A Solution to Weighted Sums of Squares as a Square
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Withers, Christopher S.; Nadarajah, Saralees
2012-01-01
For n = 1, 2, ... , we give a solution (x[subscript 1], ... , x[subscript n], N) to the Diophantine integer equation [image omitted]. Our solution has N of the form n!, in contrast to other solutions in the literature that are extensions of Euler's solution for N, a sum of squares. More generally, for given n and given integer weights m[subscript…
Optimal methods for calculating classification images: weighted sums.
Murray, Richard F; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B
2002-01-01
In signal detection theory, an observer's responses are often modeled as being based on a decision variable obtained by cross-correlating the stimulus with a template, possibly after corruption by external and internal noise. The response classification method estimates an observer's template by measuring the influence of each pixel of external noise on the observer's responses. A map that shows the influence of each pixel is called a classification image. Other authors have shown how to calculate classification images from external noise fields, but the optimal calculation has never been determined, and the quality of the resulting classification images has never been evaluated. Here we derive the optimal weighted sum of noise fields for calculating classification images in several experimental designs, and we derive the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the resulting classification images. Using the expressions for the SNR, we show how to choose experimental parameters, such as the observer's performance level and the external noise power, to obtain classification images with a high SNR. We discuss two-alternative identification experiments in which the stimulus is presented at one or more contrast levels, in which each stimulus is presented twice so that we can estimate the power of the internal noise from the consistency of the observer's responses, and in which the observer rates the confidence of his responses. We illustrate these methods in a series of contrast increment detection experiments.
Four-Digit Numbers Which Are Squared Sums
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coughlin, Heather; Jue, Brian
2009-01-01
There is a very natural way to divide a four-digit number into 2 two-digit numbers. Applying an algorithm to this pair of numbers, determine how often the original four-digit number reappears. (Contains 3 tables.)
26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sum of the years-digits method. 1.167(b)-3 Section 1.167(b)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(b)-3 Sum of the years-digits method....
On estimating mean lifetimes by a weighted sum of lifetime measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prosper, Harrison Bertrand
1987-10-01
Given N lifetime measurements an estimate of the mean lifetime can be obtained from a weighted sum of these measurements. We derive exact expressions for the probability density function, the moment-generating function, and the cumulative distribution function for the weighted sum. We indicate how these results might be used in the estimation of particle lifetimes. The probability distribution function of Yost for the distribution of lifetime measurements with finite measurement error is our starting point.
Spectral properties of mesons in hot and dense matter from energy weighted sum rules
Cabrera, D.; Polls, A.; Ramos, A.; Tolos, L.
2010-12-28
Energy weighted sum rules for the spectral function of mesons are derived, both in cold nuclear matter and at finite temperature, by matching the Dyson propagator with its spectral Lehmann representation at low and high energies. We illustrate our results by calculating the sum rules for specific models of the kaon and pion self-energy in a nuclear medium. We find satisfactory results from the lower energy weight sum rules, which reflect the contributions from the different quasi-particle and collective modes of the meson spectral function, and show examples of the sensitivity of the sum rules to model approximations. Finally, we discuss applications in asymmetric nuclear matter and in the study of the spectral properties of vector mesons.
Analog-To-Digital Converter For Sum-Of-Squares Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Osborn, Stephen H.; Davies, Bryan L.; Sullender, Craig C.
1993-01-01
Analog-to-digital converter (ADC) circuit designed as part of larger circuit intended to measure root-mean-square current on 20-kHz powerline. Provides digital output of 11 bits of data plus 1-bit overflow signal at sampling rate of 4 MHz. Output processed by multiplying-and-accumulating circuitry to obtain sum of squares and digitized current samples accumulated during preset number of consecutive sampling periods. Used to digitize current samples from ADC directly as alternative or auxiliary output. Notable features include low power and fast conversion.
26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... Straight line amount Col. (4)÷ life Straight line reserve Col. (5)− Col. (3) accumulated Jan. 1 Remaining life × average service life Asset balance reduced by salvage Col. (1)× (100%− 6.67%) Current additions reduced by salvage Col (2)× (100%− 6.67%) Salvage realized Sum of the years digits...
Energy-weighted sum rules connecting ΔZ = 2 nuclei within the SO(8) model
Štefánik, Dušan; Šimkovic, Fedor; Faessler, Amand
2013-12-30
Energy-weighted sum rules associated with ΔZ = 2 nuclei are obtained for the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller operators within the SO(8) model. It is found that there is a dominance of contribution of a single state of the intermediate nucleus to the sum rule. The results confirm founding obtained within the SO(5) model that the energy-weighted sum rules of ΔZ = 2 nuclei are governed by the residual interactions of nuclear Hamiltonian. A short discussion concerning some aspects of energy weighted sum rules in the case of realistic nuclei is included.
Force reconstruction using the sum of weighted accelerations technique -- Max-Flat procedure
Carne, T.G.; Mayes, R.L.; Bateman, V.I.
1993-12-31
Force reconstruction is a procedure in which the externally applied force is inferred from measured structural response rather than directly measured. In a recently developed technique, the response acceleration time-histories are multiplied by scalar weights and summed to produce the reconstructed force. This reconstruction is called the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT). One step in the application of this technique is the calculation of the appropriate scalar weights. In this paper a new method of estimating the weights, using measured frequency response function data, is developed and contrasted with the traditional SWAT method of inverting the mode-shape matrix. The technique uses frequency response function data, but is not based on deconvolution. An application that will be discussed as part of this paper is the impact into a rigid barrier of a weapon system with an energy-absorbing nose. The nose had been designed to absorb the energy of impact and to mitigate the shock to the interior components.
Pinched weights and duality violation in QCD sum rules: A critical analysis
Gonzalez-Alonso, Martin; Pich, Antonio; Prades, Joaquim
2010-07-01
We analyze the so-called pinched weights, that are generally thought to reduce the violation of quark-hadron duality in finite-energy sum rules. After showing how this is not true in general, we explain how to address this question for the left-right correlator and any particular pinched weight, taking advantage of our previous work [1], where the possible high-energy behavior of the left-right spectral function was studied. In particular, we show that the use of pinched weights allows to determine with high accuracy the dimension six and eight contributions in the operator-product expansion, O{sub 6}=(-4.3{sub -0.7}{sup +0.9})x10{sup -3} GeV{sup 6} and O{sub 8}=(-7.2{sub -5.3}{sup +4.2})x10{sup -3} GeV{sup 8}.
Energy-weighted sum rules and the analysis of vibrational structure in molecular spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, W. L.
2015-10-01
The energy-weighted sum SV = Σn (E‧n - E″m)|<ψ″m|ψ‧n>|2 = <ψ″m|ΔV|ψ″m> for the vibrational potential functions V‧, V″ associated with transitions between two electronic states of diatomic molecular species is investigated and specific formulae are given using Morse functions for V‧ and V″. It is found that these formulae are useful approximations which provide a convenient way to analyse the vibrational structure of real spectra to give estimates of molecular parameters such as the change in internuclear distance accompanying a transition.
Mass tensor in the Bohr Hamiltonian from the nondiagonal energy weighted sum rules
Jolos, R. V.; Brentano, P. von
2009-04-15
Relations are derived in the framework of the Bohr Hamiltonian that express the matrix elements of the deformation-dependent components of the mass tensor through the experimental data on the energies and the E2 transitions relating the low-lying collective states. These relations extend the previously obtained results for the intrinsic mass coefficients of the well-deformed axially symmetric nuclei on nuclei of arbitrary shape. The expression for the mass tensor is suggested, which is sufficient to satisfy the existing experimental data on the energy weighted sum rules for the E2 transitions for the low-lying collective quadrupole excitations. The mass tensor is determined for {sup 106,108}Pd, {sup 108-112}Cd, {sup 134}Ba, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150-154}Sm, {sup 154-160}Gd, {sup 164}Dy, {sup 172}Yb, {sup 178}Hf, {sup 188-192}Os, and {sup 194-196}Pt.
Hendricks, Daniel R; Johnson, William R; Sommerfeldt, Scott D; Blotter, Jonathan D
2014-11-01
A limitation currently facing active structural acoustic control (ASAC) researchers is that an ideal minimization quantity for use in the control algorithms has not been developed. A novel parameter termed the "weighted sum of spatial gradients" (WSSG) was recently developed for use in ASAC and shown to effectively attenuate acoustic radiation from a vibrating flat simply supported plate in computer simulations. This paper extends this research from computer simulations and provides experimental test results. The results presented show that WSSG is a viable control quantity and provides better results than the volume velocity approach. The paper also investigates several of the challenges presented by the use of WSSG. These include determining a method to measure WSSG experimentally, an analysis of the influence of noise on WSSG control results and complications presented when degenerate modes exist. Results are shown and discussed for several experimental configurations. PMID:25373961
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akeyoshi, Tomoyuki; Maezawa, Koichi; Mizutani, Takashi
1993-10-01
The functional operation of MOBILE (monostable-bistable transition logic element) has been studied using multiple-input logic gates. MOBILE uses two resonant-tunneling transistors (RTT's), connected in series and driven by oscillating bias voltage to produce a mono-to-bistable transition of the circuit. A fabricated MOBILE having three-input gates with a 1:2:4 width ratio can distinguish all 8 (2(exp 3)) input patterns corresponding to each weighted sum, depending on the threshold value selected by the control gate. The results signify the realization of the weighted sum threshold logic operation of input signals.
Assessment of Weighted Quantile Sum Regression for Modeling Chemical Mixtures and Cancer Risk
Czarnota, Jenna; Gennings, Chris; Wheeler, David C
2015-01-01
In evaluation of cancer risk related to environmental chemical exposures, the effect of many chemicals on disease is ultimately of interest. However, because of potentially strong correlations among chemicals that occur together, traditional regression methods suffer from collinearity effects, including regression coefficient sign reversal and variance inflation. In addition, penalized regression methods designed to remediate collinearity may have limitations in selecting the truly bad actors among many correlated components. The recently proposed method of weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression attempts to overcome these problems by estimating a body burden index, which identifies important chemicals in a mixture of correlated environmental chemicals. Our focus was on assessing through simulation studies the accuracy of WQS regression in detecting subsets of chemicals associated with health outcomes (binary and continuous) in site-specific analyses and in non-site-specific analyses. We also evaluated the performance of the penalized regression methods of lasso, adaptive lasso, and elastic net in correctly classifying chemicals as bad actors or unrelated to the outcome. We based the simulation study on data from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Program (NCI-SEER) case–control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to achieve realistic exposure situations. Our results showed that WQS regression had good sensitivity and specificity across a variety of conditions considered in this study. The shrinkage methods had a tendency to incorrectly identify a large number of components, especially in the case of strong association with the outcome. PMID:26005323
Majaj, Najib J; Hong, Ha; Solomon, Ethan A; DiCarlo, James J
2015-09-30
To go beyond qualitative models of the biological substrate of object recognition, we ask: can a single ventral stream neuronal linking hypothesis quantitatively account for core object recognition performance over a broad range of tasks? We measured human performance in 64 object recognition tests using thousands of challenging images that explore shape similarity and identity preserving object variation. We then used multielectrode arrays to measure neuronal population responses to those same images in visual areas V4 and inferior temporal (IT) cortex of monkeys and simulated V1 population responses. We tested leading candidate linking hypotheses and control hypotheses, each postulating how ventral stream neuronal responses underlie object recognition behavior. Specifically, for each hypothesis, we computed the predicted performance on the 64 tests and compared it with the measured pattern of human performance. All tested hypotheses based on low- and mid-level visually evoked activity (pixels, V1, and V4) were very poor predictors of the human behavioral pattern. However, simple learned weighted sums of distributed average IT firing rates exactly predicted the behavioral pattern. More elaborate linking hypotheses relying on IT trial-by-trial correlational structure, finer IT temporal codes, or ones that strictly respect the known spatial substructures of IT ("face patches") did not improve predictive power. Although these results do not reject those more elaborate hypotheses, they suggest a simple, sufficient quantitative model: each object recognition task is learned from the spatially distributed mean firing rates (100 ms) of ∼60,000 IT neurons and is executed as a simple weighted sum of those firing rates. Significance statement: We sought to go beyond qualitative models of visual object recognition and determine whether a single neuronal linking hypothesis can quantitatively account for core object recognition behavior. To achieve this, we designed a
Hong, Ha; Solomon, Ethan A.; DiCarlo, James J.
2015-01-01
To go beyond qualitative models of the biological substrate of object recognition, we ask: can a single ventral stream neuronal linking hypothesis quantitatively account for core object recognition performance over a broad range of tasks? We measured human performance in 64 object recognition tests using thousands of challenging images that explore shape similarity and identity preserving object variation. We then used multielectrode arrays to measure neuronal population responses to those same images in visual areas V4 and inferior temporal (IT) cortex of monkeys and simulated V1 population responses. We tested leading candidate linking hypotheses and control hypotheses, each postulating how ventral stream neuronal responses underlie object recognition behavior. Specifically, for each hypothesis, we computed the predicted performance on the 64 tests and compared it with the measured pattern of human performance. All tested hypotheses based on low- and mid-level visually evoked activity (pixels, V1, and V4) were very poor predictors of the human behavioral pattern. However, simple learned weighted sums of distributed average IT firing rates exactly predicted the behavioral pattern. More elaborate linking hypotheses relying on IT trial-by-trial correlational structure, finer IT temporal codes, or ones that strictly respect the known spatial substructures of IT (“face patches”) did not improve predictive power. Although these results do not reject those more elaborate hypotheses, they suggest a simple, sufficient quantitative model: each object recognition task is learned from the spatially distributed mean firing rates (100 ms) of ∼60,000 IT neurons and is executed as a simple weighted sum of those firing rates. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We sought to go beyond qualitative models of visual object recognition and determine whether a single neuronal linking hypothesis can quantitatively account for core object recognition behavior. To achieve this, we designed a
Majaj, Najib J; Hong, Ha; Solomon, Ethan A; DiCarlo, James J
2015-09-30
To go beyond qualitative models of the biological substrate of object recognition, we ask: can a single ventral stream neuronal linking hypothesis quantitatively account for core object recognition performance over a broad range of tasks? We measured human performance in 64 object recognition tests using thousands of challenging images that explore shape similarity and identity preserving object variation. We then used multielectrode arrays to measure neuronal population responses to those same images in visual areas V4 and inferior temporal (IT) cortex of monkeys and simulated V1 population responses. We tested leading candidate linking hypotheses and control hypotheses, each postulating how ventral stream neuronal responses underlie object recognition behavior. Specifically, for each hypothesis, we computed the predicted performance on the 64 tests and compared it with the measured pattern of human performance. All tested hypotheses based on low- and mid-level visually evoked activity (pixels, V1, and V4) were very poor predictors of the human behavioral pattern. However, simple learned weighted sums of distributed average IT firing rates exactly predicted the behavioral pattern. More elaborate linking hypotheses relying on IT trial-by-trial correlational structure, finer IT temporal codes, or ones that strictly respect the known spatial substructures of IT ("face patches") did not improve predictive power. Although these results do not reject those more elaborate hypotheses, they suggest a simple, sufficient quantitative model: each object recognition task is learned from the spatially distributed mean firing rates (100 ms) of ∼60,000 IT neurons and is executed as a simple weighted sum of those firing rates. Significance statement: We sought to go beyond qualitative models of visual object recognition and determine whether a single neuronal linking hypothesis can quantitatively account for core object recognition behavior. To achieve this, we designed a
Efficient and Flexible Strategy Use on Multi-Digit Sums: A Choice/No-Choice Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Torbeyns, Joke; Verschaffel, Lieven
2013-01-01
This study analysed children's use of mental computation strategies and standard written algorithms in the domain of multi-digit addition and subtraction, using the choice/no-choice method. Twenty-one Flemish fourth-graders (M[subscript Age] =9y10m) solved problem-items that either stimulated the use of mental computation strategies or a standard…
Brock, Billy C.
2008-03-01
Application of Taylor weighting (taper) to an antenna aperture can achieve low peak sidelobes, but combining the Taylor weighting with quantized attenuators and phase shifters at each radiating element will impact the performance of a phased-array antenna. An examination of array performance is undertaken from the simple point of view of the characteristics of the array factor. Design rules and guidelines for determining the Taylor-weighting parameters, the number of bits required for the digital phase shifter, and the dynamic range and number of bits required for the digital attenuator are developed. For a radar application, when each element is fed directly from a transmit/receive module, the total power radiated by the array will be reduced as a result of the taper. Consequently, the issue of whether to apply the taper on both transmit and receive configurations, or only on the receive configuration is examined with respect to two-way sidelobe performance.
DETECTION OF LUNG CANCER USING WEIGHTED DIGITAL ANALYSIS OF BREATH BIOMARKERS
Phillips, Michael; Altorki, Nasser; Austin, John HM; Cameron, Robert B; Cataneo, Renee N; Kloss, Robert; Maxfield, Roger A; Munawar, Muhammad I; Pass, Harvey I; Rashid, Asif; Rom, William N; Schmit, Peter; Wai, James
2008-01-01
Background A combination of biomarkers in a multivariate model may predict disease with greater accuracy than a single biomarker employed alone. We developed a non-linear method of multivariate analysis, weighted digital analysis (WDA), and evaluated its ability to predict lung cancer employing volatile biomarkers in the breath. Methods WDA generates a discriminant function to predict membership in disease vs no disease groups by determining weight, a cutoff value, and a sign for each predictor variable employed in the model. The weight of each predictor variable was the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve minus a fixed offset of 0.55, where the AUC was obtained by employing that predictor variable alone, as the sole marker of disease. The sign (±) was used to invert the predictor variable if a lower value indicated a higher probability of disease. When employed to predict the presence of a disease in a particular patient, the discriminant function was determined as the sum of the weights of all predictor variables that exceeded their cutoff values. The algorithm that generates the discriminant function is deterministic because parameters are calculated from each individual predictor variable without any optimization or adjustment. We employed WDA to re-evaluate data from a recent study of breath biomarkers of lung cancer, comprising the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the alveolar breath of 193 subjects with primary lung cancer and 211 controls with a negative chest CT. Results The WDA discriminant function accurately identified patients with lung cancer in a model employing 30 breath VOCs (ROC curve AUC = 0.90; sensitivity = 84.5%, specificity = 81.0%). These results were superior to multi-linear regression analysis of the same data set (AUC= 0.74, sensitivity = 68.4, specificity = 73.5%). WDA test accuracy did not vary appreciably with TNM (tumor, node, metastasis) stage of disease, and results were not affected
Habecker, Patrick; Dombrowski, Kirk; Khan, Bilal
2015-01-01
Researchers interested in studying populations that are difficult to reach through traditional survey methods can now draw on a range of methods to access these populations. Yet many of these methods are more expensive and difficult to implement than studies using conventional sampling frames and trusted sampling methods. The network scale-up method (NSUM) provides a middle ground for researchers who wish to estimate the size of a hidden population, but lack the resources to conduct a more specialized hidden population study. Through this method it is possible to generate population estimates for a wide variety of groups that are perhaps unwilling to self-identify as such (for example, users of illegal drugs or other stigmatized populations) via traditional survey tools such as telephone or mail surveys—by asking a representative sample to estimate the number of people they know who are members of such a “hidden” subpopulation. The original estimator is formulated to minimize the weight a single scaling variable can exert upon the estimates. We argue that this introduces hidden and difficult to predict biases, and instead propose a series of methodological advances on the traditional scale-up estimation procedure, including a new estimator. Additionally, we formalize the incorporation of sample weights into the network scale-up estimation process, and propose a recursive process of back estimation “trimming” to identify and remove poorly performing predictors from the estimation process. To demonstrate these suggestions we use data from a network scale-up mail survey conducted in Nebraska during 2014. We find that using the new estimator and recursive trimming process provides more accurate estimates, especially when used in conjunction with sampling weights. PMID:26630261
Gharehkhani, Samira; Nouri-Borujerdi, Ali; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Yarmand, Hooman
2014-01-01
In this study an expression for soot absorption coefficient is introduced to extend the weighted-sum-of-gray gases data to the furnace medium containing gas-soot mixture in a utility boiler 150 MWe. Heat transfer and temperature distribution of walls and within the furnace space are predicted by zone method technique. Analyses have been done considering both cases of presence and absence of soot particles at 100% load. To validate the proposed soot absorption coefficient, the expression is coupled with the Taylor and Foster's data as well as Truelove's data for CO2-H2O mixture and the total emissivities are calculated and compared with the Truelove's parameters for 3-term and 4-term gray gases plus two soot absorption coefficients. In addition, some experiments were conducted at 100% and 75% loads to measure furnace exit gas temperature as well as the rate of steam production. The predicted results show good agreement with the measured data at the power plant site. PMID:25143981
Nouri-Borujerdi, Ali; Kazi, Salim Newaz
2014-01-01
In this study an expression for soot absorption coefficient is introduced to extend the weighted-sum-of-gray gases data to the furnace medium containing gas-soot mixture in a utility boiler 150 MWe. Heat transfer and temperature distribution of walls and within the furnace space are predicted by zone method technique. Analyses have been done considering both cases of presence and absence of soot particles at 100% load. To validate the proposed soot absorption coefficient, the expression is coupled with the Taylor and Foster's data as well as Truelove's data for CO2-H2O mixture and the total emissivities are calculated and compared with the Truelove's parameters for 3-term and 4-term gray gases plus two soot absorption coefficients. In addition, some experiments were conducted at 100% and 75% loads to measure furnace exit gas temperature as well as the rate of steam production. The predicted results show good agreement with the measured data at the power plant site. PMID:25143981
Gharehkhani, Samira; Nouri-Borujerdi, Ali; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Yarmand, Hooman
2014-01-01
In this study an expression for soot absorption coefficient is introduced to extend the weighted-sum-of-gray gases data to the furnace medium containing gas-soot mixture in a utility boiler 150 MWe. Heat transfer and temperature distribution of walls and within the furnace space are predicted by zone method technique. Analyses have been done considering both cases of presence and absence of soot particles at 100% load. To validate the proposed soot absorption coefficient, the expression is coupled with the Taylor and Foster's data as well as Truelove's data for CO2-H2O mixture and the total emissivities are calculated and compared with the Truelove's parameters for 3-term and 4-term gray gases plus two soot absorption coefficients. In addition, some experiments were conducted at 100% and 75% loads to measure furnace exit gas temperature as well as the rate of steam production. The predicted results show good agreement with the measured data at the power plant site.
Review of innovations in digital health technology to promote weight control.
Thomas, J Graham; Bond, Dale S
2014-01-01
Advances in technology have contributed to the obesity epidemic and worsened health by reducing opportunities for physical activity and by the proliferation of inexpensive calorie-dense foods. However, much of the same technology can be used to counter these troublesome trends by fostering the development and maintenance of healthy eating and physical activity habits. In contrast to intensive face-to-face treatments, technology-based interventions also have the potential to reach large numbers of individuals at low cost. The purpose of this review is to discuss studies in which digital technology has been used for behavioral weight control, report on advances in consumer technology that are widely adopted but insufficiently tested, and explore potential future directions for both. Web-based, mobile (eg, smartphone), virtual reality, and gaming technologies are the focus of discussion. The best evidence exists to support the use of digital technology for self-monitoring of weight-related behaviors and outcomes. However, studies are underway that will provide additional, important information regarding how best to apply digital technology for behavioral weight control. PMID:24664797
Adherent Use of Digital Health Trackers Is Associated with Weight Loss.
Pourzanjani, Arya; Quisel, Tom; Foschini, Luca
2016-01-01
We study the association between weight fluctuation and activity tracking in an on-line population of thousands of individuals using digital health trackers (1,749 ≤ N ≤ 14,411, depending on the activity tracker considered) with millions of recorded activities (119,292 ≤ N ≤ 2,221,382) over the years 2013-2015. In a first between-subject analysis, we found a positive association between activity tracking frequency and weight loss. Users who log food with moderate frequency lost an additional 0.63% (CI [0.55, 0.72]; p < .001) of their body weight per month relative to low frequency loggers. Frequent workout loggers lost an additional 0.38% (CI [0.20, 0.56]; p < .001) and frequent weight loggers lost an additional 0.40% (CI [0.33, 0.47]; p < .001) as compared to infrequent loggers. In a subsequent within-subject analysis on a subset of the population (799 ≤ N ≤ 6,052) with sufficient longitudinal data, we used fixed effect models to explore the temporal relationship between a change in tracking adherence and weight change. We found that for the same individual, weight loss is significantly higher during periods of high adherence to tracking vs. periods of low adherence: +2.74% of body weight lost per month (CI [2.68, 2.81]; p < .001) during adherent weight tracking, +1.35% per month (CI [1.26, 1.43]; p < .001) during adherent food tracking, and +0.60% per month (CI [0.44, 0.76]; p < .001) during adherent workout tracking. The findings suggest that adherence to activity tracking can be utilized as a convenient real-time predictor of weight fluctuations, enabling large-scale, personalized intervention strategies. PMID:27049859
Adherent Use of Digital Health Trackers Is Associated with Weight Loss
Pourzanjani, Arya; Quisel, Tom; Foschini, Luca
2016-01-01
We study the association between weight fluctuation and activity tracking in an on-line population of thousands of individuals using digital health trackers (1,749 ≤ N ≤ 14,411, depending on the activity tracker considered) with millions of recorded activities (119,292 ≤ N ≤ 2,221,382) over the years 2013–2015. In a first between-subject analysis, we found a positive association between activity tracking frequency and weight loss. Users who log food with moderate frequency lost an additional 0.63% (CI [0.55, 0.72]; p < .001) of their body weight per month relative to low frequency loggers. Frequent workout loggers lost an additional 0.38% (CI [0.20, 0.56]; p < .001) and frequent weight loggers lost an additional 0.40% (CI [0.33, 0.47]; p < .001) as compared to infrequent loggers. In a subsequent within-subject analysis on a subset of the population (799 ≤ N ≤ 6,052) with sufficient longitudinal data, we used fixed effect models to explore the temporal relationship between a change in tracking adherence and weight change. We found that for the same individual, weight loss is significantly higher during periods of high adherence to tracking vs. periods of low adherence: +2.74% of body weight lost per month (CI [2.68, 2.81]; p < .001) during adherent weight tracking, +1.35% per month (CI [1.26, 1.43]; p < .001) during adherent food tracking, and +0.60% per month (CI [0.44, 0.76]; p < .001) during adherent workout tracking. The findings suggest that adherence to activity tracking can be utilized as a convenient real-time predictor of weight fluctuations, enabling large-scale, personalized intervention strategies. PMID:27049859
Estimate of the weight in bovine livestock using digital image processing and neural network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arias, N. A.; Molina, M. L.; Gualdron, Oscar
2004-10-01
A procedure inside the context of artificial vision that estimates the weight in bovine livestock was developed and designed. The input data to the system are images obtained by a videotape camera to color. These images are digitized and preprocessing using filters of elimination of noise; later are implemented and evaluated different segmentation methods that allow to obtain the contour of the animal in semiautomatic form. This process consists of an automatic binarization in its initial stage and an eventual manual adjustment. Later the characteristics that have a strong correlation with the weight of the animal are extracted. These are extracted in a form that is independent of the orientation of the object inside the image. Such characteristics include: the superior area, perimeter, wide of abdomen, wide of haunch, wide of scapula. The estimate of the weight of the animal is made by means of a neural network type feedforward whose inputs feed with the extracted characteristics of the image. Finally the system is evaluated in the number and type of characteristics kept in mind and in the structure of the neural network utilized.
Digital breast tomosynthesis reconstruction using spatially weighted non-convex regularization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Jiabei; Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Chan, Heang-Ping
2016-03-01
Regularization is an effective strategy for reducing noise in tomographic reconstruction. This paper proposes a spatially weighted non-convex (SWNC) regularization method for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) image reconstruction. With a non-convex cost function, this method can suppress noise without blurring microcalcifications (MC) and spiculations of masses. To minimize the non-convex cost function, we apply a majorize-minimize separable quadratic surrogate algorithm (MM-SQS) that is further accelerated by ordered subsets (OS). We applied the new method to a heterogeneous breast phantom and to human subject DBT data, and observed improved image quality in both situations. A quantitative study also showed that the SWNC method can significantly enhance the contrast-to-noise ratio of MCs. By properly selecting its parameters, the SWNC regularizer can preserve the appearance of the mass margins and breast parenchyma.
Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H
2005-05-10
We evaluate the use of smoothing splines with a weighted roughness measure for local denoising of the correlation fringes produced in digital speckle pattern interferometry. In particular, we also evaluate the performance of the multiplicative correlation operation between two speckle patterns that is proposed as an alternative procedure to generate the correlation fringes. It is shown that the application of a normalization algorithm to the smoothed correlation fringes reduces the excessive bias generated in the previous filtering stage. The evaluation is carried out by use of computer-simulated fringes that are generated for different average speckle sizes and intensities of the reference beam, including decorrelation effects. A comparison with filtering methods based on the continuous wavelet transform is also presented. Finally, the performance of the smoothing method in processing experimental data is illustrated.
Darmann, Andreas; Nicosia, Gaia; Pferschy, Ulrich; Schauer, Joachim
2014-01-01
In this work we address a game theoretic variant of the Subset Sum problem, in which two decision makers (agents/players) compete for the usage of a common resource represented by a knapsack capacity. Each agent owns a set of integer weighted items and wants to maximize the total weight of its own items included in the knapsack. The solution is built as follows: Each agent, in turn, selects one of its items (not previously selected) and includes it in the knapsack if there is enough capacity. The process ends when the remaining capacity is too small for including any item left. We look at the problem from a single agent point of view and show that finding an optimal sequence of items to select is an NP-hard problem. Therefore we propose two natural heuristic strategies and analyze their worst-case performance when (1) the opponent is able to play optimally and (2) the opponent adopts a greedy strategy. From a centralized perspective we observe that some known results on the approximation of the classical Subset Sum can be effectively adapted to the multi-agent version of the problem. PMID:25844012
Integrated-Circuit Active Digital Filter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nathan, R.
1986-01-01
Pipeline architecture with parallel multipliers and adders speeds calculation of weighted sums. Picture-element values and partial sums flow through delay-adder modules. After each cycle or time unit of calculation, each value in filter moves one position right. Digital integrated-circuit chips with pipeline architecture rapidly move 35 X 35 two-dimensional convolutions. Need for such circuits in image enhancement, data filtering, correlation, pattern extraction, and synthetic-aperture-radar image processing: all require repeated calculations of weighted sums of values from images or two-dimensional arrays of data.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pong, Wai Yan
2007-01-01
We begin by answering the question, "Which natural numbers are sums of consecutive integers?" We then go on to explore the set of lengths (numbers of summands) in the decompositions of an integer as such sums.
Rimell, Andrew N; Mansfield, Neil J; Paddan, Gurmail S
2015-01-01
Many workers are exposed to noise in their industrial environment. Excessive noise exposure can cause health problems and therefore it is important that the worker's noise exposure is assessed. This may require measurement by an equipment manufacturer or the employer. Human exposure to noise may be measured using microphones; however, weighting filters are required to correlate the physical noise sound pressure level measurements to the human's response to an auditory stimulus. IEC 61672-1 and ANSI S1.43 describe suitable weighting filters, but do not explain how to implement them for digitally recorded sound pressure level data. By using the bilinear transform, it is possible to transform the analogue equations given in the standards into digital filters. This paper describes the implementation of the weighting filters as digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters and provides all the necessary formulae to directly calculate the filter coefficients for any sampling frequency. Thus, the filters in the standards can be implemented in any numerical processing software (such as a spreadsheet or programming language running on a PC, mobile device or embedded system). PMID:25224333
RIMELL, Andrew N.; MANSFIELD, Neil J.; PADDAN, Gurmail S.
2014-01-01
Many workers are exposed to noise in their industrial environment. Excessive noise exposure can cause health problems and therefore it is important that the worker’s noise exposure is assessed. This may require measurement by an equipment manufacturer or the employer. Human exposure to noise may be measured using microphones; however, weighting filters are required to correlate the physical noise sound pressure level measurements to the human’s response to an auditory stimulus. IEC 61672-1 and ANSI S1.43 describe suitable weighting filters, but do not explain how to implement them for digitally recorded sound pressure level data. By using the bilinear transform, it is possible to transform the analogue equations given in the standards into digital filters. This paper describes the implementation of the weighting filters as digital IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) filters and provides all the necessary formulae to directly calculate the filter coefficients for any sampling frequency. Thus, the filters in the standards can be implemented in any numerical processing software (such as a spreadsheet or programming language running on a PC, mobile device or embedded system). PMID:25224333
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shi, Yixun
2010-01-01
Starting with an interesting number game sometimes used by school teachers to demonstrate the factorization of integers, "sum-difference numbers" are defined. A positive integer n is a "sum-difference number" if there exist positive integers "x, y, w, z" such that n = xy = wz and x ? y = w + z. This paper characterizes all sum-difference numbers…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Wan; Choi, Yu-Na; Lee, Young-Jin; Kim, Hee-Joung
2014-03-01
In digital subtraction mammography where subtracts the one image (with contrast medium) from the other (anatomical background) for observing the tumor structure, tumors which include more blood vessels than normal tissue could be distinguished through the enhancement of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). In order to improve CNR, we adopted projection-based energy weighting for iodine solutions with four different concentrations embedded in a breast phantom (50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues). In this study, a Monte Carlo simulation was used to simulate a 40 mm thickness breast phantom, which has 15 and 30 mg/cm3 iodine solutions with two different thicknesses, and an energy resolving photon-counting system. The input energy spectrum was simulated in a range of 20 to 45 keV in order to reject electronic noise and include k-edge energy of iodine (33.2 keV). The results showed that the projection-based energy weighting improved the CNR by factors of 1.05-1.86 compared to the conventional integrating images. Consequently, the CNR of images from the digital subtraction mammography could be improved by the projection-based energy weighting with photon-counting detectors.
Lanpher, Michele G; Askew, Sandy; Bennett, Gary G
2016-01-01
In the United States, 90 million adults have low health literacy. An important public health challenge is developing obesity treatment interventions suitable for those with low health literacy. The objective of this study was to examine differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics as well as weight and intervention engagement outcomes by health literacy. We randomized 194 participants to usual care or to the Shape Program intervention, a 12-month digital health treatment aimed at preventing weight gain among overweight and Class I obese Black women in primary care practice. We administered the Newest Vital Sign instrument to assess health literacy. More than half (55%) of participants had low health literacy, which was more common among those with fewer years of education and lower income. There was no effect of health literacy on 12-month weight change or on intervention engagement outcomes (completion of coaching calls and interactive voice response self-monitoring calls). Low health literacy did not preclude successful weight gain prevention in the Shape Program intervention. Goal-focused behavior change approaches like that used in Shape may be particularly helpful for treating and engaging populations with low health literacy.
Lanpher, Michele G; Askew, Sandy; Bennett, Gary G
2016-01-01
In the United States, 90 million adults have low health literacy. An important public health challenge is developing obesity treatment interventions suitable for those with low health literacy. The objective of this study was to examine differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics as well as weight and intervention engagement outcomes by health literacy. We randomized 194 participants to usual care or to the Shape Program intervention, a 12-month digital health treatment aimed at preventing weight gain among overweight and Class I obese Black women in primary care practice. We administered the Newest Vital Sign instrument to assess health literacy. More than half (55%) of participants had low health literacy, which was more common among those with fewer years of education and lower income. There was no effect of health literacy on 12-month weight change or on intervention engagement outcomes (completion of coaching calls and interactive voice response self-monitoring calls). Low health literacy did not preclude successful weight gain prevention in the Shape Program intervention. Goal-focused behavior change approaches like that used in Shape may be particularly helpful for treating and engaging populations with low health literacy. PMID:27043756
Schneider, Iris K.; Parzuchowski, Michal; Wojciszke, Bogdan; Schwarz, Norbert; Koole, Sander L.
2015-01-01
Previous work suggests that perceived importance of an object influences estimates of its weight. Specifically, important books were estimated to be heavier than non-important books. However, the experimental set-up of these studies may have suffered from a potential confound and findings may be confined to books only. Addressing this, we investigate the effect of importance on weight estimates by examining whether the importance of information stored on a data storage device (USB-stick or portable hard drive) can alter weight estimates. Results show that people thinking a USB-stick holds important tax information (vs. expired tax information vs. no information) estimate it to be heavier (Experiment 1) compared to people who do not. Similarly, people who are told a portable hard drive holds personally relevant information (vs. irrelevant), also estimate the drive to be heavier (Experiments 2A,B). PMID:25620942
Schneider, Iris K; Parzuchowski, Michal; Wojciszke, Bogdan; Schwarz, Norbert; Koole, Sander L
2014-01-01
Previous work suggests that perceived importance of an object influences estimates of its weight. Specifically, important books were estimated to be heavier than non-important books. However, the experimental set-up of these studies may have suffered from a potential confound and findings may be confined to books only. Addressing this, we investigate the effect of importance on weight estimates by examining whether the importance of information stored on a data storage device (USB-stick or portable hard drive) can alter weight estimates. Results show that people thinking a USB-stick holds important tax information (vs. expired tax information vs. no information) estimate it to be heavier (Experiment 1) compared to people who do not. Similarly, people who are told a portable hard drive holds personally relevant information (vs. irrelevant), also estimate the drive to be heavier (Experiments 2A,B). PMID:25620942
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vilnrotter, V. A.; Rodemich, E. R.
