasing layered-silicate content. The layered silicates also improved the flame retardancies of the nanorubbers by forming silicate reinforced carbonaceous chars. Layered-silicate reinforced EPDM/CR nanorubbers are potentially effective rocket propellant-inhibiting materials.

  8. Evaluation of crumb rubber in hot mix asphalt.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-07-01

    An asphalt-rubber hot mix asphalt (AR-HMA) design was created using a Superpave 12.5mm gradation and a #30 (-) mesh : crumb rubber at 20% total weight of the asphalt binder. At this point in time, asphalt rubber has only been used with HMA : that con...

  9. Kinetics of zinc release from ground tire rubber and rubber ash in a calcareous soil as alternatives to Zn fertilizers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ground rubber contains 15-20 g Zn/kg but very low levels of Cd and could serve as an inexpensive byproduct Zn fertilizer. The aim of this investigation was to test the kinetics of Zn release in a soil treated with ground tire rubber and rubber ash compared with commercial Zn fertilizer and a labora...

  10. Stimuli-responsive cement-reinforced rubber.

    PubMed

    Musso, Simone; Robisson, Agathe; Maheshwar, Sudeep; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2014-05-14

    In this work, we report the successful development of a cement-rubber reactive composite with reversible mechanical properties. Initially, the composite behaves like rubber containing inert filler, but when exposed to water, it increases in volume and reaches a stiffness that is intermediate between that of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) and hydrated cement, while maintaining a relatively large ductility characteristic of rubber. After drying, the modulus increases even further up to 400 MPa. Wet/drying cycles prove that the elastic modulus can reversibly change between 150 and 400 MPa. Utilizing attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), we demonstrate that the high pH produced by the hydration of cement triggers the hydrolysis of the rubber nitrile groups into carboxylate anions. Thus, the salt bridges, generated between the carboxylate anions of the elastomer and the cations of the filler, are responsible for the reversible variations in volume and elastic modulus of the composite as a consequence of environmental moisture exposure. These results reveal that cement nanoparticles can successfully be used to accomplish a twofold task: (a) achieve an original postpolymerization modification that allows one to work with carboxylate HNBR (HXNBR) not obtained by direct copolymerization of carboxylate monomers with butadiene, and (b) synthesize a stimuli-responsive polymeric composite. This new type of material, having an ideal behavior for sealing application, could be used as an alternative to cement for oil field zonal isolation applications.

  11. Modified Silicone-Rubber Tooling For Molding Composite Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Snoha, John J.; Weiser, Erik S.

    1995-01-01

    Reduced-thermal-expansion, reduced-bulk-modulus silicone rubber for use in mold tooling made by incorporating silica powder into silicone rubber. Pressure exerted by thermal expansion reduced even further by allowing air bubbles to remain in silicone rubber instead of deaerating it. Bubbles reduce bulk modulus of material.

  12. Altered levels of the Taraxacum kok-saghyz (Russian dandelion) small rubber particle protein, TkSRPP3, result in qualitative and quantitative changes in rubber metabolism.

    PubMed

    Collins-Silva, Jillian; Nural, Aise Taban; Skaggs, Amanda; Scott, Deborah; Hathwaik, Upul; Woolsey, Rebekah; Schegg, Kathleen; McMahan, Colleen; Whalen, Maureen; Cornish, Katrina; Shintani, David

    2012-07-01

    Several proteins have been identified and implicated in natural rubber biosynthesis, one of which, the small rubber particle protein (SRPP), was originally identified in Hevea brasiliensis as an abundant protein associated with cytosolic vesicles known as rubber particles. While previous in vitro studies suggest that SRPP plays a role in rubber biosynthesis, in vivo evidence is lacking to support this hypothesis. To address this issue, a transgene approach was taken in Taraxacum kok-saghyz (Russian dandelion or Tk) to determine if altered SRPP levels would influence rubber biosynthesis. Three dandelion SRPPs were found to be highly abundant on dandelion rubber particles. The most abundant particle associated SRPP, TkSRPP3, showed temporal and spatial patterns of expression consistent with patterns of natural rubber accumulation in dandelion. To confirm its role in rubber biosynthesis, TkSRPP3 expression was altered in Russian dandelion using over-expression and RNAi methods. While TkSRPP3 over-expressing lines had slightly higher levels of rubber in their roots, relative to the control, TkSRPP3 RNAi lines showed significant decreases in root rubber content and produced dramatically lower molecular weight rubber than the control line. Not only do results here provide in vivo evidence of TkSRPP proteins affecting the amount of rubber in dandelion root, but they also suggest a function in regulating the molecular weight of the cis-1, 4-polyisoprene polymer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Design of Self-Healing Supramolecular Rubbers by Introducing Ionic Cross-Links into Natural Rubber via a Controlled Vulcanization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuanhui; Cao, Liming; Lin, Baofeng; Liang, Xingquan; Chen, Yukun

    2016-07-13

    Introducing ionic associations is one of the most effective approaches to realize a self-healing behavior for rubbers. However, most of commercial rubbers are nonpolar rubbers without now available functional groups to be converted into ionic groups. In this paper, our strategy was based on a controlled peroxide-induced vulcanization to generate massive ionic cross-links via polymerization of zinc dimethacrylate (ZDMA) in natural rubber (NR) and exploited it as a potential self-healable material. We controlled vulcanization process to retard the formation of covalent cross-link network, and successfully generated a reversible supramolecular network mainly constructed by ionic cross-links. Without the restriction of covalent cross-linkings, the NR chains in ionic supramolecular network had good flexibility and mobility. The nature that the ionic cross-links was easily reconstructed and rearranged facilitating the self-healing behavior, thereby enabling a fully cut sample to rejoin and retain to its original properties after a suitable self-healing process at ambient temperature. This study thus demonstrates a feasible approach to impart an ionic association induced self-healing function to commercial rubbers without ionic functional groups.

  14. Installation report : rubber modified asphalt mix.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the design of an asphalt mix containing up to 3.0% closed cell waste rubber and a field installation of the mix. The Marshall design procedure was used to determine the asphalt content for the mix containing 3.0% rubber as well ...

  15. [Contemporary state of work conditions and occupational morbidity of workers engaged into rubber, mechanical rubber and tire industries].

    PubMed

    Stepanov, E G; Galiullina, É F; Samsonov, V M; Kudriavtsev, V P; Davletgareeva, G R; Shakirova, É D; Khasanov, B G; Buliakov, R T; Kamilov, R F; Shakirov, D F

    2014-01-01

    Based on analysis of materials provided by occupational safety department PC "UZEMiK" and JSC "Kauchuk", the authors evaluate contemporary work conditions and occupational morbidity in workers engaged into rubber, mechanical rubber and tyre industries.

  16. Criteria for asphalt-rubber concrete in civil airport pavements: Mixture design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, F. L.; Lytton, R. L.; Hoyt, D.

    1986-07-01

    A mixture design procedure is developed to allow the use of asphalt-rubber binders in concrete for flexible airport pavement. The asphalt-rubber is produced by reacting asphalt with ground, scrap tire rubber to produce the binder for the asphalt-rubber concrete. Procedures for laboratory preparation of alsphalt-rubber binders using an equipment setup that was found by researchers to produce laboratory binders with similar properties to field processes are included. The rubber-asphalt concrete mixture design procedure includes adjustments to the aggregate gradation to permit space for the rubber particles in the asphalt-rubber binder as well as suggested mixing and compaction temperatures, and compaction efforts. While the procedure was used in the laboratory to successfully produce asphalt-rubber concrete mixtures, it should be evaluated in the field to ensure that consistent results can be achieved in a production environment.

  17. Analysis of surface tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate on chlorobutyl rubber SCAPE suits. [flame retardant coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schehl, T. A.; Bennett, H. D.; Bryan, C. J.; Bright, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    Tris (2,30-dibromopropyl) phosphate was used to confer flame retardant properties on butyl rubber formulations used in protective clothing such as the self-contained atmospheric protective ensembles (SCAPE suits) worn at Kennedy Space Center in support of Apollo, Skylab, and Apollo-Soyuz missions since 1966. Because tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate is mutagenic, surface concentrations of the compound in SCAPE suits were investigated as were as potential methods of removing or isolating it. Analytical procedures for determining surface concentrations of the tris compound on non-porous materials are described. Soap-and-water washing is the most efficient method of removing the compound from fabricated SCAPE suits and unused material.

  18. Barrier Properties of Layered-Silicate Reinforced Ethylenepropylenediene Monomer/Chloroprene Rubber Nanorubbers

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Wen Yen; Cheng, Kuo Bin; Lai, Chiu-Chun; Lee, Kuei Chi

    2018-01-01

    The triacetin and nitroglycerin barrier properties of layered-silicate reinforced ethylenepropylenediene monomer/chloroprene rubber (EPDM/CR) nanorubbers were investigated as rocket-propellant inhibitors. EPDM/CR nanorubbers with intercalated structures were formulated and prepared by the melt-compounding method. The triacetin permeability and nitroglycerin absorption were observed to decrease with increasing layered-silicate content. The layered silicates also improved the flame retardancies of the nanorubbers by forming silicate reinforced carbonaceous chars. Layered-silicate reinforced EPDM/CR nanorubbers are potentially effective rocket propellant-inhibiting materials. PMID:29747427

  19. Rubber friction and tire dynamics.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-12

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  20. Forecasting Natural Rubber Price In Malaysia Using Arima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahari, Fatin Z.; Khalid, Kamil; Roslan, Rozaini; Sufahani, Suliadi; Mohamad, Mahathir; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Ali, Maselan

    2018-04-01

    This paper contains introduction, materials and methods, results and discussions, conclusions and references. Based on the title mentioned, high volatility of the price of natural rubber nowadays will give the significant risk to the producers, traders, consumers, and others parties involved in the production of natural rubber. To help them in making decisions, forecasting is needed to predict the price of natural rubber. The main objective of the research is to forecast the upcoming price of natural rubber by using the reliable statistical method. The data are gathered from Malaysia Rubber Board which the data are from January 2000 until December 2015. In this research, average monthly price of Standard Malaysia Rubber 20 (SMR20) will be forecast by using Box-Jenkins approach. Time series plot is used to determine the pattern of the data. The data have trend pattern which indicates the data is non-stationary data and the data need to be transformed. By using the Box-Jenkins method, the best fit model for the time series data is ARIMA (1, 1, 0) which this model satisfy all the criteria needed. Hence, ARIMA (1, 1, 0) is the best fitted model and the model will be used to forecast the average monthly price of Standard Malaysia Rubber 20 (SMR20) for twelve months ahead.

  1. The response of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and soil microbes to the crumb rubber material used in artificial turf fields.

    PubMed

    Pochron, Sharon T; Fiorenza, Andrew; Sperl, Cassandra; Ledda, Brianne; Lawrence Patterson, Charles; Tucker, Clara C; Tucker, Wade; Ho, Yuwan Lisa; Panico, Nicholas

    2017-04-01

    Municipalities have been replacing grass fields with artificial turf, which uses crumb rubber infill made from recycled tires. Crumb rubber contains hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and heavy metals. Water runoff from crumb rubber fields contains heavy metals. These components can damage the environment. We contaminated topsoil with new crumb rubber and measured its impact on earthworms and soil microbes. Specifically, we compared soil microbe activity and earthworm health, survivorship, and longevity in heat and light stress under two soil regimes: clean topsoil and clean topsoil contaminated with crumb rubber. We then characterized levels of metals, nutrients, and micronutrients of both soil treatments and compared those to published New York soil background levels and to levels set by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) as remediation goals. We found that: 1) contaminated soil did not inhibit microbial respiration rates, 2) earthworm survivorship was not impacted by exposure to contaminated soil, 3) earthworms' ability to cope with heat and light stress remained unchanged after living in contaminated soil, but 4) earthworms living in contaminated soil gained 14% less body weight than did earthworms living in uncontaminated soil. We also found that, with the exception of zinc, heavy metals in our contaminated soil did not exceed the background levels found throughout New York State or the remediation targets set by the DEC. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Environmental impact of highway construction and repair materials on surface and ground waters. Case study: crumb rubber asphalt concrete.

    PubMed

    Azizian, Mohammad F; Nelson, Peter O; Thayumanavan, Pugazhendhi; Williamson, Kenneth J

    2003-01-01

    The practice of incorporating certain waste products into highway construction and repair materials (CRMs) has become more popular. These practices have prompted the National Academy of Science, National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) to research the possible impacts of these CRMs on the quality of surface and ground waters. State department of transportations (DOTs) are currently experimenting with use of ground tire rubber ( crumb rubber) in bituminous construction and as a crack sealer. Crumb rubber asphalt concrete (CR-AC) leachates contain a mixture of organic and metallic contaminants. Benzothiazole and 2(3H)-benzothiazolone (organic compounds used in tire rubber manufacturing) and the metals mercury and aluminum were leached in potentially harmful concentrations (exceeding toxic concentrations for aquatic toxicity tests). CR-AC leachate exhibited moderate to high toxicity for algae ( Selenastrum capriconutum) and moderate toxicity for water fleas ( Daphnia magna). Benzothiazole was readily removed from CR-AC leachate by the environmental processes of soil sorption, volatilization, and biodegradation. Metals, which do not volatilize or photochemically or biologically degrade, were removed from the leachate by soil sorption. Contaminants from CR-AC leachates are thus degraded or retarded in their transport through nearby soils and ground waters.

  3. Micro-organisms in latex and natural rubber coagula of Hevea brasiliensis and their impact on rubber composition, structure and properties.

    PubMed

    Salomez, M; Subileau, M; Intapun, J; Bonfils, F; Sainte-Beuve, J; Vaysse, L; Dubreucq, E

    2014-10-01

    Natural rubber, produced by coagulation of the latex from the tree Hevea brasiliensis, is an important biopolymer used in many applications for its outstanding properties. Besides polyisoprene, latex is rich in many nonisoprene components such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids and thereby constitutes a favourable medium for the development of micro-organisms. The fresh rubber coagula obtained by latex coagulation are not immediately processed, allowing the development of various microbial communities. The time period between tree tapping and coagula processing is called maturation, during which an evolution of the properties of the corresponding dry natural rubber occurs. This evolution is partly related to the activity of micro-organisms and to the modification of the biochemical composition. This review synthesizes the current knowledge on microbial populations in latex and natural rubber coagula of H. brasiliensis and the changes they induce on the biochemistry and technical properties of natural rubber during maturation. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Subcellular proteome profiles of different latex fractions revealed washed solutions from rubber particles contain crucial enzymes for natural rubber biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Sun, Yong; Chang, Lili; Tong, Zheng; Xie, Quanliang; Jin, Xiang; Zhu, Liping; He, Peng; Li, Hongbin; Wang, Xuchu

    2018-06-30

    Rubber particle (RP) is a specific organelle for natural rubber biosynthesis (NRB) and storage in rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis. NRB is processed by RP membrane-localized proteins, which were traditionally purified by repeated washing. However, we noticed many proteins in the discarded washing solutions (WS) from RP. Here, we compared the proteome profiles of WS, C-serum (CS) and RP by 2-DE, and identified 233 abundant proteins from WS by mass spectrometry. Many spots on 2-DE gels were identified as different protein species. We further performed shotgun analysis of CS, WS and RP and identified 1837, 1799 and 1020 unique proteins, respectively. Together with 2-DE, we finally identified 1825 proteins from WS, 246 were WS-specific. These WS-specific proteins were annotated in Gene Ontology, indicating most abundant pathways are organic substance metabolic process, protein degradation, primary metabolic process, and energy metabolism. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed these WS-specific proteins are mainly involved in ribosomal metabolism, proteasome system, vacuolar protein sorting and endocytosis. Label free and Western blotting revealed many WS-specific proteins and protein complexes are crucial for NRB initiation. These findings not only deepen our understanding of WS proteome, but also provide new evidences on the roles of RP membrane proteins in NRB. Natural rubber is stored in rubber particle from the rubber tree. Rubber particles were traditionally purified by repeated washing, but many proteins were identified from the washing solutions (WS). We obtained the first visualization proteome profiles with 1825 proteins from WS, including 246 WS-specific ones. These WS proteins contain almost all enzymes for polyisoprene initiation and may play important roles in rubber biosynthesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The phenology pattern of rubber trees in plantation and its impacts on rubber tree structure, water and carbon cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Mudd, R. G.

    2012-12-01

    Commercial rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) is originally native to the Amazon rainforest and it has become one of the important commercial crops in Mainland Southeast Asia. Similarly to some trees species in Amazon but quite distinctly from other native forests in Southeast Asia, rubber tree sheds its leaves in the middle of dry season and flushes new leaves before the onset of the wet season. Moreover, the mountane mainland Southeast Asia is heavily influenced by the monsoon climate which has most the precipitation in the wet season while almost no rainfall in the dry season. It is believed that the phenology pattern of rubber interacted with local climate would not only regulate the seasonal rubber plantation structures but also further alter the local energy and water budget. However, it is still lack of solid understandings of how the phenology patterns in terms of the leaf area index (LAI) changes of the rubber tree response to environmental drivers. The study tries to shed lights on the issue from analyses of a various types of in-situ field data combined with 3 years' tower flux measurements collected within the rubber plantations. It concludes that: 1) Both the monthly tree height increment and the monthly biomass accumulation are highly correlated with the LAI changes, which have the low rate of changes in the dry season versus the relative high rate of changes in the wet season; 2) the daily evapotranspiration (ET) of the rubber tree is very sensitive to the daily LAI changes in the dry season (R2 > 0.9); 3) the LAI changes, especially the leaf drops, are majorly determined by the accumulated precipitation in the past three months.

  6. Asphalt concrete modified by rubber crumbs in transport construction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhovny, G. S.; Karpenko, AV

    2018-03-01

    High-temperature and low-temperature characteristics of the rubber-bitumen binder and rubber asphalt concrete based on it are researched. The determination method of binder’s low-temperature characteristics is offered. The estimation of binder’s and pavement’s stability against technological and operational aging is evaluated. Estimation of environmental and economic aspects of using rubber crumbs is made. The possibility of using rubber crumbs as modifier of organic binder for production of asphalt concrete on its base is justified.

  7. 21 CFR 177.1480 - Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl... Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers. Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile... rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers consist of basic copolymers produced by the...

  8. On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.

    SciTech Connect

    Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg

    In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between themore » experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.« less

  9. 40 CFR 428.20 - Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emulsion crumb rubber subcategory. 428.20 Section 428.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.20 Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber... manufacture of emulsion crumb rubber, other than acrylonitrilebutadiene rubber. [40 FR 18173, Apr. 25, 1975] ...

  10. 40 CFR 428.20 - Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emulsion crumb rubber subcategory. 428.20 Section 428.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.20 Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber... manufacture of emulsion crumb rubber, other than acrylonitrilebutadiene rubber. [40 FR 18173, Apr. 25, 1975] ...

  11. 40 CFR 428.20 - Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emulsion crumb rubber subcategory. 428.20 Section 428.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.20 Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber... manufacture of emulsion crumb rubber, other than acrylonitrilebutadiene rubber. [40 FR 18173, Apr. 25, 1975] ...

  12. Use of recycled chunk rubber asphalt concrete (CRAC) on low volume roads and use of recycled crumb rubber modifier in asphalt pavements. Final report, June 1993-June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, M.; Funk, L.P.; Sadeq, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    The major objective of this project was to formulate a Chunk Rubber Asphalt Concrete (CRAC) mix for use on low volume roads. CRAC is a rubber modified asphalt concrete product produced by the `dry process` where rubber chunks of 1/2 inch size are used as aggregate in a cold mix with a type C fly ash. The second objective of this project was to develop guidelines concerning the use of rubber modified asphalt concrete hot mix to include: (1) Design methods for use of asphalt-rubber mix for new construction and overlay, (2) Mix design method for asphalt-rubber, and (3) Testmore » method for determining the amount of rubber in an asphalt-rubber concrete for quality control purposes.« less

  13. Subcellular localization and interactions among rubber particle proteins from Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel; Feeney, Mistianne; Ahmadi, Mathin; Lonoce, Chiara; Sajari, Roslinda; Di Cola, Alessandra; Frigerio, Lorenzo

    2017-11-02

    Natural rubber (polyisoprene) from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis is synthesized by specialized cells called laticifers. It is not clear how rubber particles arise, although one hypothesis is that they derive from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Here we cloned the genes encoding four key proteins found in association with rubber particles and studied their intracellular localization by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. We show that, while the cis-prenyltransferase (CPT), responsible for the synthesis of long polyisoprene chains, is a soluble, cytosolic protein, other rubber particle proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and Hevea rubber transferase 1-REF bridging protein (HRBP) are associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We also show that SRPP can recruit CPT to the ER and that interaction of CPT with HRBP leads to both proteins relocating to the plasma membrane. We discuss these results in the context of the biogenesis of rubber particles. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Elastic instabilities in rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gent, Alan

    2009-03-01

    Materials that undergo large elastic deformations can exhibit novel instabilities. Several examples are described: development of an aneurysm on inflating a rubber tube; non-uniform stretching on inflating a spherical balloon; formation of internal cracks in rubber blocks at a critical level of triaxial tension or when supersaturated with a dissolved gas; surface wrinkling of a block at a critical amount of compression; debonding or fracture of constrained films on swelling, and formation of ``knots'' on twisting stretched cylindrical rods. These various deformations are analyzed in terms of a simple strain energy function, using Rivlin's theory of large elastic deformations, and the results are compared with experimental measurements of the onset of unstable states. Such comparisons provide new tests of Rivlin's theory and, at least in principle, critical tests of proposed strain energy functions for rubber. Moreover the onset of highly non-uniform deformations has serious implications for the fatigue life and fracture resistance of rubber components. [4pt] References: [0pt] R. S. Rivlin, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. A241 (1948) 379--397. [0pt] A. Mallock, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. 49 (1890--1891) 458--463. [0pt] M. A. Biot, ``Mechanics of Incremental Deformations'', Wiley, New York, 1965. [0pt] A. N. Gent and P. B. Lindley, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 249 (1958) 195--205. [0pt] A. N. Gent, W. J. Hung and M. F. Tse, Rubb. Chem. Technol. 74 (2001) 89--99. [0pt] A. N. Gent, Internatl. J. Non-Linear Mech. 40 (2005) 165--175.

  15. Method for co-processing waste rubber and carbonaceous material

    DOEpatents

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Smith, Charlene M.

    1991-01-01

    In a process for the co-processing of waste rubber and carbonaceous material to form a useful liquid product, the rubber and the carbonaceous material are combined and heated to the depolymerization temperature of the rubber in the presence of a source of hydrogen. The depolymerized rubber acts as a liquefying solvent for the carbonaceous material while a beneficial catalytic effect is obtained from the carbon black released on depolymerization the reinforced rubber. The reaction is carried out at liquefaction conditions of 380.degree.-600.degree. C. and 70-280 atmospheres hydrogen pressure. The resulting liquid is separated from residual solids and further processed such as by distillation or solvent extraction to provide a carbonaceous liquid useful for fuels and other purposes.

  16. Thermal properties of hydrogenated liquid natural rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    Natural rubber (NR) was modified to form liquid natural rubber (LNR) via photooxidative degradation. Hydrogenated liquid natural rubber (HLNR) was synthesized by using diimide as source of hydrogen which the diimide is produced by thermolysis of p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide (TSH). The structure of HLNR was characterized by determining the changes of main peaks in Fourier Transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra after hydrogenation. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the HLNR had higher decomposition temperature compared to LNR and the decomposition temperature is directly proportional to the percentage of conversion.

  17. Thermal properties of hydrogenated liquid natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2015-09-01

    Natural rubber (NR) was modified to form liquid natural rubber (LNR) via photooxidative degradation. Hydrogenated liquid natural rubber (HLNR) was synthesized by using diimide as source of hydrogen which the diimide is produced by thermolysis of p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide (TSH). The structure of HLNR was characterized by determining the changes of main peaks in Fourier Transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra after hydrogenation. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the HLNR had higher decomposition temperature compared to LNR and the decomposition temperature is directly proportional to the percentage of conversion.

  18. Morphology and vulcanizate properties of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber/ styrene-butadiene rubber blends.

    PubMed

    Park, Gayoung; Kim, Yun Hee; Kim, Dong Soo; Ko, Young Chun

    2010-05-01

    Morphology and vulcanizate properties of EPDM/SBR blends were investigated. AAHR (a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon resins) was used as a compatibilizer and bis(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)tetrasulfide (TESPT) was used as a coupling agent. The vulcanizate properties and the morphological studies revealed that EPDM and SBR were incompatible, and the addition of AAHR was very effective to enhance the compatibility between EPDM and SBR. The weight percent of bound rubbers was increased with increasing SBR contents. The addition of an AAHR increased the amounts of bound rubbers, and hence the vulcanizate properties such as tear strength and fatigue resistance of the EPDM/SBR blends were improved. The dynamic mechanical analysis and the morphological studies revealed that the addition of TESPT increased the weight of bound rubbers and provided better dispersion of carbon black, resulting in good mechanical properties such as tear strength and fatigue resistance of the vulcanized EPDM/SBR blends. The smaller particle of zinc oxide (i.e., 50 nm > 100 nm > 1000 nm) yielded to the better blending properties of the polymer blend.

  19. 75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. AA1921-129 (Third Review)] Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five-year... of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to...

  20. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanbing; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo; Sha, Tao

    2016-03-07

    Recycling waste tire rubber by incorporating it into concrete has become the preferred solution to dispose of waste tires. In this study, the effect of the volume content of crumb rubber and pretreatment methods on the performances of concrete was evaluated. Firstly, the fine aggregate and mixture were partly replaced by crumb rubber to produce crumb rubber concrete. Secondly, the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete with different replacement forms and volume contents had been investigated. Finally, the crumb rubber after pretreatment by six modifiers was introduced into the concrete mixture. Corresponding tests were conducted to verify the effectiveness of pretreatment methods as compared to the concrete containing untreated crumb rubber. It was observed that the mechanical strength of crumb rubber concrete was reduced, while durability was improved with the increasing of crumb rubber content. 20% replacement of fine aggregate and 5% replacement of the total mixture exhibited acceptable properties for practical applications. In addition, the results indicated that the modifiers had a positive impact on the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete. It avoided the disadvantage of crumb rubber concrete having lower strength and provides a reference for the production of modified crumb rubber concrete.

  1. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hanbing; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo; Sha, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Recycling waste tire rubber by incorporating it into concrete has become the preferred solution to dispose of waste tires. In this study, the effect of the volume content of crumb rubber and pretreatment methods on the performances of concrete was evaluated. Firstly, the fine aggregate and mixture were partly replaced by crumb rubber to produce crumb rubber concrete. Secondly, the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete with different replacement forms and volume contents had been investigated. Finally, the crumb rubber after pretreatment by six modifiers was introduced into the concrete mixture. Corresponding tests were conducted to verify the effectiveness of pretreatment methods as compared to the concrete containing untreated crumb rubber. It was observed that the mechanical strength of crumb rubber concrete was reduced, while durability was improved with the increasing of crumb rubber content. 20% replacement of fine aggregate and 5% replacement of the total mixture exhibited acceptable properties for practical applications. In addition, the results indicated that the modifiers had a positive impact on the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete. It avoided the disadvantage of crumb rubber concrete having lower strength and provides a reference for the production of modified crumb rubber concrete. PMID:28773298

  2. The water-food nexus of natural rubber production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarelli, D. D.; Rosa, L.; Rulli, M. C.; D'Odorico, P.

    2017-12-01

    The increasing global demand for natural rubber (100% increase in the last 15 years) is for most part met by Malaysia and Indonesia, and - to a lesser extent - other countries in south-east Asia and Africa. The consequent expansion of rubber plantation has often occurred at the expenses of agricultural land for staple food, particularly in southeast Asia, where most of the land suitable for agriculture is already harvested for food crops or other uses. Here we investigate the extent to which the ongoing increase in rubber production is competing with the food system and affecting the livelihoods of rural communities in the areas of production and their appropriation of natural resources, such as water. We also investigate to what extent the expansion of rubber plantations is taking place through large scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) and evaluate the impacts on rural communities. Our results show how rubber production has strong environmental, social and economic impacts. Despite their ability to bring employment and increase the average income of economically disadvantaged areas, rubber plantations may threaten the local water and food security and induce a loss of rural livelihoods, particularly when the new plantations result from LSLAs that displace semi-subsistence forms of production thereby forcing the local populations to depend on global markets.

  3. Mechanical Enhancement of Sensitivity in Natural Rubber Using Electrolytic Polymerization Aided by a Magnetic Field and MCF for Application in Haptic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Kunio; Saga, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    Sensors are essential to the fulfillment of every condition of haptic technology, and they need simultaneously to sense shear stress as well as normal force, and temperature. They also must have a strong and simple structure, softness, and large extension. To achieve these conditions simultaneously, we enhanced the sensitivity of sensors utilizing natural rubber (NR)-latex through the application of electrolytic polymerization focused on the isoprene C=C bonds in natural rubbers such as NR-latex, and then applied a magnetic field and magnetic compound fluid (MCF) as magnetically responsive fluid. When an electric field alone was used in the rubber, the effect of electrolytic polymerization was very small compared to the effect in well-known conductive polymer solution such as plastic. The MCF developed by Shimada in 2001 involved magnetite and metal particles, and acts as a filler in NR-latex. By utilizing the magnetic, electric fields and the MCF, we aligned the electrolytically polymerized C=C along the magnetic field line with the magnetic clusters formed by the aggregation of magnetite and metal particles so as to enhance the effect of electrolytic polymerization. We then demonstrated the effectiveness of the new method of rubber vulcanization on the sensitivity of the rubber by experimentally investigating its electric and dynamic characteristics. PMID:27649210

  4. Mechanical Enhancement of Sensitivity in Natural Rubber Using Electrolytic Polymerization Aided by a Magnetic Field and MCF for Application in Haptic Sensors.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kunio; Saga, Norihiko

    2016-09-18

    Sensors are essential to the fulfillment of every condition of haptic technology, and they need simultaneously to sense shear stress as well as normal force, and temperature. They also must have a strong and simple structure, softness, and large extension. To achieve these conditions simultaneously, we enhanced the sensitivity of sensors utilizing natural rubber (NR)-latex through the application of electrolytic polymerization focused on the isoprene C=C bonds in natural rubbers such as NR-latex, and then applied a magnetic field and magnetic compound fluid (MCF) as magnetically responsive fluid. When an electric field alone was used in the rubber, the effect of electrolytic polymerization was very small compared to the effect in well-known conductive polymer solution such as plastic. The MCF developed by Shimada in 2001 involved magnetite and metal particles, and acts as a filler in NR-latex. By utilizing the magnetic, electric fields and the MCF, we aligned the electrolytically polymerized C=C along the magnetic field line with the magnetic clusters formed by the aggregation of magnetite and metal particles so as to enhance the effect of electrolytic polymerization. We then demonstrated the effectiveness of the new method of rubber vulcanization on the sensitivity of the rubber by experimentally investigating its electric and dynamic characteristics.

  5. Rubberized, Brominated Epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilwee, W.; Kourtides, D.; Parker, J.; Nir, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Graphite/epoxy composite materials made with resins containing bromine and rubber additives. New composites tougher and more resistant to fire. Flame resistance increased by introducing bromine via commercial brominated flame-retartant polymeric additives.

  6. Chrome-tanned leather shavings as a filler of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    PubMed

    Przepiórkowska, A; Chrońska, K; Zaborski, M

    2007-03-06

    The noxious wastes from the tanning industry such as chrome-tanned leather shavings were used as the only filler of rubber mixes containing carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (XNBR) or butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), and a dispersing agent Limanol PEV (Schill & Seilacher). The best form addition of leather powder to the rubber mixes is mixed the waste protein with zinc oxide. The leather powder added to the rubber mixes improves the mechanical properties: tensile strength (T(s)), elongation at break (epsilon(b)) and increase the cross-linking density of carboxylated XNBR and NBR rubber mixes. Satisfactory results of these studies are presented in this work.

  7. Soft matter: rubber and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Gregory B.

    2018-06-01

    Rubber networks are important and form the basis for materials with properties ranging from rubber tires to super absorbents and contact lenses. The development of the entropy ideas of rubber deformation thermodynamics provides a powerful framework from which to understand and to use these materials. In addition, swelling of the rubber in the presence of small molecule liquids or solvents leads to materials that are very soft and ‘gel’ like in nature. The review covers the thermodynamics of polymer networks and gels from the perspective of the thermodynamics and mechanics of the strain energy density function. Important relationships are presented and experimental results show that the continuum ideas contained in the phenomenological thermodynamics are valid, but that the molecular bases for some of them remain to be fully elucidated. This is particularly so in the case of the entropic gels or swollen networks. The review is concluded with some perspectives on other networks, ranging from entropic polymer networks such as thermoplastic elastomers to physical gels in which cross-link points are formed by glassy or crystalline domains. A discussion is provided for other physical gels in which the network forms a spinodal-like decomposition, both in thermoplastic polymers that form a glassy network upon phase separation and for colloidal gels that seem to have a similar behavior.

  8. Optical and Thermal Stability of Oligofluorene/Rubber Luminescent Blend.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Camila G; Faez, Roselena; Péres, Laura O

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes to obtain homogeneous and stable blends of oligo(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-co-phenylene (OF), a conjugated oligomer with strong tendency of formation of excimers in the solid state, and nitrile rubber (NBR). This rubber protection reduces the formation of polymer excimers in the films. The fluorene oligomer was synthesized via Suzuki reaction and incorporated in the nitrile rubber. The films were formed by spin coating and casting techniques on the proportions of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 % (w/w) of OF in the nitrile rubber (NBR). The structural, optical and thermal properties of the films were evaluated with infrared, UV-Vis, fluorescence and thermogravimetry, respectively. The nitrile rubber proved to be essential for the preparation of homogeneous and stable films, since it was not possible to obtain films with only fluorene using the above-mentioned techniques. Furthermore, luminescent properties of OF are unchanged and the excimers formation in the solid state decrease suggesting the efficiency of nitrile rubber as the matrix for making films.

  9. Electrical conduction hysteresis in carbon black-filled butyl rubber compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzamil, M. A.; Alfaramawi, K.; Abboudy, S.; Abulnasr, L.

