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Sample records for wechsler memory scale-revised

  1. Verbal vs. Visual Categories on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised: How Meaningful a Distinction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Jane L.; Gilpin, Andrew R.

    1993-01-01

    Investigated a prior classification of Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) subtests into Verbal and Visual categories. Findings from 45 college students found that memory test performance correlated significantly with performance on subtests of Form II of Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery that measures substrates of particular memory…

  2. Partial cross-validation of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) General Memory-Attention/Concentration Malingering Index in a nonlitigating sample.

    PubMed

    Hilsabeck, Robin C; Thompson, Matthew D; Irby, James W; Adams, Russell L; Scott, James G; Gouvier, Wm Drew

    2003-01-01

    The Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) malingering indices proposed by Mittenberg, Azrin, Millsaps, and Heilbronner [Psychol Assess 5 (1993) 34.] were partially cross-validated in a sample of 200 nonlitigants. Nine diagnostic categories were examined, including participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI), brain tumor, stroke/vascular, senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT), epilepsy, depression/anxiety, medical problems, and no diagnosis. Results showed that the discriminant function using WMS-R subtests misclassified only 6.5% of the sample as malingering, with significantly higher misclassification rates of SDAT and stroke/vascular groups. The General Memory Index-Attention/Concentration Index (GMI-ACI) difference score misclassified only 8.5% of the sample as malingering when a difference score of greater than 25 points was used as the cutoff criterion. No diagnostic group was significantly more likely to be misclassified. Results support the utility of the GMI-ACI difference score, as well as the WMS-R subtest discriminant function score, in detecting malingering.

  3. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in [123]I-IMP Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography and the Wechsler Memory Scale-revised in Nondemented Elderly Subjects with Subjective Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Niwa, Fumitoshi; Kondo, Masaki; Sakurada, Kumi; Nakagawa, Masanori; Imanishi, Jiro; Mizuno, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    Objective Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is useful in the early diagnosis of dementia. We aimed to investigate the association between the rCBF and various domains related to the memory function in elderly subjects with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI). Methods Thirty-two subjects with SCI were included in the present study. Patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were excluded based on the presence of logical memory impairment. N-isopropyl-p-[123I]-iodoamphetamine SPECT was performed and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) was administered to all subjects (mean age, 68.4 years; average Mini-Mental State Examination score, 27.6). The SPECT results were analyzed using the easy Z-score imaging system and the voxel-based stereotactic extraction estimation method. Correlation analyses were performed to investigate the correlation between the mean positive Z-scores in the decrease of the rCBF and the WMS-R indices. Results The SPECT study indicated marked hypoperfusion in some areas, including the bilateral temporal areas, the caudate, and the thalamus, in these subjects in comparison to the normal database. The decrease in the rCBF that was observed in several regions, including the left precuneus and left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), showed a significant negative correlation with several indices of the memory function, particularly visual memory. Conclusion The regional hypoperfusion observed in the study using the voxel-based stereotactic extraction estimation method suggest that the regional cerebral dysfunction is associated with the memory function of patients with SCI, even though the subjects in the present study were cognitively intact. The correlation analysis with the WMS-R suggested the contribution of the LIFG to the memory function and indicated the significance of visual memory dysfunction in the neuropsychological assessment to determine the stage of SCI

  4. Cautions in Interpretation of Comparisons between the WAIS-R and the Wechsler Memory Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prifitera, Aurelio; Barley, William D.

    1985-01-01

    Wechsler Memory Scale Memory Quotient (WMS MQ) 12 points below Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Full-Scale IQ (WAIS FSIQ) may indicate memory impairment. Investigated the relation of FSIQ to MQ when the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised rather than the WAIS is used. Discrepancy between FSIQ and MQ occurred less often with WAIS-R than with…

  5. Memory deficits in patients with schizophrenia: preliminary data from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition support earlier findings.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, K A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether memory data presented for a schizophrenia sample in the Technical Manual of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition support trends identified in a previously published review of studies employing an earlier version of the instrument, the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. DESIGN: Archival: reformulation of published data. PATIENTS: Patients with schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, Korsakoff's syndrome or traumatic brain injury (TBI) for whom intelligence and memory data were reported in the Technical Manual of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III WMS-III). OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean Full Scale, Verbal, and Performance Intelligence Quotients of the WAIS-III and mean WMS-III Immediate and General Memory Indexes. Single-trial learning and learning slope data were also culled from the WAIS-III WMS-III Technical Manual. RESULTS: Memory indexes for patients with Alzheimer's disease or Korsakoff's syndrome were substantially lower than those for patients with schizophrenia or TBI. In tests of learning processes, patients with schizophrenia had an inferior ability to repeat material presented just once, in comparison with the standardization sample. However, they did relatively better with repeated presentations than patients with Alzheimer's disease or Korsakoff's syndrome. The learning slope for patients with schizophrenia demonstrated an ability to absorb and consolidate increasing amounts of material with repeated exposure that is inconsistent with pronounced memory impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with schizophrenia exhibit new learning deficiencies, their memory capabilities are not substantially weaker than their general intellectual abilities, and do not approach the memory impairment exhibited by patients with Alzheimer's disease or Korsakoff's syndrome. PMID:10516802

  6. A Comparison Study of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in a College Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, R. Spencer

    1983-01-01

    Compared the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and the WAIS-Revised (WAIS-R) in a sample of college students (N=70). A highly significant test order interaction was found. The WAIS-R will result in significantly higher ability estimates when administered following the WAIS than the WAIS will when following the WAIS-R. (JAC)

  7. The Satz-Mogel short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--revised: effects of global mental status and age on test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    McPherson, S; Buckwalter, G J; Tingus, K; Betz, B; Back, C

    2000-10-01

    Abbreviated versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) have been developed as time saving devices that provide accurate estimates of overall level of general intellectual functioning while decreasing test administration time. The Satz-Mogel short form of the WAIS-R has received substantial attention in the literature as an accurate measure of intellectual functions when compared with the Full WAIS-R. However, most studies comparing the Satz-Mogel version to the Full WAIS-R have only provided correlational analyses. Our study was an attempt to apply a more rigorous statistical methodology in determining if the Full WAIS-R and abbreviated versions are equivalent. We explored the impact of level of global mental status and age on the Satz-Mogel version. Although the two forms of the test correlated highly, repeated measures design indicated significant differences between Satz-Mogel and Full WAIS-R when participants were divided into groups based on level of global impairment and age. Our results suggest that the Satz-Mogel version of the test may not be equivalent to the full WAIS-R and is likely to misrepresent a patient's level of intellectual functioning, particularly for patients with progressive degenerative conditions. The implications of applying Satz-Mogel scoring to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) are discussed.

  8. Neuropsychological Effects of Chronic Cannabis Use on the Memory and Intelligence of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millsaps, Cheryl L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes research involving adolescent marijuana abusers. Using Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised found characteristics consistent with pattern produced by cerebral dysfunction including reduced memory indices in relation to intellectual function and attentional ability. Intelligence was found to be in…

  9. Education-Stratified Base-Rate Information on Discrepancy Scores Within and Between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Galit A.; Chelune, Gordon J.

    2004-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997a) and the Wechsler Memory Scale--Third Edition (WMS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997b) are 2 of the most frequently used measures in psychology and neuropsychology. To facilitate the diagnostic use of these measures in the clinical decision-making process, this article…

  10. Apparently abnormal Wechsler Memory Scale index score patterns in the normal population.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Roman Marcus; Grups, Josefine; Evans, Brittney; Simco, Edward; Mittenberg, Wiley

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition may involve examination of multiple memory index score contrasts and similar comparisons with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition ability indexes. Standardization sample data suggest that 15-point differences between any specific pair of index scores are relatively uncommon in normal individuals, but these base rates refer to a comparison between a single pair of indexes rather than multiple simultaneous comparisons among indexes. This study provides normative data for the occurrence of multiple index score differences calculated by using Monte Carlo simulations and validated against standardization data. Differences of 15 points between any two memory indexes or between memory and ability indexes occurred in 60% and 48% of the normative sample, respectively. Wechsler index score discrepancies are normally common and therefore not clinically meaningful when numerous such comparisons are made. Explicit prior interpretive hypotheses are necessary to reduce the number of index comparisons and associated false-positive conclusions. Monte Carlo simulation accurately predicts these false-positive rates.

  11. Performance on selected visual and auditory subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition during laboratory-induced pain.

    PubMed

    Etherton, Joseph L; Tapscott, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    Although chronic pain patients commonly report problems with concentration and memory, recent research indicates that induced pain alone causes little or no impairment on several Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests, suggesting that cognitive complaints in chronic pain may be attributable to factors other than pain. The current studies examined potential effects of induced pain on Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) visual working memory index (VWM) subtests (Experiment 1, n = 32) and on the immediate portions of WMS-IV auditory memory (IAM) subtests (Experiment 2, n = 55). In both studies, participants were administered one of two subtests (Symbol Span or Spatial Addition for Experiment 1; Logical Memory or Verbal Paired Associates for Experiment 2) normally and were then administered the alternate subtest while experiencing either cold pressor pain induction or a nonpainful control condition. Results indicate that induced pain in nonclinical volunteers did not impair performance on either VWM or IAM performance, suggesting that pain alone does not account for complaints or deficits in these domains in chronic pain patients. Nonpainful variables such as sleep deprivation or emotional disturbance may be responsible for reported cognitive complaints in chronic pain patients.

  12. Evaluating working memory: Comparing change-detection tasks and Wechsler working memory subtests in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Colbert, Alison; Bo, Jin

    2016-11-13

    Among a number of methods for assessing working memory (WM), span tasks have been commonly utilized in clinical psychology, whereas change-detection tasks are often used in experimental or cognitive psychology. This study sought to understand the use of change-detection tasks in children and to evaluate the relationship between change-detection tasks and clinical WM measures in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). Results revealed that the overall pattern of performance in change-detection tasks for children was similar to adults' performance in the literature; with increased array size, response accuracy systematically decreased. Significant age-related improvements on visuospatial and verbal WM capacities were found in school-age children. Although WISC-IV WM measures were significantly correlated with each other, only the Arithmetic subtest was significantly correlated with visuospatial WM as measured by the change-detection task, and none were significantly correlated with verbal WM as measured by the change-detection task. These results suggest the clinical WISC-IV WM subtests may not elicit the same construct as experimental change-detection WM measures, with the possible exception of the Arithmetic subtest.

  13. Comparison of Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) and Third Edition (WMS-III) dimensional structures: improved ability to evaluate auditory and visual constructs.

    PubMed

    Hoelzle, James B; Nelson, Nathaniel W; Smith, Clifford A

    2011-03-01

    Dimensional structures underlying the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WMS-III) were compared to determine whether the revised measure has a more coherent and clinically relevant factor structure. Principal component analyses were conducted in normative samples reported in the respective technical manuals. Empirically supported procedures guided retention of dimensions. An invariant two-dimensional WMS-IV structure reflecting constructs of auditory learning/memory and visual attention/memory (C1 = .97; C2 = .96) is more theoretically coherent than the replicable, heterogeneous WMS-III dimension (C1 = .97). This research suggests that the WMS-IV may have greater utility in identifying lateralized memory dysfunction.

  14. ADHD Subtypes and Co-Occurring Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder: Differences in Gordon Diagnostic System and Wechsler Working Memory and Processing Speed Index Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Chase, Gary A.; Mink, Danielle M.; Stagg, Ryan E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Freedom-from-Distractibility/Working Memory Index (FDI/WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS) scores in ADHD children were examined as a function of subtype and coexisting anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder. Method: Participants were 587…

  15. Diagnostic efficiency of demographically corrected Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Wechsler Memory Scale-III indices in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury and lower education levels.

    PubMed

    Walker, Alexandra J; Batchelor, Jennifer; Shores, E Arthur; Jones, Mike

    2009-11-01

    Despite the sensitivity of neuropsychological tests to educational level, improved diagnostic accuracy for demographically corrected scores has yet to be established. Diagnostic efficiency statistics of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) and Wechsler Memory Scale-III (WMS-III) indices that were corrected for education, sex, and age (demographically corrected) were compared with age corrected indices in individuals aged 16 to 75 years with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 12 years or less education. TBI participants (n = 100) were consecutive referrals to an outpatient rehabilitation service and met careful selection criteria. Controls (n = 100) were obtained from the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample. Demographically corrected indices did not provide higher diagnostic efficiency than age corrected indices and this result was supported by reanalysis of the TBI group against a larger and unmatched control group. Processing Speed Index provided comparable diagnostic accuracy to that of combined indices. Demographically corrected indices were associated with higher cut-scores to maximize overall classification, reflecting the upward adjustment of those scores in a lower education sample. This suggests that, in clinical practice, the test results of individuals with limited education may be more accurately interpreted with the application of demographic corrections. Diagnostic efficiency statistics are presented, and future research directions are discussed.

  16. WAIS-R Factors and Performance on the Luria-Nebraska's Intelligence, Memory, and Motor Scales: A Canonical Model of Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Patrick C.; Macciocchi, Stephen N.

    1986-01-01

    Pattern and level of performance on the WAIS-R (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised) and the Luria-Nebraska's Intelligence, Memory, and Motor Scales were examined for 93 neurologically impaired adults. Each set of procedures evidently is indexing the same theoretical constructs. (Author/ABB)

  17. The Influence of Acute Physical Activity on Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Zach, Sima; Shalom, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    The effect of three types of physical activity on two types of working memory were investigated. Participants were 20 adult males who trained twice a week in volleyball two hours per session. Procedures included two pre and post intervention tests of working memory: the Digit span and Visual Memory Span subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Interventions included tactical volleyball formation, body-weight resistance exercises, 15 minutes of running, and sub-maximal aerobic activity. Volleyball activity improved memory performance to a greater extent than the other two activities. Results indicate that immediately after acute exercise there is an increase in working memory function, more evident after physical activity in which cognitive functioning is inherent.

  18. Verbal memory and 5-HT1A receptors in healthy volunteers--A PET study with [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635.

    PubMed

    Penttilä, Jani; Hirvonen, Jussi; Tuominen, Lauri; Lumme, Ville; Ilonen, Tuula; Någren, Kjell; Hietala, Jarmo

    2016-03-01

    The serotonin 5-HT1A receptor is a putative drug development target in disorders with cognitive and in particular memory deficits. However, previous human positron emission tomography (PET) studies on 5-HT1A receptor binding and memory functions have yielded discrepant results. We explored the association between verbal memory and 5-HT1A receptor binding in 24 healthy subjects (14 male, 10 female, aged 18-41 years). The cognitive tests included the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). 5-HT1A receptor binding was measured with PET and the radioligand [carbonyl-(11)C]WAY-100635, which was quantified with the gold standard method based on kinetic modeling using arterial blood samples. We found that global 5-HT1A receptor binding was positively correlated with measures of verbal memory, such that subjects who had higher receptor binding tended to have better verbal memory than subjects who had lower receptor binding. Regional analyses suggested significant correlations in multiple neocortical brain regions and the raphe nuclei. We did not find significant correlations between 5-HT1A receptor binding and executive functions as measured with WCST. We conclude that neocortical as well as raphe 5-HT1A receptors are involved in verbal memory function in man.

  19. [Comparison of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III and the Spain-Complutense Verbal Learning Test in acquired brain injury: construct validity and ecological validity].

    PubMed

    Luna-Lario, P; Pena, J; Ojeda, N

    2017-04-16

    Objetivo. Profundizar en la validez de constructo y en la validez ecologica de la escala de memoria de Wechsler-III (WMS-III) y el test de aprendizaje verbal España-Complutense (TAVEC). Pacientes y metodos. La muestra consta de 106 adultos con daño cerebral adquirido atendidos en el Area de Neuropsicologia y Neuropsiquiatria del Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, con deficit de memoria como secuela principal, medido a traves de test especificos de memoria. Para determinar la validez de constructo se examinan las tareas requeridas en cada prueba sobre los modelos teoricos de base, comparando el rendimiento segun los parametros ofrecidos por los tests, contrastando los indices de gravedad de cada prueba y analizando su convergencia. La validez externa se explora a traves de la correlacion entre las pruebas y mediante modelos de regresion. Resultados. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, la WMS-III y el TAVEC tienen validez de constructo. El TAVEC es mas sensible y capta no solo los deficits en la consolidacion mnesica, sino en las estrategias ejecutivas implicadas en la memoria. El indice de memoria de trabajo de la WMS-III es util para predecir la reincorporacion laboral a los dos años del daño cerebral adquirido, pero ningun instrumento anticipa la discapacidad y la dependencia al menos seis meses despues de la lesion. Conclusion. Se reflexiona sobre la validez de constructo de las pruebas y su capacidad insuficiente para predecir la funcionalidad cuando las secuelas se cronifican.

  20. Changes in FKBP5 expression and memory functions during cognitive-behavioral therapy in posttraumatic stress disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Csilla; Kelemen, Oguz; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2014-05-21

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by hyperarousal, flashbacks, avoidance, and memory dysfunctions. Although psychotherapy improves the clinical symptoms, its effect on memory has not been explored. In addition, there is no information about gene expression changes related to hippocampal functions. We assessed PTSD patients (n=20) using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and a paired associates learning (PAL) test, as well as changes in blood FK506 binding protein (FKBP5) mRNA expression before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Results revealed that before CBT PTSD patients were impaired on WAIS-R delayed recall, attention/concentration, and PAL compared with trauma-exposed control subjects (n=20). These memory dysfunctions showed a significant improvement after CBT. Better performance on the PAL test correlated with enhanced blood FKBP5 mRNA expression. These results suggest that elevated FKBP5 expression during CBT is related to improved associative memory linked to the hippocampal formation.

  1. The Relationships Between Dissociation, Attention, and Memory Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    ÖZDEMİR, Osman; GÜZEL ÖZDEMİR, Pınar; BOYSAN, Murat; YILMAZ, Ekrem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dissociation is a disruption in the integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, and perception. Dissociative symptoms include derealization/depersonalization, absorption, and amnesia. These experiences can cause a loss of control over mental processes, including memory and attention. In literature, there is a paucity of research concerning the relationships between dissociation and memory performance. In this study, our aim was to investigate the relationships between dissociative experiences, attention, and memory performance in a non-clinical community sample. Methods In this study, we examined the relationship between dissociation and cognitive dysfunction among 60 healthy volunteers. We administered the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and Dissociative Experience Scale. Here we examined the relationships between the subtypes of dissociation and memory performance as assessed by neuropsychological tests. Results We found that verbal memory was negatively associated with dissociative experiences. Pathological dissociation, particularly amnesia and depersonalization/derealization, was reversely linked to general memory performance and long-term memory. Moreover, low dissociators reported higher scores on verbal memory, general memory performance, and long-term memory but lower scores on recognition than high dissociators. Conclusion The results of our study suggested that there are significant linkages between dissociative experiences and memory performance.

  2. Cognitive Proficiency Index for the Canadian Edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saklofske, Donald H.; Zhu, Jianjun; Coalson, Diane L.; Raiford, Susan E.; Weiss, Lawrence G.

    2010-01-01

    The Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) developed for the most recent Wechsler intelligence scales comprises the working memory and processing speed subtests. It reflects the proficiency and efficiency of cognitive processing and provides another lens for analyzing children's abilities assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth…

  3. Improvement in memory and static balance with abstinence in alcoholic men and women: selective relations with change in brain structure.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Rohlfing, Torsten; O'Reilly, Anne W; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V

    2007-07-15

    We investigated whether changes in memory or static balance in chronic alcoholics, occurring with abstinence or relapse, are associated with changes in lateral and fourth ventricular volume. Alcoholics meeting DSM-IV criteria for Alcohol Dependence (n=15) and non-alcoholic controls (n=26) were examined twice at a mean interval of 2 years with standard Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) tests, an ataxia battery, and structural MRI. At study entry, alcoholics had been abstinent on average for over 4 months and achieved lower scores than controls on WASI General IQ Index, WMS-R General Memory Index, and the ataxia battery. The 10 alcoholics who maintained sobriety at retest did not differ at study entry in socio-demographic measures, alcohol use, or WASI and WMS-R summary scores from the five relapsers. At follow-up, abstainers improved more than controls on the WMS-R General Memory Index. Ataxia tended to improve in abstainers relative to controls. Associations were observed between memory and lateral ventricular volume change and between ataxia and fourth ventricular volume change in alcoholics but not in the controls. Both memory and ataxia can improve with sustained sobriety, and brain-behavior associations suggest selective brain structural substrates for the changes observed.

  4. Test Review: Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Sarah M.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011) is a brief intelligence test designed for individuals aged 6 through 90 years. It is a revision of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; Wechsler, 1999). During revision, there were three goals: enhancing the link between the Wechsler…

  5. Heterogeneity of Auditory Verbal Working Memory in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bruder, Gerard E.; Alschuler, Daniel M.; Kroppmann, Christopher J.; Fekri, Shiva; Gil, Roberto; Jarskog, Lars F.; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Goetz, Raymond; Kayser, Jürgen; Wexler, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    The heterogeneity of schizophrenia remains an obstacle for understanding its pathophysiology. Studies using a tone discrimination screening test to classify patients have found evidence for two subgroups having either a specific deficit in verbal working memory (WM) or deficits on both verbal and nonverbal memory tests. This study aimed to: (1) replicate in larger samples differences between these subgroups on the word serial position test (WSPT); (2) further evaluate their performance on additional tests of verbal WM, explicit memory, and sustained attention; (3) determine the relation of verbal WM deficits to auditory hallucinations and other symptoms; and (4) examine medication effects. WSPT of verbal WM and tone discrimination performance did not differ between medicated (n=45) and unmedicated (n=38) patients. Patients with schizophrenia who passed the auditory screening test (discriminators, n=60) were compared to those who did not (nondiscriminators, n=23), and healthy controls (n=47). The discriminator subgroup showed poorer verbal WM than controls and a deficit in verbal but not visual memory on Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, whereas the nondiscriminator subgroup showed overall poorer performance on both verbal and nonverbal tests and a marked deficit in sustained attention. Verbal WM deficits in discriminators on WSPT were correlated with auditory hallucinations but not with negative symptoms. The results are consistent with a verbal memory deficit in a subgroup of schizophrenia having intact auditory perception, which may stem from dysfunction of language-related cortical regions, and a more generalized cognitive deficit in a subgroup having auditory perceptual and attentional dysfunction. PMID:21319926

  6. The Effects of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Cognitive Abilities on Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Jason R.; Beaujean, A. Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to examine the effect of Stratum III (i.e., general intelligence) and Stratum II (i.e., Comprehension-Knowledge, Fluid Reasoning, Short-Term Memory, Processing Speed, and Visual Processing) factors of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities, as operationalized by the Wechsler Intelligence…

  7. Verbal Dominant Memory Impairment and Low Risk for Post-operative Memory Worsening in Both Left and Right Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    KHALIL, Amr Farid; IWASAKI, Masaki; NISHIO, Yoshiyuki; JIN, Kazutaka; NAKASATO, Nobukazu; TOMINAGA, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Post-operative memory changes after temporal lobe surgery have been established mainly by group analysis of cognitive outcome. This study investigated individual patient-based memory outcome in surgically-treated patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This study included 84 consecutive patients with intractable TLE caused by unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) who underwent epilepsy surgery (47 females, 41 left [Lt] TLE). Memory functions were evaluated with the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised before and at 1 year after surgery. Pre-operative memory function was classified into three patterns: verbal dominant memory impairment (Verb-D), visual dominant impairment (Vis-D), and no material-specific impairment. Post-operative changes in verbal and visual memory indices were classified into meaningful improvement, worsening, or no significant changes. Pre-operative patterns and post-operative changes in verbal and visual memory function were compared between the Lt and right (Rt) TLE groups. Pre-operatively, Verb-D was the most common type of impairment in both the Lt and Rt TLE groups (65.9 and 48.8%), and verbal memory indices were lower than visual memory indices, especially in the Lt compared with Rt TLE group. Vis-D was observed only in 11.6% of Rt and 7.3% of Lt TLE patients. Post-operatively, meaningful improvement of memory indices was observed in 23.3–36.6% of the patients, and the memory improvement was equivalent between Lt and Rt TLE groups and between verbal and visual materials. In conclusion, Verb-D is most commonly observed in patients with both the Lt and Rt TLE associated with HS. Hippocampectomy can improve memory indices in such patients regardless of the side of surgery and the function impaired. PMID:27250575

  8. Replication of the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition with a Canadian sample.

    PubMed

    Saklofske, D H; Hildebrand, D K; Gorsuch, R L

    2000-12-01

    Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997b) were conducted on a stratified sample of Canadian adults (n = 718). As was previously demonstrated for the children's version of this scale, the factor model of the American standardization sample was replicated across this Canadian national sample. Results of the factor analyses confirmed the presence of the 4 WAIS-III factors: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Working Memory, and Processing Speed.

  9. Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syeda, Maisha M.; Climie, Emma A.

    2014-01-01

    The "Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition" (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012a, 2012b) is a comprehensive clinical tool, intended for assessing cognitive functioning among children aged 2 years 6 months through 7 years 7 months. Published by Pearson, the WPPSI-IV is an individually administered tool, to be used by…

  10. Development of brief versions of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for schizophrenia: considerations of the structure and predictability of intelligence.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Chika; Uetsuki, Miki; Suga, Motomu; Kasai, Kiyoto; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki

    2013-12-30

    Short forms (SF) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale have been developed to enhance its practicality. However, only a few studies have addressed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS-R) SFs based on data from patients with schizophrenia. The current study was conducted to develop the WAIS-R SFs for these patients based on the intelligence structure and predictability of the Full IQ (FIQ). Relations to demographic and clinical variables were also examined on selecting plausible subtests. The WAIS-R was administered to 90 Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and multiple regression analysis were conducted to find potential subtests. EFA extracted two dominant factors corresponding to Verbal IQ and Performance IQ measures. Subtests with higher factor loadings on those factors were initially nominated. Regression analysis was carried out to reach the model containing all the nominated subtests. The optimality of the potential subtests included in that model was evaluated from the perspectives of the representativeness of intelligence structure, FIQ predictability, and the relation with demographic and clinical variables. Taken together, the dyad of Vocabulary and Block Design was considered to be the most optimal WAIS-R SF for patients with schizophrenia, reflecting both intelligence structure and FIQ predictability.

  11. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: Independent Validation in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Kristen S. L.; Aman, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    A key feature of autism is restricted repetitive behavior (RRB). Despite the significance of RRBs, little is known about their phenomenology, assessment, and treatment. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) is a recently-developed questionnaire that captures the breadth of RRB in autism. To validate the RBS-R in an independent sample, we…

  12. Validation of the Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised: A Reflective Tool for Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Belinda Bustos; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Given increasing numbers of young culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) children across the United States, it is crucial to prepare early childhood teachers to create high-quality environments that facilitate the development of all children. The Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised (ECES-R) has been developed as a reflective tool to help…

  13. Validating the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirenda, Pat; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) in a sample of 287 preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine six competing structural models. Spearman's rank order correlations were calculated to examine the associations between factor…

  14. Concurrent Validity of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, V. Scott; Bell, Sherry Mee

    2006-01-01

    One hundred elementary- and middle-school students were administered the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT; B.A. Bracken & R.S. McCallum, 1998) and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R; G.H. Roid & L.J. Miller, 1997). Correlations between UNIT and Leiter-R scores were statistically significant ( p less…

  15. Cultural Validity of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised for African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobley, Michael; Slaney, Robert B.; Rice, Kenneth G.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural construct validity of perfectionism using the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; R. B. Slaney, M. Mobley, J. Trippi, J. S. Ashby, & D. G. Johnson, 1996) with 251 African American college students. A LISREL confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) offered support for the 3 subscales of the APS-R: High…

  16. Factor Structure of Scores from the Conners' Rating Scales-Revised among Nepali Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergast, Laura L.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Cole, Pamela M.; Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Christian, Parul

    2014-01-01

    This study used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the structures of scores from the Conners' Teacher and Parent Rating Scales-Revised (CTRS-R and CPRS-R, respectively; Conners, 1997). The scales were administered to 1,835 parents and 1,387 teachers of children in Nepal's Sarlahi district, a region where no other measures of…

  17. Measurement Invariance of Core Cognitive Abilities in Heterogeneous Neurological and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Stephen C.; Cook, Mark J.; Bardenhagen, Fiona J.; Shores, E. Arthur; Carstairs, Jane R.

    2004-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis of Australian adaptations of combined Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) scores was conducted in a sample of 277 participants undergoing investigation for neurological disorders. The best-fitting model was a six-factor model representing the latent abilities of…

  18. Reliability and Validity of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised Edition, ECERS-R in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadeed, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test reliabilities and validations for the Arabic translation of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised (ECERS-R) scale [Harms, T., Clifford, R. M., & Cryer, D. (1998). "Early childhood environment rating scale, revised edition." New York: Teachers College Press]. ECERS-R mean scores were…

  19. Nicotine effects on immediate and delayed verbal memory after substance use detoxification.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, Rebecca; Boissoneault, Jeff; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2011-07-01

    Decrements in verbal memory are commonly reported by detoxified treatment-seeking individuals. Although acute nicotine has been shown to improve attentional performance, its effects on verbal memory in substance abusers have not been addressed. Treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (ALCs, n = 29; 14 male), illicit-stimulant-dependent (predominantly cocaine; STIMs, n = 25; 15 male), and alcohol- and illicit-stimulant-dependent (ALC/STIMs, n = 50; 35 male) participants with comorbid nicotine dependence were studied. Subjects had been abstinent from their drugs of choice for 41 (±18) days and were in short-term abstinence from tobacco (∼8-10 hours). Subjects received double-blind administration of either transdermal nicotine (high dose: 21/14 mg for men and women, respectively, or low dose: 7 mg) or placebo. The Logical Memory (LM) subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) was used to assess immediate and delayed verbal memory recall. Results indicated that STIMs receiving the high dose of nicotine recalled more words at immediate recall than STIMs who received placebo. Trend level differences were also noted at delayed recall between STIM nicotine and placebo doses. Nicotine failed to impact either recall in alcoholic subgroups. Although not the primary focus, results also revealed differences in the forgetting rates between the groups with the ALC/STIMs demonstrating the steepest forgetting slope. In summary, this study suggests that nicotine effects may be differentially experienced by substance-using subgroups; that nicotine may have a direct effect on memory; and that in considering neurocognitive processes (e.g., encoding vs. retrieval), underlying endpoint indicators (e.g., correct recall) may be critical in predicting outcomes.

  20. Nicotine Effects on Immediate and Delayed Verbal Memory After Substance Use Detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, Rebecca; Boissoneault, Jeff; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2010-01-01

    Decrements in verbal memory are commonly reported by detoxified treatment-seeking individuals. Although acute nicotine has been shown to improve attentional performance, its effects on verbal memory in substance abusers have not been addressed. Treatment-seeking alcohol dependent (ALCS N=29; 14 male), illicit stimulant (predominantly cocaine) dependent (STIMS N = 25; 15 male) and alcohol and illicit stimulant dependent (ALC/STIMS N = 50; 35 male) participants with co-morbid nicotine dependence were studied. Subjects had been abstinent from their drugs of choice for 41(±18) days and were in short-term abstinence from tobacco (~8–10 hours). Subjects received double-blind administration of either transdermal nicotine (High dose: 21/14 mg for men and women, respectively or Low dose: 7 mg) or placebo. The Logical Memory (LM) subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale -Revised (WMS-R) was used to assess immediate and delayed verbal memory recall. Results indicated that STIMS receiving the high dose of nicotine recalled more words at immediate recall than STIMS who received placebo. Trend level differences were also noted at delayed recall between STIM nicotine and placebo doses. Nicotine failed to impact either recall in alcoholic subgroups. Although not the primary focus, results also revealed differences in the forgetting rates between the groups with the ALC/STIMS demonstrating the steepest forgetting slope. In summary, this study suggests that nicotine effects may be differentially experienced by substance using subgroups; that nicotine may have a direct effect on memory and, that considering neurocognitive processes (e.g., encoding vs. retrieval) underlying endpoint indicators (e.g. correct recall) may be critical in predicting outcomes. PMID:21526444

  1. Cognitive performance of young and elderly subjects on the free word recall memory test: effect of presentation order on recall order.

    PubMed

    Santos-Galduróz, R F; Oliveira, F G; Galduróz, J C F; Bueno, O F A

    2009-10-01

    The influence of aging on memory has been extensively studied, but the importance of short-term memory and recall sequence has not. The objective of the current study was to examine the recall order of words presented on lists and to determine if age affects recall sequence. Physically and psychologically healthy male subjects were divided into two groups according to age, i.e., 23 young subjects (20 to 30 years) and 50 elderly subjects (60 to 70 years) submitted to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the free word recall test. The order of word presentation significantly affected the 3rd and 4th words recalled (P < 0.01; F = 14.6). In addition, there was interaction between the presentation order and the type of list presented (P < 0.05; F = 9.7). Also, both groups recalled the last words presented from each list (words 13-15) significantly more times 3rd and 4th than words presented in all remaining positions (P < 0.01). The order of word presentation also significantly affected the 5th and 6th words recalled (P = 0.05; F = 7.5) and there was a significant interaction between the order of presentation and the type of list presented (P < 0.01; F = 20.8). The more developed the cognitive functions, resulting mainly from formal education, the greater the cognitive reserve, helping to minimize the effects of aging on the long-term memory (episodic declarative).

  2. Flaws in Flynn Effect Research with the Wechsler Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Lawrence G.; Gregoire, Jacques; Zhu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Many Flynn effect (FE) studies compare scores across different editions of Wechsler's IQ tests. When construct changes are introduced by the test developers in the new edition, however, the presumed generational effects are difficult to untangle from changes due to test content. To remove this confound, we use the same edition of Wechsler…

  3. Memory

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  4. Bifactor Structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Marley W.; Beaujean, A. Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012) represents a substantial departure from its predecessor, including omission of 4 subtests, addition of 5 new subtests, and modification of the contents of the 5 retained subtests. Wechsler (2012) explicitly assumed a higher-order structure with…

  5. Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale" (4th ed.). San Antonio, TX--Psychological Corporation, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Climie, Emma A.; Rostad, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a review of the "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV), an individually administered measure of cognitive ability for individuals aged 16 years, 0 months to 90 years, 11 months. The WAIS-IV was designed with a number of specific goals including updated norms, increased user friendliness,…

  6. Test Review: Wechsler, D. (2005). "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish." San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Jeffery P.; Iribarren, Jacqueline A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish), a Spanish translation and adaptation of the WISC-IV. The test was developed to measure the intellectual ability of Spanish-speaking children in the United States ages 6 years, 0 months, through 16 years, 11 months. These…

  7. Test Review: Wechsler, D. (2005). "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Four Edition Spanish." San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Four Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish), an individually administered measure of intelligence for Spanish-speaking children who are English language learners and relatively new to American culture. The WISC-IV Spanish, like its English counterpart, the WISC-IV, is…

  8. Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition." San Antonio, TX--NCS Pearson, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Climie, Emma A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition" (WIAT-III), a newly updated individual measure of academic achievement for students in Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 12 (age 4 years, 0 months to 19 years, 11 months). Suitable for use in educational, clinical, and research settings, the stated purposes of the WIAT-III…

  9. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  10. Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test" (3rd ed.). San Antonio, Texas--Pearson, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan-Jensen, Jessica; Adame, Cindy; McLean, Lauren; Gamez, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition" (WIAT-III), which is designed to assess students' skills in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and mathematics. The test can identify an individual's strengths and weaknesses, assist professionals who are determining whether a student is eligible for special…

  11. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  12. Dependence and physical exercise: Spanish validation of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R).

    PubMed

    Sicilia, Alvaro; González-Cutre, David

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R). To achieve this goal, a sample of 531 sport center users was used and the psychometric properties of the EDS-R were examined through different analyses. The results supported both the first-order seven-factor model and the higher-order model (seven first-order factors and one second-order factor). The structure of both models was invariant across age. Correlations among the subscales indicated a related factor model, supporting construct validity of the scale. Alpha values over .70 (except for Reduction in Other Activities) and suitable levels of temporal stability were obtained. Users practicing more than three days per week had higher scores in all subscales than the group practicing with a frequency of three days or fewer. The findings of this study provided reliability and validity for the EDS-R in a Spanish context.

  13. Working Memory and Short-Term Memory Abilities in Accomplished Multilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biedron, Adriana; Szczepaniak, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The role of short-term memory and working memory in accomplished multilinguals was investigated. Twenty-eight accomplished multilinguals were compared to 36 mainstream philology students. The following instruments were used in the study: three memory subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (Digit Span, Digit-Symbol Coding, and Arithmetic,…

  14. Test Review: Wechsler, D. (2003). "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)." San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.; Flanagan, Dawn P.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Mascolo, Jennifer T.

    2006-01-01

    Within the field of psychological assessment, the Wechsler scales continue to be the most widely used intelligence batteries. The concepts, methods, and procedures inherent in the design of the Wechsler scales have been so influential that they have guided most of the test development and research in the field for more than a half century. This…

  15. Test Review: Wechsler, D. (2014),"Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition: Canadian 322 (WISC-V[superscript CDN])." Toronto, Ontario: Pearson Canada Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Damien C.; Kennedy, Kathleen E.; Aquilina, Alexandra M.

    2016-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fifth Edition: Canadian (WISC-V[superscript CDN]; Wechsler, 2014) is published by Pearson Canada Assessment. The WISC-V[superscript CDN] is a norm-referenced, individually administered intelligence battery that provides a comprehensive diagnostic profile of the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of…

  16. Factorial Validity and Invariance Testing of the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised in Swedish and Portuguese Exercisers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindwall, Magnus; Palmeira, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the 21-item Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised using 162 Swedish and 269 Portuguese exercisers. In addition, the prevalence of exercise dependence symptoms and links to exercise behavior, gender, and age in the two samples was also studied. Confirmatory factor…

  17. Psychometric Validation of the Brief Adaptation to Disability Scale-Revised for Persons with Spinal Cord Injury in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chen-Ping; Wang, Chia-Chiang; Fujikawa, Mayu; Brooks, Jessica; Eastvold-Walton, Lissa; Maxwell, Kristin; Chan, Fong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the measurement structure of the Brief Adaptation to Disability Scale-Revised (B-ADS-R). Measure: A 12-item measure of disability acceptance based on the four value changes (enlarging the scope of values, containing the effects of the disability, subordinating the physique, and transforming comparative-status values to asset…

  18. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-V: Test Review.

    PubMed

    Na, Sabrina D; Burns, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Changes from the fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) to the fifth edition are discussed, with particular emphasis on how the electronic administration facilitated assessment. The hierarchical organization and conceptualization of primary indices have been adjusted, based on recent theory and research on the construct of intelligence. Changes also include updates to psychometric properties and consideration of cultural bias. The scoring program allows intelligence scores to be linked statistically to achievement measures to aid in diagnoses of learning disabilities. Electronic assessment was clunky at times but overall delivered on its promise of quicker and more accurate administration and scoring.

  19. Validation of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised for adolescents experiencing the floods and mudslides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Rei-Cheng; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) for adolescents who had experienced the floods and mudslides caused by Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan. The internal consistency, construct validity, and criteria validity of the instrument were examined. Principal component analysis followed by an oblique rotation was used to derive a three-factor solution. These factors were labeled intrusion, hyperarousal, and avoidance; all three factors together accounted for 58.1% of the variance. The total Cronbach's alpha of 0.94 reflected the good internal consistency of the instrument. With reference to diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder, the IES-R cutoff point for posttraumatic stress disorder was 19 of 20 with a sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 84.1%. In conclusion, the IES-R can be used as a reliable and valid instrument when evaluating psychological distress among adolescents who have experienced a natural disaster, such as flooding and mudslides.

  20. FACTORIAL VALIDITY OF THE KOREAN VERSION OF THE EXERCISE DEPENDENCE SCALE-REVISED.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyulee; You, Sukkyung

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the 21-item Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R). The EDS-R was designed to measure the multidimensional aspects of exercise dependence symptoms such as withdrawal, continuance, tolerance, lack of control, reductions, time, and intention. Although the EDS-R has demonstrated sound psychometric properties, it has only been validated in Western samples. Cross-cultural validations of the instrument may increase the knowledge of exercise dependence. Therefore, this study aimed to contribute to the file by investigating the validity and utility of the construct of the EDS-R, using a non-Western sample. 402 adult participants who were over 18 years of age and who reported exercising at least once a week were asked to complete the EDS-R. The results from factor analyses supported that the seven-factor model of exercise dependence symptoms showed an adequate fit for both men and women. The EDS-R scores differentiated between samples, with varying amounts of exercise; 15.4% of the sample was classified as being at risk for exercise dependence. In sum, the results indicated that the EDS-R is a psychometrically reliable assessment tool for exercise dependence symptoms in Korea.

