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Sample records for weaknesses threats strengths

  1. Big Data and Health Economics: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats.

    PubMed

    Collins, Brendan

    2016-02-01

    'Big data' is the collective name for the increasing capacity of information systems to collect and store large volumes of data, which are often unstructured and time stamped, and to analyse these data by using regression and other statistical techniques. This is a review of the potential applications of big data and health economics, using a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) approach. In health economics, large pseudonymized databases, such as the planned care.data programme in the UK, have the potential to increase understanding of how drugs work in the real world, taking into account adherence, co-morbidities, interactions and side effects. This 'real-world evidence' has applications in individualized medicine. More routine and larger-scale cost and outcomes data collection will make health economic analyses more disease specific and population specific but may require new skill sets. There is potential for biomonitoring and lifestyle data to inform health economic analyses and public health policy.

  2. Health Education in India: A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Manoj

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis of the health education profession and discipline in India. Materials from CINAHL, ERIC, MEDLINE, and Internet were collected to conduct the open coding of the SWOT analysis. Strengths of health education in India include an elaborate…

  3. Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats as a Tool for Translating Evidence into Individualized Medical Strategies (I-SWOT)

    PubMed Central

    von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Bernhardt, Alexander M.; Robinson, Peter N.; Kölbel, Tilo; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Debus, Sebastian; Detter, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background It is the physicians’ task to translate evidence and guidelines into medical strategies for individual patients. Until today, however, there is no formal tool that is instrumental to perform this translation. Methods We introduce the analysis of strengths (S) and weaknesses (W) related to therapy with opportunities (O) and threats (T) related to individual patients as a tool to establish an individualized (I) medical strategy (I-SWOT). The I-SWOT matrix identifies four fundamental types of strategy. These comprise “SO” maximizing strengths and opportunities, “WT” minimizing weaknesses and threats, “WO” minimizing weaknesses and maximizing opportunities, and “ST” maximizing strengths and minimizing threats. Each distinct type of strategy may be considered for individualized medical strategies. Results We describe four steps of I-SWOT to establish an individualized medical strategy to treat aortic disease. In the first step, we define the goal of therapy and identify all evidence-based therapeutic options. In a second step, we assess strengths and weaknesses of each therapeutic option in a SW matrix form. In a third step, we assess opportunities and threats related to the individual patient, and in a final step, we use the I-SWOT matrix to establish an individualized medical strategy through matching “SW” with “OT”. As an example we present two 30-year-old patients with Marfan syndrome with identical medical history and aortic pathology. As a result of I-SWOT analysis of their individual opportunities and threats, we identified two distinct medical strategies in these patients. Conclusion I-SWOT is a formal but easy to use tool to translate medical evidence into individualized medical strategies. PMID:27069939

  4. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the pig health monitoring systems used in England.

    PubMed

    Stärk, K D C; Nevel, A

    2009-10-17

    Several systems are being used in England to record information about the health of pigs. The British Pig Health Scheme (BPHS), the National Animal Disease Information System (NADIS), the Zoonoses Action Plan (ZAP) for Salmonella and the Veterinary Investigation Diagnosis Analysis (VIDA) system have been assessed to make recommendations for their future separate or joint development. The structure, organisation, processes, data quality, dissemination, utilisation and acceptance of each system have been assessed. Information was extracted from documents and websites, and informal interviews were conducted with technical experts and stakeholders. The systems covered a broad range of objectives, used variable approaches and operated at very different scales and budgets. There was a high level of awareness and involvement by the industry. Common weaknesses of the systems were the lack of in-depth quantitative analysis of the data, the lack of assessment of each system's impact, and the unknown level of bias as a result of the voluntary or selective participation in them.

  5. An Examination of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats Associated with the Adoption of Moodle[TM] by eXtension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hightower, Tayla Elise; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Coppernoll, Susanna Mumm; Jahedkar, Jennifer; Dooley, Kim E.

    2011-01-01

    The use of technology to deliver programming across Extension has been addressed widely; however, little research has been conducted concerning the use of Moodle[TM] as a course management system for Extension. The purpose of the study reported here was to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with the use of…

  6. Perceived Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats Impacting the Diffusion of Distance Education Technologies in a College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Dooley, Kim E.

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with administrators, faculty, and support staff (n=42) in a university agriculture department revealed that they recognized distance technology as a means of reaching new audiences; policies and procedures must expand to address technology issues; competition, external dependence, and Internet misinformation were threats.…

  7. Weakness

    MedlinePlus

    Lack of strength; Muscle weakness ... feel weak but have no real loss of strength. This is called subjective weakness. It may be ... flu. Or, you may have a loss of strength that can be noted on a physical exam. ...

  8. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  9. Radiochemistry in the twenty-first century: Strenghts, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Goeij, J. J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of radiochemistry and associated nuclear chemistry are discussed. For that purpose radiochemistry is subdivided into three categories. The first category covers fundamental aspects, e.g. nuclear reaction cross-sections, production routes with associated yields and radionuclidic impurities, decay schemes, radiochemical separations, recoil and hot-atom chemistry, isotope effects and fractionation, and interaction of radiation with matter and detection. The second category covers topics where radioactivity is inextricably involved, e.g. the nuclear fuel cycle, very heavy elements and other actinides, primordial and cosmogenic radioactivity, and radionuclide techniques for dating. The third category involves radioactivity as essential part of a technique. On one hand radioactivity is used here as source of ionising radiation for food conservation, polymerisation of plastics, sterilisation, radiotherapy and pain palliation. On the other hand it is used to get information on systems and materials, via radiotracer methods and nuclear activation techniques. In particular the latter field is experiencing strong competition with other, non-nuclear methods. In this frame it is indicated what is required to achieve a situation where nuclear analytical techniques may successfully be exploited to the full extent of their potentials, particularly in providing valuable and sometimes unique information.

  10. Weak and Failing States: Evolving Security Threats and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-15

    and procedures for interagency CRS-2 3 Rose E. Brooks, “Failed States, or the State as Failure?” The University of Chicago Law Review 72 (Fall 2005). 4...Weak States and Global Threats: Fact of Fiction?” The Washington Quarterly 29 (2006), pp. 27-53; Rumsfeld (2002), op. cit.; and Ray Takeyh and Nikolas ...government institutions may sometimes be less conducive to a terrorist presence than countries that are still weak, but retain some governmental

  11. Weak and Failing States: Evolving Security Threats and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-15

    and procedures for interagency CRS-2 3 Rose E. Brooks, “Failed States, or the State as Failure?” The University of Chicago Law Review 72 (Fall 2005...Weak States and Global Threats: Fact of Fiction?” The Washington Quarterly 29 (2006), pp. 27-53; Rumsfeld (2002), op. cit.; and Ray Takeyh and Nikolas ...government institutions may sometimes be less conducive to a terrorist presence than countries that are still weak, but retain some governmental

  12. Strength trapped within weakness/ weakness trapped within strength: the influence of family of origin experiences on the lives of abused women.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Eli; Birnbaum, Liora

    2010-06-01

    By conceptualizing abused women as victims or survivors, the literature offers two contradictory narratives of abused women. The aim of this article is to show that these two narratives are not mutually exclusive but rather can be used simultaneously to represent battered women's existential experiences. The study sample was comprised of 20 Israeli battered women. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant-twice for data collection purposes and once for validating the themes that emerged from the content analysis. "Strength trapped in weakness/weakness trapped in strength" was found to be a dominant theme in the life narratives of the interviewees. Most interviewees grew up in families of origin in distress; most were abused physically and emotionally. Although this anguish colored their lives with pain and turmoil, their experiences were the key to their ability to overcome difficulties. From the onset, interviewees' lives were marked by a sense of threat and deprivation, but these very difficulties were also the source of a sense of power that emerged from the women's struggle with their past. In their attempts to cope with and transcend the legacies of their past, interviewees' feelings oscillated continuously between past and present, creating a unique powerful sense of simultaneously being victims and survivors. Implications for intervention are suggested.

  13. Strength of a weak bond connecting flexible polymer chains.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, E; Ritchie, K

    1999-01-01

    Bond dissociation under steadily rising force occurs most frequently at a time governed by the rate of loading (Evans and Ritchie, 1997 Biophys. J. 72:1541-1555). Multiplied by the loading rate, the breakage time specifies the force for most frequent failure (called bond strength) that obeys the same dependence on loading rate. The spectrum of bond strength versus log(loading rate) provides an image of the energy landscape traversed in the course of unbonding. However, when a weak bond is connected to very compliant elements like long polymers, the load applied to the bond does not rise steadily under constant pulling speed. Because of nonsteady loading, the most frequent breakage force can differ significantly from that of a bond loaded at constant rate through stiff linkages. Using generic models for wormlike and freely jointed chains, we have analyzed the kinetic process of failure for a bond loaded by pulling the polymer linkages at constant speed. We find that when linked by either type of polymer chain, a bond is likely to fail at lower force under steady separation than through stiff linkages. Quite unexpectedly, a discontinuous jump can occur in bond strength at slow separation speed in the case of long polymer linkages. We demonstrate that the predictions of strength versus log(loading rate) can rationalize conflicting results obtained recently for unfolding Ig domains along muscle titin with different force techniques. PMID:10233061

  14. Weak and Failing States: Evolving Security Threats and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-28

    for International Studies, Working Paper No. 2005/20 (2005); Rose E. Brooks, “Failed States, or the State as Failure?” The University of Chicago Law...Threats: Fact of Fiction?” The Washington Quarterly 29 (2006), pp. 27-53; Rumsfeld (2002), op. cit.; and Ray Takeyh and Nikolas Gvosdev, “Do Terrorist...sometimes be less conducive to a terrorist presence than countries that are still weak, but retain some governmental effectiveness.15 International Crime

  15. Lithological strength but chemical weakness controls granitic tor formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroeven, A. P.; Goodfellow, B. W.; Skelton, A.; Jansson, K. N.; Hättestrand, C.

    2010-12-01

    The origins of tors have long inspired wonder and are usually attributed to differential weathering according to variations in bedrock joint spacing and/or initial regolith depths. In this study, we investigate the origins of granitic tors in the Cairngorm Mountains, NE Scotland. Specifically, we examine whether: (i) joint spacing correlates with bedrock chemistry, mineralogy, or texture, and (ii) tor size correlates with any of these lithological attributes and/or topographic parameters such as slope, surface curvature, and tor position. Presently, our results indicate that: (i) bedrock joint spacing increases with feldspar crystal size, (ii) tor dimensions increase with joint spacing, particularly along the axis perpendicular to the regional foliation, and (iii) there is a strong positive correlation between joint spacing and tor volume. In addition, the largest tors occur where granite contains comparatively moderate quantities of biotite. If more biotite is present, then grusification, largely driven by the oxidation of Fe in biotite, proceeds too rapidly for large tors to form. Conversely, in granites containing lower quantities of biotite, it appears that the potential for differential weathering between exposed and regolith-covered bedrock is insufficient to produce large tors. Both lithological strength and chemical weakness therefore contribute to granitic tor formation.

  16. Patterns of strengths and weaknesses in children's knowledge about fractions.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Steven A; Vagi, Kevin J

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual patterns of strengths and weaknesses in children's mathematical knowledge about common fractions. Tasks that primarily measure either conceptual or procedural aspects of mathematical knowledge were assessed with the same children in their fourth- and fifth-grade years (N=181, 56% female and 44% male). Procedural knowledge was regressed on levels of conceptual knowledge, and vice versa, to obtain residual scores. Residual scores capture variability in each kind of math knowledge that is not shared with the other type of knowledge. Cluster analysis using residuals indicated four distinct knowledge profiles in fourth graders: (a) higher than expected conceptual knowledge and relatively lower procedural knowledge, (b) relatively lower conceptual knowledge and higher procedural knowledge, (c) lower concepts but expected levels of procedural knowledge, and (d) relatively higher than expected levels of both procedural and conceptual knowledge. In fifth grade, another cluster emerged that showed lower procedures but expected levels of conceptual knowledge. In general, students with relatively lower than expected conceptual knowledge showed poorer accuracy on measures used to form the clusters and also word problem setups and estimation of sums. Implications for explaining seemingly conflicting results from prior work across studies are discussed.

  17. Exploiting strength, discounting weakness: combining information from multiple climate simulators.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Richard E

    2013-05-28

    This paper presents and analyses a statistical framework for combining projections of future climate from different climate simulators. The framework recognizes explicitly that all currently available simulators are imperfect; that they do not span the full range of possible decisions on the part of the climate modelling community; and that individual simulators have strengths and weaknesses. Information from individual simulators is automatically weighted, alongside that from historical observations and from prior knowledge. The weights for a simulator depend on its internal variability, its expected consensus with other simulators, the internal variability of the real climate and the propensity of simulators collectively to deviate from reality. The framework demonstrates, moreover, that some subjective judgements are inevitable when interpreting multiple climate change projections: by clarifying precisely what those judgements are, it provides increased transparency in the ensuing analyses. Although the framework is straightforward to apply in practice by a user with some understanding of Bayesian methods, the emphasis here is on conceptual aspects illustrated with a simplified artificial example. A 'poor man's version' is also presented, which can be implemented straightforwardly in simple situations.

  18. "Union is strength": how weak hydrogen bonds become stronger.

    PubMed

    Melandri, Sonia

    2011-08-21

    Recently reported rotational spectroscopic studies on small dimers and oligomers bound by weak hydrogen bonds show that the driving forces, the spatial arrangement and the dynamical features displayed are very different from those involved in stronger and conventional hydrogen bonds. The very small binding energies (similar to those of van der Waals interactions) imply that the stabilization of the dimer is often obtained by networks of weak hydrogen bonds. Even in the presence of multiple bonds the partner molecules show a high degree of internal freedom within the complex. This paper analyses several examples of molecular adducts bound by weak hydrogen bonds formed in free jet expansions and recently characterized by rotational spectroscopy. They include weakly bound complexes of weak donors with strong acceptors (C-H···O,N, S-H···O,N), strong donors (O-H, N-H) with weak acceptors such as the halogen atoms and π systems but also the elusive interactions between weak donors and weak acceptors (C-H···π and C-H···halogen). Examples are also given where rotational spectroscopy highlights that weak hydrogen bonds are extremely important in chiral recognition phenomena and as driving forces of the conformational landscape of important biomolecules.

  19. An Overview of the Alleged Strengths and Weaknesses of the Small School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, Chicago, IL.

    The first step toward the renaissance of the small school must be the determination of its inherent strengths and the identification of its structural weaknesses. Steps can then be taken to build program and procedures on those strengths, while at the same time devising expedients to reduce if not eliminate the weaknesses. However, it should be…

  20. Committee Effectiveness in Higher Education: The Strengths and Weaknesses of Group Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on five models of committee effectiveness for purposes of this assessment will lend insight into the strengths and weaknesses of utilizing a structured action plan as a guide to achieving and maintaining optimum committee effectiveness in higher education. In the compilation of the strengths and weaknesses of committee decision making,…

  1. Strengths and Weaknesses of NESTs and NNESTs: Perceptions of NNESTs in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lai Ping Florence

    2012-01-01

    Since non-native English speaking teachers (NNESTs) are always compared with native English speaking teachers (NESTs) on linguistic grounds, their strengths and weaknesses as English teachers are worthy of investigation. This paper reports on a mixed methods study which examines the strengths and weaknesses of NNESTs and NESTs through the…

  2. [Archaeology and criminology--Strengths and weaknesses of interdisciplinary cooperation].

    PubMed

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary cooperation of archaeology and criminology is often focussed on the scientific methods applied in both fields of knowledge. In combination with the humanistic methods traditionally used in archaeology, the finding of facts can be enormously increased and the subsequent hermeneutic deduction of human behaviour in the past can take place on a more solid basis. Thus, interdisciplinary cooperation offers direct and indirect advantages. But it can also cause epistemological problems, if the weaknesses and limits of one method are to be corrected by applying methods used in other disciplines. This may result in the application of methods unsuitable for the problem to be investigated so that, in a way, the methodological and epistemological weaknesses of two disciplines potentiate each other. An example of this effect is the quantification of qualia. These epistemological reflections are compared with the interdisciplinary approach using the concrete case of the "Eulau Crime Scene".

  3. Nuclear energy: Its strengths, weaknesses and role in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruuskanen, A.

    Nuclear energy has, in principle, various strengths as an energy form. In spite of the drawbacks of nuclear power, the benefits exceed its cost. That is why power companies in Finland have decided to apply for the construction, of the fifth nuclear power plant during Spring 1991. Electricity consumption is increasing, and new power producing capacity will be needed. Nuclear power is seen as the best alternative for producing baseload power in Finnish conditions.

  4. Do Processing Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses Predict Differential Treatment Response?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miciak, Jeremy; Williams, Jacob L.; Taylor, W. Pat; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    No previous empirical study has investigated whether the learning disabilities (LD) identification decisions of proposed methods to operationalize processing strengths and weaknesses approaches for LD identification are associated with differential treatment response. We investigated whether the identification decisions of the…

  5. Orbital Resonances in the Solar Nebula: Strengths and Weaknesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malhotra, Renu

    1993-01-01

    A planetesimal moving in the Solar Nebula experiences an aero- dynamic drag which causes its orbit to circularize and shrink. However, resonant perturbations from a protoplanet interior to the planetesimal's orbit ran counteract both the orbital decay and the damping of the eccentricity: the planetesimal can be captured into an orbital resonance and its eccentricity pumped up to a modestly high equilibrium value. Thus, orbital resonances constitute (partial) barriers to the delivery of planetesimals into the feeding zone of the protoplanet. We have established the characteristics of the phenomenon of resonance capture by gas drag in the circular restricted three-body approximation. We have determined the strengths of the equilibrium resonant orbits with respect to impulsive velocity perturbations. We conclude that planetesimals captured in orbital resonances are quite vulnerable to being dislocated from these orbits by mutual planetesimal interactions, but that the resonances are effective in slowing down the rate of orbital decay of planetesimals. Only very small bodies, less or approx. equal to 100 m, are able to reach a approx. 1 mass of the earth protoplanet without being slowed down by resonances.

  6. Objective Evaluation of Muscle Strength in Infants with Hypotonia and Muscle Weakness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reus, Linda; van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; Staal, J. Bart; Janssen, Anjo J. W. M.; Otten, Barto J.; Pelzer, Ben J.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2013-01-01

    The clinical evaluation of an infant with motor delay, muscle weakness, and/or hypotonia would improve considerably if muscle strength could be measured objectively and normal reference values were available. The authors developed a method to measure muscle strength in infants and tested 81 typically developing infants, 6-36 months of age, and 17…

  7. In the students' own words: what are the strengths and weaknesses of the dental school curriculum?

    PubMed

    Henzi, David; Davis, Elaine; Jasinevicius, Roma; Hendricson, William

    2007-05-01

    Dental students have little input into the selection of course topics and subject matter included in their dental curricula. Curriculum requirements are framed by the Commission on Dental Accreditation, which has stipulated competencies and associated biomedical and clinical knowledge that must be addressed during dental school. Although these competency requirements restrict the variance of educational experiences, students are eager to share their views on the curriculum within the realm of their educational experience. The objective of this research project was to elicit the perspectives of dental students from a broad cross-section of U.S. and Canadian dental schools about their education. A total of 605 students (285 sophomores, 220 seniors, 100 residents) from twenty North American dental schools completed a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis to communicate their perceptions of the curriculum. Students were also asked to provide their impressions of the overall quality of the educational program in an open-ended written format. The students' qualitative comments were then reviewed and categorized into key issues or themes. Resulting themes for each category of the Curriculum SWOT (C-SWOT) analysis were the following. Strengths: 1) clinical learning experience, and 2) opportunity to work with knowledgeable faculty. Weaknesses: 1) disorganized and inefficient clinical learning environment, 2) teaching and testing that focus on memorization, 3) poor quality instruction characterized by curricular disorganization, and 4) inconsistency among instructors during student evaluations. Opportunities: 1) develop strategies to provide students with more exposure to patients, especially early in the curriculum, and 2) opportunities to learn new technology/techniques. Threats: 1) cost of dental education, 2) students' concerns about faculty "brain drain," i.e., lack of sufficient numbers of dental faculty capable of providing high

  8. Evaluation of Practicing sustainable Industrial Solid Waste Minimization by Manufacturing Firms in Malaysia: Strengths and Weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Mallak, Shadi Kafi; Bakri Ishak, Mohd; Mohamed, Ahmad Fariz

    2016-09-13

    Malaysia is facing an increasing trend in industrial solid waste generation due to industrial development.Thus there is a paramount need in taking a serious action to move toward sustainable industrial waste management. The main aim of this study is to assess practicing solid waste minimization by manufacturing firms in Shah Alam industrial state, Malaysia. This paper presents a series of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis regarding the level and effects of practicing waste minimization methods, and seriousness of barriers preventing industries from practicing waste minimization methods. For this purpose the survey questions were designed such that both quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (semi-structures interview) data were collected concurrently. Analysis showed that, the majority of firms (92%) dispose their wastes rather than practice other sustainable waste management options. Also waste minimization methods such as segregation of wastes, on-site recycle and reuse, improve housekeeping and equipment modification were found to have significant contribution in waste reduction (p<0.05). Lack of expertise (M=3.50), lack of enough information (M= 3.54), lack of equipment modification (M= 3.16) and lack of specific waste minimization guidelines (M=3.49) have higher mean scores comparing with other barriers in different categories. These data were interpreted for elaborating of SWOT and TOWS matrix to highlight strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities. Accordingly, ten policies were recommended for improvement of practicing waste minimization by manufacturing firms as the main aim of this research. Implications This manuscript critically analysis waste minimization practices by manufacturing firms in Malaysia. Both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis were conducted to formulate SWOT and TOWS matrix in order to recommend policies and strategies for improvement of solid waste minimization by manufacturing industries

  9. Internationally Adopted Children in the Early School Years: Relative Strengths and Weaknesses in Language Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Method: Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second…

  10. Profiles of Strengths and Weaknesses in Dyslexia and Other Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everatt, John; Weeks, Sally; Brooks, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A total of 83 children with different special educational needs (SEN) assessments were contrasted with a control group (N = 40) without special needs on measures that aimed to identify potential areas of strengths as well as weaknesses in these SEN groups. Carefully selected groups of dyslexics, dyspraxics, children with specific language…

  11. Memory Profiles in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Molen, Mariet J.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.; Jongmans, Marian J.; Van der Molen, Maurits W.

    2009-01-01

    Strengths and weaknesses in short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) were identified in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) by comparing their performance to typically developing children matched on chronological age (CA children) and to younger typically developing children with similar mental capacities (MA children).…

  12. Do Cognitive Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses Differentially Predict Errors on Reading, Writing, and Spelling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaochen; Marchis, Lavinia; DeBiase, Emily; Breaux, Kristina C.; Courville, Troy; Pan, Xingyu; Hatcher, Ryan C.; Koriakin, Taylor; Choi, Dowon; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between specific cognitive patterns of strengths and weaknesses (PSWs) and the errors children make in reading, writing, and spelling tests from the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Third Edition (KTEA-3). Participants were selected from the KTEA-3 standardization sample based on five cognitive…

  13. Patterns of Cognitive Strengths and Weaknesses and Relationships to Math Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koriakin, Taylor; White, Erica; Breaux, Kristina C.; DeBiase, Emily; O'Brien, Rebecca; Howell, Meiko; Costa, Michael; Liu, Xiaochen; Pan, Xingyu; Courville, Troy

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive patterns of strengths and weaknesses (PSW) and their relationship to patterns of math errors on the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA-3). Participants, ages 5 to 18, were selected from the KTEA-3 standardization sample if they met one of two PSW profiles: high crystallized ability (Gc) paired with low…

  14. Insiders' Perspectives on Strengths and Weaknesses of the Mexican Education System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippberger, Susan

    This study examines strengths and weaknesses of Mexican public education as perceived by educators within the system. Forty teachers and administrators from various levels in the public school system were interviewed in 1988. Interviewees were primarily located in southern Mexican cities. Mexico's public educational structure is highly…

  15. Patterns of Cognitive Strengths and Weaknesses: Identification Rates, Agreement, and Validity for Learning Disabilities Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miciak, Jeremy; Fletcher, Jack M.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Vaughn, Sharon; Tolar, Tammy D.

    2014-01-01

    Few empirical investigations have evaluated learning disabilities (LD) identification methods based on a pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses (PSW). This study investigated the reliability and validity of two proposed PSW methods: the concordance/discordance method (C/DM) and cross battery assessment (XBA) method. Cognitive assessment…

  16. Does Weak Turbulence Impact PMSEs' Strengths Closer To The Northern Pole?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarnalingam, N.; Hocking, W. K.; Janches, D.; Nicolls, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Existing 51.0 MHz VHF radar at Eureka (80N, 86W) in northern Canada is located closer to both the northern magnetic and geomagnetic poles. A recent calibrated study of Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) using this radar supports the previous results by other radars that the absolute signal strength of PMSE in this region is relatively weak compared with the radar observations located at high latitudes. Although very cold temperature and existence of charged ice particles are the most important ingredient required for PMSE to appear, several other factors could potentially influence the absolute signal strengths of these echoes. One of them is neutral air turbulence. Previous studies indicate that upper mesospheric turbulence's strength decreases with latitudes, especially in the very high latitudes [Becker, 2004; Lubken et. al., 2009]. In this study, we investigate long-term mesospheric turbulence strengths at Eureka and study how they could be associated with the weak PMSE signal strengths compared with other high latitude conditions, where PMSE are strong.

  17. Weak and Failing States: Evolving Security Threats and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-18

    developing mechanisms and procedures for interagency CRS-2 3 Rose E. Brooks, “Failed States, or the State as Failure?” The University of Chicago Law...27-53; Rumsfeld (2002), op. cit.; and Ray Takeyh and Nikolas Gvosdev, “Do Terrorist Networks Need a Home?” The Washington Quarterly 25 (2002). See also...institutions may sometimes be less conducive to a terrorist presence than countries that are still weak, but retain some governmental effectiveness.14

  18. The Aleutian Islands Campaign: The Strengths and Weaknesses of Its Planning Process and Execution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    examination reveals how the development of modern doctrine encapsulates these strengths and prevents a repeat of these weaknesses. Regardless of the...comprised of 120 volcanic islands extending west from the southwestern tip of Alaska. The islands stretch for nearly a thousand miles from the Alaska...that overflew the island. Further limiting Japanese success, weather on Umnak quickly grew overcast, thus preventing Japanese discovery of the airfield

  19. Strengths and weaknesses of McNamara's evolutionary psychological model of dreaming.

    PubMed

    Olliges, Sandra

    2010-10-07

    This article includes a brief overview of McNamara's (2004) evolutionary model of dreaming. The strengths and weaknesses of this model are then evaluated in terms of its consonance with measurable neurological and biological properties of dreaming, its fit within the tenets of evolutionary theories of dreams, and its alignment with evolutionary concepts of cooperation and spirituality. McNamara's model focuses primarily on dreaming that occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep; therefore this article also focuses on REM dreaming.

  20. Targeting cancer’s weaknesses (not its strengths): Therapeutic strategies suggested by the atavistic model

    PubMed Central

    Lineweaver, Charles H.; Davies, Paul C.W.; Vincent, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    In the atavistic model of cancer progression, tumor cell dedifferentiation is interpreted as a reversion to phylogenetically earlier capabilities. The more recently evolved capabilities are compromised first during cancer progression. This suggests a therapeutic strategy for targeting cancer: design challenges to cancer that can only be met by the recently evolved capabilities no longer functional in cancer cells. We describe several examples of this target-the-weakness strategy. Our most detailed example involves the immune system. The absence of adaptive immunity in immunosuppressed tumor environments is an irreversible weakness of cancer that can be exploited by creating a challenge that only the presence of adaptive immunity can meet. This leaves tumor cells more vulnerable than healthy tissue to pathogenic attack. Such a target-the-weakness therapeutic strategy has broad applications, and contrasts with current therapies that target the main strength of cancer: cell proliferation. PMID:25043755

  1. Strategic marketing management for health management: cross impact matrix and TOWS (threats, opportunities, weaknesses, strengths).

    PubMed

    Proctor, T

    2000-01-01

    Organisations operate within a three-tiered environment--internal, micro and macro. The environment is a powerful force acting upon the effectiveness of strategic decision making. Failure to take cognisance of the influence of the three-tiered environment can have disastrous consequences. The cross-impact matrix and the TOWS matrix are two strategic decision-making aids that improve effective decision making. When used in conjunction with creative problem solving methods they can provide the basis of a powerful management tool.

  2. Retail pharmacy staff perceptions of design strengths and weaknesses of electronic prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Chui, Michelle A

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper explored pharmacy staff perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses of electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) design in retail pharmacies using the sociotechnical systems framework. This study examined how adoption of e-prescribing technology is affecting clinical practice and patient care. Materials and methods Direct observations and think aloud protocols were used to collect data from seven retail pharmacies. Results Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians reported strengths of e-prescribing design that facilitated pharmacy work which included: legibility, ease of archiving, quick access to prescriptions and consistency in the format of electronic prescriptions (e-prescriptions). Design weaknesses and potential hazards to patient care associated with e-prescribing systems were due to differences between pharmacy and prescriber computer systems which resulted in the selection of wrong patient or drug (name, directions, dose, strength, formulation, package sizes). There were unique strengths and weaknesses in the design of e-prescriptions peculiar to the three pharmacy computer systems examined in this study. Discussion Findings from this study can help inform policy on creating e-prescribing design standards for pharmacy. e-Prescribing system developers can use the results of this study to identify and apply the most usable features of the three main pharmacy computer systems to design systems that support dispensing efficiency and safety. Conclusions This is the first study to highlight design flaws with e-prescribing in retail pharmacies. The sociotechnical systems framework was useful in providing an indepth understanding of the pharmacist and pharmacy technician's interface with e-prescribing technology. This information can be used by policy makers to create e-prescribing standards for pharmacies. PMID:22753809

  3. A Historical Perspective on the Development of the Allan Variances and Their Strengths and Weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Allan, David W; Levine, Judah

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 50 years, variances have been developed for characterizing the instabilities of precision clocks and oscillators. These instabilities are often modeled as nonstationary processes, and the variances have been shown to be well-behaved and to be unbiased, efficient descriptors of these types of processes. This paper presents a historical overview of the development of these variances. The time-domain and frequency-domain formulations are presented and their development is described. The strengths and weaknesses of these characterization metrics are discussed. These variances are also shown to be useful in other applications, such as in telecommunication.

  4. Motivated Implicit Theories of Personality: My Weaknesses Will Go Away, but My Strengths Are Here to Stay.

    PubMed

    Steimer, Andreas; Mata, André

    2016-04-01

    Across six studies, this research found consistent evidence for motivated implicit theories about personality malleability: People perceive their weaknesses as more malleable than their strengths. Moreover, motivation also influences how people see themselves in the future, such that they expect their present strengths to remain constant, but they expect their present weaknesses to improve in the future. Several additional findings suggest the motivational nature of these effects: The difference in perceived malleability for strengths versus weaknesses was only observed for the self, not for other people. When the desirability of possessing a certain trait was manipulated, that trait was perceived to be more malleable when it was depicted as undesirable. And these different beliefs that people have about how malleable their traits are, and how they will develop in the future, were associated with their desire for change, which is higher for weaknesses versus strengths.

  5. Animal Study Registries: Results from a Stakeholder Analysis on Potential Strengths, Weaknesses, Facilitators, and Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Wieschowski, Susanne; Silva, Diego S.; Strech, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Publication bias in animal research, its extent, its predictors, and its potential countermeasures are increasingly discussed. Recent reports and conferences highlight the potential strengths of animal study registries (ASRs) in this regard. Others have warned that prospective registration of animal studies could diminish creativity, add administrative burdens, and complicate intellectual property issues in translational research. A literature review and 21 international key-informant interviews were conducted and thematically analyzed to develop a comprehensive matrix of main- and subcategories for potential ASR-related strengths, weaknesses, facilitators, and barriers (SWFBs). We identified 130 potential SWFBs. All stakeholder groups agreed that ASRs could in various ways improve the quality and refinement of animal studies while allowing their number to be reduced, as well as supporting meta-research on animal studies. However, all stakeholder groups also highlighted the potential for theft of ideas, higher administrative burdens, and reduced creativity and serendipity in animal studies. Much more detailed reasoning was captured in the interviews than is currently found in the literature, providing a comprehensive account of the issues and arguments around ASRs. All stakeholder groups highlighted compelling potential strengths of ASRs. Although substantial weaknesses and implementation barriers were highlighted as well, different governance measures might help to minimize or even eliminate their impact. Such measures might include confidentiality time frames for accessing prospectively registered protocols, harmonized reporting requirements across ASRs, ethics reviews, lab notebooks, and journal submissions. The comprehensive information gathered in this study could help to guide a more evidence-based debate and to design pilot tests for ASRs. PMID:27832101

  6. Can stereotype threat affect motor performance in the absence of explicit monitoring processes? Evidence using a strength task.

    PubMed

    Chalabaev, Aïna; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Radel, Rémi; Coombes, Stephen A; Easthope, Christopher; Clément-Guillotin, Corentin

    2013-04-01

    Previous evidence shows that stereotype threat impairs complex motor skills through increased conscious monitoring of task performance. Given that one-step motor skills may not be susceptible to these processes, we examined whether performance on a simple strength task may be reduced under stereotype threat. Forty females and males performed maximum voluntary contractions under stereotypical or nullified-stereotype conditions. Results showed that the velocity of force production within the first milliseconds of the contraction decreased in females when the negative stereotype was induced, whereas maximal force did not change. In males, the stereotype induction only increased maximal force. These findings suggest that stereotype threat may impair motor skills in the absence of explicit monitoring processes, by influencing the planning stage of force production.

  7. 3D printing from MRI Data: Harnessing strengths and minimizing weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Ripley, Beth; Levin, Dmitry; Kelil, Tatiana; Hermsen, Joshua L; Kim, Sooah; Maki, Jeffrey H; Wilson, Gregory J

    2017-03-01

    3D printing facilitates the creation of accurate physical models of patient-specific anatomy from medical imaging datasets. While the majority of models to date are created from computed tomography (CT) data, there is increasing interest in creating models from other datasets, such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI, in particular, holds great potential for 3D printing, given its excellent tissue characterization and lack of ionizing radiation. There are, however, challenges to 3D printing from MRI data as well. Here we review the basics of 3D printing, explore the current strengths and weaknesses of printing from MRI data as they pertain to model accuracy, and discuss considerations in the design of MRI sequences for 3D printing. Finally, we explore the future of 3D printing and MRI, including creative applications and new materials.

  8. Strengths and weaknesses of Problem Based Learning from the professional perspective of registered nurses 1

    PubMed Central

    Cónsul-Giribet, María; Medina-Moya, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify competency strengths and weaknesses as perceived by nursing professionals who graduated with a integrated curriculum and competency-based through Problem Based Learning in small groups. METHOD: an intrinsic case study method was used, which analyzes this innovation through former students (from the first class) with three years of professional experience. The data were collected through a questionnaire and discussion groups. RESULTS: the results show that their competency level is valued in a very satisfactory manner. This level paradoxically contrasts with the lack of theoretical knowledge they perceived at the end of their education, when they started working in clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: the teaching strategy was key to motivate an in-depth study and arouse the desire to know. In addition, Problem Based Learning favors and reinforces the decision to learn, which is that necessary in the course of professional life. PMID:25493666

  9. The Janus-faced nature of comparative psychology--strength or weakness?

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Gordon M

    2013-07-18

    What is the nature of comparative psychology and how does or should it relate to evolutionary psychology? This is a time of reassessment of both fields and this article reviews the history of comparative psychology and its relationships with evolutionary psychology, ethology, and other approaches to behavior from the perspective of a former editor of the Journal of Comparative Psychology who has spent many decades engaged in research in animal behavior. Special attention is given to a reassessment of comparative psychology that was carried out in 1987. The various tensions and orientations that seem endemic to comparative psychology may, in fact, be both a strength and weakness as comparative psychology and evolutionary approaches to human psychology return to issues prominent in the late 19th Century, when both fields were just becoming established.

  10. Early experience affects the strength of vigilance for threat in rhesus monkey infants

    PubMed Central

    Mandalaywala, Tara M.; Parker, Karen J.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Both human and nonhuman primates exhibit a cognitive bias to social threat, but little is known about how this bias develops. We investigated the development of threat bias in free-ranging infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at 3 (N = 45) and 9 (N = 46) months of age. Three-month-old infant monkeys did not display bias, but 9-month-olds exhibited increased maintenance of attention to threatening social stimuli (vigilance for threat). To examine whether the social environment affected vigilance for threat, behavioral data on maternal rank and protectiveness were collected across the first 12 weeks of life for infants tested at 9 months. Nine-month-old infants of high-ranking mothers and more protective mothers displayed greater vigilance for threat than infants of lower-ranking and less protective mothers. These results demonstrate that infant social cognition is malleable and shaped by mothers both directly (protectiveness) and indirectly (rank), as maternal characteristics affect infants’ social experiences. PMID:25125426

  11. Strengths and weaknesses of in-tube solid-phase microextraction: A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Amado, M; Prieto-Blanco, M C; López-Mahía, P; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2016-02-04

    In-tube solid-phase microextraction (in-tube SPME or IT-SPME) is a sample preparation technique which has demonstrated over time its ability to couple with liquid chromatography (LC), as well as its advantages as a miniaturized technique. However, the in-tube SPME perspectives in the forthcoming years depend on solutions that can be brought to the environmental, industrial, food and biomedical analysis. The purpose of this scoping review is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of this technique during the period 2009 to 2015 in order to identify research gaps that should be addressed in the future, as well as the tendencies that are meant to strengthen the technique. In terms of methodological aspects, this scoping review shows the in-tube SPME strengths in the coupling with LC (LC-mass spectrometry, capillary LC, ultra-high-pressure LC), in the new performances (magnetic IT-SPME and electrochemically controlled in-tube SPME) and in the wide range of development of coatings and capillaries. Concerning the applicability, most in-tube SPME studies (around 80%) carry out environmental and biomedical analyses, a lower number food analyses and few industrial analyses. Some promising studies in proteomics have been performed. The review makes a critical description of parameters used in the optimization of in-tube SPME methods, highlighting the importance of some of them (i.e. type of capillary coatings). Commercial capillaries in environmental analysis and laboratory-prepared capillaries in biomedical analysis have been employed with good results. The most consolidated configuration is in-valve mode, however the cycle mode configuration is frequently chosen for biomedical analysis. This scoping review revealed that some aspects such as the combination of in-tube SPME with other sample treatment techniques for the analysis of solid samples should be developed in depth in the near future.

  12. Regenerative medicine in Huntington's disease: Strengths and weaknesses of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Tartaglione, A M; Popoli, P; Calamandrei, G

    2017-02-20

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by impairment in motor, cognitive and psychiatric domains. Currently, there is no specific therapy to act on the onset or progression of HD. The marked neuronal death observed in HD is a main argument in favour of stem cells (SCs) transplantation as a promising therapeutic perspective to replace the population of lost neurons and restore the functionality of the damaged circuitry. The availability of rodent models of HD encourages the investigation of the restorative potential of SCs transplantation longitudinally. However, the results of preclinical studies on SCs therapy in HD are so far largely inconsistent; this hampers the individuation of the more appropriate model and precludes the comparative analysis of transplant efficacy on behavioural end points. Thus, this review will describe the state of the art of in vivo research on SCs therapy in HD, analysing in a translational perspective the strengths and weaknesses of animal studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cell transplantation on HD progression.

  13. Analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of acid rain electronic data reports

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, J.

    1997-12-31

    Entergy Corporation is a Phase II utility with a fossil generation base composed primarily of natural gas and low sulfur coal. This paper presents an analysis of a large Phase II utility`s continuous emissions monitoring data reported to EPA under Title IV Acid Rain. Electric utilities currently report hourly emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, fuel use, and generation through electronic data reports to EPA. This paper describes strengths and weaknesses of the data reported to EPA as determined through an analysis of 1995 data. Emissions reported by this company under acid rain for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} are very different from emissions reported to state agencies for annual emission inventory purposes in past years and will represent a significant break with historic trends. A comparison of emissions has been made of 1995 emissions reported under Electronic Data Reports to the emissions that would have been reported using emission factors and fuel data in past years. In addition, the paper examines the impacts of 40 CFR Part 75 Acid Rain requirements such as missing data substitution and monitor bias adjustments. Measurement system errors including stack flow measurement and false NO{sub x}Lb/MMBtu readings at very low loads are discussed. This paper describes the implications for public policy, compliance, emissions inventories, and business decisions of Part 75 acid rain monitoring and reporting requirements.

  14. The global health concept of the German government: strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Bruchhausen, Walter; Hein, Wolfgang; Knipper, Michael; Korte, Rolf; Razum, Oliver; Tinnemann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Recognising global health as a rapidly emerging policy field, the German federal government recently released a national concept note for global health politics (July 10, 2013). As the German government could have a significant impact on health globally by making a coherent, evidence-informed, and long-term commitment in this field, we offer an initial appraisal of the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for development recognised in this document. We conclude that the national concept is an important first step towards the implementation of a coherent global health policy. However, important gaps were identified in the areas of intellectual property rights and access to medicines. In addition, global health determinants such as trade, economic crises, and liberalisation as well as European Union issues such as the health of migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers are not adequately addressed. Furthermore, little information is provided about the establishment of instruments to ensure an effective inter-ministerial cooperation. Finally, because implementation aspects for the national concept are critical for the success of this initiative, we call upon the newly elected 2013 German government to formulate a global health strategy, which includes a concrete plan of action, a time scale, and measurable goals. PMID:24560258

  15. The global health concept of the German government: strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Bruchhausen, Walter; Hein, Wolfgang; Knipper, Michael; Korte, Rolf; Razum, Oliver; Tinnemann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Recognising global health as a rapidly emerging policy field, the German federal government recently released a national concept note for global health politics (July 10, 2013). As the German government could have a significant impact on health globally by making a coherent, evidence-informed, and long-term commitment in this field, we offer an initial appraisal of the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for development recognised in this document. We conclude that the national concept is an important first step towards the implementation of a coherent global health policy. However, important gaps were identified in the areas of intellectual property rights and access to medicines. In addition, global health determinants such as trade, economic crises, and liberalisation as well as European Union issues such as the health of migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers are not adequately addressed. Furthermore, little information is provided about the establishment of instruments to ensure an effective inter-ministerial cooperation. Finally, because implementation aspects for the national concept are critical for the success of this initiative, we call upon the newly elected 2013 German government to formulate a global health strategy, which includes a concrete plan of action, a time scale, and measurable goals.

  16. Validation of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors Questionnaire in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kelly Y. C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Luk, Ernest S. L.; Wong, Ann S. Y.; Law, Lawrence S. C.; Ho, Karen K. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Unlike rating scales that focus on the severity of ADHD symptoms, the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors (SWAN) rating scale is phrased in neutral or positive terms for carers to compare the index child's behaviors with that of their peers. This study explores its psychometric properties when applied to…

  17. The relationship between early ego strength and adolescent responses to the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Andrekus, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Ego resiliency and ego control, measured when subjects were 3 or 4 years old, were related to expectation of war, concern for the future, and activism in response to the threat of nuclear war, measured when subjects were 18 years old. Data from 92 participants in a longitudinal study of ego and cognitive development conducted by Jeanne and Jack Block at the University of California, Berkeley were used to test hypotheses. Assessments with the California Child Q-set, composited across multiple independent observers, provide measures of ego resiliency and ego control. Adolescent interviews regarding the perception of likelihood of nuclear war, how this affects their future, and their antinuclear and general political activism were scaled and rated. Early ego resiliency and ego under control were hypothesized to account for the variance in adolescent nuclear responses and activism. The only significant longitudinal relationships were in the female sample, where ego under control was found to be a significant predictor of both general political activism (p<.01) and ideas of the future being affected by the nuclear threat (p<.05). Among males, the relationship between early ego resiliency and adolescent antinuclear activism approached significance (p<.10). Adolescent personality was significantly related to several measures of nuclear response. In girls, adolescent ego under control related to perception of likelihood of nuclear war (p<.05) and antinuclear activism (p<.05), and the interaction of ego resiliency and ego under control predicted general political activism (p<.0005). In boys, adolescent ego resiliency correlated with antinuclear activism (p<.05). These findings were discussed in terms of antecedent parenting styles, and conceptual links were drawn between children's ego resiliency and security of attachment, perspective taking, and moral development.