1994-01-01
An algorithm for estimating the optimum combining weights for the Ka-band (33.7-GHz) array feed compensation system was developed and analyzed. The input signal is assumed to be broadband radiation of thermal origin, generated by a distant radio source. Currently, seven video converters operating in conjunction with the real-time correlator are used to obtain these weight estimates. The algorithm described here requires only simple operations that can be implemented on a PC-based combining system, greatly reducing the amount of hardware. Therefore, system reliability and portability will be improved.
Digital combining-weight estimation for broadband sources using maximum-likelihood estimates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodemich, E. R.; Vilnrotter, V. A.
1994-01-01
An algorithm described for estimating the optimum combining weights for the Ka-band (33.7-GHz) array feed compensation system is compared with the maximum-likelihood estimate. This provides some improvement in performance, with an increase in computational complexity. However, the maximum-likelihood algorithm is simple enough to allow implementation on a PC-based combining system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiaoming; Mei, Ming; Liu, Jun; Hu, Wei
2015-12-01
Clustered microcalcifications (MCs) in mammograms are an important early sign of breast cancer in women. Their accurate detection is important in computer-aided detection (CADe). In this paper, we integrated the possibilistic fuzzy c-means (PFCM) clustering algorithm and weighted support vector machine (WSVM) for the detection of MC clusters in full-field digital mammograms (FFDM). For each image, suspicious MC regions are extracted with region growing and active contour segmentation. Then geometry and texture features are extracted for each suspicious MC, a mutual information-based supervised criterion is used to select important features, and PFCM is applied to cluster the samples into two clusters. Weights of the samples are calculated based on possibilities and typicality values from the PFCM, and the ground truth labels. A weighted nonlinear SVM is trained. During the test process, when an unknown image is presented, suspicious regions are located with the segmentation step, selected features are extracted, and the suspicious MC regions are classified as containing MC or not by the trained weighted nonlinear SVM. Finally, the MC regions are analyzed with spatial information to locate MC clusters. The proposed method is evaluated using a database of 410 clinical mammograms and compared with a standard unweighted support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The detection performance is evaluated using response receiver operating (ROC) curves and free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves. The proposed method obtained an area under the ROC curve of 0.8676, while the standard SVM obtained an area of 0.8268 for MC detection. For MC cluster detection, the proposed method obtained a high sensitivity of 92 % with a false-positive rate of 2.3 clusters/image, and it is also better than standard SVM with 4.7 false-positive clusters/image at the same sensitivity.
Summing pressure compensation control
Myers, H.A.
1988-04-26
This patent describes a summing pressure compensator control for hydraulic loads with at least one of the hydraulic loads being a variable displacement motor having servo means for controlling the displacement thereof, first hydraulic means responsive to the supply of fluid to the variable displacement motor to provide a first pressure signal, second hydraulic means responsive to the supply of fluid to a second hydraulic load to provide a second pressure signal, summing means for receiving the first and second pressure signals and providing a control signal proportional to the sum of the first and second pressure signals, the control signal being applied to the servo means to increase the displacement of the variable displacement motor.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robertson, G.
1982-01-01
Calibration was performed on the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS). The results of the calibration and the as run test procedures are presented. The output data is described, and engineering data conversion factors, tables and curves, and calibration on instrument gauges are included. Static calibration results which include: instrument sensitive versus external pressure for N2 and O2, data from each scan of calibration, data plots from N2 and O2, and sensitivity of SUMS at inlet for N2 and O2, and ratios of 14/28 for nitrogen and 16/32 for oxygen are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Sunghoon; Lee, Seungwan; Choi, Yu-Na; Kim, Hee-Joung
2014-06-01
Contrast media, such as iodine and gadolinium, are generally used in digital subtraction mammography to enhance the contrast between target and background materials. In digital subtraction mammography, where one image (with contrast medium) is subtracted from another (anatomical background) to facilitate visualization of the tumor structure, tumors can be more easily distinguished after the injection of a contrast medium. In order to have more an effective method to increase the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), we applied a projection-based energy-weighting method. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the projection-based energy-weighting method in digital subtraction mammography. Unlike some other previous studies, we applied the projection-based energy-weighting method to more practical mammography conditions by using the Monte Carlo method to simulate four different iodine solutions embedded in a breast phantom comprised of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissues. We also considered an optimal tube voltage and anode/filter combination in digital iodine contrast media mammography in order to maximize the figure-of-merit (FOM). The simulated source energy was from 20 to 45 keV to prevent electronic noise and include the k-edge energy of iodine (33.2 keV). The results showed that the projection-based energy-weighting improved the CNR by factors of 1.05-1.86 compared to the conventionally integrated images. Consequently, the CNR of digital subtraction mammography images can be improved by using projection-based energy-weighting with photon-counting detectors.
Counting Triangles to Sum Squares
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeMaio, Joe
2012-01-01
Counting complete subgraphs of three vertices in complete graphs, yields combinatorial arguments for identities for sums of squares of integers, odd integers, even integers and sums of the triangular numbers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeTemple, Duane
2010-01-01
Purely combinatorial proofs are given for the sum of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2] = n(n + 1) (2n + 1) / 6, and the sum of sums of squares formula, 1[superscript 2] + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2]) + ... + (1[superscript 2] + 2[superscript 2] + ... + n[superscript 2]) = n(n + 1)[superscript 2]…
Sum-SINR/sum-capacity optimal multisignature spread-spectrum steganography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Lili; Pados, Dimitris A.; Batalama, Stella N.; Medley, Michael J.
2008-04-01
For any given digital host image or audio file (or group of hosts) and any (block) transform domain of interest, we find an orthogonal set of signatures that achieves maximum sum-signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (sum- SINR) spread-spectrum message embedding for any fixed embedding amplitude values. We also find the sumcapacity optimal amplitude allocation scheme for any given total distortion budget under the assumption of (colored) Gaussian transform-domain host data. The practical implication of the results is sum-SINR, sumcapacity optimal multiuser/multisignature spread-spectrum data hiding in the same medium. Theoretically, the findings establish optimality of the recently presented Gkizeli-Pados-Medley multisignature eigen-design algorithm.
Iterated binomial sums and their associated iterated integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ablinger, J.; Blümlein, J.; Raab, C. G.; Schneider, C.
2014-11-01
We consider finite iterated generalized harmonic sums weighted by the binomial binom{2k}{k} in numerators and denominators. A large class of these functions emerges in the calculation of massive Feynman diagrams with local operator insertions starting at 3-loop order in the coupling constant and extends the classes of the nested harmonic, generalized harmonic, and cyclotomic sums. The binomially weighted sums are associated by the Mellin transform to iterated integrals over square-root valued alphabets. The values of the sums for N → ∞ and the iterated integrals at x = 1 lead to new constants, extending the set of special numbers given by the multiple zeta values, the cyclotomic zeta values and special constants which emerge in the limit N → ∞ of generalized harmonic sums. We develop algorithms to obtain the Mellin representations of these sums in a systematic way. They are of importance for the derivation of the asymptotic expansion of these sums and their analytic continuation to N in {C}. The associated convolution relations are derived for real parameters and can therefore be used in a wider context, as, e.g., for multi-scale processes. We also derive algorithms to transform iterated integrals over root-valued alphabets into binomial sums. Using generating functions we study a few aspects of infinite (inverse) binomial sums.
Digitally controlled distributed phase shifter
Hietala, V.M.; Kravitz, S.H.; Vawter, G.A.
1992-12-31
A digitally controlled distributed phase shifter is comprised of N phase shifters. Digital control is achieved by using N binary length-weighted electrodes located on the top surface of a waveguide. A control terminal is attached to each electrode thereby allowing the application of a control signal. The control signal is either one of two discrete bias voltages. The application of the discrete bias voltages change the modal index of a portion of the waveguide that corresponds to a length of the electrode to which the bias voltage is applied, thereby causing the phase to change through the underlying portion of the waveguide. The digitally controlled distributed phase shift network has a total phase shift comprised of the sum of the individual phase shifters.
Fluctuations in classical sum rules.
Elton, John R; Lakshminarayan, Arul; Tomsovic, Steven
2010-10-01
Classical sum rules arise in a wide variety of physical contexts. Asymptotic expressions have been derived for many of these sum rules in the limit of long orbital period (or large action). Although sum-rule convergence may well be exponentially rapid for chaotic systems in a global phase-space sense with time, individual contributions to the sums may fluctuate with a width which diverges in time. Our interest is in the global convergence of sum rules as well as their local fluctuations. It turns out that a simple version of a lazy baker map gives an ideal system in which classical sum rules, their corrections, and their fluctuations can be worked out analytically. This is worked out in detail for the Hannay-Ozorio sum rule. In this particular case the rate of convergence of the sum rule is found to be governed by the Pollicott-Ruelle resonances, and both local and global boundaries for which the sum rule may converge are given. In addition, the width of the fluctuations is considered and worked out analytically, and it is shown to have an interesting dependence on the location of the region over which the sum rule is applied. It is also found that as the region of application is decreased in size the fluctuations grow. This suggests a way of controlling the length scale of the fluctuations by considering a time dependent phase-space volume, which for the lazy baker map decreases exponentially rapidly with time.
A 2-categorical state sum model
Baratin, Aristide; Freidel, Laurent
2015-01-15
It has long been argued that higher categories provide the proper algebraic structure underlying state sum invariants of 4-manifolds. This idea has been refined recently, by proposing to use 2-groups and their representations as specific examples of 2-categories. The challenge has been to make these proposals fully explicit. Here, we give a concrete realization of this program. Building upon our earlier work with Baez and Wise on the representation theory of 2-groups, we construct a four-dimensional state sum model based on a categorified version of the Euclidean group. We define and explicitly compute the simplex weights, which may be viewed a categorified analogue of Racah-Wigner 6j-symbols. These weights solve a hexagon equation that encodes the formal invariance of the state sum under the Pachner moves of the triangulation. This result unravels the combinatorial formulation of the Feynman amplitudes of quantum field theory on flat spacetime proposed in A. Baratin and L. Freidel [Classical Quantum Gravity 24, 2027–2060 (2007)] which was shown to lead after gauge-fixing to Korepanov’s invariant of 4-manifolds.
A 2-categorical state sum model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baratin, Aristide; Freidel, Laurent
2015-01-01
It has long been argued that higher categories provide the proper algebraic structure underlying state sum invariants of 4-manifolds. This idea has been refined recently, by proposing to use 2-groups and their representations as specific examples of 2-categories. The challenge has been to make these proposals fully explicit. Here, we give a concrete realization of this program. Building upon our earlier work with Baez and Wise on the representation theory of 2-groups, we construct a four-dimensional state sum model based on a categorified version of the Euclidean group. We define and explicitly compute the simplex weights, which may be viewed a categorified analogue of Racah-Wigner 6j-symbols. These weights solve a hexagon equation that encodes the formal invariance of the state sum under the Pachner moves of the triangulation. This result unravels the combinatorial formulation of the Feynman amplitudes of quantum field theory on flat spacetime proposed in A. Baratin and L. Freidel [Classical Quantum Gravity 24, 2027-2060 (2007)] which was shown to lead after gauge-fixing to Korepanov's invariant of 4-manifolds.
Tuning sum rules with window functions for optical constant evaluation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-de Marcos, Luis V.; Méndez, José A.; Larruquert, Juan I.
2016-07-01
Sum rules are a useful tool to evaluate the global consistency of a set of optical constants. We present a procedure to spectrally tune sum rules to evaluate the local consistency of optical constants. It enables enhancing the weight of a desired spectral range within the sum-rule integral. The procedure consists in multiplying the complex refractive index with an adapted function, which is named window function. Window functions are constructed through integration of Lorentz oscillators. The asymptotic decay of these window functions enables the derivation of a multiplicity of sum rules akin to the inertial sum rule, along with one modified version of f-sum rule. This multiplicity of sum rules combined with the free selection of the photon energy range provides a double way to tune the spectral contribution within the sum rule. Window functions were applied to reported data of SrF2 and of Al films in order to check data consistency over the spectrum. The use of window functions shows that the optical constants of SrF2 are consistent in a broad spectrum. Regarding Al, some spectral ranges are seen to present a lower consistency, even though the standard sum rules with no window function did not detect inconsistencies. Hence window functions are expected to be a helpful tool to evaluate the local consistency of optical constants.
Lattice sums arising from the Poisson equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bailey, D. H.; Borwein, J. M.; Crandall, R. E.; Zucker, I. J.
2013-03-01
In recent times, attention has been directed to the problem of solving the Poisson equation, either in engineering scenarios (computational) or in regard to crystal structure (theoretical). Herein we study a class of lattice sums that amount to Poisson solutions, namely the n-dimensional forms \\begin{eqnarray*} \\phi _n(r_1, \\dots ,r_n) = \\frac{1}{\\pi ^2} \\sum _{m_1, \\dots , m_n \\ odd} \\frac{e^{i \\pi ( m_1 r_1 + \\cdots + m_n r_n)}}{m_1^2 + \\cdots + m_n^2}. \\end{eqnarray*} By virtue of striking connections with Jacobi ϑ-function values, we are able to develop new closed forms for certain values of the coordinates rk, and extend such analysis to similar lattice sums. A primary result is that for rational x, y, the natural potential ϕ2(x, y) is \\frac{1}{\\pi } log A where A is an algebraic number. Various extensions and explicit evaluations are given. Such work is made possible by number-theoretical analysis, symbolic computation and experimental mathematics, including extensive numerical computations using up to 20 000-digit arithmetic.
Systematics of strength function sum rules
Johnson, Calvin W.
2015-08-28
Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens, violation of the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expectssum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Moreover, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).
Systematics of strength function sum rules
Johnson, Calvin W.
2015-08-28
Sum rules provide useful insights into transition strength functions and are often expressed as expectation values of an operator. In this letter I demonstrate that non-energy-weighted transition sum rules have strong secular dependences on the energy of the initial state. Such non-trivial systematics have consequences: the simplification suggested by the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis, for example, does not hold for most cases, though it weakly holds in at least some cases for electric dipole transitions. Furthermore, I show the systematics can be understood through spectral distribution theory, calculated via traces of operators and of products of operators. Seen through this lens,more » violation of the generalized Brink–Axel hypothesis is unsurprising: one expectssum rules to evolve with excitation energy. Moreover, to lowest order the slope of the secular evolution can be traced to a component of the Hamiltonian being positive (repulsive) or negative (attractive).« less
Burke, Lauri A.; Kinney, Scott A.; Kola-Kehinde, Temidayo B.
2011-01-01
This document provides the digital archive of in-situ temperature and drilling mud weight pressure data that were compiled from several historical sources. The data coverage includes the states of Texas and Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico basin. Data are also provided graphically, for both Texas and Louisiana, as plots of temperature as a function of depth and pressure as a function of depth. The minimum, arithmetic average, and maximum values are tabulated for each 1,000-foot depth increment for temperature as well as pressure in the Texas and Louisiana data.
Mental arithmetic activates analogic representations of internally generated sums.
Kallai, Arava Y; Schunn, Christian D; Fiez, Julie A
2012-08-01
The internal representation of numbers generated during calculation has received little attention. Much of the mathematics learning literature focuses on symbolic retrieval of math facts; in contrast, we critically test the hypothesis that internally generated numbers are represented analogically, using an approximate number system. In an fMRI study, the spontaneous processing of arithmetical expressions was tested. Participants passively viewed a sequence of double-digit addition expressions that summed to the same number. Adaptation was found in number-related regions in a fronto-parietal network. Following adaptation, arrays of dots were introduced, differing in their numerical distance from the sum of the addition expressions. Activation in voxels that showed adaptation to a repeated sum was also sensitive to the distance of the dot quantity from the sum. We conclude that participants exhibited adaptation to an internally generated number, that adapted representations were analogic in nature, and that these analogic representations may undergird arithmetic calculation. PMID:22732492
Analytic and algorithmic aspects of generalized harmonic sums and polylogarithms
Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten; Blümlein, Johannes
2013-08-15
In recent three-loop calculations of massive Feynman integrals within Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and, e.g., in recent combinatorial problems the so-called generalized harmonic sums (in short S-sums) arise. They are characterized by rational (or real) numerator weights also different from ±1. In this article we explore the algorithmic and analytic properties of these sums systematically. We work out the Mellin and inverse Mellin transform which connects the sums under consideration with the associated Poincaré iterated integrals, also called generalized harmonic polylogarithms. In this regard, we obtain explicit analytic continuations by means of asymptotic expansions of the S-sums which started to occur frequently in current QCD calculations. In addition, we derive algebraic and structural relations, like differentiation with respect to the external summation index and different multi-argument relations, for the compactification of S-sum expressions. Finally, we calculate algebraic relations for infinite S-sums, or equivalently for generalized harmonic polylogarithms evaluated at special values. The corresponding algorithms and relations are encoded in the computer algebra package HarmonicSums.
Small sum privacy and large sum utility in data publishing.
Fu, Ada Wai-Chee; Wang, Ke; Wong, Raymond Chi-Wing; Wang, Jia; Jiang, Minhao
2014-08-01
While the study of privacy preserving data publishing has drawn a lot of interest, some recent work has shown that existing mechanisms do not limit all inferences about individuals. This paper is a positive note in response to this finding. We point out that not all inference attacks should be countered, in contrast to all existing works known to us, and based on this we propose a model called SPLU. This model protects sensitive information, by which we refer to answers for aggregate queries with small sums, while queries with large sums are answered with higher accuracy. Using SPLU, we introduce a sanitization algorithm to protect data while maintaining high data utility for queries with large sums. Empirical results show that our method behaves as desired.
Weighted Uncertainty Relations
Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming
2016-01-01
Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation. PMID:26984295
Windham, Meghan E; Hastings, Elisabeth S; Anding, Roberta; Hergenroeder, Albert C; Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Wiemann, Constance M
2014-10-01
The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of a 7-minute educational and motivational weight-management digital video disc (DVD) that uses real patient/parent testimonials and provider-patient interactions, on adolescent and parent knowledge of obesity-related diseases; readiness, motivation, and self-efficacy to lose weight; connectedness to care provider; and likelihood of return to clinic for follow-up care. A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 40 overweight/obese adolescent participants (22.5% male, 77.5% female, mean age=15.43 years) and their parents (n=38) who visited a referral-only adolescent clinic for the first time from October 2009 to March 2010. Adolescents were randomly assigned by a research assistant to standard care alone or standard care plus DVD. Standard care (protocol-driven medical and nutritional assessment and counseling) was provided to all adolescents by a registered dietitian nutritionist and physician or nurse practitioner. Adolescents in the intervention group also viewed the DVD. Adolescents and parents completed assessments pre- and post-clinic visit. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to evaluate group differences, while controlling for race/ethnicity and age. Parents who viewed the DVD experienced greater improvements in obesity-related disease knowledge than parents who did not view the DVD. Adolescents in both groups improved on measures of motivation to lose weight and dieting self-efficacy, based on pre and post-test questionnaires. A 7-minute educational and motivational DVD helped improve parent knowledge, but was not more powerful than standard care alone in changing other weight-related outcomes in this adolescent clinic. Because it led to increased parental knowledge, incorporating the DVD into clinical practice could also allow more time for health providers to focus on specific obesity-related treatment/education. Future research might examine whether the DVD has more utility in
Windham, Meghan E; Hastings, Elisabeth S; Anding, Roberta; Hergenroeder, Albert C; Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Wiemann, Constance M
2014-10-01
The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of a 7-minute educational and motivational weight-management digital video disc (DVD) that uses real patient/parent testimonials and provider-patient interactions, on adolescent and parent knowledge of obesity-related diseases; readiness, motivation, and self-efficacy to lose weight; connectedness to care provider; and likelihood of return to clinic for follow-up care. A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 40 overweight/obese adolescent participants (22.5% male, 77.5% female, mean age=15.43 years) and their parents (n=38) who visited a referral-only adolescent clinic for the first time from October 2009 to March 2010. Adolescents were randomly assigned by a research assistant to standard care alone or standard care plus DVD. Standard care (protocol-driven medical and nutritional assessment and counseling) was provided to all adolescents by a registered dietitian nutritionist and physician or nurse practitioner. Adolescents in the intervention group also viewed the DVD. Adolescents and parents completed assessments pre- and post-clinic visit. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to evaluate group differences, while controlling for race/ethnicity and age. Parents who viewed the DVD experienced greater improvements in obesity-related disease knowledge than parents who did not view the DVD. Adolescents in both groups improved on measures of motivation to lose weight and dieting self-efficacy, based on pre and post-test questionnaires. A 7-minute educational and motivational DVD helped improve parent knowledge, but was not more powerful than standard care alone in changing other weight-related outcomes in this adolescent clinic. Because it led to increased parental knowledge, incorporating the DVD into clinical practice could also allow more time for health providers to focus on specific obesity-related treatment/education. Future research might examine whether the DVD has more utility in
Direct Sum Decomposition of Groups
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thaheem, A. B.
2005-01-01
Direct sum decomposition of Abelian groups appears in almost all textbooks on algebra for undergraduate students. This concept plays an important role in group theory. One simple example of this decomposition is obtained by using the kernel and range of a projection map on an Abelian group. The aim in this pedagogical note is to establish a direct…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dominguez, C. A.
2013-08-01
A general, and very basic introduction to QCD sum rules is presented, with emphasis on recent issues to be described at length in other papers in this issue. Collectively, these papers constitute the proceedings of the International Workshop on Determination of the Fundamental Parameters of QCD, Singapore, March 2013.
Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan
2014-01-10
Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM.
Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan
2014-01-01
Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880
Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan
2013-01-01
Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880
Energy-weighted sum rules, y-scaling and duality
J. Wallace Van Orden; Sabine Jeschonnek
2002-09-01
The phenomena of scaling and Bloom-Gilman duality are examined in the context of simple nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanical models. These models are shown to scale and to show the qualitative feature of Bloom-Gilman duality. This suggests that these phenomena do not necessarily require the properties of QCD.
Summing Planar Bosonic Open Strings
Bardakci, Korkut
2006-02-16
In earlier work, planar graphs of massless {phi}{sup 3} theory were summed with the help of the light cone world sheet picture and the mean field approximation. In the present article, the same methods are applied to the problem of summing planar bosonic open strings. They find that in the ground state of the system, string boundaries form a condensate on the world sheet, and a new string emerges from this summation. Its slope is always greater than the initial slope, and it remains non-zero even when the initial slope is set equal to zero. If they assume the initial string tends to a field a theory in the zero slope limit, this result provides evidence for string formation in field theory.
Optical conductivity and the sum rule in the DDW state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aristov, D. N.; Zeyher, R.
2005-04-01
The density wave with d-wave order parameter (DDW) is possibly realized in the underdoped regime of high- Tc cuprates. The DDW state is characterized by two branches of low-lying electronic excitations, and the quantum mechanical current has in particular an inter-branch contribution. The latter component causes a finite-frequency response in the optical conductivity and a reduction of the Drude contribution. We show that this redistribution of the spectral weight leaves the optical sum mostly intact, so that the restricted optical sum rule is only weakly violated.
Optimal generalized multistep integration formulae for real-time digital simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moerder, D. D.; Halyo, N.
1985-01-01
The problem of discretizing a dynamical system for real-time digital simulation is considered. Treating the system and its simulation as stochastic processes leads to a statistical characterization of simulator fidelity. A plant discretization procedure based on an efficient matrix generalization of explicit linear multistep discrete integration formulae is introduced, which minimizes a weighted sum of the mean squared steady-state and transient error between the system and simulator outputs.
Unit-Weighted Scales Imply Models that Should Be Tested!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beauducel, Andre; Leue, Anja
2013-01-01
In several studies unit-weighted sum scales based on the unweighted sum of items are derived from the pattern of salient loadings in confirmatory factor analysis. The problem of this procedure is that the unit-weighted sum scales imply a model other than the initially tested confirmatory factor model. In consequence, it remains generally unknown…
Note on cyclic sum and combination sum of color-ordered gluon amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Yi-Jian; Feng, Bo; Fu, Chih-Hao
2012-03-01
Continuing our previous study [22] of permutation sum of color ordered tree amplitudes of gluons, in this note, we prove the large- z behavior of their cyclic sum and the combination of cyclic and permutation sums under BCFW deformation. Unlike the permutation sum, the study of cyclic sum and the combination of cyclic and permutation sums is much more difficult. By using the generalized Bern-Carrasco-Johansson (BCJ) relation, we have proved the boundary behavior of cyclic sum with nonadjacent BCFW deformation. The proof of cyclic sum with adjacent BCFW deformation is a little bit simpler, where only Kleiss-Kuijf (KK) relations are needed. Finally we have presented a new observation for partial-ordered permutation sum and applied it to prove the boundary behavior of combination sum with cyclic and permutation.
An efficient sampling technique for sums of bandpass functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawton, W. M.
1982-01-01
A well known sampling theorem states that a bandlimited function can be completely determined by its values at a uniformly placed set of points whose density is at least twice the highest frequency component of the function (Nyquist rate). A less familiar but important sampling theorem states that a bandlimited narrowband function can be completely determined by its values at a properly chosen, nonuniformly placed set of points whose density is at least twice the passband width. This allows for efficient digital demodulation of narrowband signals, which are common in sonar, radar and radio interferometry, without the side effect of signal group delay from an analog demodulator. This theorem was extended by developing a technique which allows a finite sum of bandlimited narrowband functions to be determined by its values at a properly chosen, nonuniformly placed set of points whose density can be made arbitrarily close to the sum of the passband widths.
Rao-Blackwellization for Adaptive Gaussian Sum Nonlinear Model Propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Semper, Sean R.; Crassidis, John L.; George, Jemin; Mukherjee, Siddharth; Singla, Puneet
2015-01-01
When dealing with imperfect data and general models of dynamic systems, the best estimate is always sought in the presence of uncertainty or unknown parameters. In many cases, as the first attempt, the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) provides sufficient solutions to handling issues arising from nonlinear and non-Gaussian estimation problems. But these issues may lead unacceptable performance and even divergence. In order to accurately capture the nonlinearities of most real-world dynamic systems, advanced filtering methods have been created to reduce filter divergence while enhancing performance. Approaches, such as Gaussian sum filtering, grid based Bayesian methods and particle filters are well-known examples of advanced methods used to represent and recursively reproduce an approximation to the state probability density function (pdf). Some of these filtering methods were conceptually developed years before their widespread uses were realized. Advanced nonlinear filtering methods currently benefit from the computing advancements in computational speeds, memory, and parallel processing. Grid based methods, multiple-model approaches and Gaussian sum filtering are numerical solutions that take advantage of different state coordinates or multiple-model methods that reduced the amount of approximations used. Choosing an efficient grid is very difficult for multi-dimensional state spaces, and oftentimes expensive computations must be done at each point. For the original Gaussian sum filter, a weighted sum of Gaussian density functions approximates the pdf but suffers at the update step for the individual component weight selections. In order to improve upon the original Gaussian sum filter, Ref. [2] introduces a weight update approach at the filter propagation stage instead of the measurement update stage. This weight update is performed by minimizing the integral square difference between the true forecast pdf and its Gaussian sum approximation. By adaptively updating
Minimizing the Sum of Completion Times with Resource Dependant Times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yedidsion, Liron; Shabtay, Dvir; Kaspi, Moshe
2008-10-01
We extend the classical minimization sum of completion times problem to the case where the processing times are controllable by allocating a nonrenewable resource. The quality of a solution is measured by two different criteria. The first criterion is the sum of completion times and the second is the total weighted resource consumption. We consider four different problem variations for treating the two criteria. We prove that this problem is NP-hard for three of the four variations even if all resource consumption weights are equal. However, somewhat surprisingly, the variation of minimizing the integrated objective function is solvable in polynomial time. Although the sum of completion times is arguably the most important scheduling criteria, the complexity of this problem, up to this paper, was an open question for three of the four variations. The results of this research have various implementations, including efficient battery usage on mobile devices such as mobile computer, phones and GPS devices in order to prolong their battery duration.
Where Does Latin "Sum" Come From?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nyman, Martti A.
1977-01-01
The derivation of Latin "sum,""es(s),""est" from Indo-European "esmi,""est,""esti" involves methodological problems. It is claimed here that the development of "sum" from "esmi" is related to the origin of the variation "est-st" (less than"esti"). The study is primarily concerned with this process, but chronological suggestions are also made. (CHK)
Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Timothy R.
2013-01-01
One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are still…
Fouvry, Étienne; Kowalski, Emmanuel; Michel, Philippe
2015-01-01
We give a general version of cancellation in exponential sums that arise as sums of products of trace functions satisfying a suitable independence condition related to the Goursat–Kolchin–Ribet criterion, in a form that is easily applicable in analytic number theory. PMID:25802414
Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous strings
Amore, Paolo
2013-11-15
We derive explicit expressions for the sum rules of the eigenvalues of inhomogeneous strings with arbitrary density and with different boundary conditions. We show that the sum rule of order N may be obtained in terms of a diagrammatic expansion, with (N−1)!/2 independent diagrams. These sum rules are used to derive upper and lower bounds to the energy of the fundamental mode of an inhomogeneous string; we also show that it is possible to improve these approximations taking into account the asymptotic behavior of the spectrum and applying the Shanks transformation to the sequence of approximations obtained to the different orders. We discuss three applications of these results. -- Highlights: •We derive an explicit expression for the sum rules of an inhomogeneous string. •We obtain a diagrammatic representation for the sum rules of a given order. •We obtain precise bounds on the lowest eigenvalue of the string.
40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... Equation must be final deteriorated test results as defined in § 91.509(c). Ci = max Where: Ci = The current CumSum statistic Ci-1 = The previous CumSum statistic. Prior to any testing, the CumSum statistic... Limit F = 0.25 × σ After each test, Ci is compared to the action limit, H, the quantity which the...
Broadband performance of superdirective delay-and-sum beamformers steered to end-fire.
Trucco, A; Traverso, F; Crocco, M
2014-06-01
Linear arrays steered to end-fire provide superdirective robust performance if a constraint is imposed on the white-noise gain. Filter-and-sum beamformers achieve the maximum constrained directivity by tuning their complex weights over the frequency. Delay-and-sum beamformers have simpler structures, but their weights are fixed and optimized at a given frequency. This letter investigates the constrained directivity provided over a broad band by different delay-and-sum techniques. Complex weights and analytic signals attain near-optimal broadband performance over four octaves. Oversteered arrays using real weights and signals were found to attain superdirective performance over approximately two octaves. Hearing aids and directional hydrophones are potential applications for the considered arrays.
Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hinohara, Nobuo; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik
2015-04-01
Background: The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, the correlations governing the behavior of the many-body system, and the properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or the nuclear energy density functional (EDF). But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. Purpose: To establish an efficient framework to compute energy-weighted sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy finite-amplitude method (FAM) based on the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA). Methods: To compute sum rules, we carry out contour integration of the response function in the complex-energy plane. We benchmark our results against the conventional matrix formulation of the QRPA theory, the Thouless theorem for the energy-weighted sum rule, and the dielectric theorem for the inverse-energy-weighted sum rule. Results: We derive the sum-rule expressions from the contour integration of the complex-energy FAM. We demonstrate that calculated sum-rule values agree with those obtained from the matrix formulation of the QRPA. We also discuss the applicability of both the Thouless theorem about the energy-weighted sum rule and the dielectric theorem for the inverse-energy-weighted sum rule to nuclear density functional theory in cases when the EDF is not based on a Hamiltonian. Conclusions: The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method
Sum rule of the correlation function
Maj, Radoslaw; Mrowczynski, Stanislaw
2005-04-01
We discuss a sum rule satisfied by the correlation function of two particles with small relative momenta. The sum rule, which results from the completeness condition of the quantum states of two particles, is derived and checked to see how it works in practice. The sum rule is shown to be trivially satisfied by free particle pairs. We then analyze three different systems of interacting particles: neutron and proton pairs in the s-wave approximation, the so-called hard spheres with phase shifts taken into account up to l=4, and finally, the Coulomb system of two charged particles.
Robey, Robert
2015-10-06
This code is a set of global sums to support the paper "Computational Reproducibility for Production Physics Applications" submitted to the Numerical Reproducibility at Exascale (NRE 2015) workshop at the 2015 Supercomputing conference, Nov. 20, 2015
Nuclear magnetic moments and related sum rules
Bentz, Wolfgang; Arima, Akito
2011-05-06
We first review the history and our present understanding of nuclear magnetic moments and Gamow-Teller transitions, with emphasis on the roles of configuration mixing and meson exchange currents. Then we discuss the renormalization of the orbital g-factor in nuclei, and its relation to the E1 sum rule for photoabsorption and the M1 sum rule for the scissors mode of deformed nuclei.
Is the Coulomb sum rule violated in nuclei?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morgenstern, J.; Meziani, Z.-E.
2001-08-01
Guided by the experimental confirmation of the validity of the Effective Momentum Approximation (EMA) in quasi-elastic scattering off nuclei, we have re-examined the extraction of the longitudinal and transverse response functions in medium-weight and heavy nuclei. In the EMA we have performed a Rosenbluth separation of the available world data on 40Ca, 48Ca, 56Fe, 197Au, 208Pb and 238U. We find that the longitudinal response function for these nuclei is "quenched" and that the Coulomb sum is not saturated, at odds with claims in the literature.
Support activities to maintain SUMS flight readiness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, Willie
1992-01-01
The Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), a component experiment of the NASA Orbital Experiments Program (OEX), was flown aboard the shuttle Columbia (OV102) mounted at the forward end of the nose landing gear well with an atmospheric gas inlet system fitted to the lower fuselage (chin panel) surface. The SUMS was designed to provide atmospheric data in flow regimes inaccessible prior to the development of the Space Transportation System (STS). The experiment mission operation began about one hour prior to shuttle de-orbit entry maneuver and continued until reaching 1.6 torr (about 86 km altitude). The SUMS mass spectrometer consists of the spare unit from the Viking mission to Mars. Bendix Aerospace under contract to NASA LaRC incorporated the Viking mass spectrometer, a microprocessor based logic card, a pressurized instrument case, and the University of Texas at Dallas provided a gas inlet system into a configuration suited to interface with the shuttle Columbia. The SUMS experiment underwent static and dynamic calibration as well as vacuum maintenance before and after STS 40 shuttle flight. The SUMS flew a total of 3 times on the space shuttle Columbia. Between flights the SUMS was maintained in flight ready status. The flight data has been analyzed by the NASA LaRC Aerothermodynamics Branch. Flight data spectrum plots and reports are presented in the Appendices to the Final Technical Report for NAS1-17399.
Quasielastic (e,e') sum rule saturation
C. R. Chinn; A. Picklesimer; Wally Van Orden
1989-09-01
A microscopic Green's function doorway formalism is used to study Coulomb sum rule saturation in inclusive quasielastic electron scattering as a function of momentum transfer. Form factor, kinematical restriction, and final-state interaction effects on the approach to saturation are examined in detail, as are the roles of nonhermiticity, energy dependence, and the analytic behavior of the final-state interactions. The implications of relativistic kinematics and dynamics for the approach to saturation at not-too-high values of the momentum transfer are assessed. Because the pair production of relativistic treatments destroys the asymptotic nature of the nonrelativistic Coulomb sum rule, the degree to which a regime of validity can be expected for this sum rule, and its location, is considered. The breakdown of the sum rule as the momentum transfer increases is also examined. Similar theoretical studies of an analogous nonrelativistic transverse sum in its saturation region are developed as well. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental data for {sup 40}Ca both directly and using a variety of theoretical prescriptions and limits. Neutron knockout contributions and associated uncertainties due to ambiguity in the free neutron form factors are examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hubler, Alfred
2009-03-01
The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and mobile devices. The technology is related to flash drives. However, because of the high energy density, safety is a concern. Digital batteries can be easily and safely charged and discharged. In the discharged state they pose no danger. Even if a charged digital battery were to explode, it would produce no radioactive waste, no long-term radiation, and probably could be designed to produce no noxious chemicals. We discuss methodologies to prevent shorts and other measures to make digital batteries safe. [1] H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hubler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent No. 5,679,961 (1997) [2] Alfred Hubler, http://server10.how-why.com/blog/
Experimental results of the betatron sum resonance
Wang, Y.; Ball, M.; Brabson, B.
1993-06-01
The experimental observations of motion near the betatron sum resonance, {nu}{sub x} + 2{nu}{sub z} = 13, are presented. A fast quadrupole (Panofsky-style ferrite picture-frame magnet with a pulsed power supplier) producing a betatron tune shift of the order of 0.03 at rise time of 1 {mu}s was used. This quadrupole was used to produce betatron tunes which jumped past and then crossed back through a betatron sum resonance line. The beam response as function of initial betatron amplitudes were recorded turn by turn. The correlated growth of the action variables, J{sub x} and J{sub z}, was observed. The phase space plots in the resonance frame reveal the features of particle motion near the nonlinear sum resonance region.