    2018-04-01

    Temperature and concentration dependence of electrical resistance of butyl rubber filled with GPF carbon black was carried out. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics at room-temperature were also investigated. The I-V characteristics show that the behavior is linear at small voltages up to approximately 0.15 V and currents up to 0.05 mA indicating that the conduction mechanism was probably due to electron tunneling from the end of conductive path to the other one under the action of the applied electric field. At higher voltages, a nonlinear behavior was noticed. The nonlinearity was attributed to the joule heating effects. Electrical resistance of the butyl/GPF composites was measured as a function of temperature during heating and cooling cycles from 300 K and upward to a specific temperature. When the specimens were heated up, the resistance was observed to increase continuously with the rise of temperature. However, when the samples were cooled down, the resistance was observed to decrease following a different path. The presence of conduction hysteresis behavior in the resistance-temperature curves during the heating and cooling cycles was then verified. The electrical conduction of the composite system is supposed to follow an activation conduction mechanism. Activation energy was calculated at different filler concentrations for both the heating and cooling processes.

  10. Preparation of vinyl acetate grafted natural rubber by irradiation method

    SciTech Connect

    Porntrairat, A.; Pattamaprom, C.

    Improvement in properties of natural rubber could be done by several methods. In this research, gamma radiation technique, which is simple, accurate, easy to control and clean, was applied to enhance the properties of natural rubber (NR) in latex state. The purpose of this research is to study the appropriate condition for preparing grafted natural rubber latex by using irradiation method. Vinyl acetate monomers (VAc) were grafted onto natural rubber latex (NR-g-PVAc) at 0-10 kGys by gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 source at room temperature. Physical properties of grafted natural rubber such as chloroform number, swelling ratio and gel content weremore » measured. The VAc content of NR-g-PVAc was investigated by titration and visualized by FTIR spectroscopy. The FTIR spectra of NR-g-PVAc prepared at 0-10 kGys showed characteristic peaks of the vinyl acetate confirming that VAc could be grafted onto natural rubber molecular chains effectively under appropriate irradiation conditions. From the result, radiation grafting was found to be a useful technique for grafting of vinyl acetate onto natural rubber.« less

  11. Self-Sealing Cementitious Materials by Using Water-Swelling Rubber Particles

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Leyang; Schlangen, Erik; Xing, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Water ingress into cracked concrete structures is a serious problem, as it can cause leakage and reinforcement corrosion and thus reduce functionality and safety of the structures. In this study, the application of water-swelling rubber particles for providing the cracked concrete a self-sealing function was developed. The feasibility of applying water-swelling rubber particles and the influence of incorporating water-swelling rubber particles on the mechanical properties of concrete was investigated. The self-sealing efficiency of water-swelling rubber particles with different content and particle size was quantified through a permeability test. The sealing effect of the water swelling rubber particles was monitored by X-ray computed tomography. The experimental results show that, by using 6% of these water swelling rubber particles as a replacement of aggregates in concrete, up to 64% and 61% decrease of water permeability was realized for 0.7 mm and 1.0 mm cracks. Furthermore, when the concrete cracks, the water swelling rubber particles can act as a crack bridging filler, preventing the crack from fully separating the specimens in two pieces. PMID:28829384

  12. New type of liquid rubber and compositions based on it.

    PubMed

    Semikolenov, S V; Nartova, A V; Voronchikhin, V D; Dubkov, K A

    2014-11-01

    The new method for producing the functionalized polymers and oligomers containing carbonyl C=O groups is developed. The method is based on the noncatalytic oxidation of unsaturated rubbers by nitrous oxide (N2O) at 180-230 °С. The proposed method allows obtaining the new type of functionalized rubbers-liquid unsaturated polyketones with regulated molecular weight and concentration of C=O groups. The influence of the liquid polyketone addition on properties of rubber-based composites is investigated. The study indicates good prospects of using the liquid polyketones for the improvement of properties and operating characteristics of the various types of rubbers and the rubber-cord systems.

  13. Effect of superhydrophobicity on surface damage of silicone rubber under AC voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yufeng; Jin, Haiyun; Nie, Shichao; Tong, Cheng; Gao, Naikui

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the influence of superhydrophobicity on the surface damage of silicone rubber is studied. On a common silicone rubber surface, a droplet can become elongated, and arc discharge induced by the droplet can cause tracking on the silicone rubber surface. However, for a superhydrophobic silicone rubber surface, a droplet can leave the silicone rubber due to the low adhesion of the superhydrophobic surface. Accordingly, arc discharge caused by the droplet does not occur, and the surface of the silicone rubber is not affected. Results demonstrate that using a superhydrophobic surface has a significant effect on limiting the surface damage of silicone rubber.

  14. Shear modulus and damping ratio of natural rubber containing carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, R.; Ibrahim, A.; Rusop, M.; Adnan, A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the potential application of Natural rubber (NR) containing Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) by measuring its shear modulus and damping ratio. Four different types of rubber specimens which fabricated with different MWCNT loadings: 0 wt% (pure natural rubber), 1 wt%, 3 wt%, and 5 wt%. It is observed that the shear modulus and damping ratio of CNTs filled rubber composites are remarkably higher than that of raw rubber indicating the inherent reinforcing potential of CNTs.

  15. Thermo-Mechanical Analyses of Dynamically Loaded Rubber Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Arthur R.; Chen, Tzi-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Thick rubber components are employed by the Army to carry large loads. In tanks, rubber covers road wheels and track systems to protect roadways. It is difficult for design engineers to simulate the details of the hysteretic heating for large strain viscoelastic deformations. In this study, an approximation to the viscoelastic energy dissipated per unit time is investigated for use in estimating mechanically induced viscoelastic heating. Coupled thermo-mechanical simulations of large cyclic deformations of rubber cylinders are presented. The cylinders are first compressed axially and then cyclically loaded about the compressed state. Details of the algorithm and some computational issues are discussed. The coupled analyses are conducted for tall and short rubber cylinders both with and without imbedded metal disks.

  16. Coupled Thermo-Mechanical Analyses of Dynamically Loaded Rubber Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Arthur R.; Chen, Tzi-Kang

    2000-01-01

    A procedure that models coupled thermo-mechanical deformations of viscoelastic rubber cylinders by employing the ABAQUS finite element code is described. Computational simulations of hysteretic heating are presented for several tall and short rubber cylinders both with and without a steel disk at their centers. The cylinders are compressed axially and are then cyclically loaded about the compressed state. The non-uniform hysteretic heating of the rubber cylinders containing a steel disk is presented. The analyses performed suggest that the coupling procedure should be considered for further development as a design tool for rubber degradation studies.

  17. Strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusoh, M. A.; Abdullah, S. R.; Adnan, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    The main focus in this investigation is to determine the strength consist compressive and tensile strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle. In fact, from the previous study, the strength of mortar containing waste rubber tire in mortar has a slightly decreases compare to normal mortar. In this study, rubber tire particle was replacing on volume of fine aggregate with 6%. 9% and 12%. The sample were indicated M0 (0%), M6 (6%), M9 (9%) and M12 (12%). In this study, two different size of sample used with cube 100mm x 100mm x 100mm for compressive strength and 40mm x 40mm x 160mm for flexural strength. Morphology test was conducted by using Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were done after testing compressive strength test. The concrete sample were cured for day 3, 7 and 28 before testing. Results compressive strength and flexural strength of rubber mortar shown improved compare to normal mortar.

  18. Effects of preparation process on performance of rubber modified asphalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanbing; Luo, Guobao; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo

    2015-06-01

    The rational utilization of waste rubber tire is essential for the environmental protection. Utilizing rubber particles to modify asphalt can not only improve asphalt performance, but also help the recycling of waste materials. Considering the effect of different preparation process parameters on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, this paper analyzes the effects of the shear temperature, shear time and shear rate on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, and provided a reference for its preparation.

  19. Interference in adhesion of bacteria and yeasts isolated from explanted voice prostheses to silicone rubber by rhamnolipid biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L R; Banat, I M; van der Mei, H C; Teixeira, J A; Oliveira, R

    2006-03-01

    The effects and extent of adhesion of four different bacterial and two yeast strains isolated from explanted voice prostheses to silicone rubber with and without an adsorbed rhamnolipid biosurfactant layer obtained from Pseudomonasaeruginosa DS10-129 was studied. The ability of rhamnolipid biosurfactant to inhibit adhesion of micro-organisms to silicone rubber was investigated in a parallel-plate flow chamber. The anti-adhesive activity of the biosurfactant at different concentrations was significant against all the strains and depended on the micro-organism tested. The results showed an effective reduction in the initial deposition rates, and the number of bacterial cells adhering after 4 h, for all micro-organisms tested at the 4 g l(-1) undiluted rhamnolipid solution. Maximum initial reduction of adhesion rate (an average of 66%) occurred for Streptococcus salivarius GB 24/9 and Candida tropicalis GB 9/9. The number of cells adhering after 4 h on silicone rubber conditioned with biosurfactant was reduced to 48% for Staphylococcus epidermidis GB 9/6, Strep. salivarius GB 24/9, Staphylococcus aureus GB 2/1 and C. tropicalis GB 9/9 in comparison to controls. Perfusing the flow chamber with biosurfactant containing solution followed by the passage of a liquid-air interface, to investigate detachment of micro-organisms adhering to silicone rubber, produced high detachment (96%) of adhered cells for all micro-organisms studied, except for Staph. aureus GB 2/1 (67%). It is concluded that biosurfactant represent suitable compounds that should be considered in developing future strategies to prevent the microbial colonization of silicone rubber voice prostheses.

  20. The role of carbon nanotubes in promoting the properties of carbon black-filled natural rubber/butadiene rubber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yan; Gao, Jiangshan; Gong, Xiubin; Xu, Jin

    80/20 natural rubber (NR)/butadiene rubber (BR) blends in which the carbon black (CB) was replaced partially by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) according to the ratios m (CNTs): m (decreasing amount of CB) = 1: X (X was varied from 1 to 6), was prepared by blending of internal mixer and the two-roll mill at the mill opening of 0.5 mm for 10 times. SEM and TEM were used to investigate the filler networks and the good dispersion of fillers. The compounds containing 5 phr CNTs/27.5 phr CB exhibited the best abrasion resistance which was increased by 12.69% compared that without CNTs. 3D morphology images of wear surfaces and tensile fracture surfaces being similar to the layered map of the geography, which match the abrasion resistance and tensile properties, were observed by 3D measuring laser microscope. The uncured blend with 5 phr CNTs/35 phr CB showed the shortest cure time, the highest modulus and level of crosslink density. Significant improvement in mechanical properties were achieved by incorporating 5 phr CNTs and 35 phr CB, and the tear strength, 100% and 300% modulus of the vulcanizate were enhanced by 36.36%, 61.29% and 31.63% compared with the composite with 0 phr CNTs/40 phr CB, respectively. Additionally, compared with the composite without CNTs, the thermal conductivity of the composites with 5 phr CNTs/35 phr CB is increased by an average of 6.15% at three different temperatures. These considerable reinforcements resulted from the synergistic effect of CNTs and CB.

  1. Characterizing Tire Crumb Rubber for Exposure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tire crumb rubber derived from recycled tires is widely used as infill material in synthetic turf fields in the United States. An estimated 95% of the over 12,000 installed fields in the U.S. use tire crumb rubber infill alone or mixed with sand or alternative materials. Concerns...

  2. Mechanical Behavior and Fatigue Studies of Rubber Components Used in Tracked Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-17

    durability to this elastomers and polybutadiene is rubber , which gives rubber -like properties. SBR has good abrasion resistance and good aging ...SIMULATION, TESTING AND VALIDATION (MSTV) MINI-SYMPOSIUM AUGUST 17-19 DEARBORN, MICHIGAN MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR AND FATIGUE STUDIES OF RUBBER COMPONENTS USED...Analytics Group US Army TARDEC Warren, MI ABSTRACT In this study, a styrene butadiene rubber , which is similar to the rubber used in road wheel

  3. Accelerated aging and stabilization of radiation-vulcanized EPDM rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basfar, A. A.; Abdel-Aziz, M. M.; Mofti, S.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of different antioxidants and their mixtures on the thermal aging and accelerated weathering of γ-radiation vulcanized EPDM rubber in presence of crosslinking coagent, was investigated. The compounds used were either a synergistic blend of phenolic and phosphite antioxidants, i.e. 1:4 Irganox 1076: Irgafos 168 or a blend of arylamine and quinoline type antioxidants, i.e. 1:1 IPPD: TMQ, at fixed concentration. Tinuvin 622 LD hindered amine light stabilized (HALS) was also used. The response was evaluated by the tensile strength and elongation at break for irradiated samples after thermal aging at 100°C for 28 days and accelerated weathering (Xenon test) up to 200 h.

  4. A sustainability review of domestic rubber from the guayule plant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) is an arid-adapted, low-input perennial shrub native to Mexico and southern Texas that has received considerable attention as an alternative source of natural rubber. It has potential to replace the most common types of rubbers, including synthetic rubber derived...

  5. 40 CFR 428.20 - Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emulsion crumb rubber subcategory. 428.20 Section 428.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.20 Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory...

  6. 40 CFR 428.20 - Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emulsion crumb rubber subcategory. 428.20 Section 428.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.20 Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory...

  7. Addition of Rubber to soil damages the functional diversity of soil.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Madhurankhi; Bhattacharyya, Purnita; Tribedi, Prosun

    2017-07-01

    Rubber is a polymer of isoprene, consisting mainly of cis-1,4-polyisoprene units. The unmanageable production and its irresponsible disposal pose severe threats to environmental ecology. Therefore, the current study focuses extensively on the ill-effects of Rubber disposal on soil microbial functional diversity as it reflects the health of ecosystem by acting as a key component in ecosystem productivity. To investigate the effect of Rubber on soil microbial functional diversity, soil samples were collected from landfill sites and three different soil microcosms (Rubber treated, untreated, and sterile soil) were prepared. The soil enzymatic activity was determined by fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis followed by the determination of the microbial metabolic potential and functional diversity by average well color development and Shannon-Weaver index (H), respectively. BiOLOG ECO plates were used for determining the microbial functional diversity of the soil microcosms. Higher heterotrophic microbial count as well as higher soil microbial activity was observed in Rubber untreated soil than Rubber treated soil microcosm. The result indicated that the addition of Rubber to soil reduced soil heterotrophic microbial count and soil microbial activity considerably. Similarly, soil microbial metabolic potential as well as microbial functional diversity of soil had been decreased by the addition of Rubber gloves in it. Variation in soil microbial metabolic spectrum between Rubber treated and untreated microcosm was confirmed by multivariate analysis. Collectively, all the results demonstrated that the addition of Rubber to soil reduced the soil microbial functional diversity considerably. Therefore, it is necessary for the commission of serious steps regarding Rubber disposal and protection of the environment from serious environmental issues.

  8. On Optimizing an Archibald Rubber-Band Heat Engine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, J. G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the criteria and procedure for optimizing the performance of Archibald rubber-band heat engines by using the appropriate choice of dimensions, minimizing frictional torque, maximizing torque and balancing the rubber band system. (GA)

  9. Alexithymia modulates the experience of the rubber hand illusion

    PubMed Central

    Grynberg, Delphine; Pollatos, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Alexithymia is associated with lower awareness of emotional and non-emotional internal bodily signals. However, evidence suggesting that alexithymia modulates body awareness at an external level is scarce. This study aimed to investigate whether alexithymia is associated with disrupted multisensory integration by using the rubber hand illusion task. Fifty healthy individuals completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and underwent the rubber hand illusion measure. In this measure, one watches a rubber hand being stroked synchronously or asynchronously with one’s own hand, which is hidden from view. Compared to the asynchronous stimulation, the synchronous stimulation results in the illusion that the rubber hand and the participant’s hand are closer together than they really are and that the rubber hand belongs to them. Results revealed that higher levels of alexithymia are associated with a lower ownership illusion over the rubber hand. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that high alexithymia scorers integrate two simultaneous sensory and proprioceptive events into a single experience (lower multisensory integration) to a lesser extent than low alexithymia scorers. Higher susceptibility to the illusion in high alexithymia scorers may indicate that alexithymia is associated with an abnormal focus of one’s own body. PMID:26150779

  10. Analysis of rubber supply in Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, M.J.; Nerlove, M.; Peters, R.K. Jr.

    1987-11-01

    An analysis of the supply response for perennial crops is undertaken for rubber in Sir Lanka, focusing on the uprooting-replanting decision and disaggregating the typical reduced-form supply response equation into several structural relationships. This approach is compared and contrasted with Dowling's analysis of supply response for rubber in Thailand, which is based upon a sophisticated reduced-form supply function developed by Wickens and Greenfield for Brazilian coffee. Because the uprooting-replanting decision is central to understanding rubber supply response in Sri Lanka and for other perennial crops where replanting activities dominate new planting, the standard approaches do not adequately capture supply response.

  11. Reinforcement effect of soy protein nanoparticles in amine-modified natural rubber latex

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mechanical properties of natural rubber reinforced with soy protein nanoparticles are useful for various rubber applications. However, the properties is further improved by improving interactions between soy protein and rubber. A novel method is used to modify particle surface of natural rubber late...

  12. General theory of frictional heating with application to rubber friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, G.; Ciaravola, V.; Furno, A.; Lorenz, B.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2015-05-01

    The energy dissipation in the contact regions between solids in sliding contact can result in high local temperatures which may strongly effect friction and wear. This is the case for rubber sliding on road surfaces at speeds above 1 mm s-1. We derive equations which describe the frictional heating for solids with arbitrary thermal properties. The theory is applied to rubber friction on road surfaces and we take into account that the frictional energy is partly produced inside the rubber due to the internal friction of rubber and in a thin (nanometer) interfacial layer at the rubber-road contact region. The heat transfer between the rubber and the road surface is described by a heat transfer coefficient which depends on the sliding speed. Numerical results are presented and compared to experimental data. We find that frictional heating results in a kinetic friction force which depends on the orientation of the sliding block, thus violating one of the two basic Leonardo da Vinci ‘laws’ of friction.

  13. Comparative Proteomics of Rubber Latex Revealed Multiple Protein Species of REF/SRPP Family Respond Diversely to Ethylene Stimulation among Different Rubber Tree Clones.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zheng; Wang, Dan; Sun, Yong; Yang, Qian; Meng, Xueru; Wang, Limin; Feng, Weiqiang; Li, Ling; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Wang, Xuchu

    2017-05-02

    Rubber elongation factor (REF) and small rubber particle protein (SRPP) are two key factors for natural rubber biosynthesis. To further understand the roles of these proteins in rubber formation, six different genes for latex abundant REF or SRPP proteins, including REF 138,175,258 and SRPP 117,204,243 , were characterized from Hevea brasiliensis Reyan (RY) 7-33-97. Sequence analysis showed that REFs have a variable and long N-terminal, whereas SRPPs have a variable and long C-terminal beyond the REF domain, and REF 258 has a β subunit of ATPase in its N-terminal. Through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), each REF/SRPP protein was separated into multiple protein spots on 2-DE gels, indicating they have multiple protein species. The abundance of REF/SRPP proteins was compared between ethylene and control treatments or among rubber tree clones with different levels of latex productivity by analyzing 2-DE gels. The total abundance of each REF/SRPP protein decreased or changed a little upon ethylene stimulation, whereas the abundance of multiple protein species of the same REF/SRPP changed diversely. Among the three rubber tree clones, the abundance of the protein species also differed significantly. Especially, two protein species of REF 175 or REF 258 were ethylene-responsive only in the high latex productivity clone RY 8-79 instead of in RY 7-33-97 and PR 107. Some individual protein species were positively related to ethylene stimulation and latex productivity. These results suggested that the specific protein species could be more important than others for rubber production and post-translational modifications might play important roles in rubber biosynthesis.

  14. FTIR spectra and mechanical strength analysis of some selected rubber derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, S; Natarajan, R K; Kala, A

    2007-10-01

    Rubber materials have wide range of commercial applications such as, infant diapers, famine hygiene products, drug delivery devices and incontinency products such as rubber tubes, tyres, etc. In the present work, studies on mechanical properties of some selected rubber materials viz., natural rubber (NR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) have been carried out in three states viz., raw, vulcanized and reinforced. To enhance the quality of rubber elastomers, an attempt is made to prepare new elastomers called polyblends. In the present study an attempt is made to blend NR with NBR and with EPDM. We here report, a novel approach for the evaluation of various physico-mechanical properties such as mechanical strength, tensile strength, elongation and hardness. The method is simple, direct and fast and involves infrared spectral measurements for the evaluation of these properties. With the applications of modern infrared spectroscopy, the mechanical strength of these rubber materials have been analyzed by calculating the internal standards among the methyl and methylene group vibrational frequencies obtained from FTIR spectroscopy. Also the tensile strength measurements carried out by universal testing machine. The results pertaining physico-mechanical properties of the rubber derivatives undertaken in the present study obtained by IR-based method are in good agreement with data resulted from the standard methods.

  15. FTIR spectra and mechanical strength analysis of some selected rubber derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekaran, S.; Natarajan, R. K.; Kala, A.

    2007-10-01

    Rubber materials have wide range of commercial applications such as, infant diapers, famine hygiene products, drug delivery devices and incontinency products such as rubber tubes, tyres, etc. In the present work, studies on mechanical properties of some selected rubber materials viz., natural rubber (NR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) have been carried out in three states viz., raw, vulcanized and reinforced. To enhance the quality of rubber elastomers, an attempt is made to prepare new elastomers called polyblends. In the present study an attempt is made to blend NR with NBR and with EPDM. We here report, a novel approach for the evaluation of various physico-mechanical properties such as mechanical strength, tensile strength, elongation and hardness. The method is simple, direct and fast and involves infrared spectral measurements for the evaluation of these properties. With the applications of modern infrared spectroscopy, the mechanical strength of these rubber materials have been analyzed by calculating the internal standards among the methyl and methylene group vibrational frequencies obtained from FTIR spectroscopy. Also the tensile strength measurements carried out by universal testing machine. The results pertaining physico-mechanical properties of the rubber derivatives undertaken in the present study obtained by IR-based method are in good agreement with data resulted from the standard methods.

  16. Characterization of some selected vulcanized and raw silicon rubber materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasikala, A.; Kala, A.

    2017-06-01

    Silicone Rubber is a high need of importance of Medical devices, Implants, Aviation and Aerospace wiring applications. Silicone rubbers are widely used in industry, and there are in multiple formulations. A raw and vulcanized silicone rubber Chemical and Physical structures of particles was confirmed and mechanical strength has been analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. Thermal properties studied from Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Activation energy of the rubber materials were calculated using Broido method, Piloyon-Novikova relation and coats-Red fern methods.

  17. Buffing dust as a filler of carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber and butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    PubMed

    Chronska, K; Przepiorkowska, A

    2008-03-01

    Buffing dust from chrome tanned leather is one of the difficult tannery wastes to manage. It is also hazardous to both human health and the environment. The scientific literature rarely reports studies on dust management, especially on its utilization as a filler for elastomers. In this connection we have made an attempt to use this leather waste as a filler for rubbers such as XNBR and NBR. The addition of the buffing dust to rubber mixes brought improvement in mechanical properties, and increase in resistance to thermal ageing as well as in electric conductivity and crosslink density of vulcalizates.

  18. Responses of rubber leaf phenology to climatic variations in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, De-Li; Yu, Haiying; Chen, Si-Chong; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2017-11-01

    The phenology of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) could be influenced by meteorological factors and exhibits significant changes under different geoclimates. In the sub-optimal environment in Xishuangbanna, rubber trees undergo lengthy periods of defoliation and refoliation. The timing of refoliation from budburst to leaf aging could be affected by powdery mildew disease (Oidium heveae), which negatively impacts seed and latex production. Rubber trees are most susceptible to powdery mildew disease at the copper and leaf changing stages. Understanding and predicting leaf phenology of rubber trees are helpful to develop effective means of controlling the disease. This research investigated the effect of several meteorological factors on different leaf phenological stages in a sub-optimal environment for rubber cultivation in Jinghong, Yunnan in Southwest China. Partial least square regression was used to quantify the relationship between meteorological factors and recorded rubber phenologies from 2003 to 2011. Minimum temperature in December was found to be the critical factor for the leaf phenology development of rubber trees. Comparing the delayed effects of minimum temperature, the maximum temperature, diurnal temperature range, and sunshine hours were found to advancing leaf phenologies. A comparatively lower minimum temperature in December would facilitate the advancing of leaf phenologies of rubber trees. Higher levels of precipitation in February delayed the light green and the entire process of leaf aging. Delayed leaf phenology was found to be related to severe rubber powdery mildew disease. These results were used to build predictive models that could be applied to early warning systems of rubber powdery mildew disease.

  19. Soil methane and CO2 fluxes in rainforest and rubber plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Rong; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Goldberg, Stefanie; Xu, Jianchu

    2017-04-01

    Expansion of rubber plantations in South-East Asia has been a land use transformation trend leading to losses of natural forest cover in the region. Besides impact on ecosystem carbon stocks, this conversion influences the dynamics of greenhouse gas fluxes from soil driven by microbial activity, which has been insufficiently studied. Aimed to understand how land use change affects the soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes, we measured surface gas fluxes, gas concentration gradient, and 13C signature in CH4 and soil organic matter in profiles in a transect in Xishuangbanna, including a rainforest site and three rubber plantation sites with age gradient. Gas fluxes were measured by static chamber method and open chamber respiration system. Soil gases were sampled from installed gas samplers at 5, 10, 30, and 75cm depth at representative time in dry and rainy season. The soil CO2 flux was comparable in rainforest and old rubber plantations, while young rubber plantation had the lowest rate. Total carbon content in the surface soil well explained the difference of soil CO2 flux between sites. All sites were CH4 sinks in dry season and uptake decreased in the order of rainforest, old rubber plantations and young rubber plantation. From dry season to rainy season, CH4 consumption decreased with increasing CH4 concentration in the soil profile at all depths. The enrichment of methane by 13CH4 shifted towards to lowerδ13C, being the evidence of enhanced CH4 production process while net surface methane flux reflected the consumption in wet condition. Increment of CH4 concentration in the profile from dry to rainy season was higher in old rubber plantation compared to rainforest, while the shifting of δ13CH4 was larger in rainforest than rubber sites. Turnover rates of soil CO2 and CH4 suggested that the 0-5 cm surface soil was the most active layer for gaseous carbon exchange. δ13C in soil organic matter and soil moisture increased from rainforest, young rubber plantation to old

  20. Liquefaction of ground tire rubber at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiangyun; Song, Pan; Zhao, Xinyu; Peng, Zonglin; Wang, Shifeng

    2018-01-01

    Low-temperature liquefaction has been investigated as a novel method for recycling ground tire rubber (GTR) into liquid using an environmentally benign process. The liquefaction was carried out at different temperatures (140, 160 and 180 °C) over variable time ranges (2-24 h) by blending the GTR with aromatic oil in a range from 0 to 100 parts per hundred rubber (phr). The liquefied GTR was separated into sol (the soluble fraction of rubber which can be extracted with toluene) and gel fractions (the solid fraction obtained after extraction) to evaluate the reclaiming efficiency. It was discovered that the percentage of the sol fraction increased with time, swelling ratio and temperature. Liquefied rubber was obtained with a high sol fraction (68.34 wt%) at 140 °C. Simultaneously, separation of nano-sized carbon black from the rubber networks occurred. The separation of carbon black from the network is the result of significant damage to the cross-linked-network that occurs throughout the liquefaction process. During liquefaction, a competitive reaction between main chain scission and cross-link bond breakage takes place. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 3D silicone rubber interfaces for individually tailored implants.

    PubMed

    Stieghorst, Jan; Bondarenkova, Alexandra; Burblies, Niklas; Behrens, Peter; Doll, Theodor

    2015-01-01

    For the fabrication of customized silicone rubber based implants, e.g. cochlear implants or electrocortical grid arrays, it is required to develop high speed curing systems, which vulcanize the silicone rubber before it runs due to a heating related viscosity drop. Therefore, we present an infrared radiation based cross-linking approach for the 3D-printing of silicone rubber bulk and carbon nanotube based silicone rubber electrode materials. Composite materials were cured in less than 120 s and material interfaces were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, curing related changes in the mechanical and cell-biological behaviour were investigated with tensile and WST-1 cell biocompatibility tests. The infrared absorption properties of the silicone rubber materials were analysed with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in transmission and attenuated total reflection mode. The heat flux was calculated by using the FTIR data, emissivity data from the infrared source manufacturer and the geometrical view factor of the system.

  2. Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber--an overview.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Rafat; Naik, Tarun R

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried out to reuse scrap-tires in a variety of rubber and plastic products, incineration for production of electricity, or as fuel for cement kilns, as well as in asphalt concrete. Studies show that workable rubberized concrete mixtures can be made with scrap-tire rubber. This paper presents an overview of some of the research published regarding the use of scrap-tires in portland cement concrete. The benefits of using magnesium oxychloride cement as a binder for rubberized concrete mixtures are also presented. The paper details the likely uses of rubberized concrete.

  3. Fluorination of silicone rubber by plasma polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, Jennifer Chase

    Plasma polymerized fluorocarbon (PPFC) films were deposited onto various silicone rubber substrates, including O-rings, to decrease oil uptake. Depositions were performed using a radio frequency (rf)-powered plasma reactor and various fluorocarbon monomers, such as C2F6, C2F 5H, C3F6, and 1H,1H,2H-perfluoro-1-dodecene. PPFC films which were most promising for inhibiting oil uptake were deposited with 1H,1H,2H-perfluoro-1-dodecene, and were composed predominantly of perfluoromethylene (CF2) species. These films displayed low critical surface energies (as low as 2.7 mJ/m2), and high contact angles with oil (84°), which were correlated with the amount of CF2 species present in the film. For the films with the highest degree of CF2 (up to 67%), CF2 chains may have been oriented slightly perpendicular to the substrate and terminated by CF3 species. Adhesion of the PPFC films directly to silicone rubber was found to be poor. However, when a plasma polymerized hydrocarbon interlayer was deposited on the silicone rubber prior to the fluorocarbon films, adhesion was excellent. O-rings coated with multilayer fluorocarbon films showed 2.6% oil uptake after soaking in oil for 100 hrs at 100°C. Due to variability in data, and the low quality of the industrial grade silicone rubber, the oil uptake mechanism was determined to be from oil flowing through flaws in the film due to defects within the substrate, not from generalized diffusion through the film. This mechanism was confirmed using higher quality silicone rubber, which showed little or no oil diffusion. Therefore, this film may perform well as an oil-repelling barrier when deposited on a high quality silicone rubber.

  4. Method for Molding Structural Parts Utilizing Modified Silicone Rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Baucom, Robert M. (Inventor); Snoha, John J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    This invention improves upon a method for molding structural parts from preform material. Preform material to be used for the part is provided. A silicone rubber composition containing entrained air voids is prepared. The silicone rubber and preform material assembly is situated within a rigid mold cavity used to shape the preform material to die desired shape. The entire assembly is heated in a standard heating device so that the thermal expansion of the silicone rubber exerts the pressure necessary to force the preform material into contact with the mold container. The introduction of discrete air voids into the silicone rubber allows for accurately controlled pressure application on the preform material at the cure temperature.

  5. Utilization of waste tire rubber in manufacture of oriented strandboard.

    PubMed

    Ayrilmis, Nadir; Buyuksari, Umit; Avci, Erkan

    2009-09-01

    Some physical and mechanical properties of oriented strandboards (OSBs) containing waste tire rubber at various addition levels based on the oven-dry strand weight, using the same method as that used in the manufacture of OSB. Two resin types, phenol-formaldehyde (PF) and polyisocyanate, were used in the experiments. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.65 and waste tire rubber content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of waste tire rubber/wood strand). Average internal bond values of PF-bonded OSB panels with rubber chips were between 17.6% and 48.5% lower than the average of the control samples while polyisocyanate bonded OSBs were 16.5-50.6%. However, water resistance and mechanical properties of OSBs made using polyisocyanate resin were found to comply with general-purpose OSB minimum property requirements of EN 300 Type 1 (1997) values for use in dry conditions at the lowest tire rubber loading level (10%) based on the oven-dry panel weight. The tire rubber improved water resistance of the OSB panel due to its almost hydrophobic property. Based on the findings obtained from this study, we concluded that waste tire rubber could be used for general-purpose OSB manufacturing up to 10% ratio based on the oven-dry panel weight.

  6. The optimum content of rubber ash in concrete: flexural strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senin, M. S.; Shahidan, S.; Shamsuddin, S. M.; Ariffin, S. F. A.; Othman, N. H.; Rahman, R.; Khalid, F. S.; Nazri, F. M.

    2017-11-01

    Discarded scrap tyres have become one of the major environmental problems nowadays. Several studies have been carried out to reuse waste tires as an additive or sand replacement in concrete with appropriate percentages of tire rubber, called as rubberized concrete to solve this problem. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the flexural strength performance of concrete when adding the rubber ash and also to analyse the optimum content of rubber ash in concrete prisms. The performance total of 30 number of concrete prisms in size of 100mm x 100mm x 500 mm were investigated, by partially replacement of rubber ash with percentage of 0%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9% from the volume of the sand. The flexural strength is increased when percentage of rubber ash is added 3% from control concrete prism, RA 0 for both concrete prism age, 7 days and 28 days with value 1.21% and 0.976% respectively. However, for RA 5, RA 7 and RA 9, the flexural strength was decreased compared to the control for both age, 7 days and 28 days. In conclusion, 3% is the optimum content of rubber ash in concrete prism for both concrete age

  7. Guayule resin detection and influence on guayule rubber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) is a natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) producing crop, native to North America. Guayule also produces organic resins, complex mixtures of terpenes, triglycerides, guayulins, triterpenoids and other components. During natural rubber extraction, guayule resins can b...

  8. Nonlinear Viscoelastic Mechanics of Cross-linked Rubbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.; Leonov, Arkady I.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The paper develops a general theory for finite rubber viscoelasticity, and specifies it in the form, convenient for solving problems important for rubber, tire and space industries. Based on the quasi-linear approach of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, a general nonlinear theory has been developed for arbitrary nonisothermal deformations of viscoelastic solids. In this theory, the constitutive equations are presented as the sum of known equilibrium (rubber elastic) and non-equilibrium (liquid polymer viscoelastic) terms. These equations are then simplified using several modeling arguments. Stability constraints for the proposed constitutive equations are also discussed. It is shown that only strong ellipticity criteria are applicable for assessing stability of the equations governing viscoelastic solids.