  1. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale - Revised 1

    PubMed Central

    Stacciarini, Thaís Santos Guerra; Pace, Ana Emilia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the factor structure of the Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale-Revised (ASAS-R), adapted for Brazil. Method: methodological study conducted with 150 individuals with diabetes mellitus cared for by the Family Health Strategy, most of whom are elderly with low educational levels. The test of the hypothesis concerning the confirmatory factor composition of the ASAS-R was performed using latent variables structural equations. Results: the model’s goodness-of-fit indexes were satisfactory (χ2 = 259.19; χ2/g.l = 2.97, p < 0.001; GFI = 0.85; RMR = 0.07; RMSEA = 0.09); the factor loads were greater than 0.40; and most item-to-factor-correlations presented moderate to strong magnitude (0.34 to 0.58); total alpha value was 0.74, while the alpha of the three factors were 0.69, 0.38 and 0.69, respectively. Conclusion: the scale’s factor structure presented satisfactory validity and reliability results, with the exception of one factor. Application of this scale to samples of the general population is desirable in order to strengthen analyses of internal consistency and the dimensionality of the factor structure. This study is expected to contribute to further studies addressing the self-care agency construct and the development of the ASAS-R. PMID:28146182

  2. Test Review: Review of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Smith, Amanda D.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011), published by Pearson, is a newly updated abbreviated measure of cognitive intelligence designed for individuals 6 to 90 years of age. Primarily used in clinical, psychoeducational, and research settings, the WASI-II was developed to quickly and accurately…

  3. Test Review: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Fourth Edition: Canadian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Melissa A.; McCrimmon, Adam W.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Fourth Edition: Canadian (WPPSI-IVCDN; Wechsler, 2012), published by NCS Pearson, is a newly updated, individually administered measure of cognitive intelligence for children aged 2:6 through 7:7. Suitable for educational, clinical, and research settings, the purposes of the WPPSI-IVCDN are…

  4. A Four- and Five-Factor Structural Model for Wechsler Tests: Does It Really Matter Clinically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to focus on the clinical utility of the four- and five-factor structural models for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). It provides a discussion of important considerations when evaluating the clinical utility of the…

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Tsai, Wen-Che

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales-Revised: Short Forms (CPRS-R:S-C and CTRS-R:S-C) in a representative sample of 2,584 first to ninth graders in Taipei and 479 clinical participants (274 with ADHD). Method: The instruments include the CPRS-R:S-C,…

  6. Wechsler subscale IQ and subtest profile in early treated phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, P; Demellweek, C; Fay, N; Robinson, P; Davidson, D

    2000-01-01

    AIM—Mildly depressed IQ is common in treated phenylketonuria. This study explored whether a particular intellectual ability profile typifies early and continuously treated phenylketonuria and whether component skills comprising the IQ relate to socioeconomic and treatment factors.
METHODS—IQ scores were collected retrospectively from variants of the "Wechsler intelligence scale for children" performed at age 8 on 57 children with early treated, classic phenylketonuria. The mental ability pattern underlying IQ was investigated by analysing subscale and subtest scores and dietary factors, such as historical phenylalanine blood concentrations.
RESULTS—The children's mean full scale IQ of 91.11 was significantly below the healthy population norm. There was a significant discrepancy between their mean verbal IQ (94.65) and mean performance IQ (89.42), suggestive of a spatial deficit, but the data did not support a biochemical or sociological explanation. Individual Wechsler subtests had no distinctive pattern. Phenylalanine control at age 2 was predictive of overall IQ. At this age, children with annual median phenylalanine < 360 µmol/litre (recommended UK upper limit) had a mean IQ 10 points higher than those above.
CONCLUSIONS—Early and continuous treatment of phenylketonuria does not necessarily lead to normalisation of overall IQ. Verbal intelligence in the primary school years appears to normalise if blood phenylalanine is maintained below 360 µmol/litre in infancy, but spatial intelligence may remain poor. However, the discrepancy in skill development is not the result of social status or treatment variables. Perhaps weak spatial intelligence is an ancillary effect of a protective rearing style occasioned by the dietary treatment regimen.
 PMID:10685922

  7. Broad and Narrow CHC Abilities Measured and Not Measured by the Wechsler Scales: Moving beyond Within-Battery Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Dawn P.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, we reviewed two clinical validation studies on the Wechsler Scales conducted by Weiss and colleagues. These researchers used a rigorous within-battery model-fitting approach that demonstrated the factorial invariance of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence…

  8. The Cylindrical Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--IV: A Retest of the Guttman Model of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arie; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Farley, Frank H.

    2006-01-01

    A previous study on the underlying structure of the Wechsler intelligence test (WISC-R; [Wechsler, D. (1974). Manual WISC-R: Wechsler intelligence scale for children-Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation]), using smallest space analysis (SSA) [Guttman, L., and Levy, S. (1991). Two structural laws for intelligence tests.…

  9. Variability in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV subtest performance across age.

    PubMed

    Wisdom, Nick M; Mignogna, Joseph; Collins, Robert L

    2012-06-01

    Normal Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)-IV performance relative to average normative scores alone can be an oversimplification as this fails to recognize disparate subtest heterogeneity that occurs with increasing age. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the patterns of raw score change and associated variability on WAIS-IV subtests across age groupings. Raw WAIS-IV subtest means and standard deviations for each age group were tabulated from the WAIS-IV normative manual along with the coefficient of variation (CV), a measure of score dispersion calculated by dividing the standard deviation by the mean and multiplying by 100. The CV further informs the magnitude of variability represented by each standard deviation. Raw mean scores predictably decreased across age groups. Increased variability was noted in Perceptual Reasoning and Processing Speed Index subtests, as Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, Picture Completion, Symbol Search, and Coding had CV percentage increases ranging from 56% to 98%. In contrast, Working Memory and Verbal Comprehension subtests were more homogeneous with Digit Span, Comprehension, Information, and Similarities percentage of the mean increases ranging from 32% to 43%. Little change in the CV was noted on Cancellation, Arithmetic, Letter/Number Sequencing, Figure Weights, Visual Puzzles, and Vocabulary subtests (<14%). A thorough understanding of age-related subtest variability will help to identify test limitations as well as further our understanding of cognitive domains which remain relatively steady versus those which steadily decline.

  10. Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…

  11. An exploratory study of the use of the Wechsler Digit-Symbol Incidental Learning procedure with the WAIS-IV.

    PubMed

    Ashendorf, Lee

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not include the optional Incidental Learning procedure for the Digit-Symbol subtest (now simply called Coding) that had been available in the WAIS-Third Edition (WAIS-III). However, the procedure itself has been shown to have some utility in assessment of incidental memory processes. The current study of a mixed clinical outpatient sample (n = 75) sought to identify salient characteristics of the Incidental Learning tasks as applied to WAIS-IV Coding. Findings showed that the Pairing procedure, when applied to the WAIS-IV, has different characteristics than it did with the WAIS-III; it is more difficult overall, and different items tend to be more prominently recalled than others. The Free Recall procedure for the WAIS-IV is comparable to the WAIS-III version in overall difficulty. Implications and implementation of the current findings are discussed.

  12. Wechsler Performance IQ Scores and Social Behaviors of Hearing-Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James H.

    1981-01-01

    Some significant relationships were established between certain observable behaviors and Wechsler performance test scores earned by 104 hearing-impaired persons, all students or former students at a state residential school for the deaf. (Author)

  13. Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity of the Japanese Version of the Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Tsunehiko; Yamada, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    The Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised is one of the most widely used measures of individual differences for the emotion of disgust. It consists of 2 subscales: disgust propensity and disgust sensitivity. This study examined the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the revised Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale. Japanese participants (N = 1067) completed the scale as well as the Padua Inventory, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Positive and Negative Affective Schedule. The participants were divided into 3 samples: Sample 1 (n = 481, mean age = 23.05, 186 males and 295 females); Sample 2 (n = 492, mean age = 20.27, 243 males and 249 females); and Sample 3 (n = 94, mean age = 22.68, 35 males and 58 females). We combined Samples 1 and 2 (n = 973, mean age = 21.66, 429 males and 544 females), and then created 2 subsamples to ensure the mutual independence of the samples used for two different factor analyses: subsample 1 (n = 486, mean age = 21.86, 199 male and 287 female) for exploratory factor analysis and subsample 2 (n = 487, mean age = 21.40, 230 male and 257 female) for confirmatory factor analysis. We examined test-retest reliability using Sample 3, and construct validity using Samples 1, 2, and the combined sample. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the item-factor structure of the Japanese Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised was identical to the English version. Moreover, the scale showed good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity for empirical support as provided by correlational analyses. Results revealed adequate psychometric properties of the scale. This study provided the first examples of empirical support for the DPSS-R-J. PMID:27732659

  14. Cross-Cultural Validity of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised on the College Students in the United States and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Kamile Bahar

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the cultural validity of the almost perfect scale-revised (APS-R) with 300 Turkish and 300 American and international college students. First, the validity of the original APS-R was conducted on American students and international students. Hence, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) offered two-factor scale to be consistent…

  15. Comparing Cultural Differences in Two Quality Measures in Chinese Kindergartens: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and the Kindergarten Quality Rating System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the degrees of congruence between two early childhood evaluation systems on various quality concepts: the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and Zhejiang's Kindergarten Quality Rating System (KQRS). Analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests were employed to show the extent to…

  16. The Behavior Flexibility Rating Scale-Revised (BFRS-R): Factor Analysis, Internal Consistency, Inter-Rater and Intra-Rater Reliability, and Convergent Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters-Scheffer, Nienke; Didden, Robert; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Korzilius, Hubert; Pituch, Keenan; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio

    2008-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of the behavior flexibility rating scale-revised (BFRS-R), a new scale intended for assessing behavioral flexibility in individuals with developmental disabilities. Seventy-six direct care staff members and 56 parents completed the BFRS-R for 70 children with developmental disabilities. Factor analysis…

  17. Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A.

    2013-01-01

    A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n = 26, 55%) and pervasive…

  18. The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R): A Scale to Assist the Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults--An International Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward R.; Guthrie, Donald; Ritvo, Max J.; Hufnagel, Demetra H.; McMahon, William; Tonge, Bruce; Mataix-Cols, David; Jassi, Amita; Attwood, Tony; Eloff, Johann

    2011-01-01

    The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R) is a valid and reliable instrument to assist the diagnosis of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The 80-question scale was administered to 779 subjects (201 ASD and 578 comparisons). All ASD subjects met inclusion criteria: DSM-IV-TR, ADI/ADOS diagnoses and standardized IQ…

  19. How Should Discrepancy Be Assessed in Perfectionism Research? A Psychometric Analysis and Proposed Refinement of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Gordon L.; Mara, Constance A.; Hewitt, Paul L.; Sirois, Fuschia; Molnar, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    Research on perfectionism with the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R) distinguishes adaptive perfectionists versus maladaptive perfectionists based primarily on their responses to the 12-item unidimensional APS-R Discrepancy subscale, which assesses the sense of falling short of standards. People described as adaptive perfectionists have high…

  20. Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition among a National Sample of Referred Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV; D. Wechsler, 2003a) was analyzed via confirmatory factor analysis among a national sample of 355 students referred for psychoeducational evaluation by 93 school psychologists from 35 states. The structure of the WISC-IV core battery was best represented by four…

  1. Factor Analysis of the Spanish Version of the WAIS: The Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Francisco C., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The standardization of the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA) and the original Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) were subjected to principal components analysis to examine their comparability for 616 EIWA subjects and 800 WAIS subjects. Similarity of factor structures of both scales is supported. (SLD)

  2. Factor Structure of the French Version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. Validity Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoire, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    The standardization of the French version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) was conducted after carefully adapting the French version from the U.S. version and extensive field testing. The standardization sample was composed of 1,104 participants from 16 to 89 years. To assess the construct validity of the French version,…

  3. The Utility of Two Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Short Forms with Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, W. M., III; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This study used 126 young adult black and white male inmates to test the comparability of the Pauker and Statz and Mogul short forms with the standard Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). The Pauker form was superior with this population. Findings should not be generalized to other ages, races, or to women. (Author/CP)

  4. Longitudinal Invariance of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition in a Referral Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richerson, Lindsay P.; Watkins, Marley W.; Beaujean, A. Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Measurement invariance of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was investigated with a group of 352 students eligible for psychoeducational evaluations tested, on average, 2.8 years apart. Configural, metric, and scalar invariance were found. However, the error variance of the Coding subtest was not constant…

  5. Factor Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition among Referred Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Marley W.; Wilson, Sharise M.; Kotz, Kasey M.; Carbone, Maria C.; Babula, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Factor analysis was applied to the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) scores of 432 Pennsylvania students referred for evaluation for special education services to determine the factor structure of the WISC-IV with this population. A first-order, four-factor oblique solution that mirrored that found in the WISC-IV…

  6. Wechsler Performance IQ > Verbal IQ Index in a Forensic Sample: A Reconsideration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWolfe, Alan S.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the Performance IQ(PIQ) > Verbal IQ(VIQ) scales of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale with type of crime, ethnicity, and reading disability in a corrections sample of 70 men. Analyses indicated the significant relationships between PIQ > VIQ and type of crime and reading disability may be independent of ethnicity and each other.…

  7. A Tribute to Professor Steven L. Wechsler (1948-2016): The Man and the Scientist.

    PubMed

    Nesburn, Anthony B; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2017-01-01

    Professor Steven L. Wechsler, a world-renowned eye researcher and virologist, passed away unexpectedly on June 12, 2016 at the age of 68. Many scientists came to know Professor Wechsler as a gifted researcher in the field of ocular Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) latency, reactivation, and pathogenesis. Professor Wechsler published over 150 peer-reviewed scientific papers during his career, pushing forward the frontiers of his field eye research. His colleagues would say, 'Steve literally wrote the book on herpes latency and reactivation.' He was the first to show that the HSV-1 latency-associated transcript (LAT) is essential for the HSV-1 high spontaneous reactivation phenotype and that LAT has anti-apoptosis activity. This discovery of LAT's anti-apoptosis activity, which is a key factor in how the LAT gene enhances reactivation, was published in Science in 2000 and created a new paradigm that greatly increased understanding of HSV-1 latency and reactivation. In collaboration with Professor Lbachir BenMohamed, an immunologist, they later demonstrated that LAT also acts as an immune evasion gene. He was a caring scientist who truly enjoyed working and sharing his experience and expertise with young researchers. He will be remembered as a significant pillar within scientific and ocular herpes research communities worldwide. Professor Wechsler's dedication to science, his compassionate character, and wonderful sense of humor were exemplary. We, who were his friends and colleagues, will mourn his passing deeply.

  8. The Development of the Wechsler Scales and Their Influence on Contemporary Intelligence Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benisz, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The history of intelligence testing merits study as standardized intelligence tests have been administered for only a little over a century. The most popular tests in use today are the Wechsler scales, despite the availability of other test batteries that are better grounded in contemporary theory. To understand why contemporary revisions of…

  9. Peeking inside the "Black Box" of the Flynn Effect: Evidence from Three Wechsler Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xiaobin; Zhu, Jianjun; Weiss, Lawrence G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the Wechsler Performance IQ (PIQ) or Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI)/ Perceptual Organization Index (POI) change over time and its relation to ability levels. PIQ or PRI/ POI was analyzed because of the known sensitivity of nonverbal scales to the Flynn effect. Scores were analyzed using two methods. First, analysis of…

  10. Observations and Recommendations on the Puerto Rican Version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Roberto E.

    Recommendations and criticisms are made which might result in a more reliable assessment of the Puerto Rican child's intelligence as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). Many of these recommendations and criticisms involve typographical and grammatical errors, incorrect language usage, difficulty of item sequence and…

  11. Differential Effect of Features of Autism on IQs Reported Using Wechsler Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carothers, Douglas E.; Taylor, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Many children with autistic disorder, or autism, are described as having low intelligence quotients. These descriptions are partially based on use of various editions of the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children" (WISC), the most widely used intelligence test for children with autism. An important question is whether task demands of…

  12. The Comparison of Two Methods of Instruction in Teaching the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Kathleen Yost

    The purpose of the study was to determine if there were any differences in learning between graduate students taught to understand, administer, and score the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) by an independent study method as compared to those taught by a more traditional instructional procedure. The subjects were those students…

  13. The Wechsler in Personality Assessment: Object Assembly Subtest as Predictive of Bodily Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Denton J.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Research is contradictory concerning ability of the Wechsler Object Assembly (OA) subtest to predict bodily preoccupations. This study presents data from an objective personality test that do not support the hypothesis that bodily concerns are indicated by impaired performance on the WAIS OA subtest. (Author)

  14. The Wechsler ACS Social Perception Subtest: A Preliminary Comparison with Other Measures of Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Cullum, C. Munro; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2012-01-01

    Relative to other cognitive areas, there are few clinical measures currently available to assess social perception. A new standardized measure, the Wechsler Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) Social Perception subtest, addresses some limitations of existing measures; however, little is known about this new test. The first goal of this investigation…

  15. Reproducing the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition: Factor Model Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaujean, A. Alexander

    2016-01-01

    One of the ways to increase the reproducibility of research is for authors to provide a sufficient description of the data analytic procedures so that others can replicate the results. The publishers of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (WISC-V) do not follow these guidelines when reporting their confirmatory factor…

  16. Estimation of the Intelligence Quotient Using Wechsler Intelligence Scales in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchan-Naranjo, Jessica; Mayoral, Maria; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Llorente, Cloe; Boada, Leticia; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) patients show heterogeneous intelligence profiles and the validity of short forms for estimating intelligence has rarely been studied in this population. We analyzed the validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIS) short forms for estimating full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and assessing intelligence profiles in 29…

  17. Validity of Verbal IQ as a Short Form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Robert W.; Wildman, Robert W., II

    1977-01-01

    The validity of the Verbal IQ as a short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was investigated using the criteria proposed by Resnick and Entin. The WAIS was administered to 100 psychiatric patients. There was no significant difference between the means of the Verbal and Full Scale IQs. (Author)

  18. Effects of practice on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV across 3- and 6-month intervals.

    PubMed

    Estevis, Eduardo; Basso, Michael R; Combs, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54 participants (age M = 20.9; education M = 14.9; initial Full Scale IQ M = 111.6) were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) at baseline and again either 3 or 6 months later. Scores on the Full Scale IQ, Verbal Comprehension, Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, and General Ability Indices improved approximately 7, 5, 4, 5, 9, and 6 points, respectively, and increases were similar regardless of whether the re-examination occurred over 3- or 6-month intervals. Reliable change indices (RCI) were computed using the simple difference and bivariate regression methods, providing estimated base rates of change across time. The regression method provided more accurate estimates of reliable change than did the simple difference between baseline and follow-up scores. These findings suggest that prior exposure to the WAIS-IV results in significant score increments. These gains reflect practice effects instead of genuine intellectual changes, which may lead to errors in clinical judgment.

  19. Prevalence of coma-recovery scale-revised signs of consciousness in patients in minimally conscious state.

    PubMed

    Wannez, Sarah; Gosseries, Olivia; Azzolini, Deborah; Martial, Charlotte; Cassol, Helena; Aubinet, Charlène; Annen, Jitka; Martens, Géraldine; Bodart, Olivier; Heine, Lizette; Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Thibaut, Aurore; Chatelle, Camille; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Demertzi, Athena; Schnakers, Caroline; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Laureys, Steven

    2017-04-11

    Different behavioural signs of consciousness can distinguish patients with an unresponsive wakefulness syndrome from patients in minimally conscious state (MCS). The Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) is the most sensitive scale to differentiate the different altered states of consciousness and eleven items detect the MCS. The aim of this study is to document the prevalence of these items. We analysed behavioural assessments of 282 patients diagnosed in MCS based on the CRS-R. Results showed that some items are particularly frequent among patients in MCS, namely fixation, visual pursuit, and reproducible movement to command, which were observed in more than 50% of patients. These responses were also the most probably observed items when the patients only showed one sign of consciousness. On the other hand, some items were rarely or never observed alone, e.g., object localisation (reaching), object manipulation, intelligible verbalisation, and object recognition. The results also showed that limiting the CRS-R assessment to the five most frequently observed items (i.e., fixation, visual pursuit, reproducible movement to command, automatic motor response and localisation to noxious stimulation) detected 99% of the patients in MCS. If clinicians have only limited time to assess patients with disorders of consciousness, we suggest to evaluate at least these five items of the CRS-R.

  20. Diagnostic utility of the impact of event scale-revised in two samples of survivors of war.

    PubMed

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Ehring, Thomas; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at examining the diagnostic utility of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) as a screening tool for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors of war. The IES-R was completed by two independent samples that had survived the war in the Balkans: a sample of randomly selected people who had stayed in the area of former conflict (n = 3,313) and a sample of refugees to Western European countries (n = 854). PTSD was diagnosed using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Prevalence of PTSD was 20.1% in the Balkan sample and 33.1% in the refugee sample. Results revealed that when considering a minimum value of specificity of 0.80, the optimally sensitive cut-off score for screening for PTSD in the Balkan sample was 34. In both the Balkan sample and the refugee sample, this cut-off score provided good values on sensitivity (0.86 and 0.89, respectively) and overall efficiency (0.81 and 0.79, respectively). Further, the kappa coefficients for sensitivity for the cut-off of 34 were 0.80 in both samples. Findings of this study support the clinical utility of the IES-R as a screening tool for PTSD in large-scale research studies and intervention studies if structured diagnostic interviews are regarded as too labor-intensive and too costly.

  1. The Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale - Revised (ASAS-R): adaptation and construct validity in the Brazilian context.

    PubMed

    Damásio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Silvia Helena

    2013-10-01

    This study presents the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale - Revised (ASAS-R). The sample was made up of 627 subjects (69.8% women) aged between 18 and 88 years (mean = 38.3; SD = 13.26) from 17 Brazilian states. Exploratory factor analysis of part of the sample (n1 = 200) yielded a three-factor solution which showed adequate levels of reliability. Two confirmatory factor analyses of the other part of the sample (n2 = 427) tested both the exploratory and the original model. The analysis of convergent validity using the Subjective Happiness Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey Version 2 (SF-36v2) demonstrated adequate levels of validity. A significant correlation was found between levels of self-care agency and age, level of education and income. The analysis of sample members with chronic disease (n = 134) showed that higher levels of self-care agency indicated lower levels of negative impact of the chronic illness in the individual's everyday life.

  2. School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised: Factorial Invariance and Latent Means Differences across Gender and Age in Spanish Children.

    PubMed

    Gonzálvez, Carolina; Inglés, Cándido J; Kearney, Christopher A; Vicent, María; Sanmartín, Ricardo; García-Fernández, José M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the factorial invariance and latent means differences of the Spanish version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised for Children (SRAS-R-C) in a sample of 1,078 students (50.8% boys) aged 8-11 years (M = 9.63, SD = 1.12). The results revealed that the proposed model in this study, with a structure of 18 items divided into four factors (Negative Affective, Social Aversion and/or Evaluation, To Pursue Attention and Tangible Reinforcements), was the best-fit model with a tetra-factorial structure, remaining invariant across gender and age. Analysis of latent means differences indicated that boys and 11-year-old students scored highest on the Tangible Reinforcements subscale compared with their 8- and 9-year-old peers. On the contrary, for the subscales of Social Aversion and/or Evaluation and to Pursue Attention, the differences were significant and higher in younger age groups compared to 11-year-olds. Appropriate indexes of reliability were obtained for SRAS-R-C subscales (0.70, 0.79, 0.87, and 0.72). Finally, the founded correlation coefficients of scores of the SRAS-R-C revealed a predictable pattern between school refusal and positive/negative affect and optimism/pessimism.

  3. School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised: Factorial Invariance and Latent Means Differences across Gender and Age in Spanish Children

    PubMed Central

    Gonzálvez, Carolina; Inglés, Cándido J.; Kearney, Christopher A.; Vicent, María; Sanmartín, Ricardo; García-Fernández, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the factorial invariance and latent means differences of the Spanish version of the School Refusal Assessment Scale-Revised for Children (SRAS-R-C) in a sample of 1,078 students (50.8% boys) aged 8–11 years (M = 9.63, SD = 1.12). The results revealed that the proposed model in this study, with a structure of 18 items divided into four factors (Negative Affective, Social Aversion and/or Evaluation, To Pursue Attention and Tangible Reinforcements), was the best-fit model with a tetra-factorial structure, remaining invariant across gender and age. Analysis of latent means differences indicated that boys and 11-year-old students scored highest on the Tangible Reinforcements subscale compared with their 8- and 9-year-old peers. On the contrary, for the subscales of Social Aversion and/or Evaluation and to Pursue Attention, the differences were significant and higher in younger age groups compared to 11-year-olds. Appropriate indexes of reliability were obtained for SRAS-R-C subscales (0.70, 0.79, 0.87, and 0.72). Finally, the founded correlation coefficients of scores of the SRAS-R-C revealed a predictable pattern between school refusal and positive/negative affect and optimism/pessimism. PMID:28082938

  4. The relationship of intelligence and memory to interrogative suggestibility: the importance of range effects.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1988-05-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between intelligence, memory and interrogative suggestibility, particularly with reference to range effects. The subjects were 60 normal subjects and 100 forensic patients who had completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Clear range effects of IQ and memory were evident in their relationship with suggestibility.

  5. Psychological variables and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV performance.

    PubMed

    Gass, Carlton S; Gutierrez, Laura

    2016-06-07

    The MMPI-2 and WAIS-IV are commonly used together in neuropsychological evaluations yet little is known about their interrelationships. This study explored the potential influence of psychological factors on WAIS-IV performance in a sample of 180 predominantly male veteran referrals that underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination in a VA Medical Center. Exclusionary criteria included failed performance validity testing and self-report distortion on the MMPI-2. A Principal Components Analysis was performed on the 15 MMPI-2 content scales, yielding three broader higher-order psychological dimensions: Internalized Emotional Dysfunction (IED), Externalized Emotional Dysfunction (EED), and Fear. Level of IED was not related to performance on the WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ or its four indexes: (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed). EED was not related to WAIS-IV performance. Level of Fear, which encompasses health preoccupations (HEA) and distorted perceptions (BIZ), was significantly related to WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ and Verbal Comprehension. These results challenge the common use of high scores on the MMPI-2 IED measures (chiefly depression and anxiety) to explain deficient WAIS-IV performance. In addition, they provide impetus for further investigation of the relation between verbal intelligence and Fear.

  6. Epilepsy & IQ: the clinical utility of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) indices in the neuropsychological assessment of people with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Sallie; McGrath, Katherine; Thompson, Pamela J

    2014-01-01

    We examined Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) General Ability Index (GAI) and Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) discrepancies in 100 epilepsy patients; 44% had a significant GAI > FSIQ discrepancy. GAI-FSIQ discrepancies were correlated with the number of antiepileptic drugs taken and duration of epilepsy. Individual antiepileptic drugs differentially interfere with the expression of underlying intellectual ability in this group. FSIQ may significantly underestimate levels of general intellectual ability in people with epilepsy. Inaccurate representations of FSIQ due to selective impairments in working memory and reduced processing speed obscure the contextual interpretation of performance on other neuropsychological tests, and subtle localizing and lateralizing signs may be missed as a result.

  7. Application of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised--Italian version--in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Fulceri, Francesca; Narzisi, Antonio; Apicella, Fabio; Balboni, Giulia; Baldini, Sara; Brocchini, Jenny; Domenici, Ilaria; Cerullo, Sonia; Igliozzi, Roberta; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities (RRB) are mandatory features for a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5). Despite the strong diagnostic role of RRB, their expressiveness and their relationship with other clinical/demographic features in ASD is not fully elucidated. The Italian version of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) was applied to a relatively large sample of preschool-aged children with ASD who underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment. The relationship between RRB and sex, age, non-verbal IQ, autism severity, as well as the diagnostic accuracy of the RBS-R were explored. Stereotyped and Ritualistic/Sameness behaviors were the most common RRB in preschoolers with ASD, without widespread differences between males and females. No significant correlations between RRB and chronological age, or non-verbal IQ were detected. The expressiveness of ritualistic/sameness behaviors positively correlated with autism severity, assessed through the Calibrated Severity Score (CSS) derived from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis showed high diagnostic accuracy using the Global Rating Score, which represents the judgment of the parents of as the RRB affect the child's life. However, while the Global Rating Score performed well, the remaining subscales did not. This investigation extends the limited research on early pattern and associated features of RRB in young children with ASD. The use of the RBS-R may increase the knowledge of the RRB complexity and variability and in turn improve the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures within the autistic spectrum.

  8. Bifactor structure of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Fourth Edition.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Marley W; Beaujean, A Alexander

    2014-03-01

    The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence--Fourth Edition (WPPSI-IV; Wechsler, 2012) represents a substantial departure from its predecessor, including omission of 4 subtests, addition of 5 new subtests, and modification of the contents of the 5 retained subtests. Wechsler (2012) explicitly assumed a higher-order structure with general intelligence (g) as the second-order factor that explained all the covariation of several first-order factors but failed to consider a bifactor model. The WPPSI-IV normative sample contains 1,700 children aged 2 years and 6 months through 7 years and 7 months, bifurcated into 2 age groups: 2:6-3:11 year olds (n = 600) and 4:0-7:7 year olds (n = 1,100). This study applied confirmatory factor analysis to the WPPSI-IV normative sample data to test the fit of a bifactor model and to determine the reliability of the resulting factors. The bifactor model fit the WPPSI-IV normative sample data as well as or better than the higher-order models favored by Wechsler (2012). In the bifactor model, the general factor accounted for more variance in every subtest than did its corresponding domain-specific factor and the general factor accounted for more total and common variance than all domain-specific factors combined. Further, the domain-specific factors exhibited poor reliability independent of g (i.e., ωh coefficients of .05 to .33). These results suggest that only the general intelligence dimension was sufficiently robust and precise for clinical use.

  9. The National Adult Reading Test: restandardisation against the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth edition.

    PubMed

    Bright, Peter; Hale, Emily; Gooch, Vikki Jayne; Myhill, Thomas; van der Linde, Ian

    2016-09-14

    Since publication in 1982, the 50-item National Adult Reading Test (NART; Nelson, 1982 ; NART-R; Nelson & Willison, 1991 ) has remained a widely adopted method for estimating premorbid intelligence both for clinical and research purposes. However, the NART has not been standardised against the most recent revisions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III; Wechsler, 1997 , and WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008 ). Our objective, therefore, was to produce reliable standardised estimates of WAIS-IV IQ from the NART. Ninety-two neurologically healthy British adults were assessed and regression equations calculated to produce population estimates of WAIS-IV full-scale IQ (FSIQ) and constituent index scores. Results showed strong NART/WAIS-IV FSIQ correlations with more moderate correlations observed between NART error and constituent index scores. FSIQ estimates were closely similar to the published WAIS and WAIS-R estimates at the high end of the distribution, but at the lower end were approximately equidistant from the highly discrepant WAIS (low) and WAIS-R (high) values. We conclude that the NART is likely to remain an important tool for estimating the impact of neurological damage on general cognitive ability. We advise caution in the use of older published WAIS and/or WAIS-R estimates for estimating premorbid WAIS-IV FSIQ, particularly for those with low NART scores.

  10. [Memory processes in endogenous depression].

    PubMed

    Radziwiłłowicz, W; Radziwiłłowicz, P

    1998-01-01

    The thesis aims to answer the questions about the profile of mental ability in endogenous depression and to decide whether self-estimation of depressive symptoms influences the results achieved by patients in memory tests. Fifty six patients suffering from endogenous depression have been examined. The following methods have been applied: Mini Mental State Examination, Benton Visual Retention Test, Beck Depression Inventory, hold tests: Vocabulary, Information, Comprehension and Digit Span of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Auditory Verbal Learning Test, DCS Weidlich. General status of cognitive functions correlates with the profile of specific kinds of memory results, particularly with delayed memory. Self-estimation of depressive symptoms intensity is mostly influenced by memory capacity, visuomotorial factor, functions of perception and lingual factor. High correlation between verbal and non verbal learning shows uniform influence of depression on the process of learning.

  11. Short report: Influence of culture and trauma history on autobiographical memory specificity.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Clare; Jobson, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of culture and trauma history on autobiographical memory specificity. Chinese international and British undergraduate university students (N=64) completed the autobiographical memory test, Hopkins symptom checklist-25, twenty statements test, trauma history questionnaire, and impact of events scale-revised. The results indicated that the British group provided significantly more specific memories than the Chinese group. The high trauma exposure group provided significantly fewer specific autobiographical memories than the low trauma exposure group. The interaction was not significant. The findings suggest that even in cultures where specificity is not as evident in autobiographical remembering style, trauma exposure appears to exert similar influence on autobiographical memory specificity.

  12. The value of the wechsler intelligence scale for children-fourth edition digit span as an embedded measure of effort: an investigation into children with dual diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Loughan, Ashlee R; Perna, Robert; Hertza, Jeremy

    2012-11-01

    The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of test-taking effort which has traditionally been utilized with adults, but which more recently has demonstrated utility with children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Digit Span, commonly used in neuropsychological evaluations, can also be functional as an embedded measure by detecting effort in children with dual diagnoses; a population yet to be investigated. Participants (n = 51) who completed neuropsychological evaluations including the TOMM, WISC-IV, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Children's Memory Scale, and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System were divided into two groups: Optimal Effort and Suboptimal Effort, based on their TOMM Trial 2 scores. Digit Span findings suggest a useful scaled score of ≤4 resulted in optimal cutoff scores, yielding specificity of 91% and sensitivity of 43%. This study supports previous research that the WISC-IV Digit Span has good utility in determining optimal effort, even in children with dual diagnosis or comorbidities.

  13. An examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) in individuals with complicated mild, moderate and Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).

    PubMed

    Carlozzi, Noelle E; Kirsch, Ned L; Kisala, Pamela A; Tulsky, David S

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the clinical utility of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) in individuals with complicated mild, moderate or severe TBI. One hundred individuals with TBI (n = 35 complicated mild or moderate TBI; n = 65 severe TBI) and 100 control participants matched on key demographic variables from the WAIS-IV normative dataset completed the WAIS-IV. Univariate analyses indicated that participants with severe TBI had poorer performance than matched controls on all index scores and subtests (except Matrix Reasoning). Individuals with complicated mild/moderate TBI performed more poorly than controls on the Working Memory Index (WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), and on four subtests: the two processing speed subtests (SS, CD), two working memory subtests (AR, LN), and a perceptual reasoning subtest (BD). Participants with severe TBI had significantly lower scores than the complicated mild/moderate TBI on PSI, and on three subtests: the two processing speed subtests (SS and CD), and the new visual puzzles test. Effect sizes for index and subtest scores were generally small-to-moderate for the group with complicated mild/moderate and moderate-to-large for the group with severe TBI. PSI also showed good sensitivity and specificity for classifying individuals with severe TBI versus controls. Findings provide support for the clinical utility of the WAIS-IV in individuals with complicated mild, moderate, and severe TBI.

  14. A comparison of memory function following local and general anaesthesia for extraction of senile cataract.

    PubMed

    Karhunen, U; Jönn, G

    1982-08-01

    The memory performance of 60 female patients, scheduled for either local or general anaesthesia and extraction of senile cataract, was investigated. Six subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale and four items of memory tests according to Luria were performed. One week postoperatively there was a diminution in the performance of the Wechsler Memory Scale and Luria tests. Comparison of the pre- and postoperative diminutions between the local and general anaesthesia groups was statistically significant only in the Luria tests. According to this study general anaesthesia does not affect memory function more profoundly than local anaesthesia supplemented with tranquilizing and/or analgesic drugs. In this respect, the advantages of general anesthesia should be utilized, at least in patients without clearcut contraindications.

  15. Administration time estimates for Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV subtests, composites, and short forms.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Glass, Laura A; Brown, Cassandra N

    2007-04-01

    The administration times for Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV) subtests, indexes, and the Full Scale IQ were recorded for 57 school children. Also determined were administration times for eight short forms and the General Ability Index (GAI). All eight short forms reduced testing time by >50%, but the GAI required approximately 56 minutes. The time to administer the 10 core subtests that yield the Full Scale IQ and index scores averaged 72 minutes (range = 42 to 100), but 31% of the administrations required 80 minutes or longer. These results indicate that administration times are quite variable and that D. Wechsler's (2003) guideline of 65 to 80 minutes can be misleading for certain settings and for specific examinees. The present research found administration time to be positively correlated with examinee age, grade placement, and Full Scale IQ. In addition, the extent of examiner experience is known to be positively related to administration speed. In the present research, as in many settings, the examiners were competent, but not highly experienced.

  16. Failure of the Bender-Gestalt and Wechsler tests to differentiate children with and without seizure disorders.

    PubMed

    Hauer, A L; Armentrout, J A

    1978-08-01

    The Bender-Gestalt and WISC or WISC-R performances of two groups of 19 emotionally disturbed children matched in age age (9-1 to 16-7) and Full Scale IQ were compared. Each child is one group had a medically documented seizure disorder; a matched child in the other group had no present or past indications of organicity. Neither Bender-Gestalt errors nor Wechsler IQs or Deviation Quotients differed significantly between the two groups. The emotionally disturbed children with seizure disorders could not be differentiated from the other emotionally disturbed children solely on the basis of Bender-Gestalt and Wechsler test scores.

  17. Computer-Based Working Memory Training in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delavarian, Mona; Bokharaeian, Behrouz; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar

    2015-01-01

    We designed a working memory (WM) training programme in game framework for mild intellectually disabled students. Twenty-four students participated as test and control groups. The auditory and visual-spatial WM were assessed by primary test, which included computerised Wechsler numerical forward and backward sub-tests and secondary tests, which…

  18. A Study of the Spanish Translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised with Puerto Rican Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Maria D.; And Others

    Two studies were performed with Puerto Rican children and adolescents in Puerto Rico and Connecticut to determine the reliability and predictive validity of the Spanish translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Ninos-Revisada (EIWN-R). Results suggest that the EIWN-R is a reliable…

  19. Exploratory and Higher-Order Factor Analyses of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Adolescent Subsample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) with the adolescent participants (ages 16-19 years; N = 400) in the standardization sample was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analyses. Results from…

  20. A Confirmatory Analysis of the Factor Structure and Cross-Age Invariance of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Witta, E. Lea

    2004-01-01

    In the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997), the manual reports several confirmatory factor analyses in support of the instrument's latent factor structure. In practice, examiners frequently compare an examinee's score from a current administration of the WAIS-III with the results from a previous test…

  1. A Comparison of Low IQ Scores from the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umphress, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty people with suspected intellectual disability took the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; C. R. Reynolds & R. W. Kamphaus, 1998) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--3rd Edition (WAIS-III; D. Wechsler, 1997) to see if the 2 IQ tests produced comparable results. A t test showed that the RIAS Composite Intelligence Index…

  2. Investigation of the Factor Structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical…

  3. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third and -Fourth Edition: Predictors of Academic Achievement in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    IQ and achievement scores were analyzed for 678 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; 6-16 years of age, IQ=80) administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III; n=586) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV, n=92). Approximately 76% of children in both samples…

  4. Comparison of Scores on the WAIS and Its Puerto Rican Counterpart, Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos, in an Institutionalized Latin American Psychiatric Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Todd McLin; Rodriguez, Vene L.

    1979-01-01

    Compared vocabulary and block design subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and its Puerto Rican counterpart, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA), in hospitalized Latins and Trans-Caribbean Blacks. EIWA scores were significantly higher than WAIS scores. Equivalence of EIWA and WAIS estimates is questioned.…

  5. Seeing the Forest for the Trees: Prevalence of Low Scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Brian L.

    2010-01-01

    Low scores across a battery of tests are common in healthy people and vary by demographic characteristics. The purpose of the present article was to present the base rates of low scores for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV; D. Wechsler, 2003). Participants included 2,200 children and adolescents between 6 and…

  6. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Dyads for Estimating Global Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Girard, Todd A; Axelrod, Bradley N; Patel, Ronak; Crawford, John R

    2015-08-01

    All possible two-subtest combinations of the core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) subtests were evaluated as possible viable short forms for estimating full-scale IQ (FSIQ). Validity of the dyads was evaluated relative to FSIQ in a large clinical sample (N = 482) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Sample validity measures included correlations, mean discrepancies, and levels of agreement between dyad estimates and FSIQ scores. In addition, reliability and validity coefficients were derived from WAIS-IV standardization data. The Coding + Information dyad had the strongest combination of reliability and validity data. However, several other dyads yielded comparable psychometric performance, albeit with some variability in their particular strengths. We also observed heterogeneity between validity coefficients from the clinical and standardization-based estimates for several dyads. Thus, readers are encouraged to also consider the individual psychometric attributes, their clinical or research goals, and client or sample characteristics when selecting among the dyadic short forms.

  7. Comparing Canadian and American normative scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Allyson G; Armstrong, Irene T; Harrison, Laura E; Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L

    2014-12-01

    Psychologists practicing in Canada must decide which set of normative data to use for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). The purpose of this study was to compare the interpretive effects of applying American versus Canadian normative systems in a sample of 432 Canadian postsecondary-level students who were administered the WAIS-IV as part of an evaluation for a learning disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or other mental health problems. Employing the Canadian normative system yielded IQ, Index, and subtest scores that were systematically lower than those obtained using the American norms. Furthermore, the percentage agreement in normative classifications, defined as American and Canadian index scores within five points or within the same classification range, was between 49% and 76%. Substantial differences are present between the American and Canadian WAIS-IV norms. Clinicians should consider carefully the implications regarding which normative system is most appropriate for specific types of evaluations.

  8. Dyadic Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV.

    PubMed

    Denney, David A; Ringe, Wendy K; Lacritz, Laura H

    2015-08-01

    Full Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) administration can be time-consuming and may not be necessary when intelligence quotient estimates will suffice. Estimated Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) and General Ability Index (GAI) scores were derived from nine dyadic short forms using individual regression equations based on data from a clinical sample (n = 113) that was then cross validated in a separate clinical sample (n = 50). Derived scores accounted for 70%-83% of the variance in FSIQ and 77%-88% of the variance in GAI. Predicted FSIQs were strongly associated with actual FSIQ (rs = .73-.88), as were predicted and actual GAIs (rs = .80-.93). Each of the nine dyadic short forms of the WAIS-IV was a good predictor of FSIQ and GAI in the validation sample. These data support the validity of WAIS-IV short forms when time is limited or lengthier batteries cannot be tolerated by patients.

  9. Clinical utility of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Donders, Jacobus; Strong, Carrie-Ann H

    2015-02-01

    The performance of 100 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) was compared with that of 100 demographically matched neurologically healthy controls. Processing Speed was the only WAIS-IV factor index that was able to discriminate between persons with moderate-severe TBI on the one hand and persons with either less severe TBI or neurologically healthy controls on the other hand. The Processing Speed index also had acceptable sensitivity and specificity when differentiating between patients with TBI who either did or did not have scores in the clinically significant range on the Trail Making Test. It is concluded that WAIS-IV Processing Speed has acceptable clinical utility in the evaluation of patients with moderate-severe TBI but that it should be supplemented with other measures to assure sufficient accuracy in the diagnostic process.

  10. Estimation of the intelligence quotient using Wechsler Intelligence Scales in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Mayoral, María; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Llorente, Cloe; Boada, Leticia; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) patients show heterogeneous intelligence profiles and the validity of short forms for estimating intelligence has rarely been studied in this population. We analyzed the validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIS) short forms for estimating full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and assessing intelligence profiles in 29 AS patients. Only the Information and Block Design dyad meets the study criteria. No statistically significant differences were found between dyad scores and FSIQ scores (t(28) = 1.757; p = 0.09). The dyad has a high correlation with FSIQ, good percentage of variance explained (R(2) = 0.591; p < 0.001), and high consistency with the FSIQ classification (χ(2)(36) = 45.202; p = 0.14). Short forms with good predictive accuracy may not be accurate in clinical groups with atypical cognitive profiles such as AS patients.