Coulomb sum rule in the quasielastic region
Kim, K. S.; Yu, B. G.; Cheoun, M. K.
2006-12-15
Within a relativistic single particle model, we calculate the Coulomb sum rule of inclusive electron scattering from {sup 40}Ca and {sup 208}Pb in the quasielastic region. Theoretical longitudinal and transverse structure functions are extracted for three-momentum transfers from 300 to 500 MeV/c and compared with the experimental data measured at Bates and Saclay. We find that there is no drastic suppression of the longitudinal structure function and that the Coulomb sum rule depends on the nucleus in our theoretical model.
Digitized synchronous demodulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodhouse, Christopher E. (Inventor)
1990-01-01
A digitized synchronous demodulator is constructed entirely of digital components including timing logic, an accumulator, and means to digitally filter the digital output signal. Indirectly, it accepts, at its input, periodic analog signals which are converted to digital signals by traditional analog-to-digital conversion techniques. Broadly, the input digital signals are summed to one of two registers within an accumulator, based on the phase of the input signal and medicated by timing logic. At the end of a predetermined number of cycles of the inputted periodic signals, the contents of the register that accumulated samples from the negative half cycle is subtracted from the accumulated samples from the positive half cycle. The resulting difference is an accurate measurement of the narrow band amplitude of the periodic input signal during the measurement period. This measurement will not include error sources encountered in prior art synchronous demodulators using analog techniques such as offsets, charge injection errors, temperature drift, switching transients, settling time, analog to digital converter missing code, and linearity errors.
40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... i -1+X i−(FEL+F))] Where: Ci=The current CumSum statistic. Ci -1=The previous CumSum statistic... to paragraph (a)(1) of this section, Ci is compared to the action limit, H, the quantity which...
The Visual Interactive Computer-Aided Approach to Teaching Zero-Sum/Nonzero-Sum Games.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shim, J. P.
1988-01-01
Discusses the use of the microcomputer as an instructional tool in the domain of competitive decision making. Describes how visual interactive zero-sum/nonzero-sum games can be useful in teaching this subject. Compares student performances based on the visual interactive approach to those of traditional approaches. (GEA)
40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... i −1+X i−(FEL+F))] Where: Ci=The current CumSum statistic. Ci -1=The previous CumSum statistic... individual engine. FEL=Family Emission Limit (the standard if no FEL). F=.25×σ. (2) After each test pursuant... configuration, or the use of a different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL (where...
40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... i −1+X i−(FEL+F))] Where: Ci=The current CumSum statistic. Ci -1=The previous CumSum statistic... individual engine. FEL=Family Emission Limit (the standard if no FEL). F=.25×σ. (2) After each test pursuant... configuration, or the use of a different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL (where...
40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... i -1+X i−(FEL+F))] Where: Ci=The current CumSum statistic. Ci -1=The previous CumSum statistic... individual engine. FEL=Family Emission Limit (the standard if no FEL). F=.25×σ. (2) After each test pursuant... configuration, or the use of a different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL (where...
40 CFR 90.708 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... i −1+X i−(FEL+F))] Where: Ci=The current CumSum statistic. Ci -1=The previous CumSum statistic... individual engine. FEL=Family Emission Limit (the standard if no FEL). F=.25×σ. (2) After each test pursuant... configuration, or the use of a different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL (where...
Structure-function sum rules for systems with large scattering lengths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.
2012-01-01
We use a dispersion relation in conjunction with the operator product expansion (OPE) to derive model independent sum rules for the dynamic structure functions of systems with large scattering lengths. We present an explicit sum rule for the structure functions that control the density and spin response of the many-body ground state. Our methods are general and apply to either fermions or bosons which interact through two-body contact interactions with large scattering lengths. By employing a Borel transform of the OPE, the relevant integrals are weighted toward infrared frequencies, thus allowing for greater overlap low energy data. Similar sum rules can be derived for other response functions. The sum rules can be used to extract the contact parameter introduced by Tan, including universality violating corrections at finite scattering lengths.
Summing threshold logs in a parton shower
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagy, Zoltán; Soper, Davison E.
2016-10-01
When parton distributions are falling steeply as the momentum fractions of the partons increases, there are effects that occur at each order in α s that combine to affect hard scattering cross sections and need to be summed. We show how to accomplish this in a leading approximation in the context of a parton shower Monte Carlo event generator.
Generalized Sum Rules of the Nucleon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorshteyn, Mikhail; Szczepaniak, Adam
2008-10-01
We consider doubly virtual Compton scattering (VVCS) off the nucleon with the photon virtualities q1^2=q2^2=-Q^2 and formulate the low energy theorem (LET) for this process. We show that the LET can only be defined at finite momentum transfer t=-2Q^2 which is at variance with existing studies in the literature. Combining LET with dispersion relations for the forward VVCS amplitude, we obtain the new, correct version of the generalized sum rules of the nucleon that state a correspondence between the low energy constants of VVCS and the moments of the DIS structure functions. We notice that the t-channel unitarity is necessary to translate the forward dispersion relations to the low energy limit. This approach leads to a substantial modification of the generalized GDH sum rule at finite Q^2 that undergoes extensive studies at JLab. For the spin-independent VVCS amplitude, the new sum rule for the generalized magnetic susceptibility β(Q^2) is obtained. Our approach provides a consistent, Lorentz invariant formulation of LET for the most general VVCS process that removes inconsistencies that stain the previous studies of the generalized polarizabilities of virtual Compton scattering and the generalized sum rules of the nucleon.
Kaon distribution amplitude from QCD sum rules
Khodjamirian, A.; Mannel, Th.; Melcher, M.
2004-11-01
We present a new calculation of the first Gegenbauer moment a{sub 1}{sup K} of the kaon light cone distribution amplitude. This moment is determined by the difference between the average momenta of strange and nonstrange valence quarks in the kaon. To calculate a{sub 1}{sup K}, QCD sum rule for the diagonal correlation function of local and nonlocal axial-vector currents is used. Contributions of condensates up to dimension six are taken into account, including O({alpha}{sub s})-corrections to the quark-condensate term. We obtain a{sub 1}{sup K}=0.05{+-}0.02, differing by the sign and magnitude from the recent sum rule estimate from the nondiagonal correlation function of pseudoscalar and axial-vector currents. We argue that the nondiagonal sum rule is numerically not reliable. Furthermore, an independent indication for a positive a{sub 1}{sup K} is given, based on the matching of two different light cone sum rules for the K{yields}{pi} form factor. With the new interval of a{sub 1}{sup K}, we update our previous numerical predictions for SU(3)-violating effects in B{sub (s)}{yields}K form factors and charmless B decays.
Sums of Integer Squares: A New Look.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sastry, K. R. S.; Pranesachar, C. R.; Venkatachala, B. J.
1998-01-01
Focuses on the study of the sum of two integer squares, neither of which is zero square. Develops some new interesting and nonstandard ideas that can be put to use in number theory class, mathematics club meetings, or popular lectures. (ASK)
Fibonacci Identities via the Determinant Sum Property
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spivey, Michael
2006-01-01
We use the sum property for determinants of matrices to give a three-stage proof of an identity involving Fibonacci numbers. Cassini's and d'Ocagne's Fibonacci identities are obtained at the ends of stages one and two, respectively. Catalan's Fibonacci identity is also a special case.
Delivering both sum and difference beam distributions to a planar monopulse antenna array
Strassner, II, Bernd H.
2015-12-22
A planar monopulse radar apparatus includes a planar distribution matrix coupled to a planar antenna array having a linear configuration of antenna elements. The planar distribution matrix is responsive to first and second pluralities of weights applied thereto for providing both sum and difference beam distributions across the antenna array.
Limiting law excess sum rule for polyelectrolytes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landy, Jonathan; Lee, YongJin; Jho, YongSeok
2013-11-01
We revisit the mean-field limiting law screening excess sum rule that holds for rodlike polyelectrolytes. We present an efficient derivation of this law that clarifies its region of applicability: The law holds in the limit of small polymer radius, measured relative to the Debye screening length. From the limiting law, we determine the individual ion excess values for single-salt electrolytes. We also consider the mean-field excess sum away from the limiting region, and we relate this quantity to the osmotic pressure of a dilute polyelectrolyte solution. Finally, we consider numerical simulations of many-body polymer-electrolyte solutions. We conclude that the limiting law often accurately describes the screening of physical charged polymers of interest, such as extended DNA.
Sum Product Networks for Activity Recognition.
Amer, Mohamed R; Todorovic, Sinisa
2016-04-01
This paper addresses detection and localization of human activities in videos. We focus on activities that may have variable spatiotemporal arrangements of parts, and numbers of actors. Such activities are represented by a sum-product network (SPN). A product node in SPN represents a particular arrangement of parts, and a sum node represents alternative arrangements. The sums and products are hierarchically organized, and grounded onto space-time windows covering the video. The windows provide evidence about the activity classes based on the Counting Grid (CG) model of visual words. This evidence is propagated bottom-up and top-down to parse the SPN graph for the explanation of the video. The node connectivity and model parameters of SPN and CG are jointly learned under two settings, weakly supervised, and supervised. For evaluation, we use our new Volleyball dataset, along with the benchmark datasets VIRAT, UT-Interactions, KTH, and TRECVID MED 2011. Our video classification and activity localization are superior to those of the state of the art on these datasets.
Generalized constructive tree weights
Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org
2014-04-15
The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.
Precision digital pulse phase generator
McEwan, Thomas E.
1996-01-01
A timing generator comprises a crystal oscillator connected to provide an output reference pulse. A resistor-capacitor combination is connected to provide a variable-delay output pulse from an input connected to the crystal oscillator. A phase monitor is connected to provide duty-cycle representations of the reference and variable-delay output pulse phase. An operational amplifier drives a control voltage to the resistor-capacitor combination according to currents integrated from the phase monitor and injected into summing junctions. A digital-to-analog converter injects a control current into the summing junctions according to an input digital control code. A servo equilibrium results that provides a phase delay of the variable-delay output pulse to the output reference pulse that linearly depends on the input digital control code.
Precision digital pulse phase generator
McEwan, T.E.
1996-10-08
A timing generator comprises a crystal oscillator connected to provide an output reference pulse. A resistor-capacitor combination is connected to provide a variable-delay output pulse from an input connected to the crystal oscillator. A phase monitor is connected to provide duty-cycle representations of the reference and variable-delay output pulse phase. An operational amplifier drives a control voltage to the resistor-capacitor combination according to currents integrated from the phase monitor and injected into summing junctions. A digital-to-analog converter injects a control current into the summing junctions according to an input digital control code. A servo equilibrium results that provides a phase delay of the variable-delay output pulse to the output reference pulse that linearly depends on the input digital control code. 2 figs.
SUMS experiment flight results on STS-35
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blanchard, Robert C.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Nicholson, John Y.
1993-01-01
Calibrated pressure measurements for species with mass to charge ratios up to 50 amu/e(-) were obtained from the Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS) experiment during reentry on the STS-35 mission. Data were collected from 180 km, when the signal rose above the background, to about 87 km, when the SUMS system automatically closed the gas inlet value. However, data above 115 km was contaminated from a source of gas emanating from pressure transducers connected in parallel to the mass spectrometer. At lower altitudes, the pressure transducer data is compared with the mass spectrometer total pressure with excellent agreement. The free-stream density in the rarefied flow flight regime is calculated using an orifice pressure coefficient model based upon direct simulation Monte Carlo results. This density, when compared with the 1976 U.S. standard atmosphere model, exhibits the wave-like nature seen on previous flights using accelerometry. In addition, selected spectra are presented at higher altitudes (320 km) showing the effects of the ingestion of gases from a forward fuselage fuel dump. An analysis of the spectra data from this event is presented to show that no significant permanent changes occurred which affected the data interpretation at lower altitudes. Further, the localized chemistry from the individual species during the onset of aerodynamic heating is examined to the extent possible for a closed source system, such as SUMS. Near the orifice entrance, a significant amount of CO2 was generated from chemical reactions with the carbon panels of the Orbiter and absorbed oxygen on the system tubing.
SUMS experiment flight results on STS-35
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanchard, Robert C.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Nicholson, John Y.
1993-04-01
Calibrated pressure measurements for species with mass to charge ratios up to 50 amu/e(-) were obtained from the Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS) experiment during reentry on the STS-35 mission. Data were collected from 180 km, when the signal rose above the background, to about 87 km, when the SUMS system automatically closed the gas inlet value. However, data above 115 km was contaminated from a source of gas emanating from pressure transducers connected in parallel to the mass spectrometer. At lower altitudes, the pressure transducer data is compared with the mass spectrometer total pressure with excellent agreement. The free-stream density in the rarefied flow flight regime is calculated using an orifice pressure coefficient model based upon direct simulation Monte Carlo results. This density, when compared with the 1976 U.S. standard atmosphere model, exhibits the wave-like nature seen on previous flights using accelerometry. In addition, selected spectra are presented at higher altitudes (320 km) showing the effects of the ingestion of gases from a forward fuselage fuel dump. An analysis of the spectra data from this event is presented to show that no significant permanent changes occurred which affected the data interpretation at lower altitudes. Further, the localized chemistry from the individual species during the onset of aerodynamic heating is examined to the extent possible for a closed source system, such as SUMS. Near the orifice entrance, a significant amount of CO2 was generated from chemical reactions with the carbon panels of the Orbiter and absorbed oxygen on the system tubing.
Measuring food intake with digital photography.
Martin, C K; Nicklas, T; Gunturk, B; Correa, J B; Allen, H R; Champagne, C
2014-01-01
The digital photography of foods method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer software. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. In the present review, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analysed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behaviour and to receive dietary recommendations for achieving weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children is also reviewed. In sum, the body of research reviewed demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and the incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the method.
McVay, Megan A.; Steinberg, Dori M.; Askew, Sandy; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Bennett, Gary G.
2015-01-01
Purpose Emerging evidence suggests that attributing one’s weight to genetics may contribute to the adoption of obesogenic behaviors. We examined if weight-related genetic attributions were associated with weight change during a weight gain prevention intervention. Methods Participants (n=185) were from a randomized clinical trial of a digital health weight gain prevention intervention for Black women age 25–44 with BMI 25.0–34.9kg/m2. Weight-related genetic attributions (weight status attribution and weight loss attributions) were measured at baseline and 12 months. Results Among intervention participants, high genetic attribution for weight loss was associated with greater weight loss at 12 months (−2.7 kg vs 0.5 kg) and 18 months (−3.0 kg vs 0.9 kg). Among usual care participants, high genetic attribution for weight status was associated with greater 18-month weight gain (2.9 kg vs 0.3 kg). The intervention reduced likelihood of high genetic attribution for weight loss at 12 months (p=0.05). Change in likelihood of genetic attribution was not associated with weight change over 12 months. Conclusion Impact of genetic attributions on weight differs for those enrolled and not enrolled in an intervention. However, weight gain prevention intervention may reduce genetic attribution for weight loss. PMID:26291598
22 CFR 19.13-1 - Lump-sum credit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lump-sum credit. 19.13-1 Section 19.13-1... THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.13-1 Lump-sum credit. “Lump-sum credit” is the compulsory and special contributions to a participant's or former participant's credit in the...
22 CFR 19.13-1 - Lump-sum credit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lump-sum credit. 19.13-1 Section 19.13-1... THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.13-1 Lump-sum credit. “Lump-sum credit” is the compulsory and special contributions to a participant's or former participant's credit in the...
22 CFR 19.13-1 - Lump-sum credit.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lump-sum credit. 19.13-1 Section 19.13-1... THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.13-1 Lump-sum credit. “Lump-sum credit” is the compulsory and special contributions to a participant's or former participant's credit in the...
5 CFR 831.2004 - Amount of lump-sums.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of lump-sums. 831.2004 Section 831.2004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2004 Amount of lump-sums. If applicable, the amount of...
Interpreting the Four Types of Sums of Squares in SPSS.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tanguma, Jesus; Speed, F. M.
This paper analyzes three possible research designs using each of the four types of sums of squares in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). When the design is balanced (i.e., each cell has the same number of observations), all of the SPSS types of sums of squares yield equivalent results (testable hypotheses and sums of squares)…
29 CFR 4050.8 - Automatic lump sum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... determined under § 4050.5(a)(1) (mandatory lump sum) or § 4050.5(a)(2) (de minimis lump sum). (a) General... the deemed distribution date, to the missing participant's estate. (b) De minimis annuity alternative... under § 4050.5(a)(2) (de minimis lump sum) (or the guaranteed benefit form for a beneficiary of such...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fox, Edward A.; Urs, Shalini R.
2002-01-01
Provides an overview of digital libraries research, practice, and literature. Highlights include new technologies; redefining roles; historical background; trends; creating digital content, including conversion; metadata; organizing digital resources; services; access; information retrieval; searching; natural language processing; visualization;…
Gain weighted eigenspace assignment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II
1994-01-01
This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.
Cumulative sum quality control for calibrated breast density measurements
Heine, John J.; Cao Ke; Beam, Craig
2009-12-15
Purpose: Breast density is a significant breast cancer risk factor. Although various methods are used to estimate breast density, there is no standard measurement for this important factor. The authors are developing a breast density standardization method for use in full field digital mammography (FFDM). The approach calibrates for interpatient acquisition technique differences. The calibration produces a normalized breast density pixel value scale. The method relies on first generating a baseline (BL) calibration dataset, which required extensive phantom imaging. Standardizing prospective mammograms with calibration data generated in the past could introduce unanticipated error in the standardized output if the calibration dataset is no longer valid. Methods: Sample points from the BL calibration dataset were imaged approximately biweekly over an extended timeframe. These serial samples were used to evaluate the BL dataset reproducibility and quantify the serial calibration accuracy. The cumulative sum (Cusum) quality control method was used to evaluate the serial sampling. Results: There is considerable drift in the serial sample points from the BL calibration dataset that is x-ray beam dependent. Systematic deviation from the BL dataset caused significant calibration errors. This system drift was not captured with routine system quality control measures. Cusum analysis indicated that the drift is a sign of system wear and eventual x-ray tube failure. Conclusions: The BL calibration dataset must be monitored and periodically updated, when necessary, to account for sustained system variations to maintain the calibration accuracy.
40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for an individual engine FEL = Family Emission... different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL, all previous sample size and CumSum statistic... § 91.122 by modifying its FEL as a result of an engine family modification, the manufacturer...
40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for an individual engine FEL = Family Emission... different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL, all previous sample size and CumSum statistic... § 91.122 by modifying its FEL as a result of an engine family modification, the manufacturer...
40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for an individual engine FEL = Family Emission... different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL, all previous sample size and CumSum statistic... § 91.122 by modifying its FEL as a result of an engine family modification, the manufacturer...
40 CFR 91.508 - Cumulative Sum (CumSum) procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... = 0 (i.e. C0 = 0) Xi = The current emission test result for an individual engine FEL = Family Emission... different deterioration factor) with no changes to the FEL, all previous sample size and CumSum statistic... § 91.122 by modifying its FEL as a result of an engine family modification, the manufacturer...
Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory
Hinohara, Nobuo; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik
2015-04-27
The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, correlations governing the behavior of the many-body system, and properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or nuclear energy density functional (EDF). But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. To establish an efficient framework to compute energy-weighted sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy finite-amplitude method (FAM) based on the quasiparticle random- phase approximation. The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method is very efficient and well-adaptable to parallel computing. As a result, the FAM formulation is especially useful when standard theorems based on commutation relations involving the nuclear Hamiltonian and external field cannot be used.
Complex-energy approach to sum rules within nuclear density functional theory
Hinohara, Nobuo; Kortelainen, Markus; Nazarewicz, Witold; Olsen, Erik
2015-04-27
The linear response of the nucleus to an external field contains unique information about the effective interaction, correlations governing the behavior of the many-body system, and properties of its excited states. To characterize the response, it is useful to use its energy-weighted moments, or sum rules. By comparing computed sum rules with experimental values, the information content of the response can be utilized in the optimization process of the nuclear Hamiltonian or nuclear energy density functional (EDF). But the additional information comes at a price: compared to the ground state, computation of excited states is more demanding. To establish anmore » efficient framework to compute energy-weighted sum rules of the response that is adaptable to the optimization of the nuclear EDF and large-scale surveys of collective strength, we have developed a new technique within the complex-energy finite-amplitude method (FAM) based on the quasiparticle random- phase approximation. The proposed sum-rule technique based on the complex-energy FAM is a tool of choice when optimizing effective interactions or energy functionals. The method is very efficient and well-adaptable to parallel computing. As a result, the FAM formulation is especially useful when standard theorems based on commutation relations involving the nuclear Hamiltonian and external field cannot be used.« less
Scattering and; Delay, Scale, and Sum Migration
Lehman, S K
2011-07-06
How do we see? What is the mechanism? Consider standing in an open field on a clear sunny day. In the field are a yellow dog and a blue ball. From a wave-based remote sensing point of view the sun is a source of radiation. It is a broadband electromagnetic source which, for the purposes of this introduction, only the visible spectrum is considered (approximately 390 to 750 nanometers or 400 to 769 TeraHertz). The source emits an incident field into the known background environment which, for this example, is free space. The incident field propagates until it strikes an object or target, either the yellow dog or the blue ball. The interaction of the incident field with an object results in a scattered field. The scattered field arises from a mis-match between the background refractive index, considered to be unity, and the scattering object refractive index ('yellow' for the case of the dog, and 'blue' for the ball). This is also known as an impedance mis-match. The scattering objects are referred to as secondary sources of radiation, that radiation being the scattered field which propagates until it is measured by the two receivers known as 'eyes'. The eyes focus the measured scattered field to form images which are processed by the 'wetware' of the brain for detection, identification, and localization. When time series representations of the measured scattered field are available, the image forming focusing process can be mathematically modeled by delayed, scaled, and summed migration. This concept of optical propagation, scattering, and focusing have one-to-one equivalents in the acoustic realm. This document is intended to present the basic concepts of scalar scattering and migration used in wide band wave-based remote sensing and imaging. The terms beamforming and (delayed, scaled, and summed) migration are used interchangeably but are to be distinguished from the narrow band (frequency domain) beamforming to determine the direction of arrival of a signal, and
Sum over Histories Representation for Chemical Kinetics.
Bai, Shirong; Zhou, Dingyu; Davis, Michael J; Skodje, Rex T
2015-01-01
A new representation for chemical kinetics is introduced that is based on a sum over histories formulation that employs chemical pathways defined at a molecular level. The time evolution of a chemically reactive system is described by enumerating the most important pathways followed by a chemical moiety. An explicit formula for the pathway probabilities is derived and takes the form of an integral over a time-ordered product. When evaluating long pathways, the time-ordered product has a simple Monte Carlo representation that is computationally efficient. A small numerical stochastic simulation was used to identify the most important paths to include in the representation. The method was applied to a realistic H2/O2 combustion problem and is shown to yield accurate results. PMID:26263110
On the arithmetic sums of Cantor sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilgar Eroglu, Kemal
2007-05-01
Let Cλ and Cγ be two affine Cantor sets in \\mathbb{R} with similarity dimensions dλ and dγ, respectively. We define an analogue of the Bandt-Graf condition for self-similar systems and use it to give necessary and sufficient conditions for having \\xyHa^{d_\\xyla+d_\\xyga}(C_\\xyla + C_\\xyga)>0 where Cλ + Cγ denotes the arithmetic sum of the sets. We use this result to analyse the orthogonal projection properties of sets of the form Cλ × Cγ. We prove that for Lebesgue almost all directions θ for which the projection is not one-to-one, the projection has zero (dλ + dγ)-dimensional Hausdorff measure. We demonstrate the results in the case when Cλ and Cγ are the middle-(1-2λ) and middle-(1-2γ) sets.
Exponential Approximations Using Fourier Series Partial Sums
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banerjee, Nana S.; Geer, James F.
1997-01-01
The problem of accurately reconstructing a piece-wise smooth, 2(pi)-periodic function f and its first few derivatives, given only a truncated Fourier series representation of f, is studied and solved. The reconstruction process is divided into two steps. In the first step, the first 2N + 1 Fourier coefficients of f are used to approximate the locations and magnitudes of the discontinuities in f and its first M derivatives. This is accomplished by first finding initial estimates of these quantities based on certain properties of Gibbs phenomenon, and then refining these estimates by fitting the asymptotic form of the Fourier coefficients to the given coefficients using a least-squares approach. It is conjectured that the locations of the singularities are approximated to within O(N(sup -M-2), and the associated jump of the k(sup th) derivative of f is approximated to within O(N(sup -M-l+k), as N approaches infinity, and the method is robust. These estimates are then used with a class of singular basis functions, which have certain 'built-in' singularities, to construct a new sequence of approximations to f. Each of these new approximations is the sum of a piecewise smooth function and a new Fourier series partial sum. When N is proportional to M, it is shown that these new approximations, and their derivatives, converge exponentially in the maximum norm to f, and its corresponding derivatives, except in the union of a finite number of small open intervals containing the points of singularity of f. The total measure of these intervals decreases exponentially to zero as M approaches infinity. The technique is illustrated with several examples.
... obese. Achieving a healthy weight can help you control your cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. It ... use more calories than you eat. A weight-control strategy might include Choosing low-fat, low-calorie ...
... sign of a medical problem. Causes for sudden weight loss can include Thyroid problems Cancer Infectious diseases Digestive diseases Certain medicines Sudden weight gain can be due to medicines, thyroid problems, ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yakel, Elizabeth
2001-01-01
Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…
Theoretical Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy of Peptides
2015-01-01
Vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) has become a very promising technique for the study of proteins at interfaces, and it has been applied to important systems such as anti-microbial peptides, ion channel proteins, and human islet amyloid polypeptide. Moreover, so-called “chiral” SFG techniques, which rely on polarization combinations that generate strong signals primarily for chiral molecules, have proven to be particularly discriminatory of protein secondary structure. In this work, we present a theoretical strategy for calculating protein amide I SFG spectra by combining line-shape theory with molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply this method to three model peptides, demonstrating the existence of a significant chiral SFG signal for peptides with chiral centers, and providing a framework for interpreting the results on the basis of the dependence of the SFG signal on the peptide orientation. We also examine the importance of dynamical and coupling effects. Finally, we suggest a simple method for determining a chromophore’s orientation relative to the surface using ratios of experimental heterodyne-detected signals with different polarizations, and test this method using theoretical spectra. PMID:25203677
Multireflection sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.
Zhang, Chi; Jasensky, Joshua; Chen, Zhan
2015-08-18
We developed a multireflection data collection method in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity of sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, which we refer to as multireflection SFG, or MRSFG for short. To achieve MRSFG, a collinear laser beam propagation geometry was adopted and trapezoidal Dove prisms were used as sample substrates. An in-depth discussion on the signal and SNR in MRSFG was performed. We showed experimentally, with "m" total internal reflections in a Dove prism, MRSFG signal is ∼m times that of conventional SFG; SNR of the SFG signal-to-background is improved by a factor of >m(1/2) and
Symmetries, sum rules and constraints on effective field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellazzini, Brando; Martucci, Luca; Torre, Riccardo
2014-09-01
Using unitarity, analyticity and crossing symmetry, we derive universal sum rules for scattering amplitudes in theories invariant under an arbitrary symmetry group. The sum rules relate the coefficients of the energy expansion of the scattering amplitudes in the IR to total cross sections integrated all the way up to the UV. Exploiting the group structure of the symmetry, we systematically determine all the independent sum rules and positivity conditions on the expansion coefficients. For effective field theories the amplitudes in the IR are calculable and hence the sum rules set constraints on the parameters of the effective Lagrangian. We clarify the impact of gauging on the sum rules for Goldstone bosons in spontaneously broken gauge theories. We discuss explicit examples that are relevant for WW-scattering, composite Higgs models, and chiral perturbation theory. Certain sum rules based on custodial symmetry and its extensions provide constraints on the Higgs boson coupling to the electroweak gauge bosons.
Digital Signal Combining for Conference Calling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Byrne, F.
1986-01-01
Signals combined with minimal noise by use of sums in read-only memories. Signals from subscribers A and B digitized, transmitted, and combined by addressing ROM. Combining operation electronic equivalent of looking up value of function of two variables in mathematical table. Combined digitized signal transmitted, converted to analog form, and delivered to subscriber C. System intended especially for combining number of separate audio signals into one signal for retransmission, as in telephone conference calling.
Electromagnetic response of superconductors and optical sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karakozov, A. E.; Maksimov, E. G.; Dolgov, O. V.
2002-10-01
The interrelation between the condensation energy and the optical sum rules have been investigated. It has been shown that the so called 'partial' sum rule violation is related mainly to a temperature dependence of the relaxation rate rather than to the appearance of superconductivity itself. Moreover, we demonstrate that the experimental data on the temperature dependence of the optical sum rule can be explained rather well by accounting for the strong electron-phonon interaction.
Analog simulation of flux-summing servo-model, phases 1 and 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hriber, E. J.
1984-01-01
The analog simulation was developed for a closed-loop system having an electrohydraulic flux-summing servo valve and actuator with associated inertial load. One-fourth of the system's total forward gain is carried by each of four channels. The present study successfully applied failure mode management techniques to the problem of channel failure. Digital logic circuitry was developed to maintain the overall forward gain of the system at a constant value, in the presence of channel failure. Finally, the stability of the system was verified, and performance characteristics were determined through the use of frequency response methods.
... Quit Smoking Benefits of Quitting Health Effects of Smoking Secondhand Smoke Withdrawal Ways to Quit QuitGuide Pregnancy & Motherhood Pregnancy & Motherhood Before Your Baby is Born From Birth to 2 Years Quitting for Two SmokefreeMom Healthy Kids Parenting & ... Weight Management Weight Management ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clarke, Doug
1990-01-01
The author, using a weight machine in an airport lounge, varies the machine's input parameters of height and gender to generate data sets of ideal weight. These data are later used at in-service workshops and in both primary and secondary classrooms to explore patterns and make predictions. (JJK)
Older people and digital disengagement: a fourth digital divide?
Olphert, Wendy; Damodaran, Leela
2013-01-01
Digital technologies are becoming more pervasive in all areas of society. Enabling everyone to have access and capability to use the Internet and associated digital technologies, summed up in the term 'digital inclusion', is seen to have wide-ranging benefits to the individual, to the economy and to society. For older people, being digitally included can help them to maintain their independence, social connectedness and sense of worth in the face of declining health or limited capabilities, as well as also offering new opportunities to improve their quality of life. At present however, access to the technology and to the benefits is not equally distributed either between or within nations, and older people tend to be on the 'wrong' side of what is termed the 'digital divide'. Governments globally are developing strategies to promote digital inclusion and indeed Internet uptake is increasing steadily, including amongst older people. However, such strategies have focussed on getting people online, and there appears to be an assumption that once someone is online they will remain 'digitally engaged'. In fact statistics show that some users give up using the Internet, and there is emerging evidence that older people are more vulnerable to the factors which can lead to this outcome. The authors see this phenomenon as a potential but largely unrecognised 'fourth digital divide' which has serious implications for social inclusion. The objectives of this article are (a) to raise awareness of the phenomenon of digital disengagement by considering some of the emerging evidence, (b) to explore some of the potential implications of not recognising and therefore not addressing the needs of the digitally disengaged older population, and (c) to reveal the prevailing gap in knowledge which future research should address.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Isman, Aytekin; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem
2014-01-01
Era in which we live is known and referred as digital age.In this age technology is rapidly changed and developed. In light of these technological advances in 21st century, schools have the responsibility of training "digital citizen" as well as a good citizen. Digital citizens must have extensive skills, knowledge, Internet and …
College Sports: The Mystery of the Zero-Sum Game
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Getz, Malcolm; Siegfried, John J.
2012-01-01
In recent years, when a university may earn well over $10 million per year from fees for sports-broadcast rights, half of the teams still lose. Collegiate athletic competition is a zero sum game: The number of winners equals the number of losers. So why do universities spend growing sums of scarce resources on an activity when the odds of winning…
23 CFR 140.920 - Lump sum payments.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lump sum payments. 140.920 Section 140.920 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Reimbursement for Railroad Work § 140.920 Lump sum payments. Where approved by FHWA, pursuant to 23 CFR...
23 CFR 140.920 - Lump sum payments.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lump sum payments. 140.920 Section 140.920 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Reimbursement for Railroad Work § 140.920 Lump sum payments. Where approved by FHWA, pursuant to 23 CFR...
23 CFR 140.920 - Lump sum payments.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lump sum payments. 140.920 Section 140.920 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Reimbursement for Railroad Work § 140.920 Lump sum payments. Where approved by FHWA, pursuant to 23 CFR...
23 CFR 140.920 - Lump sum payments.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lump sum payments. 140.920 Section 140.920 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Reimbursement for Railroad Work § 140.920 Lump sum payments. Where approved by FHWA, pursuant to 23 CFR...
23 CFR 140.920 - Lump sum payments.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lump sum payments. 140.920 Section 140.920 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Reimbursement for Railroad Work § 140.920 Lump sum payments. Where approved by FHWA, pursuant to 23 CFR...
Finding Sums for an Infinite Class of Alternating Series
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Zhibo; Wei, Sheng; Xiao, Xuerong
2012-01-01
Calculus II students know that many alternating series are convergent by the Alternating Series Test. However, they know few alternating series (except geometric series and some trivial ones) for which they can find the sum. In this article, we present a method that enables the students to find sums for infinitely many alternating series in the…
Finding sums for an infinite class of alternating series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhibo; Wei, Sheng; Xiao, Xuerong
2012-07-01
Calculus II students know that many alternating series are convergent by the Alternating Series Test. However, they know few alternating series (except geometric series and some trivial ones) for which they can find the sum. In this article, we present a method that enables the students to find sums for infinitely many alternating series in the following form ?
An Electrophysiological Signature of Summed Similarity in Visual Working Memory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Vugt, Marieke K.; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R.; Kahana, Michael J.
2013-01-01
Summed-similarity models of short-term item recognition posit that participants base their judgments of an item's prior occurrence on that item's summed similarity to the ensemble of items on the remembered list. We examined the neural predictions of these models in 3 short-term recognition memory experiments using electrocorticographic/depth…
Second sum rule for the hot plasma permittivity
Bobrov, V. B.; Mendeleyev, V. Ya.; Skovorod'ko, S. N.; Trigger, S. A.
2011-02-15
Based on linear response theory, Kramers-Kronig relations, and diagram techniques of perturbation theory, it is shown that the second sum rule is satisfied for hot plasma permittivity. An explicit analytical expression for the second sum rule in the limit of weak nonideality is derived.
Charmonium sum rules applied to a holographic model
Hohler, Paul M.
2011-01-15
The heavy-quark QCD sum rules are applied to a model of charmonium based upon the gauge/gravity duality. We find that there is strong agreement between the moments of the polarization function calculated from the holographic model and the experimental data suggesting that the model is consistent with the heavy-quark QCD sum rules at zero temperature.
... with the placenta and substance abuse by the mother. Some low birth weight babies may be more at risk for certain health problems. Some may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.
1972-01-01
Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.
Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watson, Ian Robert
2013-01-01
This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lim, Kim-Hui,; Har, Wai-Mun
2008-01-01
The lack of academic and thinking culture is getting more worried and becomes a major challenge to our academia society this 21st century. Few directions that move academia from "cogito ergo sum" to "consumo ergo sum" are actually leading us to "the end of academia". Those directions are: (1) the death of dialectic;…
Zero-Sum Bias: Perceived Competition Despite Unlimited Resources
Meegan, Daniel V.
2010-01-01
Zero-sum bias describes intuitively judging a situation to be zero-sum (i.e., resources gained by one party are matched by corresponding losses to another party) when it is actually non-zero-sum. The experimental participants were students at a university where students’ grades are determined by how the quality of their work compares to a predetermined standard of quality rather than to the quality of the work produced by other students. This creates a non-zero-sum situation in which high grades are an unlimited resource. In three experiments, participants were shown the grade distribution after a majority of the students in a course had completed an assigned presentation, and asked to predict the grade of the next presenter. When many high grades had already been given, there was a corresponding increase in low grade predictions. This suggests a zero-sum bias, in which people perceive a competition for a limited resource despite unlimited resource availability. Interestingly, when many low grades had already been given, there was not a corresponding increase in high grade predictions. This suggests that a zero-sum heuristic is only applied in response to the allocation of desirable resources. A plausible explanation for the findings is that a zero-sum heuristic evolved as a cognitive adaptation to enable successful intra-group competition for limited resources. Implications for understanding inter-group interaction are also discussed. PMID:21833251
Generalized sums over histories for quantum gravity (II). Simplicial conifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schleich, Kristin; Witt, Donald M.