  9. Wear Resistant Rubber Tank Track Pads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    began to de- crease significantly during the winter months of 1973-1974. The December 1973 issie of Rubber Age carried the statement that the ready...to tear or abrasion. Because EPDM vulcanizates are inherently ozone resistant and have excellent age resistance, even at temperatures as high as...attempts to improve the tear resistance of this blend would be worthwhile. In an article1--’ appearing in the May 1973 issue of Rubber Age , the intro

  10. Mechanical properties of concrete containing a high volume of tire-rubber particles.

    PubMed

    Khaloo, Ali R; Dehestani, M; Rahmatabadi, P

    2008-12-01

    Due to the increasingly serious environmental problems presented by waste tires, the feasibility of using elastic and flexible tire-rubber particles as aggregate in concrete is investigated in this study. Tire-rubber particles composed of tire chips, crumb rubber, and a combination of tire chips and crumb rubber, were used to replace mineral aggregates in concrete. These particles were used to replace 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, and 50% of the total mineral aggregate's volume in concrete. Cylindrical shape concrete specimens 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in height were fabricated and cured. The fresh rubberized concrete exhibited lower unit weight and acceptable workability compared to plain concrete. The results of a uniaxial compressive strain control test conducted on hardened concrete specimens indicate large reductions in the strength and tangential modulus of elasticity. A significant decrease in the brittle behavior of concrete with increasing rubber content is also demonstrated using nonlinearity indices. The maximum toughness index, indicating the post failure strength of concrete, occurs in concretes with 25% rubber content. Unlike plain concrete, the failure state in rubberized concrete occurs gently and uniformly, and does not cause any separation in the specimen. Crack width and its propagation velocity in rubberized concrete are lower than those of plain concrete. Ultrasonic analysis reveals large reductions in the ultrasonic modulus and high sound absorption for tire-rubber concrete.

  11. Roughness Perception during the Rubber Hand Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutz-Bosbach, Simone; Tausche, Peggy; Weiss, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Watching a rubber hand being stroked by a paintbrush while feeling identical stroking of one's own occluded hand can create a compelling illusion that the seen hand becomes part of one's own body. It has been suggested that this so-called rubber hand illusion (RHI) does not simply reflect a bottom-up multisensory integration process but that the…

  12. Experimental Investigation on Damping Property of Coarse Aggregate Replaced Rubber Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugapriya, P.; Ramkrishnan, R.; Keerthana, G.; Saravanamurugan, S.

    2018-02-01

    Rubber has good damping and vibrational characteristics and can reduce cracking significantly due to its elastic nature. This property of rubber can be incorporated in concrete to control vibrations and create better pavements. Crumb Rubber on being dumped in landfills has serious repercussions and causes soil and land pollution. An innovative use of waste tires is shredding them into small pieces and using them as a replacement for coarse aggregate. Crumb rubber is obtained by chopping scrap tires, and in this study it was added in two different sets named SET 1 - Treated Crumb Rubber and concrete, and SET 2 - Treated Crumb rubber with Ultra Fine GGBS as admixture in concrete. Coarse aggregate replaces Rubber in each of the 2 SET’s in proportions of 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Properties like Compressive Strength, Young’s Modulus, Direct and Semi direct Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity, Sorptivity, Damping ratio and Frequency were found out. Deformation and mode shape were studied with modal analysis and static analysis by applying a uniform pressure corresponding to the highest compressive strength of the slab, using ANSYS.

  13. General theory of frictional heating with application to rubber friction.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, G; Ciaravola, V; Furno, A; Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J

    2015-05-08

    The energy dissipation in the contact regions between solids in sliding contact can result in high local temperatures which may strongly effect friction and wear. This is the case for rubber sliding on road surfaces at speeds above 1 mm s(-1). We derive equations which describe the frictional heating for solids with arbitrary thermal properties. The theory is applied to rubber friction on road surfaces and we take into account that the frictional energy is partly produced inside the rubber due to the internal friction of rubber and in a thin (nanometer) interfacial layer at the rubber-road contact region. The heat transfer between the rubber and the road surface is described by a heat transfer coefficient which depends on the sliding speed. Numerical results are presented and compared to experimental data. We find that frictional heating results in a kinetic friction force which depends on the orientation of the sliding block, thus violating one of the two basic Leonardo da Vinci 'laws' of friction.

  14. Autonomic self-healing in epoxidized natural rubber.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Arifur; Sartore, Luciana; Bignotti, Fabio; Di Landro, Luca

    2013-02-01

    The development of polymers that can repair damage autonomously would be useful to improve the lifetime of polymeric materials. To date, limited attention has been dedicated to developing elastomers with autonomic self-healing ability, which can recover damages without need for an external or internal source of healing agents. This work investigates the self-healing behavior of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) with two different epoxidation levels (25 and 50 mol % epoxidation) and of the corresponding unfunctionalized rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene (PISP). A self-adhesion assisted self-healing behavior was revealed by T-peel tests on slightly vulcanized rubbers. A higher epoxidation level was found to enhance self-healing. Self-healing of rubbers following ballistic damages was also investigated. A pressurized air flow test setup was used to evaluate the self-healing of ballistic damages in rubbers. Microscope (OM, SEM, and TEM) analyses were carried out to provide further evidence of healing in the impact zones. Self-healing of ballistic damages was observed only in ENR with 50 mol % epoxidation and it was found to be influenced significantly by the cross-link density. Finally, self-healing of ballistic damages was also observed in ENR50/PISP blends only when the content of the healing component (i.e., ENR50) was at least 25 wt %. From an analysis of the results, it was concluded that a synergistic effect between interdiffusion and interaction among polar groups leads to self-healing in ENR.

  15. Enhancement of carbon-steel peel adhesion to rubber blend using atmospheric pressure plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kršková, Jana; Skácelová, Dana; Kováčik, Dušan; Ráhel', Jozef; Pret'o, Jozef; Černák, Mirko

    2016-08-01

    The surface of carbon-steel plates was modified by non-equilibrium plasma of diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge (DCSBD) in order to improve the adhesive properties to the NR (natural rubber) green rubber compound. The effect of different treatment times as well as different input power and frequency of supplied high voltage was investigated. The samples were characterized using contact angle and surface free energy measurement, measurement of adhesive properties, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Surface chemical composition was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Significant increase in wettability was observed even after 2 s of plasma exposure. The surface modification was confirmed also by peel test, where the best results were obtained for 6 s of plasma treatment. In addition the ageing effect was studied to investigate the durability of modification, which is crucial for the industrial applications. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  16. Evaluation of peptides release using a natural rubber latex biomembrane as a carrier.

    PubMed

    Miranda, M C R; Borges, F A; Barros, N R; Santos Filho, N A; Mendonça, R J; Herculano, R D; Cilli, E M

    2018-05-01

    The biomembrane natural (NRL-Natural Rubber Latex), manipulated from the latex obtained from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, has shown great potential for application in biomedicine and biomaterials. Reflecting the biocompatibility and low bounce rate of this material, NRL has been used as a physical barrier to infectious agents and for the controlled release of drugs and extracts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incorporation and release of peptides using a latex biomembrane carrier. After incorporation, the release of material from the membrane was observed using spectrophotometry. Analyses using HPLC and mass spectroscopy did not confirm the release of the antimicrobial peptide [W 6 ]Hylin a1 after 24 h. In addition, analysis of the release solution showed new compounds, indicating the degradation of the peptide by enzymes contained in the latex. Additionally, the release of a peptide with a shorter sequence (Ac-WAAAA) was evaluated, and degradation was not observed. These results showed that the use of NRL as solid matrices as delivery systems of peptide are sequence dependent and could to be evaluated for each sequence.

  17. Strength and microstructure characteristics of the recycled rubber tire-sand mixtures as lightweight backfill.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Cai, Guojun; Duan, Weihong

    2018-02-01

    The disposal of scrap rubber tires has induced critical environmental issue worldwide due to the rapid increase in the number of vehicles. Recycled scrap tires as a construction material in civil engineering have significant environmental benefits from a waste management perspective. A systematic study that deals with strength and microstructure characteristics of the rubber-sand mixtures is initiated, and mechanical response of the mixtures is discussed in this investigation. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of rubber fraction on the basic properties including mass density (ρ), stress-strain characteristics, shear strength, and unconfined compression strength (q u ) of the rubber-sand mixtures. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to reveal the microstructure characteristics of the mixtures with various rubber fractions. A discussion on the micromechanics of the mixtures also was conducted. This study demonstrates that the ρ, friction angle, and q u decrease linearly with an increase in rubber fraction, whereas shear strain at peak increases. The stress-strain characteristics of the rubber-sand mixtures shift from brittle to ductile as the rubber fraction increase. These changes are attributed to remarkably lower stiffness and higher compressibility of the rubber particle compared with those of the conventional mineral aggregates. With an increase in the rubber fraction, the mechanical response of rubber-sand mixtures exhibits two types: sand-like material and rubber-like material. Rubber particle possesses the capacity to prevent the contacted sand particles from sliding at lower rubber fraction, whereas it transmits the applied loadings as the rubber fraction increased. This outcome reinforces the practicability of using recycled rubber tire-sand mixtures as a lightweight backfill in subbase/base applications.

  18. Evaluating Waste Charcoal as Potential Rubber Composite Filler

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carbon black, a byproduct of the petroleum industry, is the world's most predominant filler for rubber composites. In this study, charcoal in the form of pyrolyzed agricultural products was evaluated as potential carbon-based filler for rubber composites made with carboxylated styrene-butadiene lat...

  19. Enhancing and standardizing interaction of rubber particles with asphalt : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-11-01

    Addition of ground rubber particles to asphalt can enhance several fold the stiffness of the blend as reflected by G*/sin of the rubber-asphalt cements (RACs). Pretreatment of rubber particles with as little as 5% aromatic oil (AO) enhances the ap...

  20. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the properties of crosslinked rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banik, Indranil; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2000-05-01

    Influence of electron beam (EB) irradiation on the mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of crosslinked fluorocarbon (FKM) rubber, natural rubber (NR), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber and nitrile rubber (NBR) has been investigated. The modulus, gel fraction, glass transition temperature ( Tg) and storage modulus increased, while the elongation at the break and the loss tangent (tan δ) Tg decreased. FKM and NBR vulcanizates have been shown to have EB radiation resistance up to 1500 kGy.

  1. The Long-Term Effectiveness of Chemical vs. Polymeric Antiozonants in Rubber

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    August 1954. 2. Lerner, M.E., Rubber Age . 105, 57, December 1973. 3. Buist, J., British Patent 939, 359 (Application made in Canada, No. 802, 137...J.M., Kindle, R.W., and Mazzeo, R.A., Rubber World. 98. 67, 1966 (Abstract only). 6 Samuels, M.E., and Wirth, K.H., Rubber Age . 99. 73, 1967. 7... Age . 101. 47, 1969. 12 ASTM Standards on Rubber Products, March 1968, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, Pa

  2. Particle reinforced composites from acrylamide modified blend of styrene-butadiene and natural rubber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blends of styrene-butadiene rubber and natural rubber that provide balanced properties were modified with acrylamide and reinforced with soy protein particles. The rubber composites show improved mechanical properties. Both modified rubber and composites showed a faster curing rate. The crosslinking...

  3. A review on the suitability of rubberized concrete for concrete bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syamir Senin, Mohamad; Shahidan, Shahiron; Radziah Abdullah, Siti; Anting Guntor, Nickholas; Syazani Leman, Alif

    2017-11-01

    Road authorities manage a large population of ageing bridges, a substantial number of which fail to meet the current requirements either due to deterioration and other structural deficiencies or as a result of the escalating demands imposed by increased traffic. This problem is related to the dynamic load from vehicles. This problem can be solved by producing a type of concrete that can reduce the amplitude of oscillation or vibration such as rubberized concrete. Green construction has been a very important aspect in concrete production field in the last decade. One of the most problematic waste materials is scrap tires. The use of scrap tires in civil engineering is increasing by producing rubberized concrete. Rubberized concrete is a type of concrete that is mixed with rubber. The purpose of this review is to justify the suitability of rubberized concrete for concrete bridge decks. Several parameters named physical, chemical and mechanical properties were measured to ensure the suitability of rubberized concrete for concrete bridge decks. Rubberized concrete has similar workability to normal concrete. The rubber reduced the density and compressive strength of the concrete while increased the flexural strength, water absorption and damping ratio. The used of rubber in concrete beyond 20% is not recommended due to decreasing in compressive strength. Rubberized concrete recommended to be used in circumstances where vibration damping was required such as in bridge construction as shock-wave absorber.

  4. Surface improvement of EPDM rubber by plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, J. H.; da Silva Sobrinho, A. S.; Maciel, H. S.; Dutra, J. C. N.; Massi, M.; Mello, S. A. C.; Schreiner, W. H.

    2007-12-01

    The surface of ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) rubber was treated in N2/Ar and N2/H2/Ar RF plasmas in order to achieve similar or better adhesion properties than NBR (acrylonitrile-butadiene) rubber, nowadays used as thermal protection of rocket chambers. The surface properties were studied by contact angle measurements and by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The treated surfaces of the EPDM samples show a significant reduction in the contact angle measurement, indicating an increase in the surface energy. XPS analyses show the incorporation of polar nitrogen- and oxygen-containing groups on the rubber surface. After plasma treatment the presence of oxygen is observed due to surface oxidation which occurs when the samples are exposed to the air. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses indicate a decrease in the EPDM rubber surface roughness, promoted by surface etching during the plasma treatment. Strength tests indicate improvement of about 30% and 110% in the adhesion strength for the plasma treated EPDM/polyurethane liner interface and for the EPDM/epoxy adhesive interface, respectively. The adhesion strength of the EPDM/liner is similar to that obtained for the NBR/liner, which indicates that EPDM rubber can safely be used as thermal protection of the solid propellant rocket chamber.

  5. Occupational nitrosamine exposure. 1. Rubber and tyre industry.

    PubMed

    Spiegelhalder, B; Preussmann, R

    1983-09-01

    To determine the role of N-nitrosamines in the known increased cancer risk of rubber workers, air concentrations of such carcinogens were measured by area sampling or personal monitoring in 19 factories. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were found regularly, the air concentrations varying between 0.1 and 380 micrograms/m3 personal monitoring. The mean concentration was usually in the range of 1-10 micrograms/m3. Several other nitrosamines could be detected in certain production branches. In retail shops and storage rooms of tyres NDMA and NMOR were found. Most rubber chemicals based on amines are contaminated with N-nitrosamines, but this contamination cannot explain the air concentrations of nitrosamines found. The occurrence of nitrosamines mainly depends upon their formation during production of rubber and rubber products from used vulcanisation accelerators based on amines and the presence of nitrosating agents, such as diphenylnitrosamine (retarder A) and of nitrous gases, in products or production areas. Elimination of one or both precursors for nitrosamine formation resulted in significant reduction of airial contamination of nitrosamines. The results are discussed in regard to the mechanisms of nitrosamine formation during rubber production, as basis for future epidemiological studies and their potential for exposure prevention.

  6. Temperature Coefficients of Electrical Conductivity and Conduction Mechanisms in Butyl Rubber-Carbon Black Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzamil, M. A.; Alfaramawi, K.; Abboudy, S.; Abulnasr, L.

    2018-02-01

    Electrical properties of butyl rubber filled with General Purpose Furnace (GPF) carbon black were studied. The carbon black concentration ( X) in the compound was X = 40, 60, 70, 80, and 100 parts by weight per hundred parts by weight of rubber (phr). The corresponding volume fractions of GPF carbon black were 0.447 ± 0.022, 0.548 ± 0.027, 0.586 ± 0.029, 0.618 ± 0.031 and 0.669 ± 0.034, respectively. The concentration dependence of conductivity ( σ ) at constant temperature showed that σ follows a percolation theory; σ ∝ ( {X - Xo } )^{γ } , where X o is the concentration at percolation threshold. The exponent γ was found as 6.6 (at room temperature 30°C). This value agrees with other experimental values obtained by many authors for different rubber-carbon black systems. Electron tunneling between the aggregates, which are dispersed in the insulator rubber, was mainly the conduction process proposed at constant temperature in the butyl-GPF carbon black composites. Temperature dependence of conductivity was investigated in the temperature range from 30°C up to 120°C. All samples exhibit negative temperature coefficients of conductivity (NTCC). The values obtained are - 0.130°C-1, - 0.019°C-1, - 0.0082°C-1, - 0.0094°C-1, and - 0.072°C-1 for carbon black concentrations of 40 phr, 60 phr, 70 phr, 80 phr, and 100 phr, respectively. The samples of concentrations 40 phr and 60 phr have also positive temperature coefficients of conductivity (PTCC) of values + 0.031 and + 0.013, respectively. Electrical conduction at different temperatures showed various mechanisms depending on the carbon black concentration and/or the interval of temperature. The hopping conduction mechanism was noticed at the lower temperature region while carrier thermal activation mechanisms were recorded at the higher temperature range.

  7. Evaluation of the use of rubber-tire rollers on asphalt concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1989-01-01

    The addition of a rubber-tire roller was required on two projects on maintenance schedules and on two construction projects in 1988. The rubber-tire roller was used as an addition to the conventional rollers on one-half of each project. The rubber-ti...

  8. Contact Dermatitis from Penetration of Rubber Gloves by Acrylic Monomer

    PubMed Central

    Pegum, J. S.; Medhurst, F. A.

    1971-01-01

    An orthopaedic surgeon developed dermatitis from acrylic materials. The acrylic monomer was found to penetrate surgical rubber gloves readily. Cases of “rubber glove dermatitis” with negative patch tests may have a similar explanation. Laboratory tests suggest that monomer does not damage rubber sufficiently to allow bacteria to penetrate gloves, but it remains possible that this would happen under theatre conditions. PMID:5581492

  9. Characterization of interaction between natural rubber and silica by FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarnthong, Methakarn; Liao, Lusheng; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Yueqiong; Li, Puwang; Peng, Zheng; Malawet, Chutarat; Intharapat, Punyanich

    2017-05-01

    Blending of natural rubber (NR) and nanosilica (SiO2) was performed in latex state. The mechanical properties of NR/SiO2 nanocomposites at various filler contents were investigated. The interactions of unvulcanized natural rubber and nanosilica filler were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)-Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy. The relationship between mechanical properties and rubber-filler interaction was discussed.

  10. Polybutadiene and Styrene-Butadiene rubbers for high-dose dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Lucas N.; Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares -IPEN, Sao Paulo-SP; Vieira, Silvio L.

    2015-07-01

    Polybutadiene and Styrene-Butadiene are synthetical rubbers used widely for pneumatic tires manufacturing. In this research, the dosimeter characteristics of those rubbers were studied for application in high-dose dosimetry. The rubber samples were irradiated with doses of 10 Gy up to 10 kGy, using a {sup 60}Co Gamma Cell-220 system (dose rate of 1.089 kGy/h) and their readings were taken on a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy-FTIR system (model Frontier/Perkin Elmer). The ratios of two absorbance peaks were taken for each kind of rubber spectrum, Polybutadiene (1306/1130 cm{sup -1}) and Styrene-Butadiene (1449/1306 cm{sup -1}). The ratio calculated was used as the responsemore » to the irradiation, and is not uniform across the sample. From the results, it can be concluded for both rubbers: a) the dose-response curves may be useful for high-dose dosimetry (greater than 250 Gy); b) their response for reproducibility presented standard deviations lower than 2.5%; c) the relative sensitivity was higher for Styrene-Butadiene (1.86 kGy{sup -1}) than for Polybutadiene (1.81 kGy{sup -1}), d) for doses of 10 kGy to 200 kGy, there was no variation in the dosimetric response. Both types of rubber samples showed usefulness as high-dose dosimeters. (authors)« less

  11. 40 CFR 60.542a - Alternate standard for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry § 60.542a Alternate standard for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test, required by § 60.8, is completed, but no...

  12. Unraveling the mystery of natural rubber biosynthesis. Part II. Composition and growth of in vitro natural rubber using high-resolution size exclusion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Cheng Ching K.; Barkakaty, Balaka; Puskas, Judit E.

    The superior properties of natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene [NR]) are a function of its structure and composition, properties that still remain a mystery and that are irreplaceable by any synthetic rubber. NR from guayule (Parthenium argentatum) has been gaining special interest for its hypoallergenic properties while maintaining superior mechanical properties that are commonly associated with the Brazilian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), the most common source of NR. Techniques exist to isolate washed rubber particles (WRPs) that contain enzymatically active rubber transferase, to study NR biosynthesis, and previous work on the in vitroNRgrowth in Hevea has demonstrated the presence of around 50wt%ofmore » a low molecular weight ([MW], Mn <10 000 g/mol) fraction. Structural and compositional analyses of this low MW fraction in Hevea are challenging due to the high protein content. Here, we discuss the analysis and composition of guayule latex and WRPs using high-resolution Size Exclusion Chromatography. We also discuss the composition of the soluble fraction of inactive guayule latex using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectrometry.« less

  13. Investigating Low Temperature Properties of Rubber Seals - 13020

    SciTech Connect

    Jaunich, M.; Wolff, D.; Stark, W.

    To achieve the required tightness levels of containers for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes rubbers are widely applied as main sealing materials. The save encapsulation of the radioactive container contents has to be guaranteed according to legislation and appropriate guidelines for long storage periods as well as down to temperatures of -40 deg. C during transportation. Therefore the understanding of failure mechanisms that lead to leakage at low temperatures is of high importance. It is known that the material properties of rubbers are strongly influenced by temperature. At low temperatures this is caused by the rubber-glass transition (abbr. glassmore » transition). During continuous cooling the material changes from rubber-like entropy-elastic to stiff energy-elastic behaviour, that allows nearly no strain or retraction. Therefore, rubbers are normally used above their glass transition but the minimum working temperature limit is not defined precisely, what can cause problems during application. The temperature range where full functionality is possible is strongly dependent on the application conditions and the material. For this investigation mainly ethylene propylene diene (EPDM) and fluorocarbon rubbers (FKM) were selected as they are often used for radioactive waste containers. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) are typically used for the determination of the temperature range of the glass transition process. The standardized compression set measurement according to ISO 815 is common for investigation of rubber sealing materials as the test simulates the seal behaviour after release. To reduce the test time of the standard tests a faster technique giving the same information was developed. Additionally, the breakdown temperature of the sealing function of complete O-ring seals is measured in a component test setup to compare it with the results of the other tests. The experimental setup is capable

  14. Runway Rubber Removal Specification Development: Field Evaluation Procedures Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    removal was sufficient enough to restore full pave- ment skid resistance (based on tests with a DBV). With regard to high-pressure water rubber ...over a test surface, the rubber slider resists motion-. The force, parallel to the test surface, which acts on the slider registers an output on a dial...PROCEDURE 1. Check rubber shoe for wear . Replace when the edge is worn by more than 3/16 in as measured with a rule laid flat across the slider width. 2

  15. Effects of forests, roads and mistletoe on bird diversity in monoculture rubber plantations

    PubMed Central

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Huang, Guohualing; Yasuda, Mika; Quan, Rui-Chang; Goodale, Eben; Corlett, Richard T.; Tomlinson, Kyle W.

    2016-01-01

    Rising global demand for natural rubber is expanding monoculture rubber (Hevea brasilensis) at the expense of natural forests in the Old World tropics. Conversion of forests into rubber plantations has a devastating impact on biodiversity and we have yet to identify management strategies that can mitigate this. We determined the life-history traits that best predict bird species occurrence in rubber plantations in SW China and investigated the effects of surrounding forest cover and distance to roads on bird diversity. Mistletoes provide nectar and fruit resources in rubber so we examined mistletoe densities and the relationship with forest cover and rubber tree diameter. In rubber plantations, we recorded less than half of all bird species extant in the surrounding area. Birds with wider habitat breadths and low conservation value had a higher probability of occurrence. Species richness and diversity increased logarithmically with surrounding forest cover, but roads had little effect. Mistletoe density increased exponentially with rubber tree diameters, but was unrelated to forest cover. To maximize bird diversity in rubber-dominated landscapes it is therefore necessary to preserve as much forest as possible, construct roads through plantations and not forest, and retain some large rubber trees with mistletoes during crop rotations. PMID:26903032

  16. Effects of forests, roads and mistletoe on bird diversity in monoculture rubber plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Huang, Guohualing; Yasuda, Mika; Quan, Rui-Chang; Goodale, Eben; Corlett, Richard T.; Tomlinson, Kyle W.

    2016-02-01

    Rising global demand for natural rubber is expanding monoculture rubber (Hevea brasilensis) at the expense of natural forests in the Old World tropics. Conversion of forests into rubber plantations has a devastating impact on biodiversity and we have yet to identify management strategies that can mitigate this. We determined the life-history traits that best predict bird species occurrence in rubber plantations in SW China and investigated the effects of surrounding forest cover and distance to roads on bird diversity. Mistletoes provide nectar and fruit resources in rubber so we examined mistletoe densities and the relationship with forest cover and rubber tree diameter. In rubber plantations, we recorded less than half of all bird species extant in the surrounding area. Birds with wider habitat breadths and low conservation value had a higher probability of occurrence. Species richness and diversity increased logarithmically with surrounding forest cover, but roads had little effect. Mistletoe density increased exponentially with rubber tree diameters, but was unrelated to forest cover. To maximize bird diversity in rubber-dominated landscapes it is therefore necessary to preserve as much forest as possible, construct roads through plantations and not forest, and retain some large rubber trees with mistletoes during crop rotations.

  17. Effects of forests, roads and mistletoe on bird diversity in monoculture rubber plantations.

    PubMed

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Huang, Guohualing; Yasuda, Mika; Quan, Rui-Chang; Goodale, Eben; Corlett, Richard T; Tomlinson, Kyle W

    2016-02-23

    Rising global demand for natural rubber is expanding monoculture rubber (Hevea brasilensis) at the expense of natural forests in the Old World tropics. Conversion of forests into rubber plantations has a devastating impact on biodiversity and we have yet to identify management strategies that can mitigate this. We determined the life-history traits that best predict bird species occurrence in rubber plantations in SW China and investigated the effects of surrounding forest cover and distance to roads on bird diversity. Mistletoes provide nectar and fruit resources in rubber so we examined mistletoe densities and the relationship with forest cover and rubber tree diameter. In rubber plantations, we recorded less than half of all bird species extant in the surrounding area. Birds with wider habitat breadths and low conservation value had a higher probability of occurrence. Species richness and diversity increased logarithmically with surrounding forest cover, but roads had little effect. Mistletoe density increased exponentially with rubber tree diameters, but was unrelated to forest cover. To maximize bird diversity in rubber-dominated landscapes it is therefore necessary to preserve as much forest as possible, construct roads through plantations and not forest, and retain some large rubber trees with mistletoes during crop rotations.

  18. [Destruction of the solid-cast rubber tyres by microscopic fungi].

    PubMed

    Chuienko, A I; Subbota, A H; Zhdanova, N M

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to the action of standard test-cultures of fungi (in accordance with GOST 9.049-91 of the former U.S.S.R.) and species, isolated from rubber substrates of two types of the poured rubber tyres, which contained natural and synthetic plasticizer, have been investigated. It has been shown that the strains, isolated from rubber materials have an ability to deteriorate rubber tyres of two types, in contrast to standard species, which caused deterioration only to the tyres, containing the synthetic plasticizer. It has been described in our investigations that fungal resistance of studied tyres decrease with time (on the 28th and 365th day, accordingly), that is shown in full overgrowing of tyre samples, in destruction of their surfaces and in changing of their hardness. Such changes are accompanied by processes of oxidation of rubber, degradation of plasticizer, and by deleaching of such inorganic components of rubber as calcium carbonate, kaolin and zeolite. This information is presented on IR-spectrograms of investigated samples as the absence or presence of absorption frequencies of different intensity that corresponded to aromatic, hydroxyl, ester, alcohol, nitrile and inorganic groups. The paper is presented in Ukrainian.

  19. Effect of urea deproteinization on catalytic hydrogenation of natural rubber latex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifriadi, A.; Chalid, M.; Puspitasari, S.

    2017-07-01

    Natural rubber is unsaturated biopolymer which has low resistance to heat, oxygen, and ozone. Chemical modification of natural rubber by catalytic hydrogenation can improve its oxidative property. In this study, the catalytic hydrogenation of natural rubber was investigated in latex phase after reduction of protein content with urea. Hydrogenation of deproteinized natural rubber latex was performed by using diimide which generated insitu from hydrazine hydrate/hydrogen peroxide and catalyst (boric acid, cupric sulfate and cupric acetate) at 70°C for 5 h. The hydrogenation system was stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulphate. The hydrogenation of deproteinized natural rubber (HDPNR) was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The result indicated that cupric sulphate was extremely active catalyst which was showed by the elimination of C=C transmittance bands at 1660 cm-1 on HDPNR spectra and highest degree of hydrogenation. Furthermore, urea deproteinization increased possibility of side reactions during catalytic hydrogenation as seen on the reduction of gel content compared to undeproteinized natural rubber.

  20. Control Systems of Rubber Dryer Machinery Components Using Programmable Logic Control (PLC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendra; Yulianto, A. S.; Indriani, A.; Hernadewita; Hermiyetti

    2018-02-01

    Application of programmable logic control (PLC) is widely used on the control systems in the many field engineering such as automotive, aviation, food processing and other industries [1-2]. PLC is simply program to control many automatic activity, easy to use, flexible and others. PLC using the ladder program to solve and regulated the control system component. In previous research, PLC was used for control system of rotary dryer machine. In this paper PLC are used for control system of motion component in the rubber dryer machinery. Component of rubber dryer machine is motors, gearbox, sprocket, heater, drying chamber and bearing. Principle working of rubber dryer machinery is wet rubber moving into the drying chamber by sprocket. Sprocket is driven by motors that conducted by PLC to moving and set of wet rubber on the drying chamber. Drying system uses greenhouse effect by making hanger dryer design in the form of line path. In this paper focused on motion control system motors and sensors drying rubber using PLC. The results show that control system of rubber dryer machinery can work in accordance control input and the time required to dry the rubber.

  1. Crumb rubber filtration: a potential technology for ballast water treatment.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhijian; Butkus, Michael A; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2006-05-01

    The removal of turbidity, particles, phytoplankton and zooplankton in water by crumb rubber filtration was investigated. A substantial reduction was achieved. Of the three variables, filter depth, media size and filtration rate, media size had the most significant influence. Smaller media size favored higher removal efficiency of all targeted matter. There was no apparent relationship between removal efficiency and filter depth. Higher filtration rate resulted in lower removal efficiency and higher head loss. Compared with conventional granular media filters, crumb rubber filters required less backwash, and developed lower head loss. Consequently crumb rubber filters could be run for a longer time or allow a higher filtration rate. The results also indicate that the crumb rubber filtration alone did not achieve the target removal of invasive species. However, crumb rubber filtration could potentially be used as a primary treatment technology to enhance the efficiency of a secondary treatment process (e.g., disinfection).

  2. Polyacrylamide brush coatings preventing microbial adhesion to silicone rubber.

    PubMed

    Fundeanu, Irina; van der Mei, Henny C; Schouten, Arend J; Busscher, Henk J

    2008-07-15

    Silicone rubber is a frequently used biomaterial in biomedical devices and implants, yet highly prone to microbial adhesion and the development of a biomaterial-centered infection. Effective coating of silicone rubber to discourage microbial adhesion has thus far been impossible due to the hydrophobic character of its surface, surface deterioration upon treatment and instability of coatings under physiological conditions. Here we present a method to successfully grow polyacrylamide (PAAm) brushes from silicone rubber surfaces after removal of low molecular weight organic molecules (LMWOM), such as silane oligomers. PAAm brush coating did not cause any surface deterioration and discouraged microbial adhesion, even after 1-month exposure to physiological fluids. The method presented opens many new avenues for the use of silicone rubber as a biomaterial, without the risk of developing a biomaterial-centered infection.

  3. New rubber qualification for the igniter adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humpherys, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    Kirkhill Rubber Company (KRC) has informed Thiokol Corporation that two raw materials used in the asbestos and silica filled acrylonitrile butadience rubber (NBR) formulation per STW 2621 are no longer available from their vendors. Agerite White (Di-beta-naphthyl-paraphenylene diamine), manufactured by B. F. Goodrich, is an antioxidant used in NBR. This raw material makes up roughly 1-2 percent of the finished product. KRC proposed that this raw material be replaced by Agerite Stalite S (mixture of octylated diphenylamines) distributed by R. T. Vanderbilt Co. Protox-166 zinc oxide, manufactured by Zinc Corporation of America, is an activator currently used in NBR. This material also makes up about 1-2 percent of the finished material. Protox-166 is an American process grade zinc oxide. It is proposed by KRC to replace Protox-166 with Kadox-930C, a French process grade zinc oxide. American process grades have an ASTM minimum purity of 99.0 percent; the French process grades have a minimum purity of 99.5 percent. Previous testing per WTP-0270 has demonstrated that the mechanical and thermal properties of the rubber with the new ingredients are comparable to the 'old' rubber. The test results are reported in TWR-61790. One igniter adapter, Part no. 7U77562-02 serial no. 2 was insulated per ETP-1206 using the new rubber formulation and a modified lay up and cure method to demonstrate that there is no impact on this process. The results of this demonstration are reported.

  4. A review on using crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement.

    PubMed

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Ali, Asim Hassan; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez

    2014-01-01

    An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM) obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM) could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction.

  5. Rubber friction: The contribution from the area of real contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, A.; Miyashita, N.; Espallargas, N.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2018-06-01

    There are two contributions to the friction force when a rubber block is sliding on a hard and rough substrate surface, namely, a contribution Fad = τf A from the area of real contact A and a viscoelastic contribution Fvisc from the pulsating forces exerted by the substrate asperities on the rubber block. Here we present experimental results obtained at different sliding speeds and temperatures, and we show that the temperature dependency of the shear stress τf, for temperatures above the rubber glass transition temperature Tg, is weaker than that of the bulk viscoelastic modulus. The physical origin of τf for T > Tg is discussed, and we propose that its temperature dependency is determined by the rubber molecule segment mobility at the sliding interface, which is higher than in the bulk because of increased free-volume effect due to the short-wavelength surface roughness. This is consistent with the often observed reduction in the glass transition temperature in nanometer-thick surface layers of glassy polymers. For temperatures T < Tg, the shear stress τf is nearly velocity independent and of similar magnitude as observed for glassy polymers such as PMMA or polyethylene. In this case, the rubber undergoes plastic deformations in the asperity contact regions and the contact area is determined by the rubber penetration hardness. For this case, we propose that the frictional shear stress is due to slip at the interface between the rubber and a transfer film adsorbed on the concrete surface.

  6. Leaching of nitroso rubber material removes uncured polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratfisch, W. A.; Gonzalez, R.

    1972-01-01

    New leaching process removes uncured polymer from nitroso rubber, elastomer used in presence of nitrogen tetroxide. Uncured portion is removed by controlled soaking of polymer slab in Freon TF. Leaching with Freon TF prevents nitroso rubber from adhering to adjoining surfaces and limiting its usefulness in either static or dynamic applications.