  18. Evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of community-based education from the viewpoint of students

    PubMed Central

    MOKHTARPOUR, SEDIGHEH; AMINI, MITRA; MOUSAVINEZHAD, HOURI; CHOOBINEH, ALIREZA; NABEIEI, PARISA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Responsive medicine is an appropriate training method which trains the graduates who can act effectively in initial and secondary aspects of health issues in the society. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study which was done using quantitative method. The target population of this study was all the students of the Nutrition and Health School of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The sample was randomly selected in this study and 75 students were selected based on the methodologist’s comments and similar studies and random-number table from a list obtained from the school’s department of education. This questionnaire was a researcher-made one which consisted of 23 questions in 2 sections with 21 closed-ended questions and 2 open-ended questions; 70 questionnaires were completed correctly. The closed-ended questions had 4 aspects (completely agree to completely disagree) answered in 5-point Likert scale type. Its face validity was confirmed by 4 faculty members. The construct validity of the questionnaire was analyzed by factor analysis test and its reliability was assessed by a pilot on 20 students with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.85. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tests (mean, standard deviation, …) and the Pearson coefficient (p<0.001). Results: The results of this study showed that the maximum mean score was 3.58±0.65 which was related to the context of these courses and the minimum mean was 2.66±1.14 which was related to the logbook implementation. The 2 open-ended questions indicated that the most important strengths were the use of logbooks as a guide and determining the minimum training; of the weaknesses was the mismatch between the theoretical education and the practical activities. Also, developing the minimum training that an expert should know and using the common topics related to theoretical education were the most important points mentioned by the respondents. Conclusions: The

  19. Strengths and weaknesses of parent–staff communication in the NICU: a survey assessment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parents of infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) find themselves in a situation of emotional strain. Communication in the NICU presents special challenges due to parental stress and the complexity of the highly technologized environment. Parents’ need for communication may not always be met by the NICU staff. This study aimed to describe strengths and weaknesses of parent–nurse and parent–doctor communication in a large level III NICU in Sweden in order to improve our understanding of parents’ communication needs. Methods Parents were asked to complete a survey consisting of sixteen questions about their experiences of communication with nurses and doctors in the NICU. In each question the parents evaluated some aspect of communication on a five- or six-point Likert scale. They also had the opportunity on each question to comment on their experiences in their own words. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0 and qualitative manifest content analysis. Results 270 parents (71.4%) completed the survey. Parents generally rated communication with the staff in the NICU positively and appreciated having received emotional support and regular information about their child´s care. Although a large majority of the parents were satisfied with their communication with doctors and nurses, only about half of the parents felt the nurses and doctors understood their emotional situation very well. Some parents would have desired easier access to conversations with doctors and wanted medical information to be given directly by doctors rather than by nurses. Parents’ communication with the staff was hampered when many different nurses were involved in caring for the infant or when the transfer of information in connection with shift changes or between the maternity ward and NICU was poor. Parents also desired to be present during doctors’ rounds on their infant. Conclusions Training both doctors and nurses in communication

  20. Strength Against Weakness: The Campaign in Western Europe, May-June 1940.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-08

    Cammaion Plans When Hitler attacked Poland, he had no war plan to fight France or Britain. He regarded the Allied threat of war in the event of German...aggression against Poland as a bluff. When war was declared, Hitler immediately directed the German Army High Command (the Oberkommando des H , or OKH) to...sufficiently equipped. They feared another stalemate war if Germany attacked prematurely. Despite these concerns Hitler directed OKH to complete the

  1. While Heisenberg Is Not Looking: The Strength of "Weak Measurements" in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geelan, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "weak measurements" in quantum physics is a way of "cheating" the Uncertainty Principle. Heisenberg stated (and 85 years of experiments have demonstrated) that it is impossible to know both the position and momentum of a particle with arbitrary precision. More precise measurements of one decrease the precision…

  2. Scoring the Strengths and Weaknesses of Underage Drinking Laws in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Thomas, Sue; Scherer, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Romano, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have examined the impact of a number of minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA-21) laws on underage alcohol consumption and alcohol-related crashes in the United States. These studies have contributed to our understanding of how alcohol control laws affect drinking and driving among those who are under age 21. However, much of the extant literature examining underage drinking laws use a “Law/No law” coding which may obscure the variability inherent in each law. Previous literature has demonstrated that inclusion of law strengths may affect outcomes and overall data fit when compared to “Law/No law” coding. In an effort to assess the relative strength of states’ underage drinking legislation, a coding system was developed in 2006 and applied to 16 MLDA-21 laws. The current article updates the previous endeavor and outlines a detailed strength coding mechanism for the current 20 MLDA-21 laws. PMID:26097775

  3. Registration of weak ULF/ELF oscillations of the surface electric field strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldyrev, A. I.; Vyazilov, A. E.; Ivanov, V. N.; Kemaev, R. V.; Korovin, V. Ya.; Melyashinskii, A. V.; Pamukhin, K. V.; Panov, V. N.; Shvyrev, Yu. N.

    2016-07-01

    Measurements of the atmospheric electric field strength made by an electrostatic fluxmeter with a unique threshold sensitivity for such devices (6 × 10-2-10-3 V m-1 Hz-1/2 in the 10-3-25 Hz frequency range) and wide dynamic (120 dB) and spectral (0-25 Hz) ranges, are presented. The device parameters make it possible to observe the electric component of global electromagnetic Schumann resonances and long-period fluctuations in the atmospheric electric field strength.

  4. The expression and interpretation of uncertain forensic science evidence: verbal equivalence, evidence strength, and the weak evidence effect.

    PubMed

    Martire, Kristy A; Kemp, Richard I; Watkins, Ian; Sayle, Malindi A; Newell, Ben R

    2013-06-01

    Standards published by the Association of Forensic Science Providers (2009, Standards for the formulation of evaluative forensic science expert opinion, Science & Justice, Vol. 49, pp. 161-164) encourage forensic scientists to express their conclusions in the form of a likelihood ratio (LR), in which the value of the evidence is conveyed verbally or numerically. In this article, we report two experiments (using undergraduates and Mechanical Turk recruits) designed to investigate how much decision makers change their beliefs when presented with evidence in the form of verbal or numeric LRs. In Experiment 1 (N = 494), participants read a summary of a larceny trial containing inculpatory expert testimony in which evidence strength (low, moderate, high) and presentation method (verbal, numerical) varied. In Experiment 2 (N = 411), participants read the same larceny trial, this time including either exculpatory or inculpatory expert evidence that varied in strength (low, high) and presentation method (verbal, numerical). Both studies found a reasonable degree of correspondence in observed belief change resulting from verbal and numeric formats. However, belief change was considerably smaller than Bayesian calculations would predict. In addition, participants presented with evidence weakly supporting guilt tended to "invert" the evidence, thereby counterintuitively reducing their belief in the guilt of the accused. This "weak evidence effect" was most apparent in the verbal presentation conditions of both experiments, but only when the evidence was inculpatory. These findings raise questions about the interpretability of LRs by jurors and appear to support an expectancy-based account of the weak evidence effect.

  5. A Review of Meta-Analyses in Education: Methodological Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Soyeon; Ames, Allison J.; Myers, Nicholas D.

    2012-01-01

    The current review addresses the validity of published meta-analyses in education that determines the credibility and generalizability of study findings using a total of 56 meta-analyses published in education in the 2000s. Our objectives were to evaluate the current meta-analytic practices in education, identify methodological strengths and…

  6. The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of Using Social Software in Higher and Further Education Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, A.; Minocha, S.; Schneider, C.

    2010-01-01

    Social software is increasingly being used in higher and further education to support teaching and learning processes. These applications provide students with social and cognitive stimulation and also add to the interaction between students and educators. However, in addition to the benefits the introduction of social software into a course…

  7. Strength of weak layers in cascading failures on multiplex networks: case of the international trade network.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu-Min; Goh, K-I

    2016-05-23

    Many real-world complex systems across natural, social, and economical domains consist of manifold layers to form multiplex networks. The multiple network layers give rise to nonlinear effect for the emergent dynamics of systems. Especially, weak layers that can potentially play significant role in amplifying the vulnerability of multiplex networks might be shadowed in the aggregated single-layer network framework which indiscriminately accumulates all layers. Here we present a simple model of cascading failure on multiplex networks of weight-heterogeneous layers. By simulating the model on the multiplex network of international trades, we found that the multiplex model produces more catastrophic cascading failures which are the result of emergent collective effect of coupling layers, rather than the simple sum thereof. Therefore risks can be systematically underestimated in single-layer network analyses because the impact of weak layers can be overlooked. We anticipate that our simple theoretical study can contribute to further investigation and design of optimal risk-averse real-world complex systems.

  8. Strength of weak layers in cascading failures on multiplex networks: case of the international trade network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyu-Min; Goh, K.-I.

    2016-05-01

    Many real-world complex systems across natural, social, and economical domains consist of manifold layers to form multiplex networks. The multiple network layers give rise to nonlinear effect for the emergent dynamics of systems. Especially, weak layers that can potentially play significant role in amplifying the vulnerability of multiplex networks might be shadowed in the aggregated single-layer network framework which indiscriminately accumulates all layers. Here we present a simple model of cascading failure on multiplex networks of weight-heterogeneous layers. By simulating the model on the multiplex network of international trades, we found that the multiplex model produces more catastrophic cascading failures which are the result of emergent collective effect of coupling layers, rather than the simple sum thereof. Therefore risks can be systematically underestimated in single-layer network analyses because the impact of weak layers can be overlooked. We anticipate that our simple theoretical study can contribute to further investigation and design of optimal risk-averse real-world complex systems.

  9. Strength of weak layers in cascading failures on multiplex networks: case of the international trade network

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu-Min; Goh, K.-I.

    2016-01-01

    Many real-world complex systems across natural, social, and economical domains consist of manifold layers to form multiplex networks. The multiple network layers give rise to nonlinear effect for the emergent dynamics of systems. Especially, weak layers that can potentially play significant role in amplifying the vulnerability of multiplex networks might be shadowed in the aggregated single-layer network framework which indiscriminately accumulates all layers. Here we present a simple model of cascading failure on multiplex networks of weight-heterogeneous layers. By simulating the model on the multiplex network of international trades, we found that the multiplex model produces more catastrophic cascading failures which are the result of emergent collective effect of coupling layers, rather than the simple sum thereof. Therefore risks can be systematically underestimated in single-layer network analyses because the impact of weak layers can be overlooked. We anticipate that our simple theoretical study can contribute to further investigation and design of optimal risk-averse real-world complex systems. PMID:27211291

  10. The Strengths and Weaknesses of Logic Formalisms to Support Mishap Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    The increasing complexity of many safety critical systems poses new problems for mishap analysis. Techniques developed in the sixties and seventies cannot easily scale-up to analyze incidents involving tightly integrated software and hardware components. Similarly, the realization that many failures have systemic causes has widened the scope of many mishap investigations. Organizations, including NASA and the NTSB, have responded by starting research and training initiatives to ensure that their personnel are well equipped to meet these challenges. One strand of research has identified a range of mathematically based techniques that can be used to reason about the causes of complex, adverse events. The proponents of these techniques have argued that they can be used to formally prove that certain events created the necessary and sufficient causes for a mishap to occur. Mathematical proofs can reduce the bias that is often perceived to effect the interpretation of adverse events. Others have opposed the introduction of these techniques by identifying social and political aspects to incident investigation that cannot easily be reconciled with a logic-based approach. Traditional theorem proving mechanisms cannot accurately capture the wealth of inductive, deductive and statistical forms of inference that investigators routinely use in their analysis of adverse events. This paper summarizes some of the benefits that logics provide, describes their weaknesses, and proposes a number of directions for future research.

  11. Comparing strengths and weaknesses of three ecosystem services modelling tools in a diverse UK river catchment.

    PubMed

    Sharps, Katrina; Masante, Dario; Thomas, Amy; Jackson, Bethanna; Redhead, John; May, Linda; Prosser, Havard; Cosby, Bernard; Emmett, Bridget; Jones, Laurence

    2017-01-29

    Ecosystem services modelling tools can help land managers and policy makers evaluate the impacts of alternative management options or changes in land use on the delivery of ecosystem services. As the variety and complexity of these tools increases, there is a need for comparative studies across a range of settings, allowing users to make an informed choice. Using examples of provisioning and regulating services (water supply, carbon storage and nutrient retention), we compare three spatially explicit tools - LUCI (Land Utilisation and Capability Indicator), ARIES (Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services) and InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs). Models were parameterised for the UK and applied to a temperate catchment with widely varying land use in North Wales. Although each tool provides quantitative mapped output, can be applied in different contexts, and can work at local or national scale, they differ in the approaches taken and underlying assumptions made. In this study, we focus on the wide range of outputs produced for each service and discuss the differences between each modelling tool. Model outputs were validated using empirical data for river flow, carbon and nutrient levels within the catchment. The sensitivity of the models to land-use change was tested using four scenarios of varying severity, evaluating the conversion of grassland habitat to woodland (0-30% of the landscape). We show that, while the modelling tools provide broadly comparable quantitative outputs, each has its own unique features and strengths. Therefore the choice of tool depends on the study question.

  12. OECI accreditation of the European Institute of Oncology of Milan: strengths and weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Deriu, Pietro L; Basso, Silvia; Mastrilli, Fabrizio; Orecchia, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The European Institute of Oncology began the process to reach the accreditation promoted by the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) in 2012. This accreditation integrates the quality and safety path started in 2001 with accreditation by the Joint Commission International. Despite the presence of diversified accreditations and certifications and the clear need of time, effort, and commitment, the models are complementary. Each model is not to be considered as an end but as a tool for improvement: e.g., mixing accreditation standards led to an improvement in the quality and safety of processes. The present article details the OECI accreditation experience of the European Institute of Oncology, in particular the following strengths of OECI standards: collaboration among several involved parties (patient, volunteer, patient's general practitioner) in the clinical and quality/safety processes; a larger involvement of support personnel (psycho-oncologists, dieticians, physical therapists); and the development of clinical/translational research and innovation in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment to guarantee the best available practice in diagnosis and treatment. The OECI accreditation is specific to oncology and therefore its standards are tailored to a cancer center, both in terms of language used in the standards manual and in terms of patient needs. The OECI accreditation system puts an auditor team with a standards manual in charge of verifying quality and confirms the definition of IEO as a Comprehensive Cancer Center.

  13. An appraisal of the strengths and weaknesses of newborn and juvenile rat models for researching gastrointestinal development.

    PubMed

    Henare, S J; Mellor, D J; Lentle, R G; Moughan, P J

    2008-07-01

    Research on the impact of bioactive compounds on the development and functional maturation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract using newborn and juvenile rats has greatly contributed to the knowledge of GI physiology and to the improved clinical management of both premature and full-term newborns. Of the animal models available, two types have been described for use with young rats--maintenance models and substitution models. Maintenance models are those in which the young are reared with the dam and therefore benefit from continuation of natural nutrition and maternal care. Substitution models are those in which the young are reared in the absence of the dam using artificially formulated milk delivered by various means into specific GI sites. In this review, we describe these models and their operation, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each. Attention is also given to questions of scientific validity and some animal welfare issues raised by the use of these models.

  14. Nonuniform Weakness in the Paretic Knee and Compensatory Strength Gains in the Nonparetic Knee Occurs after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lomaglio, Melanie J.; Eng, Janice J.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was designed to quantify torque production at different joint angles in the paretic and non-paretic knee joints of individuals with stroke. Methods Extension and flexion torques were measured at 6 angles of the knee joint and normalized to peak torque in 19 subjects with stroke and 19 controls. Results Paretic knee extension torque was lower than controls when the knee was positioned near extension. In contrast, nonparetic knee extension and flexion torques were higher than controls when the knee was positioned near full flexion. Conclusions The paretic knee extensors demonstrated exaggerated weakness at short muscle lengths and the nonparetic knee extensors and flexors demonstrated selective strength gains. Clinicians should therefore consider paretic knee extensor strengthening near full extension and promote symmetrical use of the legs to prevent compensatory overuse of the non-paretic leg. PMID:18946213

  15. Strengths and weaknesses of the humanitarian Cluster Approach in relation to sexual and reproductive health services in northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Landegger, Justine; Hau, Monica; Kaducu, Felix; Sondorp, Egbert; Mayhew, Susannah; Roberts, Bayard

    2011-06-01

    Implementation of the Cluster Approach has been a major recent development in the humanitarian system. The aim of this study was to explore the strengths and weaknesses of the humanitarian Cluster Approach in relation to services for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) [including gender-based violence (GBV)] in northern Uganda, which is recovering from over 20 years of armed conflict. Face-to-face and telephone, semistructured, qualitative interviews were conducted in 2009 with purposively selected key informants from governmental, non-governmental, United Nations and donor agencies working in northern Uganda. Respondents noted a number of contributions of the Cluster Approach, including improved co-ordination of SRH services and stronger advocacy. However, concerns were raised about the low prioritisation, limited leadership and capacity, and standard setting for SRH services. Concerns were also raised about limited planning and capacity for dissolution of the Clusters in the transition to recovery and development in northern Uganda. Despite a number of contributions made by the Cluster Approach, particularly for responding to GBV, there were many concerns about its limited influence on SRH services. There were also concerns that the transition to recovery and development in northern Uganda may not result in reproductive health services being sufficiently strengthened.

  16. The Effect of Achievement Test Selection on Identification of Learning Disabilities within a Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses Framework

    PubMed Central

    Miciak, Jeremy; Taylor, Pat; Denton, Carolyn A.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Few empirical investigations have evaluated learning disabilities (LD) identification methods based on a pattern of cognitive strengths and weaknesses (PSW). This study investigated the reliability of LD classification decisions of the concordance/discordance method (C/DM) across different psychoeducational assessment batteries. Methods C/DM criteria were applied to assessment data from 177 second grade students based on two psychoeducational assessment batteries. The achievement tests were different, but were highly correlated and measured the same latent construct. Resulting LD identifications were then evaluated for agreement across batteries on LD status and the academic domain of eligibility. Results The two batteries identified a similar number of participants as having LD (80 and 74). However, indices of agreement for classification decisions were low (kappa = .29), especially for percent positive agreement (62%). The two batteries demonstrated agreement on the academic domain of eligibility for only 25 participants. Conclusions Cognitive discrepancy frameworks for LD identification are inherently unstable because of imperfect reliability and validity at the observed level. Methods premised on identifying a PSW profile may never achieve high reliability because of these underlying psychometric factors. An alternative is to directly assess academic skills to identify students in need of intervention. PMID:25243467

  17. A Study of Strengths and Weaknesses of Descriptive Assessment from Principals, Teachers and Experts Points of View in Chaharmahal and Bakhteyari Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharief, Mostafa; Naderi, Mahin; Hiedari, Maryam Shoja; Roodbari, Omolbanin; Jalilvand, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    The aim of current study is to determine the strengths and weaknesses of descriptive evaluation from the viewpoint of principals, teachers and experts of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. A descriptive survey was performed. Statistical population includes 208 principals, 303 teachers, and 100 executive experts of descriptive evaluation scheme in…

  18. Wildfire Prevention and Suppression plans enhancing: a first overview on strength and weakness in Italian stakeholders experiences and perception.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonora, Laura; Conese, Claudio; Barbati, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Fires and wildfires represent an element of vulnerability for forests, considering that have now reached a level beyond which further burning would seriously endanger the ecosystem services and their sustainable management. It is fundamental to support fire-fighting Centres by giving them tools, useful to faces future trends; in this sense the first step is to examine technical and operative procedures to evaluate their strong and weak aspects, in collaboration with personnel responsible of risk management, suppression coordination and patrol responsible of direct attack. The aims this work is to identify present elements of strength ad problematic aspects to tuning the wildfire suppression actions to future changes; this is a crucial challenge both for policy and territory planners and managers. Historical investigation lines on forest fire covered the basilar and fundamental dynamics which understanding was necessary to confine and fight the wildfire phenomenon. At the present all the competences, knowledge and connections acquired are translating and including in the Plans, sharing innovative strategies -with the "direct involved actors"- trying to decrease the fire trend. Stakeholders underlined that collaboration between research and territorial Institutions are producing positive results, showing the conceptual rightness and the well-run of the in-progress implementations. The Italian framework of wildfire prevention plans is very peculiar because the Plans related to prevention and active intervention procedure are coincident. Normative, procedural, economic and logistic aspects are considered and handled in the same general document; each year the local structures, designed by the Regions, have in charge the draft of the operative plan, defining and managing the means and patrols distribution and turnover. In the present work 3 Italian Regions (Tuscany, Puglia and Sardinia, with different territorial and vegetation characteristics and affected by different

  19. AERONET-OC: Strengths and Weaknesses of a Network for the Validation of Satellite Coastal Radiometric Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zibordi, Giuseppe; Holben, Brent; Slutsker, Ilya; Giles, David; D'Alimonte, Davide; Melin, Frederic; Berthon, Jean-Francois; Vandemark, Doug; Feng, Hui; Schuster, Gregory; Fabbri, Bryan E.; Kaitala, Seppo; Seppala, Jukka

    2008-01-01

    The Ocean Color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC) has been implemented to support long-term satellite ocean color investigations through cross-site consistent and accurate measurements collected by autonomous radiometer systems deployed on offshore fixed platforms. The ultimate purpose of AERONET-OC is the production of standardized measurements performed at different sites with identical measuring systems and protocols, calibrated using a single reference source and method, and processed with the same code. The AERONET-OC primary data product is the normalized water leaving radiance determined at center-wavelengths of interest for satellite ocean color applications, with an uncertainty lower than 5% in the blue-green spectral regions and higher than 8% in the red. Measurements collected at 6 sites counting the northern Adriatic Sea, the Baltic Proper, the Gulf of Finland, the Persian Gulf, and, the northern and southern margins of the Middle Atlantic Bay, have shown the capability of producing quality assured data over a wide range of bio-optical conditions including Case-2 yellow substance- and sedimentdominated waters. This work briefly introduces network elements like: deployment sites, measurement method, instrument calibration, processing scheme, quality-assurance, uncertainties, data archive and products accessibility. Emphases is given to those elements which underline the network strengths (i.e., mostly standardization of any network element) and its weaknesses (i.e., the use of consolidated, but old-fashioned technology). The work also addresses the application of AERONET-OC data to the validation of primary satellite radiometric products over a variety of complex coastal waters and finally provides elements for the identification of new deployment sites most suitable to support satellite ocean color missions.

  20. Strengths and weaknesses of weak-strong cluster problems: A detailed overview of state-of-the-art classical heuristics versus quantum approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrà, Salvatore; Zhu, Zheng; Wang, Wenlong; Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2016-08-01

    To date, a conclusive detection of quantum speedup remains elusive. Recently, a team by Google Inc. [V. S. Denchev et al., Phys. Rev. X 6, 031015 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevX.6.031015] proposed a weak-strong cluster model tailored to have tall and narrow energy barriers separating local minima, with the aim to highlight the value of finite-range tunneling. More precisely, results from quantum Monte Carlo simulations as well as the D-Wave 2X quantum annealer scale considerably better than state-of-the-art simulated annealing simulations. Moreover, the D-Wave 2X quantum annealer is ˜108 times faster than simulated annealing on conventional computer hardware for problems with approximately 103 variables. Here, an overview of different sequential, nontailored, as well as specialized tailored algorithms on the Google instances is given. We show that the quantum speedup is limited to sequential approaches and study the typical complexity of the benchmark problems using insights from the study of spin glasses.

  1. Weak faults in a strong crust: Geodynamic constraints on fault strength, stress in the crust, and the vertical distribution of strength in the lithosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, N.; Humphreys, G.

    2005-12-01

    We present results of steady-state dynamic finite element numerical models for the state of stress and strain rate in the crust and upper mantle in the vicinity of a transform fault. Model rheology is elastic-viscous-plastic where plastic mechanical behavior is used as a proxy for pressure-dependent friction of the seismogenic crust. Viscous flow is incorporated as temperature dependent, power-law creep. We assume that the crust outside the fault zone is at or near its frictional yield strength (i.e., `strong', e.g., Townend and Zoback, 2001) predicted by Byerlee's Law and aim to determine the acceptable range of fault strength and viscosity distributions that satisfy the observations that seismic faulting extends to typically 15 km and that the tectonic strain rate of fault-bounding blocks is small. Assuming the traditional `christmas-tree' strength distribution of the lithosphere (e.g., Brace and Kohlstedt, 1980), our primary results are the following. The upper limit of fault strength is approximately 30 MPa (averaged over 15 km), the majority (>50%) of the vertically integrated strength of the lithosphere resides in the uppermost mantle, and the depth to which frictional deformation occurs in the crustal blocks depends on the strength of nearby faults and viscosity of the lower crust and should not exceed approximately 6-9 km, below which relatively low strain rate viscous creep is the dominant deformation mechanism. We also incorporate the thermal feedback effects of viscous and frictional shear heating and explore the controls on the distribution of shear strain in the lower crust and upper mantle.

  2. Supraspinatus and infraspinatus weakness in overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis: strength assessment before and after restoration of scapular musculature balance.

    PubMed

    Merolla, Giovanni; De Santis, Elisa; Campi, Fabrizio; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2010-12-01

    A disturbance in scapulohumeral rhythm may cause negative biomechanic effects on rotator cuff (RC). Alteration in scapular motion and shoulder pain can influence RC strength. Purpose of this study was to assess supraspinatus and infraspinatus strength in 29 overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis, before and after 3 and 6 months of rehabilitation aimed to restore scapular musculature balance. A passive posterior soft tissues stretching was prescribed to balance shoulder mobility. Scapular dyskinesis patterns were evaluated according to Kibler et al. Clinical assessment was performed with the empty can (EC) test and infraspinatus strength test (IST). Strength values were recorded by a dynamometer; scores for pain were assessed with VAS scale. Changes of shoulder IR were measured. The force values increased at 3 months (P < 0.01) and at 6 months (P < 0.01). Changes of glenohumeral IR and decrease in pain scores were found at both follow-up. Outcomes registered on pain and strength confirm the role of a proper scapular position for an optimal length-tension relationship of the RC muscles. These data should encourage those caring for athletes to consider restoring of scapular musculature balance as essential part of the athletic training.

  3. The effect of a weak W/SiC interface on the strength of sigma silicon carbide monofilament

    PubMed

    Dyos; Shatwell

    1999-11-01

    Fractography studies have shown that the strength-determining flaws in silicon carbide monofilaments are generally at the core/silicon carbide interface or in the vicinity of the outside, carbon-based coating. In tungsten-cored monofilaments like DERA Sigma, the W/SiC flaws primarily determine the strength. Fracture is accompanied by brittle failure of the tungsten. The crack propagates simultaneously outwards through the silicon carbide, inwards through the tungsten and also around the W/SiC interface before being deflected into the tungsten or out through the silicon carbide. Experiments depositing boundary layers between the tungsten and silicon carbide have resulted in significantly different fracture behaviour. The tungsten fails in a ductile manner and the strength-determining flaws are located predominantly at the outside surface of the silicon carbide. This behaviour is discussed in terms of models proposed by E. Martin and W. Curtin. It is thought that the work will ultimately lead to a significantly stronger, tungsten-based monofilament.

  4. Comparing the strengths and weaknesses of observational and experimental studies using a postmarketing surveillance study as a protypic example.

    PubMed

    Furst, D E

    1993-10-01

    A recent prospective, observational study in rheumatoid arthritis patients indicated that the addition of hydroxychloroquine to either aspirin or methotrexate therapy decreased the incidence of hepatic enzyme abnormalities. This interesting finding is of potential clinical importance, but its validity needs to be examined in terms of the potential confounders inherent in observational studies. Although one of the study's strengths is its derivation from "real-life" data, some potential confounders that might weaken the data include a need to examine whether any scientific rationale can be discerned for the observation; examination of control-case matching (issues of randomization and baseline disease characteristics); the potential for attribution bias; data-collection methods (prospective versus retrospective, uniform versus chart review); and equivalency of treatment protocols, dosing regimens, and concomitant medications. Potential scientific rationale exists for the observed interaction, and data collection is both uniform and prospective. These strengths are confounded by the inevitable lack of randomization in observational studies, the potential for differences in baseline disease characteristics, attribution bias, a lack of controlled dosing regimens and treatment protocols, and an assumption that all nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs are alike (which is not true). On balance, the hypothesis generated by these data is compelling enough to deserve further testing in both observational and experimental settings.

  5. French Version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviors (SWAN-F) Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Robaey, Philippe; Amre, Devendra; Schachar, Russell; Simard, Louise

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate internal and external consistency of a French adaptation of the SWAN (a 7-point rating strength-based scale, from far below to far above average) and its accuracy as a diagnostic test among children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Method Parents of 88 children referred for ADHD were interviewed using the SWAN-F, a structured interview (DISC-4.0) and the Conners’ Rating Scale. Internal consistency and divergent and convergent validity of the SWAN-F were examined using the DISC-4.0 and Conners’ Rating Scales as reference standards for four dimensions: Inattention, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Results The internal consistency of SWAN-F was within acceptable ranges for all dimensions (Cronbach’s alpha greater than 0.80). Scores of the SWAN-F subscales were strongly associated with the DISC-4.0 diagnostic assignments and Conners’ Rating Scales, following logical patterns of correspondence between diagnoses. Its accuracy as a diagnostic test was comparable to Conners’ Rating Scale, with a lower rate of false positives. Conclusions The information gathered with the SWAN-F is compatible with that obtained using the DISC-4.0 and Conners’ Rating Scale. Strength-based rating scales have the potential to evaluate the normal distribution of behaviors and to provide reliable cut-off defining abnormal behavior. PMID:18392156

  6. Floods and health in Gambella region, Ethiopia: a qualitative assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of coping mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wakuma Abaya, Samson; Mandere, Nicodemus; Ewald, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Background Floods are the most frequent and devastating type of natural disaster worldwide, causing unprecedented deaths, diseases, and destruction of property and crops. Flooding has a greater impact in developing countries due to lack of sufficient disaster management structures and a lack of economic resources. Objective This study was conducted with the aim of contributing to the knowledge base of development strategies that reduce flood-related health risks in developing countries. The study focused particularly on assessing the flood risks and health-related issues in the Gambella region of Ethiopia; with the intent of producing relevant information to assist with the improvements in the efficacy of the current flood coping strategies in the region. Methods Data were gathered through interviews with 14 officers from different government and non-governmental organizations and a questionnaire survey given to 35 flood victims in Itang woreda. A qualitative approach was applied and the data were analyzed using content analysis. Results It was found that flooding is a common problem in Gambella region. The findings also indicate that the flood frequency and magnitude has increased rapidly during the last decade. The increase in floods was driven mainly by climate change and changes in land use, specifically deforestation. The reported main impacts of flooding on human health in Gambella region were deaths, injuries, and diseases such as malaria and diarrhea. Another notable consequence of flooding was crop destruction and subsequent malnutrition. Conclusions Three weaknesses that were identified in the current coping strategies for flood-related health impacts in Gambella region were a lack of flood-specific policy, absence of risk assessment, and weak institutional capacity. This study recommends new policy approaches that will increase the effectiveness of the current flood coping strategies to sustainably address the impact of flooding on human health. PMID

  7. The Reliability and Validity of the English and Spanish Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD and Normal Behavior Rating Scales in a Preschool Sample: Continuum Measures of Hyperactivity and Inattention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Swanson, James M.; Riggs, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability and validity of the English and Spanish versions of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptom and Normal-behavior (SWAN) rating scale. Method: Parents of preschoolers completed both a SWAN and the well-established Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) on two separate occasions over a span of 3…

  8. Strengths, Opportunities, Aspirations, and Results: An Emerging Approach to Organization Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarestky, Jill; Cole, Catherine S.

    2017-01-01

    Organization development (OD) interventions have typically relied on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) framework for strategic planning. The strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results (SOAR) framework is a relatively new innovation in OD that may serve as a viable alternative to SWOT for those who wish to apply…

  9. Spatial Noise in Coupling Strength and Natural Frequency within a Pacemaker Network; Consequences for Development of Intestinal Motor Patterns According to a Weakly Coupled Phase Oscillator Model.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Sean P; Huizinga, Jan D

    2016-01-01

    Pacemaker activities generated by networks of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), in conjunction with the enteric nervous system, orchestrate most motor patterns in the gastrointestinal tract. It was our objective to understand the role of network features of ICC associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) in the shaping of motor patterns of the small intestine. To that end, a model of weakly coupled oscillators (oscillators influence each other's phase but not amplitude) was created with most parameters derived from experimental data. The ICC network is a uniform two dimensional network coupled by gap junctions. All ICC generate pacemaker (slow wave) activity with a frequency gradient in mice from 50/min at the proximal end of the intestine to 40/min at the distal end. Key features of motor patterns, directly related to the underlying pacemaker activity, are frequency steps and dislocations. These were accurately mimicked by reduction of coupling strength at a point in the chain of oscillators. When coupling strength was expressed as a product of gap junction density and conductance, and gap junction density was varied randomly along the chain (i.e., spatial noise) with a long-tailed distribution, plateau steps occurred at pointsof low density. As gap junction conductance was decreased, the number of plateaus increased, mimicking the effect of the gap junction inhibitor carbenoxolone. When spatial noise was added to the natural interval gradient, as gap junction conductance decreased, the number of plateaus increased as before but in addition the phase waves frequently changed direction of apparent propagation, again mimicking the effect of carbenoxolone. In summary, key features of the motor patterns that are governed by pacemaker activity may be a direct consequence of biological noise, specifically spatial noise in gap junction coupling and pacemaker frequency.

  10. Stereotype Threat.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Steven J; Logel, Christine; Davies, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    When members of a stigmatized group find themselves in a situation where negative stereotypes provide a possible framework for interpreting their behavior, the risk of being judged in light of those stereotypes can elicit a disruptive state that undermines performance and aspirations in that domain. This situational predicament, termed stereotype threat, continues to be an intensely debated and researched topic in educational, social, and organizational psychology. In this review, we explore the various sources of stereotype threat, the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects (both mediators and moderators), and the consequences of this situational predicament, as well as the means through which society and stigmatized individuals can overcome the insidious effects of stereotype threat. Ultimately, we hope this review alleviates some of the confusion surrounding stereotype threat while also sparking further research and debate.

  11. Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses on the WISC-V, DAS-II, and KABC-II and Their Relationship to Students' Errors in Oral Language, Reading, Writing, Spelling, and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breaux, Kristina C.; Avitia, Maria; Koriakin, Taylor; Bray, Melissa A.; DeBiase, Emily; Courville, Troy; Pan, Xingyu; Witholt, Thomas; Grossman, Sandy

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between specific cognitive patterns of strengths and weaknesses and the errors children make on oral language, reading, writing, spelling, and math subtests from the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Third Edition (KTEA-3). Participants with scores from the KTEA-3 and either the Wechsler Intelligence…

  12. Modelling ultraviolet threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, I.

    2016-10-01

    Electro-optically (EO) guided surface to air missiles (SAM) have developed to use Ultraviolet (UV) wavebands supplementary to the more common Infrared (IR) wavebands. Missiles such as the US Stinger have been around for some time but are not considered a proliferation risk. The Chinese FN-16 and Russian SA-29 (Verba) are considered a much higher proliferation risk. As a result, models of the missile seekers must be developed to understand the characteristics of the seeker and the potential performance enhancement that are included. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to introduce the steps that have been taken to characterise and model these missiles. It begins by outlining some of the characteristics of the threats, the key elements of a UV scene, the potential choice of waveband for a detector, the initial modelling work to represent the UV detector of the missile and presents initial results. The modelling shows that the UV detection range of a typical aircraft is dependent on both the size of the aircraft and its reflectivity. However, the strength of this correlation is less than expected. As a result, further work is required to model more seeker types and to investigate what is causing the weak correlations found in these initial investigations. In addition, there needs to be further study of the sensitivities of the model to other variables, such as the modelled detectivity of the detector and the signal to noise ratio assumed. Overall, the outcome of this work will be to provide specifications for aircraft size and reflectivity that limit the effectiveness of the UV channels.

  13. Facing ambiguous threats.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Michael A; Bohmer, Richard M J; Edmondson, Amy C

    2006-11-01

    On February 1, 2003, the world watched in horror as the Columbia space shuttle broke apart while reentering the earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts. Some have argued that NASA's failure to respond with appropriate intensity to the so-called foam strike that led to the accident was evidence of irresponsible or incompetent management. The authors' research, however, suggests that NASA was exhibiting a natural, albeit unfortunate, pattern of behavior common in many organizations. The foam strike is a prime example of what the authors call an ambiguous threat-a signal that may or may not portend future harm. Ambiguous threats differ from threats with obvious causes-say, a fire in the building-for which the response is clear. They also differ from unmistakable threats that may lack straightforward response paths (such as the frightening oxygen-tank explosion aboard Apollo 13). However, when the warning sign is ambiguous and the threat's potential effect is unclear, managers may choose to ignore or discount the risk. Such an approach can be catastrophic. Firms that do a good job of dealing with ambiguous threats do not improvise during a crisis; rather, they apply a rigorous set of detection and response capabilities that they have developed and practiced beforehand. In this article, the authors outline how to put such capabilities in place long before a crisis strikes. First, companies need to hone their teamwork and rapid problem-solving skills through practice. Second, they must learn to recognize weak signals, amplify the threat, and encourage employees to ask disconcerting "what if" questions in a safe environment. Finally, they should explore possible responses to threats through quick, low-cost experimentation.

  14. Strengths and weaknesses of Global Positioning System (GPS) data-loggers and semi-structured interviews for capturing fine-scale human mobility: findings from Iquitos, Peru.

    PubMed

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A; Reiner, Robert C; Morrison, Amy C; Stoddard, Steven T; Kitron, Uriel; Scott, Thomas W; Elder, John P; Halsey, Eric S; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M

    2014-06-01

    Quantifying human mobility has significant consequences for studying physical activity, exposure to pathogens, and generating more realistic infectious disease models. Location-aware technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS)-enabled devices are used increasingly as a gold standard for mobility research. The main goal of this observational study was to compare and contrast the information obtained through GPS and semi-structured interviews (SSI) to assess issues affecting data quality and, ultimately, our ability to measure fine-scale human mobility. A total of 160 individuals, ages 7 to 74, from Iquitos, Peru, were tracked using GPS data-loggers for 14 days and later interviewed using the SSI about places they visited while tracked. A total of 2,047 and 886 places were reported in the SSI and identified by GPS, respectively. Differences in the concordance between methods occurred by location type, distance threshold (within a given radius to be considered a match) selected, GPS data collection frequency (i.e., 30, 90 or 150 seconds) and number of GPS points near the SSI place considered to define a match. Both methods had perfect concordance identifying each participant's house, followed by 80-100% concordance for identifying schools and lodgings, and 50-80% concordance for residences and commercial and religious locations. As the distance threshold selected increased, the concordance between SSI and raw GPS data increased (beyond 20 meters most locations reached their maximum concordance). Processing raw GPS data using a signal-clustering algorithm decreased overall concordance to 14.3%. The most common causes of discordance as described by a sub-sample (n=101) with whom we followed-up were GPS units being accidentally off (30%), forgetting or purposely not taking the units when leaving home (24.8%), possible barriers to the signal (4.7%) and leaving units home to recharge (4.6%). We provide a quantitative assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of

  15. Strengths and Weaknesses of Global Positioning System (GPS) Data-Loggers and Semi-structured Interviews for Capturing Fine-scale Human Mobility: Findings from Iquitos, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Reiner, Robert C.; Morrison, Amy C.; Stoddard, Steven T.; Kitron, Uriel; Scott, Thomas W.; Elder, John P.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying human mobility has significant consequences for studying physical activity, exposure to pathogens, and generating more realistic infectious disease models. Location-aware technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS)-enabled devices are used increasingly as a gold standard for mobility research. The main goal of this observational study was to compare and contrast the information obtained through GPS and semi-structured interviews (SSI) to assess issues affecting data quality and, ultimately, our ability to measure fine-scale human mobility. A total of 160 individuals, ages 7 to 74, from Iquitos, Peru, were tracked using GPS data-loggers for 14 days and later interviewed using the SSI about places they visited while tracked. A total of 2,047 and 886 places were reported in the SSI and identified by GPS, respectively. Differences in the concordance between methods occurred by location type, distance threshold (within a given radius to be considered a match) selected, GPS data collection frequency (i.e., 30, 90 or 150 seconds) and number of GPS points near the SSI place considered to define a match. Both methods had perfect concordance identifying each participant's house, followed by 80–100% concordance for identifying schools and lodgings, and 50–80% concordance for residences and commercial and religious locations. As the distance threshold selected increased, the concordance between SSI and raw GPS data increased (beyond 20 meters most locations reached their maximum concordance). Processing raw GPS data using a signal-clustering algorithm decreased overall concordance to 14.3%. The most common causes of discordance as described by a sub-sample (n = 101) with whom we followed-up were GPS units being accidentally off (30%), forgetting or purposely not taking the units when leaving home (24.8%), possible barriers to the signal (4.7%) and leaving units home to recharge (4.6%). We provide a quantitative assessment of the strengths and

  16. The Use of Technology for Estimating Body CompositionStrengths and Weaknesses of Common Modalities in a Clinical Setting [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Teigen, Levi M; Kuchnia, Adam J; Mourtzakis, Marina; Earthman, Carrie P

    2017-02-01

    Assessment of body composition, both at single time points and longitudinally, is particularly important in clinical nutrition practice. It provides a means for the clinician to characterize nutrition status at a single time point, aiding in the identification and diagnosis of malnutrition, and to monitor changes over time by providing real-time information on the adequacy of nutrition interventions. Objective body composition measurement tools are available clinically but are often underused in nutrition care, particularly in the United States. This is, in part, due to a number of factors concerning their use in a clinical context: cost and accessibility of equipment, as well as interpretability of the results. This article focuses on the factors influencing interpretation of results in a clinical setting. Body composition assessment, regardless of the method, is inherently limited by its indirect nature. Therefore, an understanding of the strengths and limitations of any method is essential for meaningful interpretation of its results. This review provides an overview of body composition technologies available clinically (computed tomography, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, bioimpedance, ultrasound) and discusses the strengths and limitations of each device.

  17. Strengths and weaknesses in the supply of school food resulting from the procurement of family farm produce in a municipality in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, Panmela; Martinelli, Suellen Secchi; Melgarejo, Leonardo; Davó-Blanes, Mari Carmen; Cavalli, Suzi Barletto

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess compliance with school food programme recommendations for the procurement of family farm produce. This study consists of an exploratory descriptive study utilising a qualitative approach based on semistructured interviews with key informants in a municipality in the State of Santa Catarina in Brazil. Study participants were managers and staff of the school food programme and department of agriculture, and representatives of a farmers' organisation. The produce delivery and demand fulfilment stages of the procurement process were carried out in accordance with the recommendations. However, nonconformities occurred in the elaboration of the public call for proposals, elaboration of the sales proposal, and fulfilment of produce quality standards. It was observed that having a diverse range of suppliers and the exchange of produce by the cooperative with neighbouring municipalities helped to maintain a regular supply of produce. The elaboration of menus contributed to planning agricultural production. However, agricultural production was not mapped before elaborating the menus in this case study and an agricultural reform settlement was left out of the programme. A number of weaknesses in the programme were identified which need to be overcome in order to promote local family farming and improve the quality of school food in the municipality.

  18. When Students Make Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanan, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about the use of threat assessment. Schools are encouraged to have threat assessment teams and a threat assessment process as part of a comprehensive safe schools effort. Encouraging and enabling all members of the school community to report possible threats in a timely manner is an essential component of an effective threat…

  19. Muscle strength and BMI as predictors of major mobility disability in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot (LIFE-P)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscle weakness and obesity are two significant threats to mobility facing the increasing number of older adults. To date, there are no studies that have examined the association of strength and body mass index (BMI) on event rates on a widely used performance measure of major mobility disability. T...

  20. Cyber threat metrics.

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  1. Strengths and Weaknesses: The Impediments of Formalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozycki, Edward G.

    2005-01-01

    We tend to overlook the fact that we judge performances in context. That is why people who are generally competent outside the classroom can appear so inept inside it. "Can you read this text?" is not merely a demand to make some sense of it, but often, in school, to identify plot, character, author intent, or at a minimum, to be ready to recast…

  2. The Zirconia Ceramic: Strengths and Weaknesses

    PubMed Central

    Daou, Elie E.

    2014-01-01

    Metal ceramic restorations were considered the gold standard as reliable materials. Increasing demand for esthetics supported the commercialization of new metal free restorations. A growing demand is rising for zirconia prostheses. Peer-reviewed articles published till July 2013 were identified through a Medline (Pubmed and Elsevier). Emphasizing was made on zirconia properties and applications. Zirconia materials are able to withstand posterior physiologic loads. Although zirconia cores are considered as reliable materials, these restorations are not problem free. PMID:24851138

  3. Weak Interactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.

    1957-06-01

    Experimental results on the non-conservation of parity and charge conservation in weak interactions are reviewed. The two-component theory of the neutrino is discussed. Lepton reactions are examined under the assumption of the law of conservation of leptons and that the neutrino is described by a two- component theory. From the results of this examination, the universal Fermi interactions are analyzed. Although reactions involving the neutrino can be described, the same is not true of reactions which do not involve the lepton, as the discussion of the decay of K mesons and hyperons shows. The question of the invariance of time reversal is next examined. (J.S.R.)