1993-08-01
This paper examines the issues involved with concretely implementing a sum over conifolds in the formulation of euclidean sums over histories for gravity. The first step in precisely formulating any sum over topological spaces is that one must have an algorithmically implementable method of generating a list of all spaces in the set to be summed over. This requirement causes well known problems in the formulation of sums over manifolds in four or more dimensions; there is no algorithmic method of determining whether or not a topological space is an n-manifold in five or more dimensions and the issue of whether or not such an algorithm exists is open in four. However, as this paper shows, conifolds are algorithmically decidable in four dimensions. Thus the set of 4-conifolds provides a starting point for a concrete implementation of euclidean sums over histories in four dimensions. Explicit algorithms for summing over various sets of 4-conifolds are presented in the context of Regge calculus.
On the Adjacent Eccentric Distance Sum Index of Graphs
Qu, Hui; Cao, Shujuan
2015-01-01
For a given graph G, ε(v) and deg(v) denote the eccentricity and the degree of the vertex v in G, respectively. The adjacent eccentric distance sum index of a graph G is defined as ξsv(G)=∑v∈V(G)ε(v)D(v)deg(v), where D(v)=∑u∈V(G)d(u,v) is the sum of all distances from the vertex v. In this paper we derive some bounds for the adjacent eccentric distance sum index in terms of some graph parameters, such as independence number, covering number, vertex connectivity, chromatic number, diameter and some other graph topological indices. PMID:26091095
Photo-absorption sum rules σ-1 in different environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerasimov, S. B.
2016-02-01
Combining the spin-dependent dispersion GDH-sum rule, the iso-vector, photo-excitation states projecting Cabibbo-Radicati sum rule, and the relativistic dipole-moment-fluctuation (or generalized Gottfried) sum rule with the three valence quark configuration of nucleons taken into account for the composition of the ground and the excited states of the nucleon, the relevant moments of the distribution and correlation functions of the quark electric dipole moment operators in the nucleon ground state are expressed via the experimentally measurable nucleon resonance photo-excitation amplitudes.These functions are of interest for checking detailed quark-configuration structure of the nucleon state vector.
Testing atmospheric mixing sum rules at precision neutrino facilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballett, Peter; King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph; Pascoli, Silvia; Schmidt, Michael A.
2014-01-01
We study the prospects for testing classes of atmospheric mixing sum rules at precision neutrino facilities. Such sum rules, which correlate the atmospheric mixing angle θ23 with the recently measured reactor angle θ13 and the cosine of the oscillation phase δ, are predicted by a variety of semidirect models based on discrete family symmetry classified in terms of finite von Dyck groups. We perform a detailed simulation of the performance of the next generation of oscillation experiments, including the wideband superbeam and low-energy neutrino factory proposals, and compare their discriminating power for testing atmospheric mixing sum rules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobotka, Werner K.
1997-02-01
Digital printing is described as a tool to replace conventional printing machines completely. Still this goal was not reached until now with any of the digital printing technologies to be described in the paper. Productivity and costs are still the main parameters and are not really solved until now. Quality in digital printing is no problem anymore. Definition of digital printing is to transfer digital datas directly on the paper surface. This step can be carried out directly or with the use of an intermediate image carrier. Keywords in digital printing are: computer- to-press; erasable image carrier; image carrier with memory. Digital printing is also the logical development of the new digital area as it is pointed out in Nicholas Negropotes book 'Being Digital' and also the answer to networking and Internet technologies. Creating images text and color in one country and publishing the datas in another country or continent is the main advantage. Printing on demand another big advantage and last but not least personalization the last big advantage. Costs and being able to coop with this new world of prepress technology is the biggest disadvantage. Therefore the very optimistic growth rates for the next few years are really nonexistent. The development of complete new markets is too slow and the replacing of old markets is too small.
Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader
2014-12-01
Balancing complexity and simplicity has played an important role in the development of many fields in science and engineering. One of the well-known and powerful examples of such balance can be found in Boolean algebra and its impact on the birth of digital electronics and the digital information age. The simplicity of using only two numbers, '0' and '1', in a binary system for describing an arbitrary quantity made the fields of digital electronics and digital signal processing powerful and ubiquitous. Here, inspired by the binary concept, we propose to develop the notion of digital metamaterials. Specifically, we investigate how one can synthesize an electromagnetic metamaterial with a desired permittivity, using as building blocks only two elemental materials, which we call 'metamaterial bits', with two distinct permittivity functions. We demonstrate, analytically and numerically, how proper spatial mixtures of such metamaterial bits lead to elemental 'metamaterial bytes' with effective material parameters that are different from the parameters of the metamaterial bits. We then apply this methodology to several design examples of optical elements, such as digital convex lenses, flat graded-index digital lenses, digital constructs for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) supercoupling and digital hyperlenses, thus highlighting the power and simplicity of the methodology.
A Pascal-like triangle from finding power sums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhibo
2014-08-01
A Pascal-like triangle is constructed so that power sums can be conveniently obtained by college (or high school) students with no need for memorizing complicated formulas or performing difficult calculations.
Quark mixing sum rules and the right unitarity triangle
Antusch, Stefan; Spinrath, Martin; King, Stephen F.; Malinsky, Michal
2010-02-01
In analogy with the recently proposed lepton mixing sum rules, we derive quark mixing sum rules for the case of hierarchical quark mass matrices with 1-3 texture zeros, in which the separate up and down-type 1-3 mixing angles are approximately zero, and V{sub ub} is generated from V{sub cb} as a result of 1-2 up-type quark mixing. Using the sum rules, we discuss the phenomenological viability of such textures, including up to four texture zeros, and show how the right-angled unitarity triangle, i.e., {alpha}{approx_equal}90 deg., can be accounted for by a remarkably simple scheme involving real mass matrices apart from a single element being purely imaginary. In the framework of grand unified theories, we show how the quark and lepton mixing sum rules may combine to yield an accurate prediction for the reactor angle.
Standardization of 65Zn by sum-peak method.
Oliveira, E M; Iwahara, A; Poledna, R; Delgado, J U; da Silva, C J; da Silva, R L; Lopes, R T
2012-09-01
A commercial solution of (65)Zn was standardized by the sum peak-method using a planar HPGe detector. The activity results were compared with measurements made with a well type 4πγ ionization chamber, which is traceable to BIPM.RI (II)-K2.Zn-65 key-comparison performed in 2002. The sum-peak value was 42.79 kBq/g and the ionization chamber value was 42.74 kBq/g both at the reference date. The uncertainty obtained in the sum peak standardization was 0.25% (k=1), and in the ionization chamber was 0.85% (k=1). The results showed that sum-peak method can be used in (65)Zn standardization and this method is easier, simpler and more practical than others methods. PMID:22425414
Digital demodulator-correlator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Layland, J. W.; Martin, W. L.; Zygielbaum, A. I.; Goldstein, R. M.; Hubbard, W. P. (Inventor)
1978-01-01
An apparatus for demodulation and correlation of a code modulated 10 MHz signal is presented. The apparatus is comprised of a sample and hold analog-to-digital converter synchronized by a frequency coherent 40 MHz pulse to obtain four evenly spaced samples of each of the signal. Each sample is added or subtracted to or from one of four accumulators to or from the separate sums. The correlation functions are then computed. As a further feature of the invention, multipliers are each multiplied by a squarewave chopper signal having a period that is long relative to the period of the received signal to foreclose contamination of the received signal by leakage from either of the other two terms of the multipliers.
Non-rigid summing of gated PET via optical flow
Klein, G.J.; Reutter, B.W.; Huesman, R.H. |
1996-12-31
A method for summing together datasets from gated cardiac PET acquisitions is described. Optical flow techniques are used to accurately model non-rigid motion present during the cardiac cycle so that a one-to-one mapping is found between each voxel of two gated volumes. Using this mapping, image summing can take place, producing a composite dataset with improved statistics and reduced motion-induced blur. Results using a data from a gated cardiac study on a dog are presented.
Charm and bottom hadronic form factors with QCD sum rules
Bracco, M. E.; Rodrigues, B. O.; Cerqueira, A. Jr.
2013-03-25
We present a brief review of some calculations of form factors and coupling constants in vertices with charm and bottom mesons in the framework of QCD sum rules. We first discuss the motivation for this work, describing possible applications of these form factors to charm and bottom decays processes. We first make a summarize of the QCD sum rules method. We give special attention to the uncertainties of the method introducing by the intrinsic variation of the parameters. Finally we conclude.
The odd-number sequence: squares and sums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leyendekkers, J. V.; Shannon, A. G.
2015-11-01
Direct study of various characteristics of integers and their interactions is readily accessible to undergraduate students. Integers obviously fall in different classes of modular rings and thus have features unique to that class which can result in a variety of formations, particularly with sums of squares. The sum of the first n odd numbers is itself the square of n within the odd number sequence, from which testing for primality within the Fibonacci sequence is investigated in this note.
Design of an automatic weight scale for an isolette
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterka, R. J.; Griffin, W.
1974-01-01
The design of an infant weight scale is reported that fits into an isolette without disturbing its controlled atmosphere. The scale platform uses strain gages to measure electronically deflections of cantilever beams positioned at its four corners. The weight of the infant is proportional to the sum of the output voltages produced by the gauges on each beam of the scale.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blansett, Jim
2008-01-01
In recent years, the Internet has become a digital commons of commerce and education. However, accessibility standards have often been overlooked online, and the digital equivalents to curb-cuts and other physical accommodations have only rarely been implemented to serve those with print disabilities. (A print disability can be a learning…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Conway, Paul
1994-01-01
Discussion of digital imaging technology focuses on its potential use for preservation of library materials. Topics addressed include converting microfilm to digital; the high cost of conversion from paper or microfilm; quality; indexing; database management issues; incompatibility among imaging systems; longevity; cooperative pilot projects; and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Horn, Michael B.
2013-01-01
State policy is crucial to the spread of digital-learning opportunities at the elementary and secondary level. A review of recent legislative action reveals policies that are constantly in flux and differ quite markedly from one state to another. Some have hoped for model digital-learning legislation that could handle all the various issues…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rios, Joseph
2012-01-01
Presenting the current status of the Digital TMI project to visiting members of the FAA Command Center. Digital TMI is an effort to store national-level traffic management initiatives in a standards-compliant manner. Work is funded by the FAA.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.
26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... .0233 84.7 .0233 84.6 .0234 84.5 .0234 84.4 .0234 84.3 .0234 84.2 .0235 84.1 .0235 84.0 .0235 83.9 .0236 83.8 .0236 83.7 .0236 83.6 .0236 83.5 .0237 83.4 .0237 83.3 .0237 83.2 .0238 83.1 .0238 83.0 .0238 82... .0330 59.5 .0331 59.4 .0331 59.3 .0332 59.2 .0332 59.1 .0333 59.0 .0333 58.9 .0334......
26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 75.4 .0262 75.3 .0262 75.2 .0262 75.1 .0263 75.0 .0263 74.9 .0264 74.8 .0264 74.7 .0264 74.6 .0265 74... .0279 70.7 .0279 70.6 .0279 70.5 .0280 70.4 .0280 70.3 .0280 70.2 .0281 70.1 .0281 70.0 .0282 69.9 .0282 69.8 .0282 69.7 .0283 69.6 .0283 69.5 .0284 69.4 .0284 69.3 .0284 69.2......
26 CFR 1.167(b)-3 - Sum of the years-digits method.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 75.4 .0262 75.3 .0262 75.2 .0262 75.1 .0263 75.0 .0263 74.9 .0264 74.8 .0264 74.7 .0264 74.6 .0265 74... .0279 70.7 .0279 70.6 .0279 70.5 .0280 70.4 .0280 70.3 .0280 70.2 .0281 70.1 .0281 70.0 .0282 69.9 .0282 69.8 .0282 69.7 .0283 69.6 .0283 69.5 .0284 69.4 .0284 69.3 .0284 69.2......
An efficient algorithm for maximizing range sum queries in a road network.
Phan, Tien-Khoi; Jung, HaRim; Kim, Ung-Mo
2014-01-01
Given a set of positive-weighted points and a query rectangle r (specified by a client) of given extents, the goal of a maximizing range sum (MaxRS) query is to find the optimal location of r such that the total weights of all the points covered by r are maximized. All existing methods for processing MaxRS queries assume the Euclidean distance metric. In many location-based applications, however, the motion of a client may be constrained by an underlying (spatial) road network; that is, the client cannot move freely in space. This paper addresses the problem of processing MaxRS queries in a road network. We propose the external-memory algorithm that is suited for a large road network database. In addition, in contrast to the existing methods, which retrieve only one optimal location, our proposed algorithm retrieves all the possible optimal locations. Through simulations, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm.
An 8×8 Row-Column Summing Readout Electronics for Preclinical Positron Emission Tomography Scanners.
Shih, Y C; Sun, F W; Macdonald, L R; Otis, B P; Miyaoka, R S; McDougald, W; Lewellen, T K
2009-10-24
This work presents a row/column summing readout electronics for an 8×8 silicon photomultiplier array. The summation circuit greatly reduces the number of electronic channels, which is desirable for pursuing higher resolution positron emission tomography scanners. By using a degenerated common source topology in the summation circuit, more fan-in is possible and therefore a greater reduction in the number of electronic channels can be achieved. The timing signal is retrieved from a common anode, which allows the use of a single fast-sampling analog to digital converter (ADC) for the timing channel and slower, lower power ADCs for the 64 spatial channels. Preliminary results of one row summation of the 8×8 readout electronics exhibited FWHM energy resolution of 17.8% and 18.3% with and without multiplexing, respectively. The measured timing resolution is 2.9ns FWHM.
An 8×8 Row-Column Summing Readout Electronics for Preclinical Positron Emission Tomography Scanners
Shih, Y. C.; Sun, F. W.; MacDonald, L. R.; Otis, B. P.; Miyaoka, R. S.; McDougald, W.; Lewellen, T. K.
2010-01-01
This work presents a row/column summing readout electronics for an 8×8 silicon photomultiplier array. The summation circuit greatly reduces the number of electronic channels, which is desirable for pursuing higher resolution positron emission tomography scanners. By using a degenerated common source topology in the summation circuit, more fan-in is possible and therefore a greater reduction in the number of electronic channels can be achieved. The timing signal is retrieved from a common anode, which allows the use of a single fast-sampling analog to digital converter (ADC) for the timing channel and slower, lower power ADCs for the 64 spatial channels. Preliminary results of one row summation of the 8×8 readout electronics exhibited FWHM energy resolution of 17.8% and 18.3% with and without multiplexing, respectively. The measured timing resolution is 2.9ns FWHM. PMID:20729983
Modifying the sum over topological sectors and constraints on supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seiberg, Nathan
2010-07-01
The standard lore about the sum over topological sectors in quantum field theory is that locality and cluster decomposition uniquely determine the sum over such sectors, thus leading to the usual θ-vacua. We show that without changing the local degrees of freedom, a theory can be modified such that the sum over instantons should be restricted; e.g. one should include only instanton numbers which are divisible by some integer p. This conclusion about the configuration space of quantum field theory allows us to carefully reconsider the quantization of parameters in supergravity. In particular, we show that FI-terms and nontrivial Kähler forms are quantized. This analysis also leads to a new derivation of recent results about linearized supergravity.
Sum rule for response function in nonequilibrium Langevin systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuge, Tatsuro
2010-11-01
We derive general properties of the linear-response functions of nonequilibrium steady states in Langevin systems. These correspond to extension of the results which were recently found in Hamiltonian systems [A. Shimizu and T. Yuge, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 79, 013002 (2010)10.1143/JPSJ.79.013002]. We discuss one of the properties, the sum rule for the response function, in particular detail. We show that the sum rule for the response function of the velocity holds in the underdamped case, whereas it is violated in the overdamped case. This implies that the overdamped Langevin models should be used with great care. We also investigate the relation of the sum rule to an equality on the energy dissipation in nonequilibrium Langevin systems, which was derived by Harada and Sasa.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schatten, Kenneth
1984-04-01
Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.
Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro
2012-01-01
Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241
Vector mesons at finite temperature and QCD sum rules
Kwon, Youngshin; Weise, Wolfram; Sasaki, Chihiro
2010-06-15
Finite energy sum rules for vector and axial-vector currents are derived in a thermal medium to provide constraints for the spectral behavior of rho and a{sub 1} mesons at nonvanishing temperature and hence to study the tendency toward chiral symmetry restoration. The parity-mixing ansatz for the rho and a{sub 1} spectra, including finite widths, is investigated as a function of temperature. Characteristic differences between vector and axial-vector channels are discussed with regard to the implementation of the chiral-symmetry-breaking scale, 4pi times the pion decay constant, in the sum-rule approach.
Spectral sum rules for confining large-N theories
Cherman, Aleksey; McGady, David A.; Yamazaki, Masahito
2016-06-17
We consider asymptotically-free four-dimensional large-$N$ gauge theories with massive fermionic and bosonic adjoint matter fields, compactified on squashed three-spheres, and examine their regularized large-$N$ confined-phase spectral sums. The analysis is done in the limit of vanishing ’t Hooft coupling, which is justified by taking the size of the compactification manifold to be small compared to the inverse strong scale Λ₋1. We find our results motivate us to conjecture some universal spectral sum rules for these large $N$ gauge theories.
Gravitons and the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldberg, H.
2000-01-01
One-loop diagrams containing a graviton provide a finite contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment al of a lepton, whether or not the graviton propagates in n large extra compact dimensions. In the present work, the tree graph photoproduction of a graviton, integrated up to an arbitrary cutoff, is shown to violate the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule for al2. The possibility of resurrecting the sum rule from high energy contributions originating in string excitations is discussed in a qualitative manner, and various problems associated with such a program are pointed out.
Jackiw-Johnson sum rule for dynamical symmetry breaking
Appelquist, T.; Takeuchi, T. ); Einhorn, M.B. ); Wijewardhana, L.C.R. )
1990-05-15
We reconsider the Jackiw-Johnson sum rule relating the vector-boson masses (or Goldstone-boson decay constants) to the interactions of the fermions which condense. We show that the counterterm can be simplified to remove all reference to chiral-symmetry breaking, producing a much simpler formula involving no derivatives of the fermion self-energy. This is useful for applications to QCD and technicolor. In the process, we also generalize the sum rule to the breaking of an arbitrary symmetry group, paying particular attention to the requirements of gauge invariance and current conservation.
Nucleon QCD sum rules in the instanton medium
Ryskin, M. G.; Drukarev, E. G. Sadovnikova, V. A.
2015-09-15
We try to find grounds for the standard nucleon QCD sum rules, based on a more detailed description of the QCD vacuum. We calculate the polarization operator of the nucleon current in the instanton medium. The medium (QCD vacuum) is assumed to be a composition of the small-size instantons and some long-wave gluon fluctuations. We solve the corresponding QCD sum rule equations and demonstrate that there is a solution with the value of the nucleon mass close to the physical one if the fraction of the small-size instantons contribution is w{sub s} ≈ 2/3.
New neutrino mass sum rule from the inverse seesaw mechanism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorame, L.; Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Valle, J. W. F.; Rojas, Alma D.
2012-09-01
A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum rules. One of these implies a lower bound on the effective neutrinoless double beta mass parameter, even for normal hierarchy neutrinos. Here we propose a new model based on the S4 flavor symmetry that leads to the new neutrino mass sum rule and discuss how to generate a nonzero value for the reactor angle θ13 indicated by recent experiments, and the resulting correlation with the solar angle θ12.
Digital Collections, Digital Libraries & the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lynch, Clifford
2002-01-01
Discusses digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include broadband availability; digital rights protection; content, both non-profit and commercial; digitization of cultural content; sustainability; metadata harvesting protocol; infrastructure; authorship; linking multiple resources; data mining; digitization of reference works;…
Non-Homogeneous Fractal Hierarchical Weighted Networks
Dong, Yujuan; Dai, Meifeng; Ye, Dandan
2015-01-01
A model of fractal hierarchical structures that share the property of non-homogeneous weighted networks is introduced. These networks can be completely and analytically characterized in terms of the involved parameters, i.e., the size of the original graph Nk and the non-homogeneous weight scaling factors r1, r2, · · · rM. We also study the average weighted shortest path (AWSP), the average degree and the average node strength, taking place on the non-homogeneous hierarchical weighted networks. Moreover the AWSP is scrupulously calculated. We show that the AWSP depends on the number of copies and the sum of all non-homogeneous weight scaling factors in the infinite network order limit. PMID:25849619
Non-homogeneous fractal hierarchical weighted networks.
Dong, Yujuan; Dai, Meifeng; Ye, Dandan
2015-01-01
A model of fractal hierarchical structures that share the property of non-homogeneous weighted networks is introduced. These networks can be completely and analytically characterized in terms of the involved parameters, i.e., the size of the original graph Nk and the non-homogeneous weight scaling factors r1, r2, · · · rM. We also study the average weighted shortest path (AWSP), the average degree and the average node strength, taking place on the non-homogeneous hierarchical weighted networks. Moreover the AWSP is scrupulously calculated. We show that the AWSP depends on the number of copies and the sum of all non-homogeneous weight scaling factors in the infinite network order limit.
Exploring the Sums of Powers of Consecutive q-Integers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, T.; Ryoo, C. S.; Jang, L. C.; Rim, S. H.
2005-01-01
The Bernoulli numbers are among the most interesting and important number sequences in mathematics. They first appeared in the posthumous work "Ars Conjectandi" (1713) by Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) in connection with sums of powers of consecutive integers (Bernoulli, 1713; or Smith, 1959). Bernoulli numbers are particularly important in number…
Maneuver tracking using an adaptive Gaussian sum technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stubberud, Stephen C.; Kramer, Kathleen A.
2005-03-01
The best method to track through a maneuver is to know the motion model of the maneuvering target. Unfortunately, a priori knowledge of the maneuver is not usually known. If the motion model of the maneuver can be estimated quickly from the measurements then the resulting track estimate will be better than the a priori static model. An adaptive function approximation technique to improve the motion model while tracking is analyzed for its potential to track through various maneuvers. The basic function approximation technique is that of a Gaussian sum. The Gaussian sum approximates the function which represents the error between the initial static model and the actual model of the maneuver. The parameters of the Gaussian sum are identified on-line using a Kalman filter identification scheme. This scheme, used in conjunction with a Kalman filter tracker, creates a coupled technique that can improve the motion model quickly. This adaptive Gaussian sum approach to maneuver tracking has its performance analyzed for three maneuvers. These maneuvers include a maneuvering ballistic target, a target going through an s-curve, and real target with a multiple racetrack flight path. The results of these test cases demonstrate the capabilities of this approach to track maneuvering targets.
Note on permutation sum of color-ordered gluon amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Yi-Jian; Feng, Bo; Fu, Chih-Hao
2012-01-01
In this Letter we show that under BCFW-deformation the large-z behavior of permutation sum of color-ordered gluon amplitudes found by Boels and Isermann in arxiv:arxiv:1109.5888 can be simply understood from the well known Kleiss-Kuijf relation and Bern-Carrasco-Johansson relation.
Decay Constants of Beauty Mesons from QCD Sum Rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano
2014-11-01
Our recently completed analysis of the decay constants of both pseudoscalar and vector beauty mesons reveals that in the bottom-quark sector two specific features of the sum-rule predictions show up: (i) For the input value of the bottom-quark mass in the M̅S̅ scheme m̅b(m̅b) ≈ 4:18 GeV; the sum-rule result fB ≈ 210-220 MeV for the B meson decay constant is substantially larger than the recent lattice-QCD finding fB ≈ 190 MeV: Requiring QCD sum rules to reproduce the lattice-QCD value of fB yields a significantly larger b-quark mass: m̅b(m̅b) = 4:247 GeV: (ii) Whereas QCD sum-rule predictions for the charmed-meson decay constants fD; fDs, fD* and fDs* are practically independent of the choice of renormalization scale, in the beauty sector the results for the decay constants—and especially for the ratio fB* / fB—prove to be very sensitive to the specific scale setting.
Beauty vector meson decay constants from QCD sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano
2016-01-01
We present the outcomes of a very recent investigation of the decay constants of nonstrange and strange heavy-light beauty vector mesons, with special emphasis on the ratio of any such decay constant to the decay constant of the corresponding pseudoscalar meson, by means of Borel-transformed QCD sum rules. Our results suggest that both these ratios are below unity.
Two Different Approaches to Nonzero-Sum Stochastic Differential Games
Rainer, Catherine
2007-06-15
We make the link between two approaches to Nash equilibria for nonzero-sum stochastic differential games: the first one using backward stochastic differential equations and the second one using strategies with delay. We prove that, when both exist, the two notions of Nash equilibria coincide.
A Parametric Cumulative Sum Statistic for Person Fit
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Armstrong, Ronald D.; Shi, Min
2009-01-01
This article develops a new cumulative sum (CUSUM) statistic to detect aberrant item response behavior. Shifts in behavior are modeled with quadratic functions and a series of likelihood ratio tests are used to detect aberrancy. The new CUSUM statistic is compared against another CUSUM approach as well as traditional person-fit statistics. A…
Sum Rules, Classical and Quantum - A Pedagogical Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karstens, William; Smith, David Y.
2014-03-01
Sum rules in the form of integrals over the response of a system to an external probe provide general analytical tools for both experiment and theory. For example, the celebrated f-sum rule gives a system's plasma frequency as an integral over the optical-dipole absorption spectrum regardless of the specific spectral distribution. Moreover, this rule underlies Smakula's equation for the number density of absorbers in a sample in terms of the area under their absorption bands. Commonly such rules are derived from quantum-mechanical commutation relations, but many are fundamentally classical (independent of ℏ) and so can be derived from more transparent mechanical models. We have exploited this to illustrate the fundamental role of inertia in the case of optical sum rules. Similar considerations apply to sum rules in many other branches of physics. Thus, the ``attenuation integral theorems'' of ac circuit theory reflect the ``inertial'' effect of Lenz's Law in inductors or the potential energy ``storage'' in capacitors. These considerations are closely related to the fact that the real and imaginary parts of a response function cannot be specified independently, a result that is encapsulated in the Kramers-Kronig relations. Supported in part by the US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.
The Sensitive Infrared Signal Detection by Sum Frequency Generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wong, Teh-Hwa; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin
2013-01-01
An up-conversion device that converts 2.05-micron light to 700 nm signal by sum frequency generation using a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal is demonstrated. The achieved 92% up-conversion efficiency paves the path to detect extremely weak 2.05-micron signal with well established silicon avalanche photodiode detector for sensitive lidar applications.
Inequalities for frequency-moment sum rules of electron liquids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iwamoto, N.
1986-01-01
The relations between the various frequency-moment sum rules of electron liquids, which include even-power moments, are systematically examined by using the Cauchy-Schwarz and Hoelder inequalities. A relation involving the isothermal sound velocity and the kinetic and potential energies is obtained from one of the inequalities in the long-wavelength limit, and is generalized to arbitrary spatial dimensions.
27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.93 Penal sum of bond. (a)(1) Brewers... calculated at the rates prescribed by law which the brewer will become liable to pay during a calendar year during the period of the bond on beer: (i) Removed for transfer to the brewery from other breweries...
27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.93 Penal sum of bond. (a)(1) Brewers... calculated at the rates prescribed by law which the brewer will become liable to pay during a calendar year during the period of the bond on beer: (i) Removed for transfer to the brewery from other breweries...
27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... tax at the rates prescribed by law, on the maximum quantity of beer used in the production of... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.93 Penal sum of bond. (a)(1) Brewers... calculated at the rates prescribed by law which the brewer will become liable to pay during a calendar...
27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.93 Penal sum of bond. (a)(1) Brewers... calculated at the rates prescribed by law which the brewer will become liable to pay during a calendar year during the period of the bond on beer: (i) Removed for transfer to the brewery from other breweries...
27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... tax at the rates prescribed by law, on the maximum quantity of beer used in the production of... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.93 Penal sum of bond. (a)(1) Brewers... calculated at the rates prescribed by law which the brewer will become liable to pay during a calendar...
Programmable Digital Controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wassick, Gregory J.
2012-01-01
An existing three-channel analog servo loop controller has been redesigned for piezoelectric-transducer-based (PZT-based) etalon control applications to a digital servo loop controller. This change offers several improvements over the previous analog controller, including software control over proportional-integral-derivative (PID) parameters, inclusion of other data of interest such as temperature and pressure in the control laws, improved ability to compensate for PZT hysteresis and mechanical mount fluctuations, ability to provide pre-programmed scanning and stepping routines, improved user interface, expanded data acquisition, and reduced size, weight, and power.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1986-01-01
System One, a digital radiography system, incorporates a reusable image medium (RIM) which retains an image. No film is needed; the RIM is read with a laser scanner, and the information is used to produce a digital image on an image processor. The image is stored on an optical disc. System allows the radiologist to "dial away" unwanted images to compare views on three screens. It is compatible with existing equipment and cost efficient. It was commercialized by a Stanford researcher from energy selective technology developed under a NASA grant.
27 CFR 19.245 - Bonds and penal sums of bonds.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonds and penal sums of... Bonds and penal sums of bonds. The bonds, and the penal sums thereof, required by this subpart, are as follows: Penal Sum Type of bond Basis Minimum Maximum (a) Operations bond: (1) One plant bond—...
20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...
20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...
20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...
20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...
20 CFR 234.12 - 1937 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.12 Section 234.12 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.12 1937 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The 1937...
Variable weight fiber optic transversal filter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berry, Mark H.; Gookin, Debra M.
1991-03-01
A transversal filter uses optical components to provide for a wide bandwidth, greater than 10 GHz signal processing capability. RF modulated optical signals are fed over different lengths of optical fibers to impart appropriate tap delays and each is coupled to an integrated optical coupler. Each of the integrated optical couplers have the capability to introduce variable positive and negative weights. Incoherent summing means receive the modulated signals and feed them to an interconnected detector to thereby provide appropriate positive and negative variable weighted signals.
Weighting dissimilarities to detect communities in networks.
Alvarez, Alejandro J; Sanz-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Cabrera, Juan Luis
2015-12-13
Many complex systems can be described as networks exhibiting inner organization as communities of nodes. The identification of communities is a key factor to understand community-based functionality. We propose a family of measures based on the weighted sum of two dissimilarity quantifiers that facilitates efficient classification of communities by tuning the quantifiers' relative weight to the network's particularities. Additionally, two new dissimilarities are introduced and incorporated in our analysis. The effectiveness of our approach is tested by examining the Zachary's Karate Club Network and the Caenorhabditis elegans reactions network. The analysis reveals the method's classification power as confirmed by the efficient detection of intrapathway metabolic functions in C. elegans.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frederiksen, Linda
2013-01-01
Unlike so much of the current vocabulary in education and technology that seems to stir more confusion than clarity, most public service librarians may already have a general idea about digital badges. As visual representations of individual accomplishments, competencies or skills that are awarded by groups, institutions, or organizations, they…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kumaran, Maha; Geary, Joe
2011-01-01
Technology has transformed libraries. There are digital libraries, electronic collections, online databases and catalogs, ebooks, downloadable books, and much more. With free technology such as social websites, newspaper collections, downloadable online calendars, clocks and sticky notes, online scheduling, online document sharing, and online…
Weighted conditional least-squares estimation
Booth, J.G.
1987-01-01
A two-stage estimation procedure is proposed that generalizes the concept of conditional least squares. The method is instead based upon the minimization of a weighted sum of squares, where the weights are inverses of estimated conditional variance terms. Some general conditions are given under which the estimators are consistent and jointly asymptotically normal. More specific details are given for ergodic Markov processes with stationary transition probabilities. A comparison is made with the ordinary conditional least-squares estimators for two simple branching processes with immigration. The relationship between weighted conditional least squares and other, more well-known, estimators is also investigated. In particular, it is shown that in many cases estimated generalized least-squares estimators can be obtained using the weighted conditional least-squares approach. Applications to stochastic compartmental models, and linear models with nested error structures are considered.
Sums of Hermitian Squares and the BMV Conjecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klep, Igor; Schweighofer, Markus
2008-11-01
We show that all the coefficients of the polynomial {tr}((A+tB)m)in{R}[t] are nonnegative whenever m≤13 is a nonnegative integer and A and B are positive semidefinite matrices of the same size. This has previously been known only for m≤7. The validity of the statement for arbitrary m has recently been shown to be equivalent to the Bessis-Moussa-Villani conjecture from theoretical physics. In our proof, we establish a connection to sums of hermitian squares of polynomials in noncommuting variables and to semidefinite programming. As a by-product we obtain an example of a real polynomial in two noncommuting variables having nonnegative trace on all symmetric matrices of the same size, yet not being a sum of hermitian squares and commutators.
Strange quark condensate from QCD sum rules to five loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dominguez, Cesareo A.; Nasrallah, Nasrallah F.; Schilcher, Karl
2008-02-01
It is argued that it is valid to use QCD sum rules to determine the scalar and pseudoscalar two-point functions at zero momentum, which in turn determine the ratio of the strange to non-strange quark condensates Rsu = langlebar ssrangle/langlebar qqrangle with (q = u, d). This is done in the framework of a new set of QCD Finite Energy Sum Rules (FESR) that involve as integration kernel a second degree polynomial, tuned to reduce considerably the systematic uncertainties in the hadronic spectral functions. As a result, the parameters limiting the precision of this determination are ΛQCD, and to a major extent the strange quark mass. From the positivity of Rsu there follows an upper bound on the latter: \\overline{ms}(2 GeV) <= 121 (105) MeV, for ΛQCD = 330 (420) MeV.
Coincidence-Summing Corrections for Close Geometry Measurements
Gueray, R. Taygun
2008-11-11
For a given stellar temperature, nuclear reactions take place in the energy range of the Gamow window with the relatively low energies of the astrophysical interest for charged particle induced reactions. In order to measure the nuclear reaction cross sections with the activation method at projectile energies as low as possible, a gamma counting system that consists of Ge detectors and the irradiated target in close geometry is required. The presence of cascade transitions requires coincidence summing corrections that can not be ignored because of the very large solid angle. In this study, the determination of the summing correction factor and photopeak efficiency for a gamma spectrometer, as an example, composed of two Ge clover detectors in close geometry is briefly described.
Otto Stern, the Gdh Sum Rule and Various Spin Crises
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drechsel, D.
2001-02-01
The history of spin and anomalous magnetic moment is full of puzzles and "crises" from the first observations in the 1920's to the present day. The Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule connects the anomalous magnetic moment with the helicity dependent cross section for photoproduction, and as such checks the internal consistency of our understanding of the nucleon spin structure. Various generalizations of the sum rule have been proposed for the case of virtual photons, thus interpolating from the real photon point to deep inelastic scattering. A series of recent and newly proposed experiments with beam and target/recoil polarization will study this transition between the coherent spin-dependent response and the incoherent response of the partons in the scaling region.
Signal replication by multiple sum- or difference-frequency generation.
McKinstrie, C J; Agarwal, A; Banwell, T C; Dailey, J M
2015-09-21
In this paper, the coupled-mode equations for sum-frequency generation (SFG) and difference-frequency generation (DFG) driven by multiple pumps are solved, and the noise figures of idler generation are determined. For SFG, the (common) noise figure is n, the number of pumps (and idlers), whereas for DFG, the (common) noise figure is 2, independent of n. Thus, DFG driven by multiple pumps enables the generation of multiple low-noise idlers.
Pseudoscalar glueball wave functions from QCD sum rules
Wakely, A.B.; Carlson, C.E. )
1992-01-01
Using QCD sum rules, we calculate the first few moments of the distribution amplitude of a pseudo- scalar glueball, in the approximation that the glueball is narrow. These moments then give the corresponding first few coefficients of the distribution amplitude for the glueball expanded in Gegenbauer polynomials. The distribution amplitude is rather close to its asymptotic form, and the glueball's decay constant'' is about 105 MeV for a pseudoscalar glueball mass of 2.0 GeV.
Algebraic Riccati equations in zero-sum differential games
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, T. L.; Chao, A.
1974-01-01
The procedure for finding the closed-loop Nash equilibrium solution of two-player zero-sum linear time-invariant differential games with quadratic performance criteria and classical information pattern may be reduced in most cases to the solution of an algebraic Riccati equation. Based on the results obtained by Willems, necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of solutions to these equations are derived, and explicit conditions for a scalar example are given.
Theory of sum frequency generation from metal surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liebsch, A.
The time-dependent density functional approach is used to evaluate the optical sum frequency generation from metal surfaces. Attention is focussed on the magnitude and frequency variation of the element χzzz(ω1,ω2). Four types of metal surfaces are considered: simple metals, alkali metal overlayers, noble metals, and charged metal surfaces. Differences and similarities with respect to second harmonic generation from these surfaces are pointed out.