  7. Insights into rubber biosynthesis from transcriptome analysis of Hevea brasiliensis latex.

    PubMed

    Chow, Keng-See; Wan, Kiew-Lian; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat; Bahari, Azlina; Tan, Siang-Hee; Harikrishna, K; Yeang, Hoong-Yeet

    2007-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis is the most widely cultivated species for commercial production of natural rubber (cis-polyisoprene). In this study, 10,040 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated from the latex of the rubber tree, which represents the cytoplasmic content of a single cell type, in order to analyse the latex transcription profile with emphasis on rubber biosynthesis-related genes. A total of 3,441 unique transcripts (UTs) were obtained after quality editing and assembly of EST sequences. Functional classification of UTs according to the Gene Ontology convention showed that 73.8% were related to genes of unknown function. Among highly expressed ESTs, a significant proportion encoded proteins related to rubber biosynthesis and stress or defence responses. Sequences encoding rubber particle membrane proteins (RPMPs) belonging to three protein families accounted for 12% of the ESTs. Characterization of these ESTs revealed nine RPMP variants (7.9-27 kDa) including the 14 kDa REF (rubber elongation factor) and 22 kDa SRPP (small rubber particle protein). The expression of multiple RPMP isoforms in latex was shown using antibodies against REF and SRPP. Both EST and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (QRT-PCR) analyses demonstrated REF and SRPP to be the most abundant transcripts in latex. Besides rubber biosynthesis, comparative sequence analysis showed that the RPMPs are highly similar to sequences in the plant kingdom having stress-related functions. Implications of the RPMP function in cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis in the context of transcript abundance and differential gene expression are discussed.

  8. Role of weakest links and system-size scaling in multiscale modeling of stochastic plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ispánovity, Péter Dusán; Tüzes, Dániel; Szabó, Péter; Zaiser, Michael; Groma, István

    2017-02-01

    Plastic deformation of crystalline and amorphous matter often involves intermittent local strain burst events. To understand the physical background of the phenomenon a minimal stochastic mesoscopic model was introduced, where details of the microstructure evolution are statistically represented in terms of a fluctuating local yield threshold. In the present paper we propose a method for determining the corresponding yield stress distribution for the case of crystal plasticity from lower scale discrete dislocation dynamics simulations which we combine with weakest link arguments. The success of scale linking is demonstrated by comparing stress-strain curves obtained from the resulting mesoscopic and the underlying discrete dislocation models in the microplastic regime. As shown by various scaling relations they are statistically equivalent and behave identically in the thermodynamic limit. The proposed technique is expected to be applicable to different microstructures and also to amorphous materials.

  9. [Rubber band ligation in treatment of hemorrhoids: our experience].

    PubMed

    Gaj, F; Biviano, I; Sportelli, G; Candeloro, L

    2015-01-01

    Hemorrhoids are a very common condition. The treatment depends upon persistence and severity of symptoms. For hemorrhoids of II and III grade the rubber band ligation may be therapeutic. Our aim is to report the outcomes of rubber band ligation of hemorrhoids, with a follow up of 6 months. A total of 50 patients underwent rubber band ligation for symptomatic hemorrhoids (grade II and III) without prolapse, between June 2012 and June 2014. All patients underwent plug test to rule out presence of rectal mucosal prolapse and were classified according to PATE classification (1). Each hemorrhoid was ligated with one rubber band through a ligator. All patients were evaluated immediately at the end of the procedure, after ten days and six months after the treatment. Patient's demographic and operative data were collected and analyzed. The mean patients age was 47.6±12.3 years (range 24-72). All procedures were performed without complications. Before rubber band ligation, 42 patients had rectal bleeding, 38 had perineal discomfort and 27 had itching. Ten days after the treatment, 12 patients presented self-limited rectal bleeding, but 10 of these had more hemorrhoids and underwent a second rubber band ligation. No patients complained perineal discomfort, and 8 patients had itching; 78% and 16% of patients respectively, experienced feeling of a foreign body inside the canal anal and anal pain. After 6 months, only 13 patients were occasionally symptomatic: 4 patients had rectal bleeding, 2 had perineal discomfort and 4 had itching. Three more patients presented both perineal discomfort and hitching. None had the feeling of a foreign body in anal canal or anal pain. Rubber band ligation is an efficacious, cost-effective and simple treatment for the second and third degree hemorrhoids without rectal mucosal prolapsed. In our hands, no severe complications developed and minor complications could be handled with ease.

  10. Thermoreversibly Cross-Linked EPM Rubber Nanocomposites with Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Criscitiello, Francesco; van Essen, Machiel; Araya-Hermosilla, Rodrigo; Migliore, Nicola; Lenti, Mattia; Raffa, Patrizio

    2018-01-01

    Conductive rubber nanocomposites were prepared by dispersing conductive nanotubes (CNT) in thermoreversibly cross-linked ethylene propylene rubbers grafted with furan groups (EPM-g-furan) rubbers. Their features were studied with a strong focus on conductive and mechanical properties relevant for strain-sensor applications. The Diels-Alder chemistry used for thermoreversible cross-linking allows for the preparation of fully recyclable, homogeneous, and conductive nanocomposites. CNT modified with compatible furan groups provided nanocomposites with a relatively large tensile strength and small elongation at break. High and low sensitivity deformation experiments of nanocomposites with 5 wt % CNT (at the percolation threshold) displayed an initially linear sensitivity to deformation. Notably, only fresh samples displayed a linear response of their electrical resistivity to deformations as the resistance variation collapsed already after one cycle of elongation. Notwithstanding this mediocre performance as a strain sensor, the advantages of using thermoreversible chemistry in a conductive rubber nanocomposite were highlighted by demonstrating crack-healing by welding due to the joule effect on the surface and the bulk of the material. This will open up new technological opportunities for the design of novel strain-sensors based on recyclable rubbers. PMID:29360772

  11. A Review on Using Crumb Rubber in Reinforcement of Asphalt Pavement

    PubMed Central

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Ali, Asim Hassan; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez

    2014-01-01

    An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM) obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM) could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction. PMID:24688369

  12. Use of scrap tire rubber : state of the technology and best practices.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-02-01

    The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) has been using scrap tire rubber (called crumb : rubber modifier (CRM)) in asphalt pavements since the 1970s in chip seals and the 1980s in rubberized : asphalt concrete (RAC). The performance of...

  13. Waste tyre rubberized concrete: properties at fresh and hardened state.

    PubMed

    Aiello, M A; Leuzzi, F

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the properties of various concrete mixtures at fresh and hardened state, obtained by a partial substitution of coarse and fine aggregate with different volume percentages of waste tyres rubber particles, having the same dimensions of the replaced aggregate. Workability, unit weight, compressive and flexural strength and post-cracking behaviour were evaluated and a comparison of the results for the different rubcrete mixtures were proposed in order to define the better mix proportions in terms of mechanical properties of the rubberized concrete. Results showed in this paper were also compared to data reported in literature. Moreover, a preliminary geometrical, physical and mechanical characterization on scrap tyre rubber shreds was made. The rubberized concrete mixtures showed lower unit weight compared to plain concrete and good workability. The results of compressive and flexural tests indicated a larger reduction of mechanical properties of rubcrete when replacing coarse aggregate rather than fine aggregate. On the other hand, the post-cracking behaviour of rubberized concrete was positively affected by the substitution of coarse aggregate with rubber shreds, showing a good energy absorption and ductility indexes in the range observed for fibrous concrete, as suggested by standard (ASTM C1018-97, 1997). 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of vulcanization temperature and humidity on the properties of RTV silicone rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xutao; Li, Xiuguang; Hao, Lu; Wen, Xishan; Lan, Lei; Yuan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Qingping

    2017-06-01

    In order to study the difference in performance of room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber in vulcanization environment with different temperature and humidity, static contact angle method, FTIR and TG is utilized to depict the properties of hydrophobicity, transfer of hydrophobicity, functional groups and thermal stability of RTV silicone rubber. It is found that different vulcanization conditions have effects on the characteristics of RTV silicone rubber, which shows that the hydrophobicity of RTV silicone rubber changes little with the vulcanization temperature but a slight increase with the vulcanization humidity. Temperature and humidity have obvious effects on the hydrophobicity transfer ability of RTV silicone rubber, which is better when vulcanization temperature is 5°C or vulcanization humidity is 95%. From the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, it can be concluded that humidity and temperature of vulcanization conditions have great effect on the functional groups of silicone rubber, and vulcanization conditions also have effect on thermal stability of RTV silicone rubber. When vulcanization temperature is 5°C or vulcanization humidity is 15% or 95%, the thermal stability of silicone rubber becomes worse.

  15. HbNIN2, a cytosolic alkaline/neutral-invertase, is responsible for sucrose catabolism in rubber-producing laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shujin; Lan, Jixian; Zhou, Binhui; Qin, Yunxia; Zhou, Yihua; Xiao, Xiaohu; Yang, Jianghua; Gou, Jiqing; Qi, Jiyan; Huang, Yacheng; Tang, Chaorong

    2015-04-01

    In Hevea brasiliensis, an alkaline/neutral invertase (A/N-Inv) is responsible for sucrose catabolism in latex (essentially the cytoplasm of rubber-producing laticifers, the source of natural rubber) and implicated in rubber yield. However, neither the gene encoding this enzyme nor its molecular and biochemical properties have been well documented. Three Hevea A/N-Inv genes, namely HbNIN1, 2 and 3, were first cloned and characterized in planta and in Escherichia coli. Cellular localizations of HbNIN2 mRNA and protein were probed. From latex, active A/N-Inv proteins were purified, identified, and explored for enzymatic properties. HbNIN2 was identified as the major A/N-Inv gene functioning in latex based on its functionality in E. coli, its latex-predominant expression, the conspicuous localization of its mRNA and protein in the laticifers, and its expressional correlation with rubber yield. An active A/N-Inv protein was partially purified from latex, and determined as HbNIN2. The enhancement of HbNIN2 enzymatic activity by pyridoxal is peculiar to A/N-Invs in other plants. We conclude that HbNIN2, a cytosolic A/N-Inv, is responsible for sucrose catabolism in rubber laticifers. The results contribute to the studies of sucrose catabolism in plants as a whole and natural rubber synthesis in particular. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Eco-friendly rubberized cotton fabric roller for ginning machines.

    PubMed

    Iyer, G V

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the pollution caused by chrome composite leather-clad (CCLC) rollers commonly used in cotton roller ginning mills and suggests an alternative roller material. CCLC rollers contain about 18,000 to 36,000 mg/kg (ppm) total chromium in trivalent and hexavalent forms, which are toxic to human health and carcinogenic. When seed-cotton is processed in double roller (DR) ginning machines, the lint is contaminated with chromium, and chromium particles are carried into the spun yarns and cotton by-products. Specifically, due to persistent rubbing of the leather-clad roller over the stationary knife during the ginning process, the lint is contaminated with about 140 to 1990 ppm of chromium, and the spun yarns and cotton by-products contain about 100 to 200 ppm, far in excess of the standard limit of 0.1 ppm. Gin and mill workers are directly exposed to this carcinogenic substance. To offset this problem, pollution-free rubberized cotton fabric (RCF) rollers have been fabricated and tested in roller gins. The RCF roller covering is made of multiple layers of fabric bonded together using a white rubber compound, which has a surface finish conducive to high ginning efficiency. This eliminates chromium contamination and pollution during the ginning process. On the basis of the design and development of various test rollers and subsequent evaluation studies, the performance of pollution-free RCF rollers has been demonstrated with reference to their commercial benefit and eco-friendliness in cotton ginning mills.

  17. The outgassing characteristic research of the silicone rubber in high power laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qipeng; Lv, Haibing; Dong, Meng; Fu, Zhaohui

    2016-11-01

    The outgassing characteristic of the silicone rubber which is the main material of non-metallic materials in high power laser system was studied outgassing rates of the silicone rubber and the baked-out silicone rubber which was performed at 80°C4 hours were measured by the constant volume process method and outgassing properties of them were analyzed by the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The results show that the outgassing rate of the silicone rubber and the baked-out silicone rubber is 2.69×10-7 Pa·m3s-1cm-2 and 6.47×10-8 Pa·m3s-1cm-2 respectively. All of them give out condensable volatile matter in vacuum. The outgassing rate and condensable volatile matter of the baked-out silicone rubber are less an order of magnitude compared with the silicone rubber, and the outgassing rate of the silicone rubber is less than 1×10-7 Pa·m3s-1cm-2, which is fit for non-metallic material of the high power laser system. This paper also discusses the method of reducing the outgassing rate and condensable volatile matter of the silicone rubber in high power laser system.

  18. Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; Duplessis Kergomard, Yann; Dau, Frederic; Malherbe, Benoit

    2012-06-01

    A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic of a rubber impact is the high amount of elastic energy stored in the impactor during impact, which was more than 90% of the initial kinetic energy. This large geometrical deformation of the rubber during impact leads to a less localised loading of the target structure and poses great challenges for the numerical modelling. A hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law was used in Abaqus/Explicit based on a step-by-step validation with static rubber compression tests and low velocity impact tests on aluminium plates. Simulation models of the textile weave were developed on the meso- and macro-scale. The final correlation between impact simulation results on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates and impact test data was promising, highlighting the potential of such numerical simulation tools.

  19. Rubber friction: The contribution from the area of real contact.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, A; Miyashita, N; Espallargas, N; Persson, B N J

    2018-06-14

    There are two contributions to the friction force when a rubber block is sliding on a hard and rough substrate surface, namely, a contribution F ad = τ f A from the area of real contact A and a viscoelastic contribution F visc from the pulsating forces exerted by the substrate asperities on the rubber block. Here we present experimental results obtained at different sliding speeds and temperatures, and we show that the temperature dependency of the shear stress τ f , for temperatures above the rubber glass transition temperature T g , is weaker than that of the bulk viscoelastic modulus. The physical origin of τ f for T > T g is discussed, and we propose that its temperature dependency is determined by the rubber molecule segment mobility at the sliding interface, which is higher than in the bulk because of increased free-volume effect due to the short-wavelength surface roughness. This is consistent with the often observed reduction in the glass transition temperature in nanometer-thick surface layers of glassy polymers. For temperatures T < T g , the shear stress τ f is nearly velocity independent and of similar magnitude as observed for glassy polymers such as PMMA or polyethylene. In this case, the rubber undergoes plastic deformations in the asperity contact regions and the contact area is determined by the rubber penetration hardness. For this case, we propose that the frictional shear stress is due to slip at the interface between the rubber and a transfer film adsorbed on the concrete surface.

  20. Characterization of associated proteins and phospholipids in natural rubber latex.

    PubMed

    Sansatsadeekul, Jitlada; Sakdapipanich, Jitladda; Rojruthai, Porntip

    2011-06-01

    Non-rubber components present in natural rubber (NR) latex, such as proteins and phospholipids, are presumed to be distributed in the serum fraction as well as surrounding the rubber particle surface. The phospholipid-protein layers covering the rubber particle surface are especially interesting due to their ability to enhance the colloidal stability of NR latex. In this study, we have characterized the components surrounding the NR particle surface and investigated their role in the colloidal stability of NR particles. Proteins from the cream fraction were proteolytically removed from the NR latex and compare to those from the serum fractions using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealing that both fractions contained similar proteins in certain molecular weights such as 14.5, 25 and 27 kDa. Phospholipids removed from latex by treatment with NaOH were analyzed using (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and several major signals were assignable to -(CH(2))(n)-, -CH(2)OP, -CH(2)OC═O and -OCH(2)CH(2)NH-. These signals are important evidence that indicates phospholipids associate with the rubber chain. The colloidal behavior of rubber lattices before and after removal of protein-lipid membrane was evaluated by zeta potential analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The lowest zeta potential value of NR particles was observed at pH 10, consequently leading to the highest stability of rubber particles. Additionally, SEM micrographs clearly displayed a gray ring near the particle surface corresponding to the protein-lipid membrane layer. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant portion of these tires : have been processed into finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt : (HMA) pavement...

  2. Research on the Dielectric Properties of Nano-ZnO/Silicone Rubber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei-feng; Yan, Dan-dan; Su, Yi; Lu, Yu-feng; Xia, Xiao-fei; Huang, Hui-min

    2017-09-01

    The samples of 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nano-composite silicone rubber were prepared by mechanical method. The dielectric properties of each sample were measured by dielectric spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the dielectric constant of the silicone rubber composite increases with the increase of the content of nano-ZnO. The breakdown test results showed that with the increase of the content of nano-ZnO, the breakdown strength of silicone rubber composites increased first and then decreased. The breakdown test results indicate that the nano-ZnO can reduce the breakdown strength of silicone rubber. The hydrophobic test results showed that nano-ZnO will reduce the hydrophobic of silicone rubber.

  3. High damping properties of magnetic particles doped rubber composites at wide frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Ye, E-mail: schtiany@163.com; College of Material Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051; Liu, Yaqing, E-mail: lyq@nuc.edu.cn

    Highlights: ► A new kind of permanent magnetic rubber was prepared. ► The microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated. ► The mechanical and damping properties were discussed. ► The new material is expected to be an isolator material to a changed frequency. - Abstract: A new kind of rubber composite was prepared by doping SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles coated with silane coupling agents (Si-69) into nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) matrix, which was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy. The results showed that the SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoparticles were well dispersed in rubber matrix. Furthermore, the mechanical andmore » magnetic properties of the rubber composites were investigated, in which the high tensile strength (15.8 MPa) and high saturation magnetization (22.9 emu/g) were observed. What is more, the high loss factor of the rubber composites was also obtained in a wide frequency range (0–100 Hz) at high loading (80 phr). The result is attributed to that the permanent magnetic field in rubber nanocomposites can absorb shock energy. These results indicate that the new kind of permanent magnetic rubber is expected to be a smart isolator material, in which the isolator will be able to adapt to a changed frequency.« less

  4. Effects of leachate from crumb rubber and zinc in green roofs on the survival, growth, and resistance characteristics of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Crampton, Mollee; Ryan, Allayna; Eckert, Cori; Baker, Katherine H; Herson, Diane S

    2014-05-01

    The use of green roofs is a growing practice worldwide, particularly in densely populated areas. In an attempt to find new methods for recycling crumb rubber, incorporation of crumb rubber into artificial medium for plant growth in green roofs and similar engineered environments has become an attractive option for the recycling of waste tires. Though this approach decreases waste in landfills, there are concerns about the leaching of zinc and other heavy metals, as well as nutrient and organic compounds, into the environment. The present study analyzed the impact of leachate from crumb rubber and zinc on the growth and viability of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Zinc was chosen for further studies since it has been previously implicated with other biological functions, including biofilm formation, motility, and possible cross-resistance to antimicrobial agents. The study showed that Salmonella can colonize crumb rubber and that crumb rubber extract may provide nutrients that are usable by this bacterium. Salmonella strains with reduced susceptibility (SRS) to zinc were obtained after subculturing in increasing concentrations of zinc. The SRS exhibited differences in gene expression of flux pump genes zntA and znuA compared to that of the parent when exposed to 20 mM added zinc. In biofilm formation studies, the SRS formed less biofilm but was more motile than the parental strain.

  5. Effects of Leachate from Crumb Rubber and Zinc in Green Roofs on the Survival, Growth, and Resistance Characteristics of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Crampton, Mollee; Ryan, Allayna; Eckert, Cori; Baker, Katherine H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of green roofs is a growing practice worldwide, particularly in densely populated areas. In an attempt to find new methods for recycling crumb rubber, incorporation of crumb rubber into artificial medium for plant growth in green roofs and similar engineered environments has become an attractive option for the recycling of waste tires. Though this approach decreases waste in landfills, there are concerns about the leaching of zinc and other heavy metals, as well as nutrient and organic compounds, into the environment. The present study analyzed the impact of leachate from crumb rubber and zinc on the growth and viability of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Zinc was chosen for further studies since it has been previously implicated with other biological functions, including biofilm formation, motility, and possible cross-resistance to antimicrobial agents. The study showed that Salmonella can colonize crumb rubber and that crumb rubber extract may provide nutrients that are usable by this bacterium. Salmonella strains with reduced susceptibility (SRS) to zinc were obtained after subculturing in increasing concentrations of zinc. The SRS exhibited differences in gene expression of flux pump genes zntA and znuA compared to that of the parent when exposed to 20 mM added zinc. In biofilm formation studies, the SRS formed less biofilm but was more motile than the parental strain. PMID:24584242

  6. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of the Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and SNP Markers Development for Rubber Biosynthesis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mantello, Camila Campos; Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; da Silva, Carla Cristina; de Souza, Livia Moura; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo José; de Souza Gonçalves, Paulo; Vicentini, Renato; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Ex Adr. Juss.) Muell.-Arg. is the primary source of natural rubber that is native to the Amazon rainforest. The singular properties of natural rubber make it superior to and competitive with synthetic rubber for use in several applications. Here, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of H. brasiliensis bark on the Illumina GAIIx platform, which generated 179,326,804 raw reads on the Illumina GAIIx platform. A total of 50,384 contigs that were over 400 bp in size were obtained and subjected to further analyses. A similarity search against the non-redundant (nr) protein database returned 32,018 (63%) positive BLASTx hits. The transcriptome analysis was annotated using the clusters of orthologous groups (COG), gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and Pfam databases. A search for putative molecular marker was performed to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 17,927 SSRs and 404,114 SNPs were detected. Finally, we selected sequences that were identified as belonging to the mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways, which are involved in rubber biosynthesis, to validate the SNP markers. A total of 78 SNPs were validated in 36 genotypes of H. brasiliensis. This new dataset represents a powerful information source for rubber tree bark genes and will be an important tool for the development of microsatellites and SNP markers for use in future genetic analyses such as genetic linkage mapping, quantitative trait loci identification, investigations of linkage disequilibrium and marker-assisted selection. PMID:25048025

  7. De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and SNP markers development for rubber biosynthesis pathways.

    PubMed

    Mantello, Camila Campos; Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; da Silva, Carla Cristina; de Souza, Livia Moura; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo José; de Souza Gonçalves, Paulo; Vicentini, Renato; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Ex Adr. Juss.) Muell.-Arg. is the primary source of natural rubber that is native to the Amazon rainforest. The singular properties of natural rubber make it superior to and competitive with synthetic rubber for use in several applications. Here, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of H. brasiliensis bark on the Illumina GAIIx platform, which generated 179,326,804 raw reads on the Illumina GAIIx platform. A total of 50,384 contigs that were over 400 bp in size were obtained and subjected to further analyses. A similarity search against the non-redundant (nr) protein database returned 32,018 (63%) positive BLASTx hits. The transcriptome analysis was annotated using the clusters of orthologous groups (COG), gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and Pfam databases. A search for putative molecular marker was performed to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 17,927 SSRs and 404,114 SNPs were detected. Finally, we selected sequences that were identified as belonging to the mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways, which are involved in rubber biosynthesis, to validate the SNP markers. A total of 78 SNPs were validated in 36 genotypes of H. brasiliensis. This new dataset represents a powerful information source for rubber tree bark genes and will be an important tool for the development of microsatellites and SNP markers for use in future genetic analyses such as genetic linkage mapping, quantitative trait loci identification, investigations of linkage disequilibrium and marker-assisted selection.

  8. Charcoal byproducts as potential styrene-butadiene rubber composte filler

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carbon black, a byproduct of the petroleum industry, is the world's most predominant filler for rubber composites. In this study, various renewable charcoals in the form of pyrolyzed agricultural byproducts were evaluted as potential carbon-based filler for rubber composites made with carboxylated s...

  9. EPDM Rubber Modified by Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation.

    PubMed

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2018-04-24

    Ethylene-propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) was treated by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) with nitrogen ions of 20 keV energy and fluence from 10 13 to 10 16 ions/cm². The Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectra, atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy showed significant structure changes of the surface. The analysis of an interface of PIII treated EPDM rubber with polyurethane binder showed a cohesive character of the adhesion joint fracture at the presence of solvent and interpreted as covalent bond network formation between the PIII treated rubber and the adhesive.

  10. EPDM Rubber Modified by Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Ethylene-propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) was treated by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) with nitrogen ions of 20 keV energy and fluence from 1013 to 1016 ions/cm2. The Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectra, atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy showed significant structure changes of the surface. The analysis of an interface of PIII treated EPDM rubber with polyurethane binder showed a cohesive character of the adhesion joint fracture at the presence of solvent and interpreted as covalent bond network formation between the PIII treated rubber and the adhesive. PMID:29695109

  11. Behaviour of Steel Fibre Reinforced Rubberized Continuous Deep Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep, MS; Nagarajan, Praveen; Shashikala, A. P.

    2018-03-01

    Transfer girders and pier caps, which are in fact deep beams, are critical structural elements present in high-rise buildings and bridges respectively. During an earthquake, failure of lifeline structures like bridges and critical structural members like transfer girders will result in severe catastrophes. Ductility is the key factor that influences the resistance of any structural member against seismic action. Structural members cast using materials having higher ductility will possess higher seismic resistance. Previous research shows that concrete having rubber particles (rubcrete) possess better ductility and low density in comparison to ordinary concrete. The main hindrance to the use of rubcrete is the reduction in compressive and tensile strength of concrete due to the presence of rubber. If these undesirable properties of rubcrete can be controlled, a new cementitious composite with better ductility, seismic performance and economy can be developed. A combination of rubber particles and steel fibre has the potential to reduce the undesirable effect of rubcrete. In this paper, the effect of rubber particles and steel fibre in the behaviour of two-span continuous deep beams is studied experimentally. Based on the results, optimum proportions of steel fibre and rubber particles for getting good ductile behaviour with less reduction in collapse load is found out.

  12. Research on Extrusion of Rubber Composites Reinforced by Short Fibers Orientation Based on FEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dewei; Wang, Chuansheng; Shen, Bo; Li, Shaoming; Bian, Huiguang

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, rubber composites reinforced by short fibers has been researched deeply, because of its good performances such as higher wear resistance, higher cut resistance and so on. Some research results indicated that if short fibers get orientation in rubber composites, the performances of rubber products could be promoted greatly. But how to make short fibers get orientation in rubber matrix during extrusion is still a real problem. And there are many parameters affect the short fibers orientation. So, in this paper, the effects of die structure including expansion-die and dam-expansion-die on extrusion flow field of short fiber and rubber composite material during extrusion process has been researched by Polyflow. And the FEA results about the pressure field, velocity field and the velocity vector of the rubber composites flow field indicate that, comparing with expansion-die and the dam-expansion-die, the latter one is better for the extrusion process of rubber composites and making short fibers get radial orientation in rubber matrix.

  13. Rubber and Land-Cover Land-Use Change in Mainland Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, J. M.; Hurni, K.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past half century, the five countries of Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) - Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam - have witnessed major shifts from predominantly subsistence agrarian economies to increasingly commercialized agriculture. Major drivers of change include policy initiatives that fostered regional economic integration and promoted among other changes rapid expansion of boom-crop plantations. Among the many types of commercial boom crops promoted and grown in MSEA are numerous tree-based products such as rubber, coffee, tree species for pulp and paper (particularly eucalyptus and acacia), cashews, and fruits such as oranges, lychees, and longans. The project proposal hypothesized that most (but not all) tree crops replaced swidden cultivation fields and hence are not necessarily accompanied by deforestation. We used MODIS EVI and SWIR time-series from 2001-2014 to classify changes in tree cover across MSEA; a total of 6849 sample points were used to train the classifier (75%) and verification (25%). The classification consists of 24 classes and 17 classes represent tree crops. Project results suggest that 4.4 m ha of rubber have been planted since 2003; 50% of rubber is planted on former evergreen forest land, 18% on deciduous forest land, and 32% on low vegetation area (former crop lands, bushes, scrub). Tree crops occupy about 8% of the landscape (half of that is rubber). Due to the differences in their political and economic histories these countries display different LCLUCs. In northern Laos, smallholder rubber plantations dominate and shifting cultivation is common in the upland. In southern Laos, large-scale plantations of rubber, coffee, eucalyptus, and sugarcane are widespread. In Thailand, vast areas are covered by annual agriculture; fruit trees and rubber are the prevailing tree crops and are mostly planted by smallholders. In Cambodia, large-scale rubber plantations have expanded in recent years on forest lands; smallholder

  14. Elastic rubber strips to heal large wounds of the body wall.

    PubMed

    Petroianu, Andy

    2013-12-01

    Closure of large wounds is a difficult surgical challenge. This article reports on the effective closure of large surgical wounds using elastic rubber strips. One to 3 circular elastic rubber strips were sutured by applying moderate tension to the opposite edges of 30 large wounds in 28 patients. The strips were sutured in a successive "X" fashion by crossing one over the other. These rubber strips were replaced when they ruptured or after their tension had reduced because of the closure of the wounds. Complete closure of the wounds was achieved with no further need for any surgical procedure or device. One patient with laparostomy and colostomy presented with difficulty on adapting the colostomic bag, and the rubber strips were removed. The rubber strip had little effect on a large wound of the skull. In the late postoperative follow-up, 3 of the 15 closed laparostomies developed incisional hernias, and all these patients were subjected to hernioplasties with good results. The use of circular elastic rubber strips maintained at moderate tension is a simple, effective, and inexpensive surgical option for healing large wounds. It is readily available at any hospital and requires no extensive surgical experience.

  15. The relation of bifurations in a biaxially loaded rubber sheet and the constitutive modeling of rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Haslach, H.W. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Treloar`s experiments on a thin rubber sheet under in-plane biaxial tensile loads produced asymmetric as well as equal in-plane stretches. At two loads, the two stretches differed by 7.5% and 12.4% respectively. At an intermediate load, there was a stable equal stretches state. Treloar later said that relaxation was negligible since the results were reproducible and independent of the order of force application. Specimen anisotropy and lack of strain uniformity were also eliminated as a cause. Kearsely first pointed out the significance of these experiments to studies of elastic stability of rubber models. The predictability of this result is amore » test for the validity of the various constitutive models for rubber. First, Ogden`s plane stress stability and bifurcation criteria are reviewed. A coordinate transformation of a generalized energy function for the biaxially loaded sheet makes it possible to describe the Mooney-Rivlin bifurcation as a cusp catastrophe and to verify that the neo-Hookean and other classical models have no bifurcations. The Mooney-Rivlin model predicts unstable equal stretch states above the bifurcation value, but Treloar`s experiments contradict this. These models cannot, then, be the correct constitutive models for rubber. Preliminary ideas on the conditions that an isothermal constitutive model must satisfy to reproduce Treloar`s experiments are proposed. A thermoelastic generalization of the Mooney-Rivlin model, developed with N. N. Zeng, predicts that raising the temperature slightly lowers the value of the bifurcation load. Nonequilibrium processes such as relaxation or sinusoidal loading are modeled using a generalized energy function in place of classical viscoelastic constitutive relations.« less

  16. Surface modification of argon/oxygen plasma treated vulcanized ethylene propylene diene polymethylene surfaces for improved adhesion with natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Ganesh C.; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Neogi, Sudarsan; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Vulcanized ethylene propylene diene polymethylene (EPDM) rubber surface was treated in a radio frequency capacitatively coupled low pressure argon/oxygen plasma to improve adhesion with compounded natural rubber (NR) during co-vulcanization. The plasma modified surfaces were analyzed by means of contact angle measurement, surface energy, attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray sulfur mapping and atomic force microscopy. Several experimental variables such as plasma power, length of exposure time and composition of the argon-oxygen gas mixture were considered. It was delineated that plasma treatment changed both surface composition and roughness, and consequently increased peel strength. The change in surface composition was mainly ascribed to the formation of C-O and -Cdbnd O functional groups on the vulcanized surfaces. A maximum of 98% improvement in peel strength was observed after plasma treatment.

  17. Biopurification of industrial waste gas from rubber regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peishi; Yang, Xianwan; Huang, Ruohua; Bin, Huang; Zheng, Sunsheng; Wei, Zaishan; Xu, Xiaoyi; Lu, Jilai; Sun, Xing; Chen, Liuxin

    2004-12-01

    By using the biopurifying technology, the organic waste gas in low concentrations emitted from the rubber-regeneration process was purified in this research. The result of the 100-day continuous running test of the industrial test device indicated that the purification efficiency of toluene in the rubber-regeneration waste gas could be maintained at about 90% for a long period of time and the treated waste gas could meet the China National Emission Standard. The cost of waste gas biotreatment was about 0.12-0.14% of rubber-regeneration production value of the factory. The biopurifying technology of waste gas displayed its excellent technical advancement and economic rationale. The following industrialized device was run continuously and passed the examination and acceptance by the local EPA.

  18. Nanostructured magnesium oxide as cure activator for polychloroprene rubber.

    PubMed

    Kar, Sritama; Bhowmick, Anil K

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this research was to synthesize magnesium oxide nanoparticles and to use them as cure activator for polychloroprene rubber (CR). The effects of counterions of magnesium salts on the homogeneous phase precipitation reaction to control size, monodispersity, crystallinity, and morphology of Mg(OH)2 nanoparticles were also investigated. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by optimizing the calcination temperature of Mg(OH)2 nanoparticles. Finally, the MgO nanoparticles were dispersed in polychloroprene rubber (CR) solution along with zinc oxide (ZnO) powder. The influence of MgO nanoparticles on the mechanical, dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of the resulting nanocomposites was quantified. The modulus and strength of ZnO-cured polychloroprene rubber with 4% MgO nanoparticles appeared to be superior to those with ZnO particles or ZnO with rubber grade MgO particles. These composites were further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy in order to understand the morphology of the resulting system and the load transfer mechanism.

  19. Study on the Secant Segmentation Algorithm of Rubber Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shute; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Liang; Liu, Yongna

    2018-04-01

    Natural rubber is one of the most important materials in the national defense and industry, and the tapping panel dryness (TPD) of the rubber tree is one of the most serious diseases that affect the production of rubber. Although considerable progress has been made in the more than 100 years of research on the TPD, there are still many areas to be improved. At present, the method of artificial observation is widely used to identify TPD, but the diversity of rubber tree secant symptoms leads to the inaccurate judgement of the level of TPD. In this paper, image processing technology is used to separate the secant and latex, so that we can get rid of the interference factors, get the exact secant and latex binary image. By calculating the area ratio of the corresponding binary images, the grade of TPD can be classified accurately. and can also provide an objective basis for the accurate identification of the tapping panel dryness (TPD) level.

  20. Piezoelectric ribbons printed onto rubber for flexible energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yi; Jafferis, Noah T; Lyons, Kenneth; Lee, Christine M; Ahmad, Habib; McAlpine, Michael C

    2010-02-10

    The development of a method for integrating highly efficient energy conversion materials onto stretchable, biocompatible rubbers could yield breakthroughs in implantable or wearable energy harvesting systems. Being electromechanically coupled, piezoelectric crystals represent a particularly interesting subset of smart materials that function as sensors/actuators, bioMEMS devices, and energy converters. Yet, the crystallization of these materials generally requires high temperatures for maximally efficient performance, rendering them incompatible with temperature-sensitive plastics and rubbers. Here, we overcome these limitations by presenting a scalable and parallel process for transferring crystalline piezoelectric nanothick ribbons of lead zirconate titanate from host substrates onto flexible rubbers over macroscopic areas. Fundamental characterization of the ribbons by piezo-force microscopy indicates that their electromechanical energy conversion metrics are among the highest reported on a flexible medium. The excellent performance of the piezo-ribbon assemblies coupled with stretchable, biocompatible rubber may enable a host of exciting avenues in fundamental research and novel applications.