  4. Muscle Weakness

    PubMed Central

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ryabykh, Sergey; Ochirova, Polina; Kenis, Vladimir; Hofstätter, Jochen G.; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf; Kircher, Susanne Gerit

    2017-01-01

    Marked ligamentous hyperlaxity and muscle weakness/wasting associated with awkward gait are the main deficits confused with the diagnosis of myopathy. Seven children (6 boys and 1 girl with an average age of 8 years) were referred to our department because of diverse forms of skeletal abnormalities. No definitive diagnosis was made, and all underwent a series of sophisticated investigations in other institutes in favor of myopathy. We applied our methodology through the clinical and radiographic phenotypes followed by targeted genotypic confirmation. Three children (2 boys and 1 girl) were compatible with the diagnosis of progressive pseudorheumatoid chondrodysplasia. The genetic mutation was correlated with the WISP 3 gene actively expressed by articular chondrocytes and located on chromosome 6. Klinefelter syndrome was the diagnosis in 2 boys. Karyotyping confirmed 47,XXY (aneuploidy of Klinefelter syndrome). And 2 boys were finally diagnosed with Morquio syndrome (MPS type IV A) as both showed missense mutations in the N-acetylgalactosamine-sulfate sulfatase gene. Misdiagnosis can lead to the initiation of a long list of sophisticated investigations. PMID:28210640

  5. Cyber Intelligence Threat Prioritization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    possible direction of their behavior. and determines their interest in targeting the organization. t Intrinsic (personally rewarding) Extrinsic (receive...actors resources. Money People Tools Training Motive Why do threat actors attack? Determining an actor’s motive provides insight into the...platform that allows anyone to make their organization more visible to threat actors. Online Presence Extracurricular Activities Motive Risk

  6. Country Threat File Codebook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    are atent threats, national nd or carry out threats ndencles that restrict cal1y and pol 111cal1y rganlzations that might t ion. There are...economic competition, trade deficits , disputed territories, control of waterways, coup d’etats, breaking of diplomatic relations, withdrawal from

  7. Poland and Global Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleer, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to present the specifics of global threats, as well as the reasons for them being universal in nature, and for their persistence. A certain classification of the threats is also engaged in. At the same time, an attempt is made to show the specific threats present - irrespective of their global counterparts - in different regions, and even in different states. The genesis and nature of the latter are demonstrated in a somewhat ad hoc manner by reference to the threats considered to face Poland. If the global threats are truly universal, and arise out of the changes taking place around the world in the last half-century (primarily around the twin phenomena of globalisation and the information revolution), a specific reverse kind of situation applies to decolonisation, plus the collapse of the communist system and the transformation into market economies that apply to formerly communist countries. Equally, some at least of the threats facing Poland may have even a longer history, given that they are very much influenced by past economic and political development, as well as the dominant cultural system.

  8. Spin effects in the weak interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, S.J. Chicago Univ., IL . Dept. of Physics Chicago Univ., IL . Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-01-01

    Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon.

  9. Insider Threat Specification as a Threat Mitigation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magklaras, George; Furnell, Steven

    Insider threats come in many facets and nuances. This results in two major problems: mining big amounts of data for evidence of an insider attack, and keeping track of different aspects of threats is very cumbersome. To enable techniques that support detection of insider threats as early as possible, one needs mechanisms to automate significant parts of the detection process, and that allow to specify what is meant by insider threat. This chapter describes the Insider Threat Prediction Specification Language (ITPSL), a research effort to address the description of threat factors as a mechanism to mitigate insider threats.

  10. Weak values in continuous weak measurements of qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Lupei; Liang, Pengfei; Li, Xin-Qi

    2015-07-01

    For continuous weak measurements of qubits, we obtain exact expressions for weak values (WVs) from the postselection restricted average of measurement outputs, by using both the quantum-trajectory equation (QTE) and the quantum Bayesian approach. The former is applicable to short-time weak measurement, while the latter can relax the measurement strength to finite. We find that even in the "very" weak limit the result can be essentially different from the one originally proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman (AAV), in the sense that our result incorporates nonperturbative correction which could be important when the AAV WV is large. Within the Bayesian framework, we obtain also elegant expressions for finite measurement strength and find that the amplifier's noise in quantum measurement has no effect on the WVs. In particular, we obtain very useful results for homodyne measurement in a circuit-QED system, which allows for measuring the real and imaginary parts of the AAV WV by simply tuning the phase of the local oscillator. This advantage can be exploited as an efficient state-tomography technique.

  11. Combatting Insider Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Peter G.

    Risks from insider threats are strongly context dependent, and arise in many ways at different layers of system abstraction for different types of systems. We discuss various basic characteristics of insider threats, and consider approaches to the development and use of computer-related environments that require systems and networking to be trustworthy in spite of insider misuse. We also consider future research that could improve both detectability, prevention, and response. This chapter seeks to cope with insider misuse in a broad range of application domains - for example, critical infrastructures, privacy-preserving database systems, financial systems, and interoperable health-care infrastructures. To illustrate this, we apply the principles considered here to the task of detecting and preventing insider misuse in systems that might be used to facilitate trustworthy elections. This discussion includes an examination of the relevance of the Saltzer-Schroeder-Kaashoek security principles and the Clark-Wilson integrity properties for end-to-end election integrity. Trustworthy system developments must consider insider misuse as merely one set of threats that must be addressed consistently together with many other threats such as penetrations, denials of service, system faults and failures, and other threats to survivability. In addition, insider misuse cannot be realistically addressed unless significant improvements are made in the trustworthiness of component systems and their networking as well as their predictably trustworthy compositions into enterprise solutions - architecturally, developmentally, and operationally.

  12. Different groups, different threats: a multi-threat approach to the experience of stereotype threats.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2011-04-01

    Two studies demonstrated that different negatively stereotyped groups are at risk for distinct forms of stereotype threats. The Multi-Threat Framework articulates six distinct stereotype threats and the unique constellations of variables (e.g., group identification, stereotype endorsement) that elicit each stereotype threat. Previous research suggests that different negatively stereotyped groups systematically vary across these stereotype threat elicitors; a pilot study confirms these differences. Across two studies, groups that tend to elicit low stereotype endorsement (religion, race/ethnicity, congenital blindness) were less likely to report experiencing self-as-source stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring stereotype endorsement) and groups that tend to elicit low group identification (mental illness, obesity, blindness later in life) were less likely to report experiencing group-as-target stereotype threats (stereotype threats requiring group identification). This research suggests that traditional models may overlook the experiences of stereotype threats within some groups and that interventions tailored to address differences between stereotype threats will be most effective.

  13. Neural mechanisms underlying selective attention to threat.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Sonia J

    2008-01-01

    Biased competition models of selective attention suggest that attentional competition is influenced both by bottom-up sensory mechanisms sensitive to stimulus salience and top-down control mechanisms that support the processing of task-relevant stimuli. This provides a framework for investigating the neural mechanisms underlying selective attention to threat. Both subcortical regions implicated in threat detection--specifically the amygdala--and prefrontal cortical regions implicated in top-down attentional control are activated in response to task-irrelevant threat stimuli. A number of questions including the automaticity of the amygdala response to threat distractors, the modulation by anxiety of the amygdala and prefrontal response to these stimuli, and the impact of genetic and environmental factors upon this circuitry are addressed. The empirical literature is considered in the context of theoretical accounts of the neural substrate of selective attention and conscious awareness. It is suggested that the neural activity provoked by a given visual stimulus is influenced by factors impacting upon the strength of the bottom-up trace (e.g., presentation time, backward masking), stimulus salience (including threat relatedness), competition with other visual stimuli for perceptual processing resources, and the augmentation of the stimulus trace by allocation of top-down attentional resources. Individual differences in trait and state anxiety, and in genetic makeup, are thought to modulate the influence of stimulus valence and top-down attention through their impact upon amygdala and prefrontal function.

  14. Credible threats and promises.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2002-11-29

    We consider various implications of information about the other player in two-player evolutionary games. A simple model of desertion shows that information about the partner's behaviour can be disadvantageous, and highlights the idea of credible threats. We then discuss the general issue of whether the partner can convince the focal player that it will behave in a specific way, i.e. whether the focal player can make credible threats or promises. We show that when desertion decisions depend on reserves, a player can manipulate its reserves so as to create a credible threat of desertion. We then extend previous work on the evolution of trust and commitment, discussing conditions under which it is advantageous to assume that a partner will behave in a certain way even though it is not in its best interest.

  15. Environmental Threats at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Twhanna

    2005-01-01

    Children can be exposed to dangerous chemicals and toxins in the most unlikely of places: Their schools. This brief article describes the types of threats that school environments pose to students' health, including such pollution and chemical exposures as lead, mercury, arsenic, molds, and poor indoor air quality. The article provides tips for…

  16. Proliferation: Threat and response

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    ;Table of Contents: Section I: The Regional Proliferation Challenge; Northeast Asia; The Middle East and North Africa; The Former Soviet Union: Russia, Ukrane, Kazakstan, And Belarus; South Asia; The International Threat: Dangers from Terrorism, Insurgencies, Civil Wars, And Organized Crime; Section II: Department of Defense Response; Technical Annex: Accessible Technologies; Glossary.

  17. Threat in dreams: an adaptation?

    PubMed

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Solms, Mark; Turnbull, Oliver; Tredoux, Colin

    2008-12-01

    Revonsuo's influential Threat Simulation Theory (TST) predicts that people exposed to survival threats will have more threat dreams, and evince enhanced responses to dream threats, compared to those living in relatively safe conditions. Participants in a high crime area (South Africa: n=208) differed significantly from participants in a low crime area (Wales, UK: n=116) in having greater recent exposure to a life-threatening event (chi([1,N=186])(2)=14.84, p<.00012). Contrary to TST's predictions, the SA participants reported significantly fewer threat dreams (chi([1,N=287])(2)=6.11, p<.0134), and did not differ from the Welsh participants in responses to dream threats (Fisher's Exact test, p=.2478). Overall, the incidence of threat in dreams was extremely low-less than 20% of dreams featured realistic survival threats. Escape from dream threats occurred in less than 2% of dreams. We conclude that this evidence contradicts key aspects of TST.

  18. Weak neutral current chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, R.

    1996-07-01

    Metal cluster organic complexes, neither atomic nor solid but in analogy to atomic nuclei and to mesoscopic systems, have unusual dynamics and catalytic properties. Organo-metal clusters as quintessence prebiotic enzymes could have originated the homochirality of the molecules from achiral precursors, controlled from the atomic-nucleus, with the initial product itself serving subsequently as chiral auxiliary transferring and amplifying the chirality in the autocatalytic process now. High resolution spectroscopic studies of diatomic molecules beginning now may lead to upper estimates of the interaction strength of weak neutral currents (WNG) with valence electrons of metal clusters and suggest kinetic pathways to dynamic symmetry breaking in the asymmetric synthesis of chiral molecules. An estimate of 10{sup {minus}5} kT (thousand times larger than for radiolysis) for the parity violating energy (PVE) could be sufficient to run an entropy driven spin-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis. Expect then, wherever there are metal clusters in interstellar dust or under the sea chiral molecular production. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Weak neutral current chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, R.

    1996-07-01

    Metal cluster organic complexes, neither atomic nor solid but in analogy to atomic nuclei and to mesoscopic systems, have unusual dynamics and catalytic properties. Organo-metal clusters as quintessence prebiotic enzymes could have originated the homochirality of the molecules from achiral precursors, controlled from the atomic-nucleus, with the initial product itself serving subsequently as chiral auxiliary transferring and amplifying the chirality in the autocatalytic process now. High resolution spectroscopic studies of diatomic molecules beginning now may lead to upper estimates of the interaction strength of weak neutral currents (WNG) with valence electrons of metal clusters and suggest kinetic pathways to dynamic symmetry breaking in the asymmetric synthesis of chiral molecules. An estimate of 10-5 kT (thousand times larger than for radiolysis) for the parity violating energy (PVE) could be sufficient to run an entropy driven spin-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis. Expect then, wherever there are metal clusters in interstellar dust or under the sea chiral molecular production.

  20. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  1. Proliferation: Threat and response

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    During the height of the Cold War, the Russian physicist Andre Sakharov said, `Reducing the risk of annihilating humanity in a nuclear war carries an absolute priority over all other considerations.` The end of the Cold War has reduced the threat of global nuclear war, but today a new threat is rising from the global spread of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons. Hostile groups and nations have tried - or have been able - to obtain these weapons, the technology, and homegrown ability to make them or ballistic missiles that can deliver the massive annihilation, poison, and death of these weapons hundreds of miles away. For rogue nations, these weapons are a ticket to power, stature, and confidence in regional war.

  2. Proliferation: Threat and Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-01

    the Gulf and helping to ensure access to a key source of oil - essential to China may choose not to sell certain technologies China’s expanding economy...Korean peninsula, and stability in this region are essential if economic NBC weapons present a significant threat to U.S. relations are to continue to...Organization United States. (KEDO) Arrange for delivery of heavy fuel oil to offset North’s energy loss. Finance and construct two light water reactors by

  3. Not All Threats Are Equal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surface, Jeanne L.

    2011-01-01

    School leaders must be fully prepared to respond to all types of threats that occur. In order to respond to threats most appropriately, the school needs to have a systematic approach that combines education, prevention, intervention, discipline, security, and crisis preparedness measures. All threats must be assessed carefully and swiftly,…

  4. Threats to international science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  5. New global viral threats

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Hakan; Ünal, Serhat

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases have caused great catastrophes in human history, as in the example of the plague, which wiped out half of the population in Europe in the 14th century. Ebola virus and H7N9 avian influenza virus are 2 lethal pathogens that we have encountered in the second decade of the 21st century. Ebola infection is currently being seen in West Africa, and H7N9 avian flu appears to have settled in Southeast Asia. This article focuses on the current situation and the future prospects of these potential infectious threats to mankind. PMID:25828274

  6. Ocean-sized threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Jane Lubchenco, professor of marine biology and zoology at Oregon State University, and president-elect of the International Council for Science, said that scientists can do more than they currently are doing to clearly communicate to the public and to policy-makers those issues associated with the many ecological threats faced by the world's oceans. In doing so, scientists can overcome popularly-held misperceptions about the health of the world's oceans and thus, help protect the seas."Science," Lubchenco said, "has a huge role to play in informing [the public] what is happening and to guide the choice of solutions.

  7. Ocean-sized threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Jane Lubchenco, professor of marine biology and zoology at Oregon State University, and president-elect of the International Council for Science, said that scientists can do more than they currently are doing to clearly communicate to the public and to policy-makers those issues associated with the many ecological threats faced by the world's oceans. In doing so, scientists can overcome popularly-held misperceptions about the health of the world's oceans and thus, help protect the seas.“Science,” Lubchenco said, “has a huge role to play in informing [the public] what is happening and to guide the choice of solutions.

  8. Mediators of Stereotype Threat among Black College Students.

    PubMed

    Massey, Douglas S; Owens, Jayanti

    2014-04-01

    We hypothesize that the manner in which stereotype threat affects college grade achievement is mediated by institutional context as well as individual characteristics. Drawing on a sample of black students from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen we find weak and inconsistent evidence that institutional characteristics influence the operation of stereotype threat. We find more consistent evidence to indicate that the effect of stereotype threat is conditioned by individual factors such as skin color, multiracial origins, and an integrated upbringing. Most of the effect on grade achievement occurs through the internalization pathway, in which the internalization of negative stereotypes leads to disinvestment manifested by a reduction in academic effort. The reduction in work effort, in turn, lowers grades. We also find evidence that immigrant origin confers protection from the negative effects of stereotype threat through both internalization and externalization mechanisms, though the ultimate effect of grade achievement is rather small.

  9. Quantum correlation cost of the weak measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Wu, Shao-xiong; Yu, Chang-shui

    2014-12-15

    Quantum correlation cost (QCC) characterizing how much quantum correlation is used in a weak-measurement process is presented based on the trace norm. It is shown that the QCC is related to the trace-norm-based quantum discord (TQD) by only a factor that is determined by the strength of the weak measurement, so it only catches partial quantumness of a quantum system compared with the TQD. We also find that the residual quantumness can be ‘extracted’ not only by the further von Neumann measurement, but also by a sequence of infinitesimal weak measurements. As an example, we demonstrate our outcomes by the Bell-diagonal state.

  10. Postselected weak measurement beyond the weak value

    SciTech Connect

    Geszti, Tamas

    2010-04-15

    Closed expressions are derived for the quantum measurement statistics of pre- and postselected Gaussian particle beams. The weakness of the preselection step is shown to compete with the nonorthogonality of postselection in a transparent way. The approach is shown to be useful in analyzing postselection-based signal amplification, allowing measurements to be extended far beyond the range of validity of the well-known Aharonov-Albert-Vaidman limit. Additionally, the present treatment connects postselected weak measurement to the topic of phase-contrast microscopy.

  11. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-05-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  12. Addressing the insider threat

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.G.; Jackson, K.A.; McClary, J.F.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Computers have come to play a major role in the processing of information vital to our national security. As we grow more dependent on computers, we also become more vulnerable to their misuse. Misuse may be accidental, or may occur deliberately for purposes of personal gain, espionage, terrorism, or revenge. While it is difficult to obtain exact statistics on computer misuse, clearly it is growing. It is also clear that insiders -- authorized system users -- are responsible for most of this increase. Unfortunately, their insider status gives them a greater potential for harm This paper takes an asset-based approach to the insider threat. We begin by characterizing the insider and the threat posed by variously motivated insiders. Next, we characterize the asset of concern: computerized information of strategic or economic value. We discuss four general ways in which computerized information is vulnerable to adversary action by the insider: disclosure, violation of integrity, denial of service, and unauthorized use of resources. We then look at three general remedies for these vulnerabilities. The first is formality of operations, such as training, personnel screening, and configuration management. The second is the institution of automated safeguards, such as single-use passwords, encryption, and biometric devices. The third is the development of automated systems that collect and analyze system and user data to look for signs of misuse.

  13. Categorizing threat : building and using a generic threat matrix.

    SciTech Connect

    Woodard, Laura; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Thomas, Sherry Reede; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The key piece of knowledge necessary for building defenses capable of withstanding or surviving cyber and kinetic attacks is an understanding of the capabilities posed by threats to a government, function, or system. With the number of threats continuing to increase, it is no longer feasible to enumerate the capabilities of all known threats and then build defenses based on those threats that are considered, at the time, to be the most relevant. Exacerbating the problem for critical infrastructure entities is the fact that the majority of detailed threat information for higher-level threats is held in classified status and is not available for general use, such as the design of defenses and the development of mitigation strategies. To reduce the complexity of analyzing threat, the threat space must first be reduced. This is achieved by taking the continuous nature of the threat space and creating an abstraction that allows the entire space to be grouped, based on measurable attributes, into a small number of distinctly different levels. The work documented in this report is an effort to create such an abstraction.

  14. Laser Threat Analysis System (LTAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaltz, John M.; Richardson, Christina E.; Ruiz, Abel; Barsalou, Norman; Thomas, Robert J.

    2002-11-01

    LTAS is a totally integrated modeling and simulation environment designed for the purpose of ascertaining the susceptibility of Air Force pilots and air crews to optical radiation threats. Using LTAS, mission planners can assess the operational impact of optically directed energy weapons and countermeasures. Through various scenarios, threat analysts are able to determine the capability of laser threats and their impact on operational missions including the air crew's ability to complete their mission effectively. Additionally, LTAS allows the risk of laser use on training ranges and the requirement for laser protection to be evaluated. LTAS gives mission planners and threat analysts complete control of the threat environment including threat parameter control and placement, terrain mapping (line-of-site), atmospheric conditions, and laser eye protection (LEP) selection. This report summarizes the design of the final version of LTAS, and the modeling methodologies implemented to accomplish analysis.

  15. Experimental noiseless linear amplification using weak measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Joseph; Boston, Allen; Palsson, Matthew; Pryde, Geoff

    2016-09-01

    The viability of quantum communication schemes rely on sending quantum states of light over long distances. However, transmission loss can degrade the signal strength, adding noise. Heralded noiseless amplification of a quantum signal can provide a solution by enabling longer direct transmission distances and by enabling entanglement distillation. The central idea of heralded noiseless amplification—a conditional modification of the probability distribution over photon number of an optical quantum state—is suggestive of a parallel with weak measurement: in a weak measurement, learning partial information about an observable leads to a conditional back-action of a commensurate size. Here we experimentally investigate the application of weak, or variable-strength, measurements to the task of heralded amplification, by using a quantum logic gate to weakly couple a small single-optical-mode quantum state (the signal) to an ancilla photon (the meter). The weak measurement is carried out by choosing the measurement basis of the meter photon and, by conditioning on the meter outcomes, the signal is amplified. We characterise the gain of the amplifier as a function of the measurement strength, and use interferometric methods to show that the operation preserves the coherence of the signal.

  16. The threat simulation theory in light of recent empirical evidence: a review.

    PubMed

    Valli, Katja; Revonsuo, Antti

    2009-01-01

    The recently proposed threat simulation theory (TST) states that dreaming about threatening events has a biological function. In the past few years, the TST has led to several dream content analysis studies that empirically test the theory. The predictions of the TST have been investigated mainly with a new content analysis system, the Dream Threat Scale (DTS), a method developed for identifying and classifying threatening events in dreams. In this article we review the studies that have tested the TST with the DTS. We summarize and reevaluate the results based on the dreams of Finnish and Swedish university students, traumatized and nontraumatized Kurdish, Palestinian, and Finnish children, and special dream samples, namely recurrent dreams and nightmares collected from Canadian participants. We sum up other recent research that has relevance for the TST and discuss the extent to which empirical evidence supports or conflicts with the TST. New evidence and new direct tests of the predictions of the TST yield strong support for the theory, and the TST's strengths seem to outweigh its weaknesses.

  17. Threat processing: models and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bentz, Dorothée; Schiller, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The experience of fear is closely linked to the survival of species. Fear can be conceptualized as a brain state that orchestrates defense reactions to threats. To avoid harm, an organism must be equipped with neural circuits that allow learning, detecting, and rapidly responding to threats. Past experience with threat can transform neutral stimuli present at the time of experience into learned threat-related stimuli via associative learning. Pavlovian threat conditioning is the central experimental paradigm to study associative learning. Once learned, these stimulus-response associations are not always expressed depending on context or new experiences with the conditioned stimuli. Neural circuits mediating threat learning have the inherent plasticity to adapt to changing environmental threats. Encounters devoid of danger pave the way for extinction or reconsolidation to occur. Extinction and reconsolidation can both lead to changes in the expression of threat-induced defense responses, but differ in stability and have a different neural basis. This review presents the behavioral models and the system-level neural mechanisms in animals and humans of threat learning and modulation.

  18. Lizard threat display handicaps endurance.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Y

    2003-01-01

    Honest-signalling theory asserts that threat displays reliably advertise attributes that influence fighting success. Endurance, as measured by treadmill performance, predicts the outcome of agonistic interactions among lizards. If threat displays in lizards function to advertise endurance capacity then variation in threat displays should correlate with endurance. I tested this prediction for the duration of threat posturing in male side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) and examined whether threat displays act as quality handicaps, reliable signals that expend the attribute that is advertised. Individual variation in the duration of threat posturing correlated with endurance, while an experimental reduction of endurance diminished the duration of threat posturing. As expected of a quality handicap, endurance fell below baseline after display production. A restriction of aerobic metabolism can account for this effect. In threat posturing, lateral compression of the thorax may interfere with respiration or with circulation, limiting aerobic metabolism and causing a compensatory increase in anaerobic metabolism, thereby generating lactate and diminishing locomotor capacity. Concentrations of lactate measured after display production were higher than baseline, consistent with the proposed mechanism. By restricting aerobic metabolism, the threat posture can act as a quality handicap, simultaneously advertising and expending the endurance capacity of displaying lizards. PMID:12803896

  19. Robust Weak Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollaksen, Jeff; Aharonov, Yakir

    2006-03-01

    We introduce a new type of weak measurement which yields a quantum average of weak values that is robust, outside the range of eigenvalues, extends the valid regime for weak measurements, and for which the probability of obtaining the pre- and post-selected ensemble is not exponentially rare. This result extends the applicability of weak values, shifts the statistical interpretation previously attributed to weak values and suggests that the weak value is a property of every pre- and post-selected ensemble. We then apply this new weak measurement to Hardy's paradox. Usually the paradox is dismissed on grounds of counterfactuality, i.e., because the paradoxical effects appear only when one considers results of experiments which do not actually take place. We suggest a new set of measurements in connection with Hardy's scheme, and show that when they are actually performed, they yield strange and surprising outcomes. More generally, we claim that counterfactual paradoxes point to a deeper structure inherent to quantum mechanics characterized by weak values (Aharonov Y, Botero A, Popescu S, Reznik B, Tollaksen J, Physics Letters A, 301 (3-4): 130-138, 2002).

  20. Thinking about threats: Memory and prospection in human threat management.

    PubMed

    Bulley, Adam; Henry, Julie D; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Humans have evolved mechanisms for the detection and management of possible threats in order to abate their negative consequences for fitness. Internally generated ('detached') cognition may have evolved in part because of its contributions to this broad function, but important questions remain about its role in threat management. In this article, we therefore present a taxonomy of threat-related internally generated cognition comprising episodic and semantic formats of memory and prospection. We address the proximate mechanisms of each of the capacities in this taxonomy, and discuss their respective contributions to adaptive threat management in humans. For instance, mental time travel empowers people to contemplate and learn from threats experienced long ago, as well as to plan for dangers that might arise in the distant future. However, despite their functional benefits, these thought processes are also central to contemporary anxiety disorders and may be a potent source of distress.

  1. Apple Strength Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C

    2009-12-22

    Strength of the apple parts has been noticed to decrease, especially those installed by the new induction heating system since the LEP campaign started. Fig. 1 shows the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and elongation of the installed or installation-simulated apples on various systems. One can clearly see the mean values of UTS and YS of the post-LEP parts decreased by about 8 ksi and 6 ksi respectively from those of the pre-LEP parts. The slight increase in elongation seen in Fig.1 can be understood from the weak inverse relationship between the strength and elongation in metals. Fig.2 shows the weak correlation between the YS and elongation of the parts listed in Fig. 1. Strength data listed in Figure 1 were re-plotted as histograms in Figs. 3 and 4. Figs. 3a and 4a show histograms of all UTS and YS data. Figs. 3b and 4b shows histograms of pre-LEP data and Figs. 3c and 4c of post-LEP data. Data on statistical scatter of tensile strengths have been rarely published by material suppliers. Instead, only the minimum 'guaranteed' strength data are typically presented. An example of strength distribution of aluminum 7075-T6 sheet material, listed in Fig. 5, show that its scatter width of both UTS and YS for a single sheet can be about 6 ksi and for multi-lot scatter can be as large as 11 ksi even though the sheets have been produced through well-controlled manufacturing process. By approximating the histograms shown in Figs. 3 and 4 by a Gaussian or similar type of distribution curves, one can plausibly see the strength reductions in the later or more recent apples. The pre-LEP data in Figs. 3b and 4b show wider scatter than the post-LEP data in Figs. 3c and 4c and seem to follow the binomial distribution of strength indicating that the apples might have been made from two different lots of material, either from two different vendors or from two different melts of perhaps slightly different chemical composition by a single vendor. The post

  2. Threat Assessment in College Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Dewey

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the landscape of campus safety changed abruptly with the Virginia Tech shooting and the subsequent wave of anonymous threats in colleges across the country. In response to the tragedy, the Virginia state legislature mandated that every public institution of higher education establish a "threat assessment team." Both the FBI and the U.S.…

  3. Linking Stereotype Threat and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2007-01-01

    Claude Steele's stereotype threat hypothesis has attracted significant attention in recent years. This study tested one of the main tenets of his theory--that stereotype threat serves to increase individual anxiety levels, thus hurting performance--using real-time measures of physiological arousal. Subjects were randomly assigned to either high or…

  4. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    DOEpatents

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald

    2014-09-16

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  5. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    DOEpatents

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  6. Bomb Threat Assessments. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunkel, Ronald F.

    2010-01-01

    This information provides a brief, summary outline of how investigators should assess anonymous bomb threats at schools. Applying these principles may help administrators and law enforcement personnel accurately assess the viability and credibility of a threat and appropriately gauge their response. Any credible evidence provided by teachers or…

  7. Threat expert system technology advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurrasch, E. R.; Tripp, L. R.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype expert system was developed to determine the feasibility of using expert system technology to enhance the performance and survivability of helicopter pilots in a combat threat environment while flying NOE (Nap of the Earth) missions. The basis for the concept is the potential of using an Expert System Advisor to reduce the extreme overloading of the pilot who flies NOE mission below treetop level at approximately 40 knots while performing several other functions. The ultimate goal is to develop a Threat Expert System Advisor which provides threat information and advice that are better than even a highly experienced copilot. The results clearly show that the NOE pilot needs all the help in decision aiding and threat situation awareness that he can get. It clearly shows that heuristics are important and that an expert system for combat NOE helicopter missions can be of great help to the pilot in complex threat situations and in making decisions.

  8. Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    {ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

  9. Strength Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londeree, Ben R.

    1981-01-01

    Postural deviations resulting from strength and flexibility imbalances include swayback, scoliosis, and rounded shoulders. Screening tests are one method for identifying strength problems. Tests for the evaluation of postural problems are described, and exercises are presented for the strengthening of muscles. (JN)

  10. History of Weak Interactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.

    1970-07-01

    While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.

  11. Managing biosecurity threats in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanzhong

    2011-03-01

    Compared to the extensive literature on bioterrorism and biosecurity in the United States, less analysis has been conducted on similar challenges in China. This article seeks to fill this void by providing an integrated and updated assessment of 3 major biosecurity threats China faces: biowarfare, bioterrorism, and biocrimes. An analysis of China's biosecurity threats and biodefense building suggest varying levels of risk associated with each threat type. First, a direct bioweapons attack on China is highly unlikely, although the threat of biowarfare cannot be simply written off. Second, potential perpetrators of bioterrorism have capabilities at their disposal for carrying out such attacks. While terrorist organizations in China do not have a strong interest in bioterrorism, the limited state capability to counter such a threat may increase the risk in the future. Third, unlike the threats of biowarfare and bioterrorism, potential perpetrators of biocrimes have both incentives and capabilities, and biocrimes can produce reactions far out of proportion to the actual number of casualties. Despite the distinct biosecurity challenges it faces, China has yet to articulate a differentiated and coherent strategy to effectively tackle the challenges. Assessing different types of biosecurity threats in terms of degrees of risk not only provides greater analytical clarity but also has important implications for the strategies required to manage the risks.

  12. Defense Against Threat. Threat Recognition and Analysis Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    effort has been mounted in dttta gathering and in threat evaluation. !t is an understandable reaction that individuals who have devoted whole...Here, the theoretical consideration appears that the urge to mount collective action In defense against threats must be expected to be directed through...ACTIVITIES INCOMPATIBLE WITH HIS DIPLOMATIC STATUS^HN MOUNTS DIPLOMATIC ATTACKS ON USA IN INDOCI!! NA+03SERVERS BELIEVE CHN WILL NOW

  13. Metformin in patients with chronic kidney disease: strengths and weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ana; Almeida, Marta; Santos, Josefina; Carvalho, André

    2013-01-01

    A wide array of benefits has been attributed to metformin. These include attenuation of abnormal glucose metabolism (diabetes treatment and prevention), weight neutrality or weight loss, improvement in the pathophysiologic components of metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, subclinical inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction), lipid-lowering properties, cardiovascular protection, and antineoplastic potential. Metformin itself is not a nephrotoxic drug. Initially appointed as the safest hypoglycemic agent in chronic kidney disease, its use has been limited in these patients because of the perceived risk of lactic acidosis. A fear perpetuated by numerous case reports in which it is implicated. Current guidelines stipulate that it must be used with caution in estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) of less than 60 mL/minute and not at all in eGFRs of less than 30 mL/minute. Identified risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis include acute kidney injury, hypoxemia, sepsis, alcohol abuse, liver failure, myocardial infarction, and shock. Treatment may include supportive care and dialysis techniques. On the other hand, it is likely that the use of metformin would be beneficial in many with chronic kidney disease according to the advantages associated with attenuation of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular protection. The reality of severe metformin-induced lactic acidosis in the absence of chronic renal impairment raises the question of limitation of its use in these patients.

  14. Mathematical Strengths and Weaknesses of Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady; Stephens, Carrie A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the mathematics ability of preservice agricultural education teachers related to each of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) content/process areas and their corresponding sub-standards that are cross-referenced with the National Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources Career Cluster…

  15. Nonexperimental Research: Strengths, Weaknesses and Issues of Precision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Nonexperimental research, defined as any kind of quantitative or qualitative research that is not an experiment, is the predominate kind of research design used in the social sciences. How to unambiguously and correctly present the results of nonexperimental research, however, remains decidedly unclear and possibly detrimental to applied…

  16. The Strengths and Weaknesses of ISO 9000 in Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevans-Gonzales, Theresa L.; Nair, Ajay T.

    2004-01-01

    ISO 9000 is a set of quality standards that assists an organization to identify, correct and prevent errors, and to promote continual improvement. Educational institutions worldwide are implementing ISO 9000 as they face increasing external pressure to maintain accountability for funding. Similar to other countries, in the United States vocational…

  17. Strengths and weaknesses of common sustainability indices for multidimensional systems.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Audrey L

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability is rapidly moving from an abstract concept to a measurable state of dynamic human-ecological systems. The large number of economic, social, and environmental indicators currently available provides an unwieldy view of system sustainability. To aid policy decisions, these indicators are therefore either presented in the context of a conceptual framework, or quantitatively aggregated into indices. Due to the quantitative nature of sustainability indices, their results may be given more weight by scientists and policy-makers. However, policy decisions can be ineffective or even counterproductive if they do not consider factors which influence index behavior: the scale of the available data and choice of system boundaries; the inclusion, transformation, and weighting of indicator data; and the aggregation method used. As previous reviews have demonstrated, sustainability indices do not rank countries consistently, even when using some of the same indicator data. Several improvements would increase the utility of sustainability indices for policy decisions, particularly the identification of biases introduced by the index methodology and data inclusion. The discrepancy of current sustainability indices due to theoretical or methodological differences supports the use of several complementary indices.

  18. Cognitive Strengths and Weaknesses Associated with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, Frances A.; Rosenquist, Celia J.; Atwell, Julie A.; Klinger, Laura Grofer

    2000-01-01

    Nine adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and nine age- and IQ-matched adults with PWS completed standardized tests of long-term and short-term memory, visual and auditory processing, and reading and mathematics achievement. Contrary to previous findings, long-term memory in PWS subjects was strong relative to IQ and there was no evidence that…

  19. Finnish Vocational Education and Training in Comparison: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virolainen, Maarit; Stenström, Marja-Leena

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates how the Finnish model of providing initial vocational education and training (IVET) has succeeded in terms of enhancing educational progress and employability. A relatively high level of participation in IVET makes the Finnish model distinctive from those of three other Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. All four…

  20. Bomb Threat Becomes Real News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastaldo, Evann

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the staff of the newspaper at Camarillo High School (California) covered a bomb threat at their school. Describes how they, overnight, conducted interviews, took and developed photographs, produced the layout, and published the newspaper. (RS)

  1. Mitigating Inadvertent Insider Threats with Incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Debin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Camp, L. Jean

    Inadvertent insiders are trusted insiders who do not have malicious intent (as with malicious insiders) but do not responsibly managing security. The result is often enabling a malicious outsider to use the privileges of the inattentive insider to implement an insider attack. This risk is as old as conversion of a weak user password into root access, but the term inadvertent insider is recently coined to identify the link between the behavior and the vulnerability. In this paper, we propose to mitigate this threat using a novel risk budget mechanism that offers incentives to an insider to behave according to the risk posture set by the organization. We propose assigning an insider a risk budget, which is a specific allocation of risk points, allowing employees to take a finite number of risk-seeking choice. In this way, the employee can complete her tasks without subverting the security system, as with absolute prohibitions. In the end, the organization penalizes the insider if she fails to accomplish her task within the budget while rewards her in the presence of a surplus. Most importantly. the risk budget requires that the user make conscious visible choices to take electronic risks. We describe the theory behind the system, including specific work on the insider threats. We evaluated this approach using human-subject experiments, which demonstrate the effectiveness of our risk budget mechanism. We also present a game theoretic analysis of the mechanism.

  2. Strength Training

    MedlinePlus

    ... strengthens your heart and lungs. When you strength train with weights, you're using your muscles to ... see there are lots of different ways to train with weights. Try a few good basic routines ...

  3. Combating the Insider Cyber Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Moore, Andrew P.; Cappelli, Dawn M.; Andrews, Dee H.; Carroll, Lynn; Hull, Thomas D.

    2008-01-02

    This article represents a collaboration between PNNL, CERT/CMU, and AFRL that describes needs and related efforts by these institutions to develop technologies and approaches to counter cyber threats by insiders to informatin systems. The main focus of this article is on the need for effective training on insider threat to raise staff awareness and encourage organizations to adopt a more effective approach to identifying potential risks and take proactive steps to mitigate them.

  4. On NEO Threat Mitigation (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-15

    high level of authority. II. Threat Definition The threat posed by the impact of asteroids and comets with the Earth has been well publicized... asteroids , which spend most of their time within the Earth orbit but are crossing it. The rate of active comets dropping within the inner solar...extinction-class events, due to their significant mass but also their much higher kinetic energy compared to asteroids . Furthermore, comets are more likely

  5. Weak lensing and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, Marco; Bertin, Giuseppe

    1999-02-01

    Recently, it has been shown that it is possible to reconstruct the projected mass distribution of a cluster from weak lensing provided that both the geometry of the universe and the probability distribution of galaxy redshifts are known; actually, when additional photometric data are taken to be available, the galaxy redshift distribution could be determined jointly with the cluster mass from the weak lensing analysis. In this paper we develop, in the spirit of a ``thought experiment,'' a method to constrain the geometry of the universe from weak lensing, provided that the redshifts of the source galaxies are measured. The quantitative limits and merits of the method are discussed analytically and with a set of simulations, in relation to point estimation, interval estimation, and test of hypotheses for homogeneous Friedmann-Lema\\^\\i tre models. The constraints turn out to be significant when a few thousand source galaxies are used.

  6. Precision cosmology with weak gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearin, Andrew P.

    In recent years, cosmological science has developed a highly predictive model for the universe on large scales that is in quantitative agreement with a wide range of astronomical observations. While the number and diversity of successes of this model provide great confidence that our general picture of cosmology is correct, numerous puzzles remain. In this dissertation, I analyze the potential of planned and near future galaxy surveys to provide new understanding of several unanswered questions in cosmology, and address some of the leading challenges to this observational program. In particular, I study an emerging technique called cosmic shear, the weak gravitational lensing produced by large scale structure. I focus on developing strategies to optimally use the cosmic shear signal observed in galaxy imaging surveys to uncover the physics of dark energy and the early universe. In chapter 1 I give an overview of a few unsolved mysteries in cosmology and I motivate weak lensing as a cosmological probe. I discuss the use of weak lensing as a test of general relativity in chapter 2 and assess the threat to such tests presented by our uncertainty in the physics of galaxy formation. Interpreting the cosmic shear signal requires knowledge of the redshift distribution of the lensed galaxies. This redshift distribution will be significantly uncertain since it must be determined photometrically. In chapter 3 I investigate the influence of photometric redshift errors on our ability to constrain dark energy models with weak lensing. The ability to study dark energy with cosmic shear is also limited by the imprecision in our understanding of the physics of gravitational collapse. In chapter 4 I present the stringent calibration requirements on this source of uncertainty. I study the potential of weak lensing to resolve a debate over a long-standing anomaly in CMB measurements in chapter 5. Finally, in chapter 6 I summarize my findings and conclude with a brief discussion of my

  7. Weaknesses in Underperforming Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Grift, Wim; Houtveen, Thoni

    2007-01-01

    In some Dutch elementary schools, the average performance of students over several years is significantly below the level that could be expected of them. This phenomenon is known as "underperformance." The most important identifiable weaknesses that go along with this phenomenon are that (a) learning material offered at school is…

  8. Race and imprisonments: vigilante violence, minority threat, and racial politics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David; Malone, Chad; Iles, Gale

    2012-01-01

    The effects of lynchings on criminal justice outcomes have seldom been examined. Recent findings also are inconsistent about the effects of race on imprisonments. This study uses a pooled time-series design to assess lynching and racial threat effects on state imprisonments from 1972 to 2000. After controlling for Republican strength, conservatism, and other factors, lynch rates explain the growth in admission rates. The findings also show that increases in black residents produce subsequent expansions in imprisonments that likely are attributable to white reactions to this purported menace. But after the percentage of blacks reaches a substantial threshold—and the potential black vote becomes large enough to begin to reduce these harsh punishments—reductions in prison admissions occur. These results also confirm a political version of racial threat theory by indicating that increased Republican political strength produces additional imprisonments.

  9. The Social Construction of the Soviet Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Charles E.; Skelly, James M.

    For almost 40 years the perception of a Soviet threat has influenced much foreign and domestic political behavior in the United States. How to respond to the threat has been a subject of intense debate, but the reality of the threat has been taken for granted. Conviction about the reality of this threat dates back to George Kennan's long telegram…

  10. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  11. Weak Finsler structures and the Funk weak metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Athanase; Troyanov, Marc

    2009-04-01

    We discuss general notions of metrics and of Finsler structures which we call weak metrics and weak Finsler structures. Any convex domain carries a canonical weak Finsler structure, which we call its tautological weak Finsler structure. We compute distances in the tautological weak Finsler structure of a domain and we show that these are given by the so-called Funk weak metric. We conclude the paper with a discussion of geodesics, of metric balls and of convexity properties of the Funk weak metric.

  12. A Review of the Theory and Research Underlying the StrengthsQuest Program for Students. The Quest for Strengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Timothy D.; Harter, James K.

    2005-01-01

    StrengthsQuest is a student program that focuses on strengths rather than weaknesses. It is intended to lead students to discover their natural talents and gain unique and valuable insights into how to develop such talents into strengths--strengths that equip them to succeed and to make important decisions that enable them to balance the demands…

  13. Weak Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Sandrine; Starck, Jean-Luc; Leonard, Adrienne; Réfrégier, Alexandre

    2012-03-01

    This chapter reviews the data mining methods recently developed to solve standard data problems in weak gravitational lensing. We detail the different steps of the weak lensing data analysis along with the different techniques dedicated to these applications. An overview of the different techniques currently used will be given along with future prospects. Until about 30 years ago, astronomers thought that the Universe was composed almost entirely of ordinary matter: protons, neutrons, electrons, and atoms. The field of weak lensing has been motivated by the observations made in the last decades showing that visible matter represents only about 4-5% of the Universe (see Figure 14.1). Currently, the majority of the Universe is thought to be dark, that is, does not emit electromagnetic radiation. The Universe is thought to be mostly composed of an invisible, pressure less matter - potentially relic from higher energy theories - called "dark matter" (20-21%) and by an even more mysterious term, described in Einstein equations as a vacuum energy density, called "dark energy" (70%). This "dark" Universe is not well described or even understood; its presence is inferred indirectly from its gravitational effects, both on the motions of astronomical objects and on light propagation. So this point could be the next breakthrough in cosmology. Today's cosmology is based on a cosmological model that contains various parameters that need to be determined precisely, such as the matter density parameter Omega_m or the dark energy density parameter Omega_lambda. Weak gravitational lensing is believed to be the most promising tool to understand the nature of dark matter and to constrain the cosmological parameters used to describe the Universe because it provides a method to directly map the distribution of dark matter (see [1,6,60,63,70]). From this dark matter distribution, the nature of dark matter can be better understood and better constraints can be placed on dark energy

  14. Composite weak bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, M.

    1988-04-01

    Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.

  15. Weakly supervised glasses removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhicheng; Zhou, Yisu; Wen, Lijie

    2015-03-01

    Glasses removal is an important task on face recognition, in this paper, we provide a weakly supervised method to remove eyeglasses from an input face image automatically. We choose sparse coding as face reconstruction method, and optical flow to find exact shape of glasses. We combine the two processes iteratively to remove glasses more accurately. The experimental results reveal that our method works much better than these algorithms alone, and it can remove various glasses to obtain natural looking glassless facial images.

  16. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  17. Computer-assisted threat evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bains, Jatin S.; Davies, Livingston

    2006-05-01

    The use of a CATE (Computer Assisted Threat Evaluation) System in the Maritime Domain lends itself technically and operationally to data exploitation thru the use of domain forensics and link analysis of fragmented information utilizing data prioritization and suspicion indicators for an aggressor's method of operation. The timely availability of threat mitigating actionable information is one of the key tools for success in the Global War On Terror (GWOT). The global supply chain is vulnerable to exploitation by nefarious individuals, governments, and terrorist organizations. For example, Figure 1 illustrates one of many potential methods that could be used to circumvent regulations limiting proliferation of WMDs.