Heavy-meson decay constants from QCD sum rules
Lucha, Wolfgang; Melikhov, Dmitri; Simula, Silvano
2010-12-22
We sketch a recent sum-rule extraction of the decay constants of the heavy pseudoscalar mesons D, D{sub s}, B, and B{sub s} from the two-point correlator of heavy-light pseudoscalar currents. Our main emphasis lies on the control over all the uncertainties in the decay constants, related both to the input QCD parameters and to the limited accuracy of the method of sum rules. Gaining this control has become possible by application of our new procedure of extracting hadron observables based on a dual threshold depending on the Borel parameter. For the charmed-meson decay constants, we find fD = (206.2{+-}7.3{sub (OPE)}{+-}5.1{sub (syst)}) MeV, fD{sub s} = (245.3{+-}15.7{sub (OPE)}{+-}4.5{sub (syst)}) MeV. For the beauty mesons, the decay constants turn out to be extremely sensitive to the precise value of the {ovr MS} mass of the b-quark, {bar m}{sub b}({bar m}{sub b}). By requiring our sum-rule estimate to match the average of the lattice determinations of f{sub B}, we extract the rather accurate value {bar m}{sub b}({bar m}{sub b}) = (4.245{+-}0.025) GeV. Feeding this parameter value into our sum-rule formalism leads to the beauty-meson decay constants fB = (193.4{+-}12.3{sub (OPE)}{+-}4.3{sub (syst)}) MeV, fB{sub s} = (232.5{+-}18.6{sub (OPE)}{+-}2.4{sub (syst)}) MeV.
Parafermionic derivation of Andrews-type multiple sums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacob, P.; Mathieu, P.
2005-09-01
A multi-parafermion basis of states for the {{\\bb Z}}_k parafermionic models is derived. Its generating function is constructed by elementary steps. It corresponds to the Andrews multiple sum which enumerates partitions whose parts separated by the distance k - 1 differ by at least 2. Two analogous bases are derived for graded parafermions; one of these entails a new expression for their fermionic characters.
On the loop approximation in nucleon QCD sum rules
Drukarev, E. G. Ryskin, M. G.; Sadovnikova, V. A.
2015-10-15
There was a general belief that the nucleon QCD sum rules which include only the quark loops and thus contain only the condensates of dimension d = 3 and d = 4 have only a trivial solution. We demonstrate that there is also a nontrivial solution. We show that it can be treated as the lowest order approximation to the solution which includes the higher terms of the Operator Product Expansion. Inclusion of the radiative corrections improves the convergence of the series.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mosset, J.-B.; Stoykov, A.; Greuter, U.; Hildebrandt, M.; Schlumpf, N.
2016-07-01
We present a digital signal processing system based on a photon counting approach which we developed for a thermal neutron detector consisting of ZnS(Ag):6LiF scintillating layers read out with WLS fibers and SiPMs. Three digital filters have been evaluated: a moving sum, a moving sum after differentiation and a digital CR-RC4 filter. The performances of the detector with these filters are presented. A full analog signal processing using a CR-RC4 filter has been emulated digitally. The detector performance obtained with this analog approach is compared with the one obtained with the best performing digital approach.
Can nonhuman primates use tokens to represent and sum quantities?
Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J; Addessi, Elsa
2010-11-01
It is unclear whether nonhuman animals can use physical tokens to flexibly represent various quantities by combining token values. Previous studies showed that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and a macaque (Macaca mulatta) were only partly successful in tests involving sets of different-looking food containers representing different food quantities, while some capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) have shown greater success in tests involving sets of various concrete objects representing different food quantities. Some of the discrepancy in results between these studies may be attributed to the different methods used. In an effort to reconcile these discrepancies, we presented two primates species, chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys, with two token tasks. The critical test in each task involved summing the value of multiple tokens of different types to make accurate quantity judgments. We found that, using either method, individuals of both species learned to associate individual tokens with specific quantities, as well as successfully compare individual tokens to one another or to sets of visible food items. However, regardless of method, only a few individuals exhibited the capacity to sum multiple tokens of different types and then use those summed values to make an optimal response. This suggests that flexible combination of symbolic stimuli in quantity judgments tasks is within the abilities of chimpanzees and capuchins but does not characterize the majority of individuals. Furthermore, the results suggest the need to carefully examine specific methodological details that may promote or hinder such possible representation. PMID:20836596
Mass Dependence of the Entropy Product and Sum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yuan; Gao, Sijie
2015-03-01
For black holes with multiple horizons, the area product of all horizons has been proven to be mass independent in many cases. Counterexamples were also found in some occasions. In this paper, we first prove a theorem derived from the first law of black hole thermodynamics and a mathematical lemma related to the Vandermonde determinant. With these arguments, we develop some general criteria for the mass independence of the entropy product as well as the entropy sum. In particular, if a d -dimensional spacetime is spherically symmetric and its radial metric function f (r ) is a Laurent series in r with the lowest power -m and the highest power n , we find the criterion is extremely simple: The entropy product is mass independent if and only if m ≥d -2 and n ≥4 -d . The entropy sum is mass independent if and only if m ≥d -2 and n ≥2 . Compared to previous works, our method does not require an exact expression of the metric. Our arguments turn out to be useful even for rotating black holes. By applying our theorem and lemma to a Myers-Perry black hole with spacetime dimension d , we show that the entropy product/sum is mass independent for all d >4 , while it is mass dependent only for d =4 , i.e., the Kerr solution.
Relativistic and Nuclear Medium Effects on the Coulomb Sum Rule.
Cloët, Ian C; Bentz, Wolfgang; Thomas, Anthony W
2016-01-22
In light of the forthcoming high precision quasielastic electron scattering data from Jefferson Lab, it is timely for the various approaches to nuclear structure to make robust predictions for the associated response functions. With this in mind, we focus here on the longitudinal response function and the corresponding Coulomb sum rule for isospin-symmetric nuclear matter at various baryon densities. Using a quantum field-theoretic quark-level approach which preserves the symmetries of quantum chromodynamics, as well as exhibiting dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark confinement, we find a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule for momentum transfers |q|≳0.5 GeV. The main driver of this effect lies in changes to the proton Dirac form factor induced by the nuclear medium. Such a dramatic quenching of the Coulomb sum rule was not seen in a recent quantum Monte Carlo calculation for carbon, suggesting that the Jefferson Lab data may well shed new light on the explicit role of QCD in nuclei.
Infrared modified QCD couplings and Bjorken sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khandramai, V. L.; Teryaev, O. V.; Gabdrakhmanov, I. R.
2016-02-01
We test the recently proposed “Massive” Perturbation Theory (MPT) for the description of the Γ1p-n data at low momentum transfers. The MPT constructed on the two grounds: the first is pQCD with only one parameter added, an effective “glueball mass” mp ≲ Mgl ≲ 1 GeV; serving as an infrared “regulator” the second stems out of the ghost- free Analytic Perturbation Theory comprising non-power perturbative expansion that makes it compatible with linear integral transformations. It is regular in the low-energy region and could serve as a practical means for the analysis of data below 1 GeV up to the IR-limit. We study the non-perturbative Bjorken sum rule higher twists correction by using the MPT, the integral representation for infinite sum of higher twists coefficients and the QCD-inspired model for the Q2-dependence of the generalized Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule.
Sum rules for M2 and other cases
Kurath, D.
1995-08-01
Sum rules were derived for parity-changing operators consisting of an odd-l spherical harmonic coupled to the spin operator sigma. The conditions are that the valence nucleons are in the oscillator shell with Q quanta and the shell with Q-1 quanta is full and the shell with Q+1 quanta is empty. Thus this applies to the 1p, 2sd and 3pf as valence shells, where the sum rules would be useful for inelastic electron scattering and other reactions. In particular a complete M2 sum rule was derived including the weak contribution from the orbital operator. The contribution from the spurious center-of-mass motion was also derived. The expression was tested by comparing to summations of transition strengths given by shell-model calculations. For nuclei with mass greater than {approximately}A = 70 one would need to include the effect of the intruding level with Q+1 quanta and J = Q+3/2. This problem will be considered in the coming year.
Radiative corrections to the solar lepton mixing sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jue; Zhou, Shun
2016-08-01
The simple correlation among three lepton flavor mixing angles ( θ 12, θ 13, θ 23) and the leptonic Dirac CP-violating phase δ is conventionally called a sum rule of lepton flavor mixing, which may be derived from a class of neutrino mass models with flavor symmetries. In this paper, we consider the solar lepton mixing sum rule θ 12 ≈ θ 12 ν + θ 13 cos δ, where θ 12 ν stems from a constant mixing pattern in the neutrino sector and takes the value of θ 12 ν = 45 ° for the bi-maximal mixing (BM), {θ}_{12}^{ν } = { tan}^{-1}(1/√{2}) ≈ 35.3° for the tri-bimaximal mixing (TBM) or {θ}_{12}^{ν } = { tan}^{-1}(1/√{5+1}) ≈ 31.7° for the golden-ratio mixing (GR), and investigate the renormalization-group (RG) running effects on lepton flavor mixing parameters when this sum rule is assumed at a superhigh-energy scale. For illustration, we work within the framework of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), and implement the Bayesian approach to explore the posterior distribution of δ at the low-energy scale, which becomes quite broad when the RG running effects are significant. Moreover, we also discuss the compatibility of the above three mixing scenarios with current neutrino oscillation data, and observe that radiative corrections can increase such a compatibility for the BM scenario, resulting in a weaker preference for the TBM and GR ones.
Can nonhuman primates use tokens to represent and sum quantities?
Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J; Addessi, Elsa
2010-11-01
It is unclear whether nonhuman animals can use physical tokens to flexibly represent various quantities by combining token values. Previous studies showed that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and a macaque (Macaca mulatta) were only partly successful in tests involving sets of different-looking food containers representing different food quantities, while some capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) have shown greater success in tests involving sets of various concrete objects representing different food quantities. Some of the discrepancy in results between these studies may be attributed to the different methods used. In an effort to reconcile these discrepancies, we presented two primates species, chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys, with two token tasks. The critical test in each task involved summing the value of multiple tokens of different types to make accurate quantity judgments. We found that, using either method, individuals of both species learned to associate individual tokens with specific quantities, as well as successfully compare individual tokens to one another or to sets of visible food items. However, regardless of method, only a few individuals exhibited the capacity to sum multiple tokens of different types and then use those summed values to make an optimal response. This suggests that flexible combination of symbolic stimuli in quantity judgments tasks is within the abilities of chimpanzees and capuchins but does not characterize the majority of individuals. Furthermore, the results suggest the need to carefully examine specific methodological details that may promote or hinder such possible representation.
Weight-ing: the experience of waiting on weight loss.
Glenn, Nicole M
2013-03-01
Perhaps we want to be perfect, strive for health, beauty, and the admiring gaze of others. Maybe we desire the body of our youth, the "healthy" body, the body that has just the right fit. Regardless of the motivation, we might find ourselves striving, wanting, and waiting on weight loss. What is it to wait on weight loss? I explore the meaning of this experience-as-lived using van Manen's guide to phenomenological reflection and writing. Weight has become an increasing focus of contemporary culture, demonstrated, for example, by a growing weight-loss industry and global obesity "epidemic." Weight has become synonymous with health status, and weight loss with "healthier." I examine the weight wait through experiences of the common and uncommon, considering relations to time, body, space, and the other with the aim of evoking a felt, embodied, emotive understanding of the meaning of waiting on weight loss. I also discuss the implications of the findings.
Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delion, Doru S.; Schuck, Peter; Tohyama, Mitsuru
2016-02-01
The Self-Consistent RPA (SCRPA) approach is elaborated for cases with a continuously broken symmetry, this being the main focus of the present article. Correlations beyond standard RPA are summed up correcting for the quasi-boson approximation in standard RPA. Desirable properties of standard RPA such as fulfillment of energy weighted sum rule and appearance of Goldstone (zero) modes are kept. We show theoretically and, for a model case, numerically that, indeed, SCRPA maintains all properties of standard RPA for practically all situations of spontaneously broken symmetries. A simpler approximate form of SCRPA, the so-called renormalised RPA, also has these properties. The SCRPA equations are first outlined as an eigenvalue problem, but it is also shown how an equivalent many body Green's function approach can be formulated.
Tang, S; Helmeste, D
2000-02-01
The American managed care movement has been viewed as a big experiment and is being watched closely by the rest of the world. In the meanwhile, computer-based information technology (IT) is changing the practice of medicine, much more rapidly than managed care. A New World of digitized knowledge and information has been created. Although literature on IT in psychiatry is largely absent in peer-reviewed psychiatric journals, IT is finding its way into all aspects of medicine, particularly psychiatry. Telepsychiatry programs are becoming very popular. At the same time, medical information sites are flourishing and evolving into a new health-care industry. Patient-physician information asymmetry is decreasing as patients are gaining easy access to medical information hitherto only available to professionals. Thus, psychiatry is facing another paradigm shift, at a time when most attention has been focused on managed care. In this new digital world, knowledge and information are no longer the sole property of professionals. Value will migrate from traditional in-person office-based therapy to digital clinical products, from in-person library search and classroom didactic instruction to interactive on-line searches and distance learning. In this time of value migration, psychiatrists have to determine what their 'distinctive competence' is and where best to add value in the health-care delivery value chain. The authors assess the impact of IT on clinical psychiatry and review how clinical practice, education and research in psychiatry are expected to change in this emerging digital world. PMID:15558872
Barr, Jennifer S; White, Jedediah K; Punt, Stephanie E W; Conrad, Ernest U; Ching, Randal P
2015-05-01
The effect of simulated early weight bearing on both micromotion and pullout strength of uncemented distal femoral stems was evaluated in this study. The effect of stem endosteal contact and bone quality on implant pullout strength was also analyzed. A randomized matched-pair study was performed using 8 bilateral pairs of fresh human cadaveric femoral specimens. Each specimen pair was dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanned, uniformly implanted, fluoroscopically imaged, and randomly assigned to the cycled or uncycled group. The cycled group received 5000 cycles of axial compressive loading (to 700 N) and the contralateral side was not cycled. Micromotion was monitored during cycling and compared with a failure threshold (150 µm), and all implants underwent direct axial distraction (pullout) testing. During cycling, minimal micromotion was observed with an asymptotic decrease in differential motion between the first and last 50 cycles. Both cycled and uncycled groups demonstrated no statistical difference in average pullout force (4888±2124 N vs 4367±1154 N; P=.43). The percentage of cortical contact for each implant was determined from panoramic fluoroscopy images using digital image analysis software. Contact area for the distal third of the stem showed the highest correlation with pullout force and with predicting pullout force. Bone quality did not correlate with pullout force (r(2)=0.367) or stem contact area (r(2)=0.394). In sum, press-fit uncemented femoral stems did not loosen or demonstrate decreased pullout strength with early weight bearing simulated by cyclical axial compressive loading.
Automated paste weight measurement and control
Ostrander, P.
1986-08-01
New research on paste weight control is discussed. The pasting research data was collected by both the traditional method of manually collecting samples and by continuous sensor measurement and automatic data collection. The equipment used for automatic data collection is described. The paste weight gauge measures the active material. The data are collected and stored in the operator station and printed at the printer. The digital displays show the past weight on each side of the panel. This configuration allows the pasting process to be studied in depth and at a level of detail not possible before.
Quantitative metrics of stove adoption using Stove Use Monitors (SUMs).
Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Canuz, Eduardo; Walker, Joan L; Smith, Kirk R
2013-10-01
The sustained use of cookstoves that are introduced to reduce fuel use or air pollution needs to be objectively monitored to verify the sustainability of these benefits. Quantifying stove adoption requires affordable tools, scalable methods and validated metrics of usage. We quantified the longitudinal patterns of chimney-stove use of 80 households in rural Guatemala, monitored with Stove Use Monitors (SUMs) during 32 months. We counted daily meals and days in use at each monitoring period and defined metrics like the percent stove-days in use (the fraction of days in use from all stoves and days monitored). Using robust Poisson regressions we detected small seasonal variations in stove usage, with peaks in the warm-dry season at 92% stove-days (95%CI: 87%,97%) and 2.56 average daily meals (95%CI: 2.40,2.74). With respect to these values, the percent stove-days in use decreased by 3% and 4% during the warm-rainy and cold-dry periods respectively, and the daily meals by 5% and 12% respectively. Cookstove age and household size at baseline did not affect usage. Qualitative indicators of use from recall questionnaires were consistent with SUMs measurements, indicating stable sustained use and questionnaire accuracy. These results reflect optimum conditions for cookstove adoption and for monitoring in this project, which may not occur in disseminations undertaken elsewhere. The SUMs measurements suggests that 90% stove-days is a more realistic best-case for sustained use than the 100% often assumed. Half of sample reported continued use of open-cookfires, highlighting the critical need to verify reduction of open-fire practices in stove disseminations.
Quantitative metrics of stove adoption using Stove Use Monitors (SUMs)
Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Canuz, Eduardo; Walker, Joan L.; Smith, Kirk R.
2014-01-01
The sustained use of cookstoves that are introduced to reduce fuel use or air pollution needs to be objectively monitored to verify the sustainability of these benefits. Quantifying stove adoption requires affordable tools, scalable methods and validated metrics of usage. We quantified the longitudinal patterns of chimney-stove use of 80 households in rural Guatemala, monitored with Stove Use Monitors (SUMs) during 32 months. We counted daily meals and days in use at each monitoring period and defined metrics like the percent stove-days in use (the fraction of days in use from all stoves and days monitored). Using robust Poisson regressions we detected small seasonal variations in stove usage, with peaks in the warm-dry season at 92% stove-days (95%CI: 87%,97%) and 2.56 average daily meals (95%CI: 2.40,2.74). With respect to these values, the percent stove-days in use decreased by 3% and 4% during the warm-rainy and cold-dry periods respectively, and the daily meals by 5% and 12% respectively. Cookstove age and household size at baseline did not affect usage. Qualitative indicators of use from recall questionnaires were consistent with SUMs measurements, indicating stable sustained use and questionnaire accuracy. These results reflect optimum conditions for cookstove adoption and for monitoring in this project, which may not occur in disseminations undertaken elsewhere. The SUMs measurements suggests that 90% stove-days is a more realistic best-case for sustained use than the 100% often assumed. Half of sample reported continued use of open-cookfires, highlighting the critical need to verify reduction of open-fire practices in stove disseminations. PMID:25258474
Analysis of the scalar nonet mesons with QCD sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhi-Gang
2016-08-01
In this article, we assume that the nonet scalar mesons below 1 GeV are the two-quark-tetraquark mixed states and study their masses and pole residues using the QCD sum rules. In the calculation, we take into account the vacuum condensates up to dimension 10 and the O(α _s) corrections to the perturbative terms in the operator product expansion. We determine the mixing angles, which indicate the two-quark components are much larger than 50~%, then we obtain the masses and pole residues of the nonet scalar mesons.
3He Spin-Dependent Cross Sections and Sum Rules
Slifer, Karl; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Auerbach, Leonard; Averett, Todd; Berthot, J.; Bertin, Pierre; Bertozzi, William; Black, Tim; Brash, Edward; Brown, D.; Burtin, Etienne; Calarco, John; Cates, Gordon; Chai, Zhengwei; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Ciofi, Claudio; Cisbani, Evaristo; De Jager, Cornelis; Deur, Alexandre; DiSalvo, R.; Dieterich, Sonja; Djawotho, Pibero; Finn, John; Fissum, Kevin; Fonvieille, Helene; Frullani, Salvatore; Gao, Haiyan; Gao, Juncai; Garibaldi, Franco; Gasparian, Ashot; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Glashausser, Charles; Glockle, W.; Golak, J.; Goldberg, Emma; Gomez, Javier; Gorbenko, Viktor; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Hersman, F.; Holmes, Richard; Huber, Garth; Hughes, Emlyn; Humensky, Thomas; Incerti, Sebastien; Iodice, Mauro; Jensen, S.; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jones, C.; Jones, G.; Jones, Mark; Jutier, Christophe; Kamada, H.; Ketikyan, Armen; Kominis, Ioannis; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kramer, Kevin; Kumar, Krishna; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; Kuss, Michael; Lakuriqi, Enkeleida; Laveissiere, Geraud; LeRose, John; Liang, Meihua; Liyanage, Nilanga; Lolos, George; Malov, Sergey; Marroncle, Jacques; McCormick, Kathy; McKeown, Robert; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Mitchell, Joseph; Nogga, Andreas; Pace, Emanuele; Papandreou, Zisis; Pavlin, Tina; Petratos, Gerassimos; Pripstein, David; Prout, David; Ransome, Ronald; Roblin, Yves; Rowntree, David; Rvachev, Marat; Sabatie, Franck; Saha, Arunava; Salme, Giovanni; SCOPETTA, S.; Skibinski, R.; Souder, Paul; Saito, Teijiro; Strauch, Steffen; Suleiman, Riad; Takahashi, Kazunori; Todor, Luminita; Tsubota, Hiroaki; Ueno, Hiroaki; Urciuoli, Guido; van der Meer, Rob; Vernin, Pascal; Voskanyan, Hakob; Witala, Henryk; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Xiong, Feng; Xu, Wang; Yang, Jae-Choon; Zhang, Bin; Zolnierczuk, Piotr
2008-07-01
We present a measurement of the spin-dependent cross sections for the \\vec{^3He}(\\vec{e},e')X} reaction in the quasielastic and resonance regions at four-momentum transfer 0.1 < Q^2< 0.9 GeV^2. The spin-structure functions have been extracted and used to evaluate the nuclear Burkhardt--Cottingham and extended GDH sum rules for the first time. Impulse approximation and exact three-body Faddeev calculations are also compared to the data in the quasielastic region.
He3 Spin-Dependent Cross Sections and Sum Rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slifer, K.; Amarian, M.; Auerbach, L.; Averett, T.; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.; Bertozzi, B.; Black, T.; Brash, E.; Brown, D.; Burtin, E.; Calarco, J.; Cates, G.; Chai, Z.; Chen, J.-P.; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E.; Ciofi Degli Atti, C.; Cisbani, E.; de Jager, C. W.; Deur, A.; Disalvo, R.; Dieterich, S.; Djawotho, P.; Finn, M.; Fissum, K.; Fonvieille, H.; Frullani, S.; Gao, H.; Gao, J.; Garibaldi, F.; Gasparian, A.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, A.; Glashausser, C.; Glöckle, W.; Golak, J.; Goldberg, E.; Gomez, J.; Gorbenko, V.; Hansen, J.-O.; Hersman, B.; Holmes, R.; Huber, G. M.; Hughes, E.; Humensky, B.; Incerti, S.; Iodice, M.; Jensen, S.; Jiang, X.; Jones, C.; Jones, G.; Jones, M.; Jutier, C.; Kamada, H.; Ketikyan, A.; Kominis, I.; Korsch, W.; Kramer, K.; Kumar, K.; Kumbartzki, G.; Kuss, M.; Lakuriqi, E.; Laveissiere, G.; Lerose, J. J.; Liang, M.; Liyanage, N.; Lolos, G.; Malov, S.; Marroncle, J.; McCormick, K.; McKeown, R. D.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Michaels, R.; Mitchell, J.; Nogga, A.; Pace, E.; Papandreou, Z.; Pavlin, T.; Petratos, G. G.; Pripstein, D.; Prout, D.; Ransome, R.; Roblin, Y.; Rowntree, D.; Rvachev, M.; Sabatié, F.; Saha, A.; Salmè, G.; Scopetta, S.; Skibiński, R.; Souder, P.; Saito, T.; Strauch, S.; Suleiman, R.; Takahashi, K.; Teijiro, S.; Todor, L.; Tsubota, H.; Ueno, H.; Urciuoli, G.; van der Meer, R.; Vernin, P.; Voskanian, H.; Witała, H.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Xiong, F.; Xu, W.; Yang, J.-C.; Zhang, B.; Zolnierczuk, P.
2008-07-01
We present a measurement of the spin-dependent cross sections for the He→3(e→,e')X reaction in the quasielastic and resonance regions at a four-momentum transfer 0.1≤Q2≤0.9GeV2. The spin-structure functions have been extracted and used to evaluate the nuclear Burkhardt-Cottingham and extended Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rules for the first time. The data are also compared to an impulse approximation calculation and an exact three-body Faddeev calculation in the quasielastic region.
Screening and Spectral Summing of LANL Empty Waste Drums - 13226
Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E.; Lucero, Randy P.
2013-07-01
Empty 55-gallon drums that formerly held transuranic (TRU) waste (often over-packed in 85- gallon drums) are generated at LANL and require radiological characterization for disposition. These drums are typically measured and analyzed individually using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma detectors. This approach can be resource and time intensive. For a project requiring several hundred drums to be characterized in a short time frame, an alternative approach was developed. The approach utilizes a combination of field screening and spectral summing that was required to be technically defensible and meet the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In the screening phase of the operation, the drums were counted for 300 seconds (compared to 600 seconds for the typical approach) and checked against Low Level (LL)/TRU thresholds established for each drum configuration and detector. Multiple TRU nuclides and multiple gamma rays for each nuclide were evaluated using an automated spreadsheet utility that can process data from up to 42 drums at a time. Screening results were reviewed by an expert analyst to confirm the field LL/TRU determination. The spectral summing analysis technique combines spectral data (channel-by-channel) associated with a group of individual waste containers producing a composite spectrum. The grouped drums must meet specific similarity criteria. Another automated spreadsheet utility was used to spectral sum data from an unlimited number of similar drums grouped together. The composite spectrum represents a virtual combined drum for the group of drums and was analyzed using the SNAP{sup TM}/Radioassay Data Sheet (RDS)/Batch Data Report (BDR) method. The activity results for a composite virtual drum were divided equally amongst the individual drums to generate characterization results for each individual drum in the group. An initial batch of approximately 500 drums were measured and analyzed in less than 2 months in 2011
Light-Cone Sum Rule Approach for Baryon Form Factors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Offen, Nils
2016-10-01
We present the state-of-the-art of the light-cone sum rule approach to Baryon form factors. The essence of this approach is that soft Feynman contributions are calculated in terms of small transverse distance quantities using dispersion relations and duality. The form factors are thus expressed in terms of nucleon wave functions at small transverse separations, called distribution amplitudes, without any additional parameters. The distribution amplitudes, therefore, can be extracted from the comparison with the experimental data on form factors and compared to the results of lattice QCD simulations.
Light-Cone Sum Rule Approach for Baryon Form Factors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Offen, Nils
2016-08-01
We present the state-of-the-art of the light-cone sum rule approach to Baryon form factors. The essence of this approach is that soft Feynman contributions are calculated in terms of small transverse distance quantities using dispersion relations and duality. The form factors are thus expressed in terms of nucleon wave functions at small transverse separations, called distribution amplitudes, without any additional parameters. The distribution amplitudes, therefore, can be extracted from the comparison with the experimental data on form factors and compared to the results of lattice QCD simulations.
A new method for taming tensor sum-integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghisoiu, Ioan; Schröder, York
2012-11-01
We report on the computation of a class of massless bosonic three-loop vacuum sum-integrals which are key building blocks for an evaluation of the Debye screening mass in hot QCD. Generalizing known techniques and introducing the concept of tensor reduction by dimensionality shifts (known to the zero-temperature community since the work of Tarasov in 1996) to finite temperature, we are able to treat hitherto unaccessible cases, which will allow us to finalize the long-term project of NNLO Debye mass evaluation.
Comparison between parallel transfer matrix method and admittance sum method.
Verdière, Kévin; Panneton, Raymond; Elkoun, Saïd; Dupont, Thomas; Leclaire, Philippe
2014-08-01
A transfer matrix method to predict absorption coefficient and transmission loss of parallel assemblies of materials which can be expressed by a 2 × 2 transfer matrix was published recently. However, the usual method based on the sum of admittances is largely used to predict also surface admittance of parallel assemblies. This paper aims to highlight differences between both methods through three examples on a parallel assembly backed by (1) a rigid wall, (2) an air cavity, and (3) an anechoic termination.
MULTIPLE INPUT BINARY ADDER EMPLOYING MAGNETIC DRUM DIGITAL COMPUTING APPARATUS
Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.
1960-12-01
A digital computing apparatus is described for adding a plurality of multi-digit binary numbers. The apparatus comprises a rotating magnetic drum, a recording head, first and second reading heads disposed adjacent to the first and second recording tracks, and a series of timing signals recorded on the first track. A series of N groups of digit-representing signals is delivered to the recording head at time intervals corresponding to the timing signals, each group consisting of digits of the same significance in the numbers, and the signal series is recorded on the second track of the drum in synchronism with the timing signals on the first track. The multistage registers are stepped cyclically through all positions, and each of the multistage registers is coupled to the control lead of a separate gate circuit to open the corresponding gate at only one selected position in each cycle. One of the gates has its input coupled to the bistable element to receive the sum digit, and the output lead of this gate is coupled to the recording device. The inputs of the other gates receive the digits to be added from the second reading head, and the outputs of these gates are coupled to the adding register. A phase-setting pulse source is connected to each of the multistage registers individually to step the multistage registers to different initial positions in the cycle, and the phase-setting pulse source is actuated each N time interval to shift a sum digit to the bistable element, where the multistage register coupled to bistable element is operated by the phase- setting pulse source to that position in its cycle N steps before opening the first gate, so that this gate opens in synchronism with each of the shifts to pass the sum digits to the recording head.
Structure-property correlation study through sum-over-state approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandi, P. K.; Hatua, K.; Bansh, A. K.; Panja, N.; Ghanty, T. K.
2015-01-01
The use of Thomas Kuhn (TK) sum rule in the expanded sum-over-state (SOS) expression of hyperpolarizabilities leads to various relationships between different order of polarizabilities and ground state dipole moment etc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Messica, A.
2016-10-01
The probability distribution function of a weighted sum of non-identical lognormal random variables is required in various fields of science and engineering and specifically in finance for portfolio management as well as exotic options valuation. Unfortunately, it has no known closed form and therefore has to be approximated. Most of the approximations presented to date are complex as well as complicated for implementation. This paper presents a simple, and easy to implement, approximation method via modified moments matching and a polynomial asymptotic series expansion correction for a central limit theorem of a finite sum. The method results in an intuitively-appealing and computation-efficient approximation for a finite sum of lognormals of at least ten summands and naturally improves as the number of summands increases. The accuracy of the method is tested against the results of Monte Carlo simulationsand also compared against the standard central limit theorem andthe commonly practiced Markowitz' portfolio equations.
Stability of Zero-Sum Games in Evolutionary Game Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knebel, Johannes; Krueger, Torben; Weber, Markus F.; Frey, Erwin
2014-03-01
Evolutionary game theory has evolved into a successful theoretical concept to study mechanisms that govern the evolution of ecological communities. On a mathematical level, this theory was formalized in the framework of the celebrated replicator equations (REs) and its stochastic generalizations. In our work, we analyze the long-time behavior of the REs for zero-sum games with arbitrarily many strategies, which are generalized versions of the children's game Rock-Paper-Scissors.[1] We demonstrate how to determine the strategies that survive and those that become extinct in the long run. Our results show that extinction of strategies is exponentially fast in generic setups, and that conditions for the survival can be formulated in terms of the Pfaffian of the REs' antisymmetric payoff matrix. Consequences for the stochastic dynamics, which arise in finite populations, are reflected by a generalized scaling law for the extinction time in the vicinity of critical reaction rates. Our findings underline the relevance of zero-sum games as a reference for the analysis of other models in evolutionary game theory.
Sum-Frequency Generation from Chiral Media and Interfaces
Ji, Na
2006-02-13
Sum frequency generation (SFG), a second-order nonlinear optical process, is electric-dipole forbidden in systems with inversion symmetry. As a result, it has been used to study chiral media and interfaces, systems intrinsically lacking inversion symmetry. This thesis describes recent progresses in the applications of and new insights into SFG from chiral media and interfaces. SFG from solutions of chiral amino acids is investigated, and a theoretical model explaining the origin and the strength of the chiral signal in electronic-resonance SFG spectroscopy is discussed. An interference scheme that allows us to distinguish enantiomers by measuring both the magnitude and the phase of the chiral SFG response is described, as well as a chiral SFG microscope producing chirality-sensitive images with sub-micron resolution. Exploiting atomic and molecular parity nonconservation, the SFG process is also used to solve the Ozma problems. Sum frequency vibrational spectroscopy is used to obtain the adsorption behavior of leucine molecules at air-water interfaces. With poly(tetrafluoroethylene) as a model system, we extend the application of this surface-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy to fluorine-containing polymers.
Informed Test Component Weighting.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rudner, Lawrence M.
2001-01-01
Identifies and evaluates alternative methods for weighting tests. Presents formulas for composite reliability and validity as a function of component weights and suggests a rational process that identifies and considers trade-offs in determining weights. Discusses drawbacks to implicit weighting and explicit weighting and the difficulty of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jianping; Su, Feiran; Wu, Guiling
2014-11-01
Time-interleaved photonic analog-to-digital converter (TIPADC) is a promising candidate to process ultra-wideband signals. In a TIPADC, quantization is electrical in order to obtain large effective number of bits (ENOB). In this paper, we study the issues on the signal sampling and reconstruction in the TIPADC from the systematic point of view. The sampling output and frequency response of the system are derived using a model that includes the photonic sampling, demultiplexing, photo detecting, electronic quantizing and digital processing. The signal sampling and reconstruction mechanism of TIPADC with a uniform system sampling rate and matched channels are illuminated with the spectrum of signal in each processing step. The effect of the sampling pulse and back-end electronics on the system frequency response is analyzed in detail. The feasible regions of the system for alias-free sampling in terms of system frequency response, and a set of sampling criteria on bandwidth of the sampling pulse and back-end electronics are presented for the TIPADC. We find that the analog bandwidth of TIPADC can be much higher than the bandwidth of back-end electronics due to the weighted summing introduced by the multichannel time-interleaved photonic sampling. The proposed model and sampling criteria are validated by simulations under different parameter configurations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carstens, C. J.
2015-04-01
Randomization of binary matrices has become one of the most important quantitative tools in modern computational biology. The equivalent problem of generating random directed networks with fixed degree sequences has also attracted a lot of attention. However, it is very challenging to generate truly unbiased random matrices with fixed row and column sums. Strona et al. [Nat. Commun. 5, 4114 (2014), 10.1038/ncomms5114] introduce the innovative Curveball algorithm and give numerical support for the proposition that it generates truly random matrices. In this paper, we present a rigorous proof of convergence to the uniform distribution. Furthermore, we show the Curveball algorithm must include certain failed trades to ensure uniform sampling.
20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... household” as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to § 234.21 for an explanation...
20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... household” as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to § 234.21 for an explanation...
20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... household” as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to § 234.21 for an explanation...
20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... household” as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to § 234.21 for an explanation...
20 CFR 234.11 - 1974 Act lump-sum death payment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. 234.11... LUMP-SUM PAYMENTS Lump-Sum Death Payment § 234.11 1974 Act lump-sum death payment. (a) The total amount... household” as the employee at the time of the employee's death. (Refer to § 234.21 for an explanation...
Research in digital adaptive flight controllers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, H.
1976-01-01
A design study of adaptive control logic suitable for implementation in modern airborne digital flight computers was conducted. Both explicit controllers which directly utilize parameter identification and implicit controllers which do not require identification were considered. Extensive analytical and simulation efforts resulted in the recommendation of two explicit digital adaptive flight controllers. Interface weighted least squares estimation procedures with control logic were developed using either optimal regulator theory or with control logic based upon single stage performance indices.
Updating Best Practices: Applying On-Screen Reading Strategies to Résumé Writing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diaz, Charlsye Smith
2013-01-01
The best practices presented in textbooks and professional publications provide separate guidelines for paper-based and electronic or "scannable" résumés. This article recommends changing these practices so that writers can prepare one résumé for both paper and electronic delivery. These recommendations focus on three areas. Résumés…
An Alternate Approach to Alternating Sums: A Method to DIE for
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Benjamin, Arthur T.; Quinn, Jennifer J.
2008-01-01
Positive sums count. Alternating sums match. Alternating sums of binomial coefficients, Fibonacci numbers, and other combinatorial quantities are analyzed using sign-reversing involutions. In particular, we describe the quantity being considered, match positive and negative terms through an Involution, and count the Exceptions to the matching rule…
29 CFR 778.310 - Fixed sum for varying amounts of overtime.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed sum for varying amounts of overtime. 778.310 Section... Special Problems Lump Sum Attributed to Overtime § 778.310 Fixed sum for varying amounts of overtime. A... employee a fixed salary regardless of the number of hours worked in excess of the applicable maximum...
29 CFR 778.310 - Fixed sum for varying amounts of overtime.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed sum for varying amounts of overtime. 778.310 Section... Special Problems Lump Sum Attributed to Overtime § 778.310 Fixed sum for varying amounts of overtime. A... employee a fixed salary regardless of the number of hours worked in excess of the applicable maximum...
29 CFR 778.309 - Fixed sum for constant amount of overtime.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fixed sum for constant amount of overtime. 778.309 Section... Special Problems Lump Sum Attributed to Overtime § 778.309 Fixed sum for constant amount of overtime. Where an employee works a regular fixed number of hours in excess of the statutory maximum each...
29 CFR 778.309 - Fixed sum for constant amount of overtime.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fixed sum for constant amount of overtime. 778.309 Section... Special Problems Lump Sum Attributed to Overtime § 778.309 Fixed sum for constant amount of overtime. Where an employee works a regular fixed number of hours in excess of the statutory maximum each...