  11. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Malingering in Traumatic Brain Injury: Classification Accuracy in Known Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Kelly L.; Greve, Kevin W.; Bianchini, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    A known-groups design was used to determine the classification accuracy of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) variables in detecting malingered neurocognitive dysfunction (MND) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI patients were classified into the following groups: (a) mild TBI not-MND (n = 26), (b) mild TBI MND (n = 31), and (c)…

  12. A Confirmatory Analysis of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition: Is the Verbal/Performance Discrepancy Justified?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the construct validity of the implied and theoretical structures of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III). Results using the standardization sample of 2,450 adults and adolescents indicate that the WAIS-III provides an excellent measure of the four-factor model and a general factor, but they do not support the construct…

  13. Higher Order, Multisample, Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition: What Does It Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Taub, Gordon E.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Kranzler, John H.

    2006-01-01

    The recently published fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) represents a considerable departure from previous versions of the scale. The structure of the instrument has changed, and some subtests have been added and others deleted. The technical manual for the WISC-IV provided evidence supporting this new…

  14. Referred Students' Performance on the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Oliver W.; Paulin, Rachel V.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the convergent relations of the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). Data from counterbalanced administrations of each instrument to 48 elementary school students referred for psychoeducational testing were examined. Analysis of the 96…

  15. College Student Performance on the General Ability Measure for Adults and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults-Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassiter, Kerry S.; Bell, Nancy L.; Hutchinson, Melody B.; Matthews, T. Darin

    2001-01-01

    Examines the concurrent validity of the General Ability Measure for Adults (GAMA) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III). A comparison of the sample's mean scores indicates similar GAMA and WAIS-III Performance IQ scores. In contrast, the sample's mean GAMA IQ score was significantly lower than the sample's mean Full…

  16. Sex Differences in Performance over 7 Years on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes related to sex differences on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) subtest performance over a 7-year interval in middle-aged adults with intellectual disability (ID). Cognitive sex differences have been extensively studied in the general population, but there are few reports…

  17. Technical and Practical Issues in the Structure and Clinical Invariance of the Wechsler Scales: A Rejoinder to Commentaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Lawrence G.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Zhu, Jianjun; Chen, Hsinyi

    2013-01-01

    This discussion article addresses issues related to expansion of the Wechsler model from four to five factors; multiple broad CHC abilities measured by the Arithmetic subtest; advantages and disadvantages of including complex tasks requiring integration of multiple broad abilities when measuring intelligence; limitations of factor analysis, which…

  18. Four Short-Form Linear Equation Estimates of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III IQs in an Elderly Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clara, Ian P.; Huynh, Cam-Loi

    2003-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition (WAIS-III) was released in 1997. Short forms developed for previous versions have not yet been investigated for the WAIS-III in special populations. A 4-subtest short form by A. B. Silverstein emerged as the most promising short form in an elderly sample. (Contains 49 references, 4 tables, and 2…

  19. Concurrent Validity of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Third Edition Index Score Short Forms in the Canadian Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Rael T.; Iverson, Grant L.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the concurrent validity of estimated Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Third Edition (WAIS-III) index scores using various one- and two-subtest combinations. Participants were the Canadian WAIS-III standardization sample. Using all possible one- and two-subtest combinations, an estimated Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), an…

  20. Orthogonal Higher Order Structure and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the French Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golay, Philippe; Lecerf, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    According to the most widely accepted Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence measurement, each subtest score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults (3rd ed.; WAIS-III) should reflect both 1st- and 2nd-order factors (i.e., 4 or 5 broad abilities and 1 general factor). To disentangle the contribution of each factor, we applied a…

  1. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Short Form for Index and IQ Scores in a Psychiatric Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Bruce K.; Girard, Todd A.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric…

  2. Balancing the Need for Reliability and Time Efficiency: Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeyakumar, Sharon L. E.; Warriner, Erin M.; Raval, Vaishali V.; Ahmad, Saadia A.

    2004-01-01

    Tables permitting the conversion of short-form composite scores to full-scale IQ estimates have been published for previous editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Equivalent tables are now needed for selected subtests of the WAIS-III. This article used Tellegen and Briggs's formulae to convert the sum of scaled scores for four…

  3. Factor Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition among Referred Native American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakano, Selena; Watkins, Marley W.

    2013-01-01

    The Native American population is severely underrepresented in empirical test validity research despite being overrepresented in special education programs and at increased risk for psychoeducational evaluation. The structural validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was investigated with a sample of 176,…

  4. The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R): a scale to assist the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in adults: an international validation study.

    PubMed

    Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward R; Guthrie, Donald; Ritvo, Max J; Hufnagel, Demetra H; McMahon, William; Tonge, Bruce; Mataix-Cols, David; Jassi, Amita; Attwood, Tony; Eloff, Johann

    2011-08-01

    The Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R) is a valid and reliable instrument to assist the diagnosis of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The 80-question scale was administered to 779 subjects (201 ASD and 578 comparisons). All ASD subjects met inclusion criteria: DSM-IV-TR, ADI/ADOS diagnoses and standardized IQ testing. Mean scores for each of the questions and total mean ASD vs. the comparison groups' scores were significantly different (p < .0001). Concurrent validity with Constantino Social Responsiveness Scale-Adult = 95.59%. Sensitivity = 97%, specificity = 100%, test-retest reliability r = .987. Cronbach alpha coefficients for the subscales and 4 derived factors were good. We conclude that the RAADS-R is a useful adjunct diagnostic tool for adults with ASD.

  5. [Ageism: adaptation of the Fraboni of Ageism Scale-Revised to the French language and testing the effects of empathy, social dominance orientation and dogmatism on ageism].

    PubMed

    Boudjemad, Valérian; Gana, Kamel

    2009-12-01

    ABSTRACTThis article presents two studies dealing with ageism. The objective of the first study was to adapt to French language and validate the Fraboni of Ageism Scale-Revised (FSA-R) which contains 23 items, while the objective of the second study was to test a structural model containing ageism as measured by the FSA-R and the "Big Three": empathy, social dominance orientation, and dogmatism, controlled for by sex and age. The results of the first study (n = 323) generated a version of the FSA-R comprising 14 items, of which the psychometric properties were very satisfactory. Using structural equation modelling and bootstrap procedure, the results of the second study (n = 284) showed a direct negative and significant effect of empathy on agism. They also showed that this negative effect was mediated by dogmatism and social dominance orientation, which both exerted a positive effect on ageism.

  6. Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A

    2013-01-01

    A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n  =  26, 55%) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (n  =  21, 45%). Analysis showed that the full sample received significantly higher scores on the Leiter-R than SB5 (mean discrepancy of 20.91 points), specific diagnosis was not a significant factor, and younger children had a larger discrepancy between tests. These analyses strongly suggest that the Leiter-R and the SB5 may not be equivalent measures of intellectual functioning in children with autism spectrum disorders, and that use of one or the other exclusively could lead to misclassification of intellectual capacity.

  7. An independent confirmatory factor analysis of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-fourth Edition (WISC-IV) integrated: what do the process approach subtests measure?

    PubMed

    Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M; Bernstein, Joshua D

    2013-09-01

    The Wechsler intelligence scale for children--fourth edition (WISC-IV) Integrated contains the WISC-IV core and supplemental subtests along with process approach subtests designed to facilitate a process-oriented approach to score interpretation. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which WISC-IV Integrated subtests measure the constructs they are purported to measure. In addition to examining the measurement and scoring model provided in the manual, this study also tested hypotheses regarding Cattell-Horn-Carroll abilities that might be measured along with other substantive questions regarding the factor structure of the WISC-IV Integrated and the nature of abilities measured by process approach subtests. Results provide insight regarding the constructs measured by these subtests. Many subtests appear to be good to excellent measures of psychometric g (i.e., the general factor presumed to cause the positive correlation of mental tasks). Other abilities measured by subtests are described. For some subtests, the majority of variance is not accounted for by theoretical constructs included in the scoring model. Modifications made to remove demands such as memory recall and verbal expression were found to reduce construct-irrelevant variance. The WISC-IV Integrated subtests appear to measure similar constructs across ages 6-16, although strict factorial invariance was not supported.

  8. Independent examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): what does the WAIS-IV measure?

    PubMed

    Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M; Kranzler, John H

    2010-03-01

    Published empirical evidence for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not address some essential questions pertaining to the applied practice of intellectual assessment. In this study, the structure and cross-age invariance of the latest WAIS-IV revision were examined to (a) elucidate the nature of the constructs measured and (b) determine whether the same constructs are measured across ages. Results suggest that a Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC)-inspired structure provides a better description of test performance than the published scoring structure does. Broad CHC abilities measured by the WAIS-IV include crystallized ability (Gc), fluid reasoning (Gf), visual processing (Gv), short-term memory (Gsm), and processing speed (Gs), although some of these abilities are measured more comprehensively than are others. Additionally, the WAIS-IV provides a measure of quantitative reasoning (QR). Results also suggest a lack of cross-age invariance resulting from age-related differences in factor loadings. Formulas for calculating CHC indexes and suggestions for interpretation are provided.

  9. A Preliminary Investigation of an Early Intervention Program: Examining the Intervention Effectiveness of the "Bracken Concept Development Program" and the "Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised" with Head Start Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Patti

    2004-01-01

    This research study evaluated the efficacy of the "Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised" (BBCS-R; Bracken, 1998) and the "Bracken Concept Development Program" (BCDP; Bracken, 1986a) in a test-teach-test paradigm with students from a Head Start program. Prior to the intervention, 54 children were administered the BBCS-R and were…

  10. Memory-for-Designs, Bender-Gestalt, Trail Making Test, and WISC-R Performance of Retarded and Adequate Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManis, Donald L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Twelve reading-disabled and 12 nondisabled boys, of average intellectual ability, in Grades 3 to 6 were compared on the Memory-For-Designs, Bender-Gestalt, Trail Making Test, and the 11 subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised (WISC-R). (Author)

  11. Structural and incremental validity of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition with a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jason M; Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W

    2013-06-01

    Structural and incremental validity of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) was examined with a sample of 300 individuals referred for evaluation at a university-based clinic. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the WAIS-IV structure was best represented by 4 first-order factors as well as a general intelligence factor in a direct hierarchical model. The general intelligence factor accounted for the most common and total variance among the subtests. Incremental validity analyses indicated that the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) generally accounted for medium to large portions of academic achievement variance. For all measures of academic achievement, the first-order factors combined accounted for significant achievement variance beyond that accounted for by the FSIQ, but individual factor index scores contributed trivial amounts of achievement variance. Implications for interpreting WAIS-IV results are discussed.

  12. Age-related invariance of abilities measured with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, Navaneetham J; Bowden, Stephen C; Saklofske, Donald H; Weiss, Lawrence G

    2016-11-01

    Assessment of measurement invariance across populations is essential for meaningful comparison of test scores, and is especially relevant where repeated measurements are required for educational assessment or clinical diagnosis. Establishing measurement invariance legitimizes the assumption that test scores reflect the same psychological trait in different populations or across different occasions. Examination of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) U.S. standardization samples revealed that a first-order 5-factor measurement model was best fitting across 9 age groups from 16 years to 69 years. Strong metric invariance was found for 3 of 5 factors and partial intercept invariance for the remaining 2. Pairwise comparisons of adjacent age groups supported the inference that cognitive-trait group differences are manifested by group differences in the test scores. In educational and clinical settings these findings provide theoretical and empirical support to interpret changes in the index or subtest scores as reflecting changes in the corresponding cognitive abilities. Further, where clinically relevant, the subtest score composites can be used to compare changes in respective cognitive abilities. The model was supported in the Canadian standardization data with pooled age groups but the sample sizes were not adequate for detailed examination of separate age groups in the Canadian sample. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition performance in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Gontkovsky, Samuel T; Kreiner, David S; Tree, Heather A

    2012-01-01

    Forty patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) completed the 10 core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests. Means for age and education were 42.05 years (SD = 9.94) and 14.33 years (SD = 2.40). For all participants, the native language was English. The mean duration of MS diagnosis was 8.17 years (SD = 7.75), and the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS; Kurtzke, 1983 ) score was 3.73 (SD = 1.41) with a range from 2.0 to 6.5. A control group of healthy individuals with similar demographic characteristics also completed the WAIS-IV and were provided by the test publisher. Compared to controls, patients with MS earned significantly lower subtest and composite scores. The patients' mean scores were consistently in the low-average to average range, and the patterns of performance across groups did not differ significantly, although there was a trend towards higher scores on the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) and lower scores on the Processing Speed Index (PSI). Approximately 78% of patients had actual Full Scale IQs that were significantly lower than preillness, demographically based IQ estimates.

  14. Item response theory analysis of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised in the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials Database.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Elizabeth D; Staniewska, Dorota; Coyne, Karin S; Boyer, Stacey; White, Leigh Ann; Zach, Neta; Cedarbaum, Jesse M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to examine dimensionality and item-level performance of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) across time using classical and modern test theory approaches. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses were conducted using data from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Pooled Resources Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials (PRO-ACT) database with complete ALSFRS-R data (n = 888) at three time-points (Time 0, Time 1 (6-months), Time 2 (1-year)). Results demonstrated that in this population of 888 patients, mean age was 54.6 years, 64.4% were male, and 93.7% were Caucasian. The CFA supported a 4* individual-domain structure (bulbar, gross motor, fine motor, and respiratory domains). IRT analysis within each domain revealed misfitting items and overlapping item response category thresholds at all time-points, particularly in the gross motor and respiratory domain items. Results indicate that many of the items of the ALSFRS-R may sub-optimally distinguish among varying levels of disability assessed by each domain, particularly in patients with less severe disability. Measure performance improved across time as patient disability severity increased. In conclusion, modifications to select ALSFRS-R items may improve the instrument's specificity to disability level and sensitivity to treatment effects.

  15. Characteristics of aggression among psychiatric inpatients by ward type in Japan: Using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale - Revised (SOAS-R).

    PubMed

    Sato, Makiko; Noda, Toshie; Sugiyama, Naoya; Yoshihama, Fumihiro; Miyake, Michi; Ito, Hiroto

    2016-07-22

    Aggressive behaviour by psychiatric patients is a serious issue in clinical practice, and adequate management of such behaviour is required, with careful evaluation of the factors causing the aggression. To examine the characteristics of aggressive incidents by ward type, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted for 6 months between April 2012 and June 2013 using the Staff Observation Aggression Scale - Revised, Japanese version (SOAS-R) in 30 wards across 20 Japanese psychiatric hospitals. Participating wards were categorized into three types based on the Japanese medical reimbursement system: emergency psychiatric, acute psychiatric, and standard wards (common in Japan, mostly treating non-acute patients). On analyzing the 443 incidents reported, results showed significant differences in SOAS-R responses by ward type. In acute and emergency psychiatric wards, staff members were the most common target of aggression. In acute psychiatric wards, staff requiring patients to take medication was the most common provocation, and verbal aggression was the most commonly used means. In emergency psychiatric wards, victims felt threatened. In contrast, in standard wards, both the target and provocation of aggression were most commonly other patients, hands were used, victims reported experiencing physical pain, and seclusion was applied to stop their behaviour. These findings suggest that ward environment was an important factor influencing aggressive behaviour. Ensuring the quality and safety of psychiatric care requires understanding the characteristics of incidents that staff are likely to encounter in each ward type, as well as implementing efforts to deal with the incidents adequately and improve the treatment environment.

  16. Nonverbal cognitive development in children with cochlear implants: relationship between the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and later performance on the Leiter International Performance Scales-Revised.

    PubMed

    Caudle, Susan E; Katzenstein, Jennifer M; Oghalai, John S; Lin, Jerry; Caudle, Donald D

    2014-02-01

    Methodologically, longitudinal assessment of cognitive development in young children has proven difficult because few measures span infancy through school age. This matter is further complicated when the child presents with a sensory deficit such as hearing loss. Few measures are validated in this population, and children who are evaluated for cochlear implantation are often reevaluated annually. The authors sought to evaluate the predictive validity of subscales of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) on Leiter International Performance Scales-Revised (LIPS-R) Full-Scale IQ scores. To further elucidate the relationship of these two measures, comparisons were also made with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-Second Edition (VABS), which provides a measure of adaptive functioning across the life span. Participants included 35 children (14 female, 21 male) who were evaluated both as part of the precandidacy process for cochlear implantation using the MSEL and VABS and following implantation with the LIPS-R and VABS. Hierarchical linear regression revealed that the MSEL Visual Reception subdomain score significantly predicted 52% of the variance in LIPS-R Full-Scale IQ scores at follow-up, F(1, 34) = 35.80, p < .0001, R (2) = .52, β = .72. This result suggests that the Visual Reception subscale offers predictive validity of later LIPS-R Full-Scale IQ scores. The VABS was also significantly correlated with cognitive variables at each time point.

  17. A cross-cultural comparison between South African and British students on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales Third Edition (WAIS-III).

    PubMed

    Cockcroft, Kate; Alloway, Tracy; Copello, Evan; Milligan, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    There is debate regarding the appropriate use of Western cognitive measures with individuals from very diverse backgrounds to that of the norm population. Given the dated research in this area and the considerable socio-economic changes that South Africa has witnessed over the past 20 years, this paper reports on the use of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III), the most commonly used measure of intelligence, with an English second language, multilingual, low socio-economic group of black, South African university students. Their performance on the WAIS-III was compared to that of a predominantly white, British, monolingual, higher socio-economic group. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that the WAIS-III lacks measurement invariance between the two groups, suggesting that it may be tapping different constructs in each group. The UK group significantly outperformed the SA group on the knowledge-based verbal, and some non-verbal subtests, while the SA group performed significantly better on measures of Processing Speed (PS). The groups did not differ significantly on the Matrix Reasoning subtest and on those working memory subtests with minimal reliance on language, which appear to be the least culturally biased. Group differences were investigated further in a set of principal components analyses, which revealed that the WAIS-III scores loaded differently for the UK and SA groups. While the SA group appeared to treat the PS subtests differently to those measuring perceptual organization and non-verbal reasoning, the UK group seemed to approach all of these subtests similarly. These results have important implications for the cognitive assessment of individuals from culturally, linguistically, and socio-economically diverse circumstances.

  18. Grapheme-colour synaesthesia yields an ordinary rather than extraordinary memory advantage: evidence from a group study.

    PubMed

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2010-04-01

    In synaesthesia, the input of one sensory modality automatically triggers an additional experience, not normally triggered by the input of that modality. Therefore, compared to non-synaesthetes, additional experiences exist and these may be used as retrieval cues when memory is tested. Previous case studies have suggested that synaesthesia may yield even extraordinary memory abilities. However, group studies found either a task-specific memory advantage or no performance advantage at all. The aim of the present study was to test whether grapheme-colour synaesthesia gives rise to a general memory benefit using a standardised memory test (Wechsler Memory Scale). The synaesthetes showed a performance advantage in episodic memory tests, but not in short-term memory tests. However, performance was still within the ordinary range. The results support the hypothesis that synaesthesia provides for a richer world of experience and as a consequence additional retrieval cues may be available and beneficial but not to the point of extraordinary memory ability.

  19. Working memory deficits in adults with ADHD: is there evidence for subtype differences?

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, Julie B; Hanford, Russell B; Medoff, Deborah R

    2006-01-01

    Background Working memory performance is important for maintaining functioning in cognitive, academic and social activities. Previous research suggests there are prevalent working memory deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is now a growing body of literature characterizing working memory functioning according to ADHD subtypes in children. The expression of working memory deficits in adults with ADHD and how they vary according to subtype, however, remains to be more fully documented. Methods This study assessed differences in working memory functioning between Normal Control (NC) adults (N = 18); patients with ADHD, Combined (ADHD-CT) Type ADHD (N = 17); and ADHD, Inattentive (ADHD-IA) Type (N = 16) using subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Wechsler Memory Scale-III and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). Results The ADHD groups displayed significant weaknesses in contrast to the NC group on working memory tests requiring rapid processing and active stimulus manipulation. This included the Letter-Number-Sequencing test of the Wechsler scales, PASAT omission errors and the longest sequence of consecutive correct answers on the PASAT. No overall ADHD group subtype differences emerged; however differences between the ADHD groups and the NC group varied depending on the measure and the gender of the participants. Gender differences in performance were evident on some measures of working memory, regardless of group, with males performing better than females. Conclusion In general, the data support a dimensional interpretation of working memory deficits experienced by the ADHD-CT and ADHD-IA subtypes, rather than an absolute difference between subtypes. Future studies should test the effects of processing speed and load on subtype performance and how those variables interact with gender in adults with ADHD. PMID:17173676

  20. Memory and motor skill components of the WAIS-III Digit Symbol-Coding subtest.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, D S; Ryan, J J

    2001-02-01

    We examined motor skill and memory components of the Digit Symbol-Coding subtest of the WAIS-III in a clinical sample. Research using previous versions of the WAIS in non-clinical samples has suggested that the age-related decline in Digit Symbol-Coding scores is more related to motor ability rather than to the memory requirements of the test. Our results extend this conclusion to a clinical sample, using the WAIS-II. Copy scores measure motor skill on the Digit Symbol-Coding subtest, and Incidental Learning scores (Free Recall and Pairing) measure memory. A large proportion of Digit Symbol-Coding variance was explained by Copy scores with Incidental Learning scores controlled, but Incidental Learning scores explained little additional variance when Copy scores were controlled. The same pattern was found when we used the Immediate Memory and General Memory Indexes from the Wechsler Memory Scale-II as independent measures of memory.

  1. Age Differences and Educational Attainment across the Life Span on Three Generations of Wechsler Adult Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, A. S.; Salthouse, T. A.; Scheiber, C.; Chen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of maintenance of ability across the life span have been documented on tests of knowledge ("Gc"), as have patterns of steady decline on measures of reasoning ("Gf/Gv"), working memory ("Gsm"), and speed ("Gs"). Whether these patterns occur at the same rate for adults from different educational…

  2. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-08-15

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  3. Mechanical memory

    DOEpatents

    Gilkey, Jeffrey C.; Duesterhaus, Michelle A.; Peter, Frank J.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Baker, Michael S.

    2006-05-16

    A first-in-first-out (FIFO) microelectromechanical memory apparatus (also termed a mechanical memory) is disclosed. The mechanical memory utilizes a plurality of memory cells, with each memory cell having a beam which can be bowed in either of two directions of curvature to indicate two different logic states for that memory cell. The memory cells can be arranged around a wheel which operates as a clocking actuator to serially shift data from one memory cell to the next. The mechanical memory can be formed using conventional surface micromachining, and can be formed as either a nonvolatile memory or as a volatile memory.

  4. Development of a brief measure of intimate partner violence experiences: the Composite Abuse Scale (Revised)—Short Form (CASR-SF)

    PubMed Central

    Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Wathen, C Nadine; Varcoe, Colleen; MacMillan, Harriet L; Scott-Storey, Kelly; Mantler, Tara; Hegarty, Kelsey; Perrin, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Approaches to measuring intimate partner violence (IPV) in populations often privilege physical violence, with poor assessment of other experiences. This has led to underestimating the scope and impact of IPV. The aim of this study was to develop a brief, reliable and valid self-report measure of IPV that adequately captures its complexity. Design Mixed-methods instrument development and psychometric testing to evolve a brief version of the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) using secondary data analysis and expert feedback. Setting Data from 5 Canadian IPV studies; feedback from international IPV experts. Participants 31 international IPV experts including academic researchers, service providers and policy actors rated CAS items via an online survey. Pooled data from 6278 adult Canadian women were used for scale development. Primary/secondary outcome measures Scale reliability and validity; robustness of subscales assessing different IPV experiences. Results A 15-item version of the CAS has been developed (Composite Abuse Scale (Revised)—Short Form, CASR-SF), including 12 items developed from the original CAS and 3 items suggested through expert consultation and the evolving literature. Items cover 3 abuse domains: physical, sexual and psychological, with questions asked to assess lifetime, recent and current exposure, and abuse frequency. Factor loadings for the final 3-factor solution ranged from 0.81 to 0.91 for the 6 psychological abuse items, 0.63 to 0.92 for the 4 physical abuse items, and 0.85 and 0.93 for the 2 sexual abuse items. Moderate correlations were observed between the CASR-SF and measures of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and coercive control. Internal consistency of the CASR-SF was 0.942. These reliability and validity estimates were comparable to those obtained for the original 30-item CAS. Conclusions The CASR-SF is brief self-report measure of IPV experiences among women that has demonstrated initial reliability and validity

  5. Investigation of the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): exploratory and higher order factor analyses.

    PubMed

    Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W

    2010-12-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and Interpretation Manual (D. Wechsler, 2008b). Results indicated that the WAIS-IV subtests were properly associated with the theoretically proposed first-order factors, but all but one factor-extraction criterion recommended extraction of one or two factors. Hierarchical exploratory analyses with the Schmid and Leiman procedure found that the second-order g factor accounted for large portions of total and common variance, whereas the four first-order factors accounted for small portions of total and common variance. It was concluded that the WAIS-IV provides strong measurement of general intelligence, and clinical interpretation should be primarily at that level.

  6. Latent Mean and Covariance Differences with Measurement Equivalence in College Students with Developmental Difficulties versus the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III/Wechsler Memory Scale-III Normative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Stephen C.; Gregg, Noel; Bandalos, Deborah; Davis, Mark; Coleman, Chris; Holdnack, James A.; Weiss, Larry G.

    2008-01-01

    Intelligence tests are usually part of the assessment battery for the diagnosis of adults with learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Professionals must ensure that inferences drawn from such test scores are equivalent across populations with and without disabilities. Examination of measurement equivalence…

  7. Aging and memory: corrections for age, sex and education for three widely used memory tests.

    PubMed

    Zappalà, G; Measso, G; Cavarzeran, F; Grigoletto, F; Lebowitz, B; Pirozzolo, F; Amaducci, L; Massari, D; Crook, T

    1995-04-01

    The associate learning subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale; Benton's Visual Retention test and a Controlled Word Association Task (FAS) were administered to a random sample of normal, healthy individuals whose age ranged from 20 to 79 years, recruited within the Italian peninsula. The neuropsychological examination took place on a mobile unit and the tests were given by the same team of neuropsychologists to reduce variability among examiners. The Research Project was known as Progetto Memoria. Corrections to the scores of these tests were calculated for age, sex, and education. These corrected values will allow clinicians to screen for memory impairment with greater precision among normally aging individuals, thus improving differential diagnosis between physiologic and pathologic deterioration of cognitive functions.

  8. The Comparability of the Test of Cognitive Skills with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised and the Stanford-Binet: Fourth Edition with Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Eric L.; Nagle, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Of 75 elementary and middle school gifted students, 44 percent of students' Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition (SBIV) Composite scores and 28 percent of students' Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) Full Scale IQ scores were over 10 points different from their Test of Cognitive Skills (TCS) Cognitive Skills…

  9. Implications for Educational Classification and Psychological Diagnoses Using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition with Canadian versus American Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Holmes, Alana; Silvestri, Robert; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2015-01-01

    Building on a recent work of Harrison, Armstrong, Harrison, Iverson and Lange which suggested that Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) scores might systematically overestimate the severity of intellectual impairments if Canadian norms are used, the present study examined differences between Canadian and American derived…

  10. Independent Examination of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): What Does the WAIS-IV Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Nicholas; Hulac, David M.; Kranzler, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Published empirical evidence for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not address some essential questions pertaining to the applied practice of intellectual assessment. In this study, the structure and cross-age invariance of the latest WAIS-IV revision were examined to (a) elucidate the nature of the constructs…

  11. Use of the Leiter International Performance Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised with Hearing-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulissi, Stephen Mark; Gibbins, Spencer

    1984-01-01

    Educational records of 40 hearing-impaired children (3-15 years old) given both the Leiter International Performance Scale and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Performance Scale, were reviewed. The Leiter had a standard deviation significantly greater than that reported in the examiner's manual. Care is suggested when…

  12. Long-Term Stability of Scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition in Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lander, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation explored the stability of scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV) over approximately a three-year period. Previous research has suggested that some children with Learning Disabilities (LD) do not demonstrate long-term stability of intelligence. Legally, school districts are no longer required…

  13. Memory Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... different parts. Some of them are important for memory. The hippocampus (say: hih-puh-KAM-pus) is one of the more important parts of the brain that processes memories. Old information and new information, or memories, are ...

  14. Memory function and hippocampal volumes in preterm born very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) young adults.

    PubMed

    Aanes, Synne; Bjuland, Knut Jørgen; Skranes, Jon; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2015-01-15

    The hippocampi are regarded as core structures for learning and memory functions, which is important for daily functioning and educational achievements. Previous studies have linked reduction in hippocampal volume to working memory problems in very low birth weight (VLBW; ≤ 1500 g) children and reduced general cognitive ability in VLBW adolescents. However, the relationship between memory function and hippocampal volume has not been described in VLBW subjects reaching adulthood. The aim of the study was to investigate memory function and hippocampal volume in VLBW young adults, both in relation to perinatal risk factors and compared to term born controls, and to look for structure-function relationships. Using Wechsler Memory Scale-III and MRI, we included 42 non-disabled VLBW and 61 control individuals at age 19-20 years, and related our findings to perinatal risk factors in the VLBW-group. The VLBW young adults achieved lower scores on several subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III, resulting in lower results in the immediate memory indices (visual and auditory), the working memory index, and in the visual delayed and general memory delayed indices, but not in the auditory delayed and auditory recognition delayed indices. The VLBW group had smaller absolute and relative hippocampal volumes than the controls. In the VLBW group inferior memory function, especially for the working memory index, was related to smaller hippocampal volume, and both correlated with lower birth weight and more days in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Our results may indicate a structural-functional relationship in the VLBW group due to aberrant hippocampal development and functioning after preterm birth.

  15. Individual differences in memory and executive function abilities during normal aging.

    PubMed

    Mejia, S; Pineda, D; Alvarez, L M; Ardila, A

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of some individual variables on memory and executive function test performance in normal aging individuals. Sixty subjects (21 males and 39 females), with a mean age of 69.66 (SD = 7.09) were selected. The following neuropsychological tests were selected. The following neuropsychological tests were administered: Associative Learning and Logical Memory from the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) (Wechsler, 1945), Associative Memory with Semantic Enhancement Test (AMSET) (Pineda, Galeano and Giraldo, 1991), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WSCT) (Heaton, 1981), and Verbal Fluency (phonologic and semantic). The effects of demographic (age, education, and sex) and some individual variables (academic history, working history, physical activity, and leisure activities) were measured. Age and education effects on test scores were observed, but no sex effect was found. Working history and leisure activities established significant differences in some test scores. A multiple regression analysis was performed. Not only demographic variables, but also individual variables were associated with memory, and albeit at a lesser extend, with executive function test scores. It was emphasized that not only demographic factors, but also individual variables have a significant effect on cognitive changes observed during normal aging.

  16. Measuring premorbid IQ in traumatic brain injury: an examination of the validity of the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR).

    PubMed

    Green, Robin E A; Melo, Brenda; Christensen, Bruce; Ngo, Le-Anh; Monette, Georges; Bradbury, Cheryl

    2008-02-01

    Estimation of premorbid IQ in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is clinically and scientifically valuable because it permits the quantification of the cognitive impact of injury. This is achieved by comparing performances on tests of current ability to estimates of premorbid IQ, thereby enabling current capacity to be interpreted in light of preinjury ability. However, the validity of premorbid IQ tests that are commonly used for TBI has been questioned. In the present study, we examined the psychometric properties of a recently developed test, the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), which has yet to be examined for TBI. The cognitive performance of a group of 24 patients recovering from TBI (with a mean Glasgow Coma Scale score in the severely impaired range) was measured at 2 and 5 months postinjury. On both occasions, patients were administered three tests that have been used to measure premorbid IQ (the WTAR and the Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition, WAIS-III) and three tests of current ability (Symbol Digit Modalities Test-Oral and Similarities and Block Design subtests of the WAIS-III). We found that performance significantly improved on tests of current cognitive ability, confirming recovery. In contrast, stable performance was observed on the WTAR from Assessment 1 (M = 34.25/50) to Assessment 2 (M = 34.21/50; r = .970, p < .001). Mean improvement across assessments was negligible (t = -0.086, p = .47; Cohen's d = -.005), and minimal individual participant change was observed (modal scaled score change = 0). WTAR scores were also highly similar to scores on a demographic estimate of premorbid IQ. Thus, converging evidence--high stability during recovery from TBI and similar IQ estimates to those of a demographic equation suggests that the WTAR is a valid measure of premorbid IQ for TBI. Where word pronunciation tests are indicated (i.e., in patients for whom English is spoken and read fluently

  17. Effect of warning on feigned malingering on the WAIS-R in college samples.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J L; Bellah, C G; Dodge, T; Kelley, W; Livingston, M M

    1998-08-01

    Research indicates claimant malingering of cognitive deficits to be common in personal injury litigation. Efforts have been made to either detect such tendencies or deter efforts at malingering. The present study examined whether warning people that feigned malingering efforts would be detected results in more valid profiles on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. Undergraduates (N = 48) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: feigned malingerers without warning, feigned malingerers with warning, and controls. Analysis indicated both feigned malingerer groups performed significantly worse than the control group; however, feigned malingerers with warning did not perform significantly better than those without warning. Unlike previous research using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, results did not support effectiveness of warning in reducing feigned malingering scores.

  18. Learning and memory in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Paul, Lynn K; Erickson, Roger L; Hartman, Jo Ann; Brown, Warren S

    2016-06-01

    Damage to long white matter pathways in the cerebral cortex is known to affect memory capacity. However, the specific contribution of interhemispheric connectivity in memory functioning is only beginning to become understood. The present study examined verbal and visual memory processing in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1997b). Thirty participants with AgCC (FSIQ >78) were compared against 30 healthy age and IQ matched controls on auditory/verbal (Logical Memory, Verbal Paired Associates) and visual (Visual Reproduction, Faces) memory subtests. Performance was worse in AgCC than controls on immediate and delayed verbal recall for rote word pairs and on delayed recall of faces, as well as on percent recall for these tasks. Immediate recall for thematic information from stories was also worse in AgCC, but groups did not differ on memory for details from narratives or on recall for thematic information following a time delay. Groups also did not differ on memory for abstract figures or immediate recall of faces. On all subtests, individuals with AgCC had greater frequency of clinically significant impairments than predicted by the normal distribution. Results suggest less efficient overall verbal and visual learning and memory with relative weaknesses processing verbal pairs and delayed recall for faces. These findings suggest that the corpus callosum facilitates more efficient learning and recall for both verbal and visual information, that individuals with AgCC may benefit from receiving verbal information within semantic context, and that known deficits in facial processing in individuals with AgCC may contribute to their impairments in recall for faces.

  19. A cluster analytic study of the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children-IV in children referred for psychoeducational assessment due to persistent academic difficulties.

    PubMed

    Hale, Corinne R; Casey, Joseph E; Ricciardi, Philip W R

    2014-02-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children-IV core subtest scores of 472 children were cluster analyzed to determine if reliable and valid subgroups would emerge. Three subgroups were identified. Clusters were reliable across different stages of the analysis as well as across algorithms and samples. With respect to external validity, the Globally Low cluster differed from the other two clusters on Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II Word Reading, Numerical Operations, and Spelling subtests, whereas the latter two clusters did not differ from one another. The clusters derived have been identified in studies using previous WISC editions. Clusters characterized by poor performance on subtests historically associated with the VIQ (i.e., VCI + WMI) and PIQ (i.e., POI + PSI) did not emerge, nor did a cluster characterized by low scores on PRI subtests. Picture Concepts represented the highest subtest score in every cluster, failing to vary in a predictable manner with the other PRI subtests.

  20. Orthogonal higher order structure and confirmatory factor analysis of the French Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III).

    PubMed

    Golay, Philippe; Lecerf, Thierry

    2011-03-01

    According to the most widely accepted Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence measurement, each subtest score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults (3rd ed.; WAIS-III) should reflect both 1st- and 2nd-order factors (i.e., 4 or 5 broad abilities and 1 general factor). To disentangle the contribution of each factor, we applied a Schmid-Leiman orthogonalization transformation (SLT) to the standardization data published in the French technical manual for the WAIS-III. Results showed that the general factor accounted for 63% of the common variance and that the specific contributions of the 1st-order factors were weak (4.7%-15.9%). We also addressed this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis. Results indicated that the bifactor model (with 1st-order group and general factors) better fit the data than did the traditional higher order structure. Models based on the CHC framework were also tested. Results indicated that a higher order CHC model showed a better fit than did the classical 4-factor model; however, the WAIS bifactor structure was the most adequate. We recommend that users do not discount the Full Scale IQ when interpreting the index scores of the WAIS-III because the general factor accounts for the bulk of the common variance in the French WAIS-III. The 4 index scores cannot be considered to reflect only broad ability because they include a strong contribution of the general factor.

  1. Memory Matters

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood vessel (which carries the blood) bursts. continue Brain Injuries Affect Memory At any age, an injury to ... with somebody's memory. Some people who recover from brain injuries need to learn old things all over again, ...

  2. Memory Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Brandy R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article highlights the dissociable human memory systems of episodic, semantic, and procedural memory in the context of neurologic illnesses known to adversely affect specific neuroanatomic structures relevant to each memory system. Recent Findings: Advances in functional neuroimaging and refinement of neuropsychological and bedside assessment tools continue to support a model of multiple memory systems that are distinct yet complementary and to support the potential for one system to be engaged as a compensatory strategy when a counterpart system fails. Summary: Episodic memory, the ability to recall personal episodes, is the subtype of memory most often perceived as dysfunctional by patients and informants. Medial temporal lobe structures, especially the hippocampal formation and associated cortical and subcortical structures, are most often associated with episodic memory loss. Episodic memory dysfunction may present acutely, as in concussion; transiently, as in transient global amnesia (TGA); subacutely, as in thiamine deficiency; or chronically, as in Alzheimer disease. Semantic memory refers to acquired knowledge about the world. Anterior and inferior temporal lobe structures are most often associated with semantic memory loss. The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) is the paradigmatic disorder resulting in predominant semantic memory dysfunction. Working memory, associated with frontal lobe function, is the active maintenance of information in the mind that can be potentially manipulated to complete goal-directed tasks. Procedural memory, the ability to learn skills that become automatic, involves the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and supplementary motor cortex. Parkinson disease and related disorders result in procedural memory deficits. Most memory concerns warrant bedside cognitive or neuropsychological evaluation and neuroimaging to assess for specific neuropathologies and guide treatment. PMID:26039844

  3. Memory protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    Accidental overwriting of files or of memory regions belonging to other programs, browsing of personal files by superusers, Trojan horses, and viruses are examples of breakdowns in workstations and personal computers that would be significantly reduced by memory protection. Memory protection is the capability of an operating system and supporting hardware to delimit segments of memory, to control whether segments can be read from or written into, and to confine accesses of a program to its segments alone. The absence of memory protection in many operating systems today is the result of a bias toward a narrow definition of performance as maximum instruction-execution rate. A broader definition, including the time to get the job done, makes clear that cost of recovery from memory interference errors reduces expected performance. The mechanisms of memory protection are well understood, powerful, efficient, and elegant. They add to performance in the broad sense without reducing instruction execution rate.

  4. Unilateral electroconvulsive therapy and cerebral dominance: effect of right- and left-sided electrode placement on verbal memory

    PubMed Central

    Fleminger, J. J.; Horne, D. J. de L.; Nott, P. N.

    1970-01-01

    Unilateral electroconvulsive therapy was given to 32 right-handed patients for relief of depression. Sixteen patients received electrode placement on the right side for the first treatment and on the left side for the second treatment. For the other 16 patients the order of sides was reversed. The word Associate Learning subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale was administered about 20 minutes after each treatment (Wechsler, 1945). Results supported the hypothesis that performance on this test would be better when the electrodes were applied over the right than when they were applied over the right than when they were applied over the left cerebral hemisphere. It is suggested that investigation along these lines could assist in establishing the cerebral dominance of individual patients. PMID:5431728

  5. Two- and three-factor solutions of the WAIS-III.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, A S; Lichtenberger, E O; McLean, J E

    2001-09-01

    The third edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale manual reports four-factor solutions for the WAIS-III, and subsequent research has validated four-factor solutions for a variety of samples. These four factors consistently correspond to the four Factor Indexes that are yielded by the WAIS-III. However, the WAIS-III still provides Verbal and Performance IQs, in addition to the Indexes, making it desirable to examine two-factor solutions as well. In addition, because the Wechsler literature includes much interpretation of three-factor solutions, these solutions were likewise examined. Principal factor analysis followed by Varimax and Oblimin rotations of two and three factors were performed on data for the total WAIS-III sample ages 16 to 89 years (N=2,450). The two-factor solutions were viewed as a construct validation of Wechsler's two separate IQs, although the Working Memory subtests tended to load higher on the Performance scale than on their intended scale (Verbal); three-factor solutions were interpreted within the context of Horn's expanded fluid-crystallized theory and research on working memory. Both the two- and three-factor Varimax-rotated solutions were related to similar factor analyses conducted previously for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III. Coefficients of congruence between like-named factors consistently exceeded .90, and usually .98, across different Wechsler batteries.

  6. Flashbulb Memories

    PubMed Central

    Hirst, William; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    We review and analyze the key theories, debates, findings, and omissions of the existing literature on flashbulb memories (FBMs), including what factors affect their formation, retention, and degree of confidence. We argue that FBMs do not require special memory mechanisms and are best characterized as involving both forgetting and mnemonic distortions, despite a high level of confidence. Factual memories for FBM-inducing events generally follow a similar pattern. Although no necessary and sufficient factors straightforwardly account for FBM retention, media attention particularly shapes memory for the events themselves. FBMs are best characterized in term of repetitions, even of mnemonic distortions, whereas event memories evidence corrections. The bearing of this literature on social identity and traumatic memories is also discussed. PMID:26997762

  7. Virtual memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Virtual memory was conceived as a way to automate overlaying of program segments. Modern computers have very large main memories, but need automatic solutions to the relocation and protection problems. Virtual memory serves this need as well and is thus useful in computers of all sizes. The history of the idea is traced, showing how it has become a widespread, little noticed feature of computers today.

  8. Skilled Memory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-06

    Morse code (Bryan & Harter , 1899). In every case, memory performance of the expert seems to violate the established limits of short- term memory. How is...of immediate memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental psychology, 1958, 10, 12-21. Bryan, W. L., & Harter N. psychological Review, 1899, 6, 345-375...16, 1980 Page 5 Civil Govt Non Govt Dr. Susan Chipman 1 Dr. John R. Anderson Learning and Development Department of Psychology National Institute of

  9. A combined analysis of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS), and Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R): Different perfectionist profiles in adolescent high school students.