  18. The threat simulation theory of the evolutionary function of dreaming: Evidence from dreams of traumatized children.

    PubMed

    Valli, Katja; Revonsuo, Antti; Pälkäs, Outi; Ismail, Kamaran Hassan; Ali, Karzan Jalal; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2005-03-01

    The threat simulation theory of dreaming (TST) () states that dream consciousness is essentially an ancient biological defence mechanism, evolutionarily selected for its capacity to repeatedly simulate threatening events. Threat simulation during dreaming rehearses the cognitive mechanisms required for efficient threat perception and threat avoidance, leading to increased probability of reproductive success during human evolution. One hypothesis drawn from TST is that real threatening events encountered by the individual during wakefulness should lead to an increased activation of the system, a threat simulation response, and therefore, to an increased frequency and severity of threatening events in dreams. Consequently, children who live in an environment in which their physical and psychological well-being is constantly threatened should have a highly activated dream production and threat simulation system, whereas children living in a safe environment that is relatively free of such threat cues should have a weakly activated system. We tested this hypothesis by analysing the content of dream reports from severely traumatized and less traumatized Kurdish children and ordinary, non-traumatized Finnish children. Our results give support for most of the predictions drawn from TST. The severely traumatized children reported a significantly greater number of dreams and their dreams included a higher number of threatening dream events. The dream threats of traumatized children were also more severe in nature than the threats of less traumatized or non-traumatized children.

  19. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  20. Parking garage threats and countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sam

    2004-01-01

    Preventing and dealing with crime in hospital parking facilities poses a serious challenge to administration and security. Multiple methods to effectively combat the threats are described by the author, but their implementation depends on how seriously a healthcare organization views its responsibility to provide a safe and secure environment for its staff, patients and visitors.

  1. Bomb Threats Taking Financial Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Despite all its efforts to crack down on the bomb scares that disrupted classes again and again in 2003, North Carolina's Orange County district fell victim to yet another false alarm this school year, 2004. For some schools, bomb threats have become more routine than fire drills, with each incident ringing up multi-thousand-dollar tabs for…

  2. Weakly broken galileon symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Pirtskhalava, David; Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2015-09-01

    Effective theories of a scalar ϕ invariant under the internal galileon symmetryϕ→ϕ+b{sub μ}x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon’s quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.

  3. `Weak A' phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Cartron, J. P.; Gerbal, A.; Hughes-Jones, N. C.; Salmon, C.

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-five weak A samples including fourteen A3, eight Ax, seven Aend, three Am and three Ae1 were studied in order to determine their A antigen site density, using an IgG anti-A labelled with 125I. The values obtained ranged between 30,000 A antigen sites for A3 individuals, and 700 sites for the Ae1 red cells. The hierarchy of values observed made it possible to establish a quantitative relationship between the red cell agglutinability of these phenotypes measured under standard conditions, and their antigen site density. PMID:4435836

  4. 77 FR 15052 - Dataset Workshop-U.S. Billion Dollar Disasters Dataset (1980-2011): Assessing Dataset Strengths...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... (1980- 2011): Assessing Dataset Strengths and Weaknesses for a Pathway to an Improved Dataset AGENCY... meeting is to identify strengths and weaknesses of the current dataset and related methodology....

  5. Apparatus Impregnates Weak Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanfield, Clarence E.; Wilson, Maywood L.

    1989-01-01

    Low-cost apparatus developed for use in conventional drum winding machine to impregnate fibrous materials having very low tensile strengths. Fiber fitted onto freely-spinning unwinding creel. Unwinds from creel between two tension bars onto guide spools, aligns fiber so properly enters sealed reservoir of resin. Stainless-steel metering die at entrance to reservoir aligns fiber and seals reservoir. Beneficial results obtained by use of reservoir made of polyethylene. Composite material made from resin matrices reinforced by fibers have great potential for solving challenging and often critical problems in design of spacecraft, space structures, and terrestrial structures.

  6. Group Threat and Policy Change: The Spatial Dynamics of Prohibition Politics, 1890-1919.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Kenneth T; Seguin, Charles

    2015-09-01

    The authors argue that group threat is a key driver of the adoption of new and controversial policies. Conceptualizing threat in spatial terms, they argue that group threat is activated through the joint occurrence of (1) proximity to threatening groups and (2) the population density of threatened groups. By analyzing the adoption of county and state "dry laws" banning alcohol from 1890 to 1919, they first show that prohibition victories were driven by the relative strength of supportive constituencies such as native whites and rural residents, vis-à-vis opponents such as Irish, Italian, or German immigrants or Catholics. Second, they show that threat contributed to prohibition victories: counties bordering large immigrant or urban populations, which did not themselves contain similar populations, were more likely to adopt dry laws. Threat arises primarily from interactions between spatially proximate units at the local level, and therefore higher-level policy change is not reducible to the variables driving local policy.

  7. Weakly relativistic plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Fermous, Rachid Djebli, Mourad

    2015-04-15

    Plasma expansion is an important physical process that takes place in laser interactions with solid targets. Within a self-similar model for the hydrodynamical multi-fluid equations, we investigated the expansion of both dense and under-dense plasmas. The weakly relativistic electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser pulses, while ions are supposed to be in a non-relativistic regime. Numerical investigations have shown that relativistic effects are important for under-dense plasma and are characterized by a finite ion front velocity. Dense plasma expansion is found to be governed mainly by quantum contributions in the fluid equations that originate from the degenerate pressure in addition to the nonlinear contributions from exchange and correlation potentials. The quantum degeneracy parameter profile provides clues to set the limit between under-dense and dense relativistic plasma expansions at a given density and temperature.

  8. Universal health coverage: a quest for all countries but under threat in some.

    PubMed

    McKee, Martin; Balabanova, Dina; Basu, Sanjay; Ricciardi, Walter; Stuckler, David

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, health care has been making a growing contribution to population health in many countries. Yet its benefits are still denied to many people worldwide. This article describes how many countries, both developed and developing, have pursued the quest to achieve universal health care. This has been an explicitly political process. In Europe, it emerged from a belief in solidarity, a fear of revolution, and a changing view of the role of the state. In developing countries, progress was more erratic, characterized by debates about the affordability of universal health care, until it was realized that functioning health systems were essential to deliver development goals. Throughout, the United States has been an exception. An analysis of progress toward universal health care, combining a review of existing theories and new empirical analysis, identifies five factors as important: the strength of organized labor and left-wing parties, adequate economic resources, absence of societal divisions, weakness of institutions that might oppose it (such as organized medicine), and windows of opportunity. Having noted the substantial benefits accruing from universal health care, the article concludes with an analysis of how universal health care is under threat in some European countries and a warning about the risks posed by current radical austerity policies.

  9. Zika Still a Threat During Winter Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162518.html Zika Still a Threat During Winter Months Public health ... doesn't necessarily mean the end of the Zika threat in the United States, a public health ...

  10. Defeating the Modern Asymmetric Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    prolific use of suicide bombers by the LTTE: one strategic, one operational, one psychological and one religious. Chapter V conducts an analysis of...and responsive government) are the applicable variables in defeating the modern asymmetric threat, even those that employ suicide bombers. I...future. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 171 14. SUBJECT TERMS Sri Lanka, LTTE, Ethnic Conflict, Asymmetry, Suicide Terrorism, Foreign Internal Defense

  11. Unintentional Insider Threats: Social Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    sensitive information posted publicly on a website, mishandled, or sent to the wrong party via email, fax, or mail • UIT- HACK , or malicious code (UIT... HACKing , malware/spyware)—an outsider’s electronic entry acquired through social engineering (e.g., phishing email attack, planted or unauthorized USB...with PHYS, 28% with PORT, and 17% with UIT- HACK . With nearly half of the incidents falling in the DISC 4 We use the term threat vector, instead

  12. National Strategy, Future Threats and Defense Spending

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-05

    AD-A256 884 NATIONAL STRATEGY, FUTURE THREATS AND DEFENSE SPENDING A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff...Jun 92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS National Strategy, Future Threats and Defense Spending 6. AUTHOR(S) MAJ Daniel M. Gerstein, USA 7...Future Threats, Defense Spending , 192 Regional Threats 16. PRICE COOE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 118. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY

  13. Threat Assessment Teams Target School Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the creation of a threat-assessment team to be utilized in order to analyze each threat and the usage of threat-assessment protocols for the purpose of guiding school administrators through a crisis. These are actually developed with the advice from the US Department of Education and the Secret Service. When a…

  14. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  15. Gonococcal endocarditis: an ever-present threat

    PubMed Central

    Kawabata, Vitor Sérgio; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Lovisolo, Silvana Maria; Felipe-Silva, Aloísio; de Lemos, Ana Paula Silva

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of severe complications of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection has presented variations over recent decades since the advent of penicillin. Gonococcal endocarditis (GE) still remains an ever-present threat afflicting the society’s poor and sexually active young population. This entity frequently requires surgical intervention and usually exhibits a poor outcome. The interval between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis does not usually exceed 4 weeks. One of the characteristics of GE is a proclivity for aortic valve involvement with large vegetation and valve ring abscess formation. The authors report the case of a young man with a 2-week history of fever, malaise, weakness, and progressive heart failure symptoms, who had no previous history of genital complaints or cardiopathy. The physical examination was consistent with acute aortic insufficiency, which was most probably of an infectious origin. The echocardiogram showed thickened aortic cusps and valve insufficiency. After hospital admission, the patient’s clinical status worsened rapidly and he died on the second day. The autopsy findings disclosed aortic valve destruction with vegetation and a ring abscess besides signs of septic shock, such as diffuse alveolar damage, acute tubular necrosis, and zone 3 hepatocellular necrosis. The blood culture isolated N. gonorrhoeae resistant to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. The authors call attention to the pathogen of this particular infectious endocarditis, and the need for early diagnosis and evaluation by a cardiac surgery team. PMID:27547739

  16. Quartz: Anomalous Weakness of Synthetic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Griggs, D T; Blacic, J D

    1965-01-15

    The strength of a synthetic quartz crystal drops rapidly at 400 degrees C, and at 600 degrees C is a hundredfold lower than at 300 degrees C. Large plastic deformations can be produced without fracture. The predominant mechanism of deformation is translation gliding. The preferred explanation for this anomalous weakness is that this synthetic quartz contains water which has hydrolyzed the silicon-oxygen bonds. The silanol groups so formed are presumed to be rendered sufficiently mobile by elevating the temperature to 400 degrees C so that they align themselves in dislocation lines and move through the crystal with the dislocation under the small applied shear stress.

  17. Strong mobility in weakly disordered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-naim, Eli; Krapivsky, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    We study transport of interacting particles in weakly disordered media. Our one-dimensional system includes (i) disorder, the hopping rate governing the movement of a particle between two neighboring lattice sites is inhomogeneous, and (ii) hard core interaction, the maximum occupancy at each site is one particle. We find that over a substantial regime, the root-mean-square displacement of a particle s grows superdiffusively with time t, {sigma}{approx}({epsilon}t){sup 2/3}, where {epsilon} is the disorder strength. Without disorder the particle displacement is subdiffusive, {sigma} {approx}t{sup 1/4}, and therefore disorder strongly enhances particle mobility. We explain this effect using scaling arguments, and verify the theoretical predictions through numerical simulations. Also, the simulations show that regardless of disorder strength, disorder leads to stronger mobility over an intermediate time regime.

  18. Stereotype threat and female communication styles.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, Courtney; Wiryakusuma, Cindy; Bowden, Jessica; Shochet, Megan

    2011-10-01

    A large body of research has documented the performance-debilitating effects of stereotype threat for individuals, but there is a paucity of research exploring interpersonal consequences of stereotype threat. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat would change the style in which women communicate. Results indicate that women who experience stereotype threat regarding leadership abilities react against the stereotype by adopting a more masculine communication style. Study 2 provides evidence that self-affirmation eliminates this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication styles. A third study demonstrates an ironic consequence of this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication--when women under stereotype threat adopt a more masculine communication style, they are rated as less warm and likeable, and evaluators indicate less willingness to comply with their requests. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Threats to Networked RFID Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Beye, Michael; Peris-Lopez, Pedro

    RFID technology is an area currently undergoing active development. An issue, which has received a lot of attention, is the security risks that arise due to the inherent vulnerabilities of RFID technology. Most of this attention, however, has focused on related privacy issues. The goal of this chapter is to present a more global overview of RFID threats. This can not only help experts perform risk analyses of RFID systems but also increase awareness and understanding of RFID security issues for non-experts. We use clearly defined and widely accepted concepts from both the RFID area and classical risk analysis to structure this overview.

  20. [Modern threat of Ebola virus].

    PubMed

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2014-11-01

    Since the detection of Ebola virus in 1976. recorded 13 major epidemics in Africa. The current threat in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone absorbs another victims and threatened pandemic. Picture of the disease is initially very non-characteristic (influenza-like symptoms) and quickly leads to dehydration, shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, which is responsible for high mortality. Lack of effective antibiotic therapy and vaccine hampers the existing situation. For this reason, there is an absolute necessity to introduce regimes sanitation, quarantine at the suspects and maintain the highest safety measures for emergency responders. Developed procedures require absolute compliance.

  1. Stereotype threat and executive functions: which functions mediate different threat-related outcomes?

    PubMed

    Rydell, Robert J; Van Loo, Katie J; Boucher, Kathryn L

    2014-03-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that women's math performance can be reduced by activating gender-based math stereotypes. Models of stereotype threat assert that threat reduces cognitive functioning, thereby accounting for its negative effects. This work provides a more detailed understanding of the cognitive processes through which stereotype threat leads women to underperform at math and to take risks, by examining which basic executive functions (inhibition, shifting, and updating) account for these outcomes. In Experiments 1 and 2, women under threat showed reduced inhibition, reduced updating, and reduced math performance compared with women in a control condition (or men); however, only updating accounted for women's poor math performance under threat. In Experiment 3, only updating accounted for stereotype threat's effect on women's math performance, whereas only inhibition accounted for the effect of threat on risk-taking, suggesting that distinct executive functions can account for different stereotype threat-related outcomes.

  2. Plasma transport theory spanning weak to strong coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Daligault, Jérôme; Baalrud, Scott D.

    2015-06-29

    We describe some of the most striking characteristics of particle transport in strongly coupled plasmas across a wide range of Coulomb coupling strength. We then discuss the effective potential theory, which is an approximation that was recently developed to extend conventional weakly coupled plasma transport theory into the strongly coupled regime in a manner that is practical to evaluate efficiently.

  3. Enhanced Memory for both Threat and Neutral Information Under Conditions of Intergroup Threat

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Zhao, Yufang; Ybarra, Oscar; Stephan, Walter G.; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of intergroup threat on cognitive outcomes such as memory. Different theoretical perspectives can inform how intergroup threat should affect memory for threat-relevant and neutral information, such as the mood-congruency approach, Yerkes–Dodson law, Easterbrook’s theory, and also evolutionary perspectives. To test among these, we conducted two experiments to examine how exposure to intergroup threats affected memory compared to control conditions. In study 1, we manipulated symbolic threat and examined participants’ memory for threat and neutral words. In study 2, memory performance was assessed following the induction of realistic threat. Across the studies, in the control condition participants showed better memory for threat-related than neutral information. However, participants under threat remembered neutral information as well as threat-related information. In addition, participants in the threat condition remembered threat-related information as well as participants in the control condition. The findings are discussed in terms of automatic vigilance processes but also the effects of threat on arousal and its effect on information processing. This latter perspective, suggests paradoxically, that under some circumstances involving an outgroup threat, non-threatening information about outgroups can be extensively processed. PMID:26635669

  4. Weak localization with nonlinear bosonic matter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, Timo; Michl, Josef; Petitjean, Cyril; Wellens, Thomas; Urbina, Juan-Diego; Richter, Klaus; Schlagheck, Peter

    2012-08-15

    We investigate the coherent propagation of dilute atomic Bose-Einstein condensates through irregularly shaped billiard geometries that are attached to uniform incoming and outgoing waveguides. Using the mean-field description based on the nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we develop a diagrammatic theory for the self-consistent stationary scattering state of the interacting condensate, which is combined with the semiclassical representation of the single-particle Green function in terms of chaotic classical trajectories within the billiard. This analytical approach predicts a universal dephasing of weak localization in the presence of a small interaction strength between the atoms, which is found to be in good agreement with the numerically computed reflection and transmission probabilities of the propagating condensate. The numerical simulation of this quasi-stationary scattering process indicates that this interaction-induced dephasing mechanism may give rise to a signature of weak antilocalization, which we attribute to the influence of non-universal short-path contributions. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical simulation of scattering of Bose-Einstein condensate through billiards. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel analytical semiclassical theory for nonlinear coherent scattering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inversion of weak localization due to mean-field interaction within the condensate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relevance of non-universal short-path contributions.

  5. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Vantine, H C

    2002-10-04

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things radioactive and would have significant

  6. Dynamic Strength Ceramic Nanocomposites Under Pulse Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripnyak, Evgeniya G.; Skripnyak, Vladimir V.; Vaganova, Irina K.; Skripnyak, Vladimir A.

    2015-06-01

    Multi-scale computer simulation approach has been applied to research of strength of nanocomposites under dynamic loading. The influence of mesoscopic substructures on the dynamic strength of ceramic and hybrid nanocomposites, which can be formed using additive manufacturing were numerically investigated. At weak shock wave loadings the shear strength and the spall strength of ceramic and hybrid nanocomposites depends not only phase concentration and porosity, but size parameters of skeleton substructures. The influence of skeleton parameter on the shear strength and the spall strength of ceramic nanocomposites with the same concentration of phases decreases with increasing amplitude of the shock pulse of microsecond duration above the double amplitude of the Hugoniot elastic limit of nanocomposites. This research carried out in 2014 -2015 was supported by grant from The Tomsk State University Academic D.I. Mendeleev Fund Program and also Ministry of Sciences and Education of Russian Federation (State task 2014/223, project 1943, Agreement 14.132.

  7. Effect of evaluation threat on procrastination behavior.

    PubMed

    Bui, Ngoc H

    2007-06-01

    The author evaluated the effects of evaluation apprehension and trait procrastination on behaviors. The author examined private university students from southern California (N = 72) on two independent variables: evaluation threat (manipulated) and trait procrastination (nonmanipulated). The author found a significant interaction effect between type of evaluation threat and level of trait procrastination on the number of days to complete an assigned essay. Post hoc analyses showed high trait procrastinators in the high evaluation threat group significantly delayed returning essays compared with those in the low evaluation threat group. Also, in the low evaluation threat group, low trait procrastinators delayed more than did high trait procrastinators. These results suggest that educators can reduce behavioral delays by increasing evaluation threat, depending on a student's level of trait procrastination.

  8. World's soils are under threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanarella, Luca; Pennock, Daniel Jon; McKenzie, Neil; Badraoui, Mohamed; Chude, Victor; Baptista, Isaurinda; Mamo, Tekalign; Yemefack, Martin; Singh Aulakh, Mikha; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Hong, Suk Young; Vijarnsorn, Pisoot; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Arrouays, Dominique; Black, Helaina; Krasilnikov, Pavel; Sobocká, Jaroslava; Alegre, Julio; Henriquez, Carlos Roberto; de Lourdes Mendonça-Santos, Maria; Taboada, Miguel; Espinosa-Victoria, David; AlShankiti, Abdullah; Kazem AlaviPanah, Sayed; El Mustafa Elsheikh, Elsiddig Ahmed; Hempel, Jon; Camps Arbestain, Marta; Nachtergaele, Freddy; Vargas, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    The Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils has completed the first State of the World's Soil Resources Report. Globally soil erosion was identified as the gravest threat, leading to deteriorating water quality in developed regions and to lowering of crop yields in many developing regions. We need to increase nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in infertile tropical and semi-tropical soils - the regions where the most food insecurity among us are found - while reducing global use of these products overall. Stores of soil organic carbon are critical in the global carbon balance, and national governments must set specific targets to stabilize or ideally increase soil organic carbon stores. Finally the quality of soil information available for policy formulation must be improved - the regional assessments in the State of the World's Soil Resources Report frequently base their evaluations on studies from the 1990s based on observations made in the 1980s or earlier.

  9. World's soils are under threat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanarella, L.; Pennock, D. J.; McKenzie, N. J.; Badraoui, M.; Chude, V.; Baptista, I.; Mamo, T.; Yemefack, M.; Singh Aulakh, M.; Yagi, K.; Hong, S. Young; Vijarnsorn, P.; Zhang, G.-L.; Arrouays, D.; Black, H.; Krasilnikov, P.; Sobocká, J.; Alegre, J.; Henriquez, C. R.; Mendonça-Santos, M. L.; Taboada, M.; Espinosa-Victoria, D.; AlShankiti, A.; AlaviPanah, S. K.; Elsheikh, E. A. E.; Hempel, J.; Camps Arbestain, M.; Nachtergaele, F.; Vargas, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils has completed the first State of the World's Soil Resources report. Globally soil erosion was identified as the gravest threat, leading to deteriorating water quality in developed regions and to lowering of crop yields in many developing regions. We need to increase nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use in infertile tropical and semi-tropical soils - the regions where the most food insecure among us are found - while reducing global use of these products overall. Stores of soil organic carbon are critical in the global carbon balance, and national governments must set specific targets to stabilize or ideally increase soil organic carbon stores. Finally the quality of soil information available for policy formulation must be improved - the regional assessments in the SWSR report frequently base their evaluations on studies from the 1990s based on observations made in the 1980s or earlier.

  10. Parasite threat to panda conservation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Daszak, Peter; Huang, Hua-Li; Yang, Guang-You; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Zhang, Shuyi

    2008-03-01

    The giant panda is a global symbol of wildlife conservation that is threatened by historic and current habitat loss. Despite a great deal of research on the physiology, reproductive biology, and diet of pandas in the wild and in captivity, there is little information on wild panda mortality. Here we integrate previously unavailable data on the mortality of wild pandas. We report on three recent phases of panda mortality: deaths due to bamboo flowering in the 1970s and 1980s, surprisingly extensive poaching in the 1980s and 1990s, and a parasitic infection over the past few years. Our analyses suggest that the current most significant threat to wild panda survival is disease due to extraintestinal migration (visceral larval migrans) by an ascarid nematode. We demonstrate that the probability of death of wild pandas being caused by this disease increased significantly between 1971 and 2005 and discuss the possible factors leading to the emergence of this disease.

  11. Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Larsen, Robert; O'Brien, Mike; Rodriquez, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt theft of nuclear materials. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat.

  12. Ideology, Social Threat, and the Death Sentence: Capital Sentences across Time and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, David; Carmichael, Jason T.

    2004-01-01

    Capital punishment is the most severe criminal penalty, yet we know little about the factors that produce jurisdictional differences in the use of the death sentence. Political explanations emphasize conservative values and the strength of more conservative political parties. Threat accounts suggest that this sentence will be more likely in…

  13. Intestinal Transport of Weak Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Michael J.; Shiau, Yih-Fu; Bane, Susan; Fox, Margaret

    1974-01-01

    A study has been made of the transmural fluxes of benzoic, phenylacetic, and pentanoic acids, benzylamine, hexylamine, and D-amphetamine across rat jejunum incubated in vitro. The M to S fluxes of the weak acids were greater than their corresponding S to M fluxes, and the S to M fluxes of the weak bases were larger than their M to S fluxes. These patterns of asymmetric movements were observed when the transmural electrical potential difference was clamped at 0 mV, and when the pH values of the mucosal and serosal fluids were identical. The effects of a weak acid on the fluxes of other weak electrolytes were qualitatively similar when the effector weak acid was added to the mucosal fluid, and when it was added to the serosal fluid. But the effects of a weak base on the fluxes of other weak electrolytes were dependent upon its location, and the interactions observed when the effector weak base was added to the mucosal fluid were qualitatively different than those seen when it was added to the serosal fluid. The interactions between weak electrolytes could readily be explained in terms of the function of a system of three compartments in series, in which the pH of the intermediate compartment is greater than that of the bulk phases. But these observations could not be explained in terms of an analogous system involving an intermediate compartment of low pH, or in terms of a carrier mediated system. The transport function of the three-compartment system can be described in the form of an equation, and it is found that a pH difference of less than 0.5 unit may explain our observations on weak electrolyte transport. PMID:4812635

  14. DOE site-specific threat assessment

    SciTech Connect

    West, D.J.; Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1985-07-12

    A facility manager faced with the challenges of protecting a nuclear facility against potential threats must consider the likelihood and consequences of such threats, know the capabilities of the facility safeguards and security systems, and make informed decisions about the cost-effectivness of safeguards and security upgrades. To help meet these challenges, the San Francisco Operations Office of the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has developed a site-specific threat assessment approach and a quantitative model to improve the quality and consistency of site-specific threat assessment and resultant security upgrade decisions at sensitive Department of Energy facilities. 5 figs.

  15. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR

    ScienceCinema

    INL

    2016-07-12

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

  16. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR

    SciTech Connect

    INL

    2008-05-29

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats.

  17. Inferring the nature of anthropogenic threats from long-term abundance records.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, Kevin T; Akçakaya, H Resit

    2015-02-01

    Diagnosing the processes that threaten species persistence is critical for recovery planning and risk forecasting. Dominant threats are typically inferred by experts on the basis of a patchwork of informal methods. Transparent, quantitative diagnostic tools would contribute much-needed consistency, objectivity, and rigor to the process of diagnosing anthropogenic threats. Long-term census records, available for an increasingly large and diverse set of taxa, may exhibit characteristic signatures of specific threatening processes and thereby provide information for threat diagnosis. We developed a flexible Bayesian framework for diagnosing threats on the basis of long-term census records and diverse ancillary sources of information. We tested this framework with simulated data from artificial populations subjected to varying degrees of exploitation and habitat loss and several real-world abundance time series for which threatening processes are relatively well understood: bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) (exploitation) and Red Grouse (Lagopus lagopus scotica) and Eurasian Skylark (Alauda arvensis) (habitat loss). Our method correctly identified the process driving population decline for over 90% of time series simulated under moderate to severe threat scenarios. Successful identification of threats approached 100% for severe exploitation and habitat loss scenarios. Our method identified threats less successfully when threatening processes were weak and when populations were simultaneously affected by multiple threats. Our method selected the presumed true threat model for all real-world case studies, although results were somewhat ambiguous in the case of the Eurasian Skylark. In the latter case, incorporation of an ancillary source of information (records of land-use change) increased the weight assigned to the presumed true model from 70% to 92%, illustrating the value of the proposed framework in bringing diverse sources of

  18. Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases.

    PubMed

    Klein, Natalie M; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M; Carlson, Greg N; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2013-08-01

    Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee's common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g., the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these "weak definite" interpretations arise in "incorporated" constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g., hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g., farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. Scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti-familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis.

  19. Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Natalie M.; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M.; Carlson, Greg N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee’s common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g. the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these “weak definite” interpretations arise in “incorporated” constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g. hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g. farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. The imagined scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti- familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis. PMID:23685208

  20. Threat Theory: A Model for Forecasting the Threat Environment of the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-14

    AD-A2 7 4 021 / Threat Theory: A Model for Forecasting the Threat Environment of the Future A Monograph by Lieutenant Colonel Larry D. Bruns Military...5. FUNDING NUMBERS THREAT THEORY. A MODEL FOR FORECASTING THREAT ENVIRONMENT OF THE FUTURE 6. AUTHOR(S) LTC LARRY D. BRUNS, USA 7. PERFORMING...PRICE CODE FORCE DEVELOPMENT 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION II8. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY CL.ASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION Of ABSTRACT OF REPORT

  1. Weak-shock reflection factors

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-09-07

    The purpose of this paper is to compare reflection factors for weak shocks from various surfaces, and to focus attention on some unsolved questions. Three different cases are considered: square-wave planar shock reflection from wedges; square-wave planar shock reflection from cylinders; and spherical blast wave reflection from a planar surface. We restrict ourselves to weak shocks. Shocks with a Mach number of M{sub O} < 1.56 in air or with an overpressure of {Delta}{sub PI} < 25 psi (1.66 bar) under normal ambient conditions are called weak.

  2. Application of Strength Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert U.; Dugan, Eric

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the various strength qualities (maximum strength, high- and low-load speed strength, reactive strength, rate of force development, and skill performance), noting why a training program design based on strength diagnosis can lead to greater efficacy and better performance gains for the athlete. Examples of tests used to assess strength…

  3. Forecasting Lightning Threat using Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaul, Eugene W., Jr.; Goodman, Steven J.; LaCasse, Katherine M.; Cecil, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Two new approaches are proposed and developed for making time and space dependent, quantitative short-term forecasts of lightning threat, and a blend of these approaches is devised that capitalizes on the strengths of each. The new methods are distinctive in that they are based entirely on the ice-phase hydrometeor fields generated by regional cloud-resolving numerical simulations, such as those produced by the WRF model. These methods are justified by established observational evidence linking aspects of the precipitating ice hydrometeor fields to total flash rates. The methods are straightforward and easy to implement, and offer an effective near-term alternative to the incorporation of complex and costly cloud electrification schemes into numerical models. One method is based on upward fluxes of precipitating ice hydrometeors in the mixed phase region at the-15 C level, while the second method is based on the vertically integrated amounts of ice hydrometeors in each model grid column. Each method can be calibrated by comparing domain-wide statistics of the peak values of simulated flash rate proxy fields against domain-wide peak total lightning flash rate density data from observations. Tests show that the first method is able to capture much of the temporal variability of the lightning threat, while the second method does a better job of depicting the areal coverage of the threat. Our blended solution is designed to retain most of the temporal sensitivity of the first method, while adding the improved spatial coverage of the second. Exploratory tests for selected North Alabama cases show that, because WRF can distinguish the general character of most convective events, our methods show promise as a means of generating quantitatively realistic fields of lightning threat. However, because the models tend to have more difficulty in predicting the instantaneous placement of storms, forecasts of the detailed location of the lightning threat based on single

  4. Shades of Threat: Racial Identity as a Moderator of Stereotype Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Claytie, III; Aronson, Joshua; Salinas, Moises

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated Black racial identity attitudes as a moderator of intellectual performance in potentially stereotype threatening situations. Ninety-eight African American students were randomly assigned to one of three stereotype threatening conditions: low threat, medium threat, or high threat. Analyses confirmed a stereotype threat…

  5. Water storage equity and safety assurance policy to mitigate potential 'dual-extreme cumulative threats' in agricultural catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisaniello, John D.; Tingey-Holyoak, Joanne L.

    2017-02-01

    Farm dams that are not managed properly at the individual level can create water storage equity and safety threats to downstream communities and the environment that aggregate at the catchment level: a potential 'dual-extreme cumulative' problem. The paper provides indicative evidence and develops understanding of this novel phenomenon and associated policy needs within the Australian setting comprising dual hydrologic extremes of floods and droughts, further exacerbated by climate change. This is achieved through comparative case studies involving surveys of both dam owner perceptions and dam management practices in four States representing a complete range of integrated policy approaches from weak to strong. Survey results find most farmers do not believe dam maintenance is important, will undertake spillway blocking and do not plan for emergencies. These results are supported by physical on-site findings of farmers neglecting dams and blocking or under-designing spillways, in turn storing more water than they are entitled and creating unsafe dams at both the individual and cumulative levels. From detailed cross-case comparative assessment against policy context, it emerges that on-farm perceptions and practices form a range of 'acceptability' of dam management that directly reflects policy strength and integration in each setting. The paper advances the international small dams policy, agricultural water management and hydrology literatures, evidencing the need for effective integrated policy to mitigate dual extreme cumulative threats. Importantly, guidance is provided to jurisdictions internationally with high inter-annual rainfall variation on how best to design integrated policy that can achieve both water storage equity and safety in agricultural catchments.

  6. The artificial heart's threat to others.

    PubMed

    Jonsen, A R

    1986-02-01

    A member of the two federal advisory panels on artificial hearts reflects that the nuclear-powered artificial heart, had it been developed, would have posed a physical threat to others. Today's artificial heart poses a different threat. Because of the high costs, many people may be deprived of access to other forms of medical care and other social goods.

  7. Keeping Schools Safe through Threat Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Rhonda

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates how effective a threat assessment program like the Mid-Valley Student Threat Assessment (STAT) program can be in dealing with violent and threatening students. STAT is a a regional system that draws together resources from schools, mental health agencies, law enforcement bureaus, and other youth-serving organizations in…

  8. Perception of the Threat of Terrorism.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Louck, Keren

    2016-04-28

    In light of the tense and ongoing security situation in Israel, one important issue that needs to be analyzed and understood is the perception of terrorism threats. Most studies focused mainly on the psychological implications of terrorist acts; this study examines the complexity of the manner in which the individual perceives the threat of terrorism. In all, 40 Israeli adults (22 women and 18 men) were interviewed using semistructured in-depth interviews. Qualitative analysis indicates that the components of the perception of terrorism that construct the evaluation and subjective perception of the participants are as follows: (a) perception of control, which is a feeling of loss of control and helplessness due to uncertainty, inability to predict threats, and the vagueness of the threat; (b) perception of vulnerability to the threat, such as a feeling of vulnerability to and potential victimization by terrorism; and (c) perception of fear of terrorism that includes responses of fear, anxiety, feeling of danger, and emotional distress. In addition, gender differences were found in the analysis. The findings of this study help gain a better understanding as to how people perceive the threat of terrorism. The findings also enable an understanding of the complexity of living under ongoing terrorism threats and may assist in understanding how citizens cope with and adjust to this threat.

  9. Bombs and Bomb Threats in the School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkey, David J.; Starkey, John D.

    1977-01-01

    Bombs and the threat of bombing can leave school personnel faced by an explosive hazard without knowledge of what to do. Therefore, a preplanned response is necessary. Discusses four major stages of dealing with bombs and bomb threats. (Author/RK)

  10. Bomb Threats and Bomb Search Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet explains how to be prepared and plan for bomb threats and describes procedures to follow once a call has been received. The content covers (1) preparation for bomb threats, (2) evacuation procedures, (3) room search methods, (4) procedures to follow once a bomb has been located, and (5) typical problems that search teams will…

  11. The Smallpox Threat: The School Nurse's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Mary E.; Didion, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Today, with the threat of bioterrorism and war, there is a new dimension to the traditional role of the school nurse. The smallpox threat to public health will invoke the school nurse's role as an educator, liaison, and consultant in the community. This article discusses smallpox, the vaccination process, adverse effects, and postvaccination care.…

  12. The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Regens, J. L.

    2003-02-25

    This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

  13. 28 CFR 35.139 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Direct threat. 35.139 Section 35.139 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.139 Direct threat. (a) This part does not require...

  14. 28 CFR 35.139 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Direct threat. 35.139 Section 35.139 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.139 Direct threat. (a) This part does not require...

  15. High Power Electromagnetic (HPEM) Threat Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    EMERGING THREATS ...... 13 HEMP coupling characteristics ............................................................................... 13 High power...microwave (HPEM) coupling characteristics ..................................... 16 High power microwave: local protective measures...ncy (W1 Figure 22. Various bands summarizing EM threats. HEMP coupling characteristics In the early 1960’s, researchers proposed a theory that a high

  16. How you perceive threat determines your behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Orlando; Portugal, Liana C. L.; Alves, Rita C. S.; Campagnoli, Rafaela R.; Mocaiber, Izabela; David, Isabel P. A.; Erthal, Fátima C. S.; Volchan, Eliane; de Oliveira, Leticia; Pereira, Mirtes G.

    2013-01-01

    The prioritization of processing emotional stimuli usually produces deleterious effects on task performance when it distracts from a task. One common explanation is that brain resources are consumed by emotional stimuli, diverting resources away from executing the task. Viewing unpleasant stimuli also generates defensive reactions, and these responses may be at least partially responsible for the effect of the emotional modulation observed in various reaction time (RT) paradigms. We investigated whether modulatory effects on RT vary if we presented threat stimuli to prompt different defensive responses. To trigger different responses, we manipulated threat perception by moving the direction of threatening stimuli. Threatening or neutral stimuli were presented as distractors during a bar orientation discrimination task. The results demonstrated that threat stimuli directed toward the observer produced a decrease in RT; in contrast, threat stimuli directed away from the observer produced an increase in RT, when compared to neutral stimuli. Accelerated RT during directed toward threat stimuli was attributed to increased motor preparation resulting from strong activation of the defense response cascade. In contrast, directed away threat stimuli likely activated the defense cascade, but less intensively, prompting immobility. Different threat stimuli produced varying effects, which was interpreted as evidence that the modulation of RT by emotional stimuli represents the summation of attentional and motivational effects. Additionally, participants who had been previously exposed to diverse types of violent crime were more strongly influenced by threat stimuli directed toward the observer. In sum, our data support the concept that emotions are indeed action tendencies. PMID:24115925

  17. Weak interactions and presupernova evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M.B. State Univ. of New York . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-02-19

    The role of weak interactions, particularly electron capture and {beta}{sup {minus}} decay, in presupernova evolution is discussed. The present uncertainty in these rates is examined and the possibility of improving the situation is addressed. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  18. [Acute muscle weakness: differential diagnoses].

    PubMed

    Antoniuk, Sérgio A

    2013-09-06

    Acute muscle weakness, a common disorder in pediatrics, can occur from impairment of any part of the motor unit, including the upper motor neuron, lower motor neuron, peripheral nerve, neuromuscular junction or muscle. It usually manifests itself as an acute or hyperacute motor disorder of progressive or rapidly progressive course. Acute muscle weakness is a neuromuscular emergency, especially if it affects the respiratory or oropharyngeal musculature. The location of the motor weakness and associated neurological signs and symptoms usually indicate the location of the lesion. The onset, speed and clinical evolution, as well as other data from the patient's history, suggest the pathophysiological differential diagnosis. Successful treatment depends on the immediate and correct differential diagnosis. This paper presents the main differential diagnosis of main neuromuscular diseases that cause acute muscle weakness in children.

  19. Security threats categories in healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ganthan Narayana; Ahmad, Rabiah; Ismail, Zuraini

    2010-09-01

    This article attempts to investigate the various types of threats that exist in healthcare information systems (HIS). A study has been carried out in one of the government-supported hospitals in Malaysia.The hospital has been equipped with a Total Hospital Information System (THIS). The data collected were from three different departments, namely the Information Technology Department (ITD), the Medical Record Department (MRD), and the X-Ray Department, using in-depth structured interviews. The study identified 22 types of threats according to major threat categories based on ISO/IEC 27002 (ISO 27799:2008). The results show that the most critical threat for the THIS is power failure followed by acts of human error or failure and other technological factors. This research holds significant value in terms of providing a complete taxonomy of threat categories in HIS and also an important component in the risk analysis stage.

  20. Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2007-03-01

    We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities.

  1. Promoting dental hygiene to children: comparing traditional and interactive media following threat appeals.

    PubMed

    Panic, Katarina; Cauberghe, Veroline; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Until now, social marketing campaigns mainly targeted children using traditional media. However, little is known about the effectiveness of computer games to communicate health-related information to children. This study compares the impact of an interactive game as a medium to provide health information and improve children's dietary habits to the impact of more traditional media. Using a 2 × 3 between-subject factorial design with 190 children (7-9 years old), this study investigates the effect of threat messages (weak vs. strong) concerning dental hygiene on behavioral outcome (snack choice), and how this effect is moderated by the type of medium used to communicate subsequent health information after the threat appeal (computer game, information brochure, narrative story). Results show a positive significant effect of perceived threat on children's adaptive behavior. However, this effect only remains significant when afterwards children are exposed to a narrative health-related story. When children play a game or read a brochure, they need to devote more attention to process this content, distracting them from the original threat message. In sum, when a threat message is followed by additional health information, the medium through which this information is presented influences the effectiveness of the preceding threat message.

  2. In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

  3. Nuclear threats from small states

    SciTech Connect

    Kahan, J.H.

    1994-06-13

    What are the policy implications regarding proliferation and counter proliferation of nuclear weapons among Third World states. How does deterrence operate outside the parameters of superpower confrontation as defined by the cold war elaborate system of constraints enforced by concepts like mutual assured destruction, and counter-value and counter-force targeting. How can US policymakers devise contingencies for dealing with nuclear threats posed by countries like North Korea, Libya, Iraq, Iran, and Syria. These are some of the unsettling but nevertheless important questions addressed by the author in this monograph. In his analysis, Mr. Jerome Kahan examines the likelihood that one or more of these countries will use nuclear weapons before the year 2000. He also offers a framework that policymakers and planners might use in assessing US interests in preempting the use of nuclear weapons or in retaliating for their use. Ironically, with the end of the cold war, it is imperative that defense strategists, policymakers, and military professionals think about the `unthinkable`. In the interest of fostering debate on this important subject, the Strategic Studies Institute commends this insightful monograph.

  4. Bioterriorism: from threat to reality.

    PubMed

    Atlas, Ronald M

    2002-01-01

    The fears and predictions of attacks with biological weapons, which were increasing at the close of the twentieth century, were transformed into reality not long after September 11, 2001, when several anthrax-laden letters were sent through the U.S. postal system. The attack challenged our medical preparedness and scientific understanding of the epidemiology of biothreat agents. It is fortunate that this was not a massive aerosol release that could have exposed hundreds of thousands. Rapid diagnoses and medical treatments limited casualties and increased survival rates, but tragically some individuals died of inhalational anthrax. Even as physicians tested new treatment regimes and scientists employed new ways of detecting anthrax and decontaminating the mail, new predictions were made for potentially even more devastating attacks with anthrax, smallpox, plague, tularemia, botulism, or hemorrhagic fever viruses. Fear gripped the nation. Law enforcement sought to find the villain(s) who sent the anthrax letters and to deter future bioterrorist attacks. The biomedical community began to seek new ways of protecting against such future threats of bioterrorism.

  5. Stereotype threat prevents perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Robert J; Shiffrin, Richard M; Boucher, Kathryn L; Van Loo, Katie; Rydell, Michael T

    2010-08-10

    Stereotype threat (ST) refers to a situation in which a member of a group fears that her or his performance will validate an existing negative performance stereotype, causing a decrease in performance. For example, reminding women of the stereotype "women are bad at math" causes them to perform more poorly on math questions from the SAT and GRE. Performance deficits can be of several types and be produced by several mechanisms. We show that ST prevents perceptual learning, defined in our task as an increasing rate of search for a target Chinese character in a display of such characters. Displays contained two or four characters and half of these contained a target. Search rate increased across a session of training for a control group of women, but not women under ST. Speeding of search is typically explained in terms of learned "popout" (automatic attraction of attention to a target). Did women under ST learn popout but fail to express it? Following training, the women were shown two colored squares and asked to choose the one with the greater color saturation. Superimposed on the squares were task-irrelevant Chinese characters. For women not trained under ST, the presence of a trained target on one square slowed responding, indicating that training had caused the learning of an attention response to targets. Women trained under ST showed no slowing, indicating that they had not learned such an attention response.

  6. Precision metrology using weak measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A

    2015-05-29

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  7. Percolation on networks with weak and heterogeneous dependency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Ling-Wei; Li, Ming; Liu, Run-Ran; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2017-03-01

    In real networks, the dependency between nodes is ubiquitous; however, the dependency is not always complete and homogeneous. In this paper, we propose a percolation model with weak and heterogeneous dependency; i.e., dependency strengths could be different between different nodes. We find that the heterogeneous dependency strength will make the system more robust, and for various distributions of dependency strengths both continuous and discontinuous percolation transitions can be found. For Erdős-Rényi networks, we prove that the crossing point of the continuous and discontinuous percolation transitions is dependent on the first five moments of the dependency strength distribution. This indicates that the discontinuous percolation transition on networks with dependency is determined not only by the dependency strength but also by its distribution. Furthermore, in the area of the continuous percolation transition, we also find that the critical point depends on the first and second moments of the dependency strength distribution. To validate the theoretical analysis, cases with two different dependency strengths and Gaussian distribution of dependency strengths are presented as examples.

  8. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  9. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  10. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  11. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  12. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight.... (d) Notification. Upon receipt of any bomb threat against the security of a flight or facility,...

  13. Pattern-Based Design of Insider Threat Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Insider Threat Mitigation Pattern Language 2 3 Using the Insider Threat Mitigation Pattern...Language 5 4 Conclusion 10 Appendix A: Simple Insider Threat Mitigation Pattern Domain Ontology 11 Appendix B: Insider Threat Mitigation Pattern...Thumbnail Sketches 13 References/Bibliography 18 CMU/SEI-2014-TN-024 | ii List of Figures Figure 1: Preliminary Insider Threat Mitigation

  14. Weak Energy: Form and Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Allen D.

    The equation of motion for a time-dependent weak value of a quantum mechanical observable contains a complex valued energy factor—the weak energy of evolution. This quantity is defined by the dynamics of the pre-selected and post-selected states which specify the observable's weak value. It is shown that this energy: (i) is manifested as dynamical and geometric phases that govern the evolution of the weak value during the measurement process; (ii) satisfies the Euler-Lagrange equations when expressed in terms of Pancharatnam (P) phase and Fubini-Study (FS) metric distance; (iii) provides for a PFS stationary action principle for quantum state evolution; (iv) time translates correlation amplitudes; (v) generalizes the temporal persistence of state normalization; and (vi) obeys a time-energy uncertainty relation. A similar complex valued quantity—the pointed weak energy of an evolving quantum state—is also defined and several of its properties in PFS coordinates are discussed. It is shown that the imaginary part of the pointed weak energy governs the state's survival probability and its real part is—to within a sign—the Mukunda-Simon geometric phase for arbitrary evolutions or the Aharonov-Anandan (AA) geometric phase for cyclic evolutions. Pointed weak energy gauge transformations and the PFS 1-form are defined and discussed and the relationship between the PFS 1-form and the AA connection 1-form is established. [Editors note: for a video of the talk given by Prof. Parks at the Aharonov-80 conference in 2012 at Chapman University, see http://quantum.chapman.edu/talk-25.