  1. Dynamic mechanical analysis of waste tyre rubber filled brake friction composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathi, Mukesh Kumar; Singh, Tej; Chauhan, Ranchan

    2018-05-01

    In this research work, the dynamic mechanical properties of waste tyre rubber filled friction composites were studied. Four friction composites with varying amount of waste rubber (0, 4, 8, 12 wt.%) and barium sulphate (38, 42, 46, 50 wt.%) were designed and fabricated as per industrial norms. Dynamic mechanical analysis has been carried out to characterize the storage modulus, loss modulus and damping factor of the fabricated friction composite. Experimental results indicated that storage modulus decreases with increasing waste rubber content up to particular loading (4 wt.%), and after that it increases with further loading. The loss modulus of the composites increases steadily with increasing waste rubber content whereas, damping factor remain maximum for 12 wt.% waste rubber filled friction composites.

  2. Characterization of asphalt cements modified with crumbed rubber from discarded tires : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-11-01

    The potential legislative requirement for incorporation of scrap rubber into asphalt blends mandated a thorough evaluation of the influence of scrap rubber additives on the physical properties and aging characteristics of rubber/asphalt blends. Blend...

  3. Effect of combination ultrasonic and ball milling techniques of commercial fillers dispersion on mechanical properties of natural rubber (NR) latex films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamran, Noramirah; Rashid, Azura A.

    2017-07-01

    Commercial fillers such as silica and carbon black generally impart the reinforcing effects in dry rubber compound, but have an adverse effect on Natural rubber (NR) latex compounds. The addition of commercial fillers in NR latex has reduced the mechanical properties of NR latex films due to the destabilization effect in the NR latex compounds which govern by the dispersion quality, particle size and also the pH of the dispersion itself. The ball milling process is the conventional meth od of preparation of dispersions and ultrasonic has successfully used in preparation of nano fillers such as carbon nanotube (CNT). In this study the combination between the conventional methods; ball milling together the ultrasonic method were used to prepare the silica and carbon black dispersions. The different duration of ball milling (24, 48 and 72 hours) was compared with the ultrasonic method (30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes). The combination of ball milling and ultrasonic from the optimum individual technique was used to investigate the reduction of particle size of the fillers. The particle size analyzer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) test were carried out to investigate the obtained particle size and the tensile and tear test were carried out to investigate the mechanical properties of the NR latex films. The reduction of filler particle size is expected to impart the properties of NR latex films.

  4. The Influence of Chemical Structure on the Strength of Rubber.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    sticky, as if covered with an oily or tarry film. The debris from carbon-black-filled natural rubber vulcanizates is even more highly degraded , so...RD-RI66 355 THE INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL STRUCTURE ON THE STRENGTH OF 1 1) RS 5355 RUBBER (U) KRON UNJY OH INST OF POLYMER SCIENCE UNCLSSIFEIDA N GENT...85-K-0222 .- Project NR 092-555 UTechnical Report No. 4 THE INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL STRUCTURE ON THE * 4: STRENGTH OF RUBBER by S 2LECTE by A P R 0 9 I

  5. A laboratory evaluation of rubber-asphalt paving mixtures : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate rubber additive asphalt and its aggregate mixtures in the laboratory with respect to their physical characteristics. : Results obtained on the physical properties of the rubberized asphalt binder we...

  6. Rubber modified asphalt mix.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the design and field installation of an asphalt mix containing up to 3.0% closed cell rubber by weight of the mix. The performance is discussed as well as possible reasons for the early failure of the mix. Suggestions are made ...

  7. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves (lineman's gloves) worn while handling high-voltage trailing cables shall be rated at least 20,000 volts and shall... gloves (wireman's gloves) worn while handling trailing cables energized by 660 to 1,000 volts shall be...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1640 - Polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene used in food-packaging adhesives complying with § 175.105 of this... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene. 177.1640 Section 177.1640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1640 - Polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene used in food-packaging adhesives complying with § 175.105 of this... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene. 177.1640 Section 177.1640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1640 - Polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene used in food-packaging adhesives complying with § 175.105 of this... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene. 177.1640 Section 177.1640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1640 - Polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene used in food-packaging adhesives complying with § 175.105 of this... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene. 177.1640 Section 177.1640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  12. High performance graphene oxide based rubber composites.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications.

  13. 40 CFR 428.50 - Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Small-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber..., foam rubber backing, rubber cement-dipped goods, and retreaded tires by small-sized plants...

  14. 40 CFR 428.70 - Applicability; description of the large-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Large-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber..., foam rubber backing, rubber cement-dipped goods, and retreaded tires by large-sized plants...

  15. Natural Rubber Nanocomposite with Human-Tissue-Like Mechanical Characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murniati, Riri; Novita, Nanda; Sutisna; Wibowo, Edy; Iskandar, Ferry; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin

    2017-07-01

    The blends of synthetic rubber and natural rubber with nanosilica were prepared using a blending technique in presence of different filler volume fraction. The effect of filler on morphological and mechanical characteristics was studied. Utilization of human cadaver in means of medical study has been commonly used primarily as tools of medical teaching and training such as surgery. Nonetheless, human cadaver brought inevitable problems. So it is necessary to find a substitute material that can be used to replace cadavers. In orthopaedics, the materials that resemble in mechanical properties to biological tissues are elastomers such as natural rubber (latex) and synthetic rubber (polyurethanes, silicones). This substitution material needs to consider the potential of Indonesia to help the development of the nation. Indonesia is the second largest country producer of natural rubber in the world. This paper aims to contribute to adjusting the mechanical properties of tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs) to the recommended range of biological tissue value and thus allow the development of phantoms with greater stability and similarity to human tissues. Repeatability for the phantom fabrication process was also explored. Characteristics were then compared to the control and mechanical characteristics of different human body part tissue. Nanosilica is the best filler to produce the best nanocomposite similarities with human tissue. We produced composites that approaching the properties of human internal tissues.

  16. Fundamentals of the knowledge about chemical additives present in rubber gloves.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Hegles Rosa de; Alchorne, Alice de Oliveira de Avelar

    2011-01-01

    One of the most frequent causes of allergic contact dermatitis of occupational origin are rubber additives, which are present in Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). The most allergenic additives of natural and synthetic gloves are thiurams, carbamates and mercapto group. To investigate the state of knowledge about the chemical additives used in the manufacture of synthetic rubber gloves. This was a qualitative research study in which professionals working in the manufacture, research, prescription and commercialization of gloves answered an open questionnaire. 30 individuals were interviewed: 4 researchers in occupational medicine, 5 occupational physicians, 2 occupational safety technicians, a rubber workers' union physician, an occupational safety engineer, a pro duction engineer of rubber gloves, 4 importers of gloves, a manufacturer of gloves, 3 businessmen who sell PPE, 3 salesclerks working in stores that sell PPE, 2 businessmen who own stores that sell products for allergic individuals, and 3 dermatologists. Knowledge of the chemical composition of rubber gloves is scant. The labeling of gloves, with the description of their chemical composition, would facilitate choosing the best type of glove for each person. This low-cost action to businesses would be a gain from the standpoint of public health, with huge repercussions for users of rubber gloves.

  17. Mix design procedure for crumb rubber modified hot mix asphalt.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-06-01

    To improve the performance of hot-mix asphalt concrete at high temperatures, crumb-rubber is typically used. Although hot-mix asphalt concrete consisting of crumb-rubber has been successfully placed and have performed well over the years, the laborat...

  18. Investigation of the Influence of Acoustic Oscillation Parameters on the Mechanism of Waste Rubber Products Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakurov, R. F.; Sitnikov, O. R.; Galimova, A. I.; Sabitova, A. F.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents an analysis of the used methods of recycling of waste rubber products. The worn out tires are exposed to natural decomposition only after 50 - 100 years, and toxic organic compounds used in the manufacture constitute a danger to the environment. It contemplates a method of recycling waste rubber products in devices where pulsating combustion is realized. The dependence of the influence of acoustic pulsation parameters on the combustion mechanism of waste rubber products and on the composition of combustion products was experimentally investigated and established. For this purpose, the setup scheme based on the Rijke effect is optimized. The resonance pipe is coaxially embedded in the shaft. The known mathematical model of finding the combustion zones in the Rijke pipe, corresponding to the gas flow oscillations with the maximum amplitude, is applied to the chosen scheme. Investigations were carried out for three positions of the grate relative to the lower section of the experimental pipe, in which 1st, 2nd, 3rd modes of oscillation are formed. There are favorable conditions arise for the secondary combustion of mechanical particles entrained in the gas flow in the tube. The favorable conditions for afterburning also include the fact that through the upper section of the resonant pipe, the ambient air, caused by the features of the standing wave, is mixed into the gas stream. A comparative analysis of the change of gas concentration composition along the length of the resonance tube is carried out. It is established that the basic mode of oscillations contributes to the reduction of nitrogen oxides, in comparison with the oscillations occurring simultaneously at several harmonics, considering the main one. The results of research for the three positions of the grate in relation to the lower section of the installation are presented in tabular form, in which 1, 2, 3 modes of oscillation are formed. The analysis of experimental results confirms

  19. Attitudes of Operative Dentistry Faculty toward Rubber Dam Isolation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackett, William W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Dental faculty responses (N=332) to a survey concerning use of rubber dams for excluding fluids from the working field in operative dentistry procedures indicated students receive adequate instruction in rubber dam use and are proficient at graduation, though motivating students to its use is problematic and patient resistance a factor. (MSE)

  20. 40 CFR 428.80 - Applicability; description of the wet digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.80 Section 428.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.80 Applicability; description of the wet digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to process waste water...

  1. 40 CFR 428.80 - Applicability; description of the wet digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.80 Section 428.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.80 Applicability; description of the wet digestion... discharges resulting from the production of reclaimed rubber by use of the wet digestion process. ...

  2. 40 CFR 428.80 - Applicability; description of the wet digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.80 Section 428.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.80 Applicability; description of the wet digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to process waste water...

  3. 40 CFR 428.80 - Applicability; description of the wet digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.80 Section 428.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.80 Applicability; description of the wet digestion... discharges resulting from the production of reclaimed rubber by use of the wet digestion process. ...

  4. 40 CFR 428.80 - Applicability; description of the wet digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.80 Section 428.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.80 Applicability; description of the wet digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to process waste water...

  5. Rubber band ligation and infrared photocoagulation for the outpatient treatment of hemorrhoidal disease.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Maurício Pichler; Matos, Délcio; Saad, Sarhan Sydney

    2008-01-01

    To compare the results of rubber band ligation and infrared photocoagulation for the treatment of hemorrhoidal disease through the analysis of the incidence of complications after each treatment and respective success rate. Forty-eight patients with first, second or third degree hemorrhoidal disease were randomized to receive treatment with either rubber band ligation (n=23) or infrared photocoagulation (n=25). Each patient was assessed at 1 week and 4 week intervals after treatment. We compared the incidence of complications and efficiency of each treatment modality and Qui-square, Fisher's Exact Test and Student's t Test were used to statistical analysis. Bleeding occured in eight (34,7%) patients treated with rubber band ligation and in four (16,0%) after infrared photocoagulation (p=0,243). Thirteen (52,0%) patients felt pain during infrared photocoagulation and 9 (39,1%) after rubber band ligation (p=0,546). After rubber band ligation, 14 (60,8%) required medication for pain relief. One patient (4,0%) required medication after infrared photocoagulation (p<0,001). Three (13,0%) patients treated with rubber band ligator and 1 (4,0%) treated with infrared photocoagulation had symptomatic mucosal ulcers. Perianal dermatitis occured in two (8,0%) patients treated with infrared photocoagulation and one patient (4,3%) was observed to have prolapsed thrombosed piles after rubber band ligation. One month after treatment, 17 of 23 patients treated with rubber band ligation (73,9%) and 18 of 25 patients treated with infrared photocoagulation were asymptomatic. Rubber band ligation treated bleeding and prolapse in 90,0% and 82,4% respectively. Infrared photocoagulation treats bleeding and prolapse in 93,7% and 87,5% respectively. Those differences are not significant. Rubber band ligation causes significantly more pain than infrared photocoagulation during the first week after the procedures and their success rate are not different after four weeks of treatment.

  6. Rubber-Modified Epoxies: Morphology and Mechanical Properties.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    matrix and enhances ductility. The elastomers used in the present study are carboxyl-terminated copolymers of butadiene and acrylonitrile ( CTBN ). The...marketed under the trade name Hycar CTBN . The structure of Hycar CTBN is HO - C(CH2CH = CHCH2)x--(CH2-CH) ) -C-OH o CN 0 where x : 5, y = I and z = 10...for a typical copolymer. (Properties of CTBN rubbers are found in ref. 8.) Two rubber modifiers, CTBN (X]3) and CTBN (X8), with 27 and 17 wt

  7. Potential of scrap tire rubber as lightweight aggregate in flowable fill.

    PubMed

    Pierce, C E; Blackwell, M C

    2003-01-01

    Flowable fill is a self-leveling and self-compacting material that is rapidly gaining acceptance and application in construction, particularly in transportation and utility earthworks. When mixed with concrete sand, standard flowable fill produces a mass density ranging from 1.8 to 2.3 g/cm(3) (115-145 pcf). Scrap tires can be granulated to produce crumb rubber, which has a granular texture and ranges in size from very fine powder to coarse sand-sized particles. Due to its low specific gravity, crumb rubber can be considered a lightweight aggregate. This paper describes an experimental study on replacing sand with crumb rubber in flowable fill to produce a lightweight material. To assess the technical feasibility of using crumb rubber, the fluid- and hardened-state properties of nine flowable fill mixtures were measured. Mixture proportions were varied to investigate the effects of water-to-cement ratio and crumb rubber content on fill properties. Experimental results indicate that crumb rubber can be successfully used to produce a lightweight flowable fill (1.2-1.6 g/cm(3) [73-98 pcf]) with excavatable 28-day compressive strengths ranging from 269 to 1194 kPa (39-173 psi). Using a lightweight fill reduces the applied stress on underlying soils, thereby reducing the potential for bearing capacity failure and minimizing soil settlement. Based on these results, a crumb rubber-based flowable fill can be used in a substantial number of construction applications, such as bridge abutment fills, trench fills, and foundation support fills.

  8. Smoking, occupational exposure to rubber, and lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z F; Yu, S Z; Li, W X; Choi, B C

    1989-01-01

    A cohort of 1624 employees (957 men, 667 women) in a rubber factory in Shanghai have been followed up since 1972 and their 12 year mortality experience is presented. The relative risk of lung cancer for smokers was 8.5 for men and 11.4 for women and for rubber workers exposed to curing agents or talc powder 3.2 for men and 4.6 for women. PMID:2920138

  9. Magnetic whiskers of p-aminobenzoic acid and their use for preparation of filled and microchannel silicone rubbers

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, V. V., E-mail: vvsemenov@iomc.ras.ru; Loginova, V. V.; Zolotareva, N. V.

    A thin cobalt layer has been formed on the surface of p-aminobenzoic acid whiskers by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The metallized crystals have been oriented in liquid polydimethylsiloxane rubber by applying a dc magnetic field. After vulcanization, the filler has been removed by processing in an alcohol solution of trifluoroacetic acid. The cobalt deposition on the surface of the organic compound and the properties of metallized whiskers are investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  10. 40 CFR 60.542 - Standards for volatile organic compounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Rubber Tire Manufacturing Industry § 60.542 Standards for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after... duration of the compliance period: (A) 3,870 kg (8,531 lb) of VOC per 28 days, (B) 4,010 kg (8,846 lb) of VOC per 29 days, (C) 4,150 kg (9,149 lb) of VOC per 30 days, (D) 4,280 kg (9,436 lb) of VOC per 31...

  11. Use of rubber and bentonite added fly ash as a liner material.

    PubMed

    Cokca, Erdal; Yilmaz, Zeka

    2004-01-01

    In many countries regulations require all hazardous waste disposal facilities to be lined with suitable impermeable barriers to protect against contamination. In this study, a series of laboratory tests on rubber and bentonite added fly ash were conducted. The aim of the tests was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash, rubber and bentonite as a low hydraulic conductivity liner material. Type C fly ash was obtained from Soma thermal power plant in Turkey; rubber in pulverized form was waste from the retreading industry. To investigate the properties of rubber and bentonite added fly ash, hydraulic conductivity, leachate analysis, unconfined compression, split tensile strength, one-dimensional consolidation, swell and freeze/thaw cycle tests were performed. The overall evaluation of results have revealed that rubber and bentonite added fly ash showed good promise and a candidate for construction of a liner.

  12. Developing the Surface Chemistry of Transparent Butyl Rubber for Impermeable Stretchable Electronics.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Akhil; Carmichael, R Stephen; Carmichael, Tricia Breen

    2016-10-11

    Transparent butyl rubber is a new elastomer that has the potential to revolutionize stretchable electronics due to its intrinsically low gas permeability. Encapsulating organic electronic materials and devices with transparent butyl rubber protects them from problematic degradation due to oxygen and moisture, preventing premature device failure and enabling the fabrication of stretchable organic electronic devices with practical lifetimes. Here, we report a methodology to alter the surface chemistry of transparent butyl rubber to advance this material from acting as a simple device encapsulant to functioning as a substrate primed for direct device fabrication on its surface. We demonstrate a combination of plasma and chemical treatment to deposit a hydrophilic silicate layer on the transparent butyl rubber surface to create a new layered composite that combines Si-OH surface chemistry with the favorable gas-barrier properties of bulk transparent butyl rubber. We demonstrate that these surface Si-OH groups react with organosilanes to form self-assembled monolayers necessary for the deposition of electronic materials, and furthermore demonstrate the fabrication of stretchable gold wires using nanotransfer printing of gold films onto transparent butyl rubber modified with a thiol-terminated self-assembled monolayer. The surface modification of transparent butyl rubber establishes this material as an important new elastomer for stretchable electronics and opens the way to robust, stretchable devices.

  13. [Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome].

    PubMed

    Akutko, Katarzyna; Krzesiek, Elzbieta; Iwańczak, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (Bean syndrome) is a rare disease characterized by the presence of multiple vascular malformation of rubber-like consistence. This disease is of a genetic origin and most often is caused by sporadic mutation, however, exist reports on autosomal dominant type of heritance. Nevi are most frequently met in the skin and alimentary tract but may be present in all organs and tissues. The most frequent symptom of Bean syndrome is anaemia due to ferrum deficiency, which is a result of chronic hemorrhagia from vascular malformations in the alimentary tract. Vascular anomalies on the skin are usually asymptomatic. Other symptoms are less frequent and depend on the localisation of vascular changes and therefore patients with Bean syndrome require meticulous analysis of reported multiple - specialistic medical care.

  14. Ethylene-Propylene Terpolymer Rubber Processing by Electron Beam Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaila, Elena N.; Zuga, Maria Daniela T.; Martin, Diana I.; Craciun, Gabriela D.; Ighigeanu, Daniel I.; Matei, Constantin I.

    2007-04-01

    The investigations on the cross-linking by accelerated electrons of 6.23 MeV in lowly unsaturated elastomers of EPDM (ethylene-propylene terpolymer rubber) type are presented. Two rubber blends based EPDM were prepared and irradiated at different doses up to 250kGy: blend A - based on EPDM maleinized with polyethylene, zinc oxide, plasticizers, filler, and blend B - based on EPDM / PE (50 % EPDM and 50% polyethylene). Blends were prepared on a laboratory electrically heated rubber mill at temperatures of 150-160°C to enable the polyethylene (PE) melting to be reached. Plates of 150 × 150 × 2 mm were obtained in a laboratory electrical press at 170°C.

  15. Natural Rubber Quantification in Sunflower Using an Automated Solvent Extractor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) produce a small amount of low molecular weight natural rubber (NR) and this species has potential as a rubber-producing crop plant. Quantifying NR in plant tissue has traditionally been accomplished using Soxhlet or gravimetric methodologies. Accelerated solve...

  16. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils : [summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated : annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant : portion of these tires have been processed into : finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, : for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt (HMA) : pa...

  17. The reclaiming of butyl rubber and in-situ compatibilization of thermoplastic elastomer by power ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wenlai

    This is a study of the continuous ultrasound aided extrusion process for the in-situ compatibilization of isotactic polypropylene (iPP)/ethylene-propylene diene rubber (EPDM) thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) using a newly developed ultrasonic treatment reactor. The rheological, mechanical properties and morphology of the TPE with and without ultrasonic treatment were studied. In-situ compatibilization in the ultrasonically treated blends was observed as evident by their more stable morphology after annealing, improved mechanical properties and IR spectra. The obtained results indicated that ultrasonic treatment induced the thermo-mechanical degradations and led to the possibility of enhanced molecular transport and chemical reactions at the interfaces. Processing conditions were established for enhanced in situ compatibilization of the PP/EPDM TPE. The ultrasonic treatments of butyl rubber gum and ultrasonic devulcanization of butyl rubber, tire-curing bladder during extrusion using a grooved barrel ultrasonic reactor were carried out. The ultrasonic treatment of gum caused degradation of the polymer main chain leading to lower molecular weight, broader molecular weight distribution, less unsaturation and changes in physical properties. The devulcanization of butyl rubber was successfully accomplished only at severe conditions of ultrasonic treatment. The mechanical properties of vulcanizates prepared from devulcanized butyl rubber are comparable to that of the virgin vulcanizate. The molecular characterization of sol fraction of devulcanized butyl rubber showed the devulcanization and degradation of butyl rubber occurred simultaneously. 1H NMR transverse relaxation was also used to study butyl rubber gum before and after ultrasonic treatment, and ultrasonically devulcanized unfilled butyl rubber. The T2 relaxation decays were successfully described using a two-component model. The recyclability of tire-curing bladder was also investigated. Gel fraction, crosslink

  18. Monitoring rubber plantation expansion using Landsat data time series and a Shapelet-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Su; Rogan, John; Sangermano, Florencia

    2018-02-01

    The expansion of tree plantations in tropical forests for commercial rubber cultivation threatens biodiversity which may affect ecosystem services, and hinders ecosystem productivity, causing net carbon emission. Numerous studies refer to the challenge of reliably distinguishing rubber plantations from natural forest, using satellite data, due to their similar spectral signatures, even when phenology is incorporated into an analysis. This study presents a novel approach for monitoring the establishment and expansion of rubber plantations in Seima Protection Forest (SPF), Cambodia (1995-2015), by detecting and analyzing the 'shapelet' structure in a Landsat-NDVI time series. This paper introduces a new classification procedure consisting of two steps: (1) an exhaustive-searching algorithm to detect shapelets that represent a period for relatively low NDVI values within an image time series; and (2) a t-test used to determine if NDVI values of detected shapelets are significantly different than their non-shapelet trend, thereby indicating the presence of rubber plantations. Using this approach, historical rubber plantation events were mapped over the twenty-year timespan. The shapelet algorithm produced two types of information: (1) year of rubber plantation establishment; and (2) pre-conversion land-cover type (i.e., agriculture, or natural forest). The overall accuracy of the rubber plantation map for the year of 2015 was 89%. The multi-temporal map products reveal that more than half of the rubber planting activity (57%) took place in 2010 and 2011, following the granting of numerous rubber concessions two years prior. Seventy-three percent of the rubber plantations were converted from natural forest and twenty-three percent were established on non-forest land-cover. The shapelet approach developed here can be used reliably to improve our understanding of the expansion of rubber production beyond Seima Protection Forest of Cambodia, and likely elsewhere in the

  19. In vitro biocompatibility of EPM and EPDM rubbers.

    PubMed

    Mast, F; Hoschtitzky, J A; Van Blitterswijk, C A; Huysmans, H A

    1997-01-01

    The in vitro toxicity of two EPDM rubbers (K 778 and K 4802) and one EPM rubber (K 740) was tested using human fibroblasts. The modulus of elasticity of each rubber was varied by exposure to different amounts of electron-beam radiation (0, 5 and 10 Mrad). The short-term in vitro toxicity was tested by culturing cells on polymer films. The long-term effect of ageing was simulated by growing fibroblasts in nutrient media prepared from extracts of heat-exposed materials. Cell cultures were studied both quantitatively and (ultra) structurally. Growth curves obtained in the toxicity test did not differ significantly from control values at any day of observation, and also showed that electron-beam radiation did not alter the biocompatibility. The same results were found for all but one material in the artificial ageing test. The number of cells in the K4802/10 Mrad extraction medium was decreased. Ultrastructurally no gross deviations from normal morphology were observed, either in the direct contact test or in the artificial ageing test. The most characteristic feature was a somewhat dilated endoplasmic reticulum. In summary, the in vitro biocompatibility of EPDM-rubbers as observed in this study is satisfactory and motivates further investigation of their biocompatibility in animal experiments.

  20. Radiation crosslinking of styrene-butadiene rubber containing waste tire rubber and polyfunctional monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, Tariq; Khan, Sara; Shafiq, Muhammad; Gill, Rohama

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of polyfunctional monomers (PFMs) and absorbed dose on the final characteristics of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) mixed with waste tire rubber (WTR). A series of SBR/WTR blends were prepared by varying the ratios of WTR in the presence of PFMs, namely trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and crosslinked using gamma rays. The physicochemical characteristics of the prepared blends were investigated. It was observed that tensile strength, hardness and gel content of the blends increased with absorbed dose while the blends containing TMPTA showed higher tensile strength, gel content and thermal stability as compared to the blends containing TMPTMA. Higher thermal stability was observed in the blends which were crosslinked by radiation as compared to the blends crosslinked by sulfur. These blends exhibited higher rate of swelling in organic solvents, whereas negligible swelling was observed in acidic and basic environment.

  1. Fast-Acting Rubber-To-Coated-Aluminum Adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comer, Dawn A.; Novak, Howard; Vazquez, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Cyanoacrylate adhesive used to join rubber to coated aluminum easier to apply and more effective. One-part material applied in single coat to aluminum treated previously with epoxy primer and top coat. Parts mated as soon as adhesive applied; no drying necessary. Sets in 5 minutes. Optionally, accelerator brushed onto aluminum to reduce setting time to 30 seconds. Clamping parts together unnecessary. Adhesive comes in four formulations, all based on ethyl cyanoacrylate with various amounts of ethylene copolymer rubber, poly(methyl methacrylate), silicon dioxide, hydroquinone, and phthalic anhydride.

  2. Possibility of using waste tire rubber and fly ash with Portland cement as construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Arin; Degirmenci, Nurhayat

    2009-05-01

    The growing amount of waste rubber produced from used tires has resulted in an environmental problem. Recycling waste tires has been widely studied for the last 20 years in applications such as asphalt pavement, waterproofing systems and membrane liners. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash and rubber waste with Portland cement as a composite material for masonry applications. Class C fly ash and waste automobile tires in three different sizes were used with Portland cement. Compressive and flexural strength, dry unit weight and water absorption tests were performed on the composite specimens containing waste tire rubber. The compressive strength decreased by increasing the rubber content while increased by increasing the fly ash content for all curing periods. This trend is slightly influenced by particle size. For flexural strength, the specimens with waste tire rubber showed higher values than the control mix probably due to the effect of rubber fibers. The dry unit weight of all specimens decreased with increasing rubber content, which can be explained by the low specific gravity of rubber particles. Water absorption decreased slightly with the increase in rubber particles size. These composite materials containing 10% Portland cement, 70% and 60% fly ash and 20% and 30% tire rubber particles have sufficient strength for masonry applications.

  3. Reinforcement of latex rubber by the incorporation of amphiphilic particles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Latex rubbers are fabricated from latex suspensions. During the fabrication process, latex particles are bound together while water is removed from the suspension. This report shows that the mechanical properties of latex rubbers can be improved by incorporating a small amount of amphiphilic submicr...

  4. Patch testing with rubber series in Europe: a critical review and recommendation.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Katharine L; Uter, Wolfgang; Geier, Johannes; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Mahler, Vera; Crépy, Marie-Noëlle; Schuttelaar, Marie Louise; Bauer, Andrea; Wilkinson, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Rubber additives constitute an important group of contact allergens, particularly in certain occupations. To collect information regarding the current practice of using a 'rubber series' in Europe, and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning the prevalence of allergy in order to derive a recommendation for a 'European rubber series'. The following were performed: (i) a survey targeting all members of the COST action 'StanDerm' consortium, (ii) analysis of rubber contact allergy data in the database of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies, and (iii) a literature review. Information from 13 countries was available, from one or several departments of dermatology, and occasionally occupational health. Apart from some substances tested only in single departments, a broad overlap regarding important allergens was evident, but considerable variation existed between departments. An up-to-date 'European rubber series' is recommended, with the exclusion of substances only of historical concern. A 'supplementary rubber series' containing allergens of less proven importance, requiring further analysis, is recommended for departments specializing in occupational contact allergy. These should be continually updated as new evidence emerges. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Study on the Aging Behaviors of Rubber Materials in Tension and Compression Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Can; Wang, Hongyu; Ma, Xiaobing

    Rubber materials are widely used in aviation, aerospace, shipbuilding, automobile and other military field. However, rubber materials are easy to aging, which largely restricts its using life. In working environment, due to the combined effect of heat and oxygen, vulcanized rubber will undergo degradation and crosslinking reaction which will cause elasticity decease and permanent deformation, so mostly rubber products are used under stress state. Due to the asymmetric structure and asymmetric stress distribution, mechanical stress may cause serious damage to molecular structure; therefore, this paper is aimed to analyze the aging behavior of rubber materials under tensile and compressive loadings, through analyzing experiment data, and adopting Gauss function to describe stress relaxation coefficient, to build an aging equation containing compression ratio parameter and aging time.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders among Sri Lankan rubber tappers

    PubMed Central

    de Silva, Vijitha; Tharindra, Hemajith; Ostbye, Truls

    2016-01-01

    Background Rubber tapping exposes workers to risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Objectives This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and factors associated with MSDs among Sri Lankan rubber tappers. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 300 rubber tappers to measure MSDs and potential associated factors. Ergonomic exposure levels were measured for 90 tappers using the Quick Exposure Check instrument. MSD prevalence and prevalence ratios were calculated using log-binomial regression. Results In the past 12 months, 66% of rubber tappers in our sample experienced an MSD. Ergonomic exposure levels were high or very high in the back (94.4%), shoulders (96.7%), and neck (83.3%). Being female, older, Tamil, working two jobs, alternating tapping hands, and depression were significantly associated with increased risk of MSDs. Conclusions MSDs are common among rubber tappers in Sri Lanka. These results suggest a need for work process modifications to prevent MSDs. PMID:27092589

  7. Water requirements of the styrene, butadiene and synthetic-rubber industries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durfor, Charles N.

    1963-01-01

    About 710 million gallons of makeup water is withdrawn daily by the styrene, butadiene, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), and specialty-rubber industries; 88 percent of this water is used only for once-through cooling. About 429 million gallons of water daily (mgd) is withdrawn by the butadiene industry; 158 ragd is withdrawn by the styrene industry; 94 mgd is used to make special-purpose synthetic rubber; and 29 mgd is used in the direct manufacture of SBR. The amount of makeup water withdrawn to produce SBR ranges from 11,400 to 418,000 gallons per long ton of finished rubber. The amount of makeup water withdrawn depends upon the type of rubber, the processes used to make SBR and its intermediates (styrene and butadiene), and the availability of water at the styrene, butadiene, and SBR plants. The amount of makeup water used to make styrene ranged from 2.19 to 123 gallons per pound; to make butadiene, ranged from 5.38 to 22.0 gallons per pound; and in the direct manufacture of SBR, ranged from 0.883 to 10.2 gallons per pound of finished rubber. The amount of makeup water withdrawn for use in the manufacture of special-purpose synthetic rubber ranged from 8.45 to 104 gallons per pound. About 64 percent of the makeup water was obtained from salty water sources. These waters, which were used only in once-through cooling, contained as much as 35,000 ppm of dissolved solids. About 26 percent of the makeup water was obtained from fresh-water streams and lakes, and most of the other makeup waters were obtained from ground water. Less than 1 percent of the makeup water was obtained from reprocessed municipal sewage. Most makeup water from fresh-water streams, lakes, and wells contained less than 1,000 ppm of dissolved solids, and most makeup water used in the manufacture of SBR contained less than 500 ppm of dissolved solids. The maximum hardness of the untreated fresh makeup waters; used in the manufacture of SBR was less than 500 ppm. About 97 percent of the makeup water

  8. Thermomyces lanuginosus STm: a source of thermostable hydrolytic enzymes for novel application in extraction of high-quality natural rubber from Taraxacum kok-saghyz (rubber dandelion)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydrolytic enzymes from a newly isolated strain of the thermophilic fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus were used to extract rubber from Taraxacum kok-saghyz commonly known as rubber (or Russian or Kazak(h)) dandelion. The fungus was isolated from garden soil and identified as Thermomyces lanuginosus STm...

  9. Slipping through the Cracks: Rubber Plantation Is Unsuitable Breeding Habitat for Frogs in Xishuangbanna, China

    PubMed Central

    Behm, Jocelyn E.; Yang, Xiaodong; Chen, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into agriculture may present a serious risk to amphibian diversity if amphibians are not able to use agricultural areas as habitat. Recently, in Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan Province – a hotspot of frog diversity within China – two-thirds of the native tropical rainforests have been converted into rubber plantation agriculture. We conducted surveys and experiments to quantify habitat use for breeding and non-breeding life history activities of the native frog species in rainforest, rubber plantation and other human impacted sites. Rubber plantation sites had the lowest species richness in our non-breeding habitat surveys and no species used rubber plantation sites as breeding habitat. The absence of breeding was likely not due to intrinsic properties of the rubber plantation pools, as our experiments indicated that rubber plantation pools were suitable for tadpole growth and development. Rather, the absence of breeding in the rubber plantation was likely due to a misalignment of breeding and non-breeding habitat preferences. Analyses of our breeding surveys showed that percent canopy cover over pools was the strongest environmental variable influencing breeding site selection, with species exhibiting preferences for pools under both high and low canopy cover. Although rubber plantation pools had high canopy cover, the only species that bred in high canopy cover sites used the rainforest for both non-breeding and breeding activities, completing their entire life cycle in the rainforest. Conversely, the species that did use the rubber plantation for non-breeding habitat preferred to breed in low canopy sites, also avoiding breeding in the rubber plantation. Rubber plantations are likely an intermediate habitat type that ‘slips through the cracks’ of species habitat preferences and is thus avoided for breeding. In summary, unlike the rainforests they replaced, rubber plantations alone may not be able to support frog

  10. Rubber Flooring Impact on Production and Herdlife of Dairy Cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The overall objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate production, reproduction, and retention of first and second lactations of cows assigned to either rubber (RUB) or concrete (CON) flooring at the fe...