    PubMed

    Sironic, Amanda; Reeve, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    To investigate differences and similarities in the dimensional constructs of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS; Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990), Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS; Flett, Hewitt, Boucher, Davidson, & Munro, 2000), and Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001), 938 high school students completed the 3 perfectionism questionnaires, as well as the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). Preliminary analyses revealed commonly observed factor structures for each perfectionism questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis of item responses from the questionnaires (combined) yielded a 4-factor solution (factors were labeled High Personal Standards, Concerns, Doubts and Discrepancy, Externally Motivated Perfectionism, and Organization and Order). A latent class analysis of individuals' mean ratings on each of the 4 factors yielded a 6-class solution. Three of the 6 classes represented perfectionist subgroups (labeled adaptive perfectionist, externally motivated maladaptive perfectionist, and mixed maladaptive perfectionist), and 3 represented nonperfectionist subgroups (labeled nonperfectionist A, nonperfectionist B, and order and organization nonperfectionist). Each of the 6 subgroups was meaningfully associated with the DASS. Findings showed that 3 out of 10 students were classified as maladaptive perfectionists, and maladaptive perfectionists were more prevalent than adaptive perfectionists. In sum, it is evident that combined ratings from the FMPS, CAPS, and APS-R offer a meaningful characterization of perfectionism.

  10. Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    An account of episodic memories is developed that focuses on the types of knowledge they represent, their properties, and the functions they might serve. It is proposed that episodic memories consist of "episodic elements," summary records of experience often in the form of visual images, associated to a "conceptual frame" that provides a…

  11. Collaging Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallach, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Even middle school students can have memories of their childhoods, of an earlier time. The art of Romare Bearden and the writings of Paul Auster can be used to introduce ideas about time and memory to students and inspire works of their own. Bearden is an exceptional role model for young artists, not only because of his astounding art, but also…

  12. Construct validity of the Bender-Gestalt II: comparison with Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III.

    PubMed

    Decker, Scott L; Allen, Ryan; Choca, James P

    2006-02-01

    This study investigated the relationships of visuomotor constructs as measured by the Bender-Gestalt II with the subtests of the WISC-III. A factor analysis included the standardized Copy and Recall scores of the Bender-Gestalt II and subtest scores of the WISC-III. The Copy score was predicted to load on measures of visual and spatial thinking and the Recall score on a short-term memory factor. The results of a principal components analysis suggest a four-factor solution with the Bender-Gestalt II Copy score loading on a visual and spatial thinking factor primarily with WISC-III Perceptual Organization subtests. The Recall score loaded on a visual and spatial thinking factor as well as a short-term memory factor with the WISC-III Digit Span subtest. The results suggest the Bender-Gestalt II Copy subtest shared commonality with the visual and spatial tasks given the similarity in the visuomotor demands of each test and was less influenced by processing speed or cultural knowledge than other tests on the visual and spatial thinking factor. Also, results suggest Bender-Gestalt II Recall measures elements of both visual and spatial thinking as well as aspects of short-term memory and memory retrieval. Clinical guidelines for co-administration and underlying processing demands are discussed.

  13. Paradoxical Facilitation of Working Memory after Basolateral Amygdala Damage

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Barak; Terburg, David; Thornton, Helena B.; Stein, Dan J.; van Honk, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Working memory is a vital cognitive capacity without which meaningful thinking and logical reasoning would be impossible. Working memory is integrally dependent upon prefrontal cortex and it has been suggested that voluntary control of working memory, enabling sustained emotion inhibition, was the crucial step in the evolution of modern humans. Consistent with this, recent fMRI studies suggest that working memory performance depends upon the capacity of prefrontal cortex to suppress bottom-up amygdala signals during emotional arousal. However fMRI is not well-suited to definitively resolve questions of causality. Moreover, the amygdala is neither structurally or functionally homogenous and fMRI studies do not resolve which amygdala sub-regions interfere with working memory. Lesion studies on the other hand can contribute unique causal evidence on aspects of brain-behaviour phenomena fMRI cannot “see”. To address these questions we investigated working memory performance in three adult female subjects with bilateral basolateral amygdala calcification consequent to Urbach-Wiethe Disease and ten healthy controls. Amygdala lesion extent and functionality was determined by structural and functional MRI methods. Working memory performance was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III digit span forward task. State and trait anxiety measures to control for possible emotional differences between patient and control groups were administered. Structural MRI showed bilateral selective basolateral amygdala damage in the three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects and fMRI confirmed intact functionality in the remaining amygdala sub-regions. The three Urbach-Wiethe Disease subjects showed significant working memory facilitation relative to controls. Control measures showed no group anxiety differences. Results are provisionally interpreted in terms of a ‘cooperation through competition’ networks model that may account for the observed paradoxical functional

  14. Memory conformity affects inaccurate memories more than accurate memories.

    PubMed

    Wright, Daniel B; Villalba, Daniella K

    2012-01-01

    After controlling for initial confidence, inaccurate memories were shown to be more easily distorted than accurate memories. In two experiments groups of participants viewed 50 stimuli and were then presented with these stimuli plus 50 fillers. During this test phase participants reported their confidence that each stimulus was originally shown. This was followed by computer-generated responses from a bogus participant. After being exposed to this response participants again rated the confidence of their memory. The computer-generated responses systematically distorted participants' responses. Memory distortion depended on initial memory confidence, with uncertain memories being more malleable than confident memories. This effect was moderated by whether the participant's memory was initially accurate or inaccurate. Inaccurate memories were more malleable than accurate memories. The data were consistent with a model describing two types of memory (i.e., recollective and non-recollective memories), which differ in how susceptible these memories are to memory distortion.

  15. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years) and older (64-85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  16. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  17. Different effects of anterior temporal lobectomy and selective amygdalohippocampectomy on verbal memory performance of patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Olivier; Dagenais, Emmanuelle; Bouthillier, Alain; Nguyen, Dang Khoa; Rouleau, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    The advantage of selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) over anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remains controversial. Because ATL is more extensive and involves the lateral and medial parts of the temporal lobe, it may be predicted that its impact on memory is more important than SAH, which involves resection of medial temporal structures only. However, several studies do not support this assumption. Possible explanations include task-specific factors such as the extent of semantic and syntactic information to be memorized and failure to control for main confounders. We compared preoperative vs. postoperative memory performance in 13 patients with SAH with 26 patients who underwent ATL matched on side of surgery, IQ, age at seizure onset, and age at surgery. Memory function was assessed using the Logical Memory subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scales - 3rd edition (LM-WMS), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), the Digit Span subtest from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed opposite effects of SAH and ATL on the two verbal learning memory tests. On the immediate recall trial of the LM-WMS, performance deteriorated after ATL in comparison with that after SAH. By contrast, on the delayed recognition trial of the RAVLT, performance deteriorated after SAH compared with that after ATL. However, additional analyses revealed that the latter finding was only observed when surgery was conducted in the right hemisphere. No interaction effects were found on other memory outcomes. The results are congruent with the view that tasks involving rich semantic content and syntactical structure are more sensitive to the effects of lateral temporal cortex resection as compared with mesiotemporal resection. The findings highlight the importance of task selection in the assessment of memory in patients undergoing TLE surgery.

  18. Seeing the forest for the trees: prevalence of low scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV).

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L

    2010-09-01

    Low scores across a battery of tests are common in healthy people and vary by demographic characteristics. The purpose of the present article was to present the base rates of low scores for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV; D. Wechsler, 2003). Participants included 2,200 children and adolescents between 6 and 16 years of age from the WISC-IV U.S. standardization sample. Measures considered in the base rates analyses included the 10 core subtests and the 4 index scores. Analyses were conducted for the entire standardization sample as well as stratified by different classifications of intelligence and different years of parental education. In the total sample, it is uncommon to have 6 or more subtest scores or 2 or more Index scores

  19. Investigating the structure and invariance of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, Fourth Edition in a sample of adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Ingram, Paul B; Seeley, Jennifer S; Newby, Kaylee D

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has questioned whether the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS) measure the same constructs for adults with intellectual disabilities as they do for the general population (MacLean et al., 2011). Using the special validity sample of the WAIS-IV (Wechsler, 2008b), the structure of the WAIS-IV was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis and tested for measurement invariance across a sample with intellectual disabilities and a control group matched in demographic characteristics. The instrument demonstrated strong factorial invariance when the standard subtests were used. When the standard and supplemental subtests were included in the model, the WAIS-IV four-factor structure provided a model of measurement for the Subtest Scores in the intellectual disability group, but the Perceptual Reasoning factor demonstrated differentiation into Fluid Reasoning and Visual-Spatial factors in the matched control group. In general, the research findings suggest that the four-factor structure of the WAIS-IV is invariant across the intellectual disability and matched control groups.

  20. High field structural MRI reveals specific episodic memory correlates in the subfields of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Travis, S G; Huang, Y; Fujiwara, E; Radomski, A; Olsen, F; Carter, R; Seres, P; Malykhin, N V

    2014-01-01

    The involvement of the hippocampus (HC) in episodic memory is well accepted; however it is unclear how each subfield within the HC contributes to memory function. Recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest differential involvement of hippocampal subfields and subregions in episodic memory. However, most structural MRI studies have examined the HC subfields within a single subregion of the HC and used specialised experimental memory paradigms. The purpose of the present study was to determine the association between volumes of HC subfields throughout the entire HC structure and performance on standard neuropsychological memory tests in a young, healthy population. We recruited 34 healthy participants under the age of 50. MRI data was acquired with a fast spin echo (FSE) sequence yielding a 0.52×0.68×1.0 mm(3) native resolution. The HC subfields - the cornu ammonis 1-3 (CA), dentate gyrus (DG), and subiculum (SUB) - were segmented manually within three hippocampal subregions using a previously defined protocol. Participants were administered the Wechsler Memory Scale, 4th edition (WMS-IV) to assess performance in episodic memory using verbal (Logical Memory, LM) and visual (Designs, DE; visual-spatial memory, DE-Spatial; visual-content memory, DE-Content) memory subtests. Working memory subtests (Spatial Addition, SA; and Symbol Span, SSP) were included as well. Working memory was not associated with any HC volumes. Volumes of the DG were correlated with verbal memory (LM) and visual-spatial memory (DE-Spatial). Posterior CA volumes correlated with both visual-spatial and visual-object memory (DE-Spatial, DE-Content). In general, anterior subregion volumes (HC head) correlated with verbal memory, while some anterior and many posterior HC subregion volumes (body and tail) correlated with visual memory scores (DE-Spatial, DE-Content). In addition, while verbal memory showed left-lateralized associations with HC volumes, visual memory was associated with

  1. Maternal working memory and reactive negativity in parenting.

    PubMed

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Sewell, Michael D; Petrill, Stephen A; Thompson, Lee A

    2010-01-01

    We examined the role of working memory in observed reactive parenting in a sample of 216 mothers and their same-sex twin children. The mothers and their children were observed completing two frustrating cooperation tasks during a visit to the home. The mothers worked one-on-one with each child separately. Mothers completed the Vocabulary (verbal), Block Design (spatial), and Digit Span (working memory) subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition. We used a within-family quasi-experimental design to estimate the magnitude of the association between sibling differences in observed challenging behaviors (i.e., opposition and distractibility) and the difference in the mother's negativity toward each child. As hypothesized, reactive negativity was evident only among mothers with poorer working memory. Verbal and spatial ability did not show this moderating effect. The effect was replicated in a post hoc secondary data analysis of a sample of adoptive mothers and sibling children. Results implicate working memory in the etiology of harsh reactive parenting.

  2. Memory loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003257.htm Memory loss To use the sharing features on this ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  3. BDNF Variants May Modulate Long-Term Visual Memory Performance in a Healthy Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Avgan, Nesli; Sutherland, Heidi G.; Spriggens, Lauren K.; Yu, Chieh; Ibrahim, Omar; Bellis, Claire; Haupt, Larisa M.; Shum, David H. K.; Griffiths, Lyn R.

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in numerous cognitive functions including learning and memory. BDNF plays an important role in synaptic plasticity in humans and rats with BDNF shown to be essential for the formation of long-term memories. We previously identified a significant association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) and long-term visual memory (p-value = 0.003) in a small cohort (n = 181) comprised of healthy individuals who had been phenotyped for various aspects of memory function. In this study, we have extended the cohort to 597 individuals and examined multiple genetic variants across both the BDNF and BDNF-AS genes for association with visual memory performance as assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale—Fourth Edition subtests Visual Reproduction I and II (VR I and II). VR I assesses immediate visual memory, whereas VR II assesses long-term visual memory. Genetic association analyses were performed for 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped on Illumina OmniExpress BeadChip arrays with the immediate and long-term visual memory phenotypes. While none of the BDNF and BDNF-AS variants were shown to be significant for immediate visual memory, we found 10 variants (including the Val66Met polymorphism (p-value = 0.006)) that were nominally associated, and three variants (two variants in BDNF and one variant in the BDNF-AS locus) that were significantly associated with long-term visual memory. Our data therefore suggests a potential role for BDNF, and its anti-sense transcript BDNF-AS, in long-term visual memory performance. PMID:28304362

  4. BDNF Variants May Modulate Long-Term Visual Memory Performance in a Healthy Cohort.

    PubMed

    Avgan, Nesli; Sutherland, Heidi G; Spriggens, Lauren K; Yu, Chieh; Ibrahim, Omar; Bellis, Claire; Haupt, Larisa M; Shum, David H K; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2017-03-17

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in numerous cognitive functions including learning and memory. BDNF plays an important role in synaptic plasticity in humans and rats with BDNF shown to be essential for the formation of long-term memories. We previously identified a significant association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) and long-term visual memory (p-value = 0.003) in a small cohort (n = 181) comprised of healthy individuals who had been phenotyped for various aspects of memory function. In this study, we have extended the cohort to 597 individuals and examined multiple genetic variants across both the BDNF and BDNF-AS genes for association with visual memory performance as assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition subtests Visual Reproduction I and II (VR I and II). VR I assesses immediate visual memory, whereas VR II assesses long-term visual memory. Genetic association analyses were performed for 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped on Illumina OmniExpress BeadChip arrays with the immediate and long-term visual memory phenotypes. While none of the BDNF and BDNF-AS variants were shown to be significant for immediate visual memory, we found 10 variants (including the Val66Met polymorphism (p-value = 0.006)) that were nominally associated, and three variants (two variants in BDNF and one variant in the BDNF-AS locus) that were significantly associated with long-term visual memory. Our data therefore suggests a potential role for BDNF, and its anti-sense transcript BDNF-AS, in long-term visual memory performance.

  5. "Why" or "How": The Effect of Concrete Versus Abstract Processing on Intrusive Memories Following Analogue Trauma.

    PubMed

    White, Rachel; Wild, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Emergency service workers, military personnel, and journalists working in conflict zones are regularly exposed to trauma as part of their jobs and suffer higher rates of posttraumatic stress compared with the general population. These individuals often know that they will be exposed to trauma and therefore have the opportunity to adopt potentially protective cognitive strategies. One cognitive strategy linked to better mood and recovery from upsetting events is concrete information processing. Conversely, abstract information processing is linked to the development of anxiety and depression. We trained 50 healthy participants to apply an abstract or concrete mode of processing to six traumatic film clips and to apply this mode of processing to a posttraining traumatic film. Intrusive memories of the films were recorded for 1week and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R; Weiss & Marmar, 1997) was completed at 1-week follow-up. As predicted, participants in the concrete condition reported significantly fewer intrusive memories in response to the films and had lower IES-R scores compared with those in the abstract condition. They also showed reduced emotional reactivity to the posttraining film. Self-reported proneness to intrusive memories in everyday life was significantly correlated with intrusive memories of the films, whereas trait rumination, trait dissociation, and sleep difficulties were not. Findings suggest that training individuals to adopt a concrete mode of information processing during analogue trauma may protect against the development of intrusive memories.

  6. The WAIS-R factors: usefulness and construct validity in neuropsychological assessments.

    PubMed

    Berger, S

    1998-01-01

    One-hundred and twelve patients were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), an abbreviated Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, and the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery. In order to replicate an earlier study (Sherman, Strauss, Spellacy, & Hunter, 1995), correlations were generated between the WAIS-R factor scores and neuropsychological and memory tests. The Verbal Comprehension factor (Factor 1) correlated with Speech Sounds Perception Test (SSPT), the Seashore Rhythm Test (SSRT), the Category Test, and memory indices. The Perceptual Organizational factor (Factor 2) correlated with the time, memory, and location scores of the Tactual Performance Test, the SSPT, SSRT, the Category Test, Trails A, Trails B, memory indices, and finger tapping. The Freedom From Distractibility factor (Factor 3) was correlated with the Category Test, the SSPT, the SSRT, Trails A, Trails B, immediate Logical Memory, and Visual Reproduction. Modest correlations suggest that the WAIS-R factors may be useful for understanding underlying cognitive performance and can be functional for generating hypotheses, but should not be utilized exclusively to make clinical inferences.

  7. Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Ivan; Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane C

    2016-04-01

    Fear memory is the best-studied form of memory. It was thoroughly investigated in the past 60 years mostly using two classical conditioning procedures (contextual fear conditioning and fear conditioning to a tone) and one instrumental procedure (one-trial inhibitory avoidance). Fear memory is formed in the hippocampus (contextual conditioning and inhibitory avoidance), in the basolateral amygdala (inhibitory avoidance), and in the lateral amygdala (conditioning to a tone). The circuitry involves, in addition, the pre- and infralimbic ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the central amygdala subnuclei, and the dentate gyrus. Fear learning models, notably inhibitory avoidance, have also been very useful for the analysis of the biochemical mechanisms of memory consolidation as a whole. These studies have capitalized on in vitro observations on long-term potentiation and other kinds of plasticity. The effect of a very large number of drugs on fear learning has been intensively studied, often as a prelude to the investigation of effects on anxiety. The extinction of fear learning involves to an extent a reversal of the flow of information in the mentioned structures and is used in the therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder and fear memories in general.

  8. Estimating premorbid general cognitive functioning for children and adolescents using the American Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition: demographic and current performance approaches.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Lange, Rael T; Brickell, Tracey A; Saklofske, Donald H

    2007-04-01

    Neuropsychologic evaluation requires current test performance be contrasted against a comparison standard to determine if change has occurred. An estimate of premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ) is often used as a comparison standard. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is a commonly used intelligence test. However, there is no method to estimate premorbid IQ for the WISC-IV, limiting the test's utility for neuropsychologic assessment. This study develops algorithms to estimate premorbid Full Scale IQ scores. Participants were the American WISC-IV standardization sample (N = 2172). The sample was randomly divided into 2 groups (development and validation). The development group was used to generate 12 algorithms. These algorithms were accurate predictors of WISC-IV Full Scale IQ scores in healthy children and adolescents. These algorithms hold promise as a method to predict premorbid IQ for patients with known or suspected neurologic dysfunction; however, clinical validation is required.

  9. Beyond the Floor Effect on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th Ed. (WISC-IV): Calculating IQ and Indexes of Subjects Presenting a Floored Pattern of Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, A.; Pezzuti, L.; Hulbert, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is now widely known that children with severe intellectual disability show a 'floor effect' on the Wechsler scales. This effect emerges because the practice of transforming raw scores into scaled scores eliminates any variability present in participants with low intellectual ability and because intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are…

  10. Working memory performance and exposure to pleasant and unpleasant ambient odor: is spatial span special?

    PubMed

    Martin, G N; Chaudry, A

    2014-11-01

    Sensory influences on working memory (WM) performance were investigated in 86 healthy adults. Participants were exposed to an ambient pleasant odor (lemon), unpleasant odor (machine oil) or no odor during completion of three WM tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale-III: the letter-number sequencing, spatial span and digit span tests. A significant main effect of odor was found for spatial span but no other task: scores were significantly lower in the unpleasant odor condition than the pleasant odor condition. Significant odor × sex interactions were found for the spatial span, digit span and letter-number sequencing tasks: men's spatial span scores were lower in the unpleasant odor condition than in the control condition, and women's scores were significantly better in the pleasant odor condition than in the unpleasant odor condition. The results suggest that ambient odor may impair or facilitate specific types of WM depending on the task, sex of the participant and affective characteristics of the odor.

  11. Muscle tension induced after learning enhances long-term narrative and visual memory in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Kristy A; Wulff, Laura L; Arentsen, Timothy J

    2014-03-01

    Arousing events are better remembered than mundane events. Indeed, manipulation of arousal, such as by muscle tension, can influence memory even when it occurs shortly after learning. Indeed, our founding study showed this approach can raise delayed memory performance in older adults to a level comparable to that of unaided young adults. Yet, systematic studies, especially those investigating different modalities or types of memory, have not been done. This study investigated the effects of a brief bout of isometric exercise via handgrip on narrative and visuospatial episodic memory in healthy elders. Forty-seven participants completed the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scales III (LM) and the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), followed alternately by no treatment and by moderately squeezing a sand-filled latex ball for 1-min (counterbalanced order and test forms). Isometric exercise significantly increased both positive and negative affect ratings. Retention was tested 2 weeks later. Delayed recall and recognition of LM was enhanced by arousal relative to control, as was recognition of the BVRT. The results extend past findings that muscle tension induced after learning modulates memory consolidation, extending findings in elders to suggest that a simple form of isometric exercise can have practical effects, such as aiding memory for stories and images.

  12. Fueling Memories

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jonathan D.; Pollizzi, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of the adaptive immune response is rapid and robust activation upon rechallenge. In the current issue of Immunity van der Windt et al. (2012) provide an important link between mitochondrial respiratory capacity and the development of CD8+ T cell memory. PMID:22284413

  13. Childhood Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Lourdes Diaz

    2001-01-01

    Describes how artwork can be a valuable catalyst for discussions in preservice education classes, allowing students to explore how their work as educators relates to their childhood memories and can be shaped by childhood experiences. Examines an art exhibition in which diverse artists depicted autobiographical text in their paintings. Discusses…

  14. Retracing Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David L.

    2005-01-01

    There are plenty of paths to poetry but few are as accessible as retracing ones own memories. When students are asked to write about something they remember, they are given them the gift of choosing from events that are important enough to recall. They remember because what happened was funny or scary or embarrassing or heartbreaking or silly.…

  15. Hollow memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    A hollow-core optical fibre filled with warm caesium atoms can temporarily store the properties of photons. Michael Sprague from the University of Oxford, UK, explains to Nature Photonics how this optical memory could be a useful building block for fibre-based quantum optics.

  16. White matter microstructure complements morphometry for predicting verbal memory in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Carrie R.; Leyden, Kelly M.; Hagler, Donald J.; Kucukboyaci, Nuri E.; Kemmotsu, Nobuko; Tecoma, Evelyn S.; Iragui, Vicente J.

    2014-01-01

    Verbal memory is the most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Although damage to the hippocampus and adjacent temporal lobe structures is known to contribute to memory impairment, little is known of the relative contributions of white versus gray matter structures, or whether microstructural versus morphometric measures of temporal lobe pathology are stronger predictors of impairment. We evaluate whether measures of temporal lobe pathology derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI; microstructural) versus structural MRI (sMRI; morphometric) contribute the most to memory performances in TLE, after controlling for hippocampal volume (HCV). DTI and sMRI were performed on 26 patients with TLE and 35 controls. Verbal memory was measured with the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale–III. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to examine unique contributions of DTI and sMRI measures to verbal memory with HCV entered in block 1. In patients, impaired recall was associated with increased mean diffusivity (MD) of multiple fiber tracts that project through the temporal lobes. In addition, increased MD of the left cortical and bilateral pericortical white matter was associated with impaired recall. After controlling for left HCV, only microstructural measures of white matter pathology contributed to verbal recall. The best predictive model included left HCV and MD of the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and pericortical white matter beneath the left entorhinal cortex. This model explained 60% of the variance in delayed recall and revealed that MD of the left ILF was the strongest predictor. These data reveal that white matter microstructure within the temporal lobe can be used in conjunction with left HCV to enhance the prediction of verbal memory impairment, and speak to the complementary nature of DTI and sMRI for understanding cognitive dysfunction in epilepsy and possibly other memory

  17. [Neural correlates of memory].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2013-01-01

    Memory can be divided into several types, although all of them involve three successive processes: encoding, storage, and retrieval. In terms of the duration of retention, neurologists classify memory into immediate, recent, and remote memories, whereas psychologists classify memory into short-term and long-term memories. In terms of the content, episodic, semantic, and procedural memories are considered to be different types of memory. Furthermore, researchers on memory have proposed relatively new concepts of memory, i.e., working memory and prospective memory. This article first provides explanations for these several types of memory. Next, neuropsychological characteristics of amnesic syndrome are briefly outlined. Finally, how several different types of memory are affected (or preserved) in patients with amnesic syndrome is described.

  18. Effect of Anserine/Carnosine Supplementation on Verbal Episodic Memory in Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    Hisatsune, Tatsuhiro; Kaneko, Jun; Kurashige, Hiroki; Cao, Yuan; Satsu, Hideo; Totsuka, Mamoru; Katakura, Yoshinori; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Our goal in this study was to determine whether or not anserine/carnosine supplementation (ACS) is capable of preserving cognitive function of elderly people. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, volunteers were randomly assigned to an ACS or placebo group at a 1:1 ratio. The ACS group took 1.0 g of an anserine/carnosine (3:1) formula daily for 3 months. Participants were evaluated by psychological tests before and after the 3-month supplementation period. Thirty-nine healthy elderly volunteers (60–78 years old) completed the follow-up tests. Among the tests, delayed recall verbal memory assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Logical Memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0128). Blood analysis revealed a decreased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including CCL-2 and IL-8, in the ACS group. MRI analysis using arterial spin labeling showed a suppression in the age-related decline in brain blood flow in the posterior cingulate cortex area in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0248). In another randomized controlled trial, delayed recall verbal memory showed significant preservation in the ACS group, compared to the placebo group (p = 0.0202). These results collectively suggest that ACS may preserve verbal episodic memory and brain perfusion in elderly people, although further study is needed. PMID:26682691

  19. Augmenting the core battery with supplementary subtests: Wechsler adult intelligence scale--IV measurement invariance across the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Stephen C; Saklofske, Donald H; Weiss, Lawrence G

    2011-06-01

    Examination of measurement invariance provides a powerful method to evaluate the hypothesis that the same set of psychological constructs underlies a set of test scores in different populations. If measurement invariance is observed, then the same psychological meaning can be ascribed to scores in both populations. In this study, the measurement model including core and supplementary subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth edition (WAIS-IV) were compared across the U.S. and Canadian standardization samples. Populations were compared on the 15 subtest version of the test in people aged 70 and younger and on the 12 subtest version in people aged 70 or older. Results indicated that a slightly modified version of the four-factor model reported in the WAIS-IV technical manual provided the best fit in both populations and in both age groups. The null hypothesis of measurement invariance across populations was not rejected, and the results provide direct evidence for the generalizability of convergent and discriminant validity studies with the WAIS-IV across populations. Small to medium differences in latent means favoring Canadians highlight the value of local norms.

  20. A Beginner's Guide to Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    1981-01-01

    This article is designed to equip the reader with the information needed to deal with questions of computer memory. Discussed are core memory; semiconductor memory; size of memory; expanding memory; charge-coupled device memories; magnetic bubble memory; and read-only and read-mostly memories. (KC)

  1. Memory Retrieval and Interference: Working Memory Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Copeland, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been suggested as a factor that is involved in long-term memory retrieval, particularly when that retrieval involves a need to overcome some sort of interference (Bunting, Conway, & Heitz, 2004; Cantor & Engle, 1993). Previous work has suggested that working memory is related to the acquisition of information during…

  2. Optical memory

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2013-07-02

    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  3. Order-memory and association-memory.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Two highly studied memory functions are memory for associations (items presented in pairs, such as SALT-PEPPER) and memory for order (a list of items whose order matters, such as a telephone number). Order- and association-memory are at the root of many forms of behaviour, from wayfinding, to language, to remembering people's names. Most researchers have investigated memory for order separately from memory for associations. Exceptions to this, associative-chaining models build an ordered list from associations between pairs of items, quite literally understanding association- and order-memory together. Alternatively, positional-coding models have been used to explain order-memory as a completely distinct function from association-memory. Both classes of model have found empirical support and both have faced serious challenges. I argue that models that combine both associative chaining and positional coding are needed. One such hybrid model, which relies on brain-activity rhythms, is promising, but remains to be tested rigourously. I consider two relatively understudied memory behaviours that demand a combination of order- and association-information: memory for the order of items within associations (is it William James or James William?) and judgments of relative order (who left the party earlier, Hermann or William?). Findings from these underexplored procedures are already difficult to reconcile with existing association-memory and order-memory models. Further work with such intermediate experimental paradigms has the potential to provide powerful findings to constrain and guide models into the future, with the aim of explaining a large range of memory functions, encompassing both association- and order-memory.

  4. Emotional memory persists longer than event memory.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-03-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition performance for event memory differs from that for emotional memory. Although event recognition deteriorated equally for episodes that were or were not emotionally salient, emotional recognition remained high for only stimuli related to emotional episodes. Recognition performance pertaining to delayed emotional memory is an accurate predictor of the context of past episodes.

  5. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) processing speed scores as measures of noncredible responding: The third generation of embedded performance validity indicators.

    PubMed

    Erdodi, Laszlo A; Abeare, Christopher A; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D; Tyson, Bradley T; Kucharski, Brittany; Zuccato, Brandon G; Roth, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that select processing speed measures can also serve as embedded validity indicators (EVIs). The present study examined the diagnostic utility of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests as EVIs in a mixed clinical sample of 205 patients medically referred for neuropsychological assessment (53.3% female, mean age = 45.1). Classification accuracy was calculated against 3 composite measures of performance validity as criterion variables. A PSI ≤79 produced a good combination of sensitivity (.23-.56) and specificity (.92-.98). A Coding scaled score ≤5 resulted in good specificity (.94-1.00), but low and variable sensitivity (.04-.28). A Symbol Search scaled score ≤6 achieved a good balance between sensitivity (.38-.64) and specificity (.88-.93). A Coding-Symbol Search scaled score difference ≥5 produced adequate specificity (.89-.91) but consistently low sensitivity (.08-.12). A 2-tailed cutoff on the Coding/Symbol Search raw score ratio (≤1.41 or ≥3.57) produced acceptable specificity (.87-.93), but low sensitivity (.15-.24). Failing ≥2 of these EVIs produced variable specificity (.81-.93) and sensitivity (.31-.59). Failing ≥3 of these EVIs stabilized specificity (.89-.94) at a small cost to sensitivity (.23-.53). Results suggest that processing speed based EVIs have the potential to provide a cost-effective and expedient method for evaluating the validity of cognitive data. Given their generally low and variable sensitivity, however, they should not be used in isolation to determine the credibility of a given response set. They also produced unacceptably high rates of false positive errors in patients with moderate-to-severe head injury. Combining evidence from multiple EVIs has the potential to improve overall classification accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Alternate forms of prose passages for the assessment of auditory-verbal memory.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Karen

    2005-08-01

    Logical memory (LM) is the most frequently administered subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale; however, the lack of alternate equivalent forms for this subtest may limit its clinical utility. Six new paragraphs modelled on LM stories were developed. Stories were matched on attributes such as number of words and readability. Passage attributes for the six stories were compared with those of standard LM stories (WMS-R and WMS-III versions) to examine story equivalence. The psychometric properties of new passages were also calculated to assess task difficulty and interrater reliability. Results from these analyses suggest a high degree of overlap between the attributes of the new stories and some interesting discrepancies between passage attributes of WMS-R and WMS-III LM stories. In addition, interrater reliability of new passages was found to be excellent (at least .97), and when combined into three sets of passage-pairs, these pairs were found have equivalent difficulty. To reduce the potential for practice effects by use of alternate forms, these new logical memory-style passages may facilitate repeat assessment of auditory-verbal memory.

  7. Associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults.

    PubMed

    Ganzer, Christine A; Insel, Kathleen C; Ritter, Leslie S

    2012-10-01

    Stroke remains a major cause of mortality and disability among older adults. Although early treatment after stroke is known to reduce both mortality and disability, the first step in seeking early treatment is dependent on the rapid recognition of the signs of stroke. Recall of the signs of stroke may be dependent on factors that exist before the stroke itself. Although it is known that both working memory and health literacy decline with advancing age, these factors have not been thoroughly examined with respect to recall of the signs of stroke. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults. Community dwelling older adults (≥65 years of age) were recruited from two senior centers. Fifty-six participants meeting inclusion criteria provided demographic and health information and were asked to read a public service brochure listing the five warning signs of stroke. Working memory was then assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition Working Memory Index. Health literacy was assessed by the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Participants' recall of the five warning signs of stroke was evaluated. The mean age was 80.4 years. The mean number of the signs of stroke recalled was 2.9 ± 1.33. Working memory and health literacy were positively correlated with recall of the signs of stroke (r = .38, p < 0.01; r = .44, p < 0.01). In a simultaneous regression, only health literacy remained a significant predictor of recall. There was no statistically significant interaction between working memory and health literacy. Findings from this study indicate that working memory and health literacy were associated with successful recall of the warning signs of stroke in older adults. Further studies are needed to determine if programs that include cognitive and literacy assessments could identify older adults who need

  8. Practice Effects on Story Memory and List Learning Tests in the Neuropsychological Assessment of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gavett, Brandon E; Gurnani, Ashita S; Saurman, Jessica L; Chapman, Kimberly R; Steinberg, Eric G; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine E; Mez, Jesse; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Two of the most commonly used methods to assess memory functioning in studies of cognitive aging and dementia are story memory and list learning tests. We hypothesized that the most commonly used story memory test, Wechsler's Logical Memory, would generate more pronounced practice effects than a well validated but less common list learning test, the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) List Learning test. Two hundred eighty-seven older adults, ages 51 to 100 at baseline, completed both tests as part of a larger neuropsychological test battery on an annual basis. Up to five years of recall scores from participants who were diagnosed as cognitively normal (n = 96) or with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 72) or Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 121) at their most recent visit were analyzed with linear mixed effects regression to examine the interaction between the type of test and the number of times exposed to the test. Other variables, including age at baseline, sex, education, race, time (years) since baseline, and clinical diagnosis were also entered as fixed effects predictor variables. The results indicated that both tests produced significant practice effects in controls and MCI participants; in contrast, participants with AD declined or remained stable. However, for the delayed-but not the immediate-recall condition, Logical Memory generated more pronounced practice effects than NAB List Learning (b = 0.16, p < .01 for controls). These differential practice effects were moderated by clinical diagnosis, such that controls and MCI participants-but not participants with AD-improved more on Logical Memory delayed recall than on delayed NAB List Learning delayed recall over five annual assessments. Because the Logical Memory test is ubiquitous in cognitive aging and neurodegenerative disease research, its tendency to produce marked practice effects-especially on the delayed recall condition-suggests a threat to its validity as a measure of new learning, an

  9. Practice Effects on Story Memory and List Learning Tests in the Neuropsychological Assessment of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gurnani, Ashita S.; Saurman, Jessica L.; Chapman, Kimberly R.; Steinberg, Eric G.; Martin, Brett; Chaisson, Christine E.; Mez, Jesse; Tripodis, Yorghos; Stern, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Two of the most commonly used methods to assess memory functioning in studies of cognitive aging and dementia are story memory and list learning tests. We hypothesized that the most commonly used story memory test, Wechsler's Logical Memory, would generate more pronounced practice effects than a well validated but less common list learning test, the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) List Learning test. Two hundred eighty-seven older adults, ages 51 to 100 at baseline, completed both tests as part of a larger neuropsychological test battery on an annual basis. Up to five years of recall scores from participants who were diagnosed as cognitively normal (n = 96) or with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 72) or Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 121) at their most recent visit were analyzed with linear mixed effects regression to examine the interaction between the type of test and the number of times exposed to the test. Other variables, including age at baseline, sex, education, race, time (years) since baseline, and clinical diagnosis were also entered as fixed effects predictor variables. The results indicated that both tests produced significant practice effects in controls and MCI participants; in contrast, participants with AD declined or remained stable. However, for the delayed—but not the immediate—recall condition, Logical Memory generated more pronounced practice effects than NAB List Learning (b = 0.16, p < .01 for controls). These differential practice effects were moderated by clinical diagnosis, such that controls and MCI participants—but not participants with AD—improved more on Logical Memory delayed recall than on delayed NAB List Learning delayed recall over five annual assessments. Because the Logical Memory test is ubiquitous in cognitive aging and neurodegenerative disease research, its tendency to produce marked practice effects—especially on the delayed recall condition—suggests a threat to its validity as a measure of new

  10. Memory Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Under contract to NASA during preparations for the space station, Memry Technologies Inc. investigated shape memory effect (SME). SME is a characteristic of certain metal alloys that can change shape in response to temperature variations. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Memry used its NASA-acquired expertise to produce a line of home and industrial safety products, and refined the technology in the mid-1990s. Among the new products they developed are three MemrySafe units which prevent scalding from faucets. Each system contains a small valve that reacts to temperature, not pressure. When the water reaches dangerous temperatures, the unit reduces the flow to a trickle; when the scalding temperature subsides, the unit restores normal flow. Other products are the FIRECHEK 2 and 4, heat-activated shutoff valves for industrial process lines, which sense excessive heat and cut off pneumatic pressure. The newest of these products is Memry's Demand Management Water Heater which shifts the electricity requirement from peak to off-peak demands, conserving energy and money.

  11. Increased Hippocampus–Medial Prefrontal Cortex Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Memory Function after Tai Chi Chuan Practice in Elder Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jing; Liu, Jiao; Egorova, Natalia; Chen, Xiangli; Sun, Sharon; Xue, Xiehua; Huang, Jia; Zheng, Guohua; Wang, Qin; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies provide evidence that aging is associated with the decline of memory function and alterations in the hippocampal (HPC) function, including functional connectivity to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In this study, we investigated if longitudinal (12-week) Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice can improve memory function and modulate HPC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC). Memory function measurements and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) were applied at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The results showed that (1) the memory quotient (MQ) measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese Revision significantly increased after Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice as compared with the control group, and no significant difference was observed in MQ between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups; (2) rs-FC between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC significantly increased in the Tai Chi Chuan group compared to the control group (also in the Baduanjin group compared to the control group, albeit at a lower threshold), and no significant difference between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups was observed; (3) rs-FC increases between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC were significantly associated with corresponding memory function improvement across all subjects. Similar results were observed using the left or right hippocampus as seeds. Our results suggest that both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin may be effective exercises to prevent memory decline during aging. PMID:26909038

  12. Increased Hippocampus-Medial Prefrontal Cortex Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Memory Function after Tai Chi Chuan Practice in Elder Adults.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jing; Liu, Jiao; Egorova, Natalia; Chen, Xiangli; Sun, Sharon; Xue, Xiehua; Huang, Jia; Zheng, Guohua; Wang, Qin; Chen, Lidian; Kong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies provide evidence that aging is associated with the decline of memory function and alterations in the hippocampal (HPC) function, including functional connectivity to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In this study, we investigated if longitudinal (12-week) Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice can improve memory function and modulate HPC resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC). Memory function measurements and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) were applied at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The results showed that (1) the memory quotient (MQ) measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Chinese Revision significantly increased after Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin practice as compared with the control group, and no significant difference was observed in MQ between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups; (2) rs-FC between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC significantly increased in the Tai Chi Chuan group compared to the control group (also in the Baduanjin group compared to the control group, albeit at a lower threshold), and no significant difference between the Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin groups was observed; (3) rs-FC increases between the bilateral hippocampus and mPFC were significantly associated with corresponding memory function improvement across all subjects. Similar results were observed using the left or right hippocampus as seeds. Our results suggest that both Tai Chi Chuan and Baduanjin may be effective exercises to prevent memory decline during aging.

  13. Measuring Working Memory With Digit Span and the Letter-Number Sequencing Subtests From the WAIS-IV: Too Low Manipulation Load and Risk for Underestimating Modality Effects.

    PubMed

    Egeland, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is one of the most frequently used tests among psychologists. In the fourth edition of the test (WAIS-IV), the subtests Digit Span and Letter-Number Sequencing are expanded for better measurement of working memory (WM). However, it is not clear whether the new extended tasks contribute sufficient complexity to be sensitive measures of manipulation WM, nor do we know to what degree WM capacity differs between the visual and the auditory modality because the WAIS-IV only tests the auditory modality. Performance by a mixed sample of 226 patients referred for neuropsychological examination on the Digit Span and Letter-Number Sequencing subtests from the WAIS-IV and on Spatial Span from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition was analyzed in two confirmatory factor analyses to investigate whether a unitary WM model or divisions based on modality or level/complexity best fit the data. The modality model showed the best fit when analyzing summed scores for each task as well as scores for the longest span. The clinician is advised to apply tests with higher manipulation load and to consider testing visual span as well before drawing conclusions about impaired WM from the WAIS-IV.

  14. WAIS-III processing speed index scores after TBI: the influence of working memory, psychomotor speed and perceptual processing.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Jan E; Clement, Pamelia F; Curtiss, Glenn

    2003-08-01

    This study investigates the extent to which working memory, motor speed and perceptual processing speed influence Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) Processing Speed Index (PSI) scores. Sixty-eight adult outpatients with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) of varying severity and complete data on all outcome measures were identified. Two cases with outlying values on one outcome measure were omitted from the final sample. Working memory was measured by the Working Memory Index score from the WAIS-III. Motor speed was measured as score on the Halstead-Reitan Finger Oscillation Test (finger tapping) and perceptual processing as score on the Trail Making Test--Part B. In hierarchical multiple regression analyses, working memory accounted for 10% of the variance in PSI scores, whereas motor speed only accounted for 3%. An independent measure of perceptual processing, Trail Making Test--B, accounted for 26% of the variance in WAIS-III PSI scores. The total variance accounted for by the three factors was 56%. Findings confirm that the WAIS-III PSI scores of individuals who have received a TBI reflect perceptual processing speed, with an additional component attributable to working memory. Motor speed made only a small contribution to WAIS-III PSI scores in the present sample.