  15. Influence of environmental noise on the weak value amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuannmin; Zhang, Yu-Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Quantum systems are always disturbed by environmental noise. We have investigated the influence of the environmental noise on the amplification in weak measurements. Three typical quantum noise processes are discussed in this article. The maximum expectation values of the observables of the measuring device decrease sharply with the strength of the depolarizing and phase damping channels, while the amplification effect of weak measurement is immune to the amplitude damping noise. To obtain significantly amplified signals, we must ensure that the preselection quantum systems are kept away from the depolarizing and phase damping processes.

  16. Are all interventions created equal? A multi-threat approach to tailoring stereotype threat interventions.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jenessa R; Williams, Amy M; Hambarchyan, Mariam

    2013-02-01

    To date, stereotype threat interventions have been considered interchangeable. Across 4 experiments, the present research demonstrates that stereotype threat interventions need to be tailored to the specific form of experienced stereotype threat to be effective. The Multi-Threat Framework (Shapiro & Neuberg, 2007) distinguishes between group-as-target stereotype threats-concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on the abilities of one's group-and self-as-target stereotype threats-concerns that a stereotype-relevant performance will reflect poorly on one's own abilities. The present experiments explored Black college students' performance on diagnostic intelligence tests (Experiments 1 and 3) and women's interest (Experiment 2) and performance (Experiment 4) in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Across the 4 experiments, participants were randomly assigned to experience either a group-as-target or self-as-target stereotype threat. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that role model interventions were successful at protecting only against group-as-target stereotype threats, and Experiments 3 and 4 revealed that self-affirmation interventions were successful at protecting only against self-as-target stereotype threats. The present research provides an experimental test of the Multi-Threat Framework across different negatively stereotyped groups (Black students, female students), different negatively stereotyped domains (general intelligence, STEM), and different outcomes (test performance, career interest). This research suggests that interventions should address the range of possible stereotype threats to effectively protect individuals against these threats. Through an appreciation of the distinct forms of stereotype threats and the ways in which interventions work to reduce them, this research aims to facilitate a more complete understanding of stereotype threat.

  17. Forecasting Lightning Threat Using WRF Proxy Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaul, E. W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Given that high-resolution WRF forecasts can capture the character of convective outbreaks, we seek to: 1. Create WRF forecasts of LTG threat (1-24 h), based on 2 proxy fields from explicitly simulated convection: - graupel flux near -15 C (captures LTG time variability) - vertically integrated ice (captures LTG threat area). 2. Calibrate each threat to yield accurate quantitative peak flash rate densities. 3. Also evaluate threats for areal coverage, time variability. 4. Blend threats to optimize results. 5. Examine sensitivity to model mesh, microphysics. Methods: 1. Use high-resolution 2-km WRF simulations to prognose convection for a diverse series of selected case studies. 2. Evaluate graupel fluxes; vertically integrated ice (VII). 3. Calibrate WRF LTG proxies using peak total LTG flash rate densities from NALMA; relationships look linear, with regression line passing through origin. 4. Truncate low threat values to make threat areal coverage match NALMA flash extent density obs. 5. Blend proxies to achieve optimal performance 6. Study CAPS 4-km ensembles to evaluate sensitivities.

  18. Quadriceps muscle strength in scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Swallow, E B; Barreiro, E; Gosker, H; Sathyapala, S A; Sanchez, F; Hopkinson, N S; Moxham, J; Schols, A; Gea, J; Polkey, M I

    2009-12-01

    Quadriceps muscle weakness is an important component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesised that quadriceps weakness would also be a feature of restrictive lung disease due to scoliosis. We studied 10 patients with severe scoliosis (median (interquartile range (IQR)) forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1))() 35.3 (11)% predicted), 10 patients with severe COPD (FEV(1) 26.5 (9.0)% pred) and 10 healthy age-matched adults. We measured quadriceps strength, exercise capacity and analysed quadriceps muscle biopsies for myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) isoform expression and the presence of oxidative stress. Both groups exhibited quadriceps weakness with median (IQR) maximal voluntary contraction force being 46.0 (17.0) kg, 21.5 (21.0) kg and 31.5 (11.0) kg, respectively (p = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively, for each patient group against controls). Oxidative stress was significantly greater in the quadriceps of both restrictive and COPD patients. The scoliosis patients exhibited a decrease in the proportion of MyHC type I compared with controls; median (IQR) 35.3 (18.5)% compared with 47.7 (9.3)%, p = 0.028. The scoliosis patients also showed an increase in MyHC IIx (26.3 (15.5)% compared with 11.3 (13.0)%, p = 0.01. Quadriceps weakness is a feature of severe scoliosis; the similarities between patients with scoliosis and patients with COPD suggest a common aetiology to quadriceps weakness in both conditions.

  19. Quantifying shoulder rotation weakness in patients with shoulder impingement.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Timothy F; Nahow, Rachael C; Nicholas, Stephen J; McHugh, Malachy P

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength deficits could be detected in individuals with and without shoulder impingement, all of whom had normal shoulder strength bilaterally according to grading of manual muscle testing. Strength of the internal rotators and external rotators was tested isokinetically at 60 degrees /s and 180 degrees /s, as well as manually with a handheld dynamometer (HHD) in 17 patients and 22 control subjects. Testing was performed with the shoulder positioned in the scapular plane and in 90 degrees of shoulder abduction with 90 degrees of elbow flexion (90-90). The peak torque was determined for each movement. The strength deficit between the involved and uninvolved arms (patients) and the dominant and nondominant arms (control subjects) was calculated for each subject. Comparisons were made for the scapular-plane and 90-90 positions between isokinetic and HHD testing. Despite a normal muscle grade, patients had marked weakness (28% deficit, P < .01) in external rotators at the 90-90 position tested with the HHD. In contrast, external rotator weakness was not evident with isokinetic testing at the 90-90 position (60 degrees /s and 180 degrees /s, 0% deficit, P = .99). In control subjects, greater internal rotator strength in the dominant compared with the nondominant arm was evident with the HHD at the 90-90 position (11%, P < .01) and in the scapular plane (7%, P < .05). Using an HHD while performing manual muscle testing can quantify shoulder strength deficits that may not be apparent with isokinetic testing. By using an HHD during shoulder testing, clinicians can identify weakness that may have been presumed normal.

  20. Increased inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength following respiratory muscle strength training (RMST) in two patients with late-onset Pompe disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, Harrison N; Moss, Tronda; Edwards, Laurie; Kishnani, Priya S

    2011-11-01

    Respiratory muscle strength training (RMST) is an exercise-based intervention which targets respiratory muscle weakness. We implemented RMST in two patients with late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD), both who had received long-term enzyme replacement therapy and had severe respiratory weakness. Over 16-32 weeks, inspiratory muscle strength increased by 73-74%. Expiratory muscle strength increased 31-48% over 12-22 weeks. These findings suggest that RMST may increase respiratory muscle strength, even in the setting of LOPD and severe baseline weakness.

  1. Emerging oomycete threats to plants and animals.

    PubMed

    Derevnina, Lida; Petre, Benjamin; Kellner, Ronny; Dagdas, Yasin F; Sarowar, Mohammad Nasif; Giannakopoulou, Artemis; De la Concepcion, Juan Carlos; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Pennington, Helen G; van West, Pieter; Kamoun, Sophien

    2016-12-05

    Oomycetes, or water moulds, are fungal-like organisms phylogenetically related to algae. They cause devastating diseases in both plants and animals. Here, we describe seven oomycete species that are emerging or re-emerging threats to agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture and natural ecosystems. They include the plant pathogens Phytophthora infestans, Phytophthora palmivora, Phytophthora ramorum, Plasmopara obducens, and the animal pathogens Aphanomyces invadans, Saprolegnia parasitica and Halioticida noduliformans For each species, we describe its pathology, importance and impact, discuss why it is an emerging threat and briefly review current research activities.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'.

  2. Vibrational spectroscopy standoff detection of threat chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Rivera, William; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C.; Castro-Suarez, John R.; Felix-Rivera, Hilsamar; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2011-06-01

    Spectroscopy based standoff detection systems: Raman and FTIR have been tested for detection of threat chemicals, including highly energetic materials, homemade explosives, explosives formulations and high explosives mixtures. Other threat chemicals studied included toxic industrial compounds (TIC) and chemical agent simulants. Microorganisms and biological threat agent simulants have also been detected at standoff distances. Open Path FTIR has been used to detect vapors and chemicals deposited on metal surfaces at μg/cm2 levels at distances as far as 30 m in active mode and 60 m in passive mode. In the case of Raman telescope, standoff distances for acetonitrile and ammonium nitrate were 140 m.

  3. Insider threat to secure facilities: data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-09

    Three data sets drawn from industries that have experienced internal security breaches are analyzed. The industries and the insider security breaches are considered analogous in one or more respects to insider threats potentially confronting managers in the nuclear industry. The three data sets are: bank fraud and embezzlement (BF and E), computer-related crime, and drug theft from drug manufacturers and distributors. A careful analysis by both descriptive and formal statistical techniques permits certain general conclusions on the internal threat to secure industries to be drawn. These conclusions are discussed and related to the potential insider threat in the nuclear industry. 49 tabs.

  4. THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    J. F. PILAT

    2000-03-01

    Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

  5. Identity threat and stigma in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Marziliano, Allison; Moyer, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stigma has undergone an important transformation in recent decades. In general, this disease no longer fits squarely into Goffman’s classic taxonomy of stigmatized conditions. This review will demonstrate that, with important adaptations, an identity-threat model of stigma can be used to organize cancer stigma research post-Goffman. This adapted model postulates that one’s personal attributions, responses to situational threat, and disease/treatment characteristics can be used to predict identity threat and well-being of individuals with cancer. Implications for further research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:28070343

  6. Weak Wave Coupling Through Plasma Inhomogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, D. G.

    1998-11-01

    Some effects of linear wave coupling due to effects of plasma inhomogeneity are well known through the process of mode conversion(D. G. Swanson, Theory of Mode Conversion and Tunneling in Inhomogenous Plasmas), (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1998).. Another type of resonant coupling in a periodically inhomogeneous plasma has been recently found(V. A. Svidzinski and D. G. Swanson, Physics of Plasmas series 5), 486 (1998)., but any two waves will generally be coupled if the plasma is inhomogeneous, although the coupling may be weak. If the wavelengths are close, nearly all of the energy in one mode may be transferred to the other mode over a distance that depends on the coupling strength. The coupling strength depends on gradients of the plasma parameters. This means that the coupling may occur over an extended region in space, but that substantial amounts of wave energy may be transferred to a wave traditionally thought to be independent. Low-frequency Alfvén waves are shown to be a good example of this type of coupling.

  7. Warping the Weak Gravity Conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooner, Karta; Parameswaran, Susha; Zavala, Ivonne

    2016-08-01

    The Weak Gravity Conjecture, if valid, rules out simple models of Natural Inflation by restricting their axion decay constant to be sub-Planckian. We revisit stringy attempts to realise Natural Inflation, with a single open string axionic inflaton from a probe D-brane in a warped throat. We show that warped geometries can allow the requisite super-Planckian axion decay constant to be achieved, within the supergravity approximation and consistently with the Weak Gravity Conjecture. Preliminary estimates of the brane backreaction suggest that the probe approximation may be under control. However, there is a tension between large axion decay constant and high string scale, where the requisite high string scale is difficult to achieve in all attempts to realise large field inflation using perturbative string theory. We comment on the Generalized Weak Gravity Conjecture in the light of our results.

  8. Weak localization and weak antilocalization in doped germanium epilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, P. J.; Mansell, R.; Holmes, S. N.; Myronov, M.; Barnes, C. H. W.

    2017-02-01

    The magnetoresistance of 50 nm thick epilayers of doped germanium is measured at a range of temperatures down to 1.6 K. Both n- and p-type devices show quantum corrections to the conductivity in an applied magnetic field, with n-type devices displaying weak localization and p-type devices showing weak antilocalization. From fits to these data using the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model, the phase coherence length of each device is extracted, as well as the spin diffusion length of the p-type device. We obtain phase coherence lengths as large as 325 nm in the highly doped n-type device, presenting possible applications in quantum technologies. The decay of the phase coherence length with temperature is found to obey the same power law of lϕ ∝ Tc, where c = -0.68 ± 0.03, for each device, in spite of the clear differences in the nature of the conduction. In the p-type device, the measured spin diffusion length does not change over the range of temperatures for which weak antilocalization can be observed. The presence of a spin-orbit interaction manifested as weak antilocalization in the p-type epilayer suggests that these structures could be developed for use in spintronic devices such as the spin-FET, where significant spin lifetimes would be important for efficient device operation.

  9. Examining Perceived Stereotype Threat among Overweight/Obese Adults Using a Multi-Threat Framework

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A.; Domoff, Sarah E.; Burmeister, Jacob M.; Koball, Afton M.; Hinman, Nova G.; Davis, Alan K.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Leroy, Michelle; Bannon, Erin; Hoffmann, Debra A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Multi-Threat Framework accounts for potentially different forms of stereotype threat that differ in target (i.e., the individual or the group) and source (i.e., the self or others). This investigation examined how these different forms of perceived stereotype threat were related to concepts, such as group identity, stereotype endorsement, stigma consciousness, etc., among overweight and obese individuals. Method 216 adults completed an online survey. Participants’ mean age was 23.6 (SD 10.1; range 18–64) years and mean BMI was 31.6 (SD 7.5) kg/m2. Results Participants reported a history of feeling threatened by stereotypes related to weight. When reflecting on past experiences of perceived stereotype threat, participants reported greater levels of self/own stereotype threat compared to group stereotype threat. Level of stereotype threat was related to a number of personal characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI) and individual factors (i.e., group identity, stigma consciousness, fear of fat). Conclusion Individuals who are overweight report a history of being threatened by negative stereotypes. The findings support the Multi-Threat Framework for stereotype threat based on body weight. Overweight individuals’ susceptibility to stereotype threat may vary systematically depending on several factors. Future research should examine weight-related stereotypes’ impact on cognitive and behavioral outcomes. PMID:23736227

  10. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1989-01-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. Two of its most publicized comological connections are emphasized: big bang nucleosynthesis and dark matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of neutrine flavors, N(sub nu) is approximately 3 which in now being confirmed. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galacty and structure formation in the universe. The role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure is demonstrated.

  11. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N. ):)

    1989-12-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Social identity threat motivates science-discrediting online comments.

    PubMed

    Nauroth, Peter; Gollwitzer, Mario; Bender, Jens; Rothmund, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing social identity threat from scientific findings can lead people to cognitively devalue the respective findings. Three studies examined whether potentially threatening scientific findings motivate group members to take action against the respective findings by publicly discrediting them on the Web. Results show that strongly (vs. weakly) identified group members (i.e., people who identified as "gamers") were particularly likely to discredit social identity threatening findings publicly (i.e., studies that found an effect of playing violent video games on aggression). A content analytical evaluation of online comments revealed that social identification specifically predicted critiques of the methodology employed in potentially threatening, but not in non-threatening research (Study 2). Furthermore, when participants were collectively (vs. self-) affirmed, identification did no longer predict discrediting posting behavior (Study 3). These findings contribute to the understanding of the formation of online collective action and add to the burgeoning literature on the question why certain scientific findings sometimes face a broad public opposition.

  13. Experimental Test of Error-Disturbance Uncertainty Relations by Weak Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Fumihiro; Baek, So-Young; Ozawa, Masanao; Edamatsu, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally test the error-disturbance uncertainty relation (EDR) in generalized, strength-variable measurement of a single photon polarization qubit, making use of weak measurement that keeps the initial signal state practically unchanged. We demonstrate that the Heisenberg EDR is violated, yet the Ozawa and Branciard EDRs are valid throughout the range of our measurement strength.

  14. Acid Rain: The Silent Environmental Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmud, Mia

    1992-01-01

    Describes the silent environmental threat posed by acid rain. Caused mainly by manmade pollutants, acid rain damages water and trees, decreases visibility, corrodes monuments, and threatens public health. The article includes guidelines for action. (SM)

  15. Need threat can motivate performance after ostracism.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Harkins, Stephen G; Williams, Kipling D

    2010-05-01

    Ostracism threatens fundamental needs of belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence, which should motivate participants to respond to this threat. However, research has yet to examine the role of need threat in producing motivation after ostracism. In the current work, participants completed a "cognitive ability" (antisaccade) task following Cyberball-induced ostracism or inclusion. In two experiments, it was found that when ostracized, participants do not see antisaccade performance as a means of responding to the concerns produced by need threat; they respond only to the social threat, leading to worse performance than included participants (Experiments 1 and 2). However, when participants see an avenue of response (the Cyberball players can compare antisaccade performances), ostracized participants outperform included participants (Experiment 2). Moreover, this effect was mediated by the need for belonging, suggesting that ostracized participants were motivated to elevate their inclusionary status by demonstrating their worth on the cognitive ability task.

  16. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR)

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - David Bruemmer, Curtis Nielsen

    2016-07-12

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats. To learn more, visit

  17. Childhood maltreatment and threats with weapons.

    PubMed

    Casiano, Hygiea; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-11-01

    The relationship between childhood maltreatment and future threats with weapons is unknown. We examined data from the nationally representative National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 5692) and conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lifetime behavior of threatening others with a gun or other weapon. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing domestic violence were significantly associated with threats made with a gun (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] ranging between 3.38 and 4.07) and other weapons (AOR ranging between 2.16 and 2.83). The greater the number of types of maltreatment experienced, the stronger the association with lifetime threats made to others with guns and any weapons. Over 94% of respondents who experienced maltreatment and made threats reported that the maltreatment occurred prior to threatening others with weapons. Prevention efforts that reduce exposure to maltreatment may reduce violent behavior in later life.

  18. Autonomous Realtime Threat-Hunting Robot (ARTHR)

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - David Bruemmer, Curtis Nielsen

    2008-05-29

    Idaho National Laboratory researchers developed an intelligent plug-and-play robot payload that transforms commercial robots into effective first responders for deadly chemical, radiological and explosive threats. To learn more, visit

  19. Advanced Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Larsen, Robert; O'Brien, Mike; Edmunds, Tom

    2009-02-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is an update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat. The postulated threat includes both abrupt and protracted theft scenarios. Presentation is envisioned to be through classroom instruction and discussion. Several practical and group exercises are included for demonstration and application of the analysis approach contained in the lecture/discussion sessions as applied to a hypothetical nuclear facility.

  20. Growth and decay of weak shock waves in magnetogasdynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, L. P.; Singh, D. B.; Ram, S. D.

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the problem of the propagation of weak shock waves in an inviscid, electrically conducting fluid under the influence of a magnetic field. The analysis assumes the following two cases: (1) a planar flow with a uniform transverse magnetic field and (2) cylindrically symmetric flow with a uniform axial or varying azimuthal magnetic field. A system of two coupled nonlinear transport equations, governing the strength of a shock wave and the first-order discontinuity induced behind it, are derived that admit a solution that agrees with the classical decay laws for a weak shock. An analytic expression for the determination of the shock formation distance is obtained. How the magnetic field strength, whether axial or azimuthal, influences the shock formation is also assessed.

  1. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  2. Top Cyber: Developing the Top One Percent to Defeat the Advanced Persistent Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-13

    bored kids looking for a thrill, laying down scripts written by others and manipulating simple operating system weaknesses 2. Hacking Group: loose...forming the peak. All seven hacking categories represent some threat level to the nation:  Low = Levels 1-3 (Script Kiddie, Hacking Group...shows it ready and able to bring cyber skills to bear with strong effect. 5 Other reports attribute the hacking of U.S. and South Korean sites to

  3. DoD Insider Threat Mitigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    password file at home , subsequently gaining unlimited access to the classified network, disruption on normal operations and the theft of DoD information...during military operations or crisis situations . 2 Vulnerability 3 Threat 1 Criticality 4 5 6 7 RISK Risk Model DoD Insider Threat IPT 8...personnel security and management chain. This will also support PDD 63 by fostering the partnership between the public and private sectors. DoD should

  4. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  5. Thucydides was Right: Defining the Future Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    future threat, and the author believes that there are historical parallels between the time of Thucydides and our own that can help us avoid much peril...University Press of Kentucky, 2004); Another Bloody Century: Future Warfare (Weidenfeld and Nicol- son, 2005); Strategy and History: Essays on Theory and...source of evidence on future threat; instead, the concept of the historical parallel, the difference between the two ideas, is very large. Fourth

  6. Advanced insider threat mitigation workshop instructional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Larsen, Robert; O Brien, Mike; Edmunds, Tom

    2008-11-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is a n update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios.

  7. Asteroid airburst altitude vs. strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Darrel; Wheeler, Lorien; Mathias, Donovan

    2016-10-01

    Small NEO asteroids (<Ø140m) may not be a threat on a national or global level but can still cause a significant amount of local damage as demonstrated by the Chelyabinsk event where there was over $33 million worth of damage (1 billion roubles) and 1500 were injured, mostly due to broken glass. The ground damage from a small asteroid depends strongly on the altitude at which they "burst" where most of the energy is deposited in the atmosphere. The ability to accurately predict ground damage is useful in determining appropriate evacuation or shelter plans and emergency management.Strong asteroids, such as a monolithic boulder, fail and create peak energy deposition close to the altitude at which ram dynamic pressure exceeds the material cohesive strength. Weaker asteroids, such as a rubble pile, structurally fail at higher altitude, but it requires the increased aerodynamic pressure at lower altitude to disrupt and disperse the rubble. Consequently the resulting airbursts have a peak energy deposition at similar altitudes.In this study hydrocode simulations of the entry and break-up of small asteroids were performed to examine the effect of strength, size, composition, entry angle, and speed on the resulting airburst. This presentation will show movies of the simulations, the results of peak burst height, and the comparison to semi-analytical models.

  8. The concept of ego threat in social and personality psychology: is ego threat a viable scientific construct?

    PubMed

    Leary, Mark R; Terry, Meredith L; Batts Allen, Ashley; Tate, Eleanor B

    2009-08-01

    Although widely invoked as an explanation for psychological phenomena, ego threat has been conceptualized and induced in a variety of ways. Most contemporary research conceptualizes ego threat as a threat to a person's self-image or self-esteem, but experimental operationalizations of ego threat usually confound threats to self-esteem with threats to public image or decreased control over negative events, leading to an inability to distinguish the effects of threats to people's personal egos from threats to public image or threats to feelings of control. This article reviews research on ego threat, discusses experimental manipulations that confound ego threat with other processes, and makes recommendations regarding the use of ego threat as a construct in personality and social psychology.

  9. An Information Fusion Framework for Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, Justin M; Kerekes, Ryan A; Treadwell, Jim N

    2009-01-01

    Modern enterprises are becoming increasingly sensitive to the potential destructive power of small groups or individuals with malicious intent. In response, significant investments are being made in developing a means to assess the likelihood of certain threats to their enterprises. Threat assessment needs are typically focused in very specific application areas where current processes rely heavily on human analysis to both combine any available data and draw conclusions about the probability of a threat. A generic approach to threat assessment is proposed, including a threat taxonomy and decision-level information fusion framework, that provides a computational means for merging multi-modal data for the purpose of assessing the presence of a threat. The framework is designed for flexibility, and intentionally accounts for the accuracy of each data source, given the environmental conditions, in order to manage the uncertainty associated with any acquired data. The taxonomy and information fusion framework is described, and discussed in the context of real-world applications such as shipping container security and cyber security.

  10. Anisotropic weak localization of light.

    PubMed

    Sapienza, Riccardo; Mujumdar, Sushil; Cheung, Cecil; Yodh, A G; Wiersma, Diederik

    2004-01-23

    We have observed angular anisotropy in weak localization of light from highly scattering, orientationally ordered, nematic liquid crystals. This demonstration of angular anisotropy in a multiple-scattering interference phenomenon was facilitated by a light scattering instrument with extraordinary angular resolution. The measured anisotropies were consistent with a simple model of coherent backscattering generalized for propagation-direction dependent mean free paths.

  11. N-{Delta} weak transition

    SciTech Connect

    Graczyk, Krzysztof M.

    2011-11-23

    A short review of the Rein-Sehgal and isobar models is presented. The attention is focused on the nucleon-{Delta}(1232) weak transition form-factors. The results of the recent re-analyses of the ANL and BNL bubble chamber neutrino-deuteron scattering data are discussed.

  12. Theory of weak hypernuclear decay

    SciTech Connect

    Dubach, J.F.; Feldman, G.B.; Holstein, B.R. |; de la Torre, L.

    1996-07-01

    The weak nomesonic decay of {Lambda}-hypernuclei is studied in the context of a one-meson-exchange model. Predictions are made for the decay rate, the {ital p}/{ital n} stimulation ratio and the asymmetry in polarized hypernuclear decay. Copyright {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  13. Weak localization of seismic waves.

    PubMed

    Larose, E; Margerin, L; Van Tiggelen, B A; Campillo, M

    2004-07-23

    We report the observation of weak localization of seismic waves in a natural environment. It emerges as a doubling of the seismic energy around the source within a spot of the width of a wavelength, which is several tens of meters in our case. The characteristic time for its onset is the scattering mean-free time that quantifies the internal heterogeneity.

  14. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick

    2005-12-15

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening mass. Since the lensing effects arise from deflections of the light rays due to fluctuations of the gravitational potential, they can be directly related to the underlying density field of the large-scale structures. Weak gravitational surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background observations as they probe unbiased nonlinear matter power spectra at medium redshift. Ongoing CMBR experiments such as WMAP and a future Planck satellite mission will measure the standard cosmological parameters with unprecedented accuracy. The focus of attention will then shift to understanding the nature of dark matter and vacuum energy: several recent studies suggest that lensing is the best method for constraining the dark energy equation of state. During the next 5 year period, ongoing and future weak lensing surveys such as the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM; e.g. SNAP) or the Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope will play a major role in advancing our understanding of the universe in this direction. In this review article, we describe various aspects of probing the matter power spectrum and the bi-spectrum and other related statistics with weak lensing surveys. This can be used to probe the background dynamics of the universe as well as the nature of dark matter and dark energy.

  15. The influence of stereotype threat on immigrants: review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Appel, Markus; Weber, Silvana; Kronberger, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In many regions around the world students with certain immigrant backgrounds underachieve in educational settings. This paper provides a review and meta-analysis on one potential source of the immigrant achievement gap: stereotype threat, a situational predicament that may prevent students to perform up to their full abilities. A meta-analysis of 19 experiments suggests an overall mean effect size of 0.63 (random effects model) in support of stereotype threat theory. The results are complemented by moderator analyses with regard to circulation (published or unpublished research), cultural context (US versus Europe), age of immigrants, type of stereotype threat manipulation, dependent measures, and means for identification of immigrant status; evidence on the role of ethnic identity strength is reviewed. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26217256

  16. Inhibitory control as a moderator of threat-related interference biases in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Teachman, Bethany A

    2015-01-01

    Prior findings are mixed regarding the presence and direction of threat-related interference biases in social anxiety. The current study examined general inhibitory control (IC), measured by the classic colour-word Stroop, as a moderator of the relationship between both threat interference biases [indexed by the emotional Stroop (e-Stroop)] and several social anxiety indicators. High socially anxious undergraduate students (N = 159) completed the emotional and colour-word Stroop tasks, followed by an anxiety-inducing speech task. Participants completed measures of trait social anxiety, state anxiety before and during the speech, negative task-interfering cognitions during the speech and overall self-evaluation of speech performance. Speech duration was used to measure behavioural avoidance. In line with hypotheses, IC moderated the relationship between e-Stroop bias and every anxiety indicator (with the exception of behavioural avoidance), such that greater social-threat interference was associated with higher anxiety among those with weak IC, whereas lesser social-threat interference was associated with higher anxiety among those with strong IC. Implications for the theory and treatment of threat interference biases in socially anxious individuals are discussed.

  17. Observationally determined Fe II oscillator strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, J. M.; van Steenberg, M.; Seab, C. G.

    1983-08-01

    Absorption oscillator strengths for 21 Fe II resonance lines, have been determined using a curve-of-growth analysis of interstellar data from the Copernicus and International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellites. In addition to slight changes in strengths of the far-UV lines, new f-values are reported for wavelength 1608.45, a prominent line in interstellar and quasar absorption spectra, and for wavelength 2260.08, a weak, newly identified linen in IUE interstellar spectra. An upper limit on the strength of the undetected line at 2366.867 A (UV multiplet 2) is set. Using revised oscillator strengths, Fe II column densities toward 13 OB stars are derived. The interstellar depletions, (Fe/H), relative to solar values range between factors of 10 and 120.

  18. Weak values and weak coupling maximizing the output of weak measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Di Lorenzo, Antonio

    2014-06-15

    In a weak measurement, the average output 〈o〉 of a probe that measures an observable A{sup -hat} of a quantum system undergoing both a preparation in a state ρ{sub i} and a postselection in a state E{sub f} is, to a good approximation, a function of the weak value A{sub w}=Tr[E{sub f}A{sup -hat} ρ{sub i}]/Tr[E{sub f}ρ{sub i}], a complex number. For a fixed coupling λ, when the overlap Tr[E{sub f}ρ{sub i}] is very small, A{sub w} diverges, but 〈o〉 stays finite, often tending to zero for symmetry reasons. This paper answers the questions: what is the weak value that maximizes the output for a fixed coupling? What is the coupling that maximizes the output for a fixed weak value? We derive equations for the optimal values of A{sub w} and λ, and provide the solutions. The results are independent of the dimensionality of the system, and they apply to a probe having a Hilbert space of arbitrary dimension. Using the Schrödinger–Robertson uncertainty relation, we demonstrate that, in an important case, the amplification 〈o〉 cannot exceed the initial uncertainty σ{sub o} in the observable o{sup -hat}, we provide an upper limit for the more general case, and a strategy to obtain 〈o〉≫σ{sub o}. - Highlights: •We have provided a general framework to find the extremal values of a weak measurement. •We have derived the location of the extremal values in terms of preparation and postselection. •We have devised a maximization strategy going beyond the limit of the Schrödinger–Robertson relation.

  19. Tomography and weak lensing statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Munshi, Dipak; Coles, Peter; Kilbinger, Martin E-mail: peter.coles@astro.cf.ac.uk

    2014-04-01

    We provide generic predictions for the lower order cumulants of weak lensing maps, and their correlators for tomographic bins as well as in three dimensions (3D). Using small-angle approximation, we derive the corresponding one- and two-point probability distribution function for the tomographic maps from different bins and for 3D convergence maps. The modelling of weak lensing statistics is obtained by adopting a detailed prescription for the underlying density contrast that involves hierarchal ansatz and lognormal distribution. We study the dependence of our results on cosmological parameters and source distributions corresponding to the realistic surveys such as LSST and DES. We briefly outline how photometric redshift information can be incorporated in our results. We also show how topological properties of convergence maps can be quantified using our results.

  20. Flexibility and Muscular Strength.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell

    1988-01-01

    This definition of flexibility and muscular strength also explores their roles in overall physical fitness and focuses on how increased flexibility and muscular strength can help decrease or eliminate lower back pain. (CB)

  1. Stereotype threat affects financial decision making.

    PubMed

    Carr, Priyanka B; Steele, Claude M

    2010-10-01

    The research presented in this article provides the first evidence that one's decision making can be influenced by concerns about stereotypes and the devaluation of one's identity. Many studies document gender differences in decision making, and often attribute these differences to innate and stable factors, such as biological and hormonal differences. In three studies, we found that stereotype threat affected decision making and led to gender differences in loss-aversion and risk-aversion behaviors. In Study 1, women subjected to stereotype threat in academic and business settings were more loss averse than both men and women who were not facing the threat of being viewed in light of negative stereotypes. We found no gender differences in loss-aversion behavior in the absence of stereotype threat. In Studies 2a and 2b, we found the same pattern of effects for risk-aversion behavior that we had observed for loss-aversion behavior. In addition, in Study 2b, ego depletion mediated the effects of stereotype threat on women's decision making. These results suggest that individuals' decision making can be influenced by stereotype concerns.

  2. Strength Training for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  3. Insider Threat Assessment: Model, Analysis and Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinchani, Ramkumar; Ha, Duc; Iyer, Anusha; Ngo, Hung Q.; Upadhyaya, Shambhu

    Insider threat is typically attributed to legitimate users who maliciously leverage their system privileges, and familiarity and proximity to their computational environment to compromise valuable information or inflict damage. According to the annual CSI/FBI surveys conducted since 1996, internal attacks and insider abuse form a significant portion of reported incidents. The strongest indication yet that insider threat is very real is given by the recent study [2] jointly conducted by CERT and the US Secret Service; the first of its kind, which provides an in-depth insight into the problem in a real-world setting. However, there is no known body of work which addresses this problem effectively. There are several challenges, beginning with understanding the threat.

  4. Epidemiology today: Mitigating threats to an ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kreiger, Nancy

    2016-06-27

    Ecosystems comprise all the living and non-living things in a particular area (e.g., rain forest, desert), which interact and maintain equilibrium. Loss of equilibrium (e.g., clear-cutting trees in a rain forest) can mean the decline of the ecosystem, unless it is able to adapt to the new circumstances. The term "knowledge ecosystem" describes an approach to managing knowledge in a particular field; the components of this system include the people, the technological skills and resources, and information or data. Epidemiology can be thought of as a knowledge ecosystem and, like ecological systems, its existence can be threatened, from both internal and external forces that may alter its equilibrium. This paper describes some threats to the epidemiology knowledge ecosystem, how these threats came about, and what responses we can make that may serve to mitigate those threats.

  5. [The threat of snake and scorpion venoms].

    PubMed

    Płusa, Tadeusz; Smędzik, Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    Venoms of snakes and scorpions pose a significant threat to the health and life of humans. The speed and range of their actions causes damage of the organ responsible for the maintenance of vital signs. Venomous snake venoms cause blood clotting disorders, tissue necrosis and hemolysis, and the release of a number of proinflammatory cytokines and impair antibody synthesis. Availability of antitoxins is limited and in the most cases supportive treatment is recommended. In turn, the venom of scorpions beside intestinal symptoms cause significant impairment of neuromuscular conduction, causing severe respiratory disorders. Action venom poses a particular threat to sensitive patients. The degree of threat to life caused by the venom of snakes and scorpions authorizes the treatment of these substances as a potential biological weapon.

  6. Multisensor data fusion for IED threat detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mees, Wim; Heremans, Roel

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we present the multi-sensor registration and fusion algorithms that were developed for a force protection research project in order to detect threats against military patrol vehicles. The fusion is performed at object level, using a hierarchical evidence aggregation approach. It first uses expert domain knowledge about the features used to characterize the detected threats, that is implemented in the form of a fuzzy expert system. The next level consists in fusing intra-sensor and inter-sensor information. Here an ordered weighted averaging operator is used. The object level fusion between candidate threats that are detected asynchronously on a moving vehicle by sensors with different imaging geometries, requires an accurate sensor to world coordinate transformation. This image registration will also be discussed in this paper.

  7. Environmental Health: Threats and their Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Holdstock, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in the provision of an acceptable standard of health care, particularly in the developing world, will be undermined by three ongoing processes: ongoing armed conflicts; the threat of global warming due to rising levels of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide emitted by developed countries; and by rapidly rising populations. The key features of these three threats are summarised, and it is shown that interactions between them increase both the likelihood of their occurrence and the probable harm that they will cause. Some of the interactions are described, with ways of providing health care taking into account the threats and their interactions, and the paradox is emphasised that better health care in the developing world will further increase population growth followed by increased greenhouse gas emissions. Improved education for women and free and unlimited access to modern methods of contraception are vital. PMID:21572838

  8. Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Hilland, D.; Phipps, G.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G.

    1997-12-31

    The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

  9. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  10. Vocal fundamental and formant frequencies are honest signals of threat potential in peripubertal males.

    PubMed

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R; Gurven, Michael; Puts, David A; Gaulin, Steven J C

    2014-07-01

    Fundamental and formant frequencies influence perceived pitch and are sexually dimorphic in humans. The information content of these acoustic parameters can illuminate the forces of sexual selection shaping vocal sex differences as well as the mechanisms that ensure signal reliability. We use multiple regression to examine the relationships between somatic (height, adiposity, and strength) and acoustic (fundamental frequency [F0], formant position [Pf], and fundamental frequency variation [F0-SD]) characteristics in a sample of peripubertal Bolivian Tsimane. Results indicate that among males-but not females-strength is the strongest predictor of F0 and Pf and that F0 and Pf are independent predictors of strength when height and adiposity are controlled. These findings suggest that listeners may attend to vocal frequencies because they signal honest, nonredundant information about male strength and threat potential, which are strongly related to physical maturity and which cannot be ascertained from visual or other indicators of height or adiposity alone.

  11. Bioterrorism: is it a real threat?

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, René; Preiser, Wolfgang

    2005-05-01

    The Geneva Protocol of 1925 commits the signatory nations to refraining from the use of biological weapons. However, the terrorist assaults of September 2001 and, subsequently, the anthrax-containing letters are cause for great concerns: new threats to the security of nations are expected, as terrorist organizations seem to increasingly explore novel ways of spreading terror. In this context, naturally emerging diseases such as SARS, monkeypox or West Nile fever assume new importance because it is difficult to distinguish between natural epidemics and possible bioweapon assaults. Great efforts on the part of governments and public health authorities are necessary to counteract these threats.

  12. Experimental evidence of threat-sensitive collective avoidance responses in a large wild-caught herring school.

    PubMed

    Rieucau, Guillaume; Boswell, Kevin M; De Robertis, Alex; Macaulay, Gavin J; Handegard, Nils Olav

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation is commonly thought to improve animals' security. Within aquatic ecosystems, group-living prey can learn about immediate threats using cues perceived directly from predators, or from collective behaviours, for example, by reacting to the escape behaviours of companions. Combining cues from different modalities may improve the accuracy of prey antipredatory decisions. In this study, we explored the sensory modalities that mediate collective antipredatory responses of herring (Clupea harengus) when in a large school (approximately 60,000 individuals). By conducting a simulated predator encounter experiment in a semi-controlled environment (a sea cage), we tested the hypothesis that the collective responses of herring are threat-sensitive. We investigated whether cues from potential threats obtained visually or from the perception of water displacement, used independently or in an additive way, affected the strength of the collective avoidance reactions. We modified the sensory nature of the simulated threat by exposing the herring to 4 predator models differing in shape and transparency. The collective vertical avoidance response was observed and quantified using active acoustics. The combination of sensory cues elicited the strongest avoidance reactions, suggesting that collective antipredator responses in herring are mediated by the sensory modalities involved during threat detection in an additive fashion. Thus, this study provides evidence for magnitude-graded threat responses in a large school of wild-caught herring which is consistent with the "threat-sensitive hypothesis".

  13. Experimental Evidence of Threat-Sensitive Collective Avoidance Responses in a Large Wild-Caught Herring School

    PubMed Central

    Rieucau, Guillaume; Boswell, Kevin M.; De Robertis, Alex; Macaulay, Gavin J.; Handegard, Nils Olav

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation is commonly thought to improve animals' security. Within aquatic ecosystems, group-living prey can learn about immediate threats using cues perceived directly from predators, or from collective behaviours, for example, by reacting to the escape behaviours of companions. Combining cues from different modalities may improve the accuracy of prey antipredatory decisions. In this study, we explored the sensory modalities that mediate collective antipredatory responses of herring (Clupea harengus) when in a large school (approximately 60 000 individuals). By conducting a simulated predator encounter experiment in a semi-controlled environment (a sea cage), we tested the hypothesis that the collective responses of herring are threat-sensitive. We investigated whether cues from potential threats obtained visually or from the perception of water displacement, used independently or in an additive way, affected the strength of the collective avoidance reactions. We modified the sensory nature of the simulated threat by exposing the herring to 4 predator models differing in shape and transparency. The collective vertical avoidance response was observed and quantified using active acoustics. The combination of sensory cues elicited the strongest avoidance reactions, suggesting that collective antipredator responses in herring are mediated by the sensory modalities involved during threat detection in an additive fashion. Thus, this study provides evidence for magnitude-graded threat responses in a large school of wild-caught herring which is consistent with the “threat-sensitive hypothesis”. PMID:24489778

  14. Strength Modeling Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Lee, P.; Wong, S.

    1985-01-01

    Strength modeling is a complex and multi-dimensional issue. There are numerous parameters to the problem of characterizing human strength, most notably: (1) position and orientation of body joints; (2) isometric versus dynamic strength; (3) effector force versus joint torque; (4) instantaneous versus steady force; (5) active force versus reactive force; (6) presence or absence of gravity; (7) body somatotype and composition; (8) body (segment) masses; (9) muscle group envolvement; (10) muscle size; (11) fatigue; and (12) practice (training) or familiarity. In surveying the available literature on strength measurement and modeling an attempt was made to examine as many of these parameters as possible. The conclusions reached at this point toward the feasibility of implementing computationally reasonable human strength models. The assessment of accuracy of any model against a specific individual, however, will probably not be possible on any realistic scale. Taken statistically, strength modeling may be an effective tool for general questions of task feasibility and strength requirements.

  15. Weak Faults, Yet Strong Middle Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, J. P.; Behr, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    A global compilation of stress magnitude from mylonites developed along major fault zones suggests that maximum differential stresses between 140 and 200 MPa are reached at temperatures between 300 and 350°C on normal, thrust, and strike-slip faults. These differential stresses are consistent with brittle rock strengths estimated based on Coulomb fracture (e.g., Byerlee's law), and with in-situ measurements of crustal stress measured in boreholes. This confirms previous suggestions that many parts of the continental crust are stressed close to failure down to the brittle-ductile transition. Many major active faults in all tectonic regimes are considered to be relatively weak, however, based on various lines of evidence, including their unfavorable orientation with respect to regional stresses, the absence of heat flow anomalies, the mechanical properties of fault gouge, and evidence for high fluid pressures along subduction zone megathrusts. Peak differential stresses estimated by a variety of techniques lie mostly in the range 1 - 20 MPa. The sharp contrast between differential stresses estimated on the seismogenic parts of major faults and those estimated from ductile rocks immediately below the brittle-ductile transition has the following implications: 1. The lower limit of seismicity in major fault zones is not controlled by the intersection of brittle fracture laws such as Byerlee's law with ductile creep laws. Rather, it represents an abrupt downward termination, probably controlled by temperature, of the weakening processes that govern fault behavior in the upper crust. 2. The seismogenic parts of major fault zones contribute little to lithospheric strength, and are unlikely to have much influence on either the slip rate or the location of the faults. Conversely, the high strength segments of ductile shear zones immediately below the brittle-ductile transition constitute a major load-bearing element within the lithosphere. Displacement rates are governed by

  16. Detecting weakly interacting massive particles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drukier, A. K.; Gelmini, G. B.

    The growing synergy between astrophysics, particle physics, and low background experiments strengthens the possibility of detecting astrophysical non-baryonic matter. The idea of direct detection is that an incident, massive weakly interacting particle could collide with a nucleus and transfer an energy that could be measured. The present low levels of background achieved by the PNL/USC Ge detector represent a new technology which yields interesting bounds on Galactic cold dark matter and on light bosons emitted from the Sun. Further improvements require the development of cryogenic detectors. The authors analyse the practicality of such detectors, their optimalization and background suppression using the "annual modulation effect".

  17. Relaxion monodromy and the Weak Gravity Conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, L. E.; Montero, M.; Uranga, A. M.; Valenzuela, I.

    2016-04-01

    The recently proposed relaxion models require extremely large trans-Planckian axion excursions as well as a potential explicitly violating the axion shift symmetry. The latter property is however inconsistent with the axion periodicity, which corresponds to a gauged discrete shift symmetry. A way to make things consistent is to use monodromy, i.e. both the axion and the potential parameters transform under the discrete shift symmetry. The structure is better described in terms of a 3-form field C μνρ coupling to the SM Higgs through its field strength F 4. The 4-form also couples linearly to the relaxion, in the Kaloper-Sorbo fashion. The extremely small relaxion-Higgs coupling arises in a see-saw fashion as g ≃ F 4 /f , with f being the axion decay constant. We discuss constraints on this type of constructions from membrane nucleation and the Weak Gravity Conjecture. The latter requires the existence of membranes, whose too fast nucleation could in principle drive the theory out of control, unless the cut-off scale is lowered. This allows to rule out the simplest models with the QCD axion as relaxion candidate on purely theoretical grounds. We also discuss possible avenues to embed this structure into string theory.