  11. Blends of guayule natural rubber latex with commercial latex polymers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) is a woody desert shrub that produces natural rubber, cis-1,4 polyisoprene, by biosynthesis. It is currently cultivated in the southwestern United States as a source of latex and rubber for commercial development. Guayule latex is similar to Hevea latex in polymer mo...

  12. Linear motion feed through with thin wall rubber sealing element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. P.; Deulin, E. A.

    2017-07-01

    The patented linear motion feedthrough is based on elastic thin rubber walls usage being reinforced with analeptic string fixed in the middle part of the walls. The pneumatic or hydro actuators create linear movement of stock. The length of this movement is two times more the rubber wall length. This flexible wall is a sealing element of feedthrough. The main advantage of device is negligible resistance force that is less then mentioned one in sealing bellows that leads to positioning error decreasing. Nevertheless, the thin wall rubber sealing element (TRE) of the feedthrough is the main unreliable element that was the reason of this element longevity research. The theory and experimental results help to create equation for TRE longevity calculation under vacuum or extra high pressure difference action. The equation was used for TRE longevity determination for hydraulic or vacuum equipment realization also as it helps for gas flow being leaking through the cracks in thin walls of rubber sealing element of linear motion feedthrough calculation.

  13. Biobased, self-healable, high strength rubber with tunicate cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liming; Yuan, Daosheng; Xu, Chuanhui; Chen, Yukun

    2017-10-19

    Cellulose nanocrystals represent a promising and environmentally friendly reinforcing nanofiller for polymers, especially for rubbers and elastomers. Here, a simple approach via latex mixing is used to fabricate biobased, healable rubber with high strength based on epoxidized natural rubber (ENR). Tunicate cellulose nanocrystals (t-CNs) isolated from marine biomass with a high aspect ratio are used to improve both mechanical properties and self-healing behavior of the material. By introducing dynamic hydrogen bond supramolecular networks between oxygenous groups of ENR and hydroxyl groups on the t-CN surface, together with chain interdiffusion in permanently but slightly cross-linked rubber, self-healing and mechanical properties are facilitated significantly in the resulting materials. Macroscopic tensile healing behavior and microscopic morphology analyses are carried out to evaluate the performance of the materials. Both t-CN content and healing time have significant influence on healing behavior. The results indicate that a synergistic effect between molecular interdiffusion and dynamic hydrogen bond supramolecular networks leads to the improved self-healing behavior.

  14. Enhanced performance of crumb rubber filtration for ballast water treatment.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhijian; Butkus, Michael A; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2009-03-01

    Waste-tire-derived crumb rubber was utilized as filter media to develop an efficient filter for ballast water treatment. In this study, the effects of coagulation, pressure filtration and dual-media (gravity) filtration on the performance of the crumb rubber filtration were investigated. The removal efficiencies of turbidity, phytoplankton and zooplankton, and head loss development were monitored during the filtration process. The addition of a coagulant enhanced the removal efficiencies of all targeted matter, but resulted in substantial increase of head loss. Pressure filtration increased filtration rates to 220 m(3)h(-1)m(-2) for 8-h operation and improved the zooplankton removal. Dual-media (crumb rubber/sand) gravity filtration also improved the removal efficiencies of phytoplankton and zooplankton over mono-media gravity crumb rubber filtration. However, these filtration techniques alone did not meet the criteria for removing indigenous organisms from ballast water. A combination of filtration and disinfection is suggested for future studies.

  15. Rubber dam isolation for restorative treatment in dental patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Li, Chunjie; Yuan, He; Wong, May Cm; Zou, Jing; Shi, Zongdao; Zhou, Xuedong

    2016-09-20

    Successful restorations in dental patients depend largely on the effective control of moisture and microbes during the procedure. The rubber dam technique has been one of the most widely used isolation methods in dental restorative treatments. The evidence on the effects of rubber dam usage on the longevity of dental restorations is conflicting. Therefore, it is important to summarise the available evidence to determine the effects of this method. To assess the effects of rubber dam isolation compared with other types of isolation used for direct and indirect restorative treatments in dental patients. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (searched 17 August 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 7) in the Cochrane Library (searched 17 August 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 17 August 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 17 August 2016), LILACS BIREME Virtual Health Library (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database; 1982 to 17 August 2016), SciELO BIREME Virtual Health Library (1998 to 17 August 2016), Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM, in Chinese) (1978 to 30 August 2016), VIP (in Chinese) (1989 to 30 August 2016), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, in Chinese) (1994 to 30 August 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, OpenGrey and Sciencepaper Online (in Chinese) for ongoing trials. There were no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials (including split-mouth trials) assessing the effects of rubber dam isolation for restorative treatments in dental patients. Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We resolved disagreement by discussion. We included four studies

  16. Unraveling the mystery of natural rubber biosythesis part I: investigation of the composition and growth of in vitro natural rubber using high resolution size exclusion chromatography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Monitoring the growth of in vitro natural rubberwas accomplished by high resolution size exclusion chromatography, SEC.Washed rubber particles isolated from H. brasiliensis latex, containing the rubber transferase enzyme, were used to catalyze the polymerization of synthetic isopentenyl pyrophosphat...

  17. High Performance Graphene Oxide Based Rubber Composites

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W.; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications. PMID:23974435

  18. Trapped rubber processing for advanced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marra, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Trapped rubber processing is a molding technique for composites in which precast silicone rubber is placed within a closed cavity where it thermally expands against the composite's surface supported by the vessel walls. The method has been applied by the Douglas Aircraft Company, under contract to NASA-Langley, to the design and fabrication of 10 DC-10 graphite/epoxy upper aft rudder assemblies. A three-bay development tool form mold die has been designed and manufactured, and tooling parameters have been established. Fabrication procedures include graphite layup, assembly of details in the tool, and a cure cycle. The technique has made it possible for the cocured fabrication of complex primary box structures otherwise impracticable via standard composite material processes.

  19. Why dentists don't use rubber dam during endodontics and how to promote its usage?

    PubMed

    Madarati, Ahmad A

    2016-02-25

    This survey study aimed at investigating the frequency of rubber dam use during root canal treatment, identifying influencing factors for not using it by Saudi general dental practitioners (GDPs) and endodontists. It also aimed at identifying measures that increase rubber dam usage. After obtaining an ethical approval, two pilot studies were conducted on staff members at Taibah University College of Dentistry and a group of GDPs. A final online survey was constructed comprising 17 close-ended questions divided into six categories: demographics, endodontic practice, rubber dam use, alternative isolation methods, reasons for not using rubber dam, and measures and policies that increase its usage. The survey was emailed to 375 GDPs randomly selected from the dental register and all endodontists (n = 53) working in the western province, Saudi Arabia. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square and Linear-by-Linear association tests at p ≤ 0.05. The proportion of endodontists who used rubber dam (84.8 %) was significantly greater than that of GDPs (21.6 %) (p < 0.001). Significantly the highest proportion (40.5 %) did not use rubber dam because of unavailability at working place. Most rubber dam none-users (69.25 %) used a combination of other isolation means. The highest proportion of those who used rubber dam were working in the governmental sector (54.3 %). Among rubber dam users, the greatest proportion graduated from Saudi Arabia (57.8 %) compared to those graduated from Egypt (34.3 %) and Syria (22.4 %). There was a significant correlation between the patterns of rubber dam use during undergraduate training and its usage after graduation (p = 0.001). The highest proportion of participants (48.1 %) reported better undergraduate education as the most important factor that would increase rubber dam use in dental practice. Using of rubber dam was not common in Saudi general dental practice. Dentists must follow the recommended standards of care. Place of work and

  20. Strategies to improve the adhesion of rubbers to adhesives by means of plasma surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Martínez, J. M.; Romero-Sánchez, M. D.

    2006-05-01

    The surface modifications produced by treatment of a synthetic sulfur vulcanized styrene-butadiene rubber with oxidizing (oxygen, air, carbon dioxide) and non oxidizing (nitrogen, argon) RF low pressure plasmas, and by treatment with atmospheric plasma torch have been assessed by ATR-IR and XPS spectroscopy, SEM, and contact angle measurements. The effectiveness of the low pressure plasma treatment depended on the gas atmosphere used to generate the plasma. A lack of relationship between surface polarity and wettability, and peel strength values was obtained, likely due to the cohesive failure in the rubber obtained in the adhesive joints. In general, acceptable adhesion values of plasma treated rubber were obtained for all plasmas, except for nitrogen plasma treatment during 15 minutes due to the creation of low molecular weight moieties on the outermost rubber layer. A toluene wiping of the N{2 } plasma treated rubber surface for 15 min removed those moieties and increased adhesion was obtained. On the other hand, the treatment of the rubber with atmospheric pressure by means of a plasma torch was proposed. The wettability of the rubber was improved by decreasing the rubber-plasma torch distance and by increasing the duration because a partial removal of paraffin wax from the rubber surface was produced. The rubber surface was oxidized by the plasma torch treatment, and the longer the duration of the plasma torch treatment, the higher the degree of surface oxidation (mainly creation of C O moieties). However, although the rubber surface was effectively modified by the plasma torch treatment, the adhesion was not greatly improved, due to the migration of paraffin wax to the treated rubber-polyurethane adhesive interface once the adhesive joint was produced. On the other hand, the extended treatment with plasma torch facilitated the migration of zinc stearate to the rubber-adhesive interface, also contributing to deteriorate the adhesion in greater extent. Finally

  1. Genomic validation of PB 260 clone of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) at Cikumpay Plantation by SSR marker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royani, J. I.; Safarrida, A.; Rachmawati, I.; Khairiyah, H.; Mustika, I. P.; Suyono, A.; Rudiyana, Y.; Kubil; Nurjaya; Arianto, A.

    2017-05-01

    Rubber from Hevea brasiliensis is the only commercial natural rubber in the world. Propagation of rubber trees usually done by grafting and seed germination. BPPT had been producing rubber tree by in vitro technique with embryo somatic methods. Validation of mother plant for in vitro propagation is important to compare between mother plant and propagated plants. The aim for this research was to validation of PB 260 clone that planted at Cikumpay Plantation by SSR marker. Sampling of 10 rubber leaves were done at Cikumpay Plantation based on GPS position from the area of PB 260 clone. Rubber leaves were isolated with CTAB modification method to obtained DNA. Four of SSR primers from rubber, i.e.: hmac 4, hmac 5, hmct 1, and hmct 5, were used as primers to amplification of rubber DNA. The result showed that no band that different from 10 rubber of PB 260 clone at Cikumpay Plantation. This research will continue to compare genomic validation between mother plant and propagated plants that had been produced from BPPT.

  2. Transcriptome and gene expression analysis in cold-acclimated guayule (Parthenium argentatum)rubber-producing tissue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural rubber biosynthesis in guayule (Parthenium argentatum) is associated with moderately cold night temperatures. To begin to dissect the molecular events triggered by cold temperatures that govern rubber synthesis induction in guayule, the transcriptome of bark tissue, where rubber is produced...

  3. Protecting tropical forests from the rapid expansion of rubber using carbon payments.

    PubMed

    Warren-Thomas, Eleanor M; Edwards, David P; Bebber, Daniel P; Chhang, Phourin; Diment, Alex N; Evans, Tom D; Lambrick, Frances H; Maxwell, James F; Nut, Menghor; O'Kelly, Hannah J; Theilade, Ida; Dolman, Paul M

    2018-03-02

    Expansion of Hevea brasiliensis rubber plantations is a resurgent driver of deforestation, carbon emissions, and biodiversity loss in Southeast Asia. Southeast Asian rubber extent is massive, equivalent to 67% of oil palm, with rapid further expansion predicted. Results-based carbon finance could dis-incentivise forest conversion to rubber, but efficacy will be limited unless payments match, or at least approach, the costs of avoided deforestation. These include opportunity costs (timber and rubber profits), plus carbon finance scheme setup (transaction) and implementation costs. Using comprehensive Cambodian forest data, exploring scenarios of selective logging and conversion, and assuming land-use choice is based on net present value, we find that carbon prices of $30-$51 per tCO 2 are needed to break even against costs, higher than those currently paid on carbon markets or through carbon funds. To defend forests from rubber, either carbon prices must be increased, or other strategies are needed, such as corporate zero-deforestation pledges, and governmental regulation and enforcement of forest protection.

  4. Toughening mystery of natural rubber deciphered by double network incorporating hierarchical structures

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weiming; Li, Xiangyang; Lu, Jie; Huang, Ningdong; Chen, Liang; Qi, Zeming; Li, Liangbin; Liang, Haiyi

    2014-01-01

    As an indispensible material for modern society, natural rubber possesses peerless mechanical properties such as strength and toughness over its artificial analogues, which remains a mystery. Intensive experimental and theoretical investigations have revealed the self-enhancement of natural rubber due to strain-induced crystallization. However a rigorous model on the self-enhancement, elucidating natural rubber's extraordinary mechanical properties, is obscured by deficient understanding of the local hierarchical structure under strain. With spatially resolved synchrotron radiation micro-beam scanning X-ray diffraction we discover weak oscillation in distributions of strain-induced crystallinity around crack tip for stretched natural rubber film, demonstrating a soft-hard double network structure. The fracture energy enhancement factor obtained by utilizing the double network model indicates an enhancement of toughness by 3 orders. It's proposed that upon stretching spontaneously developed double network structures integrating hierarchy at multi length-scale in natural rubber play an essential role in its remarkable mechanical performance. PMID:25511479

  5. A study of amino acid modifiers in guayule natural rubber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural rubber from the Hevea tree is a critical agricultural material vital to United States industry, medicine, and defense, yet the country is dependent on imports to meet domestic needs. Guayule, a desert shrub indigenous to the US, is under development as an alternative source of natural rubber...

  6. Development of magnetorheological elastomers based on Deproteinised natural rubber as smart damping materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Nik Intan Nik; Kamaruddin, Shamsul

    2017-12-01

    Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are composite materials consist of micron-sized magnetizable particles carbonyl iron particles [CIPs]) embedded in a soft elastomer matrix. MRE technology offers variable stiffness and damping properties under the influence of a magnetic field. Herein, the feasibility of incorporating a new generation specialty rubber, Pureprena as a matrix for MREs was investigated. Pureprena or Deproteinised Natural Rubber (DPNR) is a specialty natural rubber that has good dynamic properties, particularly with respect to damping parameters. DPNR was compounded with 60 wt% of CIPs to fabricate MREs. The performance of the DPNR-based MRE was measured in terms of tensile strength, dynamic properties, and magnetorheological (MR) effect and compared with polyisoprene (IR)-based MRE with the same amount of CIPs. Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) showed that the loss factor in the glass transition region of the DPNR-based MRE was higher than that of the IR-based MRE, indicating better damping properties. Further investigation was undertaken using a servo-hydraulic testing machine to characterise the effect of strain amplitude and frequency on the dynamic properties (e.g. damping coefficient) of MREs at zero magnetic fields. The results demonstrate that DPNR-based MREs possess a comparable damping coefficient to that of IR-based MREs. In addition, MR effect, which relates to the ratio between elastic modulus with applied magnetic field (on-state) to the same modulus without applied fields (off-state), was measured using a parallel plate rheometer. As a result, DPNR-based MREs have improved MR effect than that of IR-based MREs. Moreover, variable stiffness is obtained when the magnetic field was increased to 0.8T. Loss factor or tan δ of MREs was found to vary against different magnetic fields. Finally, MREs with varied stiffness and damping were found to have potential as active control devices for smart damping materials.

  7. [Biological monitoring in the molding of plastics and rubbers].

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, S; Campo, L; Cirla, A M; Cirla, P E; Cutugno, V; Lionetti, C; Martinotti, I; Mossini, E; Foà, V

    2007-01-01

    This survey was carried out in the molding of plastics and rubbers, in the "Professional Cancer Prevention Project" sponsored by the Lombardy region with the objective of developing and implementing protocols for evaluating exposure to carcinogens through the biological monitoring. The realities of molding the thermoplastic polymer ABS, rubber, and thermosetting plastics containing formaldehyde were examined. The carcinogenic substances identified in these processes were: 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile and styrene in molding ABS, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in molding rubber, and formaldehyde in molding the thermosetting plastics. Only for some of these substances biological indicators are available. The limited exposure to airborne chemicals in molding ABS and the intrinsic characteristics of biological indicators available for 1-3 butadiene have determined the non applicability of biological monitoring to this situation. The absence of a biological indicator of exposure to formaldehyde has made this situation not investigable. Exposure in the rubber molding was studied in 19 subjects applying the determination not metabolized PAH in urine. The levels of these indicators were similar to those measured in other groups of subjects without occupational exposure to PAH, confirming a low airborne contamination in this workplace.

  8. Geospatial application for the identification and monitoring of rubber smallholders in the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz Mohd Hazir, Mohd; Muda, Tuan Mohamad Tuan

    2016-06-01

    The Malaysian rubber industry, especially in the upstream sector, is much dependent on smallholders to produce latex or cup lumps. Identification and monitoring of rubber smallholders are essential tasks when it comes to the Malaysian rubber industry's sustainability. The authorised agencies who support the rubber smallholders can do better planning, arranging, and managing. This paper introduces a method of calculating the total number of smallholders as well as identifying the location of their planted rubber area. The scope of this study only focused on land owners as rubber smallholders in the selected study area of Negeri Sembilan. The land use map provided by the Department of Agriculture Malaysia gave information on distribution of rubber area in Malaysia, while the cadastral map from the Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia was specifically used for identifying land owners of each rubber parcel or rubber lot. Both data were analyzed and processed with ArcGIS software to extract the information, and the results were then compared to the Malaysian Rubber Board smallholders database.

  9. Evaluation of high pressure water blast with rotating spray bar for removing paint and rubber deposits from airport runways, and review of runway slipperiness problems created by rubber contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.; Griswold, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    A high pressure water blast with rotating spray bar treatment for removing paint and rubber deposits from airport runways is studied. The results of the evaluation suggest that the treatment is very effective in removing above surface paint and rubber deposits to the point that pavement skid resistance is restored to trafficked but uncontaminated runway surface skid resistance levels. Aircraft operating problems created by runway slipperiness are reviewed along with an assessment of the contributions that pavement surface treatments, surface weathering, traffic polishing, and rubber deposits make in creating or alleviating runway slipperiness. The results suggest that conventional surface treatments for both portland cement and asphaltic concrete runways are extremely vulnerable to rubber deposit accretions which can produce runway slipperiness conditions for aircraft operations as or more slippery than many snow and ice-covered runway conditions. Pavement grooving surface treatments are shown to be the least vulnerable to rubber deposits accretion and traffic polishing of the surface treatments examined.

  10. Application of mathematical planning in production of filled emulsion rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugacheva, I. N.; Molokanova, L. V.; Popova, L. V.; Repin, P. S.

    2018-05-01

    The applicability of mathematical planning of experiment in the field of chemistry and chemical engineering, in particular in the industrial production of synthetic rubbers, is considered in the article. Possibility of using secondary material resources, which are waste products of light industry, in the production of elastomeric compositions is studied. The method of obtaining a powdered cellulose additive from wastes containing cellulose fiber is described. The best way of introducing the obtained additive into elastomeric compositions based on the emulsion rubber is established. Optimal conditions for obtaining filled emulsion rubber with the help of a powdered cellulose additive were established basing on the mathematical planning of experiment.

  11. Feasibility study of a soil-based rubberized CLSM.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jason Y; Tsai, Mufan

    2009-02-01

    The development of beneficial uses of recycled scrap tires is always in great demand around the world. The disposal of on-site surplus excavated soil and the production of standard engineering aggregates have also been facing increasing environmental and ecological challenges in congested islands, such as Taiwan. This paper presents an experimental study using recycled crumb rubber and native silty sand to produce a lightweight, soil-based, rubberized controlled low strength material (CLSM) for a bridge approach repair. To assess the technical feasibility of this material, the effects of weight ratios of cement-to-water (C/W) and water-to-solid (W/S), and of rubber content on the engineering properties for different mixtures were investigated. The presented test results include flowability, unit weight, strength, settlement potential, and bearing capacity. Based on the findings, we conclude that a soil-based rubberized CLSM with 40% sand by weight and an optimal design ratio of 0.7 for C/W and 0.35 for W/S can be used for the proposed bridge approach repair. Such a mixture has demonstrated acceptable flowability, strength, and bearing capacity. Its lower unit weight, negligible compressibility, and hydrocollapse potential also help ensure that detrimental settlement is unlikely to occur. The results illustrate a novel scheme of CLSM production, and suggest a beneficial alternative for the reduction of scrap tires as well as conservation of resources and environment.

  12. Effects of Natural Rubber on Microwave Absorption Characteristics of Some Li-Ni-Zn Ferrite-Thermoplastic Natural Rubber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Hamid, Siti Atkah; Abdullah, Mustaffa Hj.; Ahmad, Sahrim Hj.; Mansor, Abdul Aziz; Yusoff, Ahmad Nazlim

    2002-09-01

    A microwave (Li0.5Fe0.5)0.4Ni0.3Zn0.3Fe2O4 (LNZ) ferrite was prepared by a conventional sintering method in air. Thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) was prepared from polypropylene (PP) and natural rubber (NR) in the ratios of 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 and 40:60 with liquid natural rubber as a compatibilizer by a melt blending technique. LNZ ferrite-TPNR composites with 20 wt% ferrite filler were prepared using a Brabender plasticorder internal mixer. The microwave electromagnetic properties of the composites were studied in the frequency range of 0.3-13.5 GHz using a microwave vector network analyzer (MVNA). The real and imaginary components of the relative complex dielectric permittivity (\\varepsilonr*=\\varepsilonr\\prime-j\\varepsilonr\\prime\\prime) and magnetic permeability (μr*=μr\\prime-jμr\\prime\\prime) were calculated from the measured complex scattering parameters (S11* and S12*) using the Nicolson-Ross model. The dielectric and magnetic properties were found to depend on the NR and PP content in the composites. The minimum reflection loss (RL) under the matching conditions increases with increasing NR content.

  13. Evaluation of mix ingredients on the performance of rubber-modified asphalt mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Takallou, H.B.

    1987-01-01

    In rubber-modified asphalt pavements ground recycled tire particles are added to a gap-graded aggregate and then mixed with hot asphalt cement. In view of the significant reductions in wintertime stopping distances under icy or frosty road surface conditions, the use of coarse rubber in asphalt pavements should be seriously considered. This research project consisted of a laboratory study of mix properties as a function of variables such as rubber gradation and content, void content, aggregate graduation, mix process, temperature, and asphalt content. Twenty different mix combinations were evaluated for diametral modulus and fatigue at two different temperatures. Also, five differentmore » mix combinations were evaluated for static creep and permanent deformation. The findings of the laboratory study indicate that the rubber gradation and content, aggregate gradation, and use of surcharge during sample preparation have considerable effect on modulus and fatigue life of the mix. The results of static creep and permanent deformation tests indicate that the rubber asphalt mixes had low stability and high elasticity. Also, due to greater allowable tensile strain in rubber-modified mixtures, the thickness of the modified mixture can be reduced, using a layer equivalency of 1.4 to 1.0« less

  14. New understanding of microstructure formation of the rubber phase in thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV).

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanguang; Tian, Ming; Zhang, Liqun; Tian, Hongchi; Wu, Youping; Ning, Nanying

    2014-03-21

    The breakup of the rubber phase in an ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM)/polypropylene (PP) blend at the early stage of dynamic vulcanization is similar to that in an unvulcanized EPDM/PP blend because of the low crosslink density of the EPDM phase. In this work, the minimum size of the rubber phase in the unvulcanized EPDM/PP blend was first calculated by using the critical breakup law of viscoelastic droplets in a matrix. The calculated results showed that the minimum size of the rubber phase in the unvulcanized blend was in the nanometer scale (25-46 nm), not the micrometer scale as reported in many works. Meanwhile, the actual size of the rubber phase in the thermoplastic vulcanizate (TPV) at both the early stage and the final stage of dynamic vulcanization was observed by using peak force tapping atomic force microscopy (PF-AFM). The results indicated that the EPDM phase indeed broke up into nanoparticles at the early stage of dynamic vulcanization, in good agreement with the calculated results. More interestingly, we first revealed that the micrometer-sized rubber particles commonly observed in TPV were actually the agglomerates of rubber nanoparticles with diameters between 40 and 60 nm. The mechanism for the formation of rubber nanoparticles and their agglomerates during dynamic vulcanization was then discussed. Our work provides guidance to control the microstructure of the rubber phase in TPV to prepare high performance TPV products for a wide range of applications in the automobile and electronic industries.

  15. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivated at two plantation sites in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Mudd, Ryan G.; Liu, Wen; Ziegler, Alan D.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of expanding rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation on water cycling in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA), evapotranspiration (ET) was measured within rubber plantations at Bueng Kan, Thailand, and Kampong Cham, Cambodia. After energy closure adjustment, mean annual rubber ET was 1211 and 1459 mm yr-1 at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively, higher than that of other tree-dominated land covers in the region, including tropical seasonal forest (812-1140 mm yr-1), and savanna (538-1060 mm yr-1). The mean proportion of net radiation used for ET by rubber (0.725) is similar to that of tropical rainforest (0.729) and much higher than that of tropical seasonal forest (0.595) and savanna (0.548). Plant area index (varies with leaf area changes), explains 88.2% and 73.1% of the variance in the ratio of latent energy flux (energy equivalent of ET) to potential latent energy flux (LE/LEpot) for midday rain-free periods at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. High annual rubber ET results from high late dry season water use, associated with rapid refoliation by this brevideciduous species, facilitated by tapping of deep soil water, and by very high wet season ET, a characteristic of deciduous trees. Spatially, mean annual rubber ET increases strongly with increasing net radiation (Rn) across the three available rubber plantation observation sites, unlike nonrubber tropical ecosystems, which reduce canopy conductance at high Rn sites. High water use by rubber raises concerns about potential effects of continued expansion of tree plantations on water and food security in MSEA.

  16. Asphalt-Rubber SAMI (Stress-Absorbing Membrane Interlayers) Field Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    revealed that there was promise in using the material as an interlayer to prevent the reflection of cracks from an old pavement to a new asphalt -concrete...reflection cracking , and (2) that asphalt - rubber interlayers should be investigated in conjunction with conventional asphalt -concrete overlays. An... Asphalt -rubber samples were taken and tested and construction activities were documented. The performance has been monitored by conducting crack

  17. Natural rubber latex skin testing reagents: safety and diagnostic accuracy of nonammoniated latex, ammoniated latex, and latex rubber glove extracts.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, R G; Adkinson, N F

    1996-11-01

    Nonammoniated latex, ammoniated latex, and rubber glove extracts are the only sources of natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) latex that have potential for use as skin testing reagents in the diagnosis of latex allergy. Their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity as skin test reagents are unknown. We conducted a phase 1/2 clinical study to examine the safety and diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of nonammoniated latex, ammoniated latex, and rubber glove extracts as skin test extracts to identify the most efficacious source material for future skin test reagent development. Twenty-four adults not allergic to latex, 19 adults with hand dermatitis or pruritus, and 59 adults with a latex allergy were identified by clinical history. All provided blood and then received puncture skin tests and intradermal skin tests with nonammoniated latex, ammoniated latex, and rubber glove extracts from Malaysian H. brasiliensis latex by use of sequential titration. A glove provocation test and IgE anti-latex RAST were used to clarify positive history-negative skin test response and negative history-positive skin test response mismatches. All three extracts were biologically safe and sterile. After normalization to 1 mg/ml of total protein, all three extracts produced equivalent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in puncture skin tests and intradermal skin tests at various extract concentrations. Optimal diagnostic accuracy was safely achieved at 100 micrograms/ml for intradermal skin tests (e.g., nonammoniated latex: puncture skin test sensitivity 96%, specificity 100%; intradermal skin test sensitivity 93%, specificity 96%). The presence of IgE antibody in skin was highly correlated with IgE anti-latex in serum (nonammoniated latex: r = 0.98, p < 0.001; ammoniated latex: r = 0.94, p < 0.001; rubber glove extract: r = 0.96, p < 0.001). All five available subjects with a positive history, negative skin test response, and absence of IgE antibody in serum had a

  18. Properties of Vulcanized Polyisoprene Rubber Composites Filled with Opalized White Tuff and Precipitated Silica

    PubMed Central

    Zeković, Ivana; Marinović-Cincović, Milena

    2014-01-01

    Opalized white tuff (OWT) with 40 μm average particle size and 39.3 m2/g specific surface area has been introduced into polyisoprene rubber (NR). Their reinforcing effects were evaluated by comparisons with those from precipitated silica (PSi). The cure characteristic, apparent activation energy of cross-link (E ac) and reversion (E ar), and mechanical properties of a variety of composites based on these rubbers were studied. This was done using vulcanization techniques, mechanical testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that OWT can greatly improve the vulcanizing process by shortening the time of optimum cure (t c90) and the scorch time (t s2) of cross-linked rubber composites, which improves production efficiency and operational security. The rubber composites filled with 50 phr of OWT were found to have good mechanical and elastomeric properties. The tensile strengths of the NR/OWT composites are close to those of NR/PSi composites, but the tear strength and modulus are not as good as the corresponding properties of those containing precipitated silica. Morphology results revealed that the OWT is poorly dispersed in the rubber matrix. According to that, the lower interactions between OWT and polyisoprene rubber macromolecules are obtained, but similar mechanical properties of NR/OWT (100/50) rubber composites compared with NR/PSi (100/50) rubber composites are resulted. PMID:24672391

  19. Gingival cell proliferation induced by use of a sonic toothbrush with warmed silicone rubber bristles.

    PubMed

    Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kusano, Hiroki; Azuma, Tetsuji; Ekuni, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Kishimoto, Takashi

    2004-12-01

    Toothbrushing promotes gingival cell proliferation, which may occur as the result of the physical stimulation of the gingiva. The present study evaluated the effects of temperature and silicone rubber bristles of a sonic toothbrush on gingival cell proliferation in dogs. During the 5-week experimental period, one quadrant in each of eight dogs received a different toothbrushing regimen: a manual toothbrush or a sonic toothbrush with 1) nylon, 2) silicone rubber, or 3) warmed silicone rubber bristles. The proliferative activity of gingival cells was evaluated based on expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Use of the sonic toothbrushes produced a higher density of PCNA-positive and total fibroblasts than did use of a manual toothbrush. The warm silicone rubber bristles resulted in a higher density of PCNA-positive fibroblasts compared with the cooler silicone rubber bristle. The number of PCNA-positive basal cells in the junctional epithelium also increased following electric toothbrushing with warmed silicone rubber bristles. The sonic toothbrush with silicone rubber bristles induced gingival fibroblast proliferation to a greater degree than a manual toothbrush. Warming the silicone rubber bristles increased their stimulatory effects on the proliferative activity of gingival cells.

  20. Thermomechanical properties of zirconium tungstate/hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) composites for low-temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akulichev, Anton G.; Alcock, Ben; Tiwari, Avinash; Echtermeyer, Andreas T.

    2016-12-01

    Rubber compounds for pressure sealing application typically have inferior dimensional stability with temperature fluctuations compared with their steel counterparts. This effect may result in seal leakage failures when subjected to decreases in temperature. Composites of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) and zirconium tungstate as a negative thermal expansion filler were prepared in order to control the thermal expansivity of the material. The amount of zirconium tungstate (ZrW2O8) was varied in the range of 0 to about 40 vol%. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), bulk modulus, uniaxial extension and compression set properties were measured. The CTE of the ZrW2O8-filled HNBR decreases with the filler content and it is reduced by a factor of 2 at the highest filler concentration used. The filler effect on CTE is found to be stronger when HNBR is below the glass transition temperature. The experimental thermal expansion data of the composites are compared with the theoretical estimates and predictions given by FEA. The effect of ZrW2O8 on the mechanical characteristics and compression set of these materials is also discussed.

  1. Butyl Rubber Stoppers Increase the Shelf Life of Prereduced, Anaerobically Sterilized Media

    PubMed Central

    Fulghum, Robert S.; Worthington, John M.

    1977-01-01

    Butyl rubber stoppers as compared with neoprene or black rubber stoppers significantly increased the shelf life of prereduced, anaerobically sterilized media for growth of obligately anaerobic bacteria. PMID:879778

  2. [The spectral study of the surface modified medical rubber].

    PubMed

    Luo, C; Liu, Y; Yang, J; Weng, J

    1999-08-01

    In this article ,the drug-resistance of two kinds of medical rubber whose surfaces have been modified were investigated by ATR-FTIR and XPS. The experimental results show that the compositions of the two samples'surface and body are different. The surface is fluorinated rubber although the body is butyl rubber. The ratio of fluorine to carbon atom in sample Ii -1 is higher than that in sample I -1. The principal join between F and C is the form--CF2--in sample II -1,but in sample I -1 it is the form--CF2-- and--CHF--. The change for F/C of the different depth in sample II- 1 was relatively less than that in sample I -1 when they were etched by argon ion bundle in the same conditions.

  3. Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ahmad Yamin Abdul; Usharraj, Abhilash O; Misra, Biswapriya B; Thottathil, Gincy P; Jayasekaran, Kandakumar; Feng, Yun; Hou, Shaobin; Ong, Su Yean; Ng, Fui Ling; Lee, Ling Sze; Tan, Hock Siew; Sakaff, Muhd Khairul Luqman Muhd; Teh, Beng Soon; Khoo, Bee Feong; Badai, Siti Suriawati; Aziz, Nurohaida Ab; Yuryev, Anton; Knudsen, Bjarne; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Mchunu, Nokuthula P; Yu, Qingyi; Langston, Brennick J; Freitas, Tracey Allen K; Young, Aaron G; Chen, Rui; Wang, Lei; Najimudin, Nazalan; Saito, Jennifer A; Alam, Maqsudul

    2013-02-02

    Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR). NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified. The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber.