  15. Memory beyond expression.

    PubMed

    Delorenzi, A; Maza, F J; Suárez, L D; Barreiro, K; Molina, V A; Stehberg, J

    2014-01-01

    The idea that memories are not invariable after the consolidation process has led to new perspectives about several mnemonic processes. In this framework, we review our studies on the modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation. We propose that during both memory consolidation and reconsolidation, neuromodulators can determine the probability of the memory trace to guide behavior, i.e. they can either increase or decrease its behavioral expressibility without affecting the potential of persistent memories to be activated and become labile. Our hypothesis is based on the findings that positive modulation of memory expression during reconsolidation occurs even if memories are behaviorally unexpressed. This review discusses the original approach taken in the studies of the crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata, which was then successfully applied to test the hypothesis in rodent fear memory. Data presented offers a new way of thinking about both weak trainings and experimental amnesia: memory retrieval can be dissociated from memory expression. Furthermore, the strategy presented here allowed us to show in human declarative memory that the periods in which long-term memory can be activated and become labile during reconsolidation exceeds the periods in which that memory is expressed, providing direct evidence that conscious access to memory is not needed for reconsolidation. Specific controls based on the constraints of reminders to trigger reconsolidation allow us to distinguish between obliterated and unexpressed but activated long-term memories after amnesic treatments, weak trainings and forgetting. In the hypothesis discussed, memory expressibility--the outcome of experience-dependent changes in the potential to behave--is considered as a flexible and modulable attribute of long-term memories. Expression seems to be just one of the possible fates of re-activated memories.

  16. Benzodiazepines and memory

    PubMed Central

    Roth, T.; Roehrs, T.; Wittig, R.; Zorick, F.

    1984-01-01

    1 Benzodiazepines possess anterograde amnesic properties, disrupting both short-term and long-term memory function. 2 The amount of amnesia is systematically related to dose effects and half-life differences among the benzodiazepines. 3 Memory deficits are found for episodic, semantic, and iconic memory function. 4 The deficits in long-term memory are probably the result of a disruption of consolidation of information in memory and not retrieval from memory. The disruption is produced by rapid sleep onset. 5 Thus the long-term amnesia is really a retrograde effect of sleep and not the anterograde effect of the drug. PMID:6151849

  17. Problems of neural memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikaelian, Andrei L.

    2005-01-01

    The paper considers the neural memory of the human brain from the viewpoint of visual information processing. A model that explains the principle of data recording and storing, memory relaxation, associative remembering and other memory functions is offered. The model of associative memory is based on the methods of holography, "wave biochemistry" and autowaves. Brief consideration is given to the associative properties of holographic neural structures and the memory architecture using running chemical reactions. The paper also outlines the problem of developing artificial memory elements for restoring the brain functions and possible interface devices for coupling neurons to electronic systems.

  18. Updating to the WAIS-III and WMS-III: considerations for research and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Tulsky, D S; Ledbetter, M F

    2000-09-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) are the most commonly used intelligence and memory scales in both clinical and neuropsychology. In 1997, updated versions of these instruments (the WAIS-III and WMS-III) were published. Because of the extensive use of the WAIS-R and WMS-R in the field and the body of accumulated research, there is naturally some reluctance by clinicians and researchers to update to the new versions. It is sometimes difficult for clinicians who test individuals on repeated occasions to switch over to the new versions of the scales because of the difficulty of interpreting score discrepancy between the 2 versions. Researchers, especially those conducting longitudinal research, have a similar difficulty in changing measurement devices because of the possible threat of internal validity. This article reviews the substantive revisions of the scales and outlines those issues that users should take into consideration when updating to the new versions.

  19. Searching for repressed memory.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the work of my research group on adults who report either repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) or who report no history of CSA. Adapting paradigms from cognitive psychology, we tested hypotheses inspired by both the "repressed memory" and "false memory" perspectives on recovered memories of CSA. We found some evidence for the false memory perspective, but no evidence for the repressed memory perspective. However, our work also suggests a third perspective on recovered memories that does not require the concept of repression. Some children do not understand their CSA when it occurs, and do not experience terror. Years later, they recall the experience, and understanding it as abuse, suffer intense distress. The memory failed to come to mind for years, partly because the child did not encode it as terrifying (i.e., traumatic), not because the person was unable to recall it.

  20. Emotional Memory Persists Longer than Event Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriyama, Kenichi; Soshi, Takahiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between amygdala-driven and hippocampus-driven activities is expected to explain why emotion enhances episodic memory recognition. However, overwhelming behavioral evidence regarding the emotion-induced enhancement of immediate and delayed episodic memory recognition has not been obtained in humans. We found that the recognition…

  1. Memory and the Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Martin A.

    2005-01-01

    The Self-Memory System (SMS) is a conceptual framework that emphasizes the interconnectedness of self and memory. Within this framework memory is viewed as the data base of the self. The self is conceived as a complex set of active goals and associated self-images, collectively referred to as the "working self." The relationship between the…

  2. Music, memory and emotion.

    PubMed

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-08-08

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

  3. The Contribution of Verbal Working Memory to Deaf Children's Oral and Written Production.

    PubMed

    Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8-13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition forward digit span task, and a reading span task. Oral and written stories were analyzed at the microstructural (i.e., clause) and macrostructural (discourse) levels. Hearing children's stories scored higher than deaf children's at both levels. Verbal working memory skills contributed to deaf children's oral and written production over and above age and reading comprehension skills. Verbal rehearsal skills (forward digit span) contributed significantly to deaf children's ability to organize oral and written stories at the microstructural level; they also accounted for unique variance at the macrostructural level in writing. Written story production appeared to involve greater verbal working memory resources than oral story production.

  4. The Contribution of Verbal Working Memory to Deaf Children’s Oral and Written Production

    PubMed Central

    Arfé, Barbara; Rossi, Cristina; Sicoli, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of verbal working memory to the oral and written story production of deaf children. Participants were 29 severely to profoundly deaf children aged 8–13 years and 29 hearing controls, matched for grade level. The children narrated a picture story orally and in writing and performed a reading comprehension test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition forward digit span task, and a reading span task. Oral and written stories were analyzed at the microstructural (i.e., clause) and macrostructural (discourse) levels. Hearing children’s stories scored higher than deaf children’s at both levels. Verbal working memory skills contributed to deaf children’s oral and written production over and above age and reading comprehension skills. Verbal rehearsal skills (forward digit span) contributed significantly to deaf children’s ability to organize oral and written stories at the microstructural level; they also accounted for unique variance at the macrostructural level in writing. Written story production appeared to involve greater verbal working memory resources than oral story production. PMID:25802319

  5. Same task, different strategies: how brain networks can be influenced by memory strategy.

    PubMed

    Sanfratello, Lori; Caprihan, Arvind; Stephen, Julia M; Knoefel, Janice E; Adair, John C; Qualls, Clifford; Lundy, S Laura; Aine, Cheryl J

    2014-10-01

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies demonstrated that different neural networks underlie different types of cognitive processing by engaging participants in particular tasks, such as verbal or spatial working memory (WM) tasks. However, we report here that even when a WM task is defined as verbal or spatial, different types of memory strategies may be used to complete it, with concomitant variations in brain activity. We developed a questionnaire to characterize the type of strategy used by individual members in a group of 28 young healthy participants (18-25 years) during a spatial WM task. A cluster analysis was performed to differentiate groups. We acquired functional magnetoencephalography and structural diffusion tensor imaging measures to characterize the brain networks associated with the use of different strategies. We found two types of strategies were used during the spatial WM task, a visuospatial and a verbal strategy, and brain regions and time courses of activation differed between participants who used each. Task performance also varied by type of strategy used with verbal strategies showing an advantage. In addition, performance on neuropsychological tests (indices from Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV, Rey Complex Figure Test) correlated significantly with fractional anisotropy measures for the visuospatial strategy group in white matter tracts implicated in other WM and attention studies. We conclude that differences in memory strategy can have a pronounced effect on the locations and timing of brain activation and that these differences need further investigation as a possible confounding factor for studies using group averaging as a means for summarizing results.

  6. Immunological memory is associative

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S.; Perelson, A.S.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to show that immunological memory is an associative and robust memory that belongs to the class of sparse distributed memories. This class of memories derives its associative and robust nature by sparsely sampling the input space and distributing the data among many independent agents. Other members of this class include a model of the cerebellar cortex and Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM). First we present a simplified account of the immune response and immunological memory. Next we present SDM, and then we show the correlations between immunological memory and SDM. Finally, we show how associative recall in the immune response can be both beneficial and detrimental to the fitness of an individual.

  7. Flexible Kernel Memory

    PubMed Central

    Nowicki, Dimitri; Siegelmann, Hava

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new model of associative memory, capable of both binary and continuous-valued inputs. Based on kernel theory, the memory model is on one hand a generalization of Radial Basis Function networks and, on the other, is in feature space, analogous to a Hopfield network. Attractors can be added, deleted, and updated on-line simply, without harming existing memories, and the number of attractors is independent of input dimension. Input vectors do not have to adhere to a fixed or bounded dimensionality; they can increase and decrease it without relearning previous memories. A memory consolidation process enables the network to generalize concepts and form clusters of input data, which outperforms many unsupervised clustering techniques; this process is demonstrated on handwritten digits from MNIST. Another process, reminiscent of memory reconsolidation is introduced, in which existing memories are refreshed and tuned with new inputs; this process is demonstrated on series of morphed faces. PMID:20552013

  8. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R. )

    1992-01-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  9. Memory access in shared virtual memory

    SciTech Connect

    Berrendorf, R.

    1992-09-01

    Shared virtual memory (SVM) is a virtual memory layer with a single address space on top of a distributed real memory on parallel computers. We examine the behavior and performance of SVM running a parallel program with medium-grained, loop-level parallelism on top of it. A simulator for the underlying parallel architecture can be used to examine the behavior of SVM more deeply. The influence of several parameters, such as the number of processors, page size, cold or warm start, and restricted page replication, is studied.

  10. Stochastic memory: memory enhancement due to noise.

    PubMed

    Stotland, Alexander; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    There are certain classes of resistors, capacitors, and inductors that, when subject to a periodic input of appropriate frequency, develop hysteresis loops in their characteristic response. Here we show that the hysteresis of such memory elements can also be induced by white noise of appropriate intensity even at very low frequencies of the external driving field. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of memory resistor realized by TiO(2) thin films sandwiched between metallic electrodes and discuss under which conditions this effect can be observed experimentally. We also discuss its implications on existing memory systems described in the literature and the role of colored noise.

  11. Stochastic memory: Memory enhancement due to noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotland, Alexander; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    There are certain classes of resistors, capacitors, and inductors that, when subject to a periodic input of appropriate frequency, develop hysteresis loops in their characteristic response. Here we show that the hysteresis of such memory elements can also be induced by white noise of appropriate intensity even at very low frequencies of the external driving field. We illustrate this phenomenon using a physical model of memory resistor realized by TiO2 thin films sandwiched between metallic electrodes and discuss under which conditions this effect can be observed experimentally. We also discuss its implications on existing memory systems described in the literature and the role of colored noise.

  12. Four-hour delayed memory recall for stories: Theoretical and clinical implications of measuring accelerated long-term forgetting.

    PubMed

    Ladowsky-Brooks, Ricki L

    2016-01-01

    It has been noted that clinical neuropsychological assessment is "blind" to certain abnormalities of consolidation that occur beyond standard 30-min delay intervals. For example, normal forgetting at 30-min delays has been followed by enhanced forgetting at longer delays in temporal-lobe epilepsy, termed accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF). To evaluate whether ALF could be identified in the neuropsychological assessment of a small sample of examinees with head injuries or other neurological diagnoses (n = 42), a 4-hr delayed recall condition was added to the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition. A small percentage of examinees (5/42 or 11%), despite exhibiting unimpaired story recall immediately and after 30-min delays, showed increased forgetting when compared with the average retention of stories (M = 0.83, SD = 0.17) after a 4-hr delay. Three of these 5 examinees also had impaired scores on 20-min delayed recall of the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) and would have been identified as having memory impairment without an extended, 4-hr delayed recall. In fact, the highest correlation among memory indexes was between 4-hr delayed recall of stories and delayed recall of the CVLT-II word list (r = .59, p < .0001), suggesting different consolidation rates for relational and nonrelational material.

  13. A neurodevelopmental approach to understanding memory processes among intellectually gifted youth with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Ashley M; Bell, Terece S; Houskamp, Beth M; O'Callaghan, Erin T

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual giftedness is associated with strong strategic verbal memory while attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with strategic verbal memory deficits; however, no previous research has explored how this contradiction manifests in gifted populations with diagnoses of ADHD. The purpose of this study was to explore strategic verbal memory processes among intellectually gifted youth with and without ADHD to provide clarification regarding this specific aspect of neuropsychological functioning within this population. One hundred twenty-five youth completed neuropsychological evaluations including the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition and California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C). Results revealed significant differences between groups, with intellectually gifted youth with ADHD achieving lower T scores on CVLT-C Trials 1 through 5 compared with intellectually gifted youth without ADHD, and intellectually gifted youth with ADHD achieving higher T scores than youth of average intellectual abilities with ADHD. Additionally, repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a main effect improvement among gifted youth with ADHD in short-delay recall when provided with organizational cues. Findings revealed new evidence about the role of twice exceptionality (specifically intellectual giftedness and ADHD) in strategic verbal memory and have important implications for parents, educators, psychologists and neuropsychologists, and other mental health professionals working with this population.

  14. Math anxiety differentially affects WAIS-IV arithmetic performance in undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Melissa T; Frakey, Laura L

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has shown that math anxiety can influence the math performance level; however, to date, it is unknown whether math anxiety influences performance on working memory tasks during neuropsychological evaluation. In the present study, 172 undergraduate students completed measures of math achievement (the Math Computation subtest from the Wide Range Achievement Test-IV), math anxiety (the Math Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised), general test anxiety (from the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College version), and the three Working Memory Index tasks from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Edition (WAIS-IV; Digit Span [DS], Arithmetic, Letter-Number Sequencing [LNS]). Results indicated that math anxiety predicted performance on Arithmetic, but not DS or LNS, above and beyond the effects of gender, general test anxiety, and math performance level. Our findings suggest that math anxiety can negatively influence WAIS-IV working memory subtest scores. Implications for clinical practice include the utilization of LNS in individuals expressing high math anxiety.

  15. Memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Yu, Li-Zhen; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the memory bistable mechanisms of organic memory devices, the structure of [top Au anode/9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (ADN) active layer/bottom Au cathode] was deposited using a thermal deposition system. The Au atoms migrated into the ADN active layer was observed from the secondary ion mass spectrometry. The density of 9.6×1016 cm-3 and energy level of 0.553 eV of the induced trapping centers caused by the migrated Au atoms in the ADN active layer were calculated. The induced trapping centers did not influence the carrier injection barrier height between Au and ADN active layer. Therefore, the memory bistable behaviors of the organic memory devices were attributed to the induced trapping centers. The energy diagram was established to verify the mechanisms.

  16. Association between early attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and current verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and adolescence. The participants included 401 patients with a clinical diagnosis of DSM-IV ADHD, 213 siblings, and 176 unaffected controls aged 8-17 years (mean age, 12.02 ± 2.24). All participants and their mothers were interviewed using the Chinese Kiddie Epidemiologic version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia to obtain information about ADHD symptoms and other psychiatric disorders retrospectively, at an earlier age first, then currently. The participants were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--3rd edition, including Digit Span, and the Spatial working memory task of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Multi-level regression models were used for data analysis. Although crude analyses revealed that inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms significantly predicted deficits in short-term memory, only inattention symptoms had significant effects (all p<0.001) in a model that included all three ADHD symptoms. After further controlling for comorbidity, age of assessment, treatment with methylphenidate, and Full-scale IQ, the severity of childhood inattention symptoms was still significantly associated with worse verbal (p = 0.008) and spatial (p ranging from 0.017 to 0.002) short-term memory at the current assessment. Therefore, our findings suggest that earlier inattention symptoms are associated with impaired verbal and visuo-spatial short-term memory at a later development stage. Impaired short-term memory in adolescence can be detected earlier by screening for the severity of inattention in childhood.

  17. The memory screening outreach program: findings from a large community-based sample of middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Crews, W David; Harrison, David W; Keiser, Alison M; Kunze, Culvette M

    2009-09-01

    Few papers have been published concerning the efficacy of community-based memory and dementia screening programs. This article examines the descriptive, clinical, and outcome characteristics of participants attending the Memory Screening Outreach Program (MSOP). The program provided free screenings of participants' short-term memory processes, neurocognitive complaints, and depressive and psychiatric symptomatology. Screening results were subsequently forwarded to participants and their designated healthcare providers (HCPs), and approximately 8 weeks later, participants who received follow-up recommendations were mailed a survey assessing screening-related outcomes. One thousand community-based persons aged 44 to 91 participated in the program at 16 screening sites. Results indicated that 44.3% of the MSOP participants received follow-up recommendations secondary to age-inappropriate memory impairments, depressive or psychiatric symptomatology, significant neurocognitive complaints, need for respite, or a combination thereof. Memory impairments and depressive or psychiatric symptomatology contributed, at least in part, to the recommendations of 24.0% and 30.9% of the sample, respectively. The prevalence of impaired Wechsler Memory Scale-III subtest performances ranged from 20.5% to 5.4%, and 28.7% of the participants exhibited elevated depression inventory scores. Of the participants who returned follow-up surveys, 49.5% visited their primary HCPs regarding their screening results; of the participants who had not followed up, 36.8% indicated plans to do so. Of the participants who followed up, contributing conditions and diagnoses were identified in 50.9%, medication or supplement recommendations or regimen changes were provided to 47.1%, and 17.0% were referred to healthcare specialists. Overall, the MSOP proved efficacious in identifying age-inappropriate memory impairments, notable depressive and psychiatric symptomatology, and significant neurocognitive

  18. Psychophysiology of prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages.

  19. Graduate Student WAIS-III Scoring Accuracy Is a Function of Full Scale IQ and Complexity of Examiner Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Richard, David C. S.

    2005-01-01

    Research on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) suggests that practicing clinical psychologists and graduate students make item-level scoring errors that affect IQ, index, and subtest scores. Studies have been limited in that Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and examiner administration,…

  20. Human learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M K; Hasher, L

    1987-01-01

    There have been several notable recent trends in the area of learning and memory. Problems with the episodic/semantic distinction have become more apparent, and new efforts have been made (exemplar models, distributed-memory models) to represent general knowledge without assuming a separate semantic system. Less emphasis is being placed on stable, prestored prototypes and more emphasis on a flexible memory system that provides the basis for a multitude of categories or frames of reference, derived on the spot as tasks demand. There is increasing acceptance of the idea that mental models are constructed and stored in memory in addition to, rather than instead of, memorial representations that are more closely tied to perceptions. This gives rise to questions concerning the conditions that permit inferences to be drawn and mental models to be constructed, and to questions concerning the similarities and differences in the nature of the representations in memory of perceived and generated information and in their functions. There has also been a swing from interest in deliberate strategies to interest in automatic, unconscious (even mechanistic!) processes, reflecting an appreciation that certain situations (e.g. recognition, frequency judgements, savings in indirect tasks, aspects of skill acquisition, etc) seem not to depend much on the products of strategic, effortful or reflective processes. There is a lively interest in relations among memory measures and attempts to characterize memory representations and/or processes that could give rise to dissociations among measures. Whether the pattern of results reflects the operation of functional subsystems of memory and, if so, what the "modules" are is far from clear. This issue has been fueled by work with amnesics and has contributed to a revival of interaction between researchers studying learning and memory in humans and those studying learning and memory in animals. Thus, neuroscience rivals computer science as a

  1. Conscious and Unconscious Memory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Squire, Larry R.; Dede, Adam J.O.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that memory is not a single mental faculty has a long and interesting history but became a topic of experimental and biologic inquiry only in the mid-20th century. It is now clear that there are different kinds of memory, which are supported by different brain systems. One major distinction can be drawn between working memory and long-term memory. Long-term memory can be separated into declarative (explicit) memory and a collection of nondeclarative (implicit) forms of memory that include habits, skills, priming, and simple forms of conditioning. These memory systems depend variously on the hippocampus and related structures in the parahippocampal gyrus, as well as on the amygdala, the striatum, cerebellum, and the neocortex. This work recounts the discovery of declarative and nondeclarative memory and then describes the nature of declarative memory, working memory, nondeclarative memory, and the relationship between memory systems. PMID:25731765

  2. A generalized memory test algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milner, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    A general algorithm for testing digital computer memory is presented. The test checks that (1) every bit can be cleared and set in each memory work, and (2) bits are not erroneously cleared and/or set elsewhere in memory at the same time. The algorithm can be applied to any size memory block and any size memory word. It is concise and efficient, requiring the very few cycles through memory. For example, a test of 16-bit-word-size memory requries only 384 cycles through memory. Approximately 15 seconds were required to test a 32K block of such memory, using a microcomputer having a cycle time of 133 nanoseconds.

  3. Regulatory T cell memory

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Michael D.; Way, Sing Sing; Abbas, Abul K.

    2016-01-01

    Memory for antigen is a defining feature of adaptive immunity. Antigen-specific lymphocyte populations show an increase in number and function after antigen encounter and more rapidly re-expand upon subsequent antigen exposure. Studies of immune memory have primarily focused on effector B cells and T cells with microbial specificity, using prime challenge models of infection. However, recent work has also identified persistently expanded populations of antigen-specific regulatory T cells that protect against aberrant immune responses. In this Review, we consider the parallels between memory effector T cells and memory regulatory T cells, along with the functional implications of regulatory memory in autoimmunity, antimicrobial host defence and maternal fetal tolerance. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence for regulatory T cell memory in humans and key unanswered questions in this rapidly evolving field. PMID:26688349

  4. Shape memory polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  5. Correlations between behavior, memory, sleep-wake and melatonin in Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Stella Donadon; Giacheti, Celia Maria; Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Campos, Leila Maria Guissoni; Pinato, Luciana

    2016-05-15

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a microdeletion on chromosomic region 7q11.23, presents with peculiar behavioral and neurocognitive phenotypes that are marked by apparently preserved social and communicative abilities, which contrasts with low overall cognitive and particularly visuospatial performance. In addition, parents often report complaints of sleep disorders and behavioral problems of unknown cause. Sleep is a biological phenomenon that is modulated by the plasma concentration of melatonin and with influence on behavioral aspects and memory. Thus, this study sought to investigate the behavior, memory and the presence of sleep disorders in WBS and to correlate these factors with each other and with the plasma melatonin content. We used the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 6-18 (CBCL), the digit subtest of the Wechsler scale for auditory memory, the visual sequential memory subtest of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) and the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC). Determination of urinary aMT6s, an indirect measure of plasma melatonin content, was held for 72h by ELISA, and the analysis of the circadian rhythm of this content was performed by the Cosinor method. The results of the CBCL showed that 87% of the WBS group presented with a clinical score on the overall competence and total behavioral problems. Furthermore, the behavioral problems that were most frequently reported by parents were anxiety and problems of thought. All individuals with WBS presented with impairments in auditory memory and 47% with impairments in visual sequential memory; 65% of the WBS group presented with an indicative of at least one sleep disorder, where respiratory, initiation and maintenance of sleep (DIMS) and hyperhidrosis were the most frequent disorders. The night time aMT6s levels were lower in individuals with WBS when compared with controls; 53% of the WBS group did not present with circadian rhythm

  6. Content Addressable Memory Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    The Content Addressable M1-emory Project consists of the development of several experimental software systems on an AMT Distributed Array Processor...searching (database) compiler algorithms memory management other systems software) Linear C is an unlovely hybrid language which imports the CAM...memory from AMT’s operating system for the DAP; how- ever, other than this limitation, the memory management routines work exactly as their C counterparts

  7. Sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanerva, Pentti

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models of the human brain and proposed neural-network computers are developed analytically. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical foundations, background material from computer science, the theory of idealized neurons, neurons as address decoders, and the search of memory for the best match. Consideration is given to sparse memory, distributed storage, the storage and retrieval of sequences, the construction of distributed memory, and the organization of an autonomous learning system.

  8. Memory Load and Dump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, Alan

    2009-07-01

    This proposal is a test and verification of the STIS dump of memory capability.Areas of Control Section {CS} to dump include: EDAC RAM, EEPROM, and CS PROM {with the CS in Operate}. Areas of MIE memory to dump include: MIE RAM and MIE PROM {with the MIE in Operate}. Note that the MIE memory must first be copied to CS buffer RAM as images, which are then dumped.Supports Activity STIS-02

  9. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    SciTech Connect

    Lymperis, S.

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  10. Memory Golf Clubs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Memory Corporation's investigation of shape memory effect, stemming from Marshall Space Flight Center contracts to study materials for the space station, has aided in the development of Zeemet, a proprietary, high-damping shape memory alloy for the golf industry. The Nicklaus Golf Company has created a new line of golf clubs using Zeemet inserts. Its superelastic and high damping attributes translate into more spin on the ball, greater control, and a solid feel.

  11. Networks of Memories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    2000). The construction of  autobiographical   memories in the self­memory system. Psychological Review, 107(2), 261­288. Dennis, S., & Chapman, A. (2010...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0131 Networks of Memories Simon Dennis, Mikhail Belkin Ohio State University March 2013 Final...Back (Rev. 8/98) 1 Networks of  Memories FA9550­09­1­0614 Professor Jay Myung PI: Simon Dennis Ohio State University February 15, 2013 2 Introduction

  12. Hypnosis, memory and amnesia.

    PubMed Central

    Kihlstrom, J F

    1997-01-01

    Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized. Posthypnotic amnesia is not an instance of state-dependent memory, but it does seem to involve a disruption of retrieval processes similar to the functional amnesias observed in clinical dissociative disorders. Implicit memory, however, is largely spared, and may underlie subjects' ability to recognize events that they cannot recall. Hypnotic hypermnesia refers to improved memory for past events. However, such improvements are illusory: hypermnesia suggestions increase false recollection, as well as subjects' confidence in both true and false memories. Hypnotic age regression can be subjectively compelling, but does not involve the ablation of adult memory, or the reinstatement of childlike modes of mental functioning, or the revivification of memory. The clinical and forensic use of hypermnesia and age regression to enhance memory in patients, victims and witnesses (e.g. recovered memory therapy for child sexual abuse) should be discouraged. PMID:9415925

  13. New gravitational memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasterski, Sabrina; Strominger, Andrew; Zhiboedov, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    The conventional gravitational memory effect is a relative displacement in the position of two detectors induced by radiative energy flux. We find a new type of gravitational `spin memory' in which beams on clockwise and counterclockwise orbits acquire a relative delay induced by radiative angular momentum flux. It has recently been shown that the displacement memory formula is a Fourier transform in time of Weinberg's soft graviton theorem. Here we see that the spin memory formula is a Fourier transform in time of the recently-discovered subleading soft graviton theorem.

  14. Sparse distributed memory overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raugh, Mike

    1990-01-01

    The Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) project is investigating the theory and applications of massively parallel computing architecture, called sparse distributed memory, that will support the storage and retrieval of sensory and motor patterns characteristic of autonomous systems. The immediate objectives of the project are centered in studies of the memory itself and in the use of the memory to solve problems in speech, vision, and robotics. Investigation of methods for encoding sensory data is an important part of the research. Examples of NASA missions that may benefit from this work are Space Station, planetary rovers, and solar exploration. Sparse distributed memory offers promising technology for systems that must learn through experience and be capable of adapting to new circumstances, and for operating any large complex system requiring automatic monitoring and control. Sparse distributed memory is a massively parallel architecture motivated by efforts to understand how the human brain works. Sparse distributed memory is an associative memory, able to retrieve information from cues that only partially match patterns stored in the memory. It is able to store long temporal sequences derived from the behavior of a complex system, such as progressive records of the system's sensory data and correlated records of the system's motor controls.

  15. The future of memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinella, M.

    In the not too distant future, the traditional memory and storage hierarchy of may be replaced by a single Storage Class Memory (SCM) device integrated on or near the logic processor. Traditional magnetic hard drives, NAND flash, DRAM, and higher level caches (L2 and up) will be replaced with a single high performance memory device. The Storage Class Memory paradigm will require high speed (< 100 ns read/write), excellent endurance (> 1012), nonvolatility (retention > 10 years), and low switching energies (< 10 pJ per switch). The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has recently evaluated several potential candidates SCM technologies, including Resistive (or Redox) RAM, Spin Torque Transfer RAM (STT-MRAM), and phase change memory (PCM). All of these devices show potential well beyond that of current flash technologies and research efforts are underway to improve the endurance, write speeds, and scalabilities to be on-par with DRAM. This progress has interesting implications for space electronics: each of these emerging device technologies show excellent resistance to the types of radiation typically found in space applications. Commercially developed, high density storage class memory-based systems may include a memory that is physically radiation hard, and suitable for space applications without major shielding efforts. This paper reviews the Storage Class Memory concept, emerging memory devices, and possible applicability to radiation hardened electronics for space.

  16. Correlations between Cognitive Impairments and Employment Status in Patients with Diffuse Axonal Injury

    PubMed Central

    HIROTA, Shin; INAJI, Motoki; NARIAI, Tadashi; HARA, Mutsuya; TAMAKI, Masashi; MAEHARA, Taketoshi; TOMITA, Hiroki; TONE, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) may initially present with prominent physical impairments, but their cognitive dysfunctions are more persistent and are attributable to later unemployment. In this study, we analyzed how the findings of early and delayed neuropsychological assessments correlated with employment outcome of patients with DAI. A total of 56 patients with DAI without motor or visual dysfunction were included in this study. The neuropsychological battery consisted of the Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale - Revised (WAIS-R), Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised (WMS-R), Trail Making Test (TMT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and Word Fluency Test (WFT). This battery of tests was administered twice in early stage after injury and in later stage. The results of all of the neuropsychological tests improved significantly (P <0.001) between the early and later assessments. All scores other than TMT part A and B improved to the normal range (Z-score ≥ 2). The patient characteristics (age, gender, initial Glasgow Coma Scale, and duration of posttraumatic amnesia) had no relationship to the outcome. The results of TMT part B, however, were significantly correlated with employment outcome in both the early and later assessments (P = 0.01, 0.04). Given that TMT evaluates visual attention, we surmise that a lack of attention may be the core symptom of the cognitive deficit and cause the re-employment failure in patients with DAI. TMT part B in both early and later assessments has the potential to accurately predict chronic functional outcome. PMID:28003570

  17. [Memory disorders in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Danion, J M; Peretti, S; Gras-Vincendon, A; Singer, L

    1992-01-01

    The current interest in memory disorders in schizophrenia results from the way perceptions of schizophrenia--whose organic origin is becoming increasingly evident--and memory--according to which there exist not one, but several memories--have developed. Memory disorders in the schizophrenic cannot be considered in isolation from knowledge accumulated in other areas of the cognitive and neuro-sciences; a more detailed understanding of these disorders requires a comparison of the different cognitive approaches, both with each other and with the neurobiological and clinical approaches, so that they can be integrated. Despite numerous methodological and conceptual difficulties, it now appears to have been established that the schizophrenic's memory deficit should be seen in the context of a wider cognitive deficit, that the memory tasks are not all disturbed and that the memory deficit cannot be identified with one specific form of memory. Thus, iconic formation, short-term memory in the traditionally accepted sense and implicit memory are hardly, if at all, affected; in contrast, the early processing of information, working memory and explicit memory are disturbed, probably to the extent that they require the implementation of strategies to organise the information to be memorized. Finally, in certain tasks, such as those evaluating latent inhibition or negative priming, schizophrenics perform better than normal subjects, suggesting that schizophrenics' cognitive deficit is localised. This profile of memory disorders is compatible with a dysfunction predominating in the frontal and temporo-hippocampal regions. Neuroleptics and anticholinergics have opposite effects on cognitive and mnesic performance, which is improved by the former and aggravated by the latter. The influence of clinical symptoms, positive or negative, institutionalisation of patients and chronic tardive dyskinesia is unclear. Among the theoretical proposals put forward to account for the observed

  18. Distributed multiport memory architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, W. H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A multiport memory architecture is diclosed for each of a plurality of task centers connected to a command and data bus. Each task center, includes a memory and a plurality of devices which request direct memory access as needed. The memory includes an internal data bus and an internal address bus to which the devices are connected, and direct timing and control logic comprised of a 10-state ring counter for allocating memory devices by enabling AND gates connected to the request signal lines of the devices. The outputs of AND gates connected to the same device are combined by OR gates to form an acknowledgement signal that enables the devices to address the memory during the next clock period. The length of the ring counter may be effectively lengthened to any multiple of ten to allow for more direct memory access intervals in one repetitive sequence. One device is a network bus adapter which serially shifts onto the command and data bus, a data word (8 bits plus control and parity bits) during the next ten direct memory access intervals after it has been granted access. The NBA is therefore allocated only one access in every ten intervals, which is a predetermined interval for all centers. The ring counters of all centers are periodically synchronized by DMA SYNC signal to assure that all NBAs be able to function in synchronism for data transfer from one center to another.

  19. [Learning and memory].

    PubMed

    Lombroso, Paul

    2004-09-01

    Memory is broadly divided into declarative and nondeclarative forms of memory. The hippocampus is required for the formation of declarative memories, while a number of other brain regions including the striatum, amygdala and nucleus accumbens are involved in the formation of nondeclarative memories. The formation of all memories require morphological changes of synapses: new ones must be formed or old ones strengthened. These changes are thought to reflect the underlying cellular basis for persistent memories. Considerable advances have occurred over the last decade in our understanding of the molecular bases of how these memories are formed. A key regulator of synaptic plasticity is a signaling pathway that includes the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase. As this pathway is required for normal memory and learning, it is not surprising that mutations in members of this pathway lead to disruptions in learning. Neurofibromatosis, Coffin-Lowry syndrome and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome are three examples of developmental disorders that have mutations in key components of the MAP kinase signaling pathway.

  20. Memory and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... or home environment and you’re not paying attention when your friend gives you directions to her new home, you will not be able to recall how to get there. Memory and Aging Memory Aids Keep “to do” lists Keep “to do” lists and ...

  1. Regret as Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ian M.; Feeney, Aidan

    2008-01-01

    We apply an autobiographical memory framework to the study of regret. Focusing on the distinction between regrets for specific and general events we argue that the temporal profile of regret, usually explained in terms of the action-inaction distinction, is predicted by models of autobiographical memory. In two studies involving participants in…

  2. Memories of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidwell, Amy M.; Walls, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore college students' autobiographical memories of physical education (PE). Questionnaires were distributed to students enrolled in undergraduate Introduction to PE and Introduction to Communications courses. The 261 participants wrote about memories of PE. These students recalled events from Grades…

  3. Predicting Reasoning from Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the…

  4. Experimental Optoelectronic Associative Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1992-01-01

    Optoelectronic associative memory responds to input image by displaying one of M remembered images. Which image to display determined by optoelectronic analog computation of resemblance between input image and each remembered image. Does not rely on precomputation and storage of outer-product synapse matrix. Size of memory needed to store and process images reduced.

  5. Memorial symptom assessment scale.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor T; Hwang, Shirley S; Thaler, Howard T; Kasimis, Basil S; Portenoy, Russell K

    2004-04-01

    Patients with advanced illnesses often have multiple symptoms. As interest in palliative care and interventions for symptom control increase, the ability to assess multiple symptoms has become more important. A number of instruments have been developed to meet this need in cancer patients. This article reviews the development and applications of a multidimensional instrument, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has 32 symptoms and three dimensions of frequency, severity, and distress. Shorter versions - The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (32 symptoms with one dimension) and the Condensed Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (14 symptoms with one dimension), and a version for children aged 7-12 years, have also been developed. A distinctive feature is the summary subscales for physical distress, psychological distress, and The Global Distress Index. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has proven useful in description of symptom epidemiology, the role of symptoms in pain, fatigue, and spirituality; as a predictor of survival, and in proxy assessments of pain. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has been used in studies of cancer and AIDS patients, and patients with advanced medical illnesses. Possible future roles of instruments such as the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale include use in clinical trials, for pharmacoeconomic analyses, definition of symptom clusters and symptom burden, the development of symptom outcome measures, symptom monitoring, and improving care for patients. Continued research is needed for the versions of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale and other symptom instruments in different populations and applications.

  6. Visual Memory at Birth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Alan; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Explored new-born babys' capacity for forming visual memories. Used an habituation procedure that accommodated individual differences by allowing each infant to control the time course of habituation trials. Found significant novelty preference, providing strong evidence that recognition memory can be reliably demonstrated from birth. (Author/JAC)

  7. Human Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  8. Human Memory: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  9. Memory Efficient Ranking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Alistair; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes an approximate document ranking process that uses a compact array of in-memory, low-precision approximations for document length. Combined with another rule for reducing the memory required by partial similarity accumulators, the approximation heuristic allows the ranking of large document collections using less than one byte of memory…

  10. Memory technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The current status of semiconductor, magnetic, and optical memory technologies is described. Projections based on these research activities planned for the shot term are presented. Conceptual designs of specific memory buffer pplications employing bipola, CMOS, GaAs, and Magnetic Bubble devices are discussed.

  11. An Exceptional Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Ian M. L.

    1977-01-01

    An account is given of the exceptional memory of the late Professor A. C. Aitken who was also a distinguished mathematician and mental calculator. Compared with Shereshevskii, another man with exceptional memory, he shows the scholar's reliance on conceptual mapping rather than the mnemonist's reliance on perceptual chaining. (Editor)

  12. Memory Metals (Marchon Eyewear)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Another commercial application of memory metal technology is found in a "smart" eyeglass frame that remembers its shape and its wearer's fit. A patented "memory encoding process" makes this possible. Heat is not required to return the glasses to shape. A large commercial market is anticipated.

  13. A Space for Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article I examine the possibilities of reparation in an era of privatisation and de-industrialisation. I examine the effect of a recent project Sunshine Memory Space, a space, designed to evoke memories of a de-industrialised urban Melbourne suburb Sunshine. This project offered the opportunity for the effects of industrial change to be…

  14. Animal models of source memory.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-01-01

    Source memory is the aspect of episodic memory that encodes the origin (i.e., source) of information acquired in the past. Episodic memory (i.e., our memories for unique personal past events) typically involves source memory because those memories focus on the origin of previous events. Source memory is at work when, for example, someone tells a favorite joke to a person while avoiding retelling the joke to the friend who originally shared the joke. Importantly, source memory permits differentiation of one episodic memory from another because source memory includes features that were present when the different memories were formed. This article reviews recent efforts to develop an animal model of source memory using rats. Experiments are reviewed which suggest that source memory is dissociated from other forms of memory. The review highlights strengths and weaknesses of a number of animal models of episodic memory. Animal models of source memory may be used to probe the biological bases of memory. Moreover, these models can be combined with genetic models of Alzheimer's disease to evaluate pharmacotherapies that ultimately have the potential to improve memory.

  15. Is random access memory random?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Most software is contructed on the assumption that the programs and data are stored in random access memory (RAM). Physical limitations on the relative speeds of processor and memory elements lead to a variety of memory organizations that match processor addressing rate with memory service rate. These include interleaved and cached memory. A very high fraction of a processor's address requests can be satified from the cache without reference to the main memory. The cache requests information from main memory in blocks that can be transferred at the full memory speed. Programmers who organize algorithms for locality can realize the highest performance from these computers.

  16. Predicting reasoning from memory.

    PubMed

    Heit, Evan; Hayes, Brett K

    2011-02-01

    In an effort to assess the relations between reasoning and memory, in 8 experiments, the authors examined how well responses on an inductive reasoning task are predicted from responses on a recognition memory task for the same picture stimuli. Across several experimental manipulations, such as varying study time, presentation frequency, and the presence of stimuli from other categories, there was a high correlation between reasoning and memory responses (average r = .87), and these manipulations showed similar effects on the 2 tasks. The results point to common mechanisms underlying inductive reasoning and recognition memory abilities. A mathematical model, GEN-EX (generalization from examples), derived from exemplar models of categorization, is presented, which predicts both reasoning and memory responses from pairwise similarities among the stimuli, allowing for additional influences of subtyping and deterministic responding.

  17. Computer memory management system

    DOEpatents

    Kirk, III, Whitson John

    2002-01-01

    A computer memory management system utilizing a memory structure system of "intelligent" pointers in which information related to the use status of the memory structure is designed into the pointer. Through this pointer system, The present invention provides essentially automatic memory management (often referred to as garbage collection) by allowing relationships between objects to have definite memory management behavior by use of coding protocol which describes when relationships should be maintained and when the relationships should be broken. In one aspect, the present invention system allows automatic breaking of strong links to facilitate object garbage collection, coupled with relationship adjectives which define deletion of associated objects. In another aspect, The present invention includes simple-to-use infinite undo/redo functionality in that it has the capability, through a simple function call, to undo all of the changes made to a data model since the previous `valid state` was noted.

  18. Memory B cells.

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Kometani, Kohei; Ise, Wataru

    2015-03-01

    The immune system can remember a previously experienced pathogen and can evoke an enhanced response to reinfection that depends on memory lymphocyte populations. Recent advances in tracking antigen-experienced memory B cells have revealed the existence of distinct classes of cells that have considerable functional differences. Some of these differences seem to be determined by the stimulation history during memory cell formation. To induce rapid recall antibody responses, the contributions of other types of cells, such as memory T follicular helper cells, have also now begun to be appreciated. In this Review, we discuss these and other recent advances in our understanding of memory B cells, focusing on the underlying mechanisms that are required for rapid and effective recall antibody responses.

  19. Serotonin transporter and memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo; Perez-Garcia, Georgina; Ponce-Lopez, Teresa; Tellez, Ruth; Castillo, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) has been associated to diverse functions and diseases, though seldom to memory. Therefore, we made an attempt to summarize and discuss the available publications implicating the involvement of the SERT in memory, amnesia and anti-amnesic effects. Evidence indicates that Alzheimer's disease and drugs of abuse like d-methamphetamine (METH) and (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") have been associated to decrements in the SERT expression and memory deficits. Several reports have indicated that memory formation and amnesia affected the SERT expression. The SERT expression seems to be a reliable neural marker related to memory mechanisms, its alterations and potential treatment. The pharmacological, neural and molecular mechanisms associated to these changes are of great importance for investigation.

  20. Cosmological memory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert M.

    2016-08-01

    The "memory effect" is the permanent change in the relative separation of test particles resulting from the passage of gravitational radiation. We investigate the memory effect for a general, spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology by considering the radiation associated with emission events involving particle-like sources. We find that if the resulting perturbation is decomposed into scalar, vector, and tensor parts, only the tensor part contributes to memory. Furthermore, the tensor contribution to memory depends only on the cosmological scale factor at the source and observation events, not on the detailed expansion history of the universe. In particular, for sources at the same luminosity distance, the memory effect in a spatially flat FLRW spacetime is enhanced over the Minkowski case by a factor of (1 +z ).