  18. Weak interactions at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1986-03-01

    Prospects for the study of standard model weak interactions at the SSC are reviewed, with emphasis on the unique capability of the SSC to study the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking whether the associated new quanta are at the TeV scale or higher. Symmetry breaking by the minimal Higgs mechanism and by related strong interaction dynamical variants is summarized. A set of measurements is outlined that would calibrate the proton structure functions and the backgrounds to new physics. The ability to measure the three weak gauge boson vertex is found to complement LEP II, with measurements extending to larger Q/sup 2/ at a comparable statistical level in detectable decays. B factory physics is briefly reviewed as one example of a possible broad program of high statistics studies of sub-TeV scale phenomena. The largest section of the talk is devoted to the possible manifestations of symmetry breaking in the WW and ZZ production cross sections. Some new results are presented bearing on the ability to detect high mass WW and ZZ pairs. The principal conclusion is that although nonstandard model scenarios are typically more forgiving, the capability to study symmetry breaking in the standard model (and in related strong interaction dynamical variants) requires achieving the SSC design goals of ..sqrt.. s,L = 40Tev, 10/sup 33/cm/sup -2/sec/sup -1/. 28 refs., 5 figs.

  19. The weak scale from BBN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Pinner, David; Ruderman, Joshua T.

    2014-12-01

    The measured values of the weak scale, v, and the first generation masses, m u, d, e , are simultaneously explained in the multiverse, with all these parameters scanning independently. At the same time, several remarkable coincidences are understood. Small variations in these parameters away from their measured values lead to the instability of hydrogen, the instability of heavy nuclei, and either a hydrogen or a helium dominated universe from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. In the 4d parameter space of ( m u , m d , m e , v), catastrophic boundaries are reached by separately increasing each parameter above its measured value by a factor of (1.4, 1.3, 2.5, ˜ 5), respectively. The fine-tuning problem of the weak scale in the Standard Model is solved: as v is increased beyond the observed value, it is impossible to maintain a significant cosmological hydrogen abundance for any values of m u, d, e that yield both hydrogen and heavy nuclei stability.

  20. Studies of fiber-matrix adhesion on compression strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bascom, Willard D.; Nairn, John A.; Boll, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    A study was initiated on the effect of the matrix polymer and the fiber matrix bond strength of carbon fiber polymer matrix composites. The work includes tests with micro-composites, single ply composites, laminates, and multi-axial loaded cylinders. The results obtained thus far indicate that weak fiber-matrix adhesion dramatically reduces 0 degree compression strength. Evidence is also presented that the flaws in the carbon fiber that govern compression strength differ from those that determine fiber tensile strength. Examination of post-failure damage in the single ply tests indicates kink banding at the crack tip.

  1. 28 CFR 36.208 - Direct threat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.208 Direct threat. (a) This part does not require a public accommodation to permit an individual to participate in or benefit from the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages and accommodations of that public accommodation when...

  2. Primary Auditory Cortex Regulates Threat Memory Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigestrand, Mattis B.; Schiff, Hillary C.; Fyhn, Marianne; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Sears, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing threatening from nonthreatening stimuli is essential for survival and stimulus generalization is a hallmark of anxiety disorders. While auditory threat learning produces long-lasting plasticity in primary auditory cortex (Au1), it is not clear whether such Au1 plasticity regulates memory specificity or generalization. We used…

  3. Al Qaeda in Iraq: Demobilizing the Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Insurgents.................. 130 b. Amnesty and Reconciliation Program .................... 130 c. Legitimize the Democratically-Elected Government...Socio-Economic............................... 132 a. Provide Employment and Opportunities................. 132 b. Secure the Economic Elite... evaluate strategies that have the potential to defeat or demobilize the threat. A majority of insurgency-counterinsurgency literature deals with

  4. Threats to Academic Freedom in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldaker, Lawrence Lee

    This paper looks at the meaning of academic freedom and threats to that freedom in recent conflicts and legal rulings. The introduction calls academic freedom confusing and widely misunderstood and offers an historical and legal explanation of the concept as well as discussion of the traditional areas of conflict in instruction, research,…

  5. Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013

    MedlinePlus

    ... resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) [page 77] Drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae [page 79] Drug-resistant tuberculosis [page 81] Microorganisms with a Threat Level of Concerning Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ... Streptococcus [page 87] Clindamycin-resistant Group B Streptococcus [page ...

  6. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    PubMed

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-05

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread.

  7. Threats and countermeasures for network security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1980's, the traditional threat of anonymous break-ins to networked computers was joined by viruses and worms, multiplicative surrogates that carry out the bidding of their authors. Technologies for authentication and secrecy, supplemented by good management practices, are the principal countermeasures. Four articles on these subjects are presented.

  8. Shape threat detection via adaptive computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoudi, Ahmad; Thamvichai, Ratchaneekorn; Neifeld, Mark A.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is used widely for screening purposes. Conventional x-ray threat detection systems employ image reconstruction and segmentation algorithms prior to making threat/no-threat decisions. We find that in many cases these pre-processing steps can degrade detection performance. Therefore in this work we will investigate methods that operate directly on the CT measurements. We analyze a fixed-gantry system containing 25 x-ray sources and 2200 photon counting detectors. We present a new method for improving threat detection performance. This new method is a so-called greedy adaptive algorithm which at each time step uses information from previous measurements to design the next measurement. We utilize sequential hypothesis testing (SHT) in order to derive both the optimal "next measurement" and the stopping criterion to insure a target probability of error Pe. We find that selecting the next x-ray source according to such a greedy adaptive algorithm, we can reduce Pe by a factor of 42.4× relative to the conventional measurement sequence employing all 25 sources in sequence.

  9. Stereotype Threat and Women's Performance in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Gwen C.; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat (ST), which involves confirming a negative stereotype about one's group, is a factor thought to contribute to the gender gap in science achievement and participation. This study involved a quasi-experiment in which 312 US high school physics students were randomly assigned, via their classroom cluster, to one of three ST…

  10. The silent threat of low genetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    Across the Caribbean, protected coastal waters have served as primary feeding and breeding grounds for the endangered Antillean manatee. Unfortunately, these same coastal waters are also a popular “habitat” for humans. In the past, the overlap between human and manatee habitat allowed for manatee hunting and threatened the survival of these gentle marine mammals. Today, however, threats are much more inadvertent and are often related to coastal development, degraded habitats and boat strikes. In the state of Florida, decades of research on the species’ biological needs have helped conservationists address threats to its survival. For example, low wake zones and boater education have protected manatees from boat strikes, and many of their critical winter refuges are now protected. The Florida population has grown steadily, thus increasing from approximately 1,200 in 1991 to more than 5,000 in 2010. It is conceivable that in Florida manatees may one day be reclassified as “threatened” rather than “endangered.” Yet, in other parts of the Caribbean, threats still loom. This includes small, isolated manatee populations found on islands that can be more susceptible to extinction and lack of genetic diversity. To ensure the species’ long-term viability, scientists have turned their sights to the overall population dynamics of manatees throughout the Caribbean. Molecular genetics has provided new insights into long-term threats the species faces. Fortunately, the emerging field of conservation genetics provides managers with tools and strategies for protecting the species’ long-term viability.

  11. Hostile Intelligence Threat U.S. Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Assistant Secretary of Defense for DoD 5200.1-PH-2 Command, Control, Comunnications , and Intelligence (703) 695-2686 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DTIC...intelligence threat: "* PROGRAM MANAGER Telephone: "* INSTALLATION SECURITY OFFICE Telephone: "* LOCAL DIS COGNIZANT SECURITY OFFICE (Industrial

  12. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Paini, Dean R.; Sheppard, Andy W.; Cook, David C.; De Barro, Paul J.; Worner, Susan P.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  13. The School Shooter: A Threat Assessment Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Mary Ellen

    This paper presents a systematic procedure for threat assessment and intervention of school shooters. The model is designed to be used by educators, mental-health professionals, and law-enforcement agencies and is intended to help refine and strengthen the efforts of the National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime. Its fundamental building…

  14. The Lone Wolf Threat: A Different Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    intelligence communities and law enforcement agencies can employ asymmetric strategic approaches to aid in interdicting the lone wolf terrorist. 15...and a Golden Moment is identified in which intelligence communities and law enforcement agencies can employ asymmetric strategic approaches to aid ...and model presented in the thesis will further aid homeland security entities in combating this asymmetric threat. 40    CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSION

  15. The Nature of the Terrorism Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how Bruce Hoffman and Marc Sageman, two prominent scholars of terrorism, square off over whether Al Qaeda remains the primary global terrorist threat. The dispute began in the pages of "Foreign Affairs," where Hoffman, a professor in the security-studies program at Georgetown University, wrote a withering review of…

  16. Computer Security-Risks, Threats, and Safeguards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    2001-01-01

    Describes a variety of Internet threats to computers and networks used in schools. Discusses electronic trashing; clearing hard drives; cyber spying on Web sites visited; protection against cyber spying, including disposable email accounts; password sniffers; privacy policies; email snooping; email attachments that carry viruses; and hoaxes. (LRW)

  17. Neurophysiological correlates of aging-related muscle weakness

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, David A.; Bonnett, Corin; Gohar, Dina; Bayram, Mehmed; Wyant, Alexandria; Varnerin, Nicole; Mamone, Bernadett; Siemionow, Vlodek; Hou, Juliet; Machado, Andre; Yue, Guang H.

    2013-01-01

    Muscle weakness associated with aging implicates central neural degeneration. However, role of the primary motor cortex (M1) is poorly understood, despite evidence that gains in strength in younger adults are associated with its adaptations. We investigated whether weakness of biceps brachii in aging analogously relates to processes in M1. We enrolled 20 young (22.6 ± 0.87 yr) and 28 old (74.79 ± 1.37 yr) right-handed participants. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation, representation of biceps in M1 was identified. We examined the effect of age and sex on strength of left elbow flexion, voluntary activation of biceps, corticospinal excitability and output, and short-interval intracortical and interhemispheric inhibition. Interhemispheric inhibition was significantly exaggerated in the old (P = 0.047), while strength tended to be lower (P = 0.075). Overall, women were weaker (P < 0.001). Processes of M1 related to strength or voluntary activation of biceps, but only in older adults. Corticospinal excitability was lower in weaker individuals (r = 0.38), and corticospinal output, intracortical inhibition and interhemispheric inhibition were reduced too in individuals who poorly activated biceps (r = 0.43, 0.54 and 0.38). Lower intracortical inhibition may reflect compensation for reduced corticospinal excitability, allowing weaker older adults to spread activity in M1 to recruit synergists and attempt to sustain motor output. Exaggerated interhemispheric inhibition, however, conflicts with previous evidence, potentially related to greater callosal damage in our older sample, our choice of proximal vs. distal muscle and differing influence of measurement of inhibition in rest vs. active states of muscle. Overall, age-specific relation of M1 to strength and muscle activation emphasizes that its adaptations only emerge when necessitated, as in a weakening neuromuscular system in aging. PMID:24027104

  18. Threats to avifauna on oceanic islands.

    PubMed

    Trevino, Heather S; Skibiel, Amy L; Karels, Tim J; Dobson, F Stephen

    2007-02-01

    Results of the study by Blackburn et al. (2004a) of avifauna on oceanic islands suggest that distance from the mainland and time since European colonization have major influences on species extinctions and that island area is a significant but secondary contributing factor. After augmenting the data of the study on geographical properties for some of the islands they examined, we used a causal analysis approach with structural equation modeling to reexamine their conclusions. In our model geographical properties of islands, such as island area and isolation, were considered constraints on biological factors, such as the number of introduced mammalian predators and existing number of avifauna, that can directly or indirectly influence extinction. Of the variables we tested, island area had the greatest total influence on the threat of extinction due to its direct and indirect effects on the size of island avifauna. Larger islands had both a greater number of threatened bird species and more avifauna, increasing the number of species that could become threatened with extinction. Island isolation also had a significant, positive, and direct effect on threats to island avifauna because islands farther from the mainland had fewer current extant avifauna. Time since European colonization had a significant negative, but relatively weaker, influence on threats compared with the traditional biogeographic factors of island area and distance to the mainland. We also tested the hypothesis that the amount of threat is proportionally lower on islands that have had more extinctions (i.e., there is a "filter effect"). Because the proportion of bird extinctions potentially explained only 2.3% of the variation in the proportion of threatened species on islands, our results did not support this hypothesis. Causal modeling provided a powerful tool for examining threat of extinction patterns of known and hypothesized pathways of influence.

  19. Insider Threat - Material Control and Accountability Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H; Roche, Charles T

    2011-01-01

    The technical objectives of nuclear safeguards are (1) the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown and (2) the deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards and security program must address both outsider threats and insider threats. Outsider threats are primarily addressed by the physical protection system. Insider threats can be any level of personnel at the site including passive or active insiders that could attempt protracted or abrupt diversion. This could occur by an individual acting alone or by collusion between an individual with material control and accountability (MC&A) responsibilities and another individual who has responsibility or control within both the physical protection and the MC&A systems. The insider threat is one that must be understood and incorporated into the safeguards posture. There have been more than 18 documented cases of theft or loss of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. The insider has access, authority, and knowledge, as well as a set of attributes, that make him/her difficult to detect. An integrated safeguards program is designed as a defense-in-depth system that seeks to prevent the unauthorized removal of nuclear material, to provide early detection of any unauthorized attempt to remove nuclear material, and to rapidly respond to any attempted removal of nuclear material. The program is also designed to support protection against sabotage, espionage, unauthorized access, compromise, and other hostile acts that may cause unacceptable adverse impacts on national security, program continuity, the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment. Nuclear MC&A play an essential role in the capabilities of an integrated safeguards system to deter and detect theft or diversion of nuclear material. An integrated safeguards system with

  20. Alumina fiber strength improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, R. T.; Nelson, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    The effective fiber strength of alumina fibers in an aluminum composite was increased to 173,000 psi. A high temperature heat treatment, combined with a glassy carbon surface coating, was used to prevent degradation and improve fiber tensile strength. Attempts to achieve chemical strengthening of the alumina fiber by chromium oxide and boron oxide coatings proved unsuccessful. A major problem encountered on the program was the low and inconsistent strength of the Dupont Fiber FP used for the investigation.

  1. Weak measurement and quantum steering of spin qubits in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morello, Andrea; Muhonen, Juha; Simmons, Stephanie; Freer, Solomon; Dehollain, Juan; McCallum, Jeffrey; Jamieson, David; Itoh, Kohei; Dzurak, Andrew

    Single-shot, projective measurements have been demonstrated with very high fidelities on both the electron and the nuclear spin of single implanted phosphorus (31P) donors in silicon. Here we present a series of experiments where the measurement strength is continousuly reduced, giving access to the regime of weak measurement of single spins.For the electron qubit, the measurement strength is set by the measurement time compared to the spin-dependent tunneling time between the 31P donor and a charge reservoir. For the nuclear qubit, the measurement strength is set by the rotation angle of an ESR pulse.We have demonstrated quantum steering of the spin states, with curious and useful applications. We can improve the fidelity of electron qubit initialization by steering it towards the ground state, thus bypassing thermal effects on the initialization process. We can also accurately measure the electron-reservoir tunnel coupling, without the electron ever tunneling away from the 31P atom. Finally, these techniques allow the study of weak values and Leggett-Garg inequalities. Present address: AMOLF, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

  2. Lizard locomotion on weak sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Terrestrial animal locomotion in the natural world can involve complex foot-ground interaction; for example, running on sand probes the solid and fluid behaviors of the medium. We study locomotion of desert-dwelling lizard Callisaurus draconoides (length 16 cm, mass=20 g) during rapid running on sand. To explore the role of foot-ground interaction on locomotion, we study the impact of flat disks ( 2 cm diameter, 10 grams) into a deep (800 particle diameters) bed of 250 μm glass spheres of fixed volume fraction φ 0.59, and use a vertical flow of air (a fluidized bed) to change the material properties of the medium. A constant flow Q below the onset of bed fluidization weakens the solid: at fixed φ the penetration depth and time of a disk increases with increasing Q. We measure the average speed, foot impact depth, and foot contact time as a function of material strength. The animal maintains constant penetration time (30 msec) and high speed (1.4 m/sec) even when foot penetration depth varies as we manipulate material strength. The animals compensate for decreasing propulsion by increasing stride frequency.

  3. A man with worsening weakness.

    PubMed

    Proietti, G; Puliti, M; Tulli, F; Silvestri, M

    1999-01-01

    The contemporary presence of organomegaly, skin manifestations, polyneuropathy, endocrinopathy and monoclonal component characterises the POEMS syndrome, often associated with osteosclerotic myeloma and Castelman's disease and more frequent in the Japanese. Clinical manifestations seem to be related to the production of many interleukins, mainly IL-1, IL-6 and TNF. Several endocrinopathies have been described, the most frequent being diabetes. Only one previous case of hypoparathyroidism associated with the syndrome has been described in medical reviews. Polyneuropathy is often sensitivo-motory and skin disease accounts for Raynaud phenomenon, skin pigmentation, hypertricosis and others. We describe the case of a 74-year-old man who underwent clinical examination for weakness mainly in the legs. Clinical and instrumental data showed rhabdomyolysis due to hypoparathyroidism. The contemporary presence of a monoclonal band of light chains on proteic electrophoresis, organomegaly and distal leg neuropathy allowed us to make a diagnosis of POEMS syndrome.

  4. Weakly nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic wave interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, G.M.; Brio, M.; Kruse, M.T.; Zank, G.P.

    1999-06-01

    Equations describing weakly nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave interactions in one Cartesian space dimension are discussed. For wave propagation in uniform media, the wave interactions of interest consist of: (a) three-wave resonant interactions in which high frequency waves, may evolve on long space and time scales if the wave phases satisfy the resonance conditions; (b) Burgers self-wave steepening for the magnetoacoustic waves, and (c) mean wave field effects, in which a particular wave interacts with the mean wave field of the other waves. For wave propagation in non-uniform media, further linear wave mixing terms appear in the equations. The equations describe four types of resonant triads: slow-fast magnetosonic wave interaction; Alfv{acute e}n-entropy wave interaction; Alfv{acute e}n-magnetosonic wave interaction; and magnetosonic-entropy wave interaction. The formalism is restricted to coherent wave interactions. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Strength Training and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Strength Training and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Strength ... help prevent injuries and speed up recovery. About Strength Training Strength training is the practice of using ...

  6. Microbial Threats to Health. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    Cryptosporidiosis - a parasitic infection of the epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal . biliary, and respiratory tracts of man, as well as other... gastrointestinal tract (where the female lays eggs) MODE OF TRANSMISSION - penetration of skin or mucous membrane by infective larvae (usually from fecally...AD-A257 841 AD____ GRANT NO: DAMD17-90-Z-0047 TITLE: MICROBIAL THREATS TO HEALTH SUBTITLE: REmerging Infections - Microbial Threats to Health in the

  7. Improving Visual Threat Detection: Research to Validate the Threat Detection Skills Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Research Corp. 1750 Commerce Blvd. North 1001 Leadership Place 60 Frontage Road Fairborn, OH 45324-6362 Killeen, TX...rank, and the MOS by rank. The five Soldiers with MOSs other than 11B had deployed, as did one Soldier with an MOS of infantryman (11B). 9...next to the tree [is a threat] because it could be an IED, the actual tree [could be a threat] because somebody could be hiding in it,” • “The weeds

  8. Operational Design and Convergent Threats: A Comparison Case Study of Plan Colombia and Afghanistan Aimed to Enhance the Fight Against Narcotic-Funded Insurgencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Monograph JUN 2011- MAY 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Operational Design and Convergent Threats: A Comparison Case Study of...in the strength government that enforces the law , provides services, and uphold the social contract established by people and their government. The...Operational Design and Convergent Threats: A Comparison Case Study of Plan Colombia and Afghanistan Aimed to Enhance the Fight against Narcotic

  9. Migrant networks and international migration: testing weak ties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mao-Mei

    2013-08-01

    This article examines the role of migrant social networks in international migration and extends prior research by testing the strength of tie theory, decomposing networks by sources and resources, and disentangling network effects from complementary explanations. Nearly all previous empirical research has ignored friendship ties and has largely neglected extended-family ties. Using longitudinal data from the Migration between Africa and Europe project collected in Africa (Senegal) and Europe (France, Italy, and Spain), this article tests the robustness of network theory-and in particular, the role of weak ties-on first-time migration between Senegal and Europe. Discrete-time hazard model results confirm that weak ties are important and that network influences appear to be gendered, but they do not uphold the contention in previous literature that strong ties are more important than weak ties for male and female migration. Indeed, weak ties play an especially important role in male migration. In terms of network resources, having more resources as a result of strong ties appears to dampen overall migration, while having more resources as a result of weaker ties appears to stimulate male migration. Finally, the diversity of resources has varied effects for male and female migration.

  10. Some implications of meson dominance in weak interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lichard, P. ||

    1997-05-01

    The hypothesis is scrutinized that the weak interaction of hadronic systems at low energies is dominated by the coupling of the pseudoscalar, vector, and axial-vector mesons to the weak gauge bosons. The strength of the weak coupling of the {rho}(770) meson is uniquely determined by vector-meson dominance in electromagnetic interactions; flavor and chiral symmetry-breaking effects modify the coupling of other vector mesons and axial-vector mesons. Many decay rates are calculated and compared to experimental data and partly to predictions of other models. A parameter-free description of the decay K{sup +}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup +}scr(l){sup +}scr(l){sup {minus}} is obtained. Predictions for several not yet observed decay rates and reaction cross sections are presented. The relation between the conserved vector current hypothesis and meson dominance is clarified. Phenomenological success of the meson dominance suggests that in some calculations based on the standard model the weak quark-antiquark annihilation and creation diagrams may be more important than anticipated so far. The processes are identified where the meson dominance fails, implying that they are governed, on the quark level, by some other standard model diagrams. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Effect of weak inhomogeneities in high temperature superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doluweera, D. G. Sumith P.

    We present results of three studies done using a dynamical cluster quantum Monte Carlo approximation. First, we investigate the d-wave superconducting transition temperature Tc in the doped 2D repulsive Hubbard model with a weak inhomogeneity in hopping in the form of checkerboard pattern or a lattice of 2 x 2 plaquettes. Near neighbor hoppings within a plaquette is t and that of between the plaquettes is t'. We investigate T c in the weak inhomogeneous limit 0.8t < t' < 1.2t. We find inhomogeneity (t' ≠ t) suppresses Tc. The characteristic spin excitation energy (effective exchange energy) and the strength of d-wave pairing interaction decrease with decreasing T c. The latter observations suggest a strong correlation among effective exchange interaction, Tc and the d-wave pairing interaction of the system. Second1, we further find that enhancement of effective exchange interaction causes a slight increase in Tc of a weakly disordered system with low impurity concentration, compared to the homogeneous system. Here the disorder is introduced to homogeneous repulsive 2D Hubbard model as a weak local potential disorder. Third, we present an improved maximum entropy method to analytically continue quantum Monte Carlo data with a severe sign problem. 1A result from a collaborative study done with A. Kemper of Florida State University.

  12. Deterministic weak localization in periodic structures.

    PubMed

    Tian, C; Larkin, A

    2005-12-09

    In some perfect periodic structures classical motion exhibits deterministic diffusion. For such systems we present the weak localization theory. As a manifestation for the velocity autocorrelation function a universal power law decay is predicted to appear at four Ehrenfest times. This deterministic weak localization is robust against weak quenched disorders, which may be confirmed by coherent backscattering measurements of periodic photonic crystals.

  13. How Is Existential Threat Related to Intergroup Conflict? Introducing the Multidimensional Existential Threat (MET) Model

    PubMed Central

    Hirschberger, Gilad; Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Leidner, Bernhard; Saguy, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Existential threat lies at the heart of intergroup conflict, but the literature on existential concerns lacks clear conceptualization and integration. To address this problem, we offer a new conceptualization and measurement of existential threat. We establish the reliability and validity of our measure, and to illustrate its utility, we examine whether different existential threats underlie the association between political ideology and support for specific political policies. Study 1 (N = 798) established the construct validity of the scale, and revealed four distinct existential threats: personal death (PD), physical collective annihilation (PA), symbolic collective annihilation (SA), and past victimization (PV). Study 2 (N = 424) confirmed the 4-factor structure, and the convergent and discriminant validity of the scale. Study 3 (N = 170) revealed that the association between a hawkish political ideology and support for hardline policies was mediated by PV, whereas the association between a dovish political ideology and conciliatory policies was mediated by concerns over collective symbolic annihilation. Study 4 (N = 503) conceptually replicated the pattern of findings found in Study 3, and showed that at times of conflict, PA concerns also mediate the relationship between hawkish ideologies and support for hardline policies. In both Studies 3 and 4, when controlling for other threats, PD did not play a significant role. These results underscore the need to consider the multidimensional nature of existential threat, especially in the context of political conflict. PMID:27994561

  14. Breaking through barriers: using technology to address executive function weaknesses and improve student achievement.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, David M

    2014-01-01

    Assistive technologies provide significant capabilities for improving student achievement. Improved accessibility, cost, and diversity of applications make integration of technology a powerful tool to compensate for executive function weaknesses and deficits and their impact on student performance, learning, and achievement. These tools can be used to compensate for decreased working memory, poor time management, poor planning and organization, poor initiation, and decreased memory. Assistive technology provides mechanisms to assist students with diverse strengths and weaknesses in mastering core curricular concepts.

  15. Weak, Quiet Magnetic Fields Seen in the Venus Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T L; Baumjohann, W; Russell, C T; Luhmann, J G; Xiao, S D

    2016-03-24

    The existence of a strong internal magnetic field allows probing of the interior through both long term changes of and short period fluctuations in that magnetic field. Venus, while Earth's twin in many ways, lacks such a strong intrinsic magnetic field, but perhaps short period fluctuations can still be used to probe the electrical conductivity of the interior. Toward the end of the Venus Express mission, an aerobraking campaign took the spacecraft below the ionosphere into the very weakly electrically conducting atmosphere. As the spacecraft descended from 150 to 140 km altitude, the magnetic field became weaker on average and less noisy. Below 140 km, the median field strength became steady but the short period fluctuations continued to weaken. The weakness of the fluctuations indicates they might not be useful for electromagnetic sounding of the atmosphere from a high altitude platform such as a plane or balloon, but possibly could be attempted on a lander.

  16. Weak, Quiet Magnetic Fields Seen in the Venus Atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, T. L.; Baumjohann, W.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Xiao, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a strong internal magnetic field allows probing of the interior through both long term changes of and short period fluctuations in that magnetic field. Venus, while Earth’s twin in many ways, lacks such a strong intrinsic magnetic field, but perhaps short period fluctuations can still be used to probe the electrical conductivity of the interior. Toward the end of the Venus Express mission, an aerobraking campaign took the spacecraft below the ionosphere into the very weakly electrically conducting atmosphere. As the spacecraft descended from 150 to 140 km altitude, the magnetic field became weaker on average and less noisy. Below 140 km, the median field strength became steady but the short period fluctuations continued to weaken. The weakness of the fluctuations indicates they might not be useful for electromagnetic sounding of the atmosphere from a high altitude platform such as a plane or balloon, but possibly could be attempted on a lander. PMID:27009234

  17. Weak D in the Tunisian population

    PubMed Central

    Ouchari, Mouna; Romdhane, Houda; Chakroun, Taher; Abdelkefi, Saida; Houissa, Batoul; Hmida, Slama; Yacoub, Saloua Jemni

    2015-01-01

    Background More than 90 weak D types have been discovered to date. As there are no published data on the frequencies of weak D types in the Tunisian population, the aim of this study was to determine the composition of weak D alleles in our population. Material and methods Blood samples from 1777 D+ and 223 D− blood donors were tested for markers 809G, 1154C, 8G, 602G, 667G, 446A, and 885T relative to translation start codon by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers to estimate the frequencies of weak D type 1, weak D type 2, weak D type 3, weak D type 4, weak D type 5 and weak D type 11 in our population. Twenty-three samples with positive reactions were re-evaluated by DNA sequencing of RHD exons 1–10 and adjacent intronic sequences. Results Among the D+ donor cohort, weak D type 4 was the most prevalent allele (n=33, 1.2%) followed by weak D type 2 (n=6, 0.17%), weak D type 1 (n=4, 0.11%), and weak D type 5 (n=1, 0.28%) and weak D type 11 (n=1, 0.28%). RHD sequencing identified a weak D type 4.0 allele in all 19 samples tested. Among the D− pool, comprising 223 samples, we detected one sample with weak D type 4.0 associated with a C+c+E−e+ phenotype which had been missed by routine serological methods. Discussion Weak D type 4.0 appears to be the most prevalent weak D in our population. However, all samples must be sequenced in order to determine the exact subtype of weak D type 4, since weak D type 4.2 has considerable clinical importance, being associated with anti-D alloimmunisation. One case of weak D type 4 associated with dCe in trans had been missed by serology, so quality control of serological tests should be developed in our country. PMID:25369614

  18. Prethermal Floquet Steady States and Instabilities in the Periodically Driven, Weakly Interacting Bose-Hubbard Model.

    PubMed

    Bukov, Marin; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Knap, Michael; Demler, Eugene

    2015-11-13

    We explore prethermal Floquet steady states and instabilities of the weakly interacting two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model subject to periodic driving. We develop a description of the nonequilibrium dynamics, at arbitrary drive strength and frequency, using a weak-coupling conserving approximation. We establish the regimes in which conventional (zero-momentum) and unconventional [(π,π)-momentum] condensates are stable on intermediate time scales. We find that condensate stability is enhanced by increasing the drive strength, because this decreases the bandwidth of quasiparticle excitations and thus impedes resonant absorption and heating. Our results are directly relevant to a number of current experiments with ultracold bosons.

  19. Enhancing Atomic Entanglement in a Common Reservoir by Weak Measurement and its Reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun-hai; Xia, Yun-jie

    2016-01-01

    The three two-level atoms, initially prepared in like-W state, interact with a common bosonic reservoir. To suppress environment decoherence and obtain much better entanglement, we firstly perform weak measurement on these atoms before they pass the reservoir, and then, when they have experienced the decoherence environment, the receiver carry out a quantum reversal on all atoms. The results show both the tripartite and bipartite entanglement can be enhanced and the post-reversal measurement is more obvious to promote atomic entanglements than the weak measurement. Increasing the strength of reversal measurement can always improve entanglement. As a price, the success probability decreases with the much greater measure strength.

  20. Motivation for aggressive religious radicalization: goal regulation theory and a personality × threat × affordance hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Ian; Hayes, Joseph; Prentice, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization (ARR). It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward ARR. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxiety-prone, and identity-weak (i.e., morally bewildered). Conducive threats are those that arise from seemingly insurmountable external forces and frustrate effective goal regulation. Conducive affordances include opportunity for immediate and concrete engagement in active groups that are powered by conspiracy narratives, infused with cosmic significance, encouraging of moral violence, and sealed with religious unfalsifiability. We propose that ARR is rewarding because it can spur approach motivated states that mask vulnerability for people whose dispositions and circumstances would otherwise leave them mired in anxious distress. PMID:26441709

  1. Motivation for aggressive religious radicalization: goal regulation theory and a personality × threat × affordance hypothesis.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Ian; Hayes, Joseph; Prentice, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization (ARR). It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward ARR. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxiety-prone, and identity-weak (i.e., morally bewildered). Conducive threats are those that arise from seemingly insurmountable external forces and frustrate effective goal regulation. Conducive affordances include opportunity for immediate and concrete engagement in active groups that are powered by conspiracy narratives, infused with cosmic significance, encouraging of moral violence, and sealed with religious unfalsifiability. We propose that ARR is rewarding because it can spur approach motivated states that mask vulnerability for people whose dispositions and circumstances would otherwise leave them mired in anxious distress.

  2. Strengths of serpentinite gouges at elevated temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, D.A.; Ma, S.; Summers, R.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Serpentinite has been proposed as a cause of both low strength and aseismic creep of fault zones. To test these hypotheses, we have measured the strength of chrysotile-, lizardite-, and antigorite-rich serpentinite gouges under hydrothermal conditions, with emphasis on chrysotile, which has thus far received little attention. At 25??C, the coefficient of friction, ??, of chrysotile gouge is roughly 0.2, whereas the lizardite- and antigorite-rich gouges are at least twice as strong. The very low room temperature strength of chrysotile is a consequence of its unusually high adsorbed water content. When the adsorbed water is removed, chrysotile is as strong as pure antigorite gouge at room temperature. Heating to ???200??C causes the frictional strengths of all three gouges to increase. Limited data suggest that different polytypes of a given serpentine mineral have similar strengths; thus deformation-induced changes in polytype should not affect fault strength. At 25??C, the chrysotile gouge has a transition from velocity strengthening at low velocities to velocity weakening at high velocities, consistent with previous studies. At temperatures up to ???200??C, however, chrysotile strength is essentially independent of velocity at low velocities. Overall, chrysotile has a restricted range of velocity-strengthening behavior that migrates to higher velocities with increasing temperature. Less information on velocity dependence is available for the lizardite and antigorite gouges, but their behavior is consistent with that outlined for chrysotile. The marked changes in velocity dependence and strength of chrysotile with heating underscore the hazards of using room temperature data to predict fault behavior at depth. The velocity behavior at elevated temperatures does not rule out serpentinite as a cause of aseismic slip, but in the presence of a hydrostatic fluid pressure gradient, all varieties of serpentine are too strong to explain the apparent weakness of faults such

  3. Insider Threat and Information Security Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles-Kemp, Lizzie; Theoharidou, Marianthi

    The notion of insider has multiple facets. An organization needs to identify which ones to respond to. The selection, implementetion and maintenance of information security countermeasures requires a complex combination of organisational policies, functions and processes, which form Information Security Management. This chapter examines the role of current information security management practices in addressing the insider threat. Most approaches focus on frameworks for regulating insider behaviour and do not allow for the various cultural responses to the regulatory and compliance framework. Such responses are not only determined by enforcement of policies and awareness programs, but also by various psychological and organisational factors at an individual or group level. Crime theories offer techniques that focus on such cultural responses and can be used to enhance the information security management design. The chapter examines the applicability of several crime theories and concludes that they can contribute in providing additional controls and redesign of information security management processes better suited to responding to the insider threat.

  4. Future Infectious Disease Threats to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how different drivers of infectious disease could interact to threaten control efforts in Europe. We considered projected trends through 2020 for 3 broad groups of drivers: globalization and environmental change, social and demographic change, and health system capacity. Eight plausible infectious disease threats with the potential to be significantly more problematic than they are today were identified through an expert consultation: extensively drug-resistant bacteria, vector-borne diseases, sexually transmitted infections, food-borne infections, a resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases, health care–associated infections, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. Preemptive measures to be taken by the public health community to counteract these threats were identified. PMID:21940915

  5. Detecting underwater improvised explosive threats (DUIET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeley, Terry

    2010-04-01

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have presented a major threat in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices are powerful homemade land mines that can be small and easily hidden near roadsides. They are then remotely detonated when Coalition Forces pass by either singly or in convoys. Their rapid detection, classification and destruction is key to the safety of troops in the area. These land based bombs will have an analogue in the underwater theater especially in ports, lakes, rivers and streams. These devices may be used against Americans on American soil as an element of the global war on terrorism (GWOT) Rapid detection and classification of underwater improvised explosive devices (UIED) is critical to protecting innocent lives and maintaining the day to day flow of commerce. This paper will discuss a strategy and tool set to deal with this potential threat.

  6. Current nuclear threats and possible responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Frederick K.

    2005-04-01

    Over the last 50 years, the United States has spent more than 100 billion developing and building a variety of systems intended to defend its territory against intercontinental-range ballistic missiles. Most of these systems never became operational and ultimately all were judged ineffective. The United States is currently spending about 10 billion per year developing technologies and systems intended to defend against missiles that might be acquired in the future by North Korea or Iran. This presentation will discuss these efforts ad whether they are likely to be more effective than those of the past. It will also discuss the proper role of anti-ballistic programs at a time when the threat of a nuclear attack on the U.S. by terrorists armed with nuclear weapons is thought to be much higher than the threat of an attack by nuclear-armed ballistic missles.

  7. Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J

    2009-03-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

  8. Large Deviations in Weakly Interacting Boundary Driven Lattice Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijland, Frédéric; Rácz, Zoltán

    2005-01-01

    One-dimensional, boundary-driven lattice gases with local interactions are studied in the weakly interacting limit. The density profiles and the correlation functions are calculated to first order in the interaction strength for zero-range and short-range processes differing only in the specifics of the detailed-balance dynamics. Furthermore, the effective free-energy (large-deviation function) and the integrated current distribution are also found to this order. From the former, we find that the boundary drive generates long-range correlations only for the short-range dynamics while the latter provides support to an additivity principle recently proposed by Bodineau and Derrida.

  9. Weakly relativistic dispersion of Bernstein waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Weakly relativistic effects on the dispersion of Bernstein waves are investigated for waves propagating nearly perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field in a Maxwellian plasma. Attention is focused on those large-wave-vector branches that are either weakly damped or join continuously onto weakly damped branches since these are the modes of most interest in applications. The transition between dispersion at perpendicular and oblique propagation is examined and major weakly relativistic effects can dominate even in low-temperature plasmas. A number of simple analytic criteria are obtained which delimit the ranges of harmonic number and propagation angle within which various types of weakly damped Bernstein modes can exist.

  10. Race, crime, and republican strength: minority politics in the post-civil rights era.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David; Tope, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    This investigation assesses the relationships between racial threat and partisan dominance in state legislatures with tests of interactive hypotheses. The findings show that historically contingent expectations derived from racial threat theory, Republican law and order campaign appeals, and fundamentalist strength account for Republican strength in the legislatures. Two-way fixed-effects estimates based on pooled time-series analyses of 799 state-years in the post-civil rights era show that the percentage of Republicans in the state legislatures grew after increases in African American presence and the violent crime rates. The combined effects of a growth in African American and fundamentalist populations also account for increased Republican seats in these bodies. Statements by Republican campaign officials on how they deliberately used mass resentments against minorities to gain votes provide evidence about the intervening links between minority threat, the menace posed by high violent crime rates, and increased Republican strength in the state legislatures.

  11. Common Viruses a Deadly Threat At Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163048.html Common Viruses a Deadly Threat at Nursing Homes RSV and human metapneumovirus need to be ... News) -- Common viruses pose a serious threat in nursing homes, often sabotaging standard infection control measures, a ...

  12. Introduction to Administrative Programs that Mitigate the Insider Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Gerke, Gretchen K.; Rogers, Erin; Landers, John; DeCastro, Kara

    2012-09-01

    This presentation begins with the reality of the insider threat, then elaborates on these tools to mitigate the insider threat: Human Reliability Program (HRP); Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Program; Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

  13. Uncertainties in the North Korean Nuclear Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    providing objective analysis and effective solutions that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors around the world . RAND’s...stigmatize Korean goods, further complicating problems for the Korean economy. And economic disruption can ripple through an economy in devastating ways...the outside world . 1 “N. Korean Poster Seems to Confi rm Succession,” 2009. 4 Uncertainties in the North Korean Nuclear Threat NK Nuclear

  14. Viral haemorrhagic fevers: current status, future threats.

    PubMed

    Speed, B R; Gerrard, M P; Kennett, M L; Catton, M G; Harvey, B M

    1996-01-15

    In developing countries, the major outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fevers such as Marburg, Ebola and Lassa fever viruses have been nosocomially spread. The high mortality and absence of specific treatment have had a devastating effect. Epidemics of this highly contagious disease remain a constant threat to Australia and, as a result, carefully planned laboratory and public health strategies and clinical infection control measures have been instituted for the management of suspected cases.

  15. SARS: Down But Still a Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    economic and political impact. • Although SARS has killed far fewer people than die each year from more common maladies such as pneumonia, influenza...is not necessarily authoritative. DI Cartography Center/MPG 764135AI 8-03 All of these diseases, except cholera , dengue, and diphtheria, are... Cholera O1 Dengue/Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Cholera O139 Dengue 9 Discussion SARS: Down But Still a Threat The Global Health Challenge

  16. Dismount Threat Recognition through Automatic Pose Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    camera and joint estimation software of the Kinect for Xbox 360. A threat determination is made based on the pose identified by the network. Ac- curacy...The automobile industry continues to refine pedestrian avoidance systems to assist drivers [14,15]. Microsoft’s Kinect for Xbox 360 [3] uses real-time...Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Process- ing , Vol. 4, April 2007, pp. IV–21 – IV–24. 3. Kinect for Xbox 360 , Microsoft Corp., Redmond WA. 4

  17. The Divisive Threat of Immigration in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Europe , immigrant children consistently underperformed in reading. This disparity suggests that immigrant children will have lower literacy rates, less...OF IMMIGRATION IN EUROPE by Andrew J. Sheehan Lars W. Lilleby December 2012 Thesis Advisor: Gordon McCormick Second Reader: Anna...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Divisive Threat of Immigration in Europe 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Lars W. Lilleby

  18. Understanding Public Responses to Domestic Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    to shortages and gray markets , including both black market activities and grayer ones, like preferential treatment for families of officials or the...government is creating sufficient stockpiles for them. Insufficient government stockpiling may lead to gray markets for masks, utilized by citizens to build...Potential threats to social resilience are gray markets , addressing shortages illegally or unethically (e.g., favored treatment for officials’ families

  19. Safeguarding Canadian Arctic Sovereignty Against Conventional Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    The effects of climate change as well as national interests over control of vast amounts of natural resources in the Arctic seem to be... natural resources in the Arctic seem to be destabilizing the geostrategic environment involving the circumpolar states. A traditional conflict...sovereignty in the Arctic. The changing geostrategic environment in the region however, and the nature of the potential conventional threat, may compel

  20. Matrix Characterization in Threat Material Detection Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Valkovic, V.

    2009-03-10

    Matrix characterization in the threat material detection is of utmost importance, it generates the background against which the threat material signal has to be identified. Threat materials (explosive, chemical warfare, ...) are usually contained within small volume inside large volumes of variable matrices. We have studied the influence of matrix materials on the capability of neutron systems to identify hidden threat material. Three specific scenarios are considered in some details: case 1--contraband material in the sea containers, case 2 - explosives in soil (landmines), case 3 - explosives and chemical warfare on the sea bottom. Effects of container cargo material on tagged neutron system are seen in the increase of gamma background and the decrease of neutron beam intensity. Detection of landmines is more complex because of variable soil properties. We have studied in detail space and time variations of soil elemental compositions and in particular hydrogen content (humidity). Of special interest are ammunitions and chemical warfare on the sea bottom, damping sites and leftovers from previous conflicts (WW-I, WW-II and local). In this case sea sediment is background source and its role is similar to the role of the soil in the landmine detection. In addition to geochemical cycling of chemical elements in semi-enclosed sea, like the Adriatic Sea, one has to consider also anthropogenic influence, especially when studying small scale variations in concentration levels. Some preliminary experimental results obtained with tagged neutron sensor inside an underwater vehicle are presented as well as data on sediment characterization by X-Ray Fluorescence.

  1. Nonproliferation, Nuclear Security, and the Insider Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya I.; Duggan, Ruth

    2012-07-12

    Insider threat concept is evolving and getting more attention: (1) Domestically, internationally and in foreign countries, (2) At the government, academia, and industry levels, and (3) Public awareness and concerns are also growing. Negligence can be an insider's action. Technology advancements provide more opportunities, new tools for the insider. Our understanding of the insider is shaped by our cultural, social and ethnic perceptions and traditions. They also can limit our recognition of the issues and response actions.

  2. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic.

  3. Harbor Threat Detection, Classification, and Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-30

    used for testing. As an example, the results for separating divers using structural acoustics-based features for closed systems (MK16, optima , and...for practical deployment purposes but the frequency range are sufficiently broad enough to capitalize on potential discoveries of target/false target...Task 1: Database Generation: NRL will provide measurements and analysis of additional signature threats by using its Laboratory for Structural

  4. The MANPAD Threat to Civilian Airliners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-03

    PAGES: 19 KEY TERMS: Homeland Security; Non-Proliferation; Airport Security CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified This paper investigates strategic approaches...technological solutions and law enforcement operations to provide a competent airport security perimeter.”18 To combat this ominous threat of MANPADS...sites for phone and computer tips should be established with access for airport security , local and federal law enforcement, as well as intelligence

  5. Stability in Real Food Webs: Weak Links in Long Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neutel, Anje-Margriet; Heesterbeek, Johan A. P.; de Ruiter, Peter C.

    2002-05-01

    Increasing evidence that the strengths of interactions among populations in biological communities form patterns that are crucial for system stability requires clarification of the precise form of these patterns, how they come about, and why they influence stability. We show that in real food webs, interaction strengths are organized in trophic loops in such a way that long loops contain relatively many weak links. We show and explain mathematically that this patterning enhances stability, because it reduces maximum ``loop weight'' and thus reduces the amount of intraspecific interaction needed for matrix stability. The patterns are brought about by biomass pyramids, a feature common to most ecosystems. Incorporation of biomass pyramids in 104 food-web descriptions reveals that the low weight of the long loops stabilizes complex food webs. Loop-weight analysis could be a useful tool for exploring the structure and organization of complex communities.