  4. [Effects of future climate change on climatic suitability of rubber plantation in China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shao-jun; Zhou, Guang-sheng; Fang, Shi-bo; Zhang, Jing-hong

    2015-07-01

    Global warming may seriously affect the climatic suitability distribution of rubber plantation in China. Five main climate factors affecting rubber planting were mean temperature of the coldest month, mean extremely minimum temperature, the number of monthly, mean temperature ≥18 °C, annual mean temperature and annual mean precipitation. Climatic suitability areas of rubber plantation in 1981-2010, 2041-2060, 2061-2080 were analyzed by the maximum entropy model based on the five main climate factors and the climate data of 1981-2010 and RCP4.5 scenario data. The results showed that under the background of the future climate change, the climatic suitability area of rubber plantation would have a trend of expansion to the north in 2041-2060, 2061-2080. The climatic suitability areas of rubber plantation in 2041-2060 and 2061-2080 increased more obviously than in 1981-2010. The suitable area and optimum area would increase, while the less suitable area would decrease. The climatic suitability might change in some areas, such as the total suitable area would decrease in Yunnan Province, and the suitability grade in both Jinghong and Mengna would change from optimum area to suitable area. However, the optimum area of rubber plantation would increase significantly in Hainan Island and Leizhou Peninsula of Guangdong Province, and a new less suitable area of rubber planting would appear in Taiwan Island due to the climate change.

  5. The use of smoke acid as an alternative coagulating agent for natural rubber sheets' production.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vanda S; Rêgo, Ione N C; Pastore, Floriano; Mandai, Mariana M; Mendes, Leonardo S; Santos, Karin A M; Rubim, Joel C; Suarez, Paulo A Z

    2005-03-01

    A comparative study of rubber sheets obtained using formic, acetic, and smoke acid as coagulants is shown for latex obtained from native Amazonian trees and also from commercial cultivated trees. The evaluation of both processes of coagulation was carried out by spectroscopic and physical-chemical analysis, showing no differences in the rubber sheets obtained. This new method of rubber sheet preparation was introduced into Amazonian rainforest rubber tapper communities, which are actually producing in large scale. The physical-mechanical properties were similar among a large sheets made by different rubber tapper communities using this new method.

  6. CHEMICAL RECLAMATION OF SCRAP RUBBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A conceptual, commercial-scale plant design was formulated for processing 22,500 t/yr of scrap rubber tires to hydrocarbon fuel gases, oils, petrochemicals (principally ethylene and aromatic liquids), and carbon black. The process is based upon molten salt (zinc chloride) pyrolys...

  7. Hardness and swelling behaviour of epoxidized natural rubber/recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (ENR 50/NBRr) blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Hazwani Syaza; Ismail, Hanafi; Rashid, Azura A.

    2017-07-01

    This recent work is to investigate the hardness and swelling behaviour of epoxidized natural rubber/recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (ENR 50/NBRr) blends. ENR 50/NBRr blends were prepared by two-roll mills with five different loading of NBRr from 5 to 35 phr. Results indicated that the hardness of ENR 50/NBRr blends increased as recycled NBR increased due to the improvement in crosslink density of the blends. Increasing NBRr content gives ENR 50/NBRr blends better resistance towards swelling. Higher degree of crosslinking will increase the swelling resistance and reduce the penetration of toluene into the blends. The presence of polar group in ENR 50 and NBRr give better hardness properties and swelling behaviour of the ENR 50/NBRr blends compared to the NR/NBRr blends.

  8. Quantitative Electron Tomography of Rubber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniewicz, Lech; Vaudey, Thomas; Degrandcourt, Christophe; Couty, Marc; Gaboriaud, Fabien; Midgley, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Rubber composite materials have many applications, one example being tyre manufacture. The presence of a filler material in the composite (such as carbon black or silica) causes its mechanical properties to differ in several ways when compared to pure rubber such as viscoelastic behaviour (the Payne effect), increased tensile strength and improved wear resistance. To fully understand these properties, it is necessary to characterise how the filler material is organised on the nanoscale. Using composite materials representative of those found in tyres, this work illustrates the use of electron tomography and machine learning methods as tools to describe the percolation behaviour of the filler; in this case, we focus on the largest proportion of particles absorbed into one single object as a function of particle spacing.

  9. Development of intelligent semantic search system for rubber research data in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaewboonma, Nattapong; Panawong, Jirapong; Pianhanuruk, Ekkawit; Buranarach, Marut

    2017-10-01

    The rubber production of Thailand increased not only by strong demand from the world market, but was also stimulated strongly through the replanting program of the Thai Government from 1961 onwards. With the continuous growth of rubber research data volume on the Web, the search for information has become a challenging task. Ontologies are used to improve the accuracy of information retrieval from the web by incorporating a degree of semantic analysis during the search. In this context, we propose an intelligent semantic search system for rubber research data in Thailand. The research methods included 1) analyzing domain knowledge, 2) ontologies development, and 3) intelligent semantic search system development to curate research data in trusted digital repositories may be shared among the wider Thailand rubber research community.

  10. Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-11-01

    The authors have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, they have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F{trademark}), polytetrafluoro-ethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; andmore » (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to approximately 3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using Vapor Transport Rate measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. The authors have developed a chemical compatibility program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be incorporated in packaging for transporting mixed waste forms. From the data analyses performed to date, they have identified the thermoplastic, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, as having the greatest chemical compatibility after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the poor performance of polytetrafluoroethylene under these conditions. In the evaluation of the two elastomeric materials they have concluded that while both materials exhibit remarkable resistance to these environmental conditions, EPDM has a greater resistance to this corrosive simulant mixed waste.« less

  11. Analysis of Cement-Based Pastes Mixed with Waste Tire Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sola, O. C.; Ozyazgan, C.; Sayin, B.

    2017-03-01

    Using the methods of thermal gravimetry, differential thermal analysis, Furier transform infrared analysis, and capillary absorption, the properties of a cement composite produced by introducing waste tyre rubber into a cement mixture were investigated. It was found that the composite filled with the rubber had a much lower water absorption ability than the unfilled one.

  12. Effects of different processing techniques on multi-walled carbon nanotubes/silicone rubber nanocomposite on tensile strength properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazlan, N.; Jaafar, M.; Aziz, A.; Ismail, H.; Busfield, J. J. C.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, two different processing techniques were approached to identify the properties of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) reinforced polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The MWCNT was dispersed in the polymer by using the ultrasonic and twin screw extruder mixer. The final composite showed different manner of dispersed tubes in the silicone rubber matrix. High shear twin screw extruder tends to fragment the tubes during processing compound, which can be observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Tensile strength of the extrusion MWCNT/PDMS nanocomposites was found to be higher compared to ultrasonic MWCNT/PDMS nanocomposites.

  13. Environmental Exposure and Accelerated Testing of Rubber-to-Metal Vulcanized-Bonded Assemblies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    such bonds are those of rubber coatings on the aluminum M60 machinq gun components, shock isolator and recoil adapter on the GAU 2B/A Minigun, rubber...accelerated humidity test data can be compared to show that both have the same effect on vulcanized bonded assemblies. Butadlene/styrene rubber-to-metal...distribution unlimited. 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract enterd In 8!ock 20. It different frore Rel , V " - ’O" ) " 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

  14. A Study on the Rheological Properties of Recycled Rubber-Modified Asphalt Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Karacasu, Murat; Er, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Using waste rubber in asphalt mixes has become a common practice in road construction. This paper presents the results of a study on the rheological characteristics of rubber-modified asphalt (RMA) concrete under static and dynamic loading conditions. A number of static and dynamic creep tests were conducted on RMA mix specimens with different rubber sizes and contents, and a series of resonant column tests were conducted to evaluate the shear modulus and damping values. To simulate the stress-strain response of traffic-induced loading, the measurements were taken for different confining pressures and strain levels. The results of the study indicated that rubber modification increases stiffness and damping ratio, making it a very attractive material for use in road construction. However the grain size of the rubber is very important. Although RMA may cost up to 100% more than regular asphalt, the advantages it brings, such as an increased service life of the road and proper waste utilization contributing to a more sustainable infrastructure, may justify the added cost. PMID:25695096

  15. Experimental and numerical modeling research of rubber material during microwave heating process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hailong; Li, Tao; Li, Kunling; Li, Qingling

    2018-05-01

    This paper aims to investigate the heating behaviors of block rubber by experimental and simulated method. The COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0 software was utilized in numerical simulation work. The effects of microwave frequency, power and sample size on temperature distribution are examined. The effect of frequency on temperature distribution is obvious. The maximum and minimum temperatures of block rubber increase first and then decrease with frequency increasing. The microwave heating efficiency is maximum in the microwave frequency of 2450 MHz. However, more uniform temperature distribution is presented in other microwave frequencies. The influence of microwave power on temperature distribution is also remarkable. The smaller the power, the more uniform the temperature distribution on the block rubber. The effect of power on microwave heating efficiency is not obvious. The effect of sample size on temperature distribution is evidently found. The smaller the sample size, the more uniform the temperature distribution on the block rubber. However, the smaller the sample size, the lower the microwave heating efficiency. The results can serve as references for the research on heating rubber material by microwave technology.

  16. Cross-reactions between xanthates and rubber additives.

    PubMed

    Sasseville, Denis; Al-Sowaidi, Mowza; Moreau, Linda

    2007-09-01

    We previously described allergic contact dermatitis from xanthates used in the recovery of metals from mining ores. We observed cross-reactions with carbamates, believed to be due to the common "dithio" nucleus shared by both groups. The present study was undertaken to establish the rate of cross-reactions between xanthates and rubber additives. Between November 2002 and December 2005, 1,220 consecutive patients were patch-tested with sodium isopropyl xanthate 10% in petrolatum (pet) and with potassium amyl xanthate 10% pet and later 5% pet, in addition to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group standard series and other series as required by their conditions. Fifty-one patients reacted to xanthates, carbamates, or thiurams; 26 reacted to xanthates only, and these reactions were felt to be irritant. Twenty-five patients reacted to xanthates and/or to one or more of the rubber additives, 12 had positive reactions to xanthates and to either carba mix or thiuram mix, 10 reacted to xanthates and carba mix, 9 reacted to xanthates and thiuram mix, and 8 showed positive reactions to xanthates and both mixes. However, 13 patients had positive reactions to carba mix and thiuram mix but did not react to xanthates. Six patients reacted to other rubber additives such as mercaptobenzothiazole, black rubber mix, and mixed dialkyl thioureas. Five of these patients also reacted to xanthates, 4 reacted to xanthates and carba mix, and 3 reacted to xanthates, carba mix, and thiuram mix. Of patients sensitized to carbamates, thiurams, or mercaptobenzothiazole, 50% exhibit cross-reactions with xanthates. Xanthates are irritants, and their patch-test concentrations should be lowered to 5% or less.

  17. Development of optical laser balloon and drainage from radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Yoshiyuki

    Rubber film made of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) has better transparency and lower toxicity compared with sulfur-vulcanized latex film. Optical laser balloon (optical endoscopical balloon) and drainage were developed by using RVNRL. An endoscope was equipped with a saline-filled latex rubber balloon at its tip to displace contaminating blood, bile, or gastric contents during operative portoscopy, biliary endoscopy, or upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The transmission of Nd-Yag laser through the balloon is 98%, higher than the sulfur-vulcanized latex rubber (75%). High transparency of the drainage bag facilitated easy observation of discharged fluids without detaching the bag from the tube.

  18. 21 CFR 177.1635 - Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p... Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene). Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methylstyrene) identified in this section may be safely used as components of articles...

  19. 21 CFR 177.1635 - Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p... Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene). Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methylstyrene) identified in this section may be safely used as components of articles...

  20. Variation of Soil Bacterial Communities in a Chronosequence of Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis) Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu-Jie; Li, Jian-Hua; Ross Friedman, Cynthia; Wang, Hua-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Regarding rubber tree plantations, researchers lack a basic understanding of soil microbial communities; specifically, little is known about whether or not soil microbial variation is correlated with succession in these plantations. In this paper, we used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate the diversity and composition of the soil bacterial communities in a chronosequence of rubber tree plantations that were 5, 10, 13, 18, 25, and 30 years old. We determined that: (1) Soil bacterial diversity and composition show changes over the succession stages of rubber tree plantations. The diversity of soil bacteria were highest in 10, 13, and 18 year-old rubber tree plantations, followed by 30 year-old rubber tree plantations, whereas 5 and 25 year-old rubber tree plantations had the lowest values for diversity. A total of 438,870 16S rDNA sequences were detected in 18 soil samples from six rubber tree plantations, found in 28 phyla, 66 classes, 139 orders, 245 families, 355 genera, and 645 species, with 1.01% sequences from unclassified bacteria. The dominant phyla were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia (relative abundance large than 3%). There were differences in soil bacterial communities among different succession stages of rubber tree plantation. (2) Soil bacteria diversity and composition in the different stages was closely related to pH, vegetation, soil nutrient, and altitude, of which pH, and vegetation were the main drivers. PMID:28611794

  1. Combined effects of microwaves, electron beams and polyfunctional monomers on rubber vulcanization.

    PubMed

    Manaila, Elena; Martin, Diana; Stelescu, Daniela Zuga; Craciun, Gabriela; Ighigeanu, Daniel; Matei, Constantin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents comparative results obtained by conventional vulcanization with benzoyl peroxide (CV-BP), separate electron beam vulcanization (EB-V) and simultaneous electron beam and microwave vulcanization (EB+MW-V) applied to two kind of rubber samples: EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) rubber-sample (EVA-sample) and EPDM (ethylene-propylene terpolymer) rubber-sample (EPDM-sample). The EVA-samples contain 61.54% EVA Elvax 260, 30.77% carbon black, 1.85% TAC (triallylcyanurate) polyfunctional monomer and 5.84% filler (zinc oxide, stearic acid, polyethylene glycol and antioxidant). The EPDM-samples contain 61.54% EPDM Nordel 4760, 30.77% carbon black, 1.85% TMPT (trimethylopropane trimethacrylate) polyfunctional monomer and 5.84% filler (zinc oxide, stearic acid, polyethylene glycol and antioxidant). The rubber samples designed for different vulcanization methods were obtained from raw rubber mixtures, as compressed sheets of 2 mm in the polyethylene foils to minimize oxidation. For EB and EB + MW treatments the sheets were cut in rectangular shape 0.15 x 0.15 m2. The physical properties of samples obtained by CV-BP EV-Vand EB + MW-V methods were evaluated by measuring the tearing strength, residual elongation, elongation at break, tensile strength, 300% modulus, 100% modulus, elasticity and hardness. The obtained results demonstrate an improvement of rubber several properties obtained by EB and EB + MW processing as compared to classical procedure using benzoyl peroxide.

  2. Magnesium affects rubber biosynthesis and particle stability in Ficus elastica, Hevea brasiliensis and Parthenium argentatum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural rubber biosynthesis occurs in laticifers of Ficus elastica and Hevea brasiliensis, and in parenchyma cells of Parthenium argentatum. Natural rubber is synthesized by rubber transferase using allylic pyrophosphates as initiators, isopentenyl pyrophosphate as monomeric substrate and magnesium ...

  3. Rubber gloves biodegradation by a consortium, mixed culture and pure culture isolated from soil samples.

    PubMed

    Nawong, Chairat; Umsakul, Kamontam; Sermwittayawong, Natthawan

    2018-02-03

    An increasing production of natural rubber (NR) products has led to major challenges in waste management. In this study, the degradation of rubber latex gloves in a mineral salt medium (MSM) using a bacterial consortium, a mixed culture of the selected bacteria and a pure culture were studied. The highest 18% weight loss of the rubber gloves were detected after incubated with the mixed culture. The increased viable cell counts over incubation time indicated that cells used rubber gloves as sole carbon source leading to the degradation of the polymer. The growth behavior of NR-degrading bacteria on the latex gloves surface was investigated using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The occurrence of the aldehyde groups in the degradation products was observed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis. Rhodococcus pyridinivorans strain F5 gave the highest weight loss of rubber gloves among the isolated strain and posses latex clearing protein encoded by lcp gene. The mixed culture of the selected strains showed the potential in degrading rubber within 30 days and is considered to be used efficiently for rubber product degradation. This is the first report to demonstrate a strong ability to degrade rubber by Rhodococcus pyridinivorans. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  4. Rubber dam may increase the survival time of dental restorations.

    PubMed

    Keys, William; Carson, Susan J

    2017-03-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health's Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, LILACS, SciELO, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, ClinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, OpenGrey and Sciencepaper Online databases. Handsearches in a number of journals.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials, including split-mouth studies assessing the effects of rubber dam isolation for restorative treatments in dental patients.Data extraction and synthesisTwo review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies.ResultsFour studies involving a total of 1,270 patients were included. The studies were at high risk of bias. One trial was excluded from the analysis due to inconsistencies in the presented data. Restorations had a significantly higher survival rate in the rubber dam isolation group compared to the cotton roll isolation group at six months in participants receiving composite restorative treatment of non-carious cervical lesions (risk ratio (RR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 1.37, very low-quality evidence). The rubber dam group had a lower risk of failure at two years in children undergoing proximal atraumatic restorative treatment in primary molars (hazard ratio (HR) 0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.97, very low-quality evidence). One trial reported limited data showing that rubber dam usage during fissure sealing might shorten the treatment time. None of the included studies mentioned adverse effects or reported the direct cost of the treatment, or the level of patient acceptance/satisfaction. There was also no evidence evaluating the effects of rubber dam usage on the quality of the restorations.ConclusionsWe found some very low-quality evidence, from single studies, suggesting that rubber dam usage in dental direct

  5. Comprehensive Proteomics Analysis of Laticifer Latex Reveals New Insights into Ethylene Stimulation of Natural Rubber Production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuchu; Wang, Dan; Sun, Yong; Yang, Qian; Chang, Lili; Wang, Limin; Meng, Xueru; Huang, Qixing; Jin, Xiang; Tong, Zheng

    2015-09-08

    Ethylene is a stimulant to increase natural rubber latex. After ethylene application, both fresh yield and dry matter of latex are substantially improved. Moreover, we found that ethylene improves the generation of small rubber particles. However, most genes involved in rubber biosynthesis are inhibited by exogenous ethylene. Therefore, we conducted a proteomics analysis of ethylene-stimulated rubber latex, and identified 287 abundant proteins as well as 143 ethylene responsive latex proteins (ERLPs) with mass spectrometry from the 2-DE and DIGE gels, respectively. In addition, more than 1,600 proteins, including 404 ERLPs, were identified by iTRAQ. Functional classification of ERLPs revealed that enzymes involved in post-translational modification, carbohydrate metabolism, hydrolase activity, and kinase activity were overrepresented. Some enzymes for rubber particle aggregation were inhibited to prolong latex flow, and thus finally improved latex production. Phosphoproteomics analysis identified 59 differential phosphoproteins; notably, specific isoforms of rubber elongation factor and small rubber particle protein that were phosphorylated mainly at serine residues. This post-translational modification and isoform-specific phosphorylation might be important for ethylene-stimulated latex production. These results not only deepen our understanding of the rubber latex proteome but also provide new insights into the use of ethylene to stimulate rubber latex production.

  6. Selection of a Non-ODC Solvent for Rubber Processing Equipment Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. E.; Thornton, T. N.; Semmel, L.; Selvidge, S. A.; Cash, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA/MSFC has recently acquired new equipment for the manufacture and processing of rubber and rubber containing items that are used in the RSRM (Reusable Solid Rocket Motor) system. Work with a previous generation of rubber equipment at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) in the 1970's had involved the use of ODC's such as 1,1,1-Trichloroethane or VOC's such as Toluene as the solvents of choice in cleaning the equipment. Neither of these options is practical today. This paper addresses the selection and screening of candidate cleaning solvents that are not only effective, but also meet the new environmental standards.

  7. Selection of a Non-ODC Solvent for Rubber Processing Equipment Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. E.; Thornton, T. N.; Semmel, L.; Selvidge, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    NASA/MSFC has recently acquired new equipment for the manufacture and processing of rubber and rubber containing items that are used in the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) system. Work with a previous generation of rubber equipment at MSFC in the 1970's had involved the use of Oxygen Deficient Center (ODC's) such as 1,1,1-Trichloroethane or VOC's such as Toluene as the solvents of choice in cleaning the equipment. Neither of these options is practical today. This paper addresses the selection and screening of candidate cleaning solvents that are not only effective, but also meet the new environmental standards.

  8. Preparation of Ultraviolet Curing Type Silicone Rubbers Containing Mesoporous Silica Fillers.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Nawfel; Hossain, Md Shahriar A; Fatehmulla, Amanullah; Farooq, Wazirzada Aslam; Islam, Md Tofazzal; Miyamoto, Nobuyoshi; Bando, Yoshio; Kamachi, Yuichiro; Malgras, Victor; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2018-01-01

    Here we have been focusing on mesoporous silica (MPS) as inorganic filler material to improve the mechanical strength of silicone rubbers. The MPS particles are more effective in reducing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and hardening silicone rubber composites when compared to commercially available nonporous silica particles. In this study, we utilize ultraviolet curing type silicone rubbers and prepare MPS composites according to a simple single-step method. From an industrial viewpoint, simplifying the fabrication processes is critical. The thermal stability and mechanical strength are examined in detail in order to showcase the effectiveness of MPS particles as filler materials.

  9. The Isolation of Rubber from Milkweed Leaves. An Introductory Organic Chemistry Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volaric, Lisa; Hagen, John P.

    2002-01-01

    We present an introductory organic chemistry lab in which students isolate rubber from the leaves of milkweed plants (Asclepias syriaca). Students isolated rubber with a recovery of 2.4 ± 1.8% and 1.8 ± 0.7% for the microscale and macroscale procedures, respectively. Infrared spectra of their products were compared with the spectrum of synthetic rubber, cis-polyisoprene. Students tested for elasticity of their product by twisting it on a spatula and pulling; all students found some degree of elasticity.

  10. Age alters uptake pattern of organic and inorganic nitrogen by rubber trees.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Xu, Fanzhen; Xu, Xingliang; Wanek, Wolfgang; Yang, Xiaodong

    2018-04-05

    Several studies have explored plant nutrient acquisition during ecosystem succession, but it remains unclear how age affects nitrogen (N) acquisition by the same tree species. Clarifying the age effect will be beneficial to fertilization management through improving N-use efficiency and reducing the risk of environmental pollution due to NO3- leaching. To clarify the effect of age on N uptake, rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss.) Muell. Arg.) plantations of five ages (7, 16, 24, 32 and 49 years) were selected in Xishuangbanna of southern China for brief 15N exposures of intact roots using field hydroponic experiments. 15N-labeled NH4+, NO3- or glycine were applied in this study. All targeted rubber trees uptake rates followed an order of NH4+ > glycine > NO3-. As age increased, NH4+ uptake increased first and then decreased sharply, partly consistent with the pattern of soil NH4+ concentrations. Uptake of glycine decreased first and then increased gradually, while no significant change of NO3- uptake rates existed with increasing age. Overall, rubber trees with ages from 7 to 49 years all showed a preference for NH4+ uptake. Young rubber trees (7 and 16 years) had higher NH4+ and lower glycine preferences than older trees (24, 32 and 49 years). Mycorrhizal colonization rates of rubber trees were higher in intermediately aged plantations (16, 24 and 32 years) than in plantations aged 7 and 49 years. A positive relationship was observed between arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization rates and NO3- preference. The results from this study demonstrate that rubber trees do not change their preference for NH4+ but strongly decreased their reliance on it with age. These findings indicate that the shift of N uptake patterns with age should be taken into account for rubber fertilization management to improve N-use efficiency and reduce the risk of environmental pollution during rubber production.

  11. EB-promoted recycling of waste tire rubber with polyolefins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, László; Bárány, Tamás; Czvikovszky, Tibor

    2012-09-01

    Despite the fact that more and more methods and solutions are used in the recycling of polymers, there are still some problems, especially in the recycling of cross-linked materials such as rubber. Usually the biggest problem is the lack of compatibility between the cross-linked rubber and the thermoplastic matrix. In this study we applied ground tire rubber (GTR) as recycled material. The GTR was embedded into polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (PE/EVA) matrices. In order to increase the compatibility of the components electron beam (EB) irradiation was applied. The results showed that the irradiation has a beneficial effect on the polymer-GTR interfacial connection. The EB treatment increased not only the tensile strength but also the elongation at break. The irradiation had also positive effect on the impact strength properties.

  12. Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR). NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Results Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified. Conclusions The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber. PMID:23375136

  13. Taxonomic revision and phylogenetic analyses of rubber powdery mildew fungi.

    PubMed

    Liyanage, K K; Khan, Sehroon; Brooks, Siraprapa; Mortimer, Peter E; Karunarathna, Samantha C; Xu, Jianchu; Hyde, Kevin D

    2017-04-01

    Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that infects a wide range of plants, including rubber trees, which results in a reduction of latex yields of up to 45%. The causal agent of powdery mildew of rubber was first described as Oidium heveae, but later morpho-molecular research suggested that in the past, O. heveae has been confused with Erysiphe quercicola. However, it is still under debate whether the causal agent should be classified as a species of the genus Erysiphe emend. or Golovinomyces and Podosphaera, respectively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to undertake the morpho-molecular characterization of powdery mildew species associated with rubber trees, thus resolving these taxonomic issues. Morphological observation under light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM) clearly identified two morphotypes of the rubber powdery mildew. With the support of morphological and phylogenetic data, one of the two morphotypes was identified as the asexual morph of E. quercicola, while the second morphotype is still insufficiently known and according to the morphological results obtained we assume that it might belong to the genus Golovinomyces. More collections and additional molecular data are required for final conclusions regarding the exact taxonomic position of the second morphotype of rubber powdery mildew and its relation to the name O. heveae. The haplotype analysis identified eight haplotype groups of E. quercicola indicating the high genetic diversity of the species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 21 CFR 177.1635 - Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1635 Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methyl-styrene). Poly(p-methylstyrene) and rubber-modified poly(p-methylstyrene) identified...

  15. Degradation Analysis of NBR and Epichlorohydrin Rubber by New Micro Analysis Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Hisao; Kamoto, Ritsu; Murata, Jun

    The degradation analysis of NBR and Epichlorohydrin rubber was carried out by infrared micro spectroscopy (μ-IR) and micro sampling mass spectrometry (μ-MS) which gives information on the scission and crosslinking of rubber molecules. Samples were prepared by three different treatments, heat as well as ultra violet (UV) and electron beam (EB) irradiations. It was found for NBR vulcanizates that the heat treatment induced the oxidation, scission and crosslinking of rubber molecules. By the UV treatment, chain scission and crosslinking accompanied by a slight oxidation were induced. The EB treatment enhanced the crosslinking, however, the extent of oxidation was negligible. For Epichlorohydrin rubber vulcanizates, the heat treatment accelerated chain scission rather than crosslinking. On the other hand, the oxidation and crosslinking were induced by the UV and EB treatments.

  16. A study of protein and amino acids in guayule natural rubber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural rubber (NR) from Hevea brasiliensis (the Hevea rubber tree) is a critical agricultural material vital to United States industry, medicine, and defense, yet the country is dependent on NR imports to meet domestic needs. Parthenium argentatum (guayule), a woody desert shrub indigenous to the U...

  17. Theoretical studies of the nitrogen containing compounds adsorption behavior on Na(I)Y and rare earth exchanged RE(III)Y zeolites.

    PubMed

    Geng, Wei; Zhang, Haitao; Zhao, Xuefei; Zan, Wenyan; Gao, Xionghou; Yao, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the adsorption behavior of nitrogen containing compounds including NH3, pyridine, quinoline, and carbazole on Na(I)Y and rare earth exchanged La(III)Y, Pr(III)Y, Nd(III)Y zeolites was investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The calculation results demonstrate that rare earth exchanged zeolites have stronger adsorption ability for nitrogen containing compounds than Na(I)Y. Rare earth exchanged zeolites exhibit strongest interaction with quinoline while weakest with carbazole. Nd(III)Y zeolites are found to have strongest adsorption to all the studied nitrogen containing compounds. The analysis of the electronic total charge density and electron orbital overlaps show that nitrogen containing compounds interact with zeolites by π-electrons of the compounds and the exchanged metal atom. Mulliken charge population analysis also proves that adsorption energies are strongly dependent on the charge transfer between the nitrogen containing molecules and exchanged metal atom in the zeolites.

  18. Rubber bullet injury: case report with autopsy observation and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masahiko; Mellen, Paul F

    2009-09-01

    Rubber bullets are one of the less-lethal (nonlethal) weapons, which are increasingly used to incapacitate dangerous individuals, avoiding use of firearms. An autopsy examination of a man who was shot with improved rubber bullets revealed that the bullet caused pulmonary contusion. The bullet was 30 g in weight and consisted of a sponge foam nose with 40-mm diameter and a plastic body. He was not incapacitated and died of suicidal gunshot wound. The case raised a question as to how severe an injury is necessary to deter a person without causing death. A variety of rubber bullets have been used in the world, and they have occasionally produced severe or lethal injuries. A review of the literature demonstrated that the feature of injuries appeared to be related to the type of missile. It becomes more important for a forensic pathologist to be familiar with rubber bullets and injuries caused by them as the use of less-lethal weapon increases.

  19. Properties of concrete with tire derived aggregate and crumb rubber as a lighthweight substitute for mineral aggregates in the concrete mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siringi, Gideon Momanyi

    better damage tolerance but the Elastic Modulus would be reduced. After evaluation of rubberized concrete at elevated temperatures, it has been found that very high temperature would have adverse effects to the concrete like excessive spalling, pop-outs and cracking on the surface and therefore it is proposed to use this kind of concrete where temperature would not exceed 100°C (212°F) for extended periods. Observation of concrete at microscopic level showed that it consists of three phases; interfacial transition zone (ITZ), bulk hydrated cement paste and aggregate. The ITZ was seen to contain micro pores and microcracks and was considered the weakest phase in concrete therefore exercises a far greater influence on the mechanical behavior of concrete than is reflected by its size. Existence of the ITZ explains why concrete strength is lower and behaves inelastically while the aggregate and cement paste if tested separately behave elastically and have higher strength than concrete. A 3-Dimensional nonlinear Finite Element Model (FEM) for a concrete beam is proposed and developed using ABAQUS. Smeared crack model in ABAQUS is used to define material properties. The developed FEM is capable of predicting the ultimate load, deflections, Stress-deflection/strain curves and crack initiation which are all verified against the experimental tests. ABAQUS was found to be a useful tool for modeling of concrete. In conclusion, this research provides a clear understanding on the effects of using scrap tires as an aggregate in concrete. The pros and cons of TDA are explored, ways of overcoming the shortcomings suggested and a way of predicting concrete properties when using TDA provided.

  20. [The criterion prognostic significance of examinations of chemiluminescence of oral fluid under impact of chemical pollutants of manufacture of rubber and rubber technical production].

    PubMed

    Galiullina, E F; Valiev, A v; Kamilov, R F; Shakirov, D F; Buliakov, P T

    2013-12-01

    The article presents the results of studies concerning the effect of unfavorable factors of chemical nature on fluid of oral cavity among workers of the Ufa plant of elastomer materials, articles and structures. It is established that in persons contacting with chemical pollutants of manufacture of rubber and rubber technical production the indicators of chemiluminescence of saliva fluid are significantly expressed and depend on professional standing.

  1. Cleaning Aged EPDM Rubber Roofing Membrane Material for Patching: Laboratory Investigations and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    Cleaning Aged EPDM Rubber Roofing Membrane Material for Patching: Laboratory Investigations and Recommendations Walter J. Rossiter, Jr. T N n-’T ic...condition of the aged EPDM rubber before bonding. This study assessed the effectiveness of different cleaning methods for preparing aged EPDM membranes for...REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED August 1992 Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cleaning Aged EPDM Rubber Roofing Membrane

  2. Performance of maleated castor oil based plasticizer on rubber: rheology and curing characteristic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indrajati, I. N.; Dewi, I. R.

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of maleated castor oil (MACO) as plasticizer on natural rubber (NR), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). The parameter studied were involving rheological, curing and swelling properties. The MACOs were prepared by an esterification reaction between castor oil (CO) and maleic anhydride (MAH) with the help of xylene as water entrainer to improve water removal. Resulting oils then applied as a plasticizer in each of those rubbers within a fixed loading of 5 phr. Comparison has been made to evaluate the performance of MACO and conventional plasticizer (paraffinic oil for NR and EPDM, DOP for NBR) on each rubber. Rheology, curing characteristic and swelling of each rubber were studied. The results showed that rubber (NR/EPDM/NBR) plasticized with MACO had given similar flow characteristic to conventional plasticizers. MACO exhibited slow curing, confirmed by higher t90, but the scorch safety was of the same magnitude. MAH loading tended to decrease the flow properties and curing rate, while scorch time (ts2) was independent.

  3. Identification of stand age in rubber plantations using time series Landsat and PALSAR-2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Wu, Z.; Xiao, X.; Li, X.; Ma, J.; Lan, G.; Yang, C.; Xie, G.; Dong, J.; Qin, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Stand age of rubber plantation is vital for optimal plantation management such as fertilization, prediction of latex yield and timber production. It is also an important variable for biomass estimation and determining the distribution of carbon pools and fluxes in rubber plantation ecosystem. Benefit from the traits of large coverage, high speed, and low-cost, satellite remote sensing techniques have been serviced as a major approach to map acreage and stand age of forest and plantations. Despite a number of studies working on acreage and stand age mapping, the stand age information of rubber plantation is still poorly available at regional scale. In this study, the 25-m cloud-free Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar 2 (PALSAR-2) mosaic product, together with the 30-m time series images of Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), were used to map stand age of rubber plantation in China under Google Earth Engine computing platform. Rubber plantation in 2015 were first identified by structural information in PALSAR-2 and phenological and spectral signatures (deciduous, rapid change of canopies during rubber defoliation and foliation periods, and dense canopy in growing season) that derived from time series Landsat ETM+/OLI images. Based on the resultant rubber plantation map, we then successfully identified the stand age of rubber plantation using land cover transfer information during rubber seeding cultivation period, specifically, by yearly composited Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) of Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI images since 1985. The estimated stand age has very high accuracy with Root Square Mean Error (RMSE) less than 2 years. The resultant rubber stand age information are likely to be useful for sustainable plantation management and ecological assessment, and the methodology can be extendable for applications in other regions.