  1. Imaging autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) defines the memory systems that encode, consolidate, and retrieve personal events and facts, AM is strongly related to self-perception and self representation. We review here the neural correlates of AM retrieval. AM retrieval encompasses a large neural network including the prefrontal, temporal, and parietal cortex, and limbic structures. All these regions subserve the cognitive processes (episodic remembering, cognitive control, self-processing, and scene construction) at play during memory retrieval. We emphasize the specific role of medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus in self-processing during autobiographical memory retrieval. Overall, these data call for further studies in psychiatric patients, to investigate the neural underpinnings of autobiographical memory and self-representation in mental disorders.

  2. Innate Memory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Stephen C.; Lee, You Jeong; Hogquist, Kristin A.

    2015-01-01

    Memory T cells are usually considered to be a feature of a successful immune response against a foreign antigen, and such cells can mediate potent immunity. However, in mice, alternative pathways have been described, through which naïve T cells can acquire the characteristics and functions of memory T cells without encountering specific foreign antigen or the typical signals required for conventional T cell differentiation. Such cells reflect a response to the internal rather the external environment, and hence such cells are called innate memory T cells. In this review, we describe how innate memory subsets were identified, the signals that induce their generation and their functional properties and potential role in the normal immune response. The existence of innate memory T cells in mice raises questions about whether parallel populations exist in humans, and we discuss the evidence for such populations during human T cell development and differentiation. PMID:25727290

  3. Alterations of lateral temporal cortical gray matter and facial memory as vulnerability indicators for schizophrenia: an MRI study in youth at familial high-risk for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brent, Benjamin K.; Rosso, Isabelle M.; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Holt, Daphne J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Makris, Nikos; Tsuang, Ming T.; Seidman, Larry J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Structural alterations of the lateral temporal cortex (LTC) in association with memory impairments have been reported in schizophrenia. This study investigated whether alterations of LTC structure were linked with impaired facial and/or verbal memory in young first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia and, thus, may be indicators of vulnerability to the illness. Methods Subjects included 27 non-psychotic, first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients, and 48 healthy controls, between the ages of 13 and 28. Participants underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5 Tesla. The LTC was parcellated into superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, and temporal pole. Total cerebral and LTC volumes were measured using semi-automated morphometry. The Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition and the Children’s Memory Scale – Third Edition assessed facial and verbal memory. General linear models tested for associations among LTC subregion volumes, familial risk and memory. Results Compared with controls, relatives had significantly smaller bilateral middle temporal gyri. Moreover, right middle temporal gyral volume showed a significant positive association with delayed facial memory in relatives. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that smaller middle temporal gyri are related to the genetic liability to schizophrenia and may be linked with reduced facial memory in persons at genetic risk for the illness. The findings add to the growing evidence that children at risk for schizophrenia on the basis of positive family history have cortical and subcortical structural brain abnormalities well before psychotic illness occurs. PMID:26621001

  4. Confronting patients about insufficient effort: the impact on subsequent symptom validity and memory performance.

    PubMed

    Suchy, Yana; Chelune, Gordon; Franchow, Emilie I; Thorgusen, Sommer R

    2012-01-01

    Symptom validity tests (SVTs) are commonly used to assess effort in neuropsychological evaluations. However, no empirical research or official guidelines exist about how clinicians should proceed if a patient produces a non-valid SVT result. The purpose of this study was to examine whether confronting patients immediately after scoring in a non-valid range on a SVT would have an impact on subsequent symptom validity and memory tests performance. Archival patient data for 507 adults with clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS) (ages 18-76) were examined. All patients completed the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT), the Wechsler Memory Scale, 3rd edition (WMS III), and the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI II). Although the majority (89%) of patients produced valid VSVT scores (the Valid group), 56 patients produced non-valid VSVT scores. Due to a change in clinical procedure, 28 of the 56 were confronted regarding their non-valid VSVT performances and were asked to complete the test a second time (the CONF group), while the remaining 28 proceeded with testing as usual following a non-valid score (the N-CONF group). Results showed that 68% of the CONF group produced valid VSVT scores on re-administration, as well as memory performances that were comparable to those of the Valid group. In contrast the N-CONF group produced memory scores that were significantly below the Valid group. This is the first study to provide empirical support for the effectiveness of intervention when patients exhibit inadequate effort on SVTs in clinical, non-forensic settings.

  5. Aging Memories: Differential Decay of Episodic Memory Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talamini, Lucia M.; Gorree, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a…

  6. Single-Item Memory, Associative Memory, and the Human Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Larry R.; Gold, Jeffrey J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.

    2006-01-01

    We tested recognition memory for items and associations in memory-impaired patients with bilateral lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampal region. In Experiment 1 (Combined memory test), participants studied words and then took a memory test in which studied words, new words, studied word pairs, and recombined word pairs were presented in…

  7. Memory, language, and ageing.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, D M; Mackay, D G

    1997-01-01

    This overview provides both theoretical and empirical reasons for emphasizing practice and familiar skills as a practical strategy for enhancing cognitive functioning in old age. Our review of empirical research on age-related changes in memory and language reveals a consistent pattern of spared and impaired abilities in normal old age. Relatively preserved in old age is memory performance involving highly practised skills and familiar information, including factual, semantic and autobiographical information. Relatively impaired in old age is memory performance that requires the formation of new connections, for example, recall of recent autobiographical experiences, new facts or the source of newly acquired facts. This pattern of impaired new learning versus preserved old learning cuts across distinctions between semantic memory, episodic memory, explicit memory and perhaps also implicit memory. However, familiar verbal information is not completely preserved when accessed on the output side rather than the input side: aspects of language production, namely word finding and spelling, exhibit significant age-related declines. This emerging pattern of preserved and impaired abilities presents a fundamental challenge for theories of cognitive ageing, which must explain why some aspects of language and memory are more vulnerable to the effects of ageing than others. Information-universal theories, involving mechanisms such as general slowing that are independent of the type or structure of the information being processed, require additional mechanisms to account for this pattern of cognitive aging. Information-specific theories, where the type or structure of the postulated memory units can influence the effects of cognitive ageing, are able to account for this emerging pattern, but in some cases require further development to account for comprehensive cognitive changes such as general slowing. PMID:9460069

  8. Sleep and memory.

    PubMed

    Roth, T; Roehrs, T; Zwyghuizen-Doorenbos, A; Stepanski, E; Wittig, R

    1988-01-01

    Generally sleep is considered a time of amnesia. It is not uncommon for an individual to experience 8 h of sleep and have no memory for events during that time. Similarly, a substantial proportion of the population has no memory for dreams that occurred during the night, despite the fact that the literature on awakening during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep clearly shows that individuals normally have four to six "dream experiences" a night. Research on this issue seems to indicate that the lack of memory cannot be explained by the organisms' inability to perceive stimuli. The data indicate that although perceptual thresholds are elevated, organisms can clearly perceive stimuli, and, in fact, can discriminate between them during sleep. The amnesia also cannot be explained by a defect in long-term memory, as studies have indicated that stimuli put into the memory during wakefulness are more efficiently retrieved after a sleep period than after a comparable period of wakefulness. The most likely explanation for the amnestic property of sleep seems to be the inability of organisms to transfer information from short-term memory to long-term memory during sleep. There are several sources of evidence to support this hypothesis. First, the probability of remembering a stimulus given during wakefulness is related to the proximity of sleep onset to the stimulus. Generally, information put into the system within 5 min of sleep onset is lost from memory. Secondly, disorders of excessive daytime somnolence which cause individuals to have frequent microsleeps are often associated with complains of memory problems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

  10. Memory Retrieval as Temporal Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gordon D. A.; Vousden, Janet I.; McCormack, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Temporal distinctiveness models of memory retrieval claim that memories are organised partly in terms of their positions along a temporal dimension, and suggest that memory retrieval involves temporal discrimination. According to such models the retrievability of memories should be related to the discriminability of their temporal distances at the…

  11. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  12. The value of embedded measures in detecting suboptimal effort in children: an investigation into the WISC-IV Digit Span and CMS Verbal Memory subtests.

    PubMed

    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Hertza, Jeremy; Segraves, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of test-taking effort that has traditionally been utilized with adults but more recently has demonstrated utility with children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether commonly used neuropsychological measures can be used as embedded measures in detecting effort during testing. Participants (N = 75) who completed neuropsychological evaluations including the TOMM, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Digit Span, Children's Memory Scale (CMS) Verbal Memory, and other neuropsychological measures were divided into two groups: Optimal Effort and Suboptimal Effort, based on their TOMM Trial 2 scores. Digit Span findings suggest a useful standard score of ≤ 70 resulted in optimal cutoff scores, yielding specificity of 94% and sensitivity of 44%. The CMS Verbal Memory Recall > Recognition scores did not appear as valuable indicating a discrepancy of 20+ points were required for specificity to attain optimal scores of 90% and sensitivity of 11%. This study illustrates the WISC-IV may have good utility in determining optimal effort; however, the CMS may not be as functional.

  13. [Severe intimate partner violence risk prediction scale-revised].

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; Amor, Pedro Javier; Loinaz, Ismael; de Corral, Paz

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the psychometric properties of the Severe Intimate Partner Violence Risk Prediction Scale and to revise it in order to ponderate the 20 items according to their discriminant capacity and to solve the missing item problem. The sample for this study consisted of 450 male batterers who were reported to the police station. The victims were classified as high-risk (18.2%), moderate-risk (45.8%) and low-risk (36%), depending on the cutoff scores in the original scale. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=.72) and interrater reliability (r=.73) were acceptable. The point biserial correlation coefficient between each item and the corrected total score of the 20-item scale was calculated to determine the most discriminative items, which were associated with the context of intimate partner violence in the last month, with the male batterer's profile and with the victim's vulnerability. A revised scale (EPV-R) with new cutoff scores and indications on how to deal with the missing items were proposed in accordance with these results. This easy-to-use tool appears to be suitable to the requirements of criminal justice professionals and is intended for use in safety planning. Implications of these results for further research are discussed.

  14. Revisiting the Academic Hardiness Scale: Revision and Revalidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter A.; Conlon, Elizabeth G.; Dhaliwal, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    We used two studies to evaluate, modify, and provide initial validation for a revised Academic Hardiness scale. First, 16 experts rated scale items for content validity and identified two problematic questions. Second, confirmatory factor analyses with 300 Grade 10 students (46% boys, age range 14-17) identified a 17-item version to be the best…

  15. Prospective memory: A comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Wilson, A. George

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory consists of forming a representation of a future action, temporarily storing that representation in memory, and retrieving it at a future time point. Here we review the recent development of animal models of prospective memory. We review experiments using rats that focus on the development of time-based and event-based prospective memory. Next, we review a number of prospective-memory approaches that have been used with a variety of non-human primates. Finally, we review selected approaches from the human literature on prospective memory to identify targets for development of animal models of prospective memory. PMID:25101562

  16. Positive consequences of false memories.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Patel, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research is replete with examples of the negative consequences of false memories. In the current research, we provide a different perspective on false memories and their development and demonstrate that false memories can have positive consequences. Specifically, we examined the role false memories play in subsequent problem-solving tasks. Children and adults studied and recalled neutral or survival-relevant lists of associated words. They then solved age-normed compound remote associates, some of whose solutions had been primed by false memories created when studying the previous lists. The results showed that regardless of age: (a) survival-related words were not only better recollected but were also more susceptible than neutral words to false memory illusions; and (b) survival-related false memories were better than neutral false memories as primes for problem-solving. These findings are discussed in the context of recent speculation concerning the positive consequences of false memories, and the adaptive nature of reconstructive memory.

  17. Medications for Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... memory loss, confusion, and problems with thinking and reasoning) of Alzheimer's disease. There is also a medication ... the latest Alzheimer's medications available today, and the clinical trials that may bring us closer to new ...

  18. Memory Circuit Fault Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Douglas J.; McClure, Tucker

    2013-01-01

    Spacecraft are known to experience significant memory part-related failures and problems, both pre- and postlaunch. These memory parts include both static and dynamic memories (SRAM and DRAM). These failures manifest themselves in a variety of ways, such as pattern-sensitive failures, timingsensitive failures, etc. Because of the mission critical nature memory devices play in spacecraft architecture and operation, understanding their failure modes is vital to successful mission operation. To support this need, a generic simulation tool that can model different data patterns in conjunction with variable write and read conditions was developed. This tool is a mathematical and graphical way to embed pattern, electrical, and physical information to perform what-if analysis as part of a root cause failure analysis effort.

  19. Working Memory and Neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    YuLeung To, Eric; Abbott, Kathy; Foster, Dale S; Helmer, D'Arcy

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in working memory are typically associated with impairments in other cognitive faculties such as attentional processes and short-term memory. This paper briefly introduces neurofeedback as a treatment modality in general, and, more specifically, we review several of the current modalities successfully used in neurofeedback (NF) for the treatment of working memory deficits. Two case studies are presented to illustrate how neurofeedback is applied in treatment. The development of Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) and its application in neurofeedback now makes it possible to specifically target deep cortical/subcortical brain structures. Developments in neuroscience concerning neural networks, combined with highly specific yet practical NF technologies, makes neurofeedback of particular interest to neuropsychological practice, including the emergence of specific methodologies for treating very difficult working memory (WM) problems.

  20. Magnetic vortex racetrack memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M.

    2017-02-01

    We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications.

  1. Serriform Strip Crosstie Memory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    edge effect of the margin serrations upon magnetization, a form of shape anisotropy, inherently defines memory cell boundaries in the domain walls, thereby giving the crossties and Bloch lines preferred locations and allowing the use of a simplified propagation

  2. Multiresonator quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, S. A.; Gubaidullin, F. F.; Kirillov, R. S.; Latypov, R. R.; Perminov, N. S.; Petrovnin, K. V.; Sherstyukov, O. N.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present universal broadband multiresonator quantum memory based on the spatial-frequency combs of the microresonators coupled with a common waveguide. We find a Bragg-type impedance matching condition for the coupling of the microresonators with a waveguide field that provides an efficient broadband quantum storage. The analytical solution obtained for the microresonator fields enables sustainable parametric control of all the memory characteristics. We also construct an experimental prototype of the studied quantum memory in the microwave spectral range that demonstrates basic properties of the microwave microresonators, their coupling with a common waveguide, and independent control of the microresonator frequencies. Experimentally observed narrow lines of the microresonators confirm the possibility of multiresonator quantum memory implementation.

  3. Memory, Memoir, Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nancy J.; Giorgis, Cyndi

    2000-01-01

    Offers brief descriptions of 41 good books for children offering a treasury of memory, memoir, and stories. Presents books in the following categories: storytellers, folktales, voices, family, artifacts, and preservation. (SR)

  4. Coping with Memory Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... either using computerized axial tomography (CAT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – can help to identify strokes and tumors, which can sometimes cause memory loss. “The goal is to rule out factors ...

  5. Convergent validity of the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA+Plus): associations with working memory, processing speed, and behavioral ratings.

    PubMed

    Arble, Eamonn; Kuentzel, Jeffrey; Barnett, Douglas

    2014-05-01

    Though the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA + Plus) is commonly used by researchers and clinicians, few investigations have assessed its convergent and discriminant validity, especially with regard to its use with children. The present study details correlates of the IVA + Plus using measures of cognitive ability and ratings of child behavior (parent and teacher), drawing upon a sample of 90 psychoeducational evaluations. Scores from the IVA + Plus correlated significantly with the Working Memory and Processing Speed Indexes from the Fourth Edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV), though fewer and weaker significant correlations were seen with behavior ratings scales, and significant associations also occurred with WISC-IV Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Reasoning. The overall pattern of relations is supportive of the validity of the IVA + Plus; however, general cognitive ability was associated with better performance on most of the primary scores of the IVA + Plus, suggesting that interpretation should take intelligence into account.

  6. Perception and Memory of Pictures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-20

    altogether. His explanation for the efftct is similar to that proposed by Raijmakers and Shiffrin (1981) in the SAM model of memory : Items from...implicit memory , explicit memory , recognition memory , perce ’ptual fluency, priming, RSVP, fragmented pictures, connectionist models , PDP models 19...of implicit and explicit memory . A connectionist model of picture recognition which was developed and tested in collaboration with Elliot Hirshman

  7. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

    1972-01-01

    The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

  8. Epigenetic memory in plants.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Mayumi; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2014-09-17

    Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in patterns of gene expression that occur without alterations in DNA sequence. The epigenetic mechanisms involve covalent modifications of DNA and histones, which affect transcriptional activity of chromatin. Since chromatin states can be propagated through mitotic and meiotic divisions, epigenetic mechanisms are thought to provide heritable 'cellular memory'. Here, we review selected examples of epigenetic memory in plants and briefly discuss underlying mechanisms.

  9. Effects of cortisol on hippocampal subfields volumes and memory performance in healthy control subjects and patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Travis, Scott G; Coupland, Nicholas J; Hegadoren, K; Silverstone, Peter H; Huang, Yushan; Carter, Rawle; Fujiwara, Esther; Seres, Peter; Malykhin, Nikolai V

    2016-09-01

    Overactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depressive disorder (MDD) is among the most consistently replicated biological findings in psychiatry. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have consistently demonstrated that hippocampal (HC) volume is decreased in patients with MDD. The improved spatial resolution of high field strength MRI has recently enabled measurements of HC subfield volumes in vivo. The main goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between cortisol concentrations over a day and HC subfield volumes in patients with MDD compared to healthy controls and to investigate whether diurnal cortisol measures are related to memory performance. Fourteen MDD patients with moderate or severe episodes were recruited, together with 14 healthy controls. Imaging was performed using a 4.7T whole-body imaging system. HC subfields and subregions were segmented manually using previously defined protocol. Memory performance was assessed using the Wechsler Memory Scale IV. The salivary cortisol levels were measured over the course of one day. We found that cortisol awakening response to 8h (CAR-8h) was higher in MDD patients compared to controls and that this increase in CAR-8h in MDD patients correlated negatively with left total Cornu Ammonis (CA)1-3 and left HC head volume. In healthy controls mean cortisol levels were negatively associated with right total CA1-3, right HC head, and right total HC volume. In addition, in healthy controls higher CAR-8h was related to worse performance on the immediate content memory. These results provide the first in vivo evidence of the negative associations between cortisol level, CA1-3 HC subfield volume and memory performance in patients with MDD and healthy controls.

  10. Emergence of Collective Memories

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungmin; Ramenzoni, Verónica C.; Holme, Petter

    2010-01-01

    Background We understand the dynamics of the world around us as by associating pairs of events, where one event has some influence on the other. These pairs of events can be aggregated into a web of memories representing our understanding of an episode of history. The events and the associations between them need not be directly experienced—they can also be acquired by communication. In this paper we take a network approach to study the dynamics of memories of history. Methodology/Principal Findings First we investigate the network structure of a data set consisting of reported events by several individuals and how associations connect them. We focus our measurement on degree distributions, degree correlations, cycles (which represent inconsistencies as they would break the time ordering) and community structure. We proceed to model effects of communication using an agent-based model. We investigate the conditions for the memory webs of different individuals to converge to collective memories, how groups where the individuals have similar memories (but different from other groups) can form. Conclusions/Significance Our work outlines how the cognitive representation of memories and social structure can co-evolve as a contagious process. We generate some testable hypotheses including that the number of groups is limited as a function of the total population size. PMID:20824141

  11. Mechanisms of Memory Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing quest for memory enhancement is one that grows necessary as the global population increasingly ages. The extraordinary progress that has been made in the past few decades elucidating the underlying mechanisms of how long-term memories are formed has provided insight into how memories might also be enhanced. Capitalizing on this knowledge, it has been postulated that targeting many of the same mechanisms, including CREB activation, AMPA/NMDA receptor trafficking, neuromodulation (e.g. via dopamine, adrenaline, cortisol or acetylcholine) and metabolic processes (e.g. via glucose and insulin) may all lead to the enhancement of memory. These and other mechanisms and/or approaches have been tested via genetic or pharmacological methods in animal models, and several have been investigated in humans as well. In addition, a number of behavioral methods, including exercise and reconsolidation, may also serve to strengthen and enhance memories. By capitalizing on this knowledge and continuing to investigate these promising avenues, memory enhancement may indeed be achieved in the future. PMID:23151999

  12. Music evokes vivid autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Belfi, Amy M; Karlan, Brett; Tranel, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Music is strongly intertwined with memories-for example, hearing a song from the past can transport you back in time, triggering the sights, sounds, and feelings of a specific event. This association between music and vivid autobiographical memory is intuitively apparent, but the idea that music is intimately tied with memories, seemingly more so than other potent memory cues (e.g., familiar faces), has not been empirically tested. Here, we compared memories evoked by music to those evoked by famous faces, predicting that music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) would be more vivid. Participants listened to 30 songs, viewed 30 faces, and reported on memories that were evoked. Memories were transcribed and coded for vividness as in Levine, B., Svoboda, E., Hay, J. F., Winocur, G., & Moscovitch, M. [2002. Aging and autobiographical memory: Dissociating episodic from semantic retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 17, 677-689]. In support of our hypothesis, MEAMs were more vivid than autobiographical memories evoked by faces. MEAMs contained a greater proportion of internal details and a greater number of perceptual details, while face-evoked memories contained a greater number of external details. Additionally, we identified sex differences in memory vividness: for both stimulus categories, women retrieved more vivid memories than men. The results show that music not only effectively evokes autobiographical memories, but that these memories are more vivid than those evoked by famous faces.

  13. Effects of aging and working memory demands on prospective memory.

    PubMed

    West, Robert; Bowry, Ritvij

    2005-11-01

    The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of aging, increasing the working memory demands of the ongoing activity, and a prospective memory load on the neural correlates of prospective remembering and target recognition. The behavioral data revealed that the success of prospective memory was sensitive to working memory load in younger, but not older, adults and that a prospective memory load had a greater effect on the performance of older adults than that of younger adults. The ERP data revealed age-related differences in the neural correlates of the detection of prospective cues, post-retrieval processes that support prospective memory, and target recognition. Our results support the hypothesis that there are age-related differences in the ability to recruit preparatory attentional processes that underlie prospective memory, and demonstrate that younger and older adults may recruit somewhat different neural generators to support prospective memory and working memory.

  14. Sex Differences in Mental Arithmetic, Digit Span, and "g" Defined as Working Memory Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard; Irwing, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Meta-analyses are presented of sex differences in (1) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for children and adolescents (the WISC and WPPSI tests), showing that boys obtained a mean advantage of 0.11d; (2) the (mental) arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler intelligence tests for adults (the WAIS tests) showing a mean…

  15. False memories for aggressive acts.

    PubMed

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed.

  16. What people believe about memory.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Svein; Andersson, Jan; Cornoldi, Cesare; De Beni, Rossana; Endestad, Tor; Goodman, Gail S; Helstrup, Tore; Koriat, Asher; Larsson, Maria; Melinder, Annika; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Rönnberg, Jerker; Zimmer, Hubert

    2006-07-01

    Two representative samples of adult Norwegians (n=2000) were asked a set of general and specific questions regarding their beliefs and opinions about human memory. The results indicate that on many questions, such as time of the earliest memories, inhibiting effects of collaboration, and memory for dramatic versus ordinary events, the views of the general public concurred with current research findings, and people in general had realistic views about their own memory performance. On other questions, such as the reliability of olfactory as compared with visual and auditory memory, the memory of small children in comparison with that of adults, the likelihood of repression of adult traumatic memories, and on more general questions such as the possibility of training memory and the capacity limitations of long-term memory, a large proportion of the participants expressed views that are less supported by scientific evidence. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  17. Neurocognitive architecture of working memory

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Johan; Vogel, Edward K.; Lansner, Anders; Bergström, Fredrik; Nyberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The crucial role of working memory for temporary information processing and guidance of complex behavior has been recognized for many decades. There is emerging consensus that working memory maintenance results from the interactions among long-term memory representations and basic processes, including attention, that are instantiated as reentrant loops between frontal and posterior cortical areas, as well as subcortical structures. The nature of such interactions can account for capacity limitations, lifespan changes, and restricted transfer after working-memory training. Recent data and models indicate that working memory may also be based on synaptic plasticity, and that working memory can operate on non-consciously perceived information. PMID:26447571

  18. Memory function and supportive technology

    PubMed Central

    Charness, Neil; Best, Ryan; Souders, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Episodic and working memory processes show pronounced age-related decline, with other memory processes such as semantic, procedural, and metamemory less affected. Older adults tend to complain the most about prospective and retrospective memory failures. We introduce a framework for deciding how to mitigate memory decline using augmentation and substitution and discuss techniques that change the user, through mnemonics training, and change the tool or environment, by providing environmental support. We provide examples of low-tech and high-tech memory supports and discuss constraints on the utility of high-tech systems including effectiveness of devices, attitudes toward memory aids, and reliability of systems. PMID:24379752

  19. Nanoporous silicon oxide memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gunuk; Yang, Yang; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Abramova, Vera; Fei, Huilong; Ruan, Gedeng; Thomas, Edwin L; Tour, James M

    2014-08-13

    Oxide-based two-terminal resistive random access memory (RRAM) is considered one of the most promising candidates for next-generation nonvolatile memory. We introduce here a new RRAM memory structure employing a nanoporous (NP) silicon oxide (SiOx) material which enables unipolar switching through its internal vertical nanogap. Through the control of the stochastic filament formation at low voltage, the NP SiOx memory exhibited an extremely low electroforming voltage (∼ 1.6 V) and outstanding performance metrics. These include multibit storage ability (up to 9-bits), a high ON-OFF ratio (up to 10(7) A), a long high-temperature lifetime (≥ 10(4) s at 100 °C), excellent cycling endurance (≥ 10(5)), sub-50 ns switching speeds, and low power consumption (∼ 6 × 10(-5) W/bit). Also provided is the room temperature processability for versatile fabrication without any compliance current being needed during electroforming or switching operations. Taken together, these metrics in NP SiOx RRAM provide a route toward easily accessed nonvolatile memory applications.

  20. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-chuan (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A new read gate design for the vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory is disclosed which offers larger operating margin than the existing read gate designs. In the existing read gate designs, a current is applied to all the stripes. The stripes that contain a VBL pair are chopped, while the stripes that do not contain a VBL pair are not chopped. The information is then detected by inspecting the presence or absence of the bubble. The margin of the chopping current amplitude is very small, and sometimes non-existent. A new method of reading Vertical Bloch Line memory is also disclosed. Instead of using the wall chirality to separate the two binary states, the spatial deflection of the stripe head is used. Also disclosed herein is a compact memory which uses vertical Bloch line (VBL) memory technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement in the form of stacks of VBL memory layers is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. High data transfer rate is achieved by operating all the layers in parallel. Using Hall effect sensing, and optical sensing via the Faraday effect to access the data from within the three-dimensional packages, an even higher data transfer rate can be achieved due to parallel operation within each layer.

  1. Memory Loss: 7 Tips to Improve Your Memory

    MedlinePlus

    ... re not alone. Everyone forgets things occasionally. Still, memory loss is nothing to take lightly. Although there are no guarantees when it comes to preventing memory loss or dementia, certain activities might help. Consider ...

  2. MEMORIAL WALK WITH MEMORIALS, TOWARD ENTRANCE GATE. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MEMORIAL WALK WITH MEMORIALS, TOWARD ENTRANCE GATE. VIEW TO WEST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  3. Bergson's "Matter and Memory" and modern selectionist theories of memory.

    PubMed

    McNamara, P

    1996-03-01

    Bergson's reflections (in Matter and Memory, 1896) on memory anticipated development of modern selectionist theories of memory. Selectionist models offer new and potentially useful approaches to a theory of remembering. On the model of natural selection, these selectionist theories require at least two processing components: a device which generates a range of memory representations and a selection process which preserves a subset of those representations. Bergson shows how the subjective experience of remembering might be understood within a selectionist framework.

  4. Emotion and autobiographical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-03-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

  5. Echoic memory in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Kretzschmar, Christina; Kalenscher, Tobias; Güntürkün, Onur; Kaernbach, Christian

    2008-10-01

    It is unknown whether birds are able to retain the memory of purely sensory auditory information such as white noise over an extended period of time. In a Pavlovian heart rate conditioning paradigm, four pigeons were trained to associate a mild electric shock with periodic random waveforms, and no shock with aperiodic noise. Periodic waveform detection requires echoic memory, i.e., the online retention of a waveform pattern over a limited time. Starting with 40ms, the waveform period was increased after successful learning until no significant stimulus discrimination could be found. Significant discrimination was achieved at periods of up to 2560ms. This is the first demonstration that echoic memory performance in birds is clearly superior to cats and gerbils, and comparable to naive human performance.

  6. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain. PMID:20374933

  7. Genetic variations of human neuropsin gene and psychiatric disorders: polymorphism screening and possible association with bipolar disorder and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Aiko; Iijima, Yoshimi; Noguchi, Hiroko; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Okada, Takeya; Hori, Hiroaki; Kato, Tadafumi; Tatsumi, Masahiko; Kosuga, Asako; Kamijima, Kunitoshi; Asada, Takashi; Arima, Kunimasa; Saitoh, Osamu; Shiosaka, Sadao; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2008-12-01

    Human neuropsin (NP) (hNP) has been implicated in the progressive change of cognitive abilities during primate evolution. The hNP gene maps to chromosome 19q13, a region reportedly linked to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Therefore, hNP is a functional and positional candidate gene for association with schizophrenia, mood disorders, and cognitive ability. Polymorphism screening was performed for the entire hNP gene. The core promoter region was determined and whether or not transcriptional activity alters in an allele-dependent manner was examined by using the dual-luciferase system. Allelic and genotypic distributions of five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were compared between patients with schizophrenia (n=439), major depression (n=409), bipolar disorder (n=207), and controls (n=727). A possible association of the hNP genotype with memory index (assessed with Wechsler Memory Scale, revised, WMS-R) and intelligence quotient (IQ assessed with Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, revised; WAIS-R) was examined in healthy controls (n=166). A total of 28 SNPs, including nine novel SNPs, were identified. No significant effects on transcriptional activity were observed for SNPs in the promoter region. A significant allelic association was found between several SNPs and bipolar disorder (for SNP23 at the 3' regulatory region; odds ratio 1.48, 95% confidential interval 1.16-1.88, P=0.0015). However, such an association was not detected for schizophrenia or depression. Significant differences were observed between SNP23 and attention/concentration sub-scale score of WMS-R (P=0.016) and verbal IQ (P<0.001). Genetic variation of the hNP gene may contribute to molecular mechanisms of bipolar disorder and some aspects of memory and intelligence.

  8. Occupational Memory Practice and Memory Beliefs with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huet, Nathalie; Marquie, Jean-Claude; Bacon, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study examined effects of intensive memory use during one's profession on metamemory beliefs. Fifty-one actors and 60 controls aged from 20 to 73 years were compared with the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood. Both intensive job-related memory practice and younger age were associated with stronger memory self-efficacy beliefs. Irrespective of…

  9. Negative Affect Impairs Associative Memory but Not Item Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisby, James A.; Burgess, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine…

  10. An overview of advanced nonvolatile memory technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Dressendorfer, P.V.

    1991-01-01

    This report is an overview of advanced nonvolatile memory technologies. The memory technologies discussed are: floating gate nonvolatile memory technologies; SNOS nonvolatile technology; ferroelectric technology; and thin film magnetic memories.

  11. Automated 3D mapping of baseline and 12-month associations between three verbal memory measures and hippocampal atrophy in 490 ADNI subjects.

    PubMed

    Apostolova, Liana G; Morra, Jonathan H; Green, Amity E; Hwang, Kristy S; Avedissian, Christina; Woo, Ellen; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2010-05-15

    We used a previously validated automated machine learning algorithm based on adaptive boosting to segment the hippocampi in baseline and 12-month follow-up 3D T1-weighted brain MRIs of 150 cognitively normal elderly (NC), 245 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 97 Dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT) ADNI subjects. Using the radial distance mapping technique, we examined the hippocampal correlates of delayed recall performance on three well-established verbal memory tests--ADAScog delayed recall (ADAScog-DR), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test -DR (AVLT-DR) and Wechsler Logical Memory II-DR (LM II-DR). We observed no significant correlations between delayed recall performance and hippocampal radial distance on any of the three verbal memory measures in NC. All three measures were associated with hippocampal volumes and radial distance in the full sample and in the MCI group at baseline and at follow-up. In DAT we observed stronger left-sided associations between hippocampal radial distance, LM II-DR and ADAScog-DR both at baseline and at follow-up. The strongest linkage between memory performance and hippocampal atrophy in the MCI sample was observed with the most challenging verbal memory test-the AVLT-DR, as opposed to the DAT sample where the least challenging test the ADAScog-DR showed strongest associations with the hippocampal structure. After controlling for baseline hippocampal atrophy, memory performance showed regionally specific associations with hippocampal radial distance in predominantly CA1 but also in subicular distribution.

  12. Dreams, conscience, and memory.

    PubMed

    Stein, M H

    1991-04-01

    The interpretation of certain dreams, as opposed to the direct examination of behavior, makes it possible to explore the conscience of the dreamer, detect hidden sources of guilt, and interpret them with less likelihood of arousing intractable resistance. Through the recovery of memories and the establishment of an intimate familiarity with one's personal history, it becomes possible to resolve problems of "neurotic" guilt, based ultimately on distortions of repressed childhood memories. The resolution of these conflicts allows a greater role for the operation of "appropriate" guilt, based on genuine transgressions, and the establishment of a more mature ethical structure.

  13. Natural Killer Cell Memory.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Timothy E; Sun, Joseph C; Lanier, Lewis L

    2015-10-20

    Natural killer (NK) cells have historically been considered short-lived cytolytic cells that can rapidly respond against pathogens and tumors in an antigen-independent manner and then undergo cell death. Recently, however, NK cells have been shown to possess traits of adaptive immunity and can acquire immunological memory in a manner similar to that of T and B cells. In this review, we discuss evidence of NK cell memory and the mechanisms involved in the generation and survival of these innate lymphocytes.

  14. Cold pressor-induced pain does not impair WAIS-IV processing speed index or working memory index performance.

    PubMed

    Etherton, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain frequently involves cognitive complaints such as concentration and memory deficits, but studies of the effects of pain on cognition have not consistently demonstrated deficits and have not typically utilized standard neuropsychological instruments. Effects of cold pressor-induced pain on Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Processing Speed Index (PSI) and Working Memory Index (WMI) performance was examined in nonclinical volunteers (n = 40). All took one PSI subtest and one WMI subtest normally, and then took different PSI and WMI subtests during cold pressor-induced pain or painless warm-water immersion. Scaled scores for normal administration versus pain or painless water immersion did not differ and there was no interaction between group (control vs. pain) and manner of administration, despite moderately severe mean pain ratings (M = 6.8 on a 0-10 pain-rating scale). Results indicate that induced pain in nonclinical volunteers does not impair PSI or WMI performance, and they suggest that chronic pain per se should not be expected to substantially affect these cognitive functions. However, patients with chronic pain may differ from nonclinical volunteers in their experience of pain, potentially limiting generalizability.

  15. Memory and Forgetfulness: NIH Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Memory & Forgetfulness NIH Research Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... agency for research on Alzheimer's disease and related memory research. An analysis funded by the NIA finds ...

  16. Shape memory polymer medical device

    DOEpatents

    Maitland, Duncan; Benett, William J.; Bearinger, Jane P.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Small, IV, Ward; Schumann, Daniel L.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Ortega, Jason M.; Marion, III, John E.; Loge, Jeffrey M.

    2010-06-29

    A system for removing matter from a conduit. The system includes the steps of passing a transport vehicle and a shape memory polymer material through the conduit, transmitting energy to the shape memory polymer material for moving the shape memory polymer material from a first shape to a second and different shape, and withdrawing the transport vehicle and the shape memory polymer material through the conduit carrying the matter.

  17. Play Memories and Place Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study examined play memories from childhood to adulthood of 478 university students between ages 20 and 62 as exhibited in drawings of play memories and questionnaire responses. The study focused on the role of the physical environment and place identity in play memories and individual identity development. Findings showed that…

  18. Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

  19. First Words and First Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Catriona M.; Conway, Martin A.

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments autobiographical memories from childhood were recalled to cue words naming common objects, locations, activities and emotions. Participants recalled their earliest specific memory associated with each word and dated their age at the time of the remembered event. A striking and specific finding emerged: age of earliest memory was…

  20. Dual redundant core memory systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    Electronic memory system consisting of series redundant drive switch circuits, triple redundant majority voted memory timing functions, and two data registers to provide functional dual redundancy is described. Signal flow through the circuits is illustrated and equence of events which occur within the memory system is explained.

  1. Windows Memory Forensic Data Visualization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-12

    WINDOWS MEMORY FORENSIC DATA VISUALIZATION THESIS J. Brendan Baum, Civilian, USAF AFIT...WINDOWS MEMORY FORENSIC DATA VISUALIZATION THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENG-T-14-J-1 WINDOWS MEMORY FORENSIC DATA VISUALIZATION J. Brendan Baum, B.S

  2. Stroke and Episodic Memory Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there…

  3. Memory Storage and Neural Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Daniel L.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates memory storage and molecular nature of associative-memory formation by analyzing Pavlovian conditioning in marine snails and rabbits. Presented is the design of a computer-based memory system (neural networks) using the rules acquired in the investigation. Reports that the artificial network recognized patterns well. (YP)

  4. Stress disrupts response memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Guenzel, Friederike M; Wolf, Oliver T; Schwabe, Lars

    2013-08-01

    Stress effects on memory are well-known. Most studies, however, focused on the impact of stress on hippocampus-dependent 'declarative' memory processes. Less is known about whether stress influences also striatum-based memory processes, such as stimulus-response (S-R) memory. First evidence from rodent experiments shows that glucocorticoid stress hormones may enhance the consolidation of S-R memories. Whether stress affects also S-R memory retrieval remains largely elusive. Therefore, we tested in the present experiment in humans the effect of stress on the retrieval of S-R memories. Healthy men and women were trained to locate three objects in an S-R version of a virtual eight-arm radial maze. One week later, participants underwent a stressor or a control condition before their memory of the S-R task was tested. Our results showed that participants (n=43) who were exposed to the stressor before retention testing made significantly more errors in this test trial, suggesting that stress impaired S-R memory retrieval. Moreover, high cortisol concentrations were associated with reduced S-R memory. These findings indicate that stress may affect memory retrieval processes in humans beyond hippocampal 'declarative' memory.

  5. Memory Processes in Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermann, Kathy

    1985-01-01

    Explores the role of memory in mediating mass communication effects. Examines (1) the nature of memory, (2) issues in retention and recall of media messages, (3) methods of promoting retention and recall of media messages, and (4) implications of memory processes for mass media effects. (PD)

  6. Motor Action and Emotional Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casasanto, Daniel; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2010-01-01

    Can simple motor actions affect how efficiently people retrieve emotional memories, and influence what they choose to remember? In Experiment 1, participants were prompted to retell autobiographical memories with either positive or negative valence, while moving marbles either upward or downward. They retrieved memories faster when the direction…

  7. The contribution of epigenetic memory to immunologic memory.

    PubMed

    Zediak, Valerie P; Wherry, E John; Berger, Shelley L

    2011-04-01

    Memory T lymphocytes are distinct from antigen-inexperienced naïve T cells in that memory T cells can respond more rapidly when they re-encounter a pathogen. Work over the past decade has begun to define the epigenetic underpinnings of the transcriptional component of the memory T cell response. An emerging theme is the persistence of an active chromatin signature at relevant gene loci in resting memory T cells, even when those genes are transcriptionally inactive. This gives strength to the concept of gene poising, and has shown that memory T lymphocytes are an ideal model in which to further define various mechanisms of epigenetic poising.

  8. Women Have Farther to Fall: Gender Differences Between Normal Elderly and Alzheimer’s Disease in Verbal Memory Engender Better Detection of AD in Women

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert M.; Mapstone, Mark; Gardner, Margaret N.; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; McCrary, John W.; Guillily, Maria D.; Reilly, Lindsey A.; DeGrush, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed verbal episodic memory learning and recall using the Logical Memory (LM) subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III in order to determine how gender differences in AD compare to those seen in normal elderly and whether or not these differences impact assessment of AD. We administered the LM to both an AD and a Control group, each comprised of 21 men and 21 women, and found a large drop in performance from normal elders to AD. Of interest was a gender interaction whereby the women’s scores dropped 1.6 times more than the men’s did. Control women on average outperformed Control men on every aspect of the test, including immediate recall, delayed recall, and learning. Conversely, AD women tended to perform worse than AD men. Additionally, the LM achieved perfect diagnostic accuracy in discriminant analysis of AD vs. Control women, a statistically significantly higher result than for men. The results indicate the LM is a more powerful and reliable tool in detecting AD in women than in men. PMID:21486518

  9. Judgments of Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maki, William S.

    2007-01-01

    Judgments of associative memory (JAM) were indexed by ratings given to pairs of cue and response words. The normed probabilities, p(response|cue), were obtained from free association norms. The ratings were linearly related to the probabilities. The JAM functions were characterized by high intercepts (approximately 50 on a 100 point scale) and…

  10. When Autobiographical Memory Begins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Courage, Mary L.; Edison, Shannon C.