  6. Stereotype Threat Reinterpreted as a Regulatory Mismatch

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Lisa R.; Markman, Arthur B.; Maddox, W. Todd; Baldwin, Grant C.

    2008-01-01

    Research documents performance decrements resulting from the activation of a negative task-relevant stereotype. We combine a number of strands of work to identify causes of stereotype threat in a way that allows us to reverse the effects and improve the performance of individuals with negative task-relevant stereotypes. We draw on prior work suggesting that negative stereotypes induce a prevention focus, and other research suggesting that people exhibit greater flexibility when their regulatory focus matches the reward structure of the task. This work suggests that stereotype threat effects emerge from a prevention focus combined with tasks that have an explicit or implicit gains reward structure. We find flexible performance can be induced in individuals who have a negative task-relevant stereotype by using a losses reward structure. We demonstrate the interaction of stereotypes and the reward structure of the task using chronic stereotypes and GRE math problems (Experiment 1), and primed stereotypes and a category learning task (Experiments 2a and 2b). We discuss implications of this research for other work on stereotype threat. PMID:19159133

  7. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

    2001-03-01

    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  8. Cyber threat model for tactical radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurdziel, Michael T.

    2014-05-01

    The shift to a full information-centric paradigm in the battlefield has allowed ConOps to be developed that are only possible using modern network communications systems. Securing these Tactical Networks without impacting their capabilities has been a challenge. Tactical networks with fixed infrastructure have similar vulnerabilities to their commercial counterparts (although they need to be secure against adversaries with greater capabilities, resources and motivation). However, networks with mobile infrastructure components and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANets) have additional unique vulnerabilities that must be considered. It is useful to examine Tactical Network based ConOps and use them to construct a threat model and baseline cyber security requirements for Tactical Networks with fixed infrastructure, mobile infrastructure and/or ad hoc modes of operation. This paper will present an introduction to threat model assessment. A definition and detailed discussion of a Tactical Network threat model is also presented. Finally, the model is used to derive baseline requirements that can be used to design or evaluate a cyber security solution that can be scaled and adapted to the needs of specific deployments.

  9. Impact! - The Threat of Comets and Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    1997-12-01

    In Impact , Gerrit L. Verschuur offers an eye-opening look at the catastrophic collisions of comets and asteroids with our planet. Perhaps more important, he paints an unsettling portrait of the possibility of new collisions with earth, exploring potential threats to our planet and describing what scientists are doing right now to prepare for this frightening possibility. Every day something from space hits our planet, Verschuur reveals. In fact, about 10,000 tons of space debris fall to earth every year, mostly in meteoric form. But meteors are not the greatest threat to life on earth, the author points out. The major threats are asteroids and comets. The reader discovers that astronomers have located some 350 NEAs ("Near Earth Asteroids"), objects whose orbits cross the orbit of the earth. Comets, of course, are even more deadly. He discusses Comet Swift-Tuttle--"the most dangerous object in the solar system"--a comet far larger than the one that many scientists believe killed off the dinosaurs, due to pass through earth's orbit in the year 2126. In addition, the author describes the efforts of Spacewatch and other groups to locate NEAs, and evaluates the idea that comet and asteroid impacts have been an underrated factor in the evolution of life on earth. Whether discussing monumental tsunamis or the innumerable comets in the solar system, Impact will enthrall anyone curious about outer space, remarkable natural phenomenon, or the future of the planet earth.

  10. Bot armies as threats to network security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.

    2007-04-01

    "Botnets", or "bot armies", are large groups of remotely controlled malicious software. Bot armies pose one of the most serious security threats to all networks. Botnets, remotely controlled and operated by botmasters or botherders, can launch massive denial of service attacks, multiple penetration attacks, or any other malicious network activity on a massive scale. While bot army activity has, in the past, been limited to fraud, blackmail, and other forms of criminal activity, their potential for causing large-scale damage to the entire internet; for launching large-scale, coordinated attacks on government computers and networks; and for large-scale, coordinated data gathering from thousands of users and computers on any network has been underestimated. This paper will not discuss how to build bots but the threats they pose. In a "botnet" or "bot army", computers can be used to spread spam, launch denial-of-service attacks against Web sites, conduct fraudulent activities, and prevent authorized network traffic from traversing the network. In this paper we discuss botnets and the technologies that underlie this threat to network and computer security. The first section motivates the need for improved protection against botnets, their technologies, and for further research about botnets. The second contains background information about bot armies and their key underlying technologies. The third section presents a discussion of the types of attacks that botnets can conduct and potential defenses against them. The fourth section contains a summary and suggestions for future research and development.

  11. Posterror speeding after threat-detection failure.

    PubMed

    Caudek, Corrado; Ceccarini, Francesco; Sica, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive control enables individuals to rapidly adapt to changing task demands. To investigate error-driven adjustments in cognitive control, we considered performance changes in posterror trials, when participants performed a visual search task requiring detection of angry, happy, or neutral facial expressions in crowds of faces. We hypothesized that the failure to detect a potential threat (angry face) would prompt a different posterror adjustment than the failure to detect a nonthreatening target (happy or neutral face). Indeed, in 3 sets of experiments, we found evidence of posterror speeding, in the first case, and of posterror slowing, in the second case. Previous results indicate that a threatening stimulus can improve the efficiency of visual search. The results of the present study show that a similar effect can also be observed when participants fail to detect a threat. The impact of threat-detection failure on cognitive control, as revealed by the present study, suggests that posterror adjustments should be understood as the product of domain-specific mechanisms that are strongly influenced by affective information, rather than as the effect of a general-purpose error-monitoring system.

  12. A Universe without Weak Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2006-04-07

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.

  13. Weak percolation on multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Gareth J.; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N.; Mendes, José F. F.; Cellai, Davide

    2014-04-01

    Bootstrap percolation is a simple but nontrivial model. It has applications in many areas of science and has been explored on random networks for several decades. In single-layer (simplex) networks, it has been recently observed that bootstrap percolation, which is defined as an incremental process, can be seen as the opposite of pruning percolation, where nodes are removed according to a connectivity rule. Here we propose models of both bootstrap and pruning percolation for multiplex networks. We collectively refer to these two models with the concept of "weak" percolation, to distinguish them from the somewhat classical concept of ordinary ("strong") percolation. While the two models coincide in simplex networks, we show that they decouple when considering multiplexes, giving rise to a wealth of critical phenomena. Our bootstrap model constitutes the simplest example of a contagion process on a multiplex network and has potential applications in critical infrastructure recovery and information security. Moreover, we show that our pruning percolation model may provide a way to diagnose missing layers in a multiplex network. Finally, our analytical approach allows us to calculate critical behavior and characterize critical clusters.

  14. Testing the weak equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobili, Anna M.; Comandi, Gian Luca; Pegna, Raffaello; Bramanti, Donato; Doravari, Suresh; Maccarone, Francesco; Lucchesi, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of Dark Energy and the fact that only about 5% of the mass of the universe can be explained on the basis of the current laws of physics have led to a serious impasse. Based on past history, physics might indeed be on the verge of major discoveries; but the challenge is enormous. The way to tackle it is twofold. On one side, scientists try to perform large scale direct observations and measurements - mostly from space. On the other, they multiply their efforts to put to the most stringent tests ever the physical theories underlying the current view of the physical world, from the very small to the very large. On the extremely small scale very exciting results are expected from one of the most impressive experiments in the history of mankind: the Large Hadron Collider. On the very large scale, the universe is dominated by gravity and the present impasse undoubtedly calls for more powerful tests of General Relativity - the best theory of gravity to date. Experiments testing the Weak Equivalence Principle, on which General Relativity ultimately lies, have the strongest probing power of them all; a breakthrough in sensitivity is possible with the “Galileo Galilei” (GG) satellite experiment to fly in low Earth orbit.

  15. Soil threats in Europe for the RECARE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolte, Jannes; Tesfai, Mehretaeb; Oygarden, Lillian

    2015-04-01

    Soil is one of our most important natural resources that provides us with vital goods and services to sustain life. Nevertheless, soils functions are threatened by a wide range of processes and a number of soil threats have been identified in Europe. Although there is a large body of knowledge available on soil threats in Europe, the complexity and functioning of soil systems and their interaction with human activities, climate change, and ecosystem services (ESS), is still not fully understood. An extensive literature review was carried out by a group of experts on soil threats at the European level. In total, around 60 experts from the 17 case study sites of the RECARE project, were involved in the process of reviewing and drafting the report and 11 soil threats were identified. The objective of WP2 of the RECARE project was to provide an improved overview of existing information on soil threats and degradation at the European scale. These soil threats are soil erosion by water, soil erosion by wind, decline of organic matter (OM) in peat, decline of OM in minerals soils, soil compaction, soil sealing, soil contamination, soil salinization, desertification, flooding and landslides and decline in soil biodiversity. The final report of WP2 provides a comprehensive thematic information on the major soil threats of Europe with due attention given to the Driving force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response to soil threats. Interrelationships between soil threats, between soil threats and soil functions and between soil threats and Ecosystems Services are made, and will be presented. A synergy between the soil threats is made based on the given information in each of the chapters, where we tried to identify the interactions between the threats. We tried to identify in what way one threat acts as a threat for another threat. Also, the link between soil degradation and Ecosystem Services are identified. Again, based on the information given in each chapter, the major climate

  16. Space Station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 2: Threat development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.; Rockoff, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for initial operational capability (IOC) during the early 1990's were considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration, and debris.

  17. Testosterone biases the amygdala toward social threat approach

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Sina; Volman, Inge; Mehta, Pranjal; van Son, Veerle; Enter, Dorien; Sanfey, Alan; Toni, Ivan; de Bruijn, Ellen R. A.; Roelofs, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone enhances amygdala reactions to social threat, but it remains unclear whether this neuroendocrine mechanism is relevant for understanding its dominance-enhancing properties; namely, whether testosterone biases the human amygdala toward threat approach. This pharmacological functional magnetic-resonance imaging study shows that testosterone administration increases amygdala responses in healthy women during threat approach and decreases it during threat avoidance. These findings support and extend motivational salience models by offering a neuroendocrine mechanism of motivation-specific amygdala tuning. PMID:26601187

  18. Severe Weather and Weak Waterspout Checklist in MIDDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this task was to migrate the functionality of the AMU web-based Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid and the 45 WS Weak Waterspout Checklist to MIDDS, the operational data ingest and display system of the 45 WS. Forecasting the occurrence and timing of warm season severe weather and weak waterspouts is challenging for 45 WS operational personnel. These interactive tools assist forecasters in determining the probability of issuing severe weather watches and warnings for the day. MIDDS is able retrieve many of the needed parameter values for the worksheet automatically. The AMU was able to develop user-friendly tools in MIDDS for both of these tools using McBASI coded programs. The tools retrieve needed values from MIDDS automatically, and require the forecaster to answer a few subjective questions. Both tools were tested and previewed to the 45 WS on MIDDS. In their previous forms, the forecasters enter values into both tools manually to output a threat index. Making these tools more automatic will reduce the possibility of human error and increase efficiency.

  19. Culture, threat, and mental illness stigma: identifying culture-specific threat among Chinese-American groups.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lawrence H; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C

    2013-07-01

    We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one's family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002 to 2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures.

  20. Culture, Threat, and Mental Illness Stigma: Identifying Culture-Specific Threat among Chinese-American Groups

    PubMed Central

    Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G.; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C.

    2014-01-01

    We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one’s family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002–2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures. PMID:23702210

  1. Violation of the Leggett–Garg inequality with weak measurements of photons

    PubMed Central

    Goggin, M. E.; Almeida, M. P.; Barbieri, M.; Lanyon, B. P.; O’Brien, J. L.; White, A. G.; Pryde, G. J.

    2011-01-01

    By weakly measuring the polarization of a photon between two strong polarization measurements, we experimentally investigate the correlation between the appearance of anomalous values in quantum weak measurements and the violation of realism and nonintrusiveness of measurements. A quantitative formulation of the latter concept is expressed in terms of a Leggett–Garg inequality for the outcomes of subsequent measurements of an individual quantum system. We experimentally violate the Leggett–Garg inequality for several measurement strengths. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate that there is a one-to-one correlation between achieving strange weak values and violating the Leggett–Garg inequality. PMID:21220296

  2. How geometrical constraints contribute to the weakness of mature faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lockner, D.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Increasing evidence that the San Andreas fault has low shear strength1 has fuelled considerable discussion regarding the role of fluid pressure in controlling fault strength. Byerlee2,3 and Rice4 have shown how fluid pressure gradients within a fault zone can produce a fault with low strength while avoiding hydraulic fracture of the surrounding rock due to excessive fluid pressure. It may not be widely realised, however, that the same analysis2-4 shows that even in the absence of fluids, the presence of a relatively soft 'gouge' layer surrounded by harder country rock can also reduce the effective shear strength of the fault. As shown most recently by Byerlee and Savage5, as the shear stress across a fault increases, the stress state within the fault zone evolves to a limiting condition in which the maximum shear stress within the fault zone is parallel to the fault, which then slips with a lower apparent coefficient of friction than the same material unconstrained by the fault. Here we confirm the importance of fault geometry in determining the apparent weakness of fault zones, by showing that the apparent friction on a sawcut granite surface can be predicted from the friction measured in intact rock, given only the geometrical constraints introduced by the fault surfaces. This link between the sliding friction of faults and the internal friction of intact rock suggests a new approach to understanding the microphysical processes that underlie friction in brittle materials.

  3. Isolating Neural Components of Threat Bias in Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Jennifer C.; Bar-Haim, Yair; Carver, Frederick W.; Holroyd, Tom; Norcross, Maxine A.; Detloff, Allison; Leibenluft, Ellen; Ernst, Monique; Pine, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention biases toward threat are often detected in individuals with anxiety disorders. Threat biases can be measured experimentally through dot-probe paradigms, in which individuals detect a probe following a stimulus pair including a threat. On these tasks, individuals with anxiety tend to detect probes that occur in a location…

  4. Death Threat and Death Concerns in the College Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobacyk, Jerome; Eckstein, Daniel

    1980-01-01

    Thanatology students reported significantly lesser death threat and significantly greater death concerns. Trait anxiety was found to be a significant predictor of change in death threat in the Thanatology Group, with lesser anxiety associated with greater decline in death threat. (Author)

  5. Gender, Stereotype Threat, and Anxiety: Psychophysiological and Cognitive Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Claude Steele's stereotype threat hypothesis proposed that negative group stereotypes increase individual anxiety levels, hurting performance. However, the role of anxiety in stereotype threat has not been fully explored. This study examined the hypothesis that experimental manipulation of stereotype threat would influence real-time…

  6. Unleashing Latent Ability: Implications of Stereotype Threat for College Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logel, Christine R.; Walton, Gregory M.; Spencer, Steven J.; Peach, Jennifer; Mark, Zanna P.

    2012-01-01

    Social-psychological research conducted over the past 15 years provides compelling evidence that pervasive psychological threats are present in common academic environments--especially threats that originate in negative intellectual stereotypes--and that these threats undermine the real-world academic performance of non-Asian ethnic minority…

  7. 41 CFR 60-741.22 - Direct threat defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor may... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Direct threat defense. 60... functions of the position held or desired without posing a direct threat to the health or safety of...

  8. 41 CFR 60-300.22 - Direct threat defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor may use as a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Direct threat defense. 60... position held or desired without posing a direct threat to the health or safety of the individual or...

  9. 41 CFR 60-250.22 - Direct threat defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.22 Direct threat defense. The contractor may use as a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Direct threat defense. 60... position held or desired without posing a direct threat to the health or safety of the individual or...

  10. An Examination of Stereotype Threat Effects on Girls' Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Mingle, Leigh A.; Ryan, Allison M.; Ryan, Katherine; Vasilyeva, Marina; Perry, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat has been proposed as 1 potential explanation for the gender difference in standardized mathematics test performance among high-performing students. At present, it is not entirely clear how susceptibility to stereotype threat develops, as empirical evidence for stereotype threat effects across the school years is inconsistent. In…

  11. Social Identity Threat Motivates Science-Discrediting Online Comments

    PubMed Central

    Nauroth, Peter; Gollwitzer, Mario; Bender, Jens; Rothmund, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing social identity threat from scientific findings can lead people to cognitively devalue the respective findings. Three studies examined whether potentially threatening scientific findings motivate group members to take action against the respective findings by publicly discrediting them on the Web. Results show that strongly (vs. weakly) identified group members (i.e., people who identified as “gamers”) were particularly likely to discredit social identity threatening findings publicly (i.e., studies that found an effect of playing violent video games on aggression). A content analytical evaluation of online comments revealed that social identification specifically predicted critiques of the methodology employed in potentially threatening, but not in non-threatening research (Study 2). Furthermore, when participants were collectively (vs. self-) affirmed, identification did no longer predict discrediting posting behavior (Study 3). These findings contribute to the understanding of the formation of online collective action and add to the burgeoning literature on the question why certain scientific findings sometimes face a broad public opposition. PMID:25646725

  12. Pixelation Effects in Weak Lensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    High, F. William; Rhodes, Jason; Massey, Richard; Ellis, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing can be used to investigate both dark matter and dark energy but requires accurate measurements of the shapes of faint, distant galaxies. Such measurements are hindered by the finite resolution and pixel scale of digital cameras. We investigate the optimum choice of pixel scale for a space-based mission, using the engineering model and survey strategy of the proposed Supernova Acceleration Probe as a baseline. We do this by simulating realistic astronomical images containing a known input shear signal and then attempting to recover the signal using the Rhodes, Refregier, and Groth algorithm. We find that the quality of shear measurement is always improved by smaller pixels. However, in practice, telescopes are usually limited to a finite number of pixels and operational life span, so the total area of a survey increases with pixel size. We therefore fix the survey lifetime and the number of pixels in the focal plane while varying the pixel scale, thereby effectively varying the survey size. In a pure trade-off for image resolution versus survey area, we find that measurements of the matter power spectrum would have minimum statistical error with a pixel scale of 0.09' for a 0.14' FWHM point-spread function (PSF). The pixel scale could be increased to 0.16' if images dithered by exactly half-pixel offsets were always available. Some of our results do depend on our adopted shape measurement method and should be regarded as an upper limit: future pipelines may require smaller pixels to overcome systematic floors not yet accessible, and, in certain circumstances, measuring the shape of the PSF might be more difficult than those of galaxies. However, the relative trends in our analysis are robust, especially those of the surface density of resolved galaxies. Our approach thus provides a snapshot of potential in available technology, and a practical counterpart to analytic studies of pixelation, which necessarily assume an idealized shape

  13. Assessing the threat of firearms: new threat formula, resources, and ontological linking algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempelmann, Christian F.; Arslan, Abdullah N.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady P.; Sirakov, Nikolay Metodiev

    2014-06-01

    The present work is part of an ongoing larger project.2, 3, 11, 12 The goal of this project is to develop a system capable of automatic threat assessment for instances of firearms use in public places. The main components of the system are: an ontology of firearms;1, 14 algorithms to create the visual footprint of the firearms,1, 14 to compare visual information,2, 3, 11, 12 to facilitate search in the ontology, and to generate the links between the conceptual and visual ontologies; as well as a formula to calculate the threat of individual firearms, firearms classes, and ammunition types in different environments. One part of the dual-level ontology for the properties of the firearms captures key visual features used to identify their type or class in images, while the other part captures their threat-relevant conceptual properties. The visual ontology is the result of image segmentation and matching methods, while the conceptual ontology is designed using knowledge-engineering principles and populated semi-automatically from Web resources. The focus of the present paper is two-fold. On the one hand, we will report on an update of the initial threat formula, based on the substantially increased population of the firearm ontology, including ammunition types and comparisons to actual incidents, and allowing for an overall more accurate assessment. On the other hand, the linking algorithms between the visual and conceptual ontologies are elaborated for faster transfer of information leading to an improvement in accuracy of the threat assessment.

  14. Strength and Balance Exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Sep 8,2016 If you have medical ... if you have been inactive and want to exercise vigorously, check with your doctor before beginning a ...

  15. Crew Strength Training

    NASA Video Gallery

    Train to develop your upper and lower body strength in your muscles and bones by performing body-weight squats and push-ups.The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to...

  16. Reduction of bone strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, Cindy

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on reduction of bone strength are presented. WEHI 231 B growth rates, experimental chambers used to apply the electric field to the cell cultures, and a mouse suspended by rotating cuff in electromagnetic field are shown.

  17. The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment Scale: An Instrument to Help Aid Immediate Threat Assessment for Counselors, Faculty, and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhnke, Gerald A.

    2010-01-01

    Threats of violence are not uncommon to counselors, faculty, or teachers. Each must be taken seriously, quickly analyzed, and safety procedures implemented. Yet, there exists a paucity of brief, face-to-face, assessments designed to aid threat assessment. To address this paucity, the author created The DANGERTOME Personal Risk Threat Assessment…

  18. A concise colorimetric and fluorimetric probe for sarin related threats designed via the "covalent-assembly" approach.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zuhai; Yang, Youjun

    2014-05-07

    A turn-on signal from zero background allows sensitive detection of a weak signal and is highly desired. The "covalent-assembly" probe design principle is powerful in this regard. Herein, we report an embodiment of this principle (NA570) for detection of Sarin related threats, based on a phenylogous Vilsmeier-Haack reaction. NA570 bears a concise molecular construct, exhibits a colorimetric and a fluorimetric signal, and has potential for real applications.

  19. Hand-Strength Meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Elliot, Joe

    1987-01-01

    Special grip-strength meter designed for accurate, reproducible measurement of hand rehabilitation. Four strain gauges connected in Wheatstone bridge to measure deflection caused by gripping hand. Compressive force exerted by hand transmitted to measuring beams. Beams therefore deflected or strained, and mechanical strain sensed by strain gauges and converted into electrical signal. After amplification and conditioning, signal displayed on LED as measure of gripping strength of hand.

  20. Classical field approach to quantum weak measurements.

    PubMed

    Dressel, Justin; Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco

    2014-03-21

    By generalizing the quantum weak measurement protocol to the case of quantum fields, we show that weak measurements probe an effective classical background field that describes the average field configuration in the spacetime region between pre- and postselection boundary conditions. The classical field is itself a weak value of the corresponding quantum field operator and satisfies equations of motion that extremize an effective action. Weak measurements perturb this effective action, producing measurable changes to the classical field dynamics. As such, weakly measured effects always correspond to an effective classical field. This general result explains why these effects appear to be robust for pre- and postselected ensembles, and why they can also be measured using classical field techniques that are not weak for individual excitations of the field.

  1. Adapted Resistance Training Improves Strength in Eight Weeks in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jennifer L; Fritz, Nora; Chiang, Chen Chun; Jiang, Allen; Thompson, Tziporah; Cornet, Nicole; Newsome, Scott D; Calabresi, Peter A; Zackowski, Kathleen

    2016-01-29

    Hip weakness is a common symptom affecting walking ability in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). It is known that resistance strength training (RST) can improve strength in individuals with MS, however; it remains unclear the duration of RST that is needed to make strength gains and how to adapt hip strengthening exercises for individuals of varying strength using only resistance bands. This paper describes the methodology to set up and implement an adapted resistance strength training program, using resistance bands, for individuals with MS. Directions for pre- and post-strength tests to evaluate efficacy of the strength-training program are included. Safety features and detailed instructions outline the weekly program content and progression. Current evidence is presented showing that significant strength gains can be made within 8 weeks of starting a RST program. Evidence is also presented showing that resistance strength training can be successfully adapted for individuals with MS of varying strength with little equipment.

  2. Weak gravitational lensing by galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Brainerd, T.G. |; Blandford, R.D.; Smail, I. |

    1996-08-01

    We report a detection of weak, tangential distortion of the images of cosmologically distant, faint galaxies due to gravitational lensing by foreground galaxies. A mean image polarization of ({ital p})=0.011{plus_minus}0.006 (95{percent} confidence bounds) is obtained for 3202 pairs of source (23{lt}{ital r}{sub {ital s}}{le}24) and lens (20{le}{ital r}{sub {ital d}}{le}23) galaxies with projected separations of 5{double_prime}{le}{theta}{le}34{double_prime}. Averaged over annuli of inner radius 5{double_prime} and outer radius {theta}{sub max}, the signal is string for lens-source separations of {theta}{sub max}{approx_lt}90{double_prime} consistent with quasi-isothermal galaxy halos extending to large radii ({approx_gt}100{ital h}{sup {minus}1} kpc). The observed polarization is also consistent with the signal expected on the basis of simulations incorporating measured properties of local galaxies and modest extrapolations of the observed redshift distribution of faint galaxies (to which the results are somewhat sensitive). From the simulations we obtain formal best-fit model parameters for the dark halos of the lens galaxies that consist of a characteristic circular velocity of {ital V}{asterisk}{approximately}220{plus_minus}80 kms{sup {minus}1} and characteristic radial extent of {ital s}{asterisk}{approx_gt}100{ital h}{sup {minus}1} kpc. The predicted polarization based on the model is relatively insensitive to the characteristic radial extent of the halos, {ital s}{asterisk}, and very small halos ({ital s}{asterisk}{approximately}10{ital h}{sup {minus}1} kpc) are excluded only at the 2 {sigma} level. The formal best-fit halo parameters imply typical masses for the lens galaxies within a radius of 100{ital h}{sup -1} kpc on the order of 1.0{sup +1.2}{sub {minus}0.5}{times}10{sup 12} {ital h}{sup {minus}1}{ital M}{sub {circle_dot}} (90% confidence bounds), in agreement with recent dynamical estimates of the masses of local spiral galaxies.

  3. Weakly and strongly coupled Belousov-Zhabotinsky patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Stephan; Deegan, Robert D.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate experimentally and numerically the synchronization of two-dimensional spiral wave patterns in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction due to point-to-point coupling of two separate domains. Different synchronization modalities appear depending on the coupling strength and the initial patterns in each domain. The behavior as a function of the coupling strength falls into two qualitatively different regimes. The weakly coupled regime is characterized by inter-domain interactions that distorted but do not break wave fronts. Under weak coupling, spiral cores are pushed around by wave fronts in the other domain, resulting in an effective interaction between cores in opposite domains. In the case where each domain initially contains a single spiral, the cores form a bound pair and orbit each other at quantized distances. When the starting patterns consist of multiple randomly positioned spiral cores, the number of cores decreases with time until all that remains are a few cores that are synchronized with a partner in the other domain. The strongly coupled regime is characterized by interdomain interactions that break wave fronts. As a result, the wave patterns in both domains become identical.

  4. Stereotype threat can reduce older adults' memory errors.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat often incurs the cost of reducing the amount of information that older adults accurately recall. In the current research, we tested whether stereotype threat can also benefit memory. According to the regulatory focus account of stereotype threat, threat induces a prevention focus in which people become concerned with avoiding errors of commission and are sensitive to the presence or absence of losses within their environment. Because of this, we predicted that stereotype threat might reduce older adults' memory errors. Results were consistent with this prediction. Older adults under stereotype threat had lower intrusion rates during free-recall tests (Experiments 1 and 2). They also reduced their false alarms and adopted more conservative response criteria during a recognition test (Experiment 2). Thus, stereotype threat can decrease older adults' false memories, albeit at the cost of fewer veridical memories, as well.

  5. Protection without detection: a threat mitigation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joshua; McCoy, Joseph R.; Ratazzi, Paul

    2012-05-01

    Networking systems and individual applications have traditionally been defended using signature-based tools that protect the perimeter, many times to the detriment of service, performance, and information flow. These tools require knowledge of both the system on which they run and the attack they are preventing. As such, by their very definition, they only account for what is known to be malicious and ignore the unknown. The unknown, or zero day threat, can occur when defenses have yet to be immunized via a signature or other identifier of the threat. In environments where execution of the mission is paramount, the networks and applications must perform their function of information delivery without endangering the enterprise or losing the salient information, even when facing zero day threats. In this paper we, describe a new defensive strategy that provides a means to more deliberately balance the oft mutually exclusive aspects of protection and availability. We call this new strategy Protection without Detection, since it focuses on network protection without sacrificing information availability. The current instantiation analyzes the data stream in real time as it passes through an in-line device. Critical files are recognized, and mission-specific trusted templates are applied as they are forwarded to their destination. The end result is a system which eliminates the opportunity for propagation of malicious or unnecessary payloads via the various containers that are inherent in the definition of standard file types. In some cases, this method sacrifices features or functionality that is typically inherent in these files. However, with the flexibility of the template approach, inclusion or exclusion of these features becomes a deliberate choice of the mission owners, based on their needs and amount of acceptable risk. The paper concludes with a discussion of future extensions and applications.

  6. Weak point target detection in star sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Da; Xiong, Yazhou; Li, Yi; Wang, Li; Li, Chunyan; Yin, Fang

    2016-11-01

    Space weak point targets detection is very useful in non cooperative target detection. Influenced by the chip noise and space environmental noise, weak point targets detection becomes a difficulty. In the paper, firstly the star is extracted from the picture, the background picture is filtered to reduce the noise, and then the moving distance between adjacent pictures is calculated, after picture overlapping between adjacent pictures, the energy of the weak point target is improved, with a appropriate threshold, the weak point target is extracted. The proposed method can be widely utilized in space exploration, space defense etc.

  7. Weak measurements and nonClassical correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekshmi, S.; Shaji, N.; Shaji, Anil

    2017-01-01

    We extend the definition of quantum discord as a quantifier of nonClassical correlations in a quantum state to the case where weak measurements are performed on subsystem A of a bipartite system AB. The properties of weak discord are explored for several families of quantum states. We find that in many cases weak quantum discord is identical to normal discord and in general the values of the two are very close to each other. Weak quantum discord reduces to discord in the appropriate limits as well. We also discuss the implications of these observations on the interpretations of quantum discord.

  8. The threat of nuclear war: Some responses

    PubMed Central

    Marcattilio, A. J. M.; Nevin, John A.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of nuclear holocaust threatens the very existence of the world community. Biologists, earth scientists, educators, lawyers, philosophers, physicists, physicians, and social scientists have addressed the problem from their special perspectives, and have had substantial impact on the public. Behavior analysts, however, have not as a whole contributed a great deal to the goal of preventing nuclear catastrophe. We argue that the threat of nuclear war is primarily a behavioral problem, and present an analysis of that problem. In addition, we address the difficulty of implementing behavioral interventions that would contribute to the survival of the World. PMID:22478648

  9. Harbor Threat Detection, Classification, and Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    ed ta rg et Partcile Filter based Tracking of the Closed Circuit Run #2 38 43 48 53 58 63 68 73 78 83 88 380 400 420 440 460 Ping Indices R an ge o...The priority ranking of threats to be studied is (1) diver with commercial rebreathers , (2) diver with diver assisted propulsors, and (3) small...successfully extended the laboratory database to include additional rebreather types and conditions, adding to the database originating in FY06. The FY06/07

  10. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: an increasing threat for travellers.

    PubMed

    Antinori, S; Gianelli, E; Calattini, S; Longhi, E; Gramiccia, M; Corbellino, M

    2005-05-01

    Analysis of the literature on cutaneous leishmaniasis in low-prevalence countries suggests an increase in imported cases that is attributable to the growing phenomenon of international tourism, migration and military operations in highly endemic regions. Cases of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis are often missed initially, but diagnosis can be made non-invasively by PCR using skin scrapings of lesions as starting material. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an emerging threat for travellers and should be considered in all patients presenting with slow-to-heal ulcers.

  11. Assessing the global threat from Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Lessler, Justin; Chaisson, Lelia H; Kucirka, Lauren M; Bi, Qifang; Grantz, Kyra; Salje, Henrik; Carcelen, Andrea C; Ott, Cassandra T; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Ferguson, Neil M; Cummings, Derek A T; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel

    2016-08-12

    First discovered in 1947, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection remained a little-known tropical disease until 2015, when its apparent association with a considerable increase in the incidence of microcephaly in Brazil raised alarms worldwide. There is limited information on the key factors that determine the extent of the global threat from ZIKV infection and resulting complications. Here, we review what is known about the epidemiology, natural history, and public health effects of ZIKV infection, the empirical basis for this knowledge, and the critical knowledge gaps that need to be filled.

  12. Threats and opportunities of plant pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tarkowski, Petr; Vereecke, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria can have devastating effects on plant productivity and yield. Nevertheless, because these often soil-dwelling bacteria have evolved to interact with eukaryotes, they generally exhibit a strong adaptivity, a versatile metabolism, and ingenious mechanisms tailored to modify the development of their hosts. Consequently, besides being a threat for agricultural practices, phytopathogens may also represent opportunities for plant production or be useful for specific biotechnological applications. Here, we illustrate this idea by reviewing the pathogenic strategies and the (potential) uses of five very different (hemi)biotrophic plant pathogenic bacteria: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes, Rhodococcus fascians, scab-inducing Streptomyces spp., and Pseudomonas syringae.

  13. Lyssaviruses and Bats: Emergence and Zoonotic Threat

    PubMed Central

    Banyard, Ashley C.; Evans, Jennifer S.; Luo, Ting Rong; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    The continued detection of zoonotic viral infections in bats has led to the microbial fauna of these mammals being studied at a greater level than ever before. Whilst numerous pathogens have been discovered in bat species, infection with lyssaviruses is of particular significance from a zoonotic perspective as, where human infection has been reported, it is invariably fatal. Here we review the detection of lyssaviruses within different bat species and overview what is understood regarding their maintenance and transmission following both experimental and natural infection. We discuss the relevance of these pathogens as zoonotic agents and the threat of newly discovered viruses to human populations. PMID:25093425

  14. Threat Posed by Mounting Vigilantism in Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Perro’s body was found in the trunk of a vehicle occu- pied by Ismael Quintero Oliver, 32, and Marcos Érik Pérez Mora, 21, who belonged to a”Drivers...POSED BY MOUNTING VIGILANTISM IN MEXICO George W. Grayson U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE ,....~ .... :!iO.L STRATEGIC STUDIES INSTITUTE Report...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Threat Posed by Mounting Vigilantism in Mexico 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  15. Tie strength distribution in scientific collaboration networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Qing; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2014-09-01

    Science is increasingly dominated by teams. Understanding patterns of scientific collaboration and their impacts on the productivity and evolution of disciplines is crucial to understand scientific processes. Electronic bibliography offers a unique opportunity to map and investigate the nature of scientific collaboration. Recent studies have demonstrated a counterintuitive organizational pattern of scientific collaboration networks: densely interconnected local clusters consist of weak ties, whereas strong ties play the role of connecting different clusters. This pattern contrasts itself from many other types of networks where strong ties form communities while weak ties connect different communities. Although there are many models for collaboration networks, no model reproduces this pattern. In this paper, we present an evolution model of collaboration networks, which reproduces many properties of real-world collaboration networks, including the organization of tie strengths, skewed degree and weight distribution, high clustering, and assortative mixing.

  16. Physical Strength as a Cue to Dominance: A Data-Driven Approach.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Hugo; Schubert, Thomas W; Dotsch, Ron; Falvello, Virginia; Todorov, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    We investigate both similarities and differences between dominance and strength judgments using a data-driven approach. First, we created statistical face shape models of judgments of both dominance and physical strength. The resulting faces representing dominance and strength were highly similar, and participants were at chance in discriminating faces generated by the two models. Second, although the models are highly correlated, it is possible to create a model that captures their differences. This model generates faces that vary from dominant-yet-physically weak to nondominant-yet-physically strong. Participants were able to identify the difference in strength between the physically strong-yet-nondominant faces and the physically weak-yet-dominant faces. However, this was not the case for identifying dominance. These results suggest that representations of social dominance and physical strength are highly similar, and that strength is used as a cue for dominance more than dominance is used as a cue for strength.

  17. A Simulation Study of Threats to Validity in Quasi-Experimental Designs: Interrelationship between Design, Measurement, and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Holgado-Tello, Fco. P.; Chacón-Moscoso, Salvador; Sanduvete-Chaves, Susana; Pérez-Gil, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The Campbellian tradition provides a conceptual framework to assess threats to validity. On the other hand, different models of causal analysis have been developed to control estimation biases in different research designs. However, the link between design features, measurement issues, and concrete impact estimation analyses is weak. In order to provide an empirical solution to this problem, we use Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) as a first approximation to operationalize the analytical implications of threats to validity in quasi-experimental designs. Based on the analogies established between the Classical Test Theory (CTT) and causal analysis, we describe an empirical study based on SEM in which range restriction and statistical power have been simulated in two different models: (1) A multistate model in the control condition (pre-test); and (2) A single-trait-multistate model in the control condition (post-test), adding a new mediator latent exogenous (independent) variable that represents a threat to validity. Results show, empirically, how the differences between both the models could be partially or totally attributed to these threats. Therefore, SEM provides a useful tool to analyze the influence of potential threats to validity. PMID:27378991

  18. A Simulation Study of Threats to Validity in Quasi-Experimental Designs: Interrelationship between Design, Measurement, and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Holgado-Tello, Fco P; Chacón-Moscoso, Salvador; Sanduvete-Chaves, Susana; Pérez-Gil, José A

    2016-01-01

    The Campbellian tradition provides a conceptual framework to assess threats to validity. On the other hand, different models of causal analysis have been developed to control estimation biases in different research designs. However, the link between design features, measurement issues, and concrete impact estimation analyses is weak. In order to provide an empirical solution to this problem, we use Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) as a first approximation to operationalize the analytical implications of threats to validity in quasi-experimental designs. Based on the analogies established between the Classical Test Theory (CTT) and causal analysis, we describe an empirical study based on SEM in which range restriction and statistical power have been simulated in two different models: (1) A multistate model in the control condition (pre-test); and (2) A single-trait-multistate model in the control condition (post-test), adding a new mediator latent exogenous (independent) variable that represents a threat to validity. Results show, empirically, how the differences between both the models could be partially or totally attributed to these threats. Therefore, SEM provides a useful tool to analyze the influence of potential threats to validity.

  19. ASYMMETRIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN WEAKLY IONIZED CHROMOSPHERIC PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Nicholas A.; Lukin, Vyacheslav S.

    2015-06-01

    Realistic models of magnetic reconnection in the solar chromosphere must take into account that the plasma is partially ionized and that plasma conditions within any two magnetic flux bundles undergoing reconnection may not be the same. Asymmetric reconnection in the chromosphere may occur when newly emerged flux interacts with pre-existing, overlying flux. We present 2.5D simulations of asymmetric reconnection in weakly ionized, reacting plasmas where the magnetic field strengths, ion and neutral densities, and temperatures are different in each upstream region. The plasma and neutral components are evolved separately to allow non-equilibrium ionization. As in previous simulations of chromospheric reconnection, the current sheet thins to the scale of the neutral–ion mean free path and the ion and neutral outflows are strongly coupled. However, the ion and neutral inflows are asymmetrically decoupled. In cases with magnetic asymmetry, a net flow of neutrals through the current sheet from the weak-field (high-density) upstream region into the strong-field upstream region results from a neutral pressure gradient. Consequently, neutrals dragged along with the outflow are more likely to originate from the weak-field region. The Hall effect leads to the development of a characteristic quadrupole magnetic field modified by asymmetry, but the X-point geometry expected during Hall reconnection does not occur. All simulations show the development of plasmoids after an initial laminar phase.

  20. The dimensional structure of people's fears, threats, and concerns and their relationship with right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Barbara; Duckitt, John

    2013-01-01

    Most theories addressing the topic have proposed that threat and fear underlie right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), and many empirical findings have been consistent with this proposition. Important questions, however, remain unanswered, such as whether RWA is associated with fear and threat in general or only specific kinds of fear and threat. Theories of RWA generate markedly different predictions on this issue, particularly with respect to social or personal fears, and whether the association would also hold for the closely related construct of social dominance orientation (SDO). We investigated the issue by asking 463 undergraduate students to rate their feelings of fear, concern, and anxiety to a comprehensive 93-item list of potential fears and threats, which were formulated as either personal or social. Exploratory factors analysis identified five distinct fear-threat factors: harm to self, child, or country; personal and relationship failures; environmental and economic fears; political and personal uncertainties; and threats to ingroup. All the fear-threat factors were correlated with RWA, with the strongest correlations being for threats to ingroup, and with stronger effects for social than for personal fears. None of the fear factors correlated with SDO. These relationships were not affected by controlling for social desirability or emotional stability (EMS). When the intercorrelations between fear factors and EMS were controlled using ridge regression, only threats to ingroup predicted RWA. Structural equation modeling indicated good fit for a model in which low levels of EMS had a significant path to threats to ingroup, which in turn had a significant path to RWA, and EMS having a significant though weak indirect (fully mediated) inverse effect on RWA. Implications of these findings for theories of authoritarianism and future research are discussed.

  1. Women's Speech, Women's Strength?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Jennifer

    A discussion of women's oral discourse patterns focuses on the uses made of minimal responses, hedges, and tag questions. The analysis draws on transcriptions of conversations among a group of women friends over a period of months. It is proposed that the conventional treatment of these forms as "weak" is inappropriate in all-female…

  2. Deterring regional threats from nuclear proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, L.S.

    1992-03-12

    The most prominent shift in the National Military Strategy is from the global Soviet threat to a new focus on regional contingencies. No threat looms larger in these contingencies than the proliferation of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles. This study examines proliferation trends and proposes a predominately diplomatic strategy for containing the problem. Dr. Spector identifies three waves of proliferation: the first is the five states with declared weapons and doctrine-the United States, Russia, Great Britain, France, and China; the second includes a less visible group that developed a covert capability, without testing weapons or declaring a doctrine of deterrence-for example, Israel, India, and probably Pakistan; and, a third wave of would-be proliferators includes radical states like Iraq, Iran, Libya, and North Korea. Spector's political approach is based on the common interest of wave one and two states to prevent further proliferation. Political-economic incentives have already worked in the cases of Brazil, Argentina, Taiwan, and South Africa-states which appear to have abandoned their nuclear weapons programs. Spector does not rule out the option of military force. Force, especially under international sanctions, can be a powerful tool to back diplomatic efforts. Use of force, however, remains a last resort.

  3. In Brief: Threats to species continue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-11-01

    Of 47,677 assessed species, 17,291 are threatened with extinction, according to the latest update of the Red List of Threatened Species issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) on 3 November. The list indicates that amphibians are the most threatened group of species known to date, with 1895 (nearly 30%) of 6285 amphibians in danger of extinction. Thirty-nine are already extinct or extinct in the wild, 484 are critically endangered, 754 are endangered, and 657 are vulnerable, according to IUCN. Under threat are 21% of mammals, 30% of amphibians, 12% of birds, 28% of reptiles, 37% of freshwater fishes, 70% of plants, and 35% of invertebrates assessed to date. “We have only managed to assess 47,663 species so far; there are many more millions out there which could be under serious threat,” according to IUCN Red List Unit Manager Craig Hilton-Taylor. For more information, visit http://www.iucnredlist.org.

  4. Identifying chemicals that are planetary boundary threats.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Matthew; Breitholtz, Magnus; Cousins, Ian T; de Wit, Cynthia A; Persson, Linn M; Rudén, Christina; McLachlan, Michael S

    2014-10-07

    Rockström et al. proposed a set of planetary boundaries that delimit a "safe operating space for humanity". Many of the planetary boundaries that have so far been identified are determined by chemical agents. Other chemical pollution-related planetary boundaries likely exist, but are currently unknown. A chemical poses an unknown planetary boundary threat if it simultaneously fulfills three conditions: (1) it has an unknown disruptive effect on a vital Earth system process; (2) the disruptive effect is not discovered until it is a problem at the global scale, and (3) the effect is not readily reversible. In this paper, we outline scenarios in which chemicals could fulfill each of the three conditions, then use the scenarios as the basis to define chemical profiles that fit each scenario. The chemical profiles are defined in terms of the nature of the effect of the chemical and the nature of exposure of the environment to the chemical. Prioritization of chemicals in commerce against some of the profiles appears feasible, but there are considerable uncertainties and scientific challenges that must be addressed. Most challenging is prioritizing chemicals for their potential to have a currently unknown effect on a vital Earth system process. We conclude that the most effective strategy currently available to identify chemicals that are planetary boundary threats is prioritization against profiles defined in terms of environmental exposure combined with monitoring and study of the biogeochemical processes that underlie vital Earth system processes to identify currently unknown disruptive effects.

  5. Passive acoustic threat detection in estuarine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Brian; Sutin, Alexander; Roh, Heui-Seol; Bunin, Barry

    2008-04-01

    The Maritime Security Laboratory (MSL) at Stevens Institute of Technology supports research in a range of areas relevant to harbor security, including passive acoustic detection of underwater threats. The difficulties in using passive detection in an urban estuarine environment include intensive and highly irregular ambient noise and the complexity of sound propagation in shallow water. MSL conducted a set of tests in the Hudson River near Manhattan in order to measure the main parameters defining the detection distance of a threat: source level of a scuba diver, transmission loss of acoustic signals, and ambient noise. The source level of the diver was measured by comparing the diver's sound with a reference signal from a calibrated emitter placed on his path. Transmission loss was measured by comparing noise levels of passing ships at various points along their routes, where their distance from the hydrophone was calculated with the help of cameras and custom software. The ambient noise in the Hudson River was recorded under varying environmental conditions and amounts of water traffic. The passive sonar equation was then applied to estimate the range of detection. Estimations were done for a subset of the recorded noise levels, and we demonstrated how variations in the noise level, attenuation, and the diver's source level influence the effective range of detection. Finally, we provided analytic estimates of how an array improves upon the detection distance calculated by a single hydrophone.