  4. Transpiration characteristics of a rubber plantation in central Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Tateishi, Makiko; Lim, Tiva K; Mudd, Ryan G; Ziegler, Alan D; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Yin, Song

    2014-03-01

    The rapid and widespread expansion of rubber plantations in Southeast Asia necessitates a greater understanding of tree physiology and the impacts of water consumption on local hydrology. Sap flow measurements were used to study the intra- and inter-annual variations in transpiration rate (Et) in a rubber stand in the low-elevation plain of central Cambodia. Mean stand sap flux density (JS) indicates that rubber trees actively transpire in the rainy season, but become inactive in the dry season. A sharp, brief drop in JS occurred simultaneously with leaf shedding in the middle of the dry season in January. Although the annual maxima of JS were approximately the same in the two study years, the maximum daily stand Et of ∼2.0 mm day(-1) in 2010 increased to ∼2.4 mm day(-1) in 2011. Canopy-level stomatal response was well explained by changes in solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture availability, leaf area, and stem diameter. Rubber trees had a relatively small potential to transpire at the beginning of the study period, compared with average diffuse-porous species. After 2 years of growth in stem diameter, transpiration potential was comparable to other species. The sensitivity of canopy conductance (gc) to atmospheric drought indicates isohydric behavior of rubber trees. Modeling also predicted a relatively small sensitivity of gc to the soil moisture deficit and a rapid decrease in gc under extreme drought conditions. However, annual observations suggest the possibility of a change in leaf characteristics with tree maturity and/or initiation of latex tapping. The estimated annual stand Et was 469 mm year(-1) in 2010, increasing to 658 mm year(-1) in 2011. Diagnostic analysis using the derived gc model showed that inter-annual change in stand Et in the rapidly growing young rubber stand was determined mainly by tree growth rate, not by differences in air and soil variables in the surrounding environment. Future research should focus on the

  5. Sensitization to Rubber Accelerators in Northeastern Italy: The Triveneto Patch Test Database.

    PubMed

    Buttazzo, Silvia; Prodi, Andrea; Fortina, Anna Belloni; Corradin, Maria Teresa; Larese Filon, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Natural and synthetic rubbers containing rubber accelerators are well-known causes of occupational skin disease. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by rubber gloves is frequent and has almost exclusively been attributed to contact sensitization to accelerators. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of rubber accelerators sensitization in the population living in northeastern Italy, to find time trend and a correlation with occupations, and to investigate co-sensitization between rubber accelerators. A population of 23,774 subjects was patch tested in 6 cities in northeastern Italy in the years 1996 to 2012 using carba mix 3%, thiuram mix 1%, benzothiazole (MBT) mix 1%, and isopropyl phenyl paraphenylamine diamine (IPPD) mix 0.6%. The overall frequency of carbamates, MBT, thiurams, and IPPD mix sensitization was 3.4%, 0.65%, 1.75%, and 0.83%, respectively. On a logistic regression analysis (control group: white-collar workers), we found a statistically significant association to carbamates (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.7) and thiurams (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3) for health care workers. Thiuram sensitivity was also significantly associated with dermatitis in maids and restaurant workers (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.6), hairdressers (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.8-7.1), shop assistants (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2-6.8), construction workers (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.7-4.1), mechanics (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.4), and professional drivers (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2-5.9). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that rubber accelerators have an important role in allergic contact dermatitis in the northeast of Italy and their sensitization is associated significantly with occupations that wear gloves or use chemical substances. Between rubber accelerators tested, carbamates sensitization is prevalent and increasing during considered years.

  6. Rubberized asphalt concrete warranty pilot projects.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-11-01

    Between 2002 and 2004 Caltrans built five pilot projects through its rehabilitation program that contain : specifications for rubberized asphalt concrete (RAC) overlay and include a 5-year warranty on the RAC : materials and workmanship. The overall ...

  7. Polyfunctional epoxies. I - Rubber-toughened brominated and nonbrominated formulations for graphite composites. II - Nonrubber versus rubber-toughened brominated formulations for graphite composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z.; Gilwee, W. J.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    A new trifunctional epoxy resin, Tris-(hydroxyphenyl) methane triglycidyl ether, is compared to a state-of-the-art tetraglycidyl 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl methane (TGDDM), in graphite composites. Rubber-toughened brominated formulations of the epoxy resin are compared to nonbrominated ones in terms of their mechanical performance, environmental stability, thermochemical behavior, and flame retardancy. It is shown that the new resin performs almost the same way as the TGDDM does, but has improved glass transition temperature and environmental properties. Brominated polymeric additives (BPA) of different molecular weights are tested as a Br source to flame retardant graphite epoxy composites. The optimal molecular weight of the BPA and its polymeric backbone length are derived and compared with a 10 percent rubber-toughened formulation of the epoxy resin. Results indicate that when the Br content in the graphite composite is increased without the use of rubber, the mechanical properties improved. The use of BPAs as tougheners for graphite composites is also considered.

  8. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy during physical aging of carbon-black filled rubber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobando, Vincent; Wang, Jingyi; Quarles, C. A.

    2004-10-01

    We have used positron annihilation spectroscopy to investigate the relaxation behavior of vulcanized and un-vulcanized rubber-carbon black composites. The samples were studied at temperatures above their glassy transitions. Changes in o-Ps intensity and S-parameter are indicative of the structural relaxation process. We have found that at room temperature, both vulcanized and un-vulcanized rubber showed no changes after ageing for about two months. While within the same period, un-vulcanized samples heated at 60^oC and allowed to age at room -temperature showed a decrease in o-Ps intensity and S-parameter. The o-Ps lifetime also decreased after this heat treatment for the un-vulcanized samples while the vulcanized ones remained unchanged. The changes seen were reversible however when we stopped heating the samples. We proposed that heat disordered the system and on cooling, rubber molecules formed more ordered regions, which we interpreted as crystallization. Vulcanized samples remained unchanged. We also found out that free volume decreases during physical deformation of pure rubber, but rubber with carbon black showed a significant rise in free volume. The lifetimes however remained unchanged.

  9. Characterization of linear viscoelastic anti-vibration rubber mounts

    SciTech Connect

    Lodhia, B.B.; Esat, I.I.

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the dynamic characteristics that are evident in linear viscoelastic rubber mountings. The characteristics under consideration included the static and dynamic stiffnesses with the variation of amplitude and frequency of the sinusoidal excitation. Test samples of various rubber mix were tested and compared to reflect magnitude of dependency on composition. In the light of the results, the validity and effectiveness of a mathematical model was investigated and a suitable technique based on the Tschoegl and Emri Algorithm, was utilized to fit the model to the experimental data. The model which was chosen, wasmore » an extension of the basic Maxwell model, which is based on linear spring and dashpot elements in series and parallel called the Wiechert model. It was found that the extent to which the filler and vulcanisate was present in the rubber sample, did have a great effect on the static stiffness characteristics, and the storage and loss moduli. The Tschoegl and Emri Algorithm was successfully utilized in modelling the frequency response of the samples.« less

  10. Reinforcement of natural rubber latex by nanosize montmorillonite clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantatherdtam, Rattana

    Based on the unique character of montmorillonite namely its layer structure and the ability of silicate particles to separate into nanometer-size platelets, natural rubber (polyisoprene)/clay composites were obtained by mixing rubber latex with clay-water dispersion and coagulating the mixture. The resulting film had greatly improved mechanical properties compared with films using micron-sized fillers. Further, both modulus and toughness were improved; in many composite system an improvement in modulus leads to a loss of toughness. X-ray diffraction results indicated that clay platelets dispersed in the rubber matrix on the nanoscale level with some macromolecules intercalated into the clay gallery. The observed considerable improvement in mechanical properties, coupled with a theoretical model of composite modulus suggests a dispersed structure of clay in the composite. While not all clay particles are exfoliated, data suggest that a reasonable fraction of exfoliated materials is required to explain the experimental results.

  11. Fracture behavior of nano-scale rubber-modified epoxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacigalupo, Lauren N.

    The primary focus of the first portion of this study is to compare physical and mechanical properties of a model epoxy that has been toughened with one of three different types of rubber-based modifier: a traditional telechelic oligomer (phase separates into micro-size particles), a core-shell latex particle (preformed nano-scale particles) and a triblock copolymer (self-assembles into nano-scale particles). The effect of modifier content on the physical properties of the matrix was determined using several thermal analysis methods, which provided insight into any inherent alterations of the epoxy matrix. Although the primary objective is to study the role of particle size on the fracture toughness, stiffness and strength were also determined since these properties are often reduced in rubber-toughened epoxies. It was found that since the CSR- and SBM-modified epoxies are composed of less rubber, thermal and mechanical properties of the epoxy were better maintained. In order to better understand the fracture behavior and mechanisms of the three types of rubber particles utilized in this study, extensive microscopy analysis was conducted. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) was used to quantify the volume fraction of particles, transmission optical microscopy (TOM) was used to determine plastic damage zone size, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess void growth in the plastic zone after fracture. By quantifying these characteristics, it was then possible to model the plastic damage zone size as well as the fracture toughness to elucidate the behavior of the rubber-modified epoxies. It was found that localized shear yielding and matrix void growth are the active toughening mechanisms in all rubber-modified epoxies in this study, however, matrix void growth was more prevalent. The second portion of this study investigated the use of three acrylate-based triblocks and four acrylate-based diblocks to modify a model epoxy system. By

  12. Scaling green rubber cultivation in Southwest China-An integrative analysis of stakeholder perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wigboldus, Seerp; Hammond, Jim; Xu, Jianchu; Yi, Zhuang-Fang; He, Jun; Klerkx, Laurens; Leeuwis, Cees

    2017-02-15

    The rubber boom across much of Southeast Asia has led to environmental destruction, and the resultant crash in the price of rubber has destabilised livelihoods. We investigated the necessary factors required to enable a transition towards a more sustainable model for rubber cultivation in Southwest China (i.e. the 'greening' of rubber cultivation), using a framework for the integrative study of multiple aspects in complex land use issues. We present findings from stakeholder interviews and a stakeholder workshop, and discuss their relevance within and beyond Southwest China. The current focus of researchers and development practitioners tends to be on finding technical solutions to address unsustainable rubber cultivation practices. However, stakeholder consultations revealed that the key barriers were more social: low levels of trust and knowledge exchange between stakeholder groups and fragmented visions about the future of the landscape. It is very important to continue the economic prosperity initially brought by rubber, but, without improved communication between government and researchers and smallholder farmers, this will be very difficult to achieve. A wider landscape perspective is needed to address issues in rubber cultivation to avoid repeating the same problems of cash crop boom and bust experienced with other crops, most notably bananas. We conclude that more effort should be put into developing mechanisms that integrate technical knowledge, enhance social relationships, and present a forum for reconciling - or at least acknowledging - the differing needs, knowledge, and objectives of different groups, and transcending the power dynamics between smallholder farmers and government and researchers. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Study of a Super-Cooling Technique for Removal of Rubber from Solid-Rubber Tires.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    environmental pollution . In answering these questions, an experiment is conducted to validate the concept and to determine liquid...is performed to compare the costs of the super-cooling technique with those of the brake drum lathe method of rubber removal. Safety and environmental pollution factors are also investigated and

  14. The effects of alkanolamide addition on cure characteristics, swelling behaviour and tensile properties of silica-filled natural rubber (NR) / chloroprene rubber (CR) blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surya, Indra; Fauzi Siregar, Syahrul; Ismail, Hanafi

    2018-03-01

    Effects of alkanolamide (ALK) addition on cure characteristics, swelling behaviour and tensile properties of silica-filled natural rubber (NR)/chloroprene rubber (CR) blends were investigated. The ALK was synthesized from Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Stearin (RBDPS) and diethanolamine, and incorporated into the silica-filled NR/CR blends as a non-toxic rubber additive. The ALK loadings were 0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 phr. It was found that the ALK exhibited shorter scorch and cure times and higher elongation at break of the silica-filled NR/CR blends. The ALK also exhibited higher torque differences, tensile modulus and tensile strength at a 1.0 phr of ALK loading and then decreased with further increases in the ALK loading. The swelling measurement proved that the 1.0 phr loading of ALK caused the highest degree in crosslink density of the silica-filled NR/CR blends.

  15. Calibration of silicone rubber rods as passive samplers for pesticides at two different flow velocities: Modeling of sampling rates under water boundary layer and polymer control.

    PubMed

    Martin, Alexis; Margoum, Christelle; Jolivet, Antoine; Assoumani, Azziz; El Moujahid, Bachir; Randon, Jérôme; Coquery, Marina

    2018-04-01

    There is a need to determine time-weighted average concentrations of polar contaminants such as pesticides by passive sampling in environmental waters. Calibration data for silicone rubber-based passive samplers are lacking for this class of compounds. The calibration data, sampling rate (R s ), and partition coefficient between silicone rubber and water (K sw ) were precisely determined for 23 pesticides and 13 candidate performance reference compounds (PRCs) in a laboratory calibration system over 14 d for 2 water flow velocities, 5 and 20 cm s -1 . The results showed that an in situ exposure duration of 7 d left a silicone rubber rod passive sampler configuration in the linear or curvilinear uptake period for 19 of the pesticides studied. A change in the transport mechanism from polymer control to water boundary layer control was observed for pesticides with a log K sw of approximately 3.3. The PRC candidates were not fully relevant to correct the impact of water flow velocity on R s . We therefore propose an alternative method based on an overall resistance to mass transfer model to adjust R s from laboratory experiments to in situ hydrodynamic conditions. We estimated diffusion coefficients (D s ) and thickness of water boundary layer (δ w ) as adjustable model parameters. Log D s values ranged from -12.13 to -10.07 m 2  s -1 . The estimated δ w value showed a power function correlation with water flow velocity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:1208-1218. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  16. Reduced adherence of Candida to silane-treated silicone rubber.

    PubMed

    Price, C L; Williams, D W; Waters, M G J; Coulthwaite, L; Verran, J; Taylor, R L; Stickler, D; Lewis, M A O

    2005-07-01

    Silicone rubber is widely used in the construction of medical devices that can provide an essential role in the treatment of human illness. However, subsequent microbial colonization of silicone rubber can result in clinical infection or device failure. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel silane-treated silicone rubber in inhibiting microbial adherence and material penetration. Test material was prepared by a combination of argon plasma discharge treatment and fluorinated silane coupling. Chemicophysical changes were then confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact-angle measurement, and atomic force microscopy. Two separate adherence assays and a material penetration assay assessed the performance of the new material against four strains of Candida species. Results showed a significant reduction (p < 0.01) of Candida albicans GDH 2346 adherence to silane-treated silicone compared with untreated controls. This reduction was still evident after the incorporation of saliva into the assay. Adherence inhibition also occurred with Candida tropicalis MMU and Candida krusei NCYC, although this was assay dependent. Reduced penetration of silane-treated silicone by Candida was evident when compared to untreated controls, plaster-processed silicone, and acrylic-processed silicone. To summarize, a novel silicone rubber material is described that inhibits both candidal adherence and material penetration. The clinical benefit and performance of this material remains to be determined. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mechanical Parameters of Rubber-Sand Mixtures for Numerical Analysis of a Road Embankment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, Magdalena; Chmielewski, Maciej

    2017-10-01

    Waste production is one of the greatest problems of the modern world. It is inevitably related to the increase of industrialization. One of the most difficult, and growing in amounts, waste is scrap tyres. The most common method of utilization of end-of-life tyres by their incineration raises much concern in terms of air pollution. More sustainable seems to reuse the tyre derived products - rubber in particular - in civil engineering, where the interesting properties of this material may be effectively utilized. This paper presents results of direct shear strength tests on sand-rubber mixtures, which were next applied to a numerical FEM (finite element method) model of a road embankment built on soft ground. The laboratory tests, conducted for two types of scrap tyre rubber granulates (0.5 - 2 mm and 1 - 5 mm in size) mixed with medium fluvial sand in various proportions (5, 10, 30 and 50% by weight), proved that the unit weight of the mixtures is distinctly smaller that the unit weight of sand alone and at 50% rubber content it drops by half. The internal angle of friction stays almost unchanged for the mixtures with up to 10% of rubber (33 - 37°), but decreases by about 10° when the rubber content increases to 50%. In most of the cases analysed, the cohesion intercept is higher in case of sand-rubber mixtures when compared to sand alone. The numerical model simulated a 4.5 m high embankment with a 3 m thick layer made of sand-rubber mixtures, containing 0%, 10% or 30% of the waste product, founded on a weak subsoil (with a 3 m layer of organic soil). The results showed that stability factor of the structure built with the layer containing 30% of the coarser rubber granulate has increased from 1.60 - for sand only, to 2.15. The embankment was also able to carry load increased from 32 kPa to 45.5 kPa and its base showed much smaller settlement. The results prove that the use of tyre derived aggregates in embankment construction is not only an effective way of

  18. Soil Carbon Stocks Decrease following Conversion of Secondary Forests to Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Plantations

    PubMed Central

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Brumme, Rainer; Xu, Jianchu; Corre, Marife D.; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2013-01-01

    Forest-to-rubber plantation conversion is an important land-use change in the tropical region, for which the impacts on soil carbon stocks have hardly been studied. In montane mainland southeast Asia, monoculture rubber plantations cover 1.5 million ha and the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations is predicted to cause a fourfold expansion by 2050. Our study, conducted in southern Yunnan province, China, aimed to quantify the changes in soil carbon stocks following the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations. We sampled 11 rubber plantations ranging in age from 5 to 46 years and seven secondary forest plots using a space-for-time substitution approach. We found that forest-to-rubber plantation conversion resulted in losses of soil carbon stocks by an average of 37.4±4.7 (SE) Mg C ha−1 in the entire 1.2-m depth over a time period of 46 years, which was equal to 19.3±2.7% of the initial soil carbon stocks in the secondary forests. This decline in soil carbon stocks was much larger than differences between published aboveground carbon stocks of rubber plantations and secondary forests, which range from a loss of 18 Mg C ha−1 to an increase of 8 Mg C ha−1. In the topsoil, carbon stocks declined exponentially with years since deforestation and reached a steady state at around 20 years. Although the IPCC tier 1 method assumes that soil carbon changes from forest-to-rubber plantation conversions are zero, our findings show that they need to be included to avoid errors in estimating overall ecosystem carbon fluxes. PMID:23894456

  19. Occurrence of coring in insulin vials and possibility of rubber piece contamination by self-injection.

    PubMed

    Asakura, T; Seino, H; Nozaki, S; Abe, R

    2001-06-01

    Coring is reported to occur because rubber pieces are shaved off from a rubber stopper when a needle is inserted into the rubber stopper of transfusion liquid formulation. We verified whether coring really occurs in insulin vials of self-injecting patients. We collected insulin cartridges from 30 hospitalized patients and used the primary injection (trial injection), the secondary injection and the cartridge remaining preparation as samples. We observed the rubber pieces using a microscope and measured the shape, number of pieces. The occurrence rate of coring was 73% for the primary injection, 47% for the secondary injection and 97% for the cartridge remaining preparation. The rubber pieces in the primary injection and the secondary injection which went through the needle are mostly in aggregate shape and the rubber pieces in the cartridge remaining preparation which did not go through the needle are mostly in needle-like shape. A number of small rubber pieces are found in both the primary injection and the secondary injection, indicating a high possibility that rubber pieces may be injected under subcutaneous tissue. The coring is considered to occur because needles are repeatedly inserted and rotated at the same spot. It is required to improve the structure to mount a needle to the pen-type injector in future. Coring is a very serious problem from the medical and pharmaceutical points of view. Further study should be made on the implication to latex allergy and lipodystrophy.

  20. Thermolysis of scrap tire and rubber in sub/super-critical water.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinghai; Li, Fuxin; Meng, Aihong; Tan, Zhongchao; Zhang, Yanguo

    2018-01-01

    The rapid growth of waste tires has become a serious environmental issue. Energy and material recovery is regarded as a promising use for waste tires. Thermolysis of scrap tire (ST), natural rubber (NR), and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) was carried out in subcritical and supercritical water using a temperature-pressure independent adjustable batch tubular reactor. As a result, oil yields increased as temperature and pressure increased, and they reached maximum values as the state of water was near the critical point. However, further increases in water temperature and pressure reduced the oil yields. The maximum oil yield of 21.21% was obtained at 420 °C and 18 MPa with a reaction time of 40 min. The relative molecular weights of the chemicals in the oil products were in the range of 70-140 g/mole. The oil produced from ST, NR, and SBR contained similar chemical compounds, but the oil yield of SR was between those of NR and SBR. The oil yield from thermolysis of subcritical or supercritical water should be further improved. The main gaseous products, including CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 4 , C 2 H 6 , and C 3 H 8 , increased with reaction time, temperature, and pressure, whereas the solid residues, including carbon black and impurities, decreased. These results provide useful information to develop a sub/super-critical water thermolysis process for energy and material regeneration from waste tires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 2013-2014 Production of guayule natural rubber in Arizona, U.S.A.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural rubber is a unique biopolymer whose physical properties cannot be replicated in synthetic alternatives; therefore, it is required for production of tires (passenger, truck, and aircraft) and thousands of consumer and medical products. While demand for natural rubber is expected to increase ...

  2. [Synthesis of large wounds of the body wall with rubber elastic band].

    PubMed

    Petroianu, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The large wounds of the body wall, due to traumas, removal of tumors or prolonged laparostomies are a difficult surgical challenge with complex treatment. This paper presents the efficacy of the closure of large surgical wounds using rubber elastic bands. One or two circular rubber elastic bands were sutured under mean tension at the opposite edges of 22 large wounds located in different body sites. These rubber strips were replaced when they were broken or re-fixed when they have lost their tension until the complete closure of the wounds. Complete closure was achieved without any other surgical procedure or device in 21 wounds and one wound reduced its dimensions. No major complication due to this treatment was verified. The synthesis of large wounds with rubber elastic bands kept under mean tension is a simple, efficacious and inexpensive surgical option that may be useful for treatment in several circumstances.

  3. Locating a silane coupling agent in silica-filled rubber composites by EFTEM.

    PubMed

    Dohi, Hidehiko; Horiuchi, Shin

    2007-11-20

    A silane coupling agent (SA) was added to silica/rubber composites at different mixing temperatures and the formation of a coupling layer at the silica/rubber interface was investigated by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy. Bis(triethoxysilypropyl)tetrasulfane (TESPT), which was used as the SA, reacted with the silanol groups on the silica surface and with styrene-butadiene rubber to form an interfacial coupling layer. The silicon and sulfur elemental distributions were analyzed by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and elemental mapping. The amount of TESPT trapped in the rubber matrix could be qualitatively estimated by EELS, and the in situ formed coupling layer could be characterized by elemental mapping. The result indicated that the formation of the coupling layer was affected by the mixing temperature. The technique described here will contribute to the study of interface-property relationships and the evaluation of the role of SAs in polymeric composites.

  4. ODC-Free Solvent Implementation Issues for Vulcanized Rubber and Bond Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgson, James R.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thiokol Propulsion has worked extensively to replace 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) with ozone depleting chemicals (ODC)-free solvents for use in the manufacture of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) for the Space Shuttle Program. As Thiokol has transitioned from sub-scale to full-scale testing and implementation of these new solvents, issues have been discovered which have required special attention. The original intent of Thiokol's solvent replacement strategy was to replace TCA with a single drop-in solvent for all equivalent applications. We have learned that a single candidate does not exist for replacing TCA. Solvent incompatibility with process materials has caused us to seek for niche solvents and/or processing changes that provide an ODC-free solution for special applications. This paper addresses some of the solvent incompatibilities, which have lead to processes changes and possible niche solvent usage. These incompatibilities were discovered during full-scale testing of ODC-free solvents and relate to vulcanized rubber and bond systems in the RSRM. Specifically, the following items are presented: (1) Cure effects of d-limonene based solvents on Silica Filled Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (SF-EPDM) rubber. During full-scale test operations, Thiokol discovered that d-limonene (terpene) based solvents inhibit the cure of EPDM rubber. Subsequent testing showed the same issue with Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR). Also discussed are efforts to minimize uncured rubber exposure to solvents; and (2) Cured bond system sensitivity to ODC-free solvents. During full scale testing it was discovered that a natural rubber to steel vulcanized bond could degrade after prolonged exposure to ODC-free solvents. Follow on testing showed that low vapor pressure and residence time seemed to be most likely cause for failure.

  5. 40 CFR 428.90 - Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.90 Section 428.90 Protection of... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pan, Dry Digestion, and Mechanical Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.90 Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. The...

  6. 40 CFR 428.90 - Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.90 Section 428.90 Protection of... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pan, Dry Digestion, and Mechanical Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.90 Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. The...

  7. Identification of an exposure risk to heavy metals from pharmaceutical-grade rubber stoppers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianghui; Qian, Pingping

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals and metalloids represents a well-documented risk to animal and human health. However, current standards (European Pharmacopeia [EP], United States Pharmacopoeia [USP], International Organization for Standardization [ISO], YBB concerned with rubber closures) only require testing for Zn in pharmaceutical-grade rubber stoppers and then using only pure water as a solvent. We extracted and quantified heavy metals and trace elements from pharmaceutical-grade rubber stoppers under conditions that might occur during the preparation of drugs. Pure water, saline, 10% glucose, 3% acetic acid (w/v), 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (4 mg/mL, 0.4 mg/mL, and 0.04 mg/mL) were used as extraction agents. We quantified the extracted arsenic, lead, antimony, iron, magnesium, aluminum, and zinc using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The concentration of extracted metals varied depending on the different extraction solutions used and between the different rubber stopper manufacturers. Rubber stoppers are ubiquitously used in the pharmaceutical industry for the storage and preparation of drugs. Extraction of heavy metals during the manufacturing and preparation of drugs represents a significant risk, suggesting a need for industry standards to focus on heavy metal migration from rubber stoppers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effect of crumb-rubber particle size on mechanical response of polyurethane foam composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjay, Omer Sheik

    The compression properties of foam are governed by by three factors: i) cell edge bending ii) compression of cell fluid iii) membrane stresses in the cell faces. The effect of reinforcement, granular form of scrap tire rubber on contribution of each of these effects along with the physical properties of polyurethane foam is investigated. It is seen that the addition of crumb-rubber hinders the formation of cell membranes during the foaming process. Four different sizes of particles were chosen to closely study the effect of particle size on the physical properties of the foam composite. There is a definite pattern seen in each of the physical property of the composite with change in the particle size. Addition of crumb-rubber decreases the compressive strength but in turn increases the elastic modulus of the composite. The rubber particles act as the sites for stress concentration and hence the inclusion of rubber particles induces the capability to transfer the axial load laterally along the surface of the foam. Also, the filler material induces porosity into the foam, which is seen in the SEM images, and hence the addition of rubber particles induces brittleness, which makes the foam composites extensively applicable for structural application in sandwich components. The lightweight composite therefore is a potential substitute to the heavier metal foams and honeycombs as a protective layer.

  9. Effect of crumb rubber on the mechanical properties of crushed recycled pavement materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Saberian, Mohammad; Nguyen, Bao Thach

    2018-07-15

    The low-carbon footprint of using recycled construction and demolition (C&D) aggregates in civil engineering infrastructure applications has been considered to be a significant solution for the replacement of conventional pavement aggregates. Investigations regarding the use of crumb rubber in the base and subbase layers of pavement have been well documented. However, information on the effects of crumb rubber and its size within C&D aggregates as the base/subbase layers is still very limited. In this study, crumb rubber with particle sizes ranging from 400 to 600 μm (fine) to 10-15 mm (coarse), 20 mm recycled crushed concrete (RCC), and 20 mm crushed rock (CR) were used. The crumb rubber was added to the two groups of C&D aggregates at 0.5, 1 and 2% by weight percentages of the aggregates. The effect of crumb rubber on the mechanical properties (such as California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength, aggregate crushing value, dynamic lightweight cone penetrometer, Clegg impact value, Los Angeles abrasion values, and resilient modulus) of the C&D aggregates was then examined. Based on the experimental test results, it was found that crumb rubber can be recycled as a waste material for the base and subbase layers in the pavement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge for rubber wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Noor Hasyimah; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Othman, Inawati; Harun, Hasnida; Sulong Abdul Razak, Muhammad Zuhdi; Elias, Siti Hanna; Mat Hassan, Mohd Arif Hakimi; Chelliapan, Shreesivadass; Ujang, Zaini

    2013-02-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was successfully cultivated at 27±1 °C and pH 7.0±1 during the treatment of rubber wastewater using a sequential batch reactor system mode with complete cycle time of 3 h. Results showed aerobic granular sludge had an excellent settling ability and exhibited exceptional performance in the organics and nutrients removal from rubber wastewater. Regular, dense and fast settling granule (average diameter, 1.5 mm; settling velocity, 33 m h(-1); and sludge volume index, 22.3 mL g(-1)) were developed in a single reactor. In addition, 96.5% COD removal efficiency was observed in the system at the end of the granulation period, while its ammonia and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were up to 94.7% and 89.4%, respectively. The study demonstrated the capabilities of AGS development in a single, high and slender column type-bioreactor for the treatment of rubber wastewater. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation and mechanical properties of rubber composites reinforced with carbon nanohorns.

    PubMed

    Isshiki, Tetsuya; Hashimoto, Mikiko; Morii, Masato; Ota, Yuki; Kaneda, Kazuo; Takahashi, Hidetaka; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio; Okino, Fujio

    2010-06-01

    Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) composites with single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNHs, or simply NHs), hole-opened NHs (h-NHs), and carbon black (CB), the most commonly used nanocarbon rubber filler, were prepared, and their mechanical properties were compared. The NBR composites with h-NHs (NBR/h-NH) showed higher tensile strength than those with NHs (NBR/NH), and the tensile strength of NBR/h-NH or NBR/NH was much greater than those of the NBR composites with CB (NBR/CB). At 5 parts per hundred of rubber (phr), the tensile stresses at break of NBR/h-NH was about 1.8 times larger than those of NBR/CB, and the strain at the break, 1.2 times larger. Similarly, at 20 phr, both the tensile strength and strain at the break of NBR/h-NH were 1.4 times larger than those of NBR/CB. NBR/NH showed the highest hardness while having the smallest specific gravity. The present results indicate that NHs and h-NHs have much superior reinforcement effects to CB for NBR rubber matrix.

  12. The effect of carbon black (CB) loading on curing characteristics and mechanical properties of virgin acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (Nbrv)/recycled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (Nbrr) blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husnan, M. A.; Ismail, H.; Shuib, R. K.

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the interest of polymer industry researchers have grown rapidly on the use of specific techniques which can reduce cost and utilize rubber waste into the processing form. The increasing of cognizance in environmental matters and the desire to sustain the resources had fortified the practice of recycling waste materials. In this work, the effect of carbon black loading on curing characteristics and mechanical properties of virgin acrylonitrile butadiene rubber/recycled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRv/NBRr) blends were studied. Cure time (t90), scorch time (tS2) and swelling percentage decreased but minimum torque (ML) and maximum torque (MH) increased with increasing carbon black (CB) loading in the blends. Increasing CB loading also increased tensile strength, tensile modulus (M100), hardness and compression set but decreased elongation at break (Eb) of NBRv/NBRr blends.

  13. Detection of Interfacial Debonding in a Rubber-Steel-Layered Structure Using Active Sensing Enabled by Embedded Piezoceramic Transducers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qian; Kong, Qingzhao; Jiang, Jian; Liang, Yabin; Song, Gangbing

    2017-09-01

    Rubber-steel-layered structures are used in many engineering applications. Laminated rubber-steel bearing, as a type of seismic isolation device, is one of the most important applications of the rubber-steel-layered structures. Interfacial debonding in rubber-steel-layered structures is a typical failure mode, which can severely reduce their load-bearing capacity. In this paper, the authors developed a simple but effective active sensing approach using embedded piezoceramic transducers to provide an in-situ detection of the interfacial debonding between the rubber layers and steel plates. A sandwiched rubber-steel-layered specimen, consisting of one rubber layer and two steel plates, was fabricated as the test specimen. A novel installation technique, which allows the piezoceramic transducers to be fully embedded into the steel plates without changing the geometry and the surface conditions of the plates, was also developed in this research. The active sensing approach, in which designed stress waves can propagate between a pair of the embedded piezoceramic transducers (one as an actuator and the other one as a sensor), was employed to detect the steel-rubber debonding. When the rubber-steel debonding occurs, the debonded interfaces will attenuate the propagating stress wave, so that the amplitude of the received signal will decrease. The rubber-steel debonding was generated by pulling the two steel plates in opposite directions in a material-testing machine. The changes of the received signal before and after the debonding were characterized in a time domain and further quantified by using a wavelet packet-based energy index. Experiments on the healthy rubber-steel-layered specimen reveal that the piezoceramic-induced stress wave can propagate through the rubber layer. The destructive test on the specimen demonstrates that the piezoceramic-based active sensing approach can effectively detect the rubber-steel debonding failure in real time. The active sensing

  14. The effects of nitrogen fertilization on N2O emissions from a rubber plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Ji, Hong-Li; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Sha, Li-Qing; Liu, Yun-Tong; Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Wei; Dong, Yu-Xin; Bai, Xiao-Long; Lin, You-Xin; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Zheng, Xun-Hua

    2016-06-01

    To gain the effects of N fertilizer applications on N2O emissions and local climate change in fertilized rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in the tropics, we measured N2O fluxes from fertilized (75 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and unfertilized rubber plantations at Xishuangbanna in southwest China over a 2-year period. The N2O emissions from the fertilized and unfertilized plots were 4.0 and 2.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively, and the N2O emission factor was 1.96%. Soil moisture, soil temperature, and the area weighted mean ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4+-N) content controlled the variations in N2O flux from the fertilized and unfertilized rubber plantations. NH4+-N did not influence temporal changes in N2O emissions from the trench, slope, or terrace plots, but controlled spatial variations in N2O emissions among the treatments. On a unit area basis, the 100-year carbon dioxide equivalence of the fertilized rubber plantation N2O offsets 5.8% and 31.5% of carbon sink of the rubber plantation and local tropical rainforest, respectively. When entire land area in Xishuangbanna is considered, N2O emissions from fertilized rubber plantations offset 17.1% of the tropical rainforest’s carbon sink. The results show that if tropical rainforests are converted to fertilized rubber plantations, regional N2O emissions may enhance local climate warming.

  15. Rubber band as external assist device to provide simple grip for quadriplegic patients.

    PubMed

    Pham, H N; Noble, C N; Hentz, V R

    1988-08-01

    The rubber band as an external assist device provides an effective grip for the hand of high spinal cord injury quadriplegic patients. This technique can also be useful for preoperative patients who are undergoing physical and occupational therapy or to assess patients' needs for surgery. The rubber band as an adaptive device is preferred because of its availability, low visibility, and ease of application. We attempt to provide a more standardized method of the rubber band technique and to popularize it.

  16. Effect of microfluidized and stearic acid modified soy protein in natural rubber

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microfluidized and stearic acid modified soy protein aggregates were used to reinforced natural rubber. The size of soy protein particles was reduced with a microfluidizing and ball milling process. Filler size reduction with longer ball milling time tends to increase tensile strength of the rubber ...

  17. 40 CFR 428.90 - Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.90 Section 428.90 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pan, Dry Digestion, and Mechanical Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.90 Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. The...

  18. 40 CFR 428.90 - Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.90 Section 428.90 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pan, Dry Digestion, and Mechanical Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.90 Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. The...

  19. 40 CFR 428.90 - Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.90 Section 428.90 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pan, Dry Digestion, and Mechanical Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.90 Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. The...

  20. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber Plants Subcategory § 428.60 Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and...