The Last and Weiss Rorschach Sum E in a normal sample.
Greenwald, D F
1990-06-01
For 62 undergraduate women correlations of Rorschach Sum E with scores on 16 PF, Barron's MMPI Ego Strength Scale, the Eagly Self-esteem Scale, Kaplan's Self-derogation Scale, and MAACL. Anxiety, depression, and hostility showed FC+ was the only Sum E component associated with adaptive functioning and so Sum E is of limited usefulness. PMID:2377423
... Measure and Interpret Weight Status Adult Body Mass Index or BMI Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person's weight in kilograms divided ... finding your height and weight in this BMI Index Chart 1 . If your BMI is less than ...
Sum decomposition of Mueller-matrix images and spectra of beetle cuticles.
Arwin, H; Magnusson, R; Garcia-Caurel, E; Fallet, C; Järrendahl, K; Foldyna, M; De Martino, A; Ossikovski, R
2015-02-01
Spectral Mueller matrices measured at multiple angles of incidence as well as Mueller matrix images are recorded on the exoskeletons (cuticles) of the scarab beetles Cetonia aurata and Chrysina argenteola. Cetonia aurata is green whereas Chrysina argenteola is gold-colored. When illuminated with natural (unpolarized) light, both species reflect left-handed and near-circularly polarized light originating from helicoidal structures in their cuticles. These structures are referred to as circular Bragg reflectors. For both species the Mueller matrices are found to be nondiagonal depolarizers. The matrices are Cloude decomposed to a sum of non-depolarizing matrices and it is found that the cuticle optical response, in a first approximation can be described as a sum of Mueller matrices from an ideal mirror and an ideal circular polarizer with relative weights determined by the eigenvalues of the covariance matrices of the measured Mueller matrices. The spectral and image decompositions are consistent with each other. A regression-based decomposition of the spectral and image Mueller matrices is also presented whereby the basic optical components are assumed to be a mirror and a circular polarizer as suggested by the Cloude decomposition. The advantage with a regression decomposition compared to a Cloude decomposition is its better stability as the matrices in the decomposition are determined a priori. The origin of the depolarizing features are discussed but from present data it is not possible to conclude whether the two major components, the mirror and the circular polarizer are laterally separated in domains in the cuticle or if the depolarization originates from the intrinsic properties of the helicoidal structure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shull, T. A. (Inventor)
1982-01-01
A digital demodulator for converting pulse code modulated data from phase shift key (PSK) to non return to zero (NRZ) and to biphase data is described. The demodulator is composed of standard integrated logic circuits. The key to the demodulation function is a pair of cross coupled one shot multivibrators and which with a flip-flop produce the NRZ-L is all that is required, the circuitry is greatly simplified and the 2(v) times bit rate contraint can be removed from the carrier. A flip-flop, an OR gate, and AND gate and a binary counter generate the bit rate clock (BTCK) for the NRZ-L. The remainder of the circuitry is for converting the NRZ-L and BTCK into biphase data. The device was designed for use in the space shuttle bay environment measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koelbl, Terry G.; Ponchak, Denise; Lamarche, Teresa
2003-01-01
Digital Avionics activities played an important role in the advancements made in civil aviation, military systems, and space applications. This document profiles advances made in each of these areas by the aerospace industry, NASA centers, and the U.S. military. Emerging communication technologies covered in this document include Internet connectivity onboard aircraft, wireless broadband communication for aircraft, and a mobile router for aircraft to communicate in multiple communication networks over the course of a flight. Military technologies covered in this document include avionics for unmanned combat air vehicles and microsatellites, and head-up displays. Other technologies covered in this document include an electronic flight bag for the Boeing 777, and surveillance systems for managing airport operations.
Dohm, J.M.; Anderson, R.C.; Tanaka, K.L.
1998-01-01
Magmatic and tectonic activity have both contributed significantly to the surface geology of Mars. Digital structural mapping techniques have now been used to classify and date centers of tectonic activity in the western equatorial region. For example, our results show a center of tectonic activity at Valles Marineris, which may be associated with uplift caused by intrusion. Such evidence may help explain, in part, the development of the large troughs and associated outflow channels and chaotic terrain. We also find a local centre of tectonic activity near the source region of Warrego Valles. Here, we suggest that the valley system may have resulted largely from intrusive-related hydrothermal activity. We hope that this work, together with the current Mars Global Surveyor mission, will lead to a better understanding of the geological processes that shaped the Martian surface.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koelbl, Terry G.; Ponchak, Denise; Lamarche, Teresa
2002-01-01
The field of digital avionics experienced another year of important advances in civil aviation, military systems, and space applications. As a result of the events of 9/11/2001, NASA has pursued activities to apply its aerospace technologies toward improved aviation security. Both NASA Glenn Research Center and Langley Research Center have performed flight research demonstrations using advanced datalink concepts to transmit live pictures from inside a jetliner, and to downlink the contents of the plane's 'black box' recorder in real time. The U.S. Navy and General Electric demonstrated survivable engine control (SEC) algorithms during engine ground tests at the Weapons Survivability Laboratory at China Lake. The scientists at Boeing Satellite Systems advanced the field of stellar inertial technology with the development of a new method for positioning optical star trackers on satellites.
Accuracy and consistency of weights provided by home bathroom scales
2013-01-01
Background Self-reported body weight is often used for calculation of Body Mass Index because it is easy to collect. Little is known about sources of error introduced by using bathroom scales to measure weight at home. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and consistency of digital versus dial-type bathroom scales commonly used for self-reported weight. Methods Participants brought functioning bathroom scales (n = 18 dial-type, n = 43 digital-type) to a central location. Trained researchers assessed accuracy and consistency using certified calibration weights at 10 kg, 25 kg, 50 kg, 75 kg, 100 kg, and 110 kg. Data also were collected on frequency of calibration, age and floor surface beneath the scale. Results All participants reported using their scale on hard surface flooring. Before calibration, all digital scales displayed 0, but dial scales displayed a mean absolute initial weight of 0.95 (1.9 SD) kg. Digital scales accurately weighed test loads whereas dial-type scale weights differed significantly (p < 0.05). Imprecision of dial scales was significantly greater than that of digital scales at all weights (p < 0.05). Accuracy and precision did not vary by scale age. Conclusions Digital home bathroom scales provide sufficiently accurate and consistent weights for public health research. Reminders to zero scales before each use may further improve accuracy of self-reported weight. PMID:24341761
Test of Sum Rules in Nucleon Transfer Reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiffer, J. P.; Hoffman, C. R.; Kay, B. P.; Clark, J. A.; Deibel, C. M.; Freeman, S. J.; Howard, A. M.; Mitchell, A. J.; Parker, P. D.; Sharp, D. K.; Thomas, J. S.
2012-01-01
The quantitative consistency of nucleon transfer reactions as a probe of the occupancy of valence orbits in nuclei is tested. Neutron-adding, neutron-removal, and proton-adding transfer reactions were measured on the four stable even Ni isotopes, with particular attention to the cross section determinations. The data were analyzed consistently in terms of the distorted wave Born approximation to yield spectroscopic factors. Valence-orbit occupancies were extracted, utilizing the Macfarlane-French sum rules. The deduced occupancies are consistent with the changing number of valence neutrons, as are the vacancies for protons, both at the level of <5%. While there has been some debate regarding the true “observability” of spectroscopic factors, the present results indicate that empirically they yield self-consistent results.
SEU System Analysis: Not Just the Sum of All Parts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berg, Melanie D.; Label, Kenneth
2014-01-01
Single event upset (SEU) analysis of complex systems is challenging. Currently, system SEU analysis is performed by component level partitioning and then either: the most dominant SEU cross-sections (SEUs) are used in system error rate calculations; or the partition SEUs are summed to eventually obtain a system error rate. In many cases, system error rates are overestimated because these methods generally overlook system level derating factors. The problem with overestimating is that it can cause overdesign and consequently negatively affect the following: cost, schedule, functionality, and validation/verification. The scope of this presentation is to discuss the risks involved with our current scheme of SEU analysis for complex systems; and to provide alternative methods for improvement.
Sum Frequency Generation Studies of Hydrogenation Reactions on Platinum Nanoparticles
Krier, James M.
2013-08-31
Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy is used to characterize intermediate species of hydrogenation reactions on the surface of platinum nanoparticle catalysts. In contrast to other spectroscopy techniques which operate in ultra-high vacuum or probe surface species after reaction, SFG collects information under normal conditions as the reaction is taking place. Several systems have been studied previously using SFG on single crystals, notably alkene hydrogenation on Pt(111). In this thesis, many aspects of SFG experiments on colloidal nanoparticles are explored for the first time. To address spectral interference by the capping agent (PVP), three procedures are proposed: UV cleaning, H2 induced disordering and calcination (core-shell nanoparticles). UV cleaning and calcination physically destroy organic capping while disordering reduces SFG signal through a reversible structural change by PVP.
Isospin violation in QCD sum rules for baryons
Adami, C. ); Drukarev, E.G. ); Ioffe, B.L. )
1993-09-01
We thoroughly analyze isospin-violating effects in QCD sum rules for the masses of nucleons, [Sigma], and [Xi] hyperons. After comparing with experimental mass splittings in isotopic multiplets, we obtain for the isospin breaking in the quark condensate [l angle]0[vert bar][ital [bar u]u][minus][ital [bar d]d][vert bar]0[r angle]/[l angle]0[vert bar][ital [bar u]u][vert bar]0[r angle]=(2[plus minus]1)[times]10[sup [minus]3], a value significantly smaller than the one usually adopted. We present arguments in favor of our result and critically analyze previous estimates. The value of the quark mass difference [ital m][sub [ital d
Sparse Zero-Sum Games as Stable Functional Feature Selection
Sokolovska, Nataliya; Teytaud, Olivier; Rizkalla, Salwa; Clément, Karine; Zucker, Jean-Daniel
2015-01-01
In large-scale systems biology applications, features are structured in hidden functional categories whose predictive power is identical. Feature selection, therefore, can lead not only to a problem with a reduced dimensionality, but also reveal some knowledge on functional classes of variables. In this contribution, we propose a framework based on a sparse zero-sum game which performs a stable functional feature selection. In particular, the approach is based on feature subsets ranking by a thresholding stochastic bandit. We provide a theoretical analysis of the introduced algorithm. We illustrate by experiments on both synthetic and real complex data that the proposed method is competitive from the predictive and stability viewpoints. PMID:26325268
Sparse Zero-Sum Games as Stable Functional Feature Selection.
Sokolovska, Nataliya; Teytaud, Olivier; Rizkalla, Salwa; Clément, Karine; Zucker, Jean-Daniel
2015-01-01
In large-scale systems biology applications, features are structured in hidden functional categories whose predictive power is identical. Feature selection, therefore, can lead not only to a problem with a reduced dimensionality, but also reveal some knowledge on functional classes of variables. In this contribution, we propose a framework based on a sparse zero-sum game which performs a stable functional feature selection. In particular, the approach is based on feature subsets ranking by a thresholding stochastic bandit. We provide a theoretical analysis of the introduced algorithm. We illustrate by experiments on both synthetic and real complex data that the proposed method is competitive from the predictive and stability viewpoints. PMID:26325268
Summing up all genus free energy of ABJM matrix model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuji, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Shinji; Moriyama, Sanefumi
2011-08-01
The localization technique allows us to compute the free energy of the U( N) k × U( N)- k Chern-Simons-matter theory dual to type IIA strings on AdS 4 × CP 3 from weak to strong 't Hooft coupling λ = N/ k at finite N, as demonstrated by Drukker, Mariño, and Putrov. In this note we study further the free energy at large 't Hooft coupling with the aim of testing AdS/CFT at the quantum gravity level and, in particular, sum up allthe1/ N corrections, apart from the worldsheet instanton contributions. The all genus partition function takes a remarkably simple form — the Airy function, {text{Ai}}left( {{{left( {{{{π {k^2}}} left/ {{sqrt {2} }} right.}} right)}^{{{2} left/ {3} right.}}}{λ_{text{ren}}}} right) , with the renormalized 't Hooft coupling λren.
Holographic RG flows, entanglement entropy and the sum rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casini, Horacio; Testé, Eduardo; Torroba, Gonzalo
2016-03-01
We calculate the two-point function of the trace of the stress tensor in holographic renormalization group flows between pairs of conformal field theories. We show that the term proportional to the momentum squared in this correlator gives the change of the central charge between fixed points in d = 2 and in d > 2 it gives the holographic entanglement entropy for a planar region. This can also be seen as a holographic realization of the Adler-Zee formula for the renormalization of Newton's constant. Holographic regularization is found to provide a perfect match of the finite and divergent terms of the sum rule, and it is analogous to the regularization of the entropy in terms of mutual information. Finally, we provide a general proof of reflection positivity in terms of stability of the dual bulk action, and discuss the relation between unitarity constraints, the null energy condition and regularity in the interior of the gravity solution.
Structure of supersymmetric sums in multiloop unitarity cuts
Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J. J. M.; Ita, H.; Johansson, H.; Roiban, R.
2009-09-15
In this paper we describe algebraic and diagrammatic methods related to the maximally helicity-violating generating function method for evaluating and exposing the structure of supersymmetric sums over the states crossing generalized unitarity cuts of multiloop amplitudes in four dimensions. We focus mainly on cuts of maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills amplitudes. We provide various concrete examples, some of which are directly relevant for the calculation of four-loop amplitudes. Additionally, we discuss some cases with less-than-maximal supersymmetry. The results of these constructions carry over to generalized cuts of multiloop supergravity amplitudes through use of the Kawai-Lewellen-Tye relations between gravity and gauge-theory tree amplitudes.
Sum Rules for Nucleon GPDs and Border Function Formulation
Radyushkin, Anatoly V.
2013-09-01
Recently developed new approach to model nucleon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) H and E is based on two types of their representation in terms of double distributions. Within this approach, we re-consider the derivation of GPD sum rules that allow to use border functions H(x,x) and E(x,x) instead of full GPDs H(x,\\xi) and E(x,\\xi) in the integrals producing Compton form factors of deeply virtual Compton scattering. Using factorized DD Ansatz to model GPDs, we discuss the relation between the border functions and underlying parton densities. We found that substantial contribution to H(x,x) border function comes from the extra term required by new DD representations and related to E(x,\\xi) GPD.
Spectral sum rules and search for periodicities in DNA sequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chechetkin, V. R.
2011-04-01
Periodic patterns play the important regulatory and structural roles in genomic DNA sequences. Commonly, the underlying periodicities should be understood in a broad statistical sense, since the corresponding periodic patterns have been strongly distorted by the random point mutations and insertions/deletions during molecular evolution. The latent periodicities in DNA sequences can be efficiently displayed by Fourier transform. The criteria of significance for observed periodicities are obtained via the comparison versus the counterpart characteristics of the reference random sequences. We show that the restrictions imposed on the significance criteria by the rigorous spectral sum rules can be rationally described with De Finetti distribution. This distribution provides the convenient intermediate asymptotic form between Rayleigh distribution and exact combinatoric theory.
Residue theorem and summing over Kaluza-Klein excitations
Feng Taifu; Chen Jianbin; Gao Tiejun; Sun Kesheng
2011-11-01
Applying the equations of motion together with corresponding boundary conditions of bulk profiles at infrared and ultraviolet branes, we verify some lemmas on the eigenvalues of Kaluza-Klein modes in extension of the standard model with a warped extra dimension and the custodial symmetry SU(3){sub c}xSU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sub X}xP{sub LR}. Using the lemmas and performing properly analytic extensions of bulk profiles, we present the sufficient condition for a convergent series of Kaluza-Klein excitations and sum over the series through the residue theorem. The method can also be applied to sum over the infinite series of Kaluza-Klein excitations in a universal extra dimension. Furthermore, we analyze the possible connection between the propagators in five-dimensional full theory and the product of bulk profiles with corresponding propagators of exciting Kaluza-Klein modes in four-dimensional effective theory, and recover some relations presented in the literature for warped and universal extra dimensions, respectively. As an example, we present the correction from new physics to the branching ratio of B{yields}X{sub s{gamma}} to the order O({mu}{sub EW}{sup 2}/{Lambda}{sub KK}{sup 2}) in extension of the standard model with a warped extra dimension and the custodial symmetry, where {Lambda}{sub KK} denotes the energy scale of low-lying Kaluza-Klein excitations and {mu}{sub EW} denotes the electroweak energy scale.
Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk
Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery
2011-01-01
This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601
Average receiving scaling of the weighted polygon Koch networks with the weight-dependent walk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Dandan; Dai, Meifeng; Sun, Yanqiu; Shao, Shuxiang; Xie, Qi
2016-09-01
Based on the weighted Koch networks and the self-similarity of fractals, we present a family of weighted polygon Koch networks with a weight factor r(0 < r ≤ 1) . We study the average receiving time (ART) on weight-dependent walk (i.e., the walker moves to any of its neighbors with probability proportional to the weight of edge linking them), whose key step is to calculate the sum of mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for all nodes absorpt at a hub node. We use a recursive division method to divide the weighted polygon Koch networks in order to calculate the ART scaling more conveniently. We show that the ART scaling exhibits a sublinear or linear dependence on network order. Thus, the weighted polygon Koch networks are more efficient than expended Koch networks in receiving information. Finally, compared with other previous studies' results (i.e., Koch networks, weighted Koch networks), we find out that our models are more general.
Can We Teach Digital Natives Digital Literacy?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ng, Wan
2012-01-01
In recent years, there has been much debate about the concept of digital natives, in particular the differences between the digital natives' knowledge and adoption of digital technologies in informal versus formal educational contexts. This paper investigates the knowledge about educational technologies of a group of undergraduate students…
Matrix error correction for digital data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dotson, Ronald S. (Inventor)
1992-01-01
A technique for digital data error detection and correction is disclosed which adds alignment and checksum bytes to three sides of a matrix (24) of digital data to be protected. This technique is particularly used for the recording and storage (16,18) of digital data on video tape medium (14). The digital data is treated as a matrix block (24). Checksum and alignment bytes are added (20) to the digital data before tape storage and stripped (22) therefrom after successful alignment checks and data validation. In particular, the first column may be used to provide alignment bytes of a predetermined value for each row. The last column provides row checksum bytes for the data in each row. The last row provides column check sum bytes for each column, excluding the column of alignment bytes. The data location at the intersection of the row of column checksum bytes and the column of row checksum bytes may be used as a checksum byte for either the row or column checksum bytes.
Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, Manuel F.; Jorge, Jorge M.
1997-12-01
The early evaluation of the visual status of human infants is of a critical importance. It is of utmost importance to the development of the child's visual system that she perceives clear, focused, retinal images. Furthermore if the refractive problems are not corrected in due time amblyopia may occur. Photorefraction is a non-invasive clinical tool rather convenient for application to this kind of population. A qualitative or semi-quantitative information about refractive errors, accommodation, strabismus, amblyogenic factors and some pathologies (cataracts) can the easily obtained. The photorefraction experimental setup we established using new technological breakthroughs on the fields of imaging devices, image processing and fiber optics, allows the implementation of both the isotropic and eccentric photorefraction approaches. Essentially both methods consist on delivering a light beam into the eyes. It is refracted by the ocular media, strikes the retina, focusing or not, reflects off and is collected by a camera. The system is formed by one CCD color camera and a light source. A beam splitter in front of the camera's objective allows coaxial illumination and observation. An optomechanical system also allows eccentric illumination. The light source is a flash type one and is synchronized with the camera's image acquisition. The camera's image is digitized displayed in real time. Image processing routines are applied for image's enhancement and feature extraction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, Manuel F. M.; Jorge, Jorge M.
1998-01-01
The early evaluation of the visual status of human infants is of a critical importance. It is of utmost importance to the development of the child's visual system that she perceives clear, focused, retinal images. Furthermore if the refractive problems are not corrected in due time amblyopia may occur. Photorefraction is a non-invasive clinical tool rather convenient for application to this kind of population. A qualitative or semi-quantitative information about refractive errors, accommodation, strabismus, amblyogenic factors and some pathologies (cataracts) can the easily obtained. The photorefraction experimental setup we established using new technological breakthroughs on the fields of imaging devices, image processing and fiber optics, allows the implementation of both the isotropic and eccentric photorefraction approaches. Essentially both methods consist on delivering a light beam into the eyes. It is refracted by the ocular media, strikes the retina, focusing or not, reflects off and is collected by a camera. The system is formed by one CCD color camera and a light source. A beam splitter in front of the camera's objective allows coaxial illumination and observation. An optomechanical system also allows eccentric illumination. The light source is a flash type one and is synchronized with the camera's image acquisition. The camera's image is digitized displayed in real time. Image processing routines are applied for image's enhancement and feature extraction.
H. Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prensky, Marc
2009-01-01
As we move further into the 21st century, the digital native/digital immigrant paradigm created by Marc Prensky in 2001 is becoming less relevant. In this article, Prensky suggests that we should focus instead on the development of what he calls "digital wisdom." Arguing that digital technology can make us not just smarter but truly wiser, Prensky…
Locally weighted interpolating growing neural gas.
Flentge, Felix
2006-11-01
In this paper, we propose a new approach to function approximation based on a growing neural gas (GNG), a self-organizing map (SOM) which is able to adapt to the local dimension of a possible high-dimensional input distribution. Local models are built interpolating between values associated with the map's neurons. These models are combined using a weighted sum to yield the final approximation value. The values, the positions, and the "local ranges" of the neurons are adapted to improve the approximation quality. The method is able to adapt to changing target functions and to follow nonstationary input distributions. The new approach is compared to the radial basis function (RBF) extension of the growing neural gas and to locally weighted projection regression (LWPR), a state-of-the-art algorithm for incremental nonlinear function approximation. PMID:17131655
Enhanced Cumulative Sum Charts for Monitoring Process Dispersion
Abujiya, Mu’azu Ramat; Riaz, Muhammad; Lee, Muhammad Hisyam
2015-01-01
The cumulative sum (CUSUM) control chart is widely used in industry for the detection of small and moderate shifts in process location and dispersion. For efficient monitoring of process variability, we present several CUSUM control charts for monitoring changes in standard deviation of a normal process. The newly developed control charts based on well-structured sampling techniques - extreme ranked set sampling, extreme double ranked set sampling and double extreme ranked set sampling, have significantly enhanced CUSUM chart ability to detect a wide range of shifts in process variability. The relative performances of the proposed CUSUM scale charts are evaluated in terms of the average run length (ARL) and standard deviation of run length, for point shift in variability. Moreover, for overall performance, we implore the use of the average ratio ARL and average extra quadratic loss. A comparison of the proposed CUSUM control charts with the classical CUSUM R chart, the classical CUSUM S chart, the fast initial response (FIR) CUSUM R chart, the FIR CUSUM S chart, the ranked set sampling (RSS) based CUSUM R chart and the RSS based CUSUM S chart, among others, are presented. An illustrative example using real dataset is given to demonstrate the practicability of the application of the proposed schemes. PMID:25901356
Rates of profit as correlated sums of random variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenblatt, R. E.
2013-10-01
Profit realization is the dominant feature of market-based economic systems, determining their dynamics to a large extent. Rather than attaining an equilibrium, profit rates vary widely across firms, and the variation persists over time. Differing definitions of profit result in differing empirical distributions. To study the statistical properties of profit rates, I used data from a publicly available database for the US Economy for 2009-2010 (Risk Management Association). For each of three profit rate measures, the sample space consists of 771 points. Each point represents aggregate data from a small number of US manufacturing firms of similar size and type (NAICS code of principal product). When comparing the empirical distributions of profit rates, significant ‘heavy tails’ were observed, corresponding principally to a number of firms with larger profit rates than would be expected from simple models. An apparently novel correlated sum of random variables statistical model was used to model the data. In the case of operating and net profit rates, a number of firms show negative profits (losses), ruling out simple gamma or lognormal distributions as complete models for these data.
Rarefied-continuum gas dynamics transition for SUMS project
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Sin-I
1989-01-01
This program is to develop an analytic method for reducing SUMS data for the determination of the undisturbed atmosphere conditions ahead of the shuttle along its descending trajectory. It is divided into an internal flow problem, an external flow problem and their matching conditions. Since the existing method of Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) failed completely for the internal flow problem, the emphasis is on the internal flow of a highly non-equilibrium, rarefied air through a short tube of a diameter much less than the gaseous mean free path. A two fluid model analysis of this internal flow problem has been developed and studied with typical results illustrated. A computer program for such an analysis and a technical paper published in Lecture Notes in Physics No. 323 (1989) are included as Appendices 3 and 4. A proposal for in situ determination of the surface accommodation coefficients sigma sub t and sigma e is included in Appendix 5 because of their importance in quantitative data reduction. A two fluid formulation for the external flow problem is included as Appendix 6 and a review article for AIAA on Hypersonic propulsion, much dependent on ambient atmospheric density, is also included as Appendix 7.
Maintaining genetic integrity in aging: a zero sum game.
Suh, Yousin; Vijg, Jan
2006-01-01
Aging of somatic cells can be defined as the gradual loss of the information embedded in the global and local properties of complex macromolecular networks. This loss of information may reflect the dynamic interplay between stochastic factors, such as the accumulation of unrepaired somatic damage, and gene-encoded programmatic responses. This would ultimately result in loss of function, impaired response to environmental challenge, and a progressively increased incidence of disease. Here the authors present the case for aging as a continuous battle between maintaining genomic integrity and ensuring sufficient cell functional mass. Focusing on aging of the liver in rodents, evidence is presented that normal aging is associated with a gradual accumulation of random alterations in the DNA of the genome as a consequence of imperfect DNA repair and a decrease in the rate of DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis is the cell's genome maintenance mechanism of last resort and an imbalance towards apoptosis can contribute to manifestations of aging-related phenotypes, as exemplified by mouse models of premature aging due to genetic defects in genome maintenance. Prospects to reset the clock in this zero sum game between survival and the maintenance of phenotypic integrity will be discussed. PMID:16677100
Investigating buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy
Chen, Zhan
2010-01-01
This paper reviews recent progress in the studies of buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. Both buried solid/liquid and solid/solid interfaces involving polymeric materials are discussed. SFG studies of polymer/water interfaces show that different polymers exhibit varied surface restructuring behavior in water, indicating the importance of probing polymer/water interfaces in situ. SFG has also been applied to the investigation of interfaces between polymers and other liquids. It has been found that molecular interactions at such polymer/liquid interfaces dictate interfacial polymer structures. The molecular structures of silane molecules, which are widely used as adhesion promoters, have been investigated using SFG at buried polymer/silane and polymer/polymer interfaces, providing molecular-level understanding of polymer adhesion promotion. The molecular structures of polymer/solid interfaces have been examined using SFG with several different experimental geometries. These results have provided molecular-level information about polymer friction, adhesion, interfacial chemical reactions, interfacial electronic properties, and the structure of layer-by-layer deposited polymers. Such research has demonstrated that SFG is a powerful tool to probe buried interfaces involving polymeric materials, which are difficult to study by conventional surface sensitive analytical techniques. PMID:21113334
Rational trigonometric approximations using Fourier series partial sums
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geer, James F.
1993-01-01
A class of approximations (S(sub N,M)) to a periodic function f which uses the ideas of Pade, or rational function, approximations based on the Fourier series representation of f, rather than on the Taylor series representation of f, is introduced and studied. Each approximation S(sub N,M) is the quotient of a trigonometric polynomial of degree N and a trigonometric polynomial of degree M. The coefficients in these polynomials are determined by requiring that an appropriate number of the Fourier coefficients of S(sub N,M) agree with those of f. Explicit expressions are derived for these coefficients in terms of the Fourier coefficients of f. It is proven that these 'Fourier-Pade' approximations converge point-wise to (f(x(exp +))+f(x(exp -)))/2 more rapidly (in some cases by a factor of 1/k(exp 2M)) than the Fourier series partial sums on which they are based. The approximations are illustrated by several examples and an application to the solution of an initial, boundary value problem for the simple heat equation is presented.
Sum frequency generation studies of membrane transport phenomena
Dyer, R.B.; Shreve, A.P.
1998-11-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this work is to study the transport of protons and ions across biological membranes, one of the most fundamental processes in living organisms, critical for energy transduction in respiration and photosynthesis and for a wide variety of cellular signal transduction events. Membrane protein structure and function, in particular proton and ion pumping are poorly understood. The authors have developed sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy for the study of membrane phenomena, a nonlinear spectroscopic technique that is uniquely sensitive to interfaces and with demonstrated structural specificity. They have used SFG and conventional vibrational spectroscopic approaches to study proton transport processes in cytochrome c oxidase. A key finding has been the identification of vibrational modes associated with proton labile groups, including a glutamic acid near the redox active binuclear center and structural waters. These groups are sensitive to the ligation and redox states of the metal centers and hence are ideal candidates for coupling redox energy to proton transport processes.
The leptonic Dirac CP-violating phase from sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Girardi, I.; Petcov, S. T.; Titov, A. V.
2016-05-01
In the reference 3-neutrino mixing scheme with three light massive neutrinos, CP-violating effects in neutrino oscillations can be caused by the Dirac CP-violating phase δ present in the unitary neutrino mixing matrix U. Using the fact that U = U†eUv , where Ue and Uv are unitary matrices arising from the diagonalisation, respectively, of the charged lepton and neutrino mass matrices, we consider in a systematic way forms of Ue and Uv allowing us to express δ as a function of the neutrino mixing angles present in U and the angles contained in Uv. After obtaining sum rules for cos δ, we consider several forms of Uv dictated by, or associated with, symmetries, such as tri-bimaximal, bimaximal, etc., for which the angles in Uv are fixed. For each of these forms and forms of Ue allowing to reproduce the measured values of the neutrino mixing angles, we construct the likelihood function for cos δ, using the prospective uncertainties in the determination of the mixing angles. Our results show that the measurement of δ along with improvement of the precision on the neutrino mixing angles can provide unique information about the possible existence of a new fundamental symmetry in the lepton sector.
Sum-frequency generation echo and grating from interface
Volkov, Victor
2014-10-14
The work addresses spectroscopy of fourth-order Sum Frequency Generation Echo and Grating responses as an experimental tool to study structure and dynamics at interfaces. First, it addresses experimental geometry to extract background-free fourth-order Echo and Grating responses. Further, the article provides the analytical expressions of the response functions for these nonlinearities. The derived expressions are used to model the χ{sup (4)} two-dimensional spectral responses of a hydrated methyl acetate, which resembles a hydrated carbonyl moiety at the polar outer side of a phospholipid membrane. Orientation, transition dipole moments, and Raman tensors are obtained from the results of classical and quantum calculations, respectively. The numerical studies for the nonlinear responses under different polarization schemes and timings suggest the possibility of securely factoring of spectral contributions of χ{sub YYYZX} and χ{sub YYYZY} macroscopic susceptibilities. As such, the nonlinearities provide an experimental perspective on orientation of a generic (low-symmetry) molecular system at interfaces. Besides, the spectral properties of the tensors may reflect correlations of the in-plane and out-of-plane field components specific to the interface. For the case of a phospholipid membrane, the experiment would address in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy of hydrogen bonding and related dynamics.
Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas
2013-07-01
The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.
Digital signal processing: Handbook
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldenberg, L. M.; Matiushkin, B. D.; Poliak, M. N.
The fundamentals of the theory and design of systems and devices for the digital processing of signals are presented. Particular attention is given to algorithmic methods of synthesis and digital processing equipment in communication systems (e.g., selective digital filtering, spectral analysis, and variation of the signal discretization frequency). Programs for the computer-aided analysis of digital filters are described. Computational examples are presented, along with tables of transfer function coefficients for recursive and nonrecursive digital filters.
Approximate N-Player Nonzero-Sum Game Solution for an Uncertain Continuous Nonlinear System.
Johnson, Marcus; Kamalapurkar, Rushikesh; Bhasin, Shubhendu; Dixon, Warren E
2015-08-01
An approximate online equilibrium solution is developed for an N -player nonzero-sum game subject to continuous-time nonlinear unknown dynamics and an infinite horizon quadratic cost. A novel actor-critic-identifier structure is used, wherein a robust dynamic neural network is used to asymptotically identify the uncertain system with additive disturbances, and a set of critic and actor NNs are used to approximate the value functions and equilibrium policies, respectively. The weight update laws for the actor neural networks (NNs) are generated using a gradient-descent method, and the critic NNs are generated by least square regression, which are both based on the modified Bellman error that is independent of the system dynamics. A Lyapunov-based stability analysis shows that uniformly ultimately bounded tracking is achieved, and a convergence analysis demonstrates that the approximate control policies converge to a neighborhood of the optimal solutions. The actor, critic, and identifier structures are implemented in real time continuously and simultaneously. Simulations on two and three player games illustrate the performance of the developed method. PMID:25312943
... below the minimum number of calories you need. Breastfeeding If you are breastfeeding, you will want to lose weight slowly. Weight ... not affect your milk supply or your health. Breastfeeding makes your body burn calories. It helps you ...
... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine released updated guidelines for weight gain ... Division (HMD) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine: Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm Weight-loss medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider ...
... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...
... as much as 25 to 30 pounds. This weight gain is not simply due to eating more. ... or a dietitian about how to make a healthy eating plan and set ... be causing the weight gain without talking with your provider.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clarke, Doug
1993-01-01
Describes an activity shared at an inservice teacher workshop and suitable for middle school in which students predict their ideal weight in kilograms based on tables giving ideal weights for given heights. (MDH)
Comparing T-odd and T-even spin sum rules
Teryaev, O.V.
2015-04-10
Sum rules for T-even and T-odd structure functions and parton distributions are considered. The case of spin-dependent distributions related to energy-momentum tensor (EMT) is specifically addressed. The Burkardt sum rule for T-odd Sivers functions may be related to EMT provided the imaginary prescription for gluonic pole correlator is incorporated. The momentum sum rule for deuteron tensor spin structure function allows one to probe indirectly the gravity couplings to quarks and gluons.
Symbolic methods for the evaluation of sum rules of Bessel functions
Babusci, D.; Dattoli, G.; Górska, K.; Penson, K. A.
2013-07-15
The use of the umbral formalism allows a significant simplification of the derivation of sum rules involving products of special functions and polynomials. We rederive in this way known sum rules and addition theorems for Bessel functions. Furthermore, we obtain a set of new closed form sum rules involving various special polynomials and Bessel functions. The examples we consider are relevant for applications ranging from plasma physics to quantum optics.
Sum1-1: A Suppressor of Silencing Defects in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
Laurenson, P.; Rine, J.
1991-01-01
The repression of transcription of the silent mating-type locus HMRa in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the four SIR proteins, histone H4 and a flanking site designated HMR-E. The SUM1-1 mutation alleviated the need for many of these components in transcriptional repression. In the absence of each of the SIR proteins, SUM1-1 restored repression in MATα strains; thus, SUM1-1 appeared to bypass the need for the SIR genes in repression of HMRa. Repression was not specific to the genes normally present at HMR, since the TRP1 gene placed at HMR was repressed by SUM1-1 in a sir3 strain. Therefore, like the mechanism of silencing normally used at HMR, silencing by SUM1-1 was gene-nonspecific. SUM1-1 suppressed point mutations in histone H4, but failed to suppress strongly a deletion mutation in histone H4. Similarly, SUM1-1 suppressed mutations in the three known elements of HMR-E, but was unable to suppress a deletion of HMR-E. These epistasis analyses implied that the functions required for repression at HMR can be ordered, with the SIR genes and silencer elements acting upstream of SUM1-1. SUM1-1 itself may function at the level of chromatin in the assembly of inactive DNA at the silent mating-type loci. PMID:1752414
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ryan, Kevin Michael
2011-01-01
Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…
The Worst-Case Weighted Multi-Objective Game with an Application to Supply Chain Competitions.
Qu, Shaojian; Ji, Ying
2016-01-01
In this paper, we propose a worst-case weighted approach to the multi-objective n-person non-zero sum game model where each player has more than one competing objective. Our "worst-case weighted multi-objective game" model supposes that each player has a set of weights to its objectives and wishes to minimize its maximum weighted sum objectives where the maximization is with respect to the set of weights. This new model gives rise to a new Pareto Nash equilibrium concept, which we call "robust-weighted Nash equilibrium". We prove that the robust-weighted Nash equilibria are guaranteed to exist even when the weight sets are unbounded. For the worst-case weighted multi-objective game with the weight sets of players all given as polytope, we show that a robust-weighted Nash equilibrium can be obtained by solving a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC). For an application, we illustrate the usefulness of the worst-case weighted multi-objective game to a supply chain risk management problem under demand uncertainty. By the comparison with the existed weighted approach, we show that our method is more robust and can be more efficiently used for the real-world applications. PMID:26820512
The Worst-Case Weighted Multi-Objective Game with an Application to Supply Chain Competitions
Qu, Shaojian; Ji, Ying
2016-01-01
In this paper, we propose a worst-case weighted approach to the multi-objective n-person non-zero sum game model where each player has more than one competing objective. Our “worst-case weighted multi-objective game” model supposes that each player has a set of weights to its objectives and wishes to minimize its maximum weighted sum objectives where the maximization is with respect to the set of weights. This new model gives rise to a new Pareto Nash equilibrium concept, which we call “robust-weighted Nash equilibrium”. We prove that the robust-weighted Nash equilibria are guaranteed to exist even when the weight sets are unbounded. For the worst-case weighted multi-objective game with the weight sets of players all given as polytope, we show that a robust-weighted Nash equilibrium can be obtained by solving a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC). For an application, we illustrate the usefulness of the worst-case weighted multi-objective game to a supply chain risk management problem under demand uncertainty. By the comparison with the existed weighted approach, we show that our method is more robust and can be more efficiently used for the real-world applications. PMID:26820512
The Worst-Case Weighted Multi-Objective Game with an Application to Supply Chain Competitions.