  6. Prefrontal control of attention to threat.

    PubMed

    Peers, Polly V; Simons, Jon S; Lawrence, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    Attentional control refers to the regulatory processes that ensure that our actions are in accordance with our goals. Dual-system accounts view temperament as consisting of both individual variation in emotionality (e.g., trait anxiety) and variation in regulatory attentional mechanisms that act to modulate emotionality. Increasing evidence links trait variation in attentional control to clinical mood and anxiety disorder symptoms, independent of trait emotionality. Attentional biases to threat have been robustly linked to mood and anxiety disorders. However, the role of variation in attentional control in influencing such biases, and the neural underpinnings of trait variation in attentional control, are unknown. Here, we show that individual differences in trait attentional control, even when accounting for trait and state anxiety, are related to the magnitude of an attentional blink (AB) following threat-related targets. Moreover, we demonstrate that activity in dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), is observed specifically in relation to control of attention over threatening stimuli, in line with neural theories of attentional control, such as guided activation theory. These results have key implications for neurocognitive theories of attentional bias and emotional resilience.

  7. Elasticity and Strength of Biomacromolecular Crystals: Lysozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, A. M.; Witherow, W. K.; Chen, L. Q.; Chernov, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    The static Young modulus, E = 0.1 to 0.5 GPa, the crystal critical strength (sigma(sub c)) and its ratio to E,sigma(sub c)/E is approximately 10(exp 3), were measured for the first time for non cross-linked lysozyme crystals in solution. By using a triple point bending apparatus, we also demonstrated that the crystals were purely elastic. Softness of protein crystals built of hard macromolecules (26 GPa for lysozyme) is explained by the large size of the macromolecules as compared to the range of intermolecular forces and by the weakness of intermolecular bonds as compared to the peptide bond strength. The relatively large reported dynamic elastic moduli (approximately 8 GPa) from resonance light scattering should come from averaging over the moduli of intracrystalline water and intra- and intermolecular bonding.

  8. When threat to society becomes a threat to oneself: implications for right-wing attitudes and ethnic prejudice.

    PubMed

    Onraet, Emma; Van Hiel, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between threat on one hand and right-wing attitudes and ethnic prejudice on the other were investigated in a heterogeneous sample (N = 588). Specifically, we considered the perception of economic and terroristic threats in terms of their consequences at the societal and personal levels. Previous studies revealed that societal consequences of threat, rather than personal consequences, are related to right-wing attitudes. However, the present results challenge these findings. More specifically, three important results emerged. First, items probing the distinct threat levels loaded on separate dimensions for economic and terroristic threat, validating the distinction between societal and personal threat consequences. Second, consistent with previous research, this study revealed that perceived societal consequences of threat yield strong and robust relationships with all target variables. However, personal consequences of threat were also associated with higher levels of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), social dominance orientation (SDO), and ethnic prejudice in particular. Third, societal and personal consequences of threat interacted in explaining the target variables. More specifically, feeling personally threatened by terrorism was only related to higher levels of RWA in the presence of low levels of threat to society, whereas experiencing personal economic threat was only related to higher levels of SDO and ethnic prejudice when high societal economic threat was experienced. In sum, although the perception of societal consequences of threat plays a prominent role in explaining right-wing attitudes and ethnic prejudice, the perception of being personally affected by threat is also associated with higher levels of RWA and SDO, and especially ethnic prejudice.

  9. Overview of the Distributed Mission Training Integrated Threat Environment project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.; Santos, Eugene, Jr.

    1998-08-01

    The Joint Synthetic Battlespace (JSB) envisioned within the Department of Defense modeling and simulation master plan requires a distributed virtual environment (DVE) wide consistent threat environment to achieve a useful mission rehearsal, training, test and evaluation capability. To achieve this objective, all threats in the DVE must appear at compatible levels of fidelity to all the entities operating in the DVE and they must interact with human- operated and computer-controlled entities in a realistic fashion. Achieving this goal is not currently possible for two reasons. First, each primary aircraft simulator training system developer has created their own threat system and made their own modeling decisions to support a specific user for a select few predetermined conditions. This traditional threat simulation approach is expensive and leads to ongoing difficulties in maintaining threat currency as intelligence updates are made, new weapons are introduced and new theaters of operation are identified. Second, the threat system interaction on a distributed network must be coordinated. The individualized nature of current threat systems precludes the possibility of introducing coordinated threats. The Distributed Mission Training Integrated Threat Environment (DMTITE) project is developing an effective solution to these issues. The DMTITE project is identifying the requirements for a distributed threat environment and building a demonstrator DOD High Level Architecture compatible system that can provide realistic threats for pilots to train against. The DMTITE prototype will instantiate a variety of threats for use in distributed training scenarios, including surface threats, air threats, radars, and jamming systems. A key element of the system will be the provision of realistic behaviors for the threat systems. We based DMTITE on a general software design methodology and software architecture for computer-generated forces (CGFs) that naturally supports `variety

  10. Feeling the Threat: Stereotype Threat as a Contextual Barrier to Women's Science Career Choice Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Eric D.; Thoman, Dustin B.; Chase, Justin P.; Smith, Jessi L.

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994, 2000) holds that contextual barriers inhibit self-efficacy and goal choice intentions from points both near and far from the active career development situation. The current study examined the influence of one such proximal barrier, stereotype threat, on attainment of these…

  11. A Lesson Not to Be Learned? Understanding Stereotype Threat Does Not Protect Women from Stereotype Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Appoloni, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This research examines whether reading a text presenting scientific evidence concerning the phenomenon of stereotype threat improves or disrupts women's performance in a subsequent math task. In two experimental conditions participants (N=118 ) read a text summarizing an experiment in which stereotypes, and not biological differences, were shown…

  12. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fitch, V. L.

    1972-03-23

    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  13. On modeling weak sinks in MODPATH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrams, Daniel B.; Haitjema, Henk; Kauffman, Leon J.

    2012-01-01

    Regional groundwater flow systems often contain both strong sinks and weak sinks. A strong sink extracts water from the entire aquifer depth, while a weak sink lets some water pass underneath or over the actual sink. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW may allow a sink cell to act as a strong or weak sink, hence extracting all water that enters the cell or allowing some of that water to pass. A physical strong sink can be modeled by either a strong sink cell or a weak sink cell, with the latter generally occurring in low resolution models. Likewise, a physical weak sink may also be represented by either type of sink cell. The representation of weak sinks in the particle tracing code MODPATH is more equivocal than in MODFLOW. With the appropriate parameterization of MODPATH, particle traces and their associated travel times to weak sink streams can be modeled with adequate accuracy, even in single layer models. Weak sink well cells, on the other hand, require special measures as proposed in the literature to generate correct particle traces and individual travel times and hence capture zones. We found that the transit time distributions for well water generally do not require special measures provided aquifer properties are locally homogeneous and the well draws water from the entire aquifer depth, an important observation for determining the response of a well to non-point contaminant inputs.

  14. On modeling weak sinks in MODPATH.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Daniel; Haitjema, H; Kauffman, L

    2013-01-01

    Regional groundwater flow systems often contain both strong sinks and weak sinks. A strong sink extracts water from the entire aquifer depth, while a weak sink lets some water pass underneath or over the actual sink. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW may allow a sink cell to act as a strong or weak sink, hence extracting all water that enters the cell or allowing some of that water to pass. A physical strong sink can be modeled by either a strong sink cell or a weak sink cell, with the latter generally occurring in low-resolution models. Likewise, a physical weak sink may also be represented by either type of sink cell. The representation of weak sinks in the particle tracing code MODPATH is more equivocal than in MODFLOW. With the appropriate parameterization of MODPATH, particle traces and their associated travel times to weak sink streams can be modeled with adequate accuracy, even in single layer models. Weak sink well cells, on the other hand, require special measures as proposed in the literature to generate correct particle traces and individual travel times and hence capture zones. We found that the transit time distributions for well water generally do not require special measures provided aquifer properties are locally homogeneous and the well draws water from the entire aquifer depth, an important observation for determining the response of a well to non-point contaminant inputs.

  15. Spin Seebeck effect in a weak ferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arboleda, Juan David; Arnache Olmos, Oscar; Aguirre, Myriam Haydee; Ramos, Rafael; Anadon, Alberto; Ibarra, Manuel Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    We report the observation of room temperature spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in a weak ferromagnetic normal spinel Zinc Ferrite (ZFO). Despite the weak ferromagnetic behavior, the measurements of the SSE in ZFO show a thermoelectric voltage response comparable with the reported values for other ferromagnetic materials. Our results suggest that SSE might possibly originate from the surface magnetization of the ZFO.

  16. Few body hypernuclear systems: Weak decays

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical situation regarding mesonic and non-mesonic decays of light hypernuclei is reviewed. Although some models give reasonable results for pionic decays as well as the total weak decay rate, no existing approach explains, even qualitatively, the observed spin-isospin dependence of ..lambda..N ..-->.. NN non-mesonic weak decays. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Dan E; Pedrini, Paolo; Brambilla, Mattia; Rolando, Antonio; Girardello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization. There was a high degree of concordance in ranking of perceived threats among experts for most threat categories. The major overall perceived threats to Alpine birds identified through expert knowledge were land abandonment, urbanization, leisure and forestry, although other perceived threats were ranked highly for particular species groups (renewable energy and hunting for raptors, hunting for gamebirds). For groups of species defined according to their breeding habitat, open habitat species and treeline species were perceived as the most threatened. A spatial risk assessment tool based on summed scores for the whole community showed threat levels were highest for bird communities of the northern and western Alps. Development of the approaches given in this paper, including addressing biases in the selection of experts and adopting a more detailed ranking procedure, could prove useful in the future in identifying future threats, and in carrying out risk assessments based on levels of threat to the whole bird community.

  18. Lithospheric strength variations in Mainland China: Tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yangfan; Tesauro, Magdala

    2016-10-01

    We present a new thermal and strength model for the lithosphere of Mainland China. To this purpose, we integrate a thermal model for the crust, using a 3-D steady state heat conduction equation, with estimates for the upper mantle thermal structure, obtained by inverting a S wave tomography model. With this new thermal model and assigning to the lithospheric layers a "soft" and "hard" rheology, respectively, we estimate integrated strength of the lithosphere. In the Ordos and the Sichuan basins, characterized by intermediate temperatures, strength is primarily concentrated in the crust, when the rheology is soft, and in both the crust and upper mantle, when the rheology is hard. In turn, the Tibetan Plateau and the Tarim basin have a weak and strong lithosphere mainly on account of their high and low temperatures, respectively. A comparison of temperatures, strength, and effective viscosity variations with earthquakes distribution and their seismic energy released indicates that both the deep part of the crust and the upper mantle of the Tibetan Plateau are weak and prone to flow toward adjacent areas. The high strength of some of the tectonic domains surrounding Tibet (Tarim, Ordos, and Sichuan basins) favors the flow toward the weak western part of South China block.

  19. Strength of inorganic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkjian, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: a look at the history of glass strength; atomistic theory of fracture; surface chemistry in relation to the strength and fracture of silicate glasses; high-speed photographic investigations of the dynamic localized loading of some oxide glasses; a correction for measurements of contact area using Newton's rings; envionmentally enhanced crack growth; fatigue in glass; behavior of flaws in fused silica fibers; fracture toughness of chalcogenide glasses and glass-ceramics; fracture analysis of glass surfaces; and fracture mechanics parameters for glasses - a compilation and correlation.

  20. Spin Resonance Strength Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courant, E. D.

    2009-08-01

    In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.

  1. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  2. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  3. Weak-value amplification: state of play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knee, George C.; Combes, Joshua; Ferrie, Christopher; Gauger, Erik M.

    2016-01-01

    Weak values arise in quantum theory when the result of a weak measurement is conditioned on a subsequent strong measurement. The majority of the trials are discarded, leaving only very few successful events. Intriguingly those can display a substantial signal amplification. This raises the question of whether weak values carry potential to improve the performance of quantum sensors, and indeed a number of impressive experimental results suggested this may be the case. By contrast, recent theoretical studies have found the opposite: using weak-values to obtain an amplification generally worsens metrological performance. This survey summarises the implications of those studies, which call for a reappraisal of weak values' utility and for further work to reconcile theory and experiment.

  4. Structure of Weak Shock Waves in a Monatomic Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, F. S.; Talbot, L.

    1959-01-01

    The profiles and thicknesses of normal shock waves in argon at Mach numbers of 1.335, 1.454, 1.576, and 1-713 were determined experimentally by means of a free-molecule probe whose equilibrium temperature is related by kinetic theory to the local flow properties and their gradients. Comparisons were made between the experimental shock profiles and the theoretical profiles calculated from the Navier-Stokes equations, the Grad 13-moment equations, and the Burnett equations. New, very accurate numerical integrations of the Burnett equations were obtained for this purpose with results quite different from those found by Zoller, to whom the solution of this problem is frequently attributed. The experimental shock profiles were predicted with approximately equal success by the Navier-Stokes and Burnett theories, while the 13-moment method was definitely less satisfactory. A surprising feature of the theoretical results is the relatively small difference in predictions between the Navier-Stokes and Burnett theories in the present range of shock strengths and the contrastingly large difference between predictions of Burnett and the 13-moment theories. It is concluded that the Navier-Stokes equations are correct for weak shocks and that within the present shock strength range the Burnett equations make no improvement which merits the trouble of solving them. For shocks of noticeably greater strength, say with a shock Mach number of more than 2.5, it remains fundamentally doubtful that any of these theories can be correct.

  5. Understanding The Strengths And Weaknesses Of Public Reporting Of Surgeon-Specific Outcome Data.

    PubMed

    Burns, Elaine M; Pettengell, Chris; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2016-03-01

    Public reporting of outcome data is increasingly being used at the institutional and clinician levels and has become mandatory in some parts of the United States and the United Kingdom. The intended benefits are to drive quality improvement, demonstrate transparency, facilitate patient choice, and allow identification of poor performance. Public reporting of surgeon-specific mortality data, however, may have unintended consequences that include causing surgeons to become risk-averse, discouraging innovation, having an impact on training, and prompting "gaming" in health care. Given the small number of some surgical operations performed by individual surgeons, such data are unlikely to identify outliers or poor performers in a valid way. If metrics are deemed necessary and required to be reported publicly, they should be procedure specific; account for sample size; and focus not solely on mortality but also on other outcomes such as quality of life, patient satisfaction, and experience.

  6. Comparison of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar: strengths and weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Pitsouni, Eleni I; Malietzis, George A; Pappas, Georgios

    2008-02-01

    The evolution of the electronic age has led to the development of numerous medical databases on the World Wide Web, offering search facilities on a particular subject and the ability to perform citation analysis. We compared the content coverage and practical utility of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. The official Web pages of the databases were used to extract information on the range of journals covered, search facilities and restrictions, and update frequency. We used the example of a keyword search to evaluate the usefulness of these databases in biomedical information retrieval and a specific published article to evaluate their utility in performing citation analysis. All databases were practical in use and offered numerous search facilities. PubMed and Google Scholar are accessed for free. The keyword search with PubMed offers optimal update frequency and includes online early articles; other databases can rate articles by number of citations, as an index of importance. For citation analysis, Scopus offers about 20% more coverage than Web of Science, whereas Google Scholar offers results of inconsistent accuracy. PubMed remains an optimal tool in biomedical electronic research. Scopus covers a wider journal range, of help both in keyword searching and citation analysis, but it is currently limited to recent articles (published after 1995) compared with Web of Science. Google Scholar, as for the Web in general, can help in the retrieval of even the most obscure information but its use is marred by inadequate, less often updated, citation information.

  7. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Information Technology Curriculum in Library and Information Science Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Vandana; Mehra, Bharat

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the status of the information technology (IT) skills and competencies being taught at LIS schools in the United States. Results list specific IT topics that the library schools are teaching and the ones that are missing from the curriculum. Based on a literature review these skills are then juxtaposed with the expectations…

  8. Strengths and Weaknesses in the Family Life of Black South Africans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viljoen, Sylvia

    This study examined the quality and characteristics of black families in South Africa. The research focused on three areas: values and norms regarding marriage and family life, the deterioration of traditional and parental authority, and parenting skills. The fieldwork was done during the years 1988-1990 and consisted mostly of group interviews…

  9. Social Network Perspectives Reveal Strength of Academic Developers as Weak Ties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Kelly E.; Crampton, Andrea; Hill, Matthew; Johnson, Elizabeth D.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Varsavsky, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Social network perspectives acknowledge the influence of disciplinary cultures on academics' teaching beliefs and practices with implications for academic developers. The contribution of academic developers in 18 scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) projects situated in the sciences are explored by drawing on data from a two-year national…

  10. Middle School Configuration Relationship with Eighth Grade Achievement with Administrator Perceptions of Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Tawny J.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-method research study sought to investigate the relationship between middle school configuration and the academic achievement of eighth grade students in English Language Arts (ELA) and Algebra 1. The California Content Standards exam scores of 646 elementary middle schools (K-8) and 1,282 traditional middle schools (6-8, 7-8) in…

  11. Strengths and Weaknesses in Executive Functioning in Children with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielsson, Henrik; Henry, Lucy; Messer, David; Ronnberg, Jerker

    2012-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability (ID) were given a comprehensive range of executive functioning measures, which systematically varied in terms of verbal and non-verbal demands. Their performance was compared to the performance of groups matched on mental age (MA) and chronological age (CA), respectively. Twenty-two children were included in…

  12. [Constructing the nursing profession from the perspective of gender. A weakness or strength?].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez García, Marta; Martínez Miguel, Esther; Tovar Reinoso, Alberto; González Hervias, Raquel; Goday Arean, Carmen; García Salinero, Julia

    2009-01-01

    To care for someone is a life-giving act whose existence goes so far back that it is lost in human memory. Despite the fact that the concept of health has evolved over the course of time, there is a constant factor, both in the social as in the practical context which ties care-giving implicitly to women. Innate qualities in the feminine sex, including vocation, kindness, dedication, softness, have contributed to undervalue professional work and to grant it little social recognition. As a group, nurses have been placed in the paradigm of oppression, due to the hierarchical vigilance medicine, a field located at the apex of power; has exercised over this profession. At present times, the humanization of caregiving and the role change by patients act favorably so that nurses begin to question the current situation their profession is in and to ask what can be done so their profession evolves independently

  13. Understanding Learner Strengths and Weaknesses: Assessing Performance on an Integrated Writing Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Yasuyo; Quinlan, Thomas; Lee, Yong-Won

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factor structures across features of 446 examinees' responses to a writing task that integrates reading and listening modalities as well as reading and listening comprehension items of the TOEFL iBT[R] (Internet-based test). Both human and automated scores obtained for the integrated essays were utilized. Based on a…

  14. Emergent Literacy Skills during Early Childhood in Children with Hearing Loss: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Lederberg, Amy R.; Miller, Elizabeth M.; Bergeron, Jessica P.; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2008-01-01

    The difficulties for students with hearing loss in gaining proficient literacy skills are well documented. However, studies describing the nature and variability of emergent literacy skills for students with hearing loss or the rate at which progress occurs at young ages are limited. We assessed emergent literacy skills and outcomes at the…

  15. Integrating Social Networking Tools into ESL Writing Classroom: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunus, Melor Md; Salehi, Hadi; Chenzi, Chen

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of world and technology, English learning has become more important. Teachers frequently use teacher-centered pedagogy that leads to lack of interaction with students. This paper aims to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of integrating social networking tools into ESL writing classroom and discuss the ways to…

  16. White paper of Italian Gastroenterology: delivery of services for digestive diseases in Italy: weaknesses and strengths.

    PubMed

    Buscarini, Elisabetta; Conte, Dario; Cannizzaro, Renato; Bazzoli, Franco; De Boni, Michele; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Farinati, Fabio; Ravelli, Paolo; Testoni, Pier Alberto; Lisiero, Manola; Spolaore, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    In 2011 the three major Italian gastroenterological scientific societies (AIGO, the Italian Society of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Endoscopists; SIED, the Italian Society of Endoscopy; SIGE, the Italian Society of Gastroenterology) prepared their official document aimed at analysing medical care for digestive diseases in Italy, on the basis of national and regional data (Health Ministry and Lombardia, Veneto, Emilia-Romagna databases) and to make proposals for planning of care. Digestive diseases were the first or second cause of hospitalizations in Italy in 1999-2009, with more than 1,500,000 admissions/year; however only 5-9% of these admissions was in specialized Gastroenterology units. Reported data show a better outcome in Gastroenterology Units than in non-specialized units: shorter average length of stay, in particular for admissions with ICD-9-CM codes proxying for emergency conditions (6.7 days versus 8.4 days); better case mix (higher average diagnosis-related groups weight in Gastroenterology Units: 1 vs 0.97 in Internal Medicine units and 0.76 in Surgery units); lower inappropriateness of admissions (16-25% versus 29-87%); lower in-hospital mortality in urgent admissions (2.2% versus 5.1%); for patients with urgent admissions due to gastrointestinnal haemorrhage, in-hospital mortality was 2.3% in Gastroenterology units versus 4.0% in others. The present document summarizes the scientific societies' official report, which constitutes the "White paper of Italian Gastroenterology".

  17. Progression or Regression? - Strengths and Weaknesses of the New Munich Nomenclature III for Cervix Cytology.

    PubMed

    Hilal, Z; Tempfer, C; Schiermeier, S; Reinecke, J; Ruppenkamp, C; Hilal, Z

    2015-10-01

    Introduction: Since 01. 01. 2015 the new Munich nomenclature III for gynaecological diagnostics of the cervix has been in force. The changes have led to controversial scientific discussions. This study reports for the first time on the consequences. Materials and Methods: The present data are based on smear screening results for the year 2014. The data of 63 134 patients were evaluated. Results: 2.27 % of all smears were remarkable. Group IIa was assigned to 0.91 %. Group II-p was somewhat more frequently recorded than group IIID1 (0.59 vs. 0.53 %). Groups IIID1 and IIID2 were found in 0.53 and 0.61 %, respectively, of the cases. Agreement with histology was found in 36.84 and 44.68 %, respectively. Glandular lesions represented the most frequent changes in group III. Histological clarification was obtained for 0.18 % of all remarkable findings. The relative incidence of high-grade precancerous conditions (CIN III) and invasive tumours amounted to 0.1 %. Conclusion: A close communication between gynaecologists and cytologists is mandatory for the correct usage of the new nomenclature. The future annual statistics of the health insurances can now be analysed in more detail. A statistical classification of glandular epithelial changes is now also possible for the first time. The heterogeneous group IIa constitutes an unnecessary uncertainty for patients and physicians. The splitting of the group IIID does not appear to have any advantage for the further clinical management. Further studies are needed to show whether or not the classification can stand up to international comparisons.

  18. Socio-Cognitive Understanding: A Strength or Weakness in Down's Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, J. G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Social understanding is often thought to be relatively "protected" in children with Down's syndrome (DS) and to underlie the outgoing personality characteristically attributed to them. This paper draws together findings from our studies of behaviours during object concept testing, generally considered a theoretically "pure" measure of…

  19. The ASAS Criteria for Axial Spondyloarthritis: Strengths, Weaknesses, and Proposals for a Way Forward.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Sjef; Akkoc, Nurullah; Brown, Matthew A; Robinson, Philip C; Khan, Muhammad A

    2015-09-01

    Classification criteria should facilitate selection of similar patients for clinical and epidemiologic studies, therapeutic trials, and research on etiopathogenesis to enable comparison of results across studies from different centers. We critically appraise the validity and performance of the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). It is still debatable whether all patients fulfilling these criteria should be considered as having true axSpA. Patients with radiographically evident disease by the ASAS criteria are not necessarily identical with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as classified by the modified New York criteria. The complex multi-arm selection design of the ASAS criteria induces considerable heterogeneity among patients so classified, and applying them in settings with a low prevalence of axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) greatly increases the proportion of subjects falsely classified as suffering from axial SpA. One of the unmet needs in non-radiographic form of axial SpA is to have reliable markers that can identify individuals at risk for progression to AS and thereby facilitate early intervention trials designed to prevent such progression. We suggest needed improvements of the ASAS criteria for axSpA, as all criteria sets should be regarded as dynamic concepts open to modifications or updates as our knowledge advances.

  20. Causality assessment methods in drug induced liver injury: strengths and weaknesses.

    PubMed

    García-Cortés, Miren; Stephens, Camilla; Lucena, M Isabel; Fernández-Castañer, Alejandra; Andrade, Raúl J

    2011-09-01

    Diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains a challenge and eagerly awaits the development of reliable hepatotoxicity biomarkers. Several methods have been developed in order to facilitate hepatotoxicity causality assessments. These methods can be divided into three categories: (1) expert judgement, (2) probabilistic approaches, and (3) algorithms or scales. The last category is further divided into general and liver-specific scales. The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) scale, also referred to as the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM), although cumbersome and difficult to apply by physicians not acquainted with DILI, is used by many expert hepatologists, researchers, and regulatory authorities to assess the probability of suspected causal agents. However, several limitations of this scale have been brought to light, indicating that a number of adjustments are needed. This review is a detailed timely criticism to alert the readers of the limitations and give insight into what would be needed to improve the scale. Instructions on how to approach DILI diagnosis in practice are provided, using CIOMS as an aid to emphasize the topics to be addressed when assessing DILI cases. Amendments of the CIOMS scale in the form of applying authoritative evidence-based criteria, a simplified scoring system and appropriate weighting given to individual parameters based on statistical evaluations with large databases will provide wider applicability in the clinical setting.

  1. The strengths and weaknesses of inverted pendulum models of human walking.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Michael; Howard, David; Baker, Richard

    2015-02-01

    An investigation into the kinematic and kinetic predictions of two "inverted pendulum" (IP) models of gait was undertaken. The first model consisted of a single leg, with anthropometrically correct mass and moment of inertia, and a point mass at the hip representing the rest of the body. A second model incorporating the physiological extension of a head-arms-trunk (HAT) segment, held upright by an actuated hip moment, was developed for comparison. Simulations were performed, using both models, and quantitatively compared with empirical gait data. There was little difference between the two models' predictions of kinematics and ground reaction force (GRF). The models agreed well with empirical data through mid-stance (20-40% of the gait cycle) suggesting that IP models adequately simulate this phase (mean error less than one standard deviation). IP models are not cyclic, however, and cannot adequately simulate double support and step-to-step transition. This is because the forces under both legs augment each other during double support to increase the vertical GRF. The incorporation of an actuated hip joint was the most novel change and added a new dimension to the classic IP model. The hip moment curve produced was similar to those measured during experimental walking trials. As a result, it was interpreted that the primary role of the hip musculature in stance is to keep the HAT upright. Careful consideration of the differences between the models throws light on what the different terms within the GRF equation truly represent.

  2. Perceptions of Online TESOL Teacher Education: Strengths, Weaknesses, Characteristics, and Effective Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Susan Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    Recent and ongoing expansion of online opportunities for teacher education and training continue in response to calls for better teacher preparation and professional development opportunities. However, with the introduction of online learning, the already controversial debate over educational technology has taken on a new dimension. Today's…

  3. Commercial Crop Yields Reveal Strengths and Weaknesses for Organic Agriculture in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Steven D.; Jabbour, Randa

    2016-01-01

    Land area devoted to organic agriculture has increased steadily over the last 20 years in the United States, and elsewhere around the world. A primary criticism of organic agriculture is lower yield compared to non-organic systems. Previous analyses documenting the yield deficiency in organic production have relied mostly on data generated under experimental conditions, but these studies do not necessarily reflect the full range of innovation or practical limitations that are part of commercial agriculture. The analysis we present here offers a new perspective, based on organic yield data collected from over 10,000 organic farmers representing nearly 800,000 hectares of organic farmland. We used publicly available data from the United States Department of Agriculture to estimate yield differences between organic and conventional production methods for the 2014 production year. Similar to previous work, organic crop yields in our analysis were lower than conventional crop yields for most crops. Averaged across all crops, organic yield averaged 80% of conventional yield. However, several crops had no significant difference in yields between organic and conventional production, and organic yields surpassed conventional yields for some hay crops. The organic to conventional yield ratio varied widely among crops, and in some cases, among locations within a crop. For soybean (Glycine max) and potato (Solanum tuberosum), organic yield was more similar to conventional yield in states where conventional yield was greatest. The opposite trend was observed for barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestevum), and hay crops, however, suggesting the geographical yield potential has an inconsistent effect on the organic yield gap. PMID:27552217

  4. Internal Quality Assurance Systems in Portugal: What Their Strengths and Weaknesses Reveal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Orlanda; Sin, Cristina; Amaral, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In Portugal, the agency for assessment and accreditation of higher education has recently included in its remit, beyond programme accreditation, the certification of internal quality assurance systems. This implies lighter touch accreditation and aims to direct institutions towards improvement, in addition to accountability. Twelve institutions…

  5. Commercial Crop Yields Reveal Strengths and Weaknesses for Organic Agriculture in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kniss, Andrew R; Savage, Steven D; Jabbour, Randa

    2016-01-01

    Land area devoted to organic agriculture has increased steadily over the last 20 years in the United States, and elsewhere around the world. A primary criticism of organic agriculture is lower yield compared to non-organic systems. Previous analyses documenting the yield deficiency in organic production have relied mostly on data generated under experimental conditions, but these studies do not necessarily reflect the full range of innovation or practical limitations that are part of commercial agriculture. The analysis we present here offers a new perspective, based on organic yield data collected from over 10,000 organic farmers representing nearly 800,000 hectares of organic farmland. We used publicly available data from the United States Department of Agriculture to estimate yield differences between organic and conventional production methods for the 2014 production year. Similar to previous work, organic crop yields in our analysis were lower than conventional crop yields for most crops. Averaged across all crops, organic yield averaged 80% of conventional yield. However, several crops had no significant difference in yields between organic and conventional production, and organic yields surpassed conventional yields for some hay crops. The organic to conventional yield ratio varied widely among crops, and in some cases, among locations within a crop. For soybean (Glycine max) and potato (Solanum tuberosum), organic yield was more similar to conventional yield in states where conventional yield was greatest. The opposite trend was observed for barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestevum), and hay crops, however, suggesting the geographical yield potential has an inconsistent effect on the organic yield gap.

  6. Strength and weakness of phase I to IV trials, with an emphasis on translational aspects

    PubMed Central

    Lønning, Per Eystein

    2008-01-01

    Although phase I to III trials represent the standard for introducing new drugs to clinical therapy, there has been increasing demand for translational research in oncology over the past decade. Thus, for most novel therapies such as 'targeted agents', a critical aspect for drug development in oncology has been to select the right patients for therapy. Translational research plays a pivotal role, not only in phase II trials but also in phase I and III and even in phase IV trials. The importance of distinguishing between our translational 'aims' in phase II and phase III trials is emphasized. Although translational research in phase III trials aims to identify optimal markers for clinical use, phase II studies may represent an optimal setting to explore tumour biology and the mechanisms of drug resistance in depth. PMID:19128436

  7. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Young Black Men, Masculinities, and Mental Health (YBMen) Facebook Project.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Daphne C; Allen, Julie Ober; Goodwill, Janelle R; Noel, Blake

    2016-12-15

    The Young Black Men, Masculinities, and Mental Health (YBMen) project is a Facebook-based intervention that provides mental health education and social support to young Black men. The YBMen project was created to better understand and address the pressures and needs of young Black men, particularly with regard to issues related to their conceptualization of masculinity and mental health. Black men from a 2-year liberal arts college in the Midwest (United States) enrolled in the YBMen pilot project. The purpose of this study is to report what participants in the YBMen pilot project liked and disliked about the intervention, along with their suggestions for improvement. Qualitative results from the 8 Black men who actively participated in the YBMen Facebook intervention and completed the postintervention interview are reported. A systematic analysis identified 9 subthemes that described participants' reactions to different components and characteristics of the Facebook intervention. Results indicated that opportunities for relationship building and connectivity, coupled with engaging popular culture references used in the intervention encouraged young Black men to actively participate in the YBMen Facebook intervention. The YBMen project has potential to improve the health and well-being of young Black men by providing nontraditional resources that are easily accessible, culturally sensitive, and gender-specific. Implications of the YBMen project as an effective Internet-based program that promotes mental health and increases social support among young Black men are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Perceived Strengths and Weaknesses of Highly Realistic Training and Live Tissue Training for Navy Corpsmen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-08

    raises about the proper use and care of animals .10–12 For three decades, activists have tried to end the practice of Highly Realistic and Live Tissue...Training 4 using live animals for medical training. Although live tissue training continues to be widely used in the training of military medical...compared. It was concluded that “modern simulation is reaching parity with live animal training models.”14 Similarly, Hall and colleagues found that

  9. SURVEY AND SUMMARY: Current methods of gene prediction, their strengths and weaknesses

    PubMed Central

    Mathé, Catherine; Sagot, Marie-France; Schiex, Thomas; Rouzé, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    While the genomes of many organisms have been sequenced over the last few years, transforming such raw sequence data into knowledge remains a hard task. A great number of prediction programs have been developed that try to address one part of this problem, which consists of locating the genes along a genome. This paper reviews the existing approaches to predicting genes in eukaryotic genomes and underlines their intrinsic advantages and limitations. The main mathematical models and computational algorithms adopted are also briefly described and the resulting software classified according to both the method and the type of evidence used. Finally, the several difficulties and pitfalls encountered by the programs are detailed, showing that improvements are needed and that new directions must be considered. PMID:12364589

  10. Specific Learning Disability Identification: What Constitutes a Pattern of Strengths and Weaknesses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Edward Karl; Simpson, Cynthia G.; Lynch, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    The 2004 Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) and subsequent regulations published in 2006 have significantly changed the identification process for students suspected of having specific learning disabilities. Rather than using a discrepancy model contrasting intellectual and achievement test results, assessment…

  11. [EpiInfo as a research and teaching tool in epidemiology and statistics: strengths and weaknesses].

    PubMed

    Mannocci, Alice; Bontempi, Claudio; Giraldi, Guglielmo; Chiaradia, Giacomina; de Waure, Chiara; Sferrazza, Antonella; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    EpiInfo is a free software developed in 1988 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta to facilitate field epidemiological investigations and statistical analysis. The aim of this study was to assess whether the software represents, in the Italian biomedical field, an effective analytical research tool and a practical and simple epidemiology and biostatistics teaching tool. A questionnaire consisting of 20 multiple-choice and open questions was administered to 300 healthcare workers, including doctors, biologists, nurses, medical students and interns, at the end of a CME course in epidemiology and biostatistics. Sixty-four percent of participants were aged between 26 and 45 years, 52% were women and 73% were unmarried. Results show that women are more likely to utilize EpiInfo in their research activities with respect to men (p = 0.023), as are individuals aged 26-45 years with respect to the older and younger age groups (p = 0.023) and unmarried participants with respect to those married (p = 0.010). Thirty-one percent of respondents consider EpiInfo to be more than adequate for analysis of their research data and 52% consider it to be sufficiently so. The inclusion of an EpiInfo course in statistics and epidemiology modules facilitates the understanding of theoretical concepts and allows researchers to more easily perform some of the clinical/epidemiological research activities.

  12. Strengths and Weaknesses in Reading Skills of Youth with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Channell, Marie Moore; Loveall, Susan J.; Conners, Frances A.

    2013-01-01

    Reading-related skills of youth with intellectual disability (ID) were compared with those of typically developing (TD) children of similar verbal ability level. The group with ID scored lower than the TD group on word recognition and phonological decoding, but similarly on orthographic processing and rapid automatized naming (RAN). Further,…

  13. Strengths and weakness of neuroscientific investigations of childhood poverty: future directions

    PubMed Central

    Lipina, Sebastián J.; Segretin, M. Soledad

    2015-01-01

    The neuroscientific study of child poverty is a topic that has only recently emerged. In comparison with previous reviews (e.g., Hackman and Farah, 2009; Lipina and Colombo, 2009; Hackman et al., 2010; Raizada and Kishiyama, 2010; Lipina and Posner, 2012), our perspective synthesizes findings, and summarizes both conceptual and methodological contributions, as well as challenges that face current neuroscientific approaches to the study of childhood poverty. The aim of this effort is to identify target areas of study that could potentially help build a basic and applied research agenda for the coming years. PMID:25717299

  14. An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of current veterinary systems in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Cheneau, Y; El Idrissi, A H; Ward, D

    2004-04-01

    The changes that veterinary services have undergone in the developing world over the last two decades are expected to continue and result in the further privatisation of selected tasks, the decentralisation of decision-making and a move towards more focus on public goods service delivery by State veterinary units. At the same time, global food consumption patterns are changing in numerous ways, which will certainly affect veterinary services delivery systems. These changes include a trend towards increasing globalisation, rapidly escalating consumer demand for animal protein, intensification of livestock production into larger units and growth of the trade of livestock and livestock products. Intensification of livestock production into larger units and global trade will increase the challenges resulting from the resurgence of serious animal diseases, food safety hazards and veterinary public health-related problems. Facing and managing these challenges raises issues related to animal health delivery systems and national policies that will have to be addressed. Strengthening the capacity of State veterinary units to respond to regulatory responsibilities dictated by national laws and international World Trade Organization and OIE (World organisation for animal health) health standards will be at the centre of animal health policies in most developing countries. Creating an environment which facilitates privatised service delivery and supports subcontracting is likely to contribute to improving economic efficiency and providing wider access to veterinary services. Equally important is the issue of professional development, which must be addressed by refocusing veterinary curricula and improving professional standards. The profession will then be in a better position to serve the needs of increasing numbers of consumers.

  15. Weak positive cloud-to-ground flashes in Northeastern Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Raul E.; Maier, Michael W.; Garcia-Miguel, Juan A.; Holle, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    The frequency distributions of the peak magnetic field associated with the first detected return stroke of positive and negative cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes were studied using lightning data from northeastern Colorado. These data were obtained during 1985 with a medium-to-high gain network of three direction finders (DF's). The median signal strength of positive flashes was almost two times that of the negatives for flashes within 300 km of the DF's, which have an inherent detection-threshold bias that tends to discriminate against weak signals. This bias increases with range, and affects the detection of positive and negative flashes in different ways, because of the differing character of their distributions. Positive flashes appear to have a large percentage of signals clustered around very weak values that are lost to the medium-to-high gain Colorado Detection System very quickly with increasing range. The resulting median for positive signals could thus appear to be much larger than the median for negative signals, which are more clustered around intermediate values. When only flashes very close to the DF's are considered, however, the two distributions have almost identical medians. The large percentage of weak positive signals detected close to the DF's has not been explored previously. They have been suggested to come from intracloud discharges and thus are improperly classified as CG flashes. Evidence in hand, points to their being real positive, albeit weak CG flashes. Whether or not they are real positive ground flashes, it is important to be aware of their presence in data from magnetic DF networks.

  16. Weakly nonlinear electrophoresis of a highly charged colloidal particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnitzer, Ory; Zeyde, Roman; Yavneh, Irad; Yariv, Ehud

    2013-05-01

    At large zeta potentials, surface conduction becomes appreciable in thin-double-layer electrokinetic transport. In the linear weak-field regime, where this effect is quantified by the Dukhin number, it is manifested in non-Smoluchowski electrophoretic mobilities. In this paper we go beyond linear response, employing the recently derived macroscale model of Schnitzer and Yariv ["Macroscale description of electrokinetic flows at large zeta potentials: Nonlinear surface conduction," Phys. Rev. E 86, 021503 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.021503] as the infrastructure for a weakly nonlinear analysis of spherical-particle electrophoresis. A straightforward perturbation in the field strength is frustrated by the failure to satisfy the far-field conditions, representing a non-uniformity of the weak-field approximation at large distances away from the particle, where salt advection becomes comparable to diffusion. This is remedied using inner-outer asymptotic expansions in the spirit of Acrivos and Taylor ["Heat and mass transfer from single spheres in Stokes flow," Phys. Fluids 5, 387 (1962), 10.1063/1.1706630], with the inner region representing the particle neighborhood and the outer region corresponding to distances scaling inversely with the field magnitude. This singular scheme furnishes an asymptotic correction to the electrophoretic velocity, proportional to the applied field cubed, which embodies a host of nonlinear mechanisms unfamiliar from linear electrokinetic theories. These include the effect of induced zeta-potential inhomogeneity, animated by concentration polarization, on electro-osmosis and diffuso-osmosis; bulk advection of salt; nonuniform bulk conductivity; Coulomb body forces acting on bulk volumetric charge; and the nonzero electrostatic force exerted upon the otherwise screened particle-layer system. A numerical solution of the macroscale model validates our weakly nonlinear analysis.

  17. Exploring Operational Safeguards, Safety, and Security by Design to Address Real Time Threats in Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Schanfein, Mark J.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2015-07-07

    Over the last few years, significant attention has been paid to both encourage application and provide domestic and international guidance for designing in safeguards and security in new facilities.1,2,3 However, once a facility is operational, safeguards, security, and safety often operate as separate entities that support facility operations. This separation is potentially a serious weakness should insider or outsider threats become a reality.Situations may arise where safeguards detects a possible loss of material in a facility. Will they notify security so they can, for example, check perimeter doors for tampering? Not doing so might give the advantage to an insider who has already, or is about to, move nuclear material outside the facility building. If outsiders break into a facility, the availability of any information to coordinate the facility’s response through segregated alarm stations or a failure to include all available radiation sensors, such as safety’s criticality monitors can give the advantage to the adversary who might know to disable camera systems, but would most likely be unaware of other highly relevant sensors in a nuclear facility.This paper will briefly explore operational safeguards, safety, and security by design (3S) at a high level for domestic and State facilities, identify possible weaknesses, and propose future administrative and technical methods, to strengthen the facility system’s response to threats.

  18. When threats foreign turn domestic: Two ways for distant realistic intergroup threats to carry over into local intolerance.

    PubMed

    Bouman, Thijs; van Zomeren, Martijn; Otten, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    In times of economic downturn, perceived realistic intergroup threats (e.g., labour competition) often dominate political and media discourse. Although local outgroups (e.g., local immigrants) can be experienced as sources of realistic threats, we propose that such threats can also be perceived to be caused by distant outgroups (e.g., European Union members perceiving Greece to threaten their economies) and that such distant threats can carry over into local intolerance (e.g., increasing intolerance towards local immigrant groups). We predicted and found in two studies that perceived distant realistic threats carried over into local intolerance via two different pathways. First, direct reactions towards the distant outgroup can generalize to culturally similar local outgroups (the group-based association pathway). Secondly, Study 2 indicated that when the distant threat was attributed to stereotypical outgroup traits (e.g., being lazy), distant realistic threats activated local realistic threats, which subsequently influenced local intolerance (the threat-based association pathway). Taken together, our studies indicate that perceived realistic threats foreign can turn domestic, but in two different ways.

  19. An Overview of Non-traditional Nuclear Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Geelhood, Bruce D.; Wogman, Ned A.

    2005-01-01

    In view of the terrorist threats to the United States, the country needs to consider new vectors and weapons related to nuclear and radiological threats against our homeland. The traditional threat vectors, missiles and bombers, have expanded to include threats arriving through the flow of commerce. The new commerce-related vectors include: sea cargo, truck cargo, rail cargo, and passenger transport. The types of weapons have also expanded beyond nuclear warheads to include radiation dispersal devices (RDD) or ''dirty'' bombs. The consequences of these nuclear and radiological threats are considered. The defense against undesirable materials entering our borders is considered. The radiation and other signatures or potential nuclear and radiological threats are examined along with potential sensors to discover undesirable items in the flow of commerce. Techniques to improve detection are considered. A strategy of primary and secondary screening is proposed to rapidly clear most cargo and carefully examine suspect cargo.

  20. An Overview of Non-Traditional Nuclear Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Geelhood, Bruce D.; Wogman, Ned A.

    2005-01-01

    In view of the terrorist threats to the United States, the country needs to consider new vectors and weapons related to nuclear and radiological threats against our homeland. The traditional threat vectors, missiles and bombers, have expanded to include threats arriving through the flow of commerce. The new commerce-related vectors include: sea cargo, truck cargo, rail cargo, air cargo, and passenger transport. The types of weapons have also expanded beyond nuclear war-heads to include radiation dispersal devices (RDD) or “dirty” bombs. The consequences of these nuclear and radiological threats are considered. The defense against undesirable materials enter-ing our borders is considered. The radiation and other signatures of potential nuclear and radio-logical threats are examined along with potential sensors to discover undesirable items in the flow of commerce. Techniques to improve detection are considered. A strategy of primary and secondary screening is proposed to rapidly clear most cargo and carefully examine suspect cargo.