    2003-01-01

    The authors review competing theories concerning the emergence and early development of autobiographical memory. It is argued that the differences between these accounts, although important, may be more apparent than real. The crux of these disagreements lies not in "what" processes are important, but rather, the role these different processes…

  11. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  12. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  13. Dreams Memories & Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…

  14. Antenatal memories and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Neighbour, Roger

    1981-01-01

    A case is described of suicidal impulses apparently stemming from the patient's experience before and during his birth. By using a technique of `rebirthing', antenatal memories were relived and their traumatic effects resolved. Theoretical and practical accounts of rebirthing are given, and its significance for general practitioners is discussed. PMID:7338871

  15. Memorials: Art for Remembering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art to Zoo: Teaching With the Power of Objects, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Throughout history, in all parts of the world, people have struggled with the problem of loss. Moving words have been written and beautiful objects created to preserve the memory of people and their achievements. This theme issue explores the different ways that people have been praised and remembered in works of art. An introduction suggests a…

  16. Memory Mechanisms in Grasping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, Constanze; Franz, Volker H.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of visual information influences the execution of goal-directed movements. This is very prominent in memory conditions, where a delay is introduced between stimulus presentation and execution of the movement. The corresponding effects could be due to a decay of the visual information or to different processing mechanisms used for…

  17. The Grammar of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This essay focuses on two sites of memory in my professional life. One is from my very early years of teaching, the second from about 10 years later. Each is centred on a moment of controversy in English curriculum in New South Wales, Australia, and each is to do with the teaching of writing and the supposed neglect of language study, including…

  18. A Balanced Memory Network

    PubMed Central

    Roudi, Yasser; Latham, Peter E

    2007-01-01

    A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory—the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds—is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons. PMID:17845070

  19. Memory Loss and Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Underlying the generally oblivious attitude of teachers and learners towards the past is insufficient respect for the role of memory in giving meaning to experience and access to knowledge. We shape our identity by making sense of our past and its relationship to present and future selves, a process that should be intensively cultivated when we…

  20. Radiation Tolerant Embedded Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 ...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1 . REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 27-06-2003 2. REPORT TYPE SBIR...Tolerant Embedded Memory 1 Table of Contents: Table of Contents

  1. Bubble Memory Module.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    104 7-13 Four switch drive hybrid ........................................................................ 104 7-14...operation. Address Ready. - This signal is an output signal to the user which acknowledges that the module is busy. Input address is latched in the...expandable in 6.55 M bit increments. Detector noise is minimized by locating sense circuits, cell select switches , and memory cells on the same board

  2. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a…

  3. The role of stress during memory reactivation on intrusive memories.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Jessica; Garber, Benjamin; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    Intrusive memories are unwanted recollections that maintain distress in psychological disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that memories that are reactivated through retrieval become temporarily vulnerable to environmental or pharmacological manipulation, including changes in levels of circulating stress hormones. This study investigated the influence of stress during memory reactivation of an emotionally arousing trauma film on subsequent intrusive memories. Three groups of participants (N=63) viewed a trauma film depicting a serious car accident at baseline. Two days later (Time 2), one group received a reactivation induction following a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT; Stress/Reactivation condition), whilst the second group reactivated the memory after a control procedure (Reactivation condition). A third group underwent the SECPT but was not asked to reactivate memory of the trauma film (Stress condition). Two days later (Time 3), all participants received a surprise cued memory recall test and intrusions questionnaire which they completed online. Results showed that those in the Stress/Reactivation group had higher intrusions scores than the other two groups, suggesting that acute stress promotes intrusive memories only when the memory trace is reactivated shortly afterwards. Increased cortisol predicted enhanced intrusive experiences in the Stress/Reactivation condition but not in the other conditions. This pattern of results suggests that acute stress during the reactivation of emotional material impacts on involuntary emotional memories. These findings suggest a possible explanation for the mechanism underlying the maintenance of intrusive memories in clinical disorders.

  4. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals

    PubMed Central

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants’ and age- and sex-matched controls’ susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes. PMID:24248358

  5. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals.

    PubMed

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J; LePort, Aurora K R; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M; Stark, Craig E L; McGaugh, James L; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2013-12-24

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes.

  6. About Sleep's Role in Memory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

  7. The Relationships of Working Memory, Secondary Memory, and General Fluid Intelligence: Working Memory Is Special

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Jill Talley; Elliott, Emily M.; Matthews, Russell A.; Hill, B. D.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2010-01-01

    Recent efforts have been made to elucidate the commonly observed link between working memory and reasoning ability. The results have been inconsistent, with some work suggesting that the emphasis placed on retrieval from secondary memory by working memory tests is the driving force behind this association (Mogle, Lovett, Stawski, & Sliwinski,…

  8. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    DOEpatents

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  9. Sleep deprivation and false memories.

    PubMed

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences.

  10. Memory loss in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Holger

    2013-12-01

    Loss of memory is among the first symptoms reported by patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and by their caretakers. Working memory and long-term declarative memory are affected early during the course of the disease. The individual pattern of impaired memory functions correlates with parameters of structural or functional brain integrity. AD pathology interferes with the formation of memories from the molecular level to the framework of neural networks. The investigation of AD memory loss helps to identify the involved neural structures, such as the default mode network, the influence of epigenetic and genetic factors, such as ApoE4 status, and evolutionary aspects of human cognition. Clinically, the analysis of memory assists the definition of AD subtypes, disease grading, and prognostic predictions. Despite new AD criteria that allow the earlier diagnosis of the disease by inclusion of biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid or hippocampal volume analysis, neuropsychological testing remains at the core of AD diagnosis.

  11. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  12. Vector computer memory bank contention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.

    1987-01-01

    A number of vector supercomputers feature very large memories. Unfortunately the large capacity memory chips that are used in these computers are much slower than the fast central processing unit (CPU) circuitry. As a result, memory bank reservation times (in CPU ticks) are much longer than on previous generations of computers. A consequence of these long reservation times is that memory bank contention is sharply increased, resulting in significantly lowered performance rates. The phenomenon of memory bank contention in vector computers is analyzed using both a Markov chain model and a Monte Carlo simulation program. The results of this analysis indicate that future generations of supercomputers must either employ much faster memory chips or else feature very large numbers of independent memory banks.

  13. Intracranial recordings and human memory.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth L; Knight, Robert T

    2015-04-01

    Recent work involving intracranial recording during human memory performance provides superb spatiotemporal resolution on mnemonic processes. These data demonstrate that the cortical regions identified in neuroimaging studies of memory fall into temporally distinct networks and the hippocampal theta activity reported in animal memory literature also plays a central role in human memory. Memory is linked to activity at multiple interacting frequencies, ranging from 1 to 500Hz. High-frequency responses and coupling between different frequencies suggest that frontal cortex activity is critical to human memory processes, as well as a potential key role for the thalamus in neocortical oscillations. Future research will inform unresolved questions in the neuroscience of human memory and guide creation of stimulation protocols to facilitate function in the damaged brain.

  14. A proposed method to estimate premorbid full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) for the Canadian Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) using demographic and combined estimation procedures.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Lange, Rael T; Saklofske, Donald H

    2007-11-01

    Establishing a comparison standard in neuropsychological assessment is crucial to determining change in function. There is no available method to estimate premorbid intellectual functioning for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The WISC-IV provided normative data for both American and Canadian children aged 6 to 16 years old. This study developed regression algorithms as a proposed method to estimate full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) for the Canadian WISC-IV. Participants were the Canadian WISC-IV standardization sample (n = 1,100). The sample was randomly divided into two groups (development and validation groups). The development group was used to generate regression algorithms; 1 algorithm only included demographics, and 11 combined demographic variables with WISC-IV subtest raw scores. The algorithms accounted for 18% to 70% of the variance in FSIQ (standard error of estimate, SEE = 8.6 to 14.2). Estimated FSIQ significantly correlated with actual FSIQ (r = .30 to .80), and the majority of individual FSIQ estimates were within +/-10 points of actual FSIQ. The demographic-only algorithm was less accurate than algorithms combining demographic variables with subtest raw scores. The current algorithms yielded accurate estimates of current FSIQ for Canadian individuals aged 6-16 years old. The potential application of the algorithms to estimate premorbid FSIQ is reviewed. While promising, clinical validation of the algorithms in a sample of children and/or adolescents with known neurological dysfunction is needed to establish these algorithms as a premorbid estimation procedure.

  15. Method and apparatus for faulty memory utilization

    DOEpatents

    Cher, Chen-Yong; Andrade Costa, Carlos H.; Park, Yoonho; Rosenburg, Bryan S.; Ryu, Kyung D.

    2016-04-19

    A method for faulty memory utilization in a memory system includes: obtaining information regarding memory health status of at least one memory page in the memory system; determining an error tolerance of the memory page when the information regarding memory health status indicates that a failure is predicted to occur in an area of the memory system affecting the memory page; initiating a migration of data stored in the memory page when it is determined that the data stored in the memory page is non-error-tolerant; notifying at least one application regarding a predicted operating system failure and/or a predicted application failure when it is determined that data stored in the memory page is non-error-tolerant and cannot be migrated; and notifying at least one application regarding the memory failure predicted to occur when it is determined that data stored in the memory page is error-tolerant.

  16. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Josh; Levy, Saul; Smith, D.; Wei, S.; Miyake, K.; Murdocca, M.

    1991-01-01

    The progress on the Rutgers CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Project is described. The overall design of the system is completed at the architectural level and described. The machine is composed of two kinds of cells: (1) the CAM cells which include both memory and processor, and support local processing within each cell; and (2) the tree cells, which have smaller instruction set, and provide global processing over the CAM cells. A parameterized design of the basic CAM cell is completed. Progress was made on the final specification of the CPS. The machine architecture was driven by the design of algorithms whose requirements are reflected in the resulted instruction set(s). A few of these algorithms are described.

  17. Plant electrical memory.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Carrell, Holly; Adesina, Tejumade; Markin, Vladislav S; Jovanov, Emil

    2008-07-01

    Electrical signaling, short-term memory and rapid closure of the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula Ellis (Venus flytrap) have been attracting the attention of researchers since the XIX century. We found that the electrical stimulus between a midrib and a lobe closes the Venus flytrap upper leaf without mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs. The closing time of Venus flytrap by electrical stimulation is the same as mechanically induced closing. Transmission of a single electrical charge between a lobe and the midrib causes closure of the trap and induces an electrical signal propagating between both lobes and midrib. The Venus flytrap can accumulate small subthreshold charges, and when the threshold value is reached, the trap closes. Repeated application of smaller charges demonstrates the summation of stimuli. The cumulative character of electrical stimuli points to the existence of short-term electrical memory in the Venus flytrap.

  18. Memory for humorous cartoons.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S R; Williams, A R

    2001-03-01

    Incidental memory for three types of cartoons was compared: original cartoons, literal translations of the originals, and weird cartoons created by inserting incongruous material into the literal translations. In Experiment 1, the three types of cartoons were mixed together in lists. In Experiment 2, each list contained only two cartoon types. In both experiments, original cartoons were remembered better than the literal and the weird cartoons, whereas the literal and the weird cartoons were equally well remembered. The detection of incongruities, or attempts to resolve those incongruities, cannot adequately explain the observed humor effects. The results were also inconsistent with both rehearsal and distinctiveness interpretations. Rather, humor per se appears to support good memory performance. Perhaps participants elaborated or gave sustained attention to humorous material at the expense of less humorous material.

  19. Place memory in crickets

    PubMed Central

    Wessnitzer, Jan; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Certain insect species are known to relocate nest or food sites using landmarks, but the generality of this capability among insects, and whether insect place memory can be used in novel task settings, is not known. We tested the ability of crickets to use surrounding visual cues to relocate an invisible target in an analogue of the Morris water maze, a standard paradigm for spatial memory tests on rodents. Adult female Gryllus bimaculatus were released into an arena with a floor heated to an aversive temperature, with one hidden cool spot. Over 10 trials, the time taken to find the cool spot decreased significantly. The best performance was obtained when a natural scene was provided on the arena walls. Animals can relocate the position from novel starting points. When the scene is rotated, they preferentially approach the fictive target position corresponding to the rotation. We note that this navigational capability does not necessarily imply the animal has an internal spatial representation. PMID:18230590

  20. Misaligned feeding impairs memories

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Dawn H; Jami, Shekib A; Flores, Richard E; Truong, Danny; Ghiani, Cristina A; O’Dell, Thomas J; Colwell, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Robust sleep/wake rhythms are important for health and cognitive function. Unfortunately, many people are living in an environment where their circadian system is challenged by inappropriate meal- or work-times. Here we scheduled food access to the sleep time and examined the impact on learning and memory in mice. Under these conditions, we demonstrate that the molecular clock in the master pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is unaltered while the molecular clock in the hippocampus is synchronized by the timing of food availability. This chronic circadian misalignment causes reduced hippocampal long term potentiation and total CREB expression. Importantly this mis-timed feeding resulted in dramatic deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Our findings suggest that the timing of meals have far-reaching effects on hippocampal physiology and learned behaviour. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09460.001 PMID:26652002

  1. TED KYCIA MEMORIAL SYMPOSIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    LITTENBERG, L.; RUBINSTEIN, R.; SAMIOS, N.; LI, K.; GIACOMELLI, G.; MOCKETT, P.; CARROLL, A.; JOHNSON, R.; BRYMAN, D.; TIPPENS, B.

    2000-05-19

    On the afternoon of May 19 2000, a Memorial Seminar was held in the BNL physics Large Seminar Room to honor the memory of Ted Kyeia, a prominent particle physicist who had been a member of the BNL staff for 40 years. Although it was understandably a somewhat sad occasion because Ted was no longer with us, nevertheless there was much for his colleagues and friends to celebrate in recalling the outstanding contributions that he had made in those four decades. The Seminar speakers were all people who had worked with Ted during that period; each discussed one aspect of his career, but also included anecdotes and personal reminiscences. This booklet contains the Seminar program, listing the speakers, and also copies of transparencies of the talks (and one paper which was a later expansion of a talk); sadly, not all of the personal remarks appeared on the transparencies.

  2. Mechanisms of epigenetic memory

    PubMed Central

    D’Urso, Agustina; Brickner, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Although genetics play an essential role in defining an organism’s development, morphology and physiology, epigenetic mechanisms play an essential role in modulating these properties by regulating gene expression. During development, epigenetic mechanisms establish stable gene expression patterns to ensure proper differentiation. Epigenetic mechanisms also allow organisms to adapt to environmental changes and previous experiences can impact the future responsiveness of an organism to a stimulus over long time scales and even over generations. Here we discuss the concept of epigenetic memory, defined as the stable propagation of a change in gene expression or potentially induced by developmental or environmental stimuli. We highlight three distinct paradigms of epigenetic memory that operate on different time scales. PMID:24780085

  3. Optoelectronic associative memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An associative optical memory including an input spatial light modulator (SLM) in the form of an edge enhanced liquid crystal light valve (LCLV) and a pair of memory SLM's in the form of liquid crystal televisions (LCTV's) forms a matrix array of an input image which is cross correlated with a matrix array of stored images. The correlation product is detected and nonlinearly amplified to illuminate a replica of the stored image array to select the stored image correlating with the input image. The LCLV is edge enhanced by reducing the bias frequency and voltage and rotating its orientation. The edge enhancement and nonlinearity of the photodetection improves the orthogonality of the stored image. The illumination of the replicate stored image provides a clean stored image, uncontaminated by the image comparison process.

  4. Learning, memory, and synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Witthoft, Nathan; Winawer, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    People with color-grapheme synesthesia experience color when viewing written letters or numerals, usually with a particular color evoked by each grapheme. Here, we report on data from 11 color-grapheme synesthetes who had startlingly similar color-grapheme pairings traceable to childhood toys containing colored letters. These are the first and only data to show learned synesthesia of this kind in more than a single individual. Whereas some researchers have focused on genetic and perceptual aspects of synesthesia, our results indicate that a complete explanation of synesthesia must also incorporate a central role for learning and memory. We argue that these two positions can be reconciled by thinking of synesthesia as the automatic retrieval of highly specific mnemonic associations, in which perceptual contents are brought to mind in a manner akin to mental imagery or the perceptual-reinstatement effects found in memory studies.

  5. Sparse distributed memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    Sparse distributed memory was proposed be Pentti Kanerva as a realizable architecture that could store large patterns and retrieve them based on partial matches with patterns representing current sensory inputs. This memory exhibits behaviors, both in theory and in experiment, that resemble those previously unapproached by machines - e.g., rapid recognition of faces or odors, discovery of new connections between seemingly unrelated ideas, continuation of a sequence of events when given a cue from the middle, knowing that one doesn't know, or getting stuck with an answer on the tip of one's tongue. These behaviors are now within reach of machines that can be incorporated into the computing systems of robots capable of seeing, talking, and manipulating. Kanerva's theory is a break with the Western rationalistic tradition, allowing a new interpretation of learning and cognition that respects biology and the mysteries of individual human beings.

  6. Fuzzy associative memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosko, Bart

    1991-01-01

    Mappings between fuzzy cubes are discussed. This level of abstraction provides a surprising and fruitful alternative to the propositional and predicate-calculas reasoning techniques used in expert systems. It allows one to reason with sets instead of propositions. Discussed here are fuzzy and neural function estimators, neural vs. fuzzy representation of structured knowledge, fuzzy vector-matrix multiplication, and fuzzy associative memory (FAM) system architecture.

  7. Shape memory alloy actuator

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Venugopal K.

    2001-01-01

    An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

  8. Epigenetic memory in plants

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Mayumi; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in patterns of gene expression that occur without alterations in DNA sequence. The epigenetic mechanisms involve covalent modifications of DNA and histones, which affect transcriptional activity of chromatin. Since chromatin states can be propagated through mitotic and meiotic divisions, epigenetic mechanisms are thought to provide heritable ‘cellular memory’. Here, we review selected examples of epigenetic memory in plants and briefly discuss underlying mechanisms. PMID:25104823

  9. Shape Memory Actuator System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-31

    The advantage in utilizing 15 shape-memory cables made of Nitinol for size reduction of the remote control actuator system is 1 Fi well suited for...a submarine environment because of its non-magnetic and corrosion resistance 17 properties. Use of thermoelastic Nitinol introduces other...problems because of the cooling and 18 resetting properties of Nitinol cables. It is therefore an important object of the present invention 19 on to

  10. Memory metal actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A mechanical actuator can be constructed by employing a plurality of memory metal actuator elements in parallel to control the amount of actuating force. In order to facilitate direct control by digital control signals provided by a computer or the like, the actuating elements may vary in stiffness according to a binary relationship. The cooling or reset time of the actuator elements can be reduced by employing Peltier junction cooling assemblies in the actuator.

  11. Representation in Memory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-07

    notion of the schema finds its way into modern cognitive psychology from the writings of Bartlett (1932) and from Piaget (1952). Throughout most of its...Anderson. Cognitive algebra: Information integration applied to social attribution. December, 1972. 32. Jean H. Handler and Nancy L. Stein. Recall...knowledge in memory. January, 1976. 56. David E. Rumelhart. Toward an interactive model of reading. March, 1976. 57. Jean M. Handler, Nancy S

  12. [From memories about war].

    PubMed

    Spivak, B A

    2010-04-01

    The article presents publication of memories of a military physician Spivak B.A., finished the First Kiev medical institute in 1941. The author held rank: from August 1941--chief of sanitary service of a separated battalion, April 1942-June 1945--chief of operation-bandaging unit of 246 SMSB SD. After war served in military treatment institutes on ranks of surgical profile, finished the military service in the rank of chief of surgical unit of Kovel garrison hospital in 1964.

  13. Working Memory Training in the Form of Structured Games in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Khalili Kermani, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Yadegari, Fariba; Haresabadi, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Seyed Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Objective: In this study, a new training method of working memory (WM) was used in the form of structured games, and the effect of training was evaluated with a controlled design. The training method of WM in the form of structured games includes 20 sets of structured games that can improve WM and performance of executive functions. Method: Sixty children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) aged 8.5 to 11.2 years (35 boys), using no stimulant medication were selected. We randomly assigned 30 participants to the experimental group and provided them with WM training. The training was in the form of structured games and was offered to the participants in two 60-minute sessions weekly for 12 weeks. Other participants were assigned to the control group, receiving no treatment. All the participants were also evaluated at follow-up 6 months later. The main measures were the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Digit Span and Symbol Search B subscale of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV); and scores of dictation and mathematics were used in terms of pre and post-test. Results: The results of the t-test revealed a significant improvement in the post-test measures as well as a significant reduction of parents' reports of inattentiveness, and improvement in academic performance in the experimental group. However, no significant changes were found in the control group. Conclusion: The academic and working memory improvements were primarily due to the training method of WM. Our findings suggest that the training method of WM in the form of structured games may be a practical method for treating children with ADHD, but it needs to be further investigated.

  14. Working Memory Training in the Form of Structured Games in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Khalili Kermani, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Yadegari, Fariba; Haresabadi, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Seyed Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, a new training method of working memory (WM) was used in the form of structured games, and the effect of training was evaluated with a controlled design. The training method of WM in the form of structured games includes 20 sets of structured games that can improve WM and performance of executive functions. Method: Sixty children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) aged 8.5 to 11.2 years (35 boys), using no stimulant medication were selected. We randomly assigned 30 participants to the experimental group and provided them with WM training. The training was in the form of structured games and was offered to the participants in two 60-minute sessions weekly for 12 weeks. Other participants were assigned to the control group, receiving no treatment. All the participants were also evaluated at follow-up 6 months later. The main measures were the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Digit Span and Symbol Search B subscale of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV); and scores of dictation and mathematics were used in terms of pre and post-test. Results: The results of the t-test revealed a significant improvement in the post-test measures as well as a significant reduction of parents’ reports of inattentiveness, and improvement in academic performance in the experimental group. However, no significant changes were found in the control group. Conclusion: The academic and working memory improvements were primarily due to the training method of WM. Our findings suggest that the training method of WM in the form of structured games may be a practical method for treating children with ADHD, but it needs to be further investigated. PMID:28050182

  15. Sleep Loss Produces False Memories

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  16. Unifying Memory and Database Transactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Ricardo J.; Lourenço, João M.

    Software Transactional Memory is a concurrency control technique gaining increasing popularity, as it provides high-level concurrency control constructs and eases the development of highly multi-threaded applications. But this easiness comes at the expense of restricting the operations that can be executed within a memory transaction, and operations such as terminal and file I/O are either not allowed or incur in serious performance penalties. Database I/O is another example of operations that usually are not allowed within a memory transaction. This paper proposes to combine memory and database transactions in a single unified model, benefiting from the ACID properties of the database transactions and from the speed of main memory data processing. The new unified model covers, without differentiating, both memory and database operations. Thus, the users are allowed to freely intertwine memory and database accesses within the same transaction, knowing that the memory and database contents will always remain consistent and that the transaction will atomically abort or commit the operations in both memory and database. This approach allows to increase the granularity of the in-memory atomic actions and hence, simplifies the reasoning about them.

  17. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    PubMed

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",...), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

  18. Predicting confidence in flashbulb memories.

    PubMed

    Day, Martin V; Ross, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Years after a shocking news event many people confidently report details of their flashbulb memories (e.g., what they were doing). People's confidence is a defining feature of their flashbulb memories, but it is not well understood. We tested a model that predicted confidence in flashbulb memories. In particular we examined whether people's social bond with the target of a news event predicts confidence. At a first session shortly after the death of Michael Jackson participants reported their sense of attachment to Michael Jackson, as well as their flashbulb memories and emotional and other reactions to Jackson's death. At a second session approximately 18 months later they reported their flashbulb memories and confidence in those memories. Results supported our proposed model. A stronger sense of attachment to Jackson was related to reports of more initial surprise, emotion, and rehearsal during the first session. Participants' bond with Michael Jackson predicted their confidence but not the consistency of their flashbulb memories 18 months later. We also examined whether participants' initial forecasts regarding the persistence of their flashbulb memories predicted the durability of their memories. Participants' initial forecasts were more strongly related to participants' subsequent confidence than to the actual consistency of their memories.

  19. Dreams are made of memories, but maybe not for memory.

    PubMed

    Blagrove, Mark; Ruby, Perrine; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-12-01

    Llewellyn's claim that rapid eye movement (REM) dream imagery may be related to the processes involved in memory consolidation during sleep is plausible. However, whereas there is voluntary and deliberate intention behind the construction of images in the ancient art of memory (AAOM) method, there is a lack of intentionality in producing dream images. The memory for dreams is also fragile, and dependent on encoding once awake.

  20. Investigating Memory Development in Children and Infantile Amnesia in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemi Tari, Somayeh

    2008-01-01

    Although many researchers have worked on memory development, still little is known about what develops in memory development. When one reviews the literature about memory, she encounters many types of memories such as short term vs. long term memory, working memory, explicit vs. implicit memory, trans-saccadic memory, autobiographical memory,…

  1. The Nature of Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity: Active Maintenance in Primary Memory and Controlled Search from Secondary Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; Engle, Randall W.

    2007-01-01

    Studies examining individual differences in working memory capacity have suggested that individuals with low working memory capacities demonstrate impaired performance on a variety of attention and memory tasks compared with individuals with high working memory capacities. This working memory limitation can be conceived of as arising from 2…

  2. Sleep enhances false memories depending on general memory performance.

    PubMed

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2010-04-02

    Memory is subject to dynamic changes, sometimes giving rise to the formation of false memories due to biased processes of consolidation or retrieval. Sleep is known to benefit memory consolidation through an active reorganization of representations whereas acute sleep deprivation impairs retrieval functions. Here, we investigated whether sleep after learning and sleep deprivation at retrieval enhance the generation of false memories in a free recall test. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal", etc.), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Free recall was tested after 9h following a night of sleep, a night of wakefulness (sleep deprivation) or daytime wakefulness. Compared with memory performance after a retention period of daytime wakefulness, both post-learning nocturnal sleep as well as acute sleep deprivation at retrieval significantly enhanced false recall of theme words. However, these effects were only observed in subjects with low general memory performance. These data point to two different ways in which sleep affects false memory generation through semantic generalization: one acts during consolidation on the memory trace per se, presumably by active reorganization of the trace in the post-learning sleep period. The other is related to the recovery function of sleep and affects cognitive control processes of retrieval. Both effects are unmasked when the material is relatively weakly encoded.

  3. Towards Terabit Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Memories have been the major yardstick for the continuing validity of Moore's law. In single-transistor-per-Bit dynamic random-access memories (DRAM), the number of bits per chip pretty much gives us the number of transistors. For decades, DRAM's have offered the largest storage capacity per chip. However, DRAM does not scale any longer, both in density and voltage, severely limiting its power efficiency to 10 fJ/b. A differential DRAM would gain four-times in density and eight-times in energy. Static CMOS RAM (SRAM) with its six transistors/cell is gaining in reputation because it scales well in cell size and operating voltage so that its fundamental advantage of speed, non-destructive read-out and low-power standby could lead to just 2.5 electrons/bit in standby and to a dynamic power efficiency of 2aJ/b. With a projected 2020 density of 16 Gb/cm², the SRAM would be as dense as normal DRAM and vastly better in power efficiency, which would mean a major change in the architecture and market scenario for DRAM versus SRAM. Non-volatile Flash memory have seen two quantum jumps in density well beyond the roadmap: Multi-Bit storage per transistor and high-density TSV (through-silicon via) technology. The number of electrons required per Bit on the storage gate has been reduced since their first realization in 1996 by more than an order of magnitude to 400 electrons/Bit in 2010 for a complexity of 32Gbit per chip at the 32 nm node. Chip stacking of eight chips with TSV has produced a 32GByte solid-state drive (SSD). A stack of 32 chips with 2 b/cell at the 16 nm node will reach a density of 2.5 Terabit/cm². Non-volatile memory with a density of 10 × 10 nm²/Bit is the target for widespread development. Phase-change memory (PCM) and resistive memory (RRAM) lead in cell density, and they will reach 20 Gb/cm² in 2D and higher with 3D chip stacking. This is still almost an order-of-magnitude less than Flash. However, their read-out speed is ~10-times faster, with as yet

  4. Black phosphorus nonvolatile transistor memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dain; Choi, Yongsuk; Hwang, Euyheon; Kang, Moon Sung; Lee, Seungwoo; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrated nanofloating gate transistor memory devices (NFGTMs) using mechanically-exfoliated few-layered black phosphorus (BP) channels and gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) charge trapping layers. The resulting BP-NFGTMs exhibited excellent memory performances, including the five-level data storage, large memory window (58.2 V), stable retention (104 s), and cyclic endurance (1000 cycles).We demonstrated nanofloating gate transistor memory devices (NFGTMs) using mechanically-exfoliated few-layered black phosphorus (BP) channels and gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) charge trapping layers. The resulting BP-NFGTMs exhibited excellent memory performances, including the five-level data storage, large memory window (58.2 V), stable retention (104 s), and cyclic endurance (1000 cycles). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02078j

  5. Memory dynamics in attractor networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqi; Ramanathan, Kiruthika; Ning, Ning; Shi, Luping; Wen, Changyun

    2015-01-01

    As can be represented by neurons and their synaptic connections, attractor networks are widely believed to underlie biological memory systems and have been used extensively in recent years to model the storage and retrieval process of memory. In this paper, we propose a new energy function, which is nonnegative and attains zero values only at the desired memory patterns. An attractor network is designed based on the proposed energy function. It is shown that the desired memory patterns are stored as the stable equilibrium points of the attractor network. To retrieve a memory pattern, an initial stimulus input is presented to the network, and its states converge to one of stable equilibrium points. Consequently, the existence of the spurious points, that is, local maxima, saddle points, or other local minima which are undesired memory patterns, can be avoided. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Memory B cells: total recall.

    PubMed

    Phan, Tri Giang; Tangye, Stuart G

    2017-03-28

    Immunological memory is a cornerstone of adaptive immune responses in higher vertebrates. The remarkable ability to generate memory cells following Ag exposure, in the context of natural infection or immunization, provides long-lived protection against infectious diseases, often for the hosts' lifetime. Indeed, the generation of memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells underpins the success of most vaccines. The concept of immunological memory is not new-it was first proposed nearly 2500 years ago. While our understanding of the complexities of humoral and cell-mediated memory continues to evolve, important aspects of this process remain unresolved. Here, we will provide an overview of recent advances in B-cell memory in mice and humans, and in health and disease.

  7. Memory distortion: an adaptive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.; Guerin, Scott A.; St. Jacques, Peggy L.

    2011-01-01

    Memory is prone to distortions that can have serious consequences in everyday life. Here we integrate emerging evidence that several types of memory distortions – imagination inflation, gist-based and associative memory errors, and post-event misinformation – reflect adaptive cognitive processes that contribute to the efficient functioning of memory, but produce distortions as a consequence of doing so. We consider recent cognitive and neuroimaging studies that link these distortions with adaptive processes, including simulation of future events, semantic and contextual encoding, creativity, and memory updating. We also discuss new evidence concerning factors that can influence the occurrence of memory distortions, such as sleep and retrieval conditions, as well as conceptual issues related to the development of an adaptive perspective. PMID:21908231

  8. Motivated recruitment of autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Sanitioso, R; Kunda, Z; Fong, G T

    1990-08-01

    We hypothesized that people motivated to believe that they possess a given trait search for autobiographical memories that reflect that trait, so as to justify their desired self-view. We led subjects to believe that either extraversion or introversion was desirable, and obtained convergent evidence from open-ended memory-listing tasks as well as from reaction-time tasks measuring the speed with which memories could be generated that this manipulation enhanced the accessibility of memories reflecting the desired trait. If people rely on their memories to construct desired self-concepts, motivated changes in self-concepts should be constrained by the content of available memories. Our final study demonstrates such constraints.

  9. Memory Reconsolidation and Computational Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Cooper and H.T. Siegelmann, "Memory Reconsolidation for Natural Language Processing," Cognitive Neurodynamics , 3, 2009: 365-372. M.M. Olsen, N...computerized memories and other state of the art cognitive architectures, our memory system has the ability to process on-line and in real-time as...on both continuous and binary inputs, unlike state of the art methods in case based reasoning and in cognitive architectures, which are bound to

  10. Load and dump onboard memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, Alan

    2009-07-01

    This proposal is a test and verification of the ACS dump of memory capability.Areas of Control Section {CS} to dump include: EDAC RAM, EEPROM, and CS PROM {with the CS in Operate}. Areas of MIE memory to dump include: MIE RAM and MIE PROM {with the MIE in Operate}. Note that the MIE memory must first be copied to CS buffer RAM as images, which are then dumped.Supports Activity ACS-01

  11. Memory performance of Prolog architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Tick, E.

    1988-01-01

    Memory Performance of Prolog Architectures addresses these problems and reports dynamic data and instruction referencing characteristics of both sequential and parallel prolog architectures and corresponding uni-processor and multi-processor memory-hierarchy performance tradeoffs. Computer designers and logic programmers will find this work to be a valuable reference with many practical applications. Memory Performance of Prolog Architectures will also serve as an important textbook for graduate level courses in computer architecture and/or performance analysis.

  12. Memory mechanisms supporting syntactic comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to characterize the memory system that supports sentence comprehension have historically drawn extensively on short-term memory as a source of mechanisms that might apply to sentences. The focus of these efforts has changed significantly in the past decade. As a result of changes in models of short-term working memory (ST-WM) and developments in models of sentence comprehension, the effort to relate entire components of an ST-WM system, such as those in the model developed by Baddeley (Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4: 829–839, 2003) to sentence comprehension has largely been replaced by an effort to relate more specific mechanisms found in modern models of ST-WM to memory processes that support one aspect of sentence comprehension—the assignment of syntactic structure (parsing) and its use in determining sentence meaning (interpretation) during sentence comprehension. In this article, we present the historical background to recent studies of the memory mechanisms that support parsing and interpretation and review recent research into this relation. We argue that the results of this research do not converge on a set of mechanisms derived from ST-WM that apply to parsing and interpretation. We argue that the memory mechanisms supporting parsing and interpretation have features that characterize another memory system that has been postulated to account for skilled performance—long-term working memory. We propose a model of the relation of different aspects of parsing and interpretation to ST-WM and long-term working memory. PMID:23319178

  13. Dreaming and offline memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Wamsley, Erin J

    2014-03-01

    Converging evidence suggests that dreaming is influenced by the consolidation of memory during sleep. Following encoding, recently formed memory traces are gradually stabilized and reorganized into a more permanent form of long-term storage. Sleep provides an optimal neurophysiological state to facilitate this process, allowing memory networks to be repeatedly reactivated in the absence of new sensory input. The process of memory reactivation and consolidation in the sleeping brain appears to influence conscious experience during sleep, contributing to dream content recalled on awakening. This article outlines several lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis, and responds to some common objections.

  14. Dreaming and Offline Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Wamsley, Erin J.

    2015-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that dreaming is influenced by the consolidation of memory during sleep. Following encoding, recently formed memory traces are gradually stabilized and reorganized into a more permanent form of long-term storage. Sleep provides an optimal neurophysiological state to facilitate this process, allowing memory networks to be repeatedly reactivated in the absence of new sensory input. The process of memory reactivation and consolidation in the sleeping brain appears to influence conscious experience during sleep, contributing to dream content recalled on awakening. This article outlines several lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis, and responds to some common objections. PMID:24477388

  15. Gender differences in episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Herlitz, A; Nilsson, L G; Bäckman, L

    1997-11-01

    The relationship between gender and memory has been largely neglected by research, despite occasional studies reporting gender differences in episodic memory performance. The present study examined potential gender differences in episodic memory, semantic memory, primary memory, and priming. Five hundred thirty women and 470 men, randomly sampled from the city of Umeå, Sweden, 35-80 years of age, participated in the study. There were no differences between men and women with regard to age or education, or on a measure of global intellectual functioning. As has been demonstrated previously, men out performed women on a visuospatial task and women outperformed men on tests of verbal fluency. In addition, the results demonstrated that women consistently performed at a higher level than did men on the episodic memory tasks, although there were no differences between men and women on the tasks assessing semantic memory, primary memory, or priming. The women's higher level of performance on the episodic memory tasks could not be fully explained by their higher verbal ability.

  16. Memory loss risk assessment for the students nearby high-voltage power lines-a case study.

    PubMed

    Ghadamgahi, Mojgan; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Monireh

    2016-06-01

    With increasing sources of alternating current electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in everyday life, their possible harmful effects on human health are a main area of concern in many countries. Given that children are the most valuable assets of each country, it is of utmost importance to study the effect(s) of EMF exposure on various health aspects of members within this age group. The present research is the first systematic study of the effects of exposure to electric substations on the memory status of male students in the age group of 10 to 12 years. The flux density values of extremely low frequency magnetic field were measured at four elementary schools in Tehran in accordance with IEEE std 644-1994. The device was 3-axis (X, Y, and Z) Gauss Meter, model: TES-1394. The students from two schools nearby a high voltage electricity substation (at distances of 30 and 50 m) were selected as the exposed group, and the students of two other schools at further distances of 1390 and 610 m were considered as the control group. To determine the status of working memory in the students, the questionnaire was adapted from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV). The completed questionnaires were analyzed by t test and chi-square using SPSS 20. The average magnetic flux density was 0.245 μT at case schools and 0.164 μT at control schools, P < 0.01. The demographic characteristics of the students in the two groups were not statistically different. However, the difference in working memory was significant at the level of 5 %. The results of the questionnaire data showed that students in the control group had better working memory compared to students in case group. The findings revealed a reverse correlation between magnetic flux density and working memory of students (R = -0.255). It is concluded that extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure may have a negative impact on the working memory of children, but further studies are necessary to reach a

  17. Porous Shape Memory Polymers.

    PubMed

    Hearon, Keith; Singhal, Pooja; Horn, John; Small, Ward; Olsovsky, Cory; Maitland, Kristen C; Wilson, Thomas S; Maitland, Duncan J

    2013-02-04

    Porous shape memory polymers (SMPs) include foams, scaffolds, meshes, and other polymeric substrates that possess porous three-dimensional macrostructures. Porous SMPs exhibit active structural and volumetric transformations and have driven investigations in fields ranging from biomedical engineering to aerospace engineering to the clothing industry. The present review article examines recent developments in porous SMPs, with focus given to structural and chemical classification, methods of characterization, and applications. We conclude that the current body of literature presents porous SMPs as highly interesting smart materials with potential for industrial use.

  18. Implicit working memory

    PubMed Central

    Hassin, Ran R.; Bargh, John A.; Engell, Andrew D.; McCulloch, Kathleen C.

    2009-01-01

    Working Memory (WM) plays a crucial role in many high-level cognitive processes (e.g., reasoning, decision making, goal pursuit and cognitive control). The prevalent view holds that active components of WM are predominantly intentional and conscious. This conception is oftentimes expressed explicitly, but it is best reflected in the nature of major WM tasks: All of them are blatantly explicit. We developed two new WM paradigms that allow for an examination of the role of conscious awareness in WM. Results from five studies show that WM can operate unintentionally and outside of conscious awareness, thus suggesting that the current view should be expanded to include implicit WM. PMID:19442537

  19. Porous Shape Memory Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Hearon, Keith; Singhal, Pooja; Horn, John; Small, Ward; Olsovsky, Cory; Maitland, Kristen C.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2013-01-01

    Porous shape memory polymers (SMPs) include foams, scaffolds, meshes, and other polymeric substrates that possess porous three-dimensional macrostructures. Porous SMPs exhibit active structural and volumetric transformations and have driven investigations in fields ranging from biomedical engineering to aerospace engineering to the clothing industry. The present review article examines recent developments in porous SMPs, with focus given to structural and chemical classification, methods of characterization, and applications. We conclude that the current body of literature presents porous SMPs as highly interesting smart materials with potential for industrial use. PMID:23646038

  20. Nanoparticle shuttle memory

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alex Karlwalter [Kensington, CA

    2012-03-06

    A device for storing data using nanoparticle shuttle memory having a nanotube. The nanotube has a first end and a second end. A first electrode is electrically connected to the first end of the nanotube. A second electrode is electrically connected to the second end of the nanotube. The nanotube has an enclosed nanoparticle shuttle. A switched voltage source is electrically connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby a voltage may be controllably applied across the nanotube. A resistance meter is also connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby the electrical resistance across the nanotube can be determined.

  1. Vertical bloch line memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, R.; Wu, J.; Stadler, H.

    1990-01-01

    Vertical Bloch Line (VBL) memory is a recently conceived, integrated, solid-state, block-access, VLSI memory which offers the potential of 1Gbit/sq cm real storage density, gigabit per second data rates, and sub-millisecond average access times simultaneously at relatively low mass, volume, and power values when compared to alternative technologies. VBL's are micromagnetic structures within magnetic domain walls which can be manipulated using magnetic fields from integrated conductors. The presence or absence of VBL pairs are used to store binary information. At present, efforts are being directed at developing a single-chip memory using 25Mbit/sq cm technology in magnetic garnet material which integrates, at a single operating point, the writing, storage, reading, and amplification functions needed in a memory. This paper describes the current design architecture, functional elements, and supercomputer simulation results which are used to assist the design process. The current design architecture uses three metal layers, two ion implantation steps for modulating the thickness of the magnetic layer, one ion implantation step for assisting propagation in the major line track, one NiFe soft magnetic layer, one CoPt hard magnetic layer, and one reflective Cr layer for facilitating magneto-optic observation of magnetic structure. Data are stored in a series of elongated magnetic domains, called stripes, which serve as storage sites for arrays of VBL pairs. The ends of these stripes are placed near conductors which serve as VBL read/write gates. A major line track is present to provide a source and propagation path for magnetic bubbles. Writing and reading, respectively, are achieved by converting magnetic bubbles to VBL's and vice versa. The output function is effected by stretching a magnetic bubble and detecting it magnetoresistively. Experimental results from the past design cycle created four design goals for the current design cycle. First, the bias field ranges

  2. Nonvolatile Analog Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A nonvolatile analog memory uses pairs of ferroelectric field effect transistors (FFETs). Each pair is defined by a first FFET and a second FFET. When an analog value is to be stored in one of the pairs, the first FFET has a saturation voltage applied thereto, and the second FFET has a storage voltage applied thereto that is indicative of the analog value. The saturation and storage voltages decay over time in accordance with a known decay function that is used to recover the original analog value when the pair of FFETs is read.

  3. Content addressable memory project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. Storrs; Levy, Saul; Smith, Donald E.; Miyake, Keith M.

    1992-01-01

    A parameterized version of the tree processor was designed and tested (by simulation). The leaf processor design is 90 percent complete. We expect to complete and test a combination of tree and leaf cell designs in the next period. Work is proceeding on algorithms for the computer aided manufacturing (CAM), and once the design is complete we will begin simulating algorithms for large problems. The following topics are covered: (1) the practical implementation of content addressable memory; (2) design of a LEAF cell for the Rutgers CAM architecture; (3) a circuit design tool user's manual; and (4) design and analysis of efficient hierarchical interconnection networks.

  4. Remaking Memories: Reconsolidation Updates Positively Motivated Spatial Memory in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bethany; Bukoski, Elizabeth; Nadel, Lynn; Fellous, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    There is strong evidence that reactivation of a memory returns it to a labile state, initiating a restabilization process termed reconsolidation, which allows for updating of the memory. In this study we investigated reactivation-dependent updating using a new positively motivated spatial task in rodents that was designed specifically to model a…

  5. On the susceptibility of adaptive memory to false memory illusions.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Derbish, Mary H

    2010-05-01

    Previous research has shown that survival-related processing of word lists enhances retention for that material. However, the claim that survival-related memories are more accurate has only been examined when true recall and recognition of neutral material has been measured. In the current experiments, we examined the adaptive memory superiority effect for different types of processing and material, measuring accuracy more directly by comparing true and false recollection rates. Survival-related information and processing was examined using word lists containing backward associates of neutral, negative, and survival-related critical lures and type of processing (pleasantness, moving, survival) was varied using an incidental memory paradigm. Across four experiments, results showed that survival-related words were more susceptible than negative and neutral words to the false memory illusion and that processing information in terms of its relevance to survival independently increased this susceptibility to the false memory illusion. Overall, although survival-related processing and survival-related information resulted in poorer, not more accurate, memory, such inaccuracies may have adaptive significance. These findings are discussed in the context of false memory research and recent theories concerning the importance of survival processing and the nature of adaptive memory.