Qu, Shaojian; Ji, Ying
2016-01-01
In this paper, we propose a worst-case weighted approach to the multi-objective n-person non-zero sum game model where each player has more than one competing objective. Our "worst-case weighted multi-objective game" model supposes that each player has a set of weights to its objectives and wishes to minimize its maximum weighted sum objectives where the maximization is with respect to the set of weights. This new model gives rise to a new Pareto Nash equilibrium concept, which we call "robust-weighted Nash equilibrium". We prove that the robust-weighted Nash equilibria are guaranteed to exist even when the weight sets are unbounded. For the worst-case weighted multi-objective game with the weight sets of players all given as polytope, we show that a robust-weighted Nash equilibrium can be obtained by solving a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC). For an application, we illustrate the usefulness of the worst-case weighted multi-objective game to a supply chain risk management problem under demand uncertainty. By the comparison with the existed weighted approach, we show that our method is more robust and can be more efficiently used for the real-world applications.
Kriging without negative weights
Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.
1987-08-01
Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.
Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen
2014-05-01
A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed.
Babusci, D.; Giordano, G.; Baghaei, H.; Cichocki, A.; Blecher, M.; Breuer, M.; Commeaux, C.; Didelez, J.P.; Caracappa, A.; Fan, Q.
1995-12-31
Energy weighted integrals of the difference in helicity-dependent photo-production cross sections ({sigma}{sub {1/2}} - {sigma}{sub 3/2}) provide information on the nucleon`s Spin-dependent Polarizability ({gamma}), and on the spin-dependent part of the asymptotic forward Compton amplitude through the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov (DHG) sum rule. (The latter forms the Q{sup 2}=0 limit of recent spin-asymmetry experiments in deep-inelastic lepton-scattering.) There are no direct measurements of {sigma}{sub {1/2}} or {sigma}{sub 3/2}, for either the proton or the neutron. Estimates from current {pi}-photo-production multipole analyses, particularly for the proton-neutron difference, are in good agreement with relativistic-l-loop Chiral calculations ({chi}PT) for {gamma} but predict large deviations from the DHG sum rule. Either (a) both the 2-loop corrections to the Spin-Polarizability are large and the existing multipoles are wrong, or (b) modifications to the Drell-Hearn-Gerasimov sum rule are required to fully describe the isospin structure of the nucleon. The helicity-dependent photo-reaction amplitudes, for both the proton and the neutron, will be measured at LEGS from pion-threshold to 470 MeV. In these double-polarization experiments, circularly polarized photons from LEGS will be used with SPHICE, a new frozen-spin target consisting of {rvec H} {center_dot} {rvec D} in the solid phase. Reaction channels will be identified in SASY, a large detector array covering about 80% of 4{pi}. A high degree of symmetry in both target and detector will be used to minimize systematic uncertainties.
Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Crow, Scott J.; Brelje, Kerrin L.; Pacanowski, Carly R.; Gavin, Kara L.; Smolenski, Derek J.
2014-01-01
Observational evidence from behavioral weight control trials and community studies suggests that greater frequency of weighing oneself, or tracking weight, is associated with better weight outcomes. Conversely, it has also been suggested that frequent weight tracking may have a negative impact on mental health and outcomes during weight loss, but there are minimal experimental data that address this concern in the context of an active weight loss program. To achieve the long-term goal of strengthening behavioral weight loss programs, the purpose of this randomized controlled trial (the Tracking Study) is to test variations on frequency of self-weighing during a behavioral weight loss program, and to examine psychosocial and mental health correlates of weight tracking and weight loss outcomes. Three hundred thirty-nine overweight and obese adults were recruited and randomized to one of three variations on weight tracking frequency during a 12-month weight loss program with a 12-month follow-up: daily weight tracking, weekly weight tracking, or no weight tracking. The primary outcome is weight in kilograms at 24 months. The weight loss program integrates each weight tracking instruction with standard behavioral weight loss techniques (goal setting, self-monitoring, stimulus control, dietary and physical activity enhancements, lifestyle modifications); participants in weight tracking conditions were provided with wireless Internet technology (Wi-Fi-enabled digital scales and touchscreen personal devices) to facilitate weight tracking during the study. This paper describes the study design, intervention features, recruitment, and baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the Tracking Study. PMID:25533727
Maximum permissible load weight of a Taishuh pony at a trot.
Matsuura, A; Sakuma, S; Irimajiri, M; Hodate, K
2013-08-01
The aim of this study was to determine the loading capacity of a trotting Taishuh pony by gait analysis using a motion analysis system. Seven Taishuh Ponies (5 mares and 2 geldings) and their rider were fitted with a marker (70 mm in diameter placed on their chest) and recorded by 2 high-resolution digital DVD cameras (at a sampling frequency of 60 Hz) as they were trotting along a straight course. Each horse performed 7 tests: 1 test with a loaded weight of 70 kg, 5 tests with random loaded weights between 80 kg and 120 kg, and a final test with a loaded weight of 70 kg again. Three-dimensional movements of each marker were analyzed using motion capture system. The time series of the vertical displacements of the marker was subjected to spectrum analysis by the maximum entropy method, and the autocorrelation coefficient was calculated. The first 2 peaks of the autocorrelation were defined as symmetry and regularity of the gait, and the sum of symmetry and regularity was defined as stability. The cross-spectrum analysis (Blackman-Tukey method) also was performed to analyze the time lag and cross-correlation coefficient between the time series of both pony and rider. Among ponies, symmetry in the 120 kg test (0.54) was significantly lower than that in the first 70 kg test (0.75, P < 0.05) and stabilities in the 100 kg (1.17) and 120 kg (1.17) tests were significantly less than that in the first 70 kg (1.46, P < 0.05). Regarding the rider, there were no significant differences in symmetry, regularity, and stability between loaded weights. The time lag between the time series of horse and rider in the 120 kg test (47.6 ms) was significantly greater than that in the first 70 kg (14.3 ms, P < 0.05) test. These results suggests that the maximum permissible load weight of the Taishuh pony trotting at 3.0 m/s over a short distance was less than 100 kg, which is 43% of the BW. PMID:23736046
Insulin and blood pressure during weight loss in obese adolescents.
Rocchini, A P; Katch, V; Schork, A; Kelch, R P
1987-09-01
The role of insulin in the regulation of blood pressure was evaluated in 50 obese adolescents before and after a 20-week weight loss program. When compared with 10 nonobese adolescents, the obese subjects had significantly higher systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures (p = 0.005), an elevated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (p = 0.002), an elevated fasting insulin concentration (p = 0.001), and an abnormal insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test (sum of the insulins at 0, 1, and 2 hours post-oral glucose load; p = 0.001). We also observed a significant correlation between systolic and diastolic blood pressure (age and sex normalized) and body weight (r = 0.57, p less than 0.01 and r = 0.7, p less than 0.01), fasting insulin (r = 0.49, p less than 0.01 and r = 0.54, p less than 0.01), and sum of insulins (r = 0.42, p less than 0.01 and r = 0.46, p less than 0.01). To study the effect of weight loss on the relationship between blood pressure and insulin, the obese subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: 15 to a diet and behavior change group, 18 to a diet, behavior change, and exercise group, and 17 to an obese control group. Compared with the obese control group, the two weight loss groups each experienced a significant decrease in insulin (p less than 0.01), sum of the insulins (p less than 0.01), and blood pressure (p less than 0.01). The decrease in blood pressure during the weight loss program significantly correlated with the change in both insulin and body weight.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
24 CFR 570.513 - Lump sum drawdown for financing of property rehabilitation activities.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Grant Administration § 570.513 Lump sum drawdown for financing of property... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lump sum drawdown for financing of property rehabilitation activities. 570.513 Section 570.513 Housing and Urban Development...
Stochastic Ordering of the Latent Trait by the Sum Score Under Various Polytomous IRT Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van der Ark, L. Andries
2005-01-01
The sum score is often used to order respondents on the latent trait measured by the test. Therefore, it is desirable that under the chosen model the sum score stochastically orders the latent trait. It is known that unlike dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models, most polytomous IRT models do not imply stochastic ordering. It is unknown,…
Exceptional algebraic relations for reciprocal sums of Fibonacci and Lucas numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elsner, Carsten; Shimomura, Shun; Shiokawa, Iekata
2011-09-01
We discuss algebraic relations for reciprocal sums of Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. For a certain set of 12 such sums, we show that any two numbers are algebraically independent, and that any three are algebraically independent except for those in 22 exceptional triplets. We explicitly present algebraic relations for some of these exceptional cases.
Congruences for a Class of Alternating Lacunary Sums of Binomial Coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dilcher, Karl
2007-10-01
An 1876 theorem of Hermite, later extended by Bachmann, gives congruences modulo primes for lacunary sums over the rows of Pascal's triangle. This paper gives an analogous result for alternating sums over a certain class of rows. The proof makes use of properties of certain linear recurrences.
A Comparison of Heuristic Procedures for Minimum within-Cluster Sums of Squares Partitioning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brusco, Michael J.; Steinley, Douglas
2007-01-01
Perhaps the most common criterion for partitioning a data set is the minimization of the within-cluster sums of squared deviation from cluster centroids. Although optimal solution procedures for within-cluster sums of squares (WCSS) partitioning are computationally feasible for small data sets, heuristic procedures are required for most practical…
SUM (Service Unit Management): An Organizational Approach To Improved Patient Care.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jelinek, Richard C.; And Others
To evaluate the effectiveness of Service Unit Management (SUM) in reducing costs, improving quality of care, saving professional nursing time, increasing personnel satisfaction, and setting a stage for further improvements, a national questionnaire survey identified the characteristics of SUM units, and compared the performance of a total of 55…
Why the Faulhaber Polynomials Are Sums of Even or Odd Powers of (n + 1/2)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hersh, Reuben
2012-01-01
By extending Faulhaber's polynomial to negative values of n, the sum of the p'th powers of the first n integers is seen to be an even or odd polynomial in (n + 1/2) and therefore expressible in terms of the sum of the first n integers.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-09-16
... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)); Comment.... Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125. b. Claim for Monthly Payments (National Service Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125a. c. Claim for Monthly Payments (United States...
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2013-03-26
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Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-08-27
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27 CFR 19.957 - Instructions to compute bond penal sum.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Instructions to compute bond penal sum. 19.957 Section 19.957 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Fuel Use Bonds § 19.957 Instructions to compute bond penal sum. (a) Medium plants. To find the...
Pictometry digital video mapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciampa, John A.
1995-09-01
Pictometry is a proprietary digital imaging process which computationally maps each pixel of a digital land image to actual geographic coordinates, so that features in a mosaic of land images may be located and or measured.
Digital flight control research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Potter, J. E.; Stern, R. G.; Smith, T. B.; Sinha, P.
1974-01-01
The results of studies which were undertaken to contribute to the design of digital flight control systems, particularly for transport aircraft are presented. In addition to the overall design considerations for a digital flight control system, the following topics are discussed in detail: (1) aircraft attitude reference system design, (2) the digital computer configuration, (3) the design of a typical digital autopilot for transport aircraft, and (4) a hybrid flight simulator.
Dietary Digital Diaries: Documenting Adolescents’ Obesogenic Environment
Staiano, Amanda E.; Baker, Christina M.; Calvert, Sandra L.
2012-01-01
Obesogenic built environments may contribute to excessive eating and obesity. Twenty-three 12- to 17-year-old low-income African American adolescents created digital diaries by photographing their lunchtime food environment in a summer academic program. Digitally depicted foods were classified as appearing on the platescape (student’s or others’ plate) or the tablescape (food buffet). Height, weight, BMI percentile, and waist-to-hip ratio were calculated at baseline and week 4. Adolescents digitally depicted high caloric, high fat foods on the platescape and tablescape, particularly adolescents with a higher waist-to-hip ratio. Weight gain during the 4-week program was significantly predicted by the number of calories and the amount of fat content depicted on the student’s plates. Digital diaries, then, can document adolescents’ perspectives of their food environments that promote their overconsumption of high caloric and high fat foods that contribute to weight gain and put them at risk for obesity. PMID:23180882
GENERALIZED DIGITAL CONTOURING PROGRAM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, R. L.
1994-01-01
This is a digital computer contouring program developed by combining desirable characteristics from several existing contouring programs. It can easily be adapted to many different research requirements. The overlaid structure of the program permits desired modifications to be made with ease. The contouring program performs both the task of generating a depth matrix from either randomly or regularly spaced surface heights and the task of contouring the data. Each element of the depth matrix is computed as a weighted mean of heights predicted at an element by planes tangent to the surface at neighboring control points. Each contour line is determined by its intercepts with the sides of geometrical figures formed by connecting the various elements of the depth matrix with straight lines. Although contour charts are usually thought of as being two-dimensional pictorial representations of topographic formations of land masses, they can also be useful in portraying data which are obtained during the course of research in various scientific disciplines and which would ordinarily be tabulated. Any set of data which can be referenced to a two-dimensional coordinate system can be graphically represented by this program. This program is written in FORTRAN IV and ASSEMBLER for batch execution and has been implemented on the CDC 6000 Series. This program was developed in 1971.
Kornai, András
2013-01-01
Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559
Digital Literacy. Research Brief
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williamson, Ronald
2011-01-01
21st Century students need a complex set of skills to be successful in a digital environment. Digital literacy, similar to traditional definitions of literacy, is a set of skills students use to locate, organize, understand, evaluate and create information. The difference is that it occurs in an environment where a growing set of digital tools…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clarke, Alan; Milner, Helen; Killer, Terry; Dixon, Genny
2008-01-01
As the Government publishes its action plan for consultation on digital inclusion, the authors consider some of the challenges and opportunities for the delivery of digital inclusion. Clarke argues that digital inclusion requires more than access to technology or the skills to use it effectively, it demands information and media literacy. Milner…
Reconceptualising Critical Digital Literacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pangrazio, Luciana
2016-01-01
While it has proved a useful concept during the past 20 years, the notion of "critical digital literacy" requires rethinking in light of the fast-changing nature of young people's digital practices. This paper contrasts long-established notions of "critical digital literacy" (based primarily around the critical consumption of…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gottlieb, David; Shu, Chi-Wang
1994-01-01
We continue our investigation of overcoming Gibbs phenomenon, i.e., to obtain exponential accuracy at all points (including at the discontinuities themselves), from the knowledge of a spectral partial sum of a discontinuous but piecewise analytic function. We show that if we are given the first N Gegenbauer expansion coefficients, based on the Gegenbauer polynomials C(sub k)(sup mu)(x) with the weight function (1 - x(exp 2))(exp mu - 1/2) for any constant mu is greater than or equal to 0, of an L(sub 1) function f(x), we can construct an exponentially convergent approximation to the point values of f(x) in any subinterval in which the function is analytic. The proof covers the cases of Chebyshev or Legendre partial sums, which are most common in applications.
Digital filter design for radar image formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, John W.; Nelson, Jeffrey E.; Banh, N. D.; Moncada, John J.; Bayma, Robert W.
1989-01-01
Novel weighted-least-squares approaches to the design of digital filters for SAR applications are presented. The filters belong to three different categories according to their combinations of minimax passband, least-squares stopband, minimax stopband, and maximally-flat passband. For real-time applications, it is important to design the sets of digital filter coefficient tables in an offline environment; the appropriate precomputed filter is then selected for each SAR signal-processing function, as a function of both mode and mapping geometry during real-time processing.
Method of glitch reduction in DAC with weight redundancy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azarov, Olexiy D.; Murashchenko, Olexander G.; Chernyak, Olexander I.; Smolarz, Andrzej; Kashaganova, Gulzhan
2015-12-01
The appearance of glitches in digital-to-analog converters leads to significant limitations of conversion accuracy and speed, which is critical for DAC and limits their usage. This paper researches the possibility of using the redundant positional number system in order to reduce glitches in DAC. There had been described the usage pattern of number systems with fractional digit weights of bits as well as with the whole number weights of bits. Hereafter there had been suggested the algorithm for glitches reduction in the DAC generation mode of incessant analogue signal. There had also been estimated the efficiency of weight redundancy application with further presentation of the most efficient parameters of number systems. The paper describes a block diagram of a low-glitch DAC based on Fibonacci codes. The simulation results prove the feasibility of weight redundancy application and show a significant reduction of glitches in DAC in comparison with the classical binary system.
Measures of placental growth in relation to birth weight and gestational age.
Salafia, Carolyn M; Maas, Elizabeth; Thorp, John M; Eucker, Barbara; Pezzullo, John C; Savitz, David A
2005-11-15
Fetal growth depends in part on placental growth. The authors tested placental measures derived from digital images for reliability and to evaluate their association with birth weight and gestational age. A total of 628 women recruited into the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study, a prospective cohort study of preterm birth in central North Carolina between 2002 and 2004, delivered singleton liveborn infants after 24 completed weeks' gestation. Novel chorionic plate morphometric parameters captured off digital images of the gross placenta were analyzed as estimators of gestational age and birth weight. Without acknowledgment to placental weight, digitally obtained lateral chorionic plate growth measures accounted for 17 percent of gestational age variance and 35 percent of birth weight variance, overall. Chorionic plate measures accounted for 10 percent of birth weight variance beyond that accounted for by placental weight alone. Among preterm births, 34 percent of gestational age variance and 63 percent of birth weight variance were accounted for by lateral chorionic plate growth measures. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the novel digital measures ranged from 0.96 to 0.98. Reliable digital measures of lateral chorionic plate growth estimate birth weight variance more strongly than gestational age, project variance that is not accounted for by placental weight, and project these outcomes to a greater degree in preterm births than at term.
Digital Mammography and Digital Breast Tomosynthesis.
Moseley, Tanya W
2016-06-01
Breast imaging technology has advanced significantly from the 1930s until the present. American women have a 1 in 8 chance of developing breast cancer. Mammography has been proven in multiple clinical trials to reduce breast cancer mortality. Although a mainstay of breast imaging and improved from film-screen mammography, digital mammography is not a perfect examination. Overlapping obscuring breast tissue limits mammographic interpretation. Breast digital tomosynthesis reduces and/or eliminates overlapping obscuring breast tissue. Although there are some disadvantages with digital breast tomosynthesis, this relatively lost-cost technology may be used effectively in the screening and diagnostic settings. PMID:27101241
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Iona, Mario
1975-01-01
Presents a summary and comparison of various views on the concepts of mass and weight. Includes a consideration of gravitational force in an inertial system and apparent gravitational force on a rotating earth. Discusses the units and methods for measuring mass and weight. (GS)
The Weighted Oblimin Rotation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano
2000-01-01
Demonstrates that the weighting procedure proposed by E. Cureton and S. Mulaik (1975) can be applied to the Direct Oblimin approach of D. Clarkson and R. Jennrich (1988) to provide good results. The rotation method obtained is called Weighted Oblimin. Compared this method to other rotation methods with favorable results. (SLD)
Sansone, Lori A.
2014-01-01
Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status—i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Katch, Victor L.
This paper describes a number of factors which go into determining weight. The paper describes what calories are, how caloric expenditure is measured, and why caloric expenditure is different for different people. The paper then outlines the way the body tends to adjust food intake and exercise to maintain a constant body weight. It is speculated…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas
2007-01-01
We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14…
Weight discrimination and bullying.
Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M
2013-04-01
Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. PMID:23731874
Sum of the Parts: Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics
Milne, Stephen B.; Mathews, Thomas P.; Myers, David S.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Brown, H. Alex
2013-01-01
Metabolomics is a rapidly growing field of research used in the identification and quantification of the small molecule metabolites within an organism, thereby providing insights into cell metabolism and bioenergetics as well as processes important in clinical medicine, such as disposition of pharmaceutical compounds. It offers comprehensive information on thousands of low molecular weight compounds (<1500 Da) that represent a wide range of pathways and intermediary metabolism. Due to its vast expansion in the last two decades mass spectrometry has become an indispensable tool in “omic” analyses. The use of different ionization techniques such as the more traditional electrospray (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALDI), as well as recently popular desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), has allowed the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules (e.g. peptides, proteins, lipids and sugars), and their imaging and analysis in the original sample environment in a workup free fashion. An overview of the current state of the methodology is given, as well as examples of application. PMID:23442130
[Application of digital earth technology in research of traditional Chinese medicine resources].
Liu, Jinxin; Liu, Xinxin; Gao, Lu; Wei, Yingqin; Meng, Fanyun; Wang, Yongyan
2011-02-01
This paper describes the digital earth technology and its core technology-"3S" integration technology. The advance and promotion of the "3S" technology provide more favorable means and technical support for Chinese medicine resources survey, evaluation and appropriate zoning. Grid is a mature and popular technology that can connect all kinds of information resources. The author sums up the application of digital earth technology in the research of traditional Chinese medicine resources in recent years, and proposes the new method and technical route of investigation in traditional Chinese medicine resources, traditional Chinese medicine zoning and suitability assessment by combining the digital earth technology and grid.
Digital Collections, Digital Libraries and the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lynch, Clifford
2002-01-01
Discusses the development of digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include digitization of cultural heritage information; broadband issues; lack of compelling content; training issues; types of materials being digitized; sustainability; digital preservation; infrastructure; digital images; data mining; and future possibilities for…
Towards NNLO accuracy in the QCD sum rule for the kaon distribution amplitude
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chetyrkin, K. G.; Khodjamirian, A.; Pivovarov, A. A.
2008-03-01
We calculate the O (αs) and O (αs2) gluon radiative corrections to the QCD sum rule for the first Gegenbauer moment a1K of the kaon light-cone distribution amplitude. The NNLO accuracy is achieved for the perturbative term and quark-condensate contributions to the sum rule. A complete factorization is implemented, removing logarithms of s-quark mass from the coefficients in the operator-product expansion. The sum rule with radiative corrections yields a1K (1 GeV) = 0.10 ± 0.04.
Rate and CP-Asymmetry Sum Rules in B to K pi
Gronau, Michael; Rosner, Jonathan L.
2006-08-28
The observed violation of A{sub CP}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = A{sub CP}(B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}) has been recently mentioned as a puzzle for the standard model. They point out that while this violation may be accounted for by a large color-suppressed tree amplitude, a sum rule involving three or four B {yields} K{pi} CP asymmetries should hold. the current experimental status of these sum rules and of a sum rule for B {yields} K{pi} decay rates is presented.
A Precise Sum Rule among Four B -> K pi CP Asymmetries
Gronau, Michael; /SLAC /Technion
2005-08-29
A sum rule relation is proposed for direct CP asymmetries in B {yields} K{pi} decays. Leading terms are identical in the isospin symmetry limit, while subleading terms are equal in the flavor SU(3) and heavy quark limits. The sum rule predicts A{sub CP}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}) = -0.17 {+-} 0.06 using current asymmetry measurements for the other three B {yields} K{pi} decays. A violation of the sum rule would be evidence for New Physics in b {yields} s{bar q}q transitions.
Single authentication: exposing weighted splining artifacts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciptasari, Rimba W.
2016-05-01
A common form of manipulation is to combine parts of the image fragment into another different image either to remove or blend the objects. Inspired by this situation, we propose a single authentication technique for detecting traces of weighted average splining technique. In this paper, we assume that image composite could be created by joining two images so that the edge between them is imperceptible. The weighted average technique is constructed from overlapped images so that it is possible to compute the gray level value of points within a transition zone. This approach works on the assumption that although splining process leaves the transition zone smoothly. They may, nevertheless, alter the underlying statistics of an image. In other words, it introduces specific correlation into the image. The proposed idea dealing with identifying these correlations is to generate an original model of both weighting function, left and right functions, as references to their synthetic models. The overall process of the authentication is divided into two main stages, which are pixel predictive coding and weighting function estimation. In the former stage, the set of intensity pairs {Il,Ir} is computed by exploiting pixel extrapolation technique. The least-squares estimation method is then employed to yield the weighted coefficients. We show the efficacy of the proposed scheme on revealing the splining artifacts. We believe that this is the first work that exposes the image splining artifact as evidence of digital tampering.
5 CFR 550.1204 - Projecting the lump-sum leave period.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... this chapter; or credit hours accumulated under an alternative work schedule established under 5 U.S.C... annual leave to the employee's credit. The agency must project the lump-sum period leave beginning on...
Casimir energy for a double spherical shell: A global mode sum approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miltão, M. S. R.
2008-09-01
In this work we study the configuration of two perfectly conducting spherical shells. This is a problem of basic importance to make possible development of experimental apparatuses that they make possible to measure the spherical Casimir effect, an open subject. We apply the mode sum method via cutoff exponential function regularization with two independent parameters: one to regularize the infinite order sum of the Bessel functions; other, to regularize the integral that becomes related, due to the argument theorem, with the infinite zero sum of the Bessel functions. We obtain a general expression of the Casimir energy as a quadrature sum. We investigate two immediate limit cases as a consistency test of the expression obtained: that of a spherical shell and that of two parallel plates. In the approximation of a thin spherical shell we obtain an expression that allows to relate our result with that of the proximity-force approximation, supplying a correction to this result.
An exact formulation of the time-ordered exponential using path-sums
Giscard, P.-L.; Lui, K.; Thwaite, S. J.; Jaksch, D.
2015-05-15
We present the path-sum formulation for the time-ordered exponential of a time-dependent matrix. The path-sum formulation gives the time-ordered exponential as a branched continued fraction of finite depth and breadth. The terms of the path-sum have an elementary interpretation as self-avoiding walks and self-avoiding polygons on a graph. Our result is based on a representation of the time-ordered exponential as the inverse of an operator, the mapping of this inverse to sums of walks on a graphs, and the algebraic structure of sets of walks. We give examples demonstrating our approach. We establish a super-exponential decay bound for the magnitude of the entries of the time-ordered exponential of sparse matrices. We give explicit results for matrices with commonly encountered sparse structures.
5 CFR 838.235 - Payment of lump-sum awards.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Procedures for Processing Court Orders Affecting Employee Annuities Payment Procedures § 838.235 Payment of lump-sum awards. If a court...
5 CFR 838.235 - Payment of lump-sum awards.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Procedures for Processing Court Orders Affecting Employee Annuities Payment Procedures § 838.235 Payment of lump-sum awards. If a court...
5 CFR 838.235 - Payment of lump-sum awards.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Procedures for Processing Court Orders Affecting Employee Annuities Payment Procedures § 838.235 Payment of lump-sum awards. If a court...
Sum rules and static local-field corrections of electron liquids in two and three dimensions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iwamoto, N.
1984-01-01
The dielectric functions of electron liquids which take into account short-range electron-electron correlations via the static local-field corrections are examined in the light of the frequency-moment sum rules. The formation is given for degenerate as well as classical electron liquids in arbitrary (d) spatial dimensions, which is suitable for comparison between the two- and three-dimensional cases. By using the virial equations of state it is shown that such dielectric functions cannot satisfy the compressibility sum rule and the third-frequency-moment sum rule simultaneously. In the degenerate case, the plasmon, single-pair, and multipair contributions to the sum rules are analyzed, and the reason for this incompatibility is discussed.
Optimal approximations for risk measures of sums of lognormals based on conditional expectations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanduffel, S.; Chen, X.; Dhaene, J.; Goovaerts, M.; Henrard, L.; Kaas, R.
2008-11-01
In this paper we investigate the approximations for the distribution function of a sum S of lognormal random variables. These approximations are obtained by considering the conditional expectation E[S|[Lambda
Endpoint behavior of the pion distribution amplitude in QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates
Mikhailov, S. V.; Pimikov, A. V.; Stefanis, N. G.
2010-09-01
Starting from the QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates for the pion distribution amplitude, we derive another sum rule for its derivative and its ''integral derivatives''--defined in this work. We use this new sum rule to analyze the fine details of the pion distribution amplitude in the endpoint region x{approx}0. The results for endpoint-suppressed and flattop (or flatlike) pion distribution amplitudes are compared with those we obtained with differential sum rules by employing two different models for the distribution of vacuum-quark virtualities. We determine the range of values of the derivatives of the pion distribution amplitude and show that endpoint-suppressed distribution amplitudes lie within this range, while those with endpoint enhancement--flat-type or Chernyak-Zhitnitsky like--yield values outside this range.
20 CFR 341.2 - Sum or damages paid or payable.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.2 Sum or damages paid or payable. (a) The...-Fault” personal-injury protection benefits or any other benefits paid under a health, sickness,...
20 CFR 341.2 - Sum or damages paid or payable.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.2 Sum or damages paid or payable. (a) The...-Fault” personal-injury protection benefits or any other benefits paid under a health, sickness,...
20 CFR 341.2 - Sum or damages paid or payable.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.2 Sum or damages paid or payable. (a) The...-Fault” personal-injury protection benefits or any other benefits paid under a health, sickness,...
20 CFR 341.2 - Sum or damages paid or payable.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... INSURANCE ACT STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.2 Sum or damages paid or payable. (a) The...-Fault” personal-injury protection benefits or any other benefits paid under a health, sickness,...
... Differences in BMRs are associated with changes in energy balance. Energy balance reflects the difference between the amount of ... such as amphetamines, animals often have a negative energy balance which leads to weight loss. Based on ...
... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts â€” the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...
Englberger, L.
1999-01-01
A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662
... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese . Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...
... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...
MARSANGO, V.; BOLLERO, R.; D’OVIDIO, N.; MIRANDA, M.; BOLLERO, P.; BARLATTANI, A.
2014-01-01
SUMMARY Objective. The project presents a clinical case in which the digital work-flow procedure was applied for a prosthetic rehabilitation in natural teeth and implants. Materials. Digital work-flow uses patient’s photo for the aesthetic’s planning, digital smile technology for the simulation of the final restoration and real time scanning to register the two arches. Than the scanning are sent to the laboratory that proceed with CAD-CAM production. Results. Digital work-flow offers the opportunities to easily speak with laboratory and patients, gives better clinical results and demonstrated to be a less invasiveness method for the patient. Conclusion. Intra-oral scanner, digital smile design, preview using digital wax-up, CAD-CAM production, are new predictable opportunities for prosthetic team. This work-flow, compared with traditional methods, is faster, more precise and predictable. PMID:25694797
Correctly Expressing Atomic Weights
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paolini, Moreno; Cercignani, Giovanni; Bauer, Carlo
2000-11-01
Very often, atomic or molecular weights are expressed as dimensionless quantities, but although the historical importance of their definition as "pure numbers" is acknowledged, it is inconsistent with experimental formulas and with the theory of measure in general. Here, we propose on the basis of clear-cut formulas that, contrary to customary statements, atomic and molecular weights should be expressed as dimensional quantities (masses) in which the Dalton (= 1.663 x 10-24 g) is taken as the unit.
Constraints on Airy function zeros from quantum-mechanical sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belloni, M.; Robinett, R. W.
2009-02-01
We derive new constraints on the zeros of Airy functions by using the so-called quantum bouncer system to evaluate quantum-mechanical sum rules and perform perturbation theory calculations for the Stark effect. Using commutation and completeness relations, we show how to systematically evaluate sums of the form Sp(n) = ∑k≠n1/(ζk - ζn)p, for natural p > 1, where -ζn is the nth zero of Ai(ζ).
QCD Sum Rules for Magnetically Induced Mixing between ηc and J/ψ
Cho, Sungtae; Hattori, Koichi; Lee, Su Houng; Morita, Kenji; Ozaki, Sho
2014-10-20
We investigate the properties of charmonia in strong magnetic fields by using QCD sum rules. We show how to implement the mixing effects between ηc and J/ψ on the basis of field-theoretical approaches, and then show that the sum rules are saturated by the mixing effects with phenomenologically determined parameters. Consequently, we find that the mixing effects are the dominant contribution to the mass shifts of the static charmonia in strong magnetic fields.
Teleportation-based number-state manipulation with number-sum measurement
Kitagawa, Akira; Yamamoto, Katsuji
2003-10-01
We examine various manipulations of photon number states which can be implemented by teleportation technique with number-sum measurement. The preparations of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen resources as well as the number-sum measurement resulting in projection to certain Bell state may be done conditionally with linear optical elements, i.e., beam splitters, phase shifters, and zero-one-photon detectors. Squeezed vacuum states are used as primary entanglement resource, while single-photon sources are not required.
Digital Longitudinal Tomosynthesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rimkus, Daniel Steven
1985-12-01
The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the clinical utility of digital longitudinal tomosynthesis in radiology. By acquiring a finite group of digital images during a longitudinal tomographic exposure, and processing these images, tomographic planes, other than the fulcrum plane, can be reconstructed. This process is now termed "tomosynthesis". A prototype system utilizing this technique was developed. Both phantom and patient studies were done with this system. The phantom studies were evaluated by subjective, visual criterion and by quantitative analysis of edge sharpness and noise in the reconstructions. Two groups of patients and one volunteer were studied. The first patient group consisted of 8 patients undergoing intravenous urography (IVU). These patients had digital tomography and film tomography of the abdomen. The second patient group consisted of 4 patients with lung cancer admitted to the hospital for laser resection of endobronchial tumor. These patients had mediastinal digital tomograms to evaluate the trachea and mainstem bronchi. The knee of one volunteer was imaged by film tomography and digital tomography. The results of the phantom studies showed that the digital reconstructions accurately produced images of the desired planes. The edge sharpness of the reconstructions approached that of the acquired images. Adequate reconstructions were achieved with as few as 5 images acquired during the exposure, with the quality of the reconstructions improving as the number of images acquired increased. The IVU patients' digital studies had less contrast and spatial resolution than the film tomograms. The single renal lesion visible on the film tomograms was also visible in the digital images. The digital mediastinal studies were felt by several radiologists to be superior to a standard chest xray in evaluating the airways. The digital images of the volunteer's knee showed many of the same anatomic features as the film tomogram, but the digital
Thomas, Ken D.; Quinn, Edward L.; Mauck, Jerry L.; Bockhorst, Richard M.
2015-02-01
The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy and reliability. This paper, which refers to a final report issued in 2013, demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. Improved accuracy results from the superior operating characteristics of digital sensors. These include improvements in sensor accuracy and drift and other related parameters which reduce total loop uncertainty and thereby increase safety and operating margins. An example instrument loop uncertainty calculation for a pressure sensor application is presented to illustrate these improvements. This is a side-by-side comparison of the instrument loop uncertainty for both an analog and a digital sensor in the same pressure measurement application. Similarly, improved sensor reliability is illustrated with a sample calculation for determining the probability of failure on demand, an industry standard reliability measure. This looks at equivalent analog and digital temperature sensors to draw the comparison. The results confirm substantial reliability improvement with the digital sensor, due in large part to ability to continuously monitor the health of a digital sensor such that problems can be immediately identified and corrected. This greatly reduces the likelihood of a latent failure condition of the sensor at the time of a design basis event. Notwithstanding the benefits of digital sensors, there are certain qualification issues that are inherent with digital technology and these are described in the report. One major qualification impediment for digital sensor implementation is software common cause failure (SCCF).
Debunking the "Digital Native": Beyond Digital Apartheid, towards Digital Democracy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, C.; Czerniewicz, L.
2010-01-01
This paper interrogates the currently pervasive discourse of the "net generation" finding the concept of the "digital native" especially problematic, both empirically and conceptually. We draw on a research project of South African higher education students' access to and use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to show that age is…
Digital In, Digital Out: Digital Editing with Firewire.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Doyle, Bob; Sauer, Jeff
1997-01-01
Reviews linear and nonlinear digital video (DV) editing equipment and software, using the IEEE 1394 (FireWire) connector. Includes a chart listing specifications and rating eight DV editing systems, reviews two DV still-photo cameras, and previews beta DV products. (PEN)
The sum-connectivity index--an additive variant of the Randic connectivity index.