  6. On the Susceptibility of Adaptive Memory to False Memory Illusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Derbish, Mary H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that survival-related processing of word lists enhances retention for that material. However, the claim that survival-related memories are more accurate has only been examined when true recall and recognition of neutral material has been measured. In the current experiments, we examined the adaptive memory superiority…

  7. Memory for Sentences: Implications for Human Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, Donald J.; Harwood, David A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper evaluates associative theories of sentence memory, based on the model of J.R. Anderson and G.H. Bower. A model of Human Associative Memory (HAM) is generalized and defined, and alternative models incorporating configural information are presented. (CK)

  8. Memory in autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-05-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory impairments are more extensive in M-LFA than in HFA. Specifically, both groups have diminished memory for emotion- or person-related stimuli. Regarding memory for nonsocial stimuli, both groups probably have mental-age-appropriate nondeclarative memory, and within declarative memory, both groups have mental-age-appropriate immediate free recall of within-span or supraspan lists of unrelated items, as well as cued recall and paired associate learning. By contrast, recognition is largely unimpaired in HFA but moderately impaired in M-LFA, and free recall of meaningful or structured stimuli is moderately impaired in HFA but more severely impaired in M-LFA. Theoretical explanations of data on declarative memory in HFA identify problems in the integrative processing, or the consolidation and storage, of complex stimuli or a specific problem of recollection. Proposed neural substrates include the following: disconnectivity of primary sensory and association areas; dysfunctions of medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, or posterior parietal lobe; or combinations of these associated with neural disconnectivity. Hypothetically, perirhinal dysfunction might explain the more extensive declarative memory impairments in M-LFA. Foreseeable consequences of uneven memory abilities in HFA and M-LFA are outlined, including possible effects on language and learning in M-LFA. Finally, priorities for future research are identified, highlighting the urgent need for research on memory in lower functioning individuals.

  9. Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Gabrieli, J. D.; Stebbins, G. T.; Sullivan, E. V.

    1998-01-01

    Working memory and its contribution to performance on strategic memory tests in schizophrenia were studied. Patients (n = 18) and control participants (n = 15), all men, received tests of immediate memory (forward digit span), working memory (listening, computation, and backward digit span), and long-term strategic (free recall, temporal order, and self-ordered pointing) and nonstrategic (recognition) memory. Schizophrenia patients performed worse on all tests. Education, verbal intelligence, and immediate memory capacity did not account for deficits in working memory in schizophrenia patients. Reduced working memory capacity accounted for group differences in strategic memory but not in recognition memory. Working memory impairment may be central to the profile of impaired cognitive performance in schizophrenia and is consistent with hypothesized frontal lobe dysfunction associated with this disease. Additional medial-temporal dysfunction may account for the recognition memory deficit.

  10. Negative affect impairs associative memory but not item memory.

    PubMed

    Bisby, James A; Burgess, Neil

    2013-12-17

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine the effects of emotion on memory for items and their associations. By presenting neutral and negative items with background contexts, Experiment 1 demonstrated that item memory was facilitated by emotional affect, whereas memory for an associated context was reduced. In Experiment 2, arousal was manipulated independently of the memoranda, by a threat of shock, whereby encoding trials occurred under conditions of threat or safety. Memory for context was equally impaired by the presence of negative affect, whether induced by threat of shock or a negative item, relative to retrieval of the context of a neutral item in safety. In Experiment 3, participants were presented with neutral and negative items as paired associates, including all combinations of neutral and negative items. The results showed both above effects: compared to a neutral item, memory for the associate of a negative item (a second item here, context in Experiments 1 and 2) is impaired, whereas retrieval of the item itself is enhanced. Our findings suggest that negative affect impairs associative memory while recognition of a negative item is enhanced. They support dual-processing models in which negative affect or stress impairs hippocampal-dependent associative memory while the storage of negative sensory/perceptual representations is spared or even strengthened.

  11. The memory loophole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanahan, Daniel

    2008-05-01

    The memory loophole supposes that the measurement of an entangled pair is influenced by the measurements of earlier pairs in the same run of measurements. To assert the memory loophole is thus to deny that measurement is intrinsically random. It is argued that measurement might instead involve a process of recovery and equilibrium in the measuring apparatus akin to that described in thermodynamics by Le Chatelier's principle. The predictions of quantum mechanics would then arise from conservation of the measured property in the combined system of apparatus and measured ensemble. Measurement would be consistent with classical laws of conservation, not simply in the classical limit of large numbers, but whatever the size of the ensemble. However variances from quantum mechanical predictions would be self-correcting and centripetal, rather than Markovian and increasing as under the standard theory. Entanglement correlations would persist, not because the entangled particles act in concert (which would entail nonlocality), but because the measurements of the particles were influenced by the one fluctuating state of imbalance in the process of measurement.

  12. Cueing others' memories.

    PubMed

    Tullis, Jonathan G; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2015-05-01

    Many situations require us to generate external cues to support later retrieval from memory. For instance, we create file names in order to cue our memory to a file's contents, and instructors create lecture slides to remember what points to make during classes. We even generate cues for others when we remind friends of shared experiences or send colleagues a computer file that is named in such a way so as to remind them of its contents. Here we explore how and how well learners tailor retrieval cues for different intended recipients. Across three experiments, subjects generated verbal cues for a list of target words for themselves or for others. Learners generated cues for others by increasing the normative cue-to-target associative strength but also by increasing the number of other words their cues point to, relative to cues that they generated for themselves. This strategy was effective: such cues supported higher levels of recall for others than cues generated for oneself. Generating cues for others also required more time than generating cues for oneself. Learners responded to the differential demands of cue generation for others by effortfully excluding personal, episodic knowledge and including knowledge that they estimate to be broadly shared.

  13. Magnetic shape memory fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heczko, Oleg; Straka, Ladislav; Soderberg, Outi; Hannula, Simo-Pekka

    2005-05-01

    Single crystal specimens of having compositions close to Ni2MnGa and exhibiting magnetic shape memory effect (MSME) were tested in a rotating magnetic field at a frequency of 5.7 Hz. The applied magnetic field, about 0.7 T was strong enough to induce the MSME. Test of one specimen was discontinued because of the structural failure of the specimens after 0.5 million cycles. Second specimen was tested up to 37 millions cycles. The evolution of the martensitic morphology and crack propagation were observed by optical microscopy. To characterize the magnetic shape memory behavior the simultaneous measurements of the field-induced strain and magnetization as a function of the magnetic field and external load was used. The full MSM effect, about 6% obtained prior the test, decreased to about 3% during the first million cycles. This value stayed then approximately constant up to 37 millions cycles of rotating magnetic field. The magnetic field needed to initiate the MSME increased. The observed behavior is discussed within the framework of observed martensitic band structure in the specimens and the existence of initial cracks and other obstacles for martensitic twin boundary motion.

  14. Magnonic Holographic Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khitun, Alexander; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Gertz, Frederick; Filimonov, Yuri

    2015-03-01

    Collective oscillation of spins in magnetic lattice known as spin waves (magnons) possess relatively long coherence length at room temperature, which makes it possible to build sub-micrometer scale holographic devices similar to the devices developed in optics. In this work, we present a prototype 2-bit magnonic holographic memory. The memory consists of the double-cross waveguide structure made of Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 with magnets placed on the top of waveguide junctions. Information is encoded in the orientation of the magnets, while the read-out is accomplished by the spin waves generated by the micro-antennas placed on the edges of the waveguides. The interference pattern produced by multiple spin waves makes it possible to build a unique holographic image of the magnetic structure and recognize the state of the each magnet. The development of magnonic holographic devices opens a new horizon for building scalable holographic devices compatible with conventional electronic devices. This work was supported in part by the FAME Center, one of six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA and by the National Science Foundation under the NEB2020 Grant ECCS-1124714.

  15. [Memory and synaptic plasticity].

    PubMed

    Maitre, M

    1996-01-01

    Short term memory traces are probably induced by a sustained and specific functional activation of some sensory and/or motor circuits in brain. These modifications, which could concern a large proportion of the brain but especially the limbic areas, are constituted primarily by ionic mechanisms and second messengers cascades induced by the activation of glutamatergic receptors (namely NMDA). In the invertebrate (Drosophilia melanogaster, aplysia), the role of serotonergic receptors seems to be more important. The activated cAMP-dependent and calcium dependent protein kinases target several proteins which are reversibly phosphorylated modifying the synaptic functions which in turn induce potentiated (PLT) or depressed (DLT) post-synaptic responses. These phenomena are at the basis of specific protein neosynthesis which is initiated by several early genes or trancription factor (cfos, zif 268, jun, CREB). Specific mRNA migrate to the potentiated synapse or dendritic spine where activated polyribosomes synthesize trophic factor, adhesion molecules and synaptic constituents. The building of new synaptic contacts and/or the plastic evolution of existing synapses could explain long-term LTP and long-term memory traces.

  16. Characterization of Spatial Memory Reconsolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jaeger, Xavier; Courtey, Julie; Brus, Maïna; Artinian, Julien; Villain, Hélène; Bacquié, Elodie; Roullet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Reconsolidation is necessary for the restabilization of reactivated memory traces. However, experimental parameters have been suggested as boundary conditions for this process. Here we investigated the role of a spatial memory trace's age, strength, and update on the reconsolidation process in mice. We first found that protein synthesis is…

  17. Modeling the Cray memory scheduler

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, K.L.; Litteer, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report documents the results of a project to evaluate low cost modeling and simulation tools when applied to modeling the Cray memory scheduler. The specific tool used is described and the basics of the memory scheduler are covered. Results of simulations using the model are discussed and a favorable recommendation is made to make more use of this inexpensive technology.

  18. Time, Language, and Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Christopher D. B.

    2008-01-01

    Life themes, general events, and event-specific episodes, together with autobiographical knowledge, form autobiographical memory. Each of these memory structures is described, and research that has investigated the storage and retrieval of temporal information for life events, such as place in time, duration, and order, is examined. The general…

  19. Professional Memory and English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarpey, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article concerns the way that research into Professional Memory (PM) in English teaching might re-connect the school subject with constituencies--the individuals, communities and social values--it once served. By PM I mean the collective memories of a generation of English teachers which, when brought into conjunction with existing histories,…

  20. Memory in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory…

  1. Infants Hierarchically Organize Memory Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Rebecca D.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into "chunks". Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this…

  2. Optimal Foraging in Semantic Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Jones, Michael N.; Todd, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Do humans search in memory using dynamic local-to-global search strategies similar to those that animals use to forage between patches in space? If so, do their dynamic memory search policies correspond to optimal foraging strategies seen for spatial foraging? Results from a number of fields suggest these possibilities, including the shared…

  3. Demystifying the Beginnings of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Courage, Mary L.

    2004-01-01

    A longstanding issue in psychology has been, When does human memory begin? More particularly, when do we begin to remember personal experiences in a way that makes them accessible to recollection later in life? Current popular and scientific thinking would have us believe that memories are possible not only at the time of our birth, but also in…

  4. Exercising Control Over Memory Consolidation.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Edwin M; Takacs, Adam

    2017-03-28

    Exercise can improve human cognition. A mechanistic connection between exercise and cognition has been revealed in several recent studies. Exercise increases cortical excitability and this in turn leads to enhanced memory consolidation. Together these studies dovetail with our growing understanding of memory consolidation and how it is regulated through changes in motor cortical excitability.

  5. Stroke and episodic memory disorders.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P

    2009-12-01

    Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there are several important facets of memory impairment after stroke: (1) Every node of the limbic system implicated in memory may be damaged by stroke but very rarely in isolation and the combination of amnesia with the associated deficits often illuminates additional aspects of memory functions. (2) Stroke produces amnesia by damage to critical convergence white matter connections of the limbic system, and stroke is the only etiology of amnesia that can delineate the entire pathway of memory and critical convergence points. (3) Stroke also impairs memory, without causing classical amnesia, by damaging brain regions responsible for cognitive processes, some modality specific and some more generally strategic, that are essential for normal learning and recall.

  6. Making Connections with Memory Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley, April

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)

  7. Adaptive Memory: Thinking about Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Raoul; Röer, Jan P.; Buchner, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Rating the relevance of words for the imagined situation of being stranded in the grasslands without survival material leads to exceptionally good memory for these words. This survival processing effect has received much attention because it promises to elucidate the evolutionary foundations of memory. However, the proximate mechanisms of the…

  8. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Martinez, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

  9. Memory Strategies for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reetz, Linda J.

    Seven memory strategies that can be taught to college students with learning disabilities or students who have not learned essential study skills are described: the method of loci, pegwords, keywords, rote rehearsal, chaining, clustering, and first letter mnemonics. To help college faculty provide direct instruction in the memory strategies, the…

  10. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  11. Using Photographs from American Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Laurel R., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This publication contains teaching ideas generated by classroom teachers. For grades K-4, elementary teacher Doris Waud and media specialist Gail Petri developed "Celebrate America with Symbols from American Memory," in which students explore the American memory and symbols. For grades 5-8, media specialist Mary Alice Anderson developed…

  12. Output Interference in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Amy H.; Malmberg, Kenneth J.; Shiffrin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Dennis and Humphreys (2001) proposed that interference in recognition memory arises solely from the prior contexts of the test word: Interference does not arise from memory traces of other words (from events prior to the study list or on the study list, and regardless of similarity to the test item). We evaluate this model using output…

  13. Global Aspects of Radiation Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winicour, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    The gravitational radiation memory effect produces a net displacement of test particles. The proposed sources lead to E mode memory, as characterized by an even parity polarization pattern. Although odd parity, or B mode, radiation memory is mathematically possible, no physically realistic source has been identified. There is an electromagnetic counterpart to radiation memory which produces a net momentum ``kick'' of charged test particles. A global null cone treatment shows that electromagnetic E mode memory requires unbounded charges and no physically realistic source produces B mode memory. A compelling theoretical aspect of E mode gravitational radiation memory is related to the supertranslations in the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) asymptotic symmetry group. For a stationary system, supertranslations can be eliminated and the BMS group reduced to the Poincare group, for which angular momentum is well-defined. However, for a stationary to stationary transition, the two Poincare groups obtained at early and late times differ by a supertranslation if the gravitational radiation has nonzero E mode memory. This suggests a distinctly general relativistic mechanism for angular momentum loss and presents a ripe problem for the numerical simulation of high spin black hole binaries. Supported by NSF grant PHY-1201276 to the University of Pittsburgh.

  14. Circadian Rhythms in Human Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folkard, Simon; Monk, Timothy H.

    1980-01-01

    Two experiments are described that examined the influence of time-of-day of presentation on immediate and delayed retention and its potential effects on retrieval from long-term memory. Time of presentation was found to influence both immediate and delayed (28 day) retention, but not retrieval from long-term memory. (Author/SJL)

  15. ANATOMICAL LOCALIZATION OF TARGET LEARNING AND MEMORY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CEPHALOPODA, *MEMORY(PSYCHOLOGY), MEMORY(PSYCHOLOGY), ANATOMY, BRAIN , STIMULATION (PHYSIOLOGY), ANTIBIOTICS, LABELED SUBSTANCES, LEARNING, UNITED KINGDOM, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, PROTEINS, BIOSYNTHESIS.

  16. Ferroelectric memory based on nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the past decades, ferroelectric materials have attracted wide attention due to their applications in nonvolatile memory devices (NVMDs) rendered by the electrically switchable spontaneous polarizations. Furthermore, the combination of ferroelectric and nanomaterials opens a new route to fabricating a nanoscale memory device with ultrahigh memory integration, which greatly eases the ever increasing scaling and economic challenges encountered in the traditional semiconductor industry. In this review, we summarize the recent development of the nonvolatile ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memory devices based on nanostructures. The operating principles of FeFET are introduced first, followed by the discussion of the real FeFET memory nanodevices based on oxide nanowires, nanoparticles, semiconductor nanotetrapods, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Finally, we present the opportunities and challenges in nanomemory devices and our views on the future prospects of NVMDs. PMID:22655750

  17. Aging and memory for dreams.

    PubMed

    Waterman, D

    1991-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of aging on memory for home drams and the extent to which cognitive variables such as visual memory, visuospatial IQ, and verbal IQ could account for possible differences herein. Subjects were 80 men and women of ages 45 to 75 years. Memory for dreams was measured by narrative length and frequency of recall. With respect to both measures no significant age differences were noted. Over-all differences in dream recall seemed best explained by visual memory scores. Partial correlational analyses, however, indicated that the small age differences memory or on any of the other cognitive variables. Dream contents were scored for aggression, friendliness, emotion, activities, and the number of characters and objects. The incidence of emotions among women appeared to be lower beyond the age of 60. Comparisons with previous data for young adults indicated that large reductions in aggression, friendliness, and emotion occur before the age of 45.

  18. The effect of moderate levels of simulated altitude on sustained cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, C J; Jensen, W; Petros, T V; Ferraro, F R; Fire, K M; Biberdorf, D; Fraley, E; Schalk, J; Blumkin, D

    1999-01-01

    Previous work has documented cognitive deficits at high altitudes (15,000-25,000 ft), but there is controversy for lower altitudes. This study looked at the effects of moderate altitudes--12,500 ft and 15,000 ft--on short-term memory in comparison to 2,000 ft. Seventy-two student pilots and instructors were first administered the Vocabulary, Digit Span, and Digit Symbol subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Vandenberg Mental Rotation Test, and the near-contrast sensitivity portion of the Vistech VCTS 6000 chart. Participants then spent 1 1/2 hr at their designated altitude for cognitive testing. Participants performed a 30 min vigilance task while listening to an audiotape with instructions to recall radio calls prefaced by their assigned call sign. Half of the radio calls were high memory loads (at least 4 pieces of information), and half were low memory loads (no more than 2 pieces of information). No effects of altitude were found in performance on the Vigilance task. However, for readbacks of high memory load, significant deficits in recall were observed at 12,500 ft and 15,000 ft, whereas no effect of altitude was observed on recall of readbacks with low memory loads. These results indicate that, at altitude, short-term memory was exceeded for the readbacks requiring a larger amount of information to be recalled, and that cognitive deficits are found at lower altitudes than previously observed.

  19. The influence of shift work on cognitive functions and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Pınar Güzel; Selvi, Yavuz; Özkol, Halil; Aydın, Adem; Tülüce, Yasin; Boysan, Murat; Beşiroğlu, Lütfullah

    2013-12-30

    Shift work influences health, performance, activity, and social relationships, and it causes impairment in cognitive functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of shift work on participants' cognitive functions in terms of memory, attention, and learning, and we measured the effects on oxidative stress. Additionally, we investigated whether there were significant relationships between cognitive functions and whole blood oxidant/antioxidant status of participants. A total of 90 health care workers participated in the study, of whom 45 subjects were night-shift workers. Neuropsychological tests were administered to the participants to assess cognitive function, and blood samples were taken to detect total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status at 08:00. Differences in anxiety, depression, and chronotype characteristics between shift work groups were not significant. Shift workers achieved significantly lower scores on verbal memory, attention-concentration, and the digit span forward sub-scales of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), as well as on the immediate memory and total learning sub-scales of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Oxidative stress parameters were significantly associated with some types of cognitive function, including attention-concentration, recognition, and long-term memory. These findings suggest that night shift work may result in significantly poorer cognitive performance, particularly working memory.

  20. [Extinction and Reconsolidation of Memory].

    PubMed

    Zuzina, A B; Balaban, P M

    2015-01-01

    Retrieval of memory followed by reconsolidation can strengthen a memory, while retrieval followed by extinction results in a decrease of memory performance due to weakening of existing memory or formation of a competing memory. In our study we analyzed the behavior and responses of identified neurons involved in the network underlying aversive learning in terrestrial snail Helix, and made an attempt to describe the conditions in which the retrieval of memory leads either to extinction or reconsolidation. In the network underlying the withdrawal behavior, sensory neurons, premotor interneurons, motor neurons, and modulatory for this network serotonergic neurons are identified and recordings from representatives of these groups were made before and after aversive learning. In the network underlying feeding behavior, the premotor modulatory serotonergic interneurons and motor neurons involved in motor program of feeding are identified. Analysis of changes in neural activity after aversive learning showed that modulatory neurons of feeding behavior do not demonstrate any changes (sometimes a decrease of responses to food was observed), while responses to food in withdrawal behavior premotor interneurons changed qualitatively, from under threshold EPSPs to spike discharges. Using a specific for serotonergic neurons neurotoxin 5,7-DiHT it was shown previously that the serotonergic system is necessary for the aversive learning, but is not necessary for maintenance and retrieval of this memory. These results suggest that the serotonergic neurons that are necessary as part of a reinforcement for developing the associative changes in the network may be not necessary for the retrieval of memory. The hypothesis presented in this review concerns the activity of the "reinforcement" serotonergic neurons that is suggested to be the gate condition for the choice between extinction/reconsolidation triggered by memory retrieval: if these serotonergic neurons do not respond during the

  1. Neural substrates of semantic memory.

    PubMed

    Hart, John; Anand, Raksha; Zoccoli, Sandra; Maguire, Mandy; Gamino, Jacque; Tillman, Gail; King, Richard; Kraut, Michael A

    2007-09-01

    Semantic memory is described as the storage of knowledge, concepts, and information that is common and relatively consistent across individuals (e.g., memory of what is a cup). These memories are stored in multiple sensorimotor modalities and cognitive systems throughout the brain (e.g., how a cup is held and manipulated, the texture of a cup's surface, its shape, its function, that is related to beverages such as coffee, and so on). Our ability to engage in purposeful interactions with our environment is dependent on the ability to understand the meaning and significance of the objects and actions around us that are stored in semantic memory. Theories of the neural basis of the semantic memory of objects have produced sophisticated models that have incorporated to varying degrees the results of cognitive and neural investigations. The models are grouped into those that are (1) cognitive models, where the neural data are used to reveal dissociations in semantic memory after a brain lesion occurs; (2) models that incorporate both cognitive and neuroanatomical information; and (3) models that use cognitive, neuroanatomic, and neurophysiological data. This review highlights the advances and issues that have emerged from these models and points to future directions that provide opportunities to extend these models. The models of object memory generally describe how category and/or feature representations encode for object memory, and the semantic operations engaged in object processing. The incorporation of data derived from multiple modalities of investigation can lead to detailed neural specifications of semantic memory organization. The addition of neurophysiological data can potentially provide further elaboration of models to include semantic neural mechanisms. Future directions should incorporate available and newly developed techniques to better inform the neural underpinning of semantic memory models.

  2. Assessment of Cognitive Scales to Examine Memory, Executive Function and Language in Individuals with Down Syndrome: Implications of a 6-month Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Liogier d'Ardhuy, Xavier; Edgin, Jamie O.; Bouis, Charles; de Sola, Susana; Goeldner, Celia; Kishnani, Priya; Nöldeke, Jana; Rice, Sydney; Sacco, Silvia; Squassante, Lisa; Spiridigliozzi, Gail; Visootsak, Jeannie; Heller, James; Khwaja, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identifiable genetic form of intellectual disability. Individuals with DS have considerable deficits in intellectual functioning (i.e., low intellectual quotient, delayed learning and/or impaired language development) and adaptive behavior. Previous pharmacological studies in this population have been limited by a lack of appropriate endpoints that accurately measured change in cognitive and functional abilities. Therefore, the current longitudinal observational study assessed the suitability and reliability of existing cognitive scales to determine which tools would be the most effective in future interventional clinical studies. Subtests of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), and Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool-2 (CELF-P-2), and the Observer Memory Questionnaire-Parent Form (OMQ-PF), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function®–Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) and Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised were assessed. The results reported here have contributed to the optimization of trial design and endpoint selection for the Phase 2 study of a new selective negative allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor α5-subtype (Basmisanil), and can be applied to other studies in the DS population. PMID:26635554

  3. [Memory traces in EEG].

    PubMed

    Rösler, F; Bajrić, J; Heil, M; Hennighausen, E; Niedeggen, M; Pechmann, T; Röder, B; Rüsseler, J; Streb, J

    1997-01-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of five experimental approaches in which memory processes were studied by means of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Some of the results were already published in English (Study 1), while others are new and will be reported in greater length as full paper elsewhere (Studies 2, 3, 4, and 5). Study 1 revealed that retrieval of information from episodic long-term memory is accompanied by a systematic slow negative potential. The topography of this slow wave depends on the quality of the reactivated information (spatial vs. verbal), and its amplitude reflects the difficulty of the retrieval process. In experiment 2 ERPs were recorded while subjects acquired either explicit or implicit knowledge about a sequential stimulus-response pattern. The data suggest that explicit learners who posses verbalizable knowledge about sequential dependencies have formed both perceptual and motor representations, while implicit learners have formed motor representations only. In study 3 fact retrieval in mental arithmetic was activated by a verification task. Incongruent solutions evoked an arithmetic N400-effect whose amplitude varied with the associative distance between an expected and an actually perceived solution to a multiplication problem. In study 4 ERPs were recorded during mental rotation tasks. A set of experiments revealed that mental rotation is always accompanied by a systematic negative variation over the parietal cortex. The amplitude of this "rotation specific negativity" increases with an increasing angular disparity between a perceived sign and its normal upright template. It was shown that this negativity is functionally distinct from a P300-complex which is often superimposed on it within the same latency window. Finally, study 5 examined ERPs in a sentence reading task in which grammatically legal but infrequent sentence constructions had to be processed. A left-anterior negativity was observed whenever an explicit case marker

  4. Working memory training improves visual short-term memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Schwarb, Hillary; Nail, Jayde; Schumacher, Eric H

    2016-01-01

    Since antiquity, philosophers, theologians, and scientists have been interested in human memory. However, researchers today are still working to understand the capabilities, boundaries, and architecture. While the storage capabilities of long-term memory are seemingly unlimited (Bahrick, J Exp Psychol 113:1-2, 1984), working memory, or the ability to maintain and manipulate information held in memory, seems to have stringent capacity limits (e.g., Cowan, Behav Brain Sci 24:87-185, 2001). Individual differences, however, do exist and these differences can often predict performance on a wide variety of tasks (cf. Engle What is working-memory capacity? 297-314, 2001). Recently, researchers have promoted the enticing possibility that simple behavioral training can expand the limits of working memory which indeed may also lead to improvements on other cognitive processes as well (cf. Morrison and Chein, Psychol Bull Rev 18:46-60 2011). However, initial investigations across a wide variety of cognitive functions have produced mixed results regarding the transferability of training-related improvements. Across two experiments, the present research focuses on the benefit of working memory training on visual short-term memory capacity-a cognitive process that has received little attention in the training literature. Data reveal training-related improvement of global measures of visual short-term memory as well as of measures of the independent sub-processes that contribute to capacity (Awh et al., Psychol Sci 18(7):622-628, 2007). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit irrelevant information within and between trials is enhanced via n-back training allowing for selective improvement on untrained tasks. Additionally, we highlight a potential limitation of the standard adaptive training procedure and propose a modified design to ensure variability in the training environment.

  5. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Taiwan Odd-Even Number Sequencing Test: A Nonalphabetic Measure of Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Peng, Chung-Yu; Hua, Mau-Sun; Liu, Chen-Chung; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Hwu, Hai-Gwo

    2016-05-09

    Alphabetic working memory (WM) tests, such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and IV Letter Number Sequencing, are not appropriate for nonalphabetic cultures. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Taiwan Odd-Even Number Sequencing Test (TOENST) and identified representative norms. The TOENST and other mental screening tasks were administered to 300 randomly selected healthy participants, 32 purposive sampling patients with schizophrenia, and 32 quota sampling controls. To investigate reliability and validity, a subset of the 300 healthy participants was randomly selected to receive a second TOENST (n = 30) or conventional WM tests (n = 42). The split-half reliability of the TOENST ranged from 0.69 to 0.95, and its test-retest reliability was 0.75. Criterion validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with conventional WM measures (all p < .05, except semantic verbal fluency), and construct validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with aging (main effect, F10,259 = 10.99, p < .001). Normative data were established, and performance was significantly associated with age and education. TOENST scores of patients with schizophrenia were significantly lower and correlated with frontal lobe tests, but not demographical or clinical characteristics. The TOENST has adequate psychometric properties and clinical utility and is as a viable alternative WM task for nonalphabetic cultures.

  6. Remembering, imagining, false memories & personal meanings.

    PubMed

    Conway, Martin A; Loveday, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The Self-Memory System encompasses the working self, autobiographical memory and episodic memory. Specific autobiographical memories are patterns of activation over knowledge structures in autobiographical and episodic memory brought about by the activating effect of cues. The working self can elaborate cues based on the knowledge they initially activate and so control the construction of memories of the past and the future. It is proposed that such construction takes place in the remembering-imagining system - a window of highly accessible recent memories and simulations of near future events. How this malfunctions in various disorders is considered as are the implication of what we term the modern view of human memory for notions of memory accuracy. We show how all memories are to some degree false and that the main role of memories lies in generating personal meanings.

  7. [Epigenetics and memory].

    PubMed

    Gräff, Johannes; Franklin, Tamara B; Mansuy, Isabelle M

    2010-01-01

    The epigenetic marking of chromatin in the brain has recently been recognized as an essential mechanism for brain functions such as learning and memory formation. It allows nerve cells not only to respond to environmental stimuli and modulate their profile of gene expression, but also to establish and maintain their own identity. The epigenetic code is conferred by a set of covalent modifications on the basic elements of chromatin, DNA and histone proteins. These changes are catalyzed by specific enzymes and mechanisms, which include DNA methylation, and post-translational modifications of histone proteins such as acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation and ubiquitination. They are both stable and highly dynamic, and are triggered during stimulation of neuronal circuits but can also persist thereafter. Their study in animal models has demonstrated their importance, and revealed some of their modes of function.

  8. ELECTROSTATIC MEMORY SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Chu, J.C.

    1958-09-23

    An improved electrostatic memory system is de scribed fer a digital computer wherein a plarality of storage tubes are adapted to operate in either of two possible modes. According to the present irvention, duplicate storage tubes are provided fur each denominational order of the several binary digits. A single discriminator system is provided between corresponding duplicate tubes to determine the character of the infurmation stored in each. If either tube produces the selected type signal, corresponding to binazy "1" in the preferred embodiment, a "1" is regenerated in both tubes. In one mode of operation each bit of information is stored in two corresponding tubes, while in the other mode of operation each bit is stored in only one tube in the conventional manner.

  9. Evolution of working memory

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is fundamental to many aspects of human life, including learning, speech and text comprehension, prospection and future planning, and explicit “system 2” forms of reasoning, as well as overlapping heavily with fluid general intelligence. WM has been intensively studied for many decades, and there is a growing consensus about its nature, its components, and its signature limits. Remarkably, given its central importance in human life, there has been very little comparative investigation of WM abilities across species. Consequently, much remains unknown about the evolution of this important human capacity. Some questions can be tentatively answered from the existing comparative literature. Even studies that were not intended to do so can nonetheless shed light on the WM capacities of nonhuman animals. However, many questions remain. PMID:23754428

  10. Memories of the holocaust.

    PubMed

    Unger, Samuel

    2006-03-01

    As Alpha Omegans, we are united not only by our profession but also by a mission to educate ourselves, and others, about preserving our Jewish heritage. It was with this mission in mind that the Alpha Omegan invited me to share with my fraters a very personal, and painful, account of my boyhood in Poland, where I survived the Holocaust. Among the many gruesome episodes I encountered during the war, two remain vivid in my memories. Although this is not an easy story for me to tell, it is one that ultimately gives me great strength, especially as I prepare to disclose it among my dear friends and colleagues of Alpha Omega. May we never forget what some of us lost, what we regained and why we have chosen to build our personal and professional lives in ways that honor our history.

  11. The biochemistry of memory.

    PubMed

    Stock, Jeffry B; Zhang, Sherry

    2013-09-09

    Almost fifty years ago, Julius Adler initiated a program of research to gain insights into the basic biochemistry of intelligent behavior by studying the molecular mechanisms that underlie the chemotactic responses of Escherichia coli. All living organisms share elements of a common biochemistry for metabolism, growth and heredity - why not intelligence? Neurobiologists have demonstrated that this is the case for nervous systems in animals ranging from worms to man. Motile unicellular organisms such as E. coli exhibit rudimentary behaviors that can be loosely described in terms of cognitive phenomena such as memory and learning. Adler's initiative at least raised the prospect that, because of the numerous experimental advantages provided by E. coli, it would be the first organism whose behavior could be understood at molecular resolution.

  12. Familiarity in Source Memory

    PubMed Central

    Mollison, Matthew V.; Curran, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Familiarity and recollection are thought to be separate processes underlying recognition memory. Event-related potentials (ERPs) dissociate these processes, with an early (approximately 300–500 ms) frontal effect relating to familiarity (the FN400) and a later (500–800 ms) parietal old/new effect relating to recollection. It has been debated whether source information for a studied item (i.e., contextual associations from when the item was previously encountered) is only accessible through recollection, or whether familiarity can contribute to successful source recognition. It has been shown that familiarity can assist in perceptual source monitoring when the source attribute is an intrinsic property of the item (e.g., an object’s surface color), but few studies have examined its contribution to recognizing extrinsic source associations. Extrinsic source associations were examined in three experiments involving memory judgments for pictures of common objects. In Experiment 1, source information was spatial and results suggested that familiarity contributed to accurate source recognition: the FN400 ERP component showed a source accuracy effect, and source accuracy was above chance for items judged to only feel familiar. Source information in Experiment 2 was an extrinsic color association; source accuracy was at chance for familiar items and the FN400 did not differ between correct and incorrect source judgments. Experiment 3 replicated the results using a within-subjects manipulation of spatial vs. color source. Overall, the results suggest that familiarity’s contribution to extrinsic source monitoring depends on the type of source information being remembered. PMID:22789677

  13. Optical Bidirectional Associative Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosko, Bart; Guest, Clark

    1987-06-01

    Four optical implementations of bidirectional associative memories (BAMs) are presented. BAMs are heteroassociative content addressable memories (CAMs). A BAM stores the m binary associations (A1, B1), ..., (Am, Bm) , where A is a point in the Boolean n-cube and B is a point in the Boolean p-cube. A is a neural network of n bivalent or continuous neurons ai; B is a network of p bivalent or continuous neurons bi. The fixed synaptic connections between the A and B networks are represented by some n-by-p real matrix M. Bidirectionality, forward and backward information flow, in neural nets produces two-way associative search for the nearest stored pair (Ai, Bi) to an input key. Every matrix is a bidirectionally stable hetero-associative CAM for boh bivalent and continuous networks. This generalizes the well-known unidirectional stability for autoassociative networks with square symmetric M. When the BAM neurons are activated, the network quickly evolves to a stable state of two-pattern reverberation, or pseudo-adaptive resonance. The stable reverberation corresponds to a system energy local minimum. Heteroassociative pairs (Ai, Bi) are encoded in a BAM M by summing bipolar correlation matrices, M = X1T Y1 + ... + XmT Ym , where Xi (Yi) is the bipolar version of Ai (Bi), with -1s replacing Os. the BAM storage capacity for reliable recall is roughly m < min(n, p)--pattern number is bounded by pattern dimensionality. BAM optical implementations are divided into two approaches: matrix vector multipliers and holographic correlators. The four optical BAMs described respectively emphasize a spatial light modulator, laser diodes and high-speed detectors, a reflection hologram, and a transmission hologram.

  14. Flashbulb memories of Paris attacks

    PubMed Central

    El Haj, Mohamad; Gandolphe, Marie-Charlotte; Wawrziczny, Emilie; Antoine, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Flashbulb memories are detailed and vivid memories of attributes of the reception context of surprising and emotionally arousing public events. Patient concerns and diagnosis: This paper offers a fine-grained view of flashbulb memories in a patient with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interventions: The patient underwent a directed interview about the 13 November 2015 attacks in Paris. Outcomes: Unlike her memory about the date and month of the attacks, the patient provided accurate information about the year, time and places they occurred. The patient also provided accurate information about how she first became aware of the attacks, where she was, with whom, what she was doing, and what time it was when she learned about them. As for the affective characteristics of these memories, she tended to have high ratings of vividness and rehearsal. Negative emotional states and great surprise and novelty were also reported. Lessons: By assessing the impact of flashbulb memories in this patient with AD, this paper offers a unique view into how such memories may trigger a considerable recall of context as well much subjective reliving. PMID:27861395

  15. Plant memory: a tentative model.

    PubMed

    Thellier, M; Lüttge, U

    2013-01-01

    All memory functions have molecular bases, namely in signal reception and transduction, and in storage and recall of information. Thus, at all levels of organisation living organisms have some kind of memory. In plants one may distinguish two types. There are linear pathways from reception of signals and propagation of effectors to a type of memory that may be described by terms such as learning, habituation or priming. There is a storage and recall memory based on a complex network of elements with a high degree of integration and feedback. The most important elements envisaged are calcium waves, epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones, and regulation of timing via a biological clock. Experiments are described that document the occurrence of the two sorts of memory and which show how they can be distinguished. A schematic model of plant memory is derived as emergent from integration of the various modules. Possessing the two forms of memory supports the fitness of plants in response to environmental stimuli and stress.

  16. A multilevel nonvolatile magnetoelectric memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jianxin; Cong, Junzhuang; Shang, Dashan; Chai, Yisheng; Shen, Shipeng; Zhai, Kun; Sun, Young

    2016-09-01

    The coexistence and coupling between magnetization and electric polarization in multiferroic materials provide extra degrees of freedom for creating next-generation memory devices. A variety of concepts of multiferroic or magnetoelectric memories have been proposed and explored in the past decade. Here we propose a new principle to realize a multilevel nonvolatile memory based on the multiple states of the magnetoelectric coefficient (α) of multiferroics. Because the states of α depends on the relative orientation between magnetization and polarization, one can reach different levels of α by controlling the ratio of up and down ferroelectric domains with external electric fields. Our experiments in a device made of the PMN-PT/Terfenol-D multiferroic heterostructure confirm that the states of α can be well controlled between positive and negative by applying selective electric fields. Consequently, two-level, four-level, and eight-level nonvolatile memory devices are demonstrated at room temperature. This kind of multilevel magnetoelectric memory retains all the advantages of ferroelectric random access memory but overcomes the drawback of destructive reading of polarization. In contrast, the reading of α is nondestructive and highly efficient in a parallel way, with an independent reading coil shared by all the memory cells.

  17. A multilevel nonvolatile magnetoelectric memory

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jianxin; Cong, Junzhuang; Shang, Dashan; Chai, Yisheng; Shen, Shipeng; Zhai, Kun; Sun, Young

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence and coupling between magnetization and electric polarization in multiferroic materials provide extra degrees of freedom for creating next-generation memory devices. A variety of concepts of multiferroic or magnetoelectric memories have been proposed and explored in the past decade. Here we propose a new principle to realize a multilevel nonvolatile memory based on the multiple states of the magnetoelectric coefficient (α) of multiferroics. Because the states of α depends on the relative orientation between magnetization and polarization, one can reach different levels of α by controlling the ratio of up and down ferroelectric domains with external electric fields. Our experiments in a device made of the PMN-PT/Terfenol-D multiferroic heterostructure confirm that the states of α can be well controlled between positive and negative by applying selective electric fields. Consequently, two-level, four-level, and eight-level nonvolatile memory devices are demonstrated at room temperature. This kind of multilevel magnetoelectric memory retains all the advantages of ferroelectric random access memory but overcomes the drawback of destructive reading of polarization. In contrast, the reading of α is nondestructive and highly efficient in a parallel way, with an independent reading coil shared by all the memory cells. PMID:27681812

  18. Event boundaries and memory improvement.

    PubMed

    Pettijohn, Kyle A; Thompson, Alexis N; Tamplin, Andrea K; Krawietz, Sabine A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2016-03-01

    The structure of events can influence later memory for information that is embedded in them, with evidence indicating that event boundaries can both impair and enhance memory. The current study explored whether the presence of event boundaries during encoding can structure information to improve memory. In Experiment 1, memory for a list of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated by having participants walk through a doorway, or not, halfway through the word list. In Experiment 2, memory for lists of words was tested in which event structure was manipulated using computer windows. Finally, in Experiments 3 and 4, event structure was manipulated by having event shifts described in narrative texts. The consistent finding across all of these methods and materials was that memory was better when the information was distributed across two events rather than combined into a single event. Moreover, Experiment 4 demonstrated that increasing the number of event boundaries from one to two increased the memory benefit. These results are interpreted in the context of the Event Horizon Model of event cognition.

  19. Stress, memory, and the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Wolf, Oliver T

    2014-01-01

    Stress hormones, i.e. cortisol in human and cortisone in rodents, influence a wide range of cognitive functions, including hippocampus-based declarative memory performance. Cortisol enhances memory consolidation, but impairs memory retrieval. In this context glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and hippocampal integrity play an important role. This review integrates findings on the relationships between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the main coordinators of the stress response, hippocampus, and memory. Findings obtained in healthy participants will be compared with selected mental disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and borderline personality disorder (BPD). These disorders are characterized by alterations of the HPA axis and hippocampal dysfunctions. Interestingly, the acute effects of stress hormones on memory in psychiatric patients are different from those found in healthy humans. While cortisol administration has failed to affect memory retrieval in patients with MDD, patients with PTSD and BPD have been found to show enhanced rather than impaired memory retrieval after hydrocortisone. This indicates an altered sensitivity to stress hormones in these mental disorders.

  20. Spatial memory in foraging games.

    PubMed

    Kerster, Bryan E; Rhodes, Theo; Kello, Christopher T

    2016-03-01

    Foraging and foraging-like processes are found in spatial navigation, memory, visual search, and many other search functions in human cognition and behavior. Foraging is commonly theorized using either random or correlated movements based on Lévy walks, or a series of decisions to remain or leave proximal areas known as "patches". Neither class of model makes use of spatial memory, but search performance may be enhanced when information about searched and unsearched locations is encoded. A video game was developed to test the role of human spatial memory in a canonical foraging task. Analyses of search trajectories from over 2000 human players yielded evidence that foraging movements were inherently clustered, and that clustering was facilitated by spatial memory cues and influenced by memory for spatial locations of targets found. A simple foraging model is presented in which spatial memory is used to integrate aspects of Lévy-based and patch-based foraging theories to perform a kind of area-restricted search, and thereby enhance performance as search unfolds. Using only two free parameters, the model accounts for a variety of findings that individually support competing theories, but together they argue for the integration of spatial memory into theories of foraging.