Lučić, Bono; Sović, Ivan; Batista, Jadranko; Skala, Karolj; Plavšić, Dejan; Vikić-Topić, Drazen; Bešlo, Drago; Nikolić, Sonja; Trinajstić, Nenad
2013-06-01
This review discusses structure-property modeling applications of a novel variant of the Randic connectivity index that is called the sum-connectivity index. We compare published one-descriptor quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models obtained with the new sum-connectivity index and with the Randic connectivity index, called here the product-connectivity index. Additionally, the efficiency of both variants of connectivity indices in QSPR modeling is tested on five datasets of alkanes and two datasets of polycyclic hydrocarbons. Several physicochemical properties of alkanes (i.e. boiling and melting points, retention index, molar volume, molar refraction, heat of vaporization, standard Gibbs energy of formation, critical temperature, critical pressure, surface tension, density) and π- electronic energies of two sets of polycyclic hydrocarbons were correlated with the product- and sum-connectivity indices. A comparison of these QSPR models shows that both variants of connectivity indices are equivalent, and only slightly (but not significantly) better results are obtained with the sum-connectivity index. Inter-correlations between the product- and sum-connectivity indices are mostly linear with a slope very close to 1.0 for alkanes, and with a slope more different from 1.0 (0.88) for polycyclic compounds. The comparative analysis presented here supports the use of the sumconnectivity index in QSPR/QSAR studies together with the product-connectivity index. Further studies on larger and more heterogeneous datasets should test the sum-connectivity index in QSPR/QSAR models.
Sum rules for magnetic moments and polarizabilities in QED and chiral effective-field theory
Barry Holstein; Vladimir Pascalutsa; Marc Vanderhaeghen
2005-08-01
We elaborate on a recently proposed extension of the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule which is achieved by taking derivatives with respect to the anomalous magnetic moment. The new sum rule features a linear relation between the anomalous magnetic moment and the dispersion integral over a cross-section quantity. We find some analogy of the linearized form of the GDH sum rule with the ''sideways dispersion relations''. As an example, we apply the linear sum rule to reproduce the famous Schwinger's correction to the magnetic moment in QED from a tree-level cross-section calculation and outline the procedure for computing the two-loop correction from a one-loop cross-section calculation. The polarizabilities of the electron in QED are considered as well by using the other forward-Compton-scattering sum rules. We also employ the sum rules to study the magnetic moment and polarizabilities of the nucleon in a relativistic chiral EFT framework. In particular we investigate the chiral extrapolation of these quantities.
Explicit values of multi-dimensional Kloosterman sums for prime powers, II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurak, S.
2008-03-01
For any integer m>1 fix zeta_{m}Dexp(2 pi i/m) , and let Z_{m}^{*} denote the group of reduced residues modulo m . Let qDp^{alpha} , a power of a prime p . The hyper-Kloosterman sums of dimension n>0 are defined for q by displaylines{ R(d,q)D sum_{x_{1}, ..., x_{n} in Z_{q}^{*}} ze... ...ots +x_{n} +d(x_{1} \\cdots x_{n})^{-1}} ;;;;;; (d in Z_{q}^{*}), } where x^{-1} denotes the multiplicative inverse of x modulo q . Salie evaluated R(d,q) in the classical setting nD1 for even q , and for odd qDp^{alpha} with alpha >1 . Later, Smith provided formulas that simplified the computation of R(d,q) in these cases for n>1 . Recently, Cochrane, Liu and Zheng computed upper bounds for R(d,q) in the general case n >0 , stopping short of their explicit evaluation. Here I complete the computation they initiated to obtain explicit values for the Kloosterman sums for alpha >1 , relying on basic properties of some simple specialized exponential sums. The treatment here is more elementary than the author's previous determination of these Kloosterman sums using character theory and p -adic methods. At the least, it provides an alternative, independent evaluation of the Kloosterman sums.
Sum Rules of Charm C P Asymmetries beyond the SU(3 ) F Limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Sarah; Nierste, Ulrich; Schacht, Stefan
2015-12-01
We find new sum rules between direct C P asymmetries in D meson decays with coefficients that can be determined from a global fit to branching ratio data. Our sum rules eliminate the penguin topologies P and P A , which cannot be determined from branching ratios. In this way, we can make predictions about direct C P asymmetries in the standard model without ad hoc assumptions on the sizes of penguin diagrams. We consistently include first-order SU(3 ) F breaking in the topological amplitudes extracted from the branching ratios. By confronting our sum rules with future precise data from LHCb and Belle II, one will identify or constrain new-physics contributions to P or P A . The first sum rule correlates the C P asymmetries aCP dir in D0→K+K-, D0→π+π- , and D0→π0π0. We study the region of the aCP dir(D0→π+π-)-aCP dir(D0→π0π0) plane allowed by current data and find that our sum rule excludes more than half of the allowed region at 95% C.L. Our second sum rule correlates the direct C P asymmetries in D+→K¯0K+, Ds+→K0π+, and Ds+→K+π0.
The sum-connectivity index--an additive variant of the Randic connectivity index.
Lučić, Bono; Sović, Ivan; Batista, Jadranko; Skala, Karolj; Plavšić, Dejan; Vikić-Topić, Drazen; Bešlo, Drago; Nikolić, Sonja; Trinajstić, Nenad
2013-06-01
This review discusses structure-property modeling applications of a novel variant of the Randic connectivity index that is called the sum-connectivity index. We compare published one-descriptor quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models obtained with the new sum-connectivity index and with the Randic connectivity index, called here the product-connectivity index. Additionally, the efficiency of both variants of connectivity indices in QSPR modeling is tested on five datasets of alkanes and two datasets of polycyclic hydrocarbons. Several physicochemical properties of alkanes (i.e. boiling and melting points, retention index, molar volume, molar refraction, heat of vaporization, standard Gibbs energy of formation, critical temperature, critical pressure, surface tension, density) and π- electronic energies of two sets of polycyclic hydrocarbons were correlated with the product- and sum-connectivity indices. A comparison of these QSPR models shows that both variants of connectivity indices are equivalent, and only slightly (but not significantly) better results are obtained with the sum-connectivity index. Inter-correlations between the product- and sum-connectivity indices are mostly linear with a slope very close to 1.0 for alkanes, and with a slope more different from 1.0 (0.88) for polycyclic compounds. The comparative analysis presented here supports the use of the sumconnectivity index in QSPR/QSAR studies together with the product-connectivity index. Further studies on larger and more heterogeneous datasets should test the sum-connectivity index in QSPR/QSAR models. PMID:23700992
Sum Rules of Charm CP Asymmetries beyond the SU(3)_{F} Limit.
Müller, Sarah; Nierste, Ulrich; Schacht, Stefan
2015-12-18
We find new sum rules between direct CP asymmetries in D meson decays with coefficients that can be determined from a global fit to branching ratio data. Our sum rules eliminate the penguin topologies P and PA, which cannot be determined from branching ratios. In this way, we can make predictions about direct CP asymmetries in the standard model without ad hoc assumptions on the sizes of penguin diagrams. We consistently include first-order SU(3)_{F} breaking in the topological amplitudes extracted from the branching ratios. By confronting our sum rules with future precise data from LHCb and Belle II, one will identify or constrain new-physics contributions to P or PA. The first sum rule correlates the CP asymmetries a_{CP}^{dir} in D^{0}→K^{+}K^{-}, D^{0}→π^{+}π^{-}, and D^{0}→π^{0}π^{0}. We study the region of the a_{CP}^{dir}(D^{0}→π^{+}π^{-})-a_{CP}^{dir}(D^{0}→π^{0}π^{0}) plane allowed by current data and find that our sum rule excludes more than half of the allowed region at 95% C.L. Our second sum rule correlates the direct CP asymmetries in D^{+}→K[over ¯]^{0}K^{+}, D_{s}^{+}→K^{0}π^{+}, and D_{s}^{+}→K^{+}π^{0}. PMID:26722915
JetSum: SMA actuator based undersea unmanned vehicle inspired by jellyfish bio-mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bressers, Scott; Chung, Sanghun; Villanueva, Alex; Smith, Colin; Priya, Shashank
2010-04-01
Previously, we reported an undersea unmanned vehicle (UUV) termed as JetSum, inspired by the locomotion of medusa jellyfish, [12]. The propulsion of JetSum was based on shape memory alloy (SMA) wires replicating the contraction-relaxation cycle of natural jellyfish locomotion. In this paper, we report modified design of JetSum that addresses problems related to electrical isolation and power consumption. The modifications lead to significant improvement in functionality, providing implementation of a full continuous bell, bolstering critical sealing junctions, and reducing the overall power requirement. A LabVIEW controller program was developed to automate and optimize the driving of JetSum enabling reduction in power consumption for full contraction of SMA. JetSum locomotion in underwater conditions was recorded by using a high-speed camera and analyzed with image processing techniques developed in MatLab. The results show that JetSum was able to achieve velocity of 7 cm/s with power consumption of 8.94 W per cycle.
Sum Rules of Charm CP Asymmetries beyond the SU(3)_{F} Limit.
Müller, Sarah; Nierste, Ulrich; Schacht, Stefan
2015-12-18
We find new sum rules between direct CP asymmetries in D meson decays with coefficients that can be determined from a global fit to branching ratio data. Our sum rules eliminate the penguin topologies P and PA, which cannot be determined from branching ratios. In this way, we can make predictions about direct CP asymmetries in the standard model without ad hoc assumptions on the sizes of penguin diagrams. We consistently include first-order SU(3)_{F} breaking in the topological amplitudes extracted from the branching ratios. By confronting our sum rules with future precise data from LHCb and Belle II, one will identify or constrain new-physics contributions to P or PA. The first sum rule correlates the CP asymmetries a_{CP}^{dir} in D^{0}→K^{+}K^{-}, D^{0}→π^{+}π^{-}, and D^{0}→π^{0}π^{0}. We study the region of the a_{CP}^{dir}(D^{0}→π^{+}π^{-})-a_{CP}^{dir}(D^{0}→π^{0}π^{0}) plane allowed by current data and find that our sum rule excludes more than half of the allowed region at 95% C.L. Our second sum rule correlates the direct CP asymmetries in D^{+}→K[over ¯]^{0}K^{+}, D_{s}^{+}→K^{0}π^{+}, and D_{s}^{+}→K^{+}π^{0}.
Exploring digital professionalism.
Ellaway, Rachel H; Coral, Janet; Topps, David; Topps, Maureen
2015-01-01
The widespread use of digital media (both computing devices and the services they access) has blurred the boundaries between our personal and professional lives. Contemporary students are the last to remember a time before the widespread use of the Internet and they will be the first to practice in a largely e-health environment. This article explores concepts of digital professionalism and their place in contemporary medical education, and proposes a series of principles of digital professionalism to guide teaching, learning and practice in the healthcare professions. Despite the many risks and fears surrounding their use, digital media are not an intrinsic threat to medical professionalism. Professionals should maintain the capacity for deliberate, ethical, and accountable practice when using digital media. The authors describe a digital professionalism framework structured around concepts of proficiency, reputation, and responsibility. Digital professionalism can be integrated into medical education using strategies based on awareness, alignment, assessment, and accountability. These principles of digital professionalism provide a way for medical students and medical practitioners to embrace the positive aspects of digital media use while being mindful and deliberate in its use to avoid or minimize any negative consequences. PMID:26030375
Exploring digital professionalism.
Ellaway, Rachel H; Coral, Janet; Topps, David; Topps, Maureen
2015-01-01
The widespread use of digital media (both computing devices and the services they access) has blurred the boundaries between our personal and professional lives. Contemporary students are the last to remember a time before the widespread use of the Internet and they will be the first to practice in a largely e-health environment. This article explores concepts of digital professionalism and their place in contemporary medical education, and proposes a series of principles of digital professionalism to guide teaching, learning and practice in the healthcare professions. Despite the many risks and fears surrounding their use, digital media are not an intrinsic threat to medical professionalism. Professionals should maintain the capacity for deliberate, ethical, and accountable practice when using digital media. The authors describe a digital professionalism framework structured around concepts of proficiency, reputation, and responsibility. Digital professionalism can be integrated into medical education using strategies based on awareness, alignment, assessment, and accountability. These principles of digital professionalism provide a way for medical students and medical practitioners to embrace the positive aspects of digital media use while being mindful and deliberate in its use to avoid or minimize any negative consequences.
Experiments in digital literacy.
Eshet-Alkali, Yoram; Amichai-Hamburger, Yair
2004-08-01
Having digital literacy requires more than just the ability to use software or to operate a digital device; it includes a large variety of complex skills such as cognitive, motoric, sociological, and emotional that users need to have in order to use digital environments effectively. A conceptual model that was recently described by the authors suggests that digital literacy comprises five major digital skills: photo-visual skills ("reading" instructions from graphical displays), reproduction skills (utilizing digital reproduction to create new, meaningful materials from preexisting ones), branching skills (constructing knowledge from non-linear, hypertextual navigation), information skills (evaluating the quality and validity of information), and socio-emotional skills (understanding the "rules" that prevail in cyberspace and applying this understanding in online cyberspace communication). The present paper presents results from a performance-based pioneer study that investigated the application of the above digital literacy skills conceptual model among different groups of scholars. Results clearly indicate that the younger participants performed better than the older ones, with photo-visual and branching literacy tasks, whereas the older participants were found to be more literate in reproduction and information literacy tasks. Research results shed light on the cognitive skills that users utilize in performing with digital environments, and provide educators and software developers with helpful guidelines for designing better user-centered digital environments. PMID:15331029
Digital security technology simplified.
Scaglione, Bernard J
2007-01-01
Digital security technology is making great strides in replacing analog and other traditional security systems including CCTV card access, personal identification and alarm monitoring applications. Like any new technology, the author says, it is important to understand its benefits and limitations before purchasing and installing, to ensure its proper operation and effectiveness. This article is a primer for security directors on how digital technology works. It provides an understanding of the key components which make up the foundation for digital security systems, focusing on three key aspects of the digital security world: the security network, IP cameras and IP recorders.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batson, R. M.; Kozak, R. C.; Isbell, Nancy K.
1991-01-01
All available synoptic maps of the solid-surface bodies of the Solar System were digitized for presentation in the planned Atlas of the Solar System by Greeley and Batson. Since the last report (Batson et al., 1990), preliminary Uranian satellite maps were replaced with improved versions, Galilean satellite geology was simplified and digitized, structure was added to many maps, and the maps were converted to a standard format, with corresponding standing colors for the mapped units. Following these changes, the maps were re-reviewed by their authors and are now undergoing final editing before preparation for publication. In some cases (for Mercury, Venus, and Mars), more detailed maps were digitized and then simplified for the Atlas. Other detailed maps are planned to be digitized in the coming year for the Moon and the Galilean satellites. For most of the remaining bodies such as the Uranian satellites, the current digitized versions contain virtually all the detail that can be mapped given the available data; those versions will be unchanged for the Atlas. These digital geologic maps are archived at the digital scale of 1/16 degree/ pixel, in sinusoidal format. The availability of geology of the Solar System in a digital database will facilitate comparisons and integration with other data: digitized lunar geologic maps have already been used in a comparison with Galileo SSI observations of the Moon.
Xue, Fei; Holtkamp, Irma S.; Knudson, Frances L.
2012-07-31
This project involved performing tests and documenting results to determine best practices for digitizing older print documents. The digitization process is complicated, especially when original documents exhibit non-standard fonts and are faded. Tests focused on solutions to improve high quality scanning, increase OCR accuracy, and efficiently use embedded metadata. Results are summarized. From the test results on the right sides, we know that when we plan to digitize documents, we should balance Quantity and Quality based on our expectation, and then make final decision for the digitization process.
Stefanick, M L
1993-01-01
Several important questions need to be answered to increase the likelihood that exercise will be accepted by the millions in the population who are obese. What is the minimum exercise "dose" (intensity, duration, frequency) and what is the optimal mode to bring about substantial fat weight loss, with minimal loss of lean mass? What is the best nutritional plan to optimize fat utilization during exercise, without impairing performance or loss of lean mass? Which diet and exercise programs maximally increase utilization of centrally deposited fat and how can hyperplastic obesity best be treated? Also of interest is the potential role of resistance exercise for weight loss, and the predictors of weight loss success. For instance, do individuals with gynoid obesity really differ from individuals with android obesity in their utilization and loss of body fat during exercise? The potential advantages of exercise include: stimulation of fat as opposed to carbohydrate oxidation; increased energy use during the exercise itself and in the postexercise period; protection of lean body mass; possible reversal of the diet-induced suppression of BMR; and other health benefits. Among other parameters, the effectiveness of exercise on weight loss may be influenced by the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of exercise bouts and the duration of the training program, the nature of the excess fat stores, i.e., whether the person has obesity characterized by hyperplastic or hypertrophic adipose tissue or central (with large-intra-abdominal depot) or peripheral obesity, the composition and caloric content of the diet, and behavioral aspects that affect adherence to the program. With respect to this latter concern, even if a person has been very successful at weight loss in a metabolic ward or intensive program, he/she must eventually return to the outside world and figure out for himself/herself how to eat real food and/or maintain an activity level that promotes weight maintenance
Summing Up the Unique Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004) Programme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2004-11-01
participate actively in this unique celestial event. As expected, not all groups delivered timing observations of the transit. In some places, the weather did not co-operate, some observers may have had instrumental problems, e.g., with the time signals, and others may not have felt confident to send in their measurements. Still, the resulting database is very comprehensive: before the stipulated deadline on July 10, 2004, no less than 4550 contact timings were received from 1510 registered observers! The impressive outcome of this unique project is now available in a number of reports, accessible via the "VT-2004 Observing Campaign Results" webpage. Following extensive analysis of this large material at Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Éphémérides (IMCCE; Paris), the resulting distance from the Earth to the Sun, based on the extensive observational data is: Calculated value of 1 AU with uncertainty Difference from "true" value 149 608 708 km ± 11 835 km + 10 838 km This result is only 0.007% larger than the currently accepted value, as determined by radar measurements (1 AU = 149 597 871 km), a splendid outcome of a truly unique international collaboration! A comparison with the results obtained by transit observations in past centuries shows that the above determination of the distance to the Sun in 2004 is the "best" in terms of accuracy, despite the relative lack of experience of most of the observers and notwithstanding a random distribution of the observing sites, caused by the absence in 2004 of any specific planning as this was done in earlier centuries. This success is undoubtedly due, above all, to more accurate timings and better known geographical locations, better optics in the telescopes, digital image recording and advanced image processing software. In fact, even if we had not known the distance to the Sun before the Venus Transit 2004, we would have been able to measure it with an accuracy of one hundredth of a percent by means of the
A Generalization of the Formula for the Triangular Number of the Sum and Product of Natural Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asiru, M. A.
2008-01-01
This note generalizes the formula for the triangular number of the sum and product of two natural numbers to similar results for the triangular number of the sum and product of "r" natural numbers. The formula is applied to derive formula for the sum of an odd and an even number of consecutive triangular numbers.
Revisiting weighted stego-image steganalysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ker, Andrew D.; Böhme, Rainer
2008-02-01
This paper revisits the steganalysis method involving a Weighted Stego-Image (WS) for estimating LSB replacement payload sizes in digital images. It suggests new WS estimators, upgrading the method's three components: cover pixel prediction, least-squares weighting, and bias correction. Wide-ranging experimental results (over two million total attacks) based on images from multiple sources and pre-processing histories show that the new methods produce greatly improved accuracy, to the extent that they outperform even the best of the structural detectors, while avoiding their high complexity. Furthermore, specialised WS estimators can be derived for detection of sequentially-placed payload: they offer levels of accuracy orders of magnitude better than their competitors.
Hybrid analog-digital associative neural network
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moopenn, Alexander W. (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor); Lambe, John J. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
Random access memory is used to store synaptic information in the form of a matrix of rows and columns of binary digits. N rows read in sequence are processed through switches and resistors, and a summing amplifier to N neural amplifiers in sequence, one row for each amplifier, using a first array of sample-and-hold devices S/H1 for commutation. The outputs of the neural amplifiers are stored in a second array of sample-and-hold devices S/H2 so that after N rows are processed, all of said second array of sample-and-hold devices are updated. A second memory may be added for binary values of 0 and -1, and processed simultaneously with the first to provide for values of 1, 0, and -1, the results of which are combined in a difference amplifier.
Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eckerson, Joan M.
Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.
Computation of synthetic mammograms with an edge-weighting algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Homann, Hanno; Bergner, Frank; Erhard, Klaus
2015-03-01
The promising increase in cancer detection rates1, 2 makes digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) an interesting alternative to full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in breast cancer screening. However, this benefit comes at the cost of an increased average glandular dose in a combined DBT plus FFDM acquisition protocol. Synthetic mammograms, which are computed from the reconstructed tomosynthesis volume data, have demonstrated to be an alternative to a regular FFDM exposure in a DBT plus synthetic 2D reading mode.3 Besides weighted averaging and modified maximum intensity projection (MIP) methods,4, 5 the integration of CAD techniques for computing a weighting function in the forward projection step of the synthetic mammogram generation has been recently proposed.6, 7 In this work, a novel and computationally efficient method is presented based on an edge-retaining algorithm, which directly computes the weighting function by an edge-detection filter.
Lorcaserin for weight management
Taylor, James R; Dietrich, Eric; Powell, Jason
2013-01-01
Type 2 diabetes and obesity commonly occur together. Obesity contributes to insulin resistance, a main cause of type 2 diabetes. Modest weight loss reduces glucose, lipids, blood pressure, need for medications, and cardiovascular risk. A number of approaches can be used to achieve weight loss, including lifestyle modification, surgery, and medication. Lorcaserin, a novel antiobesity agent, affects central serotonin subtype 2A receptors, resulting in decreased food intake and increased satiety. It has been studied in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and results in an approximately 5.5 kg weight loss, on average, when used for one year. Headache, back pain, nasopharyngitis, and nausea were the most common adverse effects noted with lorcaserin. Hypoglycemia was more common in the lorcaserin groups in the clinical trials, but none of the episodes were categorized as severe. Based on the results of these studies, lorcaserin was approved at a dose of 10 mg twice daily in patients with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 or ≥27 kg/m2 with at least one weight-related comorbidity, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia, in addition to a reduced calorie diet and increased physical activity. Lorcaserin is effective for weight loss in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes, although its specific role in the management of obesity is unclear at this time. This paper reviews the clinical trials of lorcaserin, its use from the patient perspective, and its potential role in the treatment of obesity. PMID:23788837
Method of improving a digital image
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rahman, Zia-ur (Inventor); Jobson, Daniel J. (Inventor); Woodell, Glenn A. (Inventor)
1999-01-01
A method of improving a digital image is provided. The image is initially represented by digital data indexed to represent positions on a display. The digital data is indicative of an intensity value I.sub.i (x,y) for each position (x,y) in each i-th spectral band. The intensity value for each position in each i-th spectral band is adjusted to generate an adjusted intensity value for each position in each i-th spectral band in accordance with ##EQU1## where S is the number of unique spectral bands included in said digital data, W.sub.n is a weighting factor and * denotes the convolution operator. Each surround function F.sub.n (x,y) is uniquely scaled to improve an aspect of the digital image, e.g., dynamic range compression, color constancy, and lightness rendition. The adjusted intensity value for each position in each i-th spectral band is filtered with a common function and then presented to a display device. For color images, a novel color restoration step is added to give the image true-to-life color that closely matches human observation.
Random walks on non-homogenous weighted Koch networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Meifeng; Li, Xingyi; Xi, Lifeng
2013-09-01
In this paper, we introduce new models of non-homogenous weighted Koch networks on real traffic systems depending on the three scaling factors r1,r2,r3∈(0,1). Inspired by the definition of the average weighted shortest path (AWSP), we define the average weighted receiving time (AWRT). Assuming that the walker, at each step, starting from its current node, moves uniformly to any of its neighbors, we show that in large network, the AWRT grows as power-law function of the network order with the exponent, represented by θ(r1,r2,r3)=log4(1+r1+r2+r3). Moreover, the AWSP, in the infinite network order limit, only depends on the sum of scaling factors r1,r2,r3.
Grimm, Alexander; Rasenack, Maria; Athanasopoulou, Ioanna M; Dammeier, Nele Maria; Lipski, Christina; Wolking, Stefan; Vittore, Debora; Décard, Bernhard F; Axer, Hubertus
2016-02-01
The objective of this study is to evaluate the nerve ultrasound characteristics in genetically distinct inherited neuropathies, the value of the modified ultrasound pattern sum score (mUPSS) to differentiate between the subtypes and the correlation of ultrasound with nerve conduction studies (NCS), disease duration and severity. All patients underwent a standardized neurological examination, ultrasound, and NCS. In addition, genetic testing was performed. Consequently, mUPSS was applied, which is a sum-score of cross-sectional areas (CSA) at predefined anatomical points in different nerves. 31 patients were included (10xCharcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT)1a, 3xCMT1b, 3xCMTX, 9xCMT2, 6xHNPP [Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies]). Generalized, homogeneous nerve enlargement and significantly increased UPS scores emphasized the diagnosis of demyelinating neuropathy, particularly CMT1a and CMT1b. The amount of enlargement did not depend on disease duration, symptom severity, height and weight. In CMTX the nerves were enlarged, as well, however, only in the roots and lower limbs, most prominent in men. In CMT2 no significant enlargement was detectable. In HNPP the CSA values were increased at entrapped sites, and not elsewhere. However, a distinction from CMT1, which also showed enlarged CSA values at entrapment sites, was only possible by calculating the entrapment ratios and entrapment score. The mUPSS allowed distinction between CMT1a (increased UPS scores, entrapment ratios <1.0) and HNPP (low UPS scores, entrapment ratios >1.4), while CMT1b and CMTX showed intermediate UPS types and entrapment ratios <1.0. Although based on few cases, ultrasound revealed consistent and homogeneous nerve alteration in certain inherited neuropathies. The modified UPSS is a quantitative tool, which may provide useful information for diagnosis, differentiation and follow-up evaluation in addition to NCS and molecular testing.
Smoking Cessation and Weight Gain.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hall, Sharon M.; And Others
1986-01-01
Investigated determinants of weight gain after quitting smoking in two smoking treatment outcome studies. Results indicated abstinence resulted in weight gain, and postquitting weight gain was predicted by pretreatment tobacco use, a history of weight problems, and eating patterns. Relapse to smoking did not follow weight gain. (Author/BL)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomson, Rachel
2009-01-01
A month ago, a French court ruled that internet access is a basic human right. Gordon Brown has said it is as crucial for people as electricity and water. Yet, 17 million Britons are still excluded from digital technology and an estimated 13 per cent of the population--some six million people--are both socially and digitally excluded. There are…
Digital Image Access & Retrieval.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heidorn, P. Bryan, Ed.; Sandore, Beth, Ed.
Recent technological advances in computing and digital imaging technology have had immediate and permanent consequences for visual resource collections. Libraries are involved in organizing and managing large visual resource collections. The central challenges in working with digital image collections mirror those that libraries have sought to…
Fundamentals of Digital Logic.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noell, Monica L.
This course is designed to prepare electronics personnel for further training in digital techniques, presenting need to know information that is basic to any maintenance course on digital equipment. It consists of seven study units: (1) binary arithmetic; (2) boolean algebra; (3) logic gates; (4) logic flip-flops; (5) nonlogic circuits; (6)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 2012
2012-01-01
MacArthur launched the digital media and learning initiative in 2006 to explore how digital media are changing the way young people learn, socialize, communicate, and play. Since 2006, the Foundation has awarded grants totaling more than $100 million for research, development of innovative new technologies, new learning environments for youth,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Piedmo, Greg
1995-01-01
Integrated services digital network (ISDN) is a dial-up digital transmission service supporting transmission of audio, video, and text data over standard copper telephone wires or fiber optic cables. Advantages of ISDN over analog transmission include the ability of one phone line to support up to three simultaneous, separate conversations (phone,…
Optimization of digital designs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
An application specific integrated circuit is optimized by translating a first representation of its digital design to a second representation. The second representation includes multiple syntactic expressions that admit a representation of a higher-order function of base Boolean values. The syntactic expressions are manipulated to form a third representation of the digital design.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hassler, Vesna; Biely, Helmut
1999-01-01
Describes the Digital Signature Project that was developed in Austria to establish an infrastructure for applying smart card-based digital signatures in banking and electronic-commerce applications. Discusses the need to conform to international standards, an international certification infrastructure, and security features for a public directory…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Acker, Stephen R.
2008-01-01
With faculty changing instructional practices to take advantage of customizable, focused content (and digital delivery of that content), many people assume that digital distribution is the answer to bringing the costs of course content delivery in line. But the picture just isn't that simple. A wide continuum of options is available to faculty and…
Occupying the Digital Humanities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rice, Jeff
2013-01-01
This essay questions the digital humanities' dependence on interpretation and critique as strategies for reading and responding to texts. Instead, the essay proposes suggestion as a digital rhetorical practice, one that does not replace hermeneutics, but instead offers alternative ways to respond to texts. The essay uses the Occupy movement as an…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tan, Thomas
2011-01-01
Digital citizenship is how educators, citizens, and parents can teach where the lines of cyber safety and ethics are in the interconnected online world their students will inhabit. Aside from keeping technology users safe, digital citizenship also prepares students to survive and thrive in an environment embedded with information, communication,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lancor, Rachael; Lancor, Brian
2014-01-01
In this article we describe how the classic pinhole camera demonstration can be adapted for use with digital cameras. Students can easily explore the effects of the size of the pinhole and its distance from the sensor on exposure time, magnification, and image quality. Instructions for constructing a digital pinhole camera and our method for…
Determining Our Digital Destiny.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tennant, Roy
2000-01-01
Discusses future possibilities that libraries must consider in a digital information age. Topics include how the Internet has transformed the way people look for information; the need for better Web search engines; electronic publishing; and an information infrastructure that supports the delivery of digital objects and 24-hour reference service.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pandian, M. Paul
2008-01-01
Technology has revolutionized the concept of libraries. Networking and computing technologies have now become sufficiently advanced to support the design and deployment of large digital libraries which are capable of supporting the conventional end-user functions. Digital libraries are a natural extension of the evolution in which libraries have…
Changing State Digital Libraries
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pappas, Marjorie L.
2006-01-01
Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital…
Music Instruction Goes Digital
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Demski, Jennifer
2011-01-01
Faced with meager enrollment in band, orchestra, and choir programs, schools are using digital technology to excite students about creating music on today's terms. This article discusses how music educators reinvent their profession by acknowledging and incorporating the way students interact with music today--digitally. Bill Evans, a music…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McConnell, Terry
2004-01-01
Monica Adams, head librarian at Robinson Secondary in Fairfax country, Virginia, states that librarians should have the technical knowledge to support projects related to digital video editing. The process of digital video editing and the cables, storage issues and the computer system with software is described.
Improved digital thermometer design.
Swift, C S
1981-01-01
A simple digital thermometer design using a self-contained 3 1/2 digit LCD meter module is presented. The Celsius-reading (Centigrade) thermometer is powered by a single 9-V battery, has very low power drain, and uses an inexpensive NPN silicon transistor for the temperature sensor. A short bibliography on temperature measurement instrumentation is included. PMID:10253871
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Waes, Luuk, Ed.; Leijten, Marielle, Ed.; Neuwirth, Chris, Ed.
2006-01-01
Digital media has become an increasingly powerful force in modern society. This volume brings together outstanding European, American and Australian research in "writing and digital media" and explores its cognitive, social and cultural implications. In addition to presenting programs of original research by internationally known scholars from a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zoch, Melody; Langston-DeMott, Brooke; Adams-Budde, Melissa
2014-01-01
Elementary students find themselves engaged and learning at a digital writing camp. The authors find that such elementary students usually have limited access to technology at home and school, and posit that teachers should do all they can to give them more access to and experience in digital composing. Students were motivated and learned to use…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boorstyn, R. R.
1973-01-01
Research is reported dealing with problems of digital data transmission and computer communications networks. The results of four individual studies are presented which include: (1) signal processing with finite state machines, (2) signal parameter estimation from discrete-time observations, (3) digital filtering for radar signal processing applications, and (4) multiple server queues where all servers are not identical.
Digital rotation measurement unit
Sanderson, S.N.
1983-09-30
A digital rotation indicator is disclosed for monitoring the position of a valve member having a movable actuator. The indicator utilizes mercury switches adapted to move in cooperation with the actuator. Each of the switches produces an output as it changes state when the actuator moves. A direction detection circuit is connected to the switches to produce a first digital signal indicative of the direction of rotation of the actuator. A count pulse generating circuit is also connected to the switches to produce a second digital pulse signal having count pulses corresponding to a change of state of any of the mercury switches. A reset pulse generating circuit is provided to generate a reset pulse each time a count pulse is generated. An up/down counter is connected to receive the first digital pulse signal and the second digital pulse signal and to count the pulses of the second digital pulse signal either up or down depending upon the instantaneous digital value of the first digital signal whereby a running count indicative of the movement of the actuator is maintained.
Evers, Daan
2013-04-01
According to Stephen Finlay, 'A ought to X' means that X-ing is more conducive to contextually salient ends than relevant alternatives. This in turn is analysed in terms of probability. I show why this theory of 'ought' is hard to square with a theory of a reason's weight which could explain why 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es. I develop two theories of weight to illustrate my point. I first look at the prospects of a theory of weight based on expected utility theory. I then suggest a simpler theory. Although neither allows that 'A ought to X' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X-es, this price may be accepted. For there remains a strong pragmatic relation between these claims. PMID:23576822
Light weight phosphate cements
Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David
2010-03-09
A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.
Sethi, Bipin Kumar; Nagesh, V Sri
2015-05-01
Ramadan fasting is associated with significant weight loss in both men and women. Reduction in blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, body mass index and waist and hip circumference may also occur. However, benefits accrued during this month often reverse within a few weeks of cessation of fasting, with most people returning back to their pre-Ramadan body weights and body composition. To ensure maintenance of this fasting induced weight loss, health care professionals should encourage continuation of healthy dietary habits, moderate physical activity and behaviour modification, even after conclusion of fasting. It should be realized that Ramadan is an ideal platform to target year long lifestyle modification, to ensure that whatever health care benefits have been gained during this month, are perpetuated.
Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.
Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick
2009-10-01
This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.
Sensitivity of feedforward neural networks to weight errors--
Stevenson, M.; Widrow, B. . Dept. of Engineering-Economic Systems); Winter, R. )
1990-03-01
An important consideration when implementing neural networks with digital or analog hardware of limited precision is the sensitivity of neural networks to weight errors. In this paper, the authors analyze the sensitivity of feedforward layered networks of Adaline elements (threshold logic units) to weight errors. An approximation is derived which expresses the probability of error for an output neuron of a large network ( a network with many neurons per layer) as a function of the percentage change in the weights. As would be expected, the probability of error increases with the number of layers in the network and with the percentage change in the weights. Surprisingly, the probability of error is essentially independent of the number of weights per neuron and of the number of neurons per layer, as long as these numbers are large (on the order of 100 or more).
Digital biology and chemistry.
Witters, Daan; Sun, Bing; Begolo, Stefano; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Robles, Whitney; Ismagilov, Rustem F
2014-09-01
This account examines developments in "digital" biology and chemistry within the context of microfluidics, from a personal perspective. Using microfluidics as a frame of reference, we identify two areas of research within digital biology and chemistry that are of special interest: (i) the study of systems that switch between discrete states in response to changes in chemical concentration of signals, and (ii) the study of single biological entities such as molecules or cells. In particular, microfluidics accelerates analysis of switching systems (i.e., those that exhibit a sharp change in output over a narrow range of input) by enabling monitoring of multiple reactions in parallel over a range of concentrations of signals. Conversely, such switching systems can be used to create new kinds of microfluidic detection systems that provide "analog-to-digital" signal conversion and logic. Microfluidic compartmentalization technologies for studying and isolating single entities can be used to reconstruct and understand cellular processes, study interactions between single biological entities, and examine the intrinsic heterogeneity of populations of molecules, cells, or organisms. Furthermore, compartmentalization of single cells or molecules in "digital" microfluidic experiments can induce switching in a range of reaction systems to enable sensitive detection of cells or biomolecules, such as with digital ELISA or digital PCR. This "digitizing" offers advantages in terms of robustness, assay design, and simplicity because quantitative information can be obtained with qualitative measurements. While digital formats have been shown to improve the robustness of existing chemistries, we anticipate that in the future they will enable new chemistries to be used for quantitative measurements, and that digital biology and chemistry will continue to provide further opportunities for measuring biomolecules, understanding natural systems more deeply, and advancing molecular and
The Digital Carrot, the Digital Stick
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackson, Gregory A.
2007-01-01
In this article, the author asserts that technology is not the answer to digital piracy at colleges and universities. Citing the three most common explanations given for copyright infringement--that students cannot always get what they want, cannot always use what they can get, or think the price of what they can get is unfair--he asserts that the…
From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de los Santos, Gerardo E., Ed.; de los Santos, Alfredo G., Jr., Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.
This publication is one of many efforts of the League for Innovation in the Community College to address the issue of societal technology access and learning needs. This work addresses the issue of the digital divide, which includes the often conflicting perspectives of information technology (IT) access and literacy needs held by government…
Computing Logarithms Digit-by-Digit
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goldberg, Mayer
2005-01-01
In this work, we present an algorithm for computing logarithms of positive real numbers, that bears structural resemblance to the elementary school algorithm of long division. Using this algorithm, we can compute successive digits of a logarithm using a 4-operation pocket calculator. The algorithm makes no use of Taylor series or calculus, but…
Digital Booktalk: Digital Media for Reluctant Readers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gunter, Glenda; Kenny, Robert
2008-01-01
New learning and communications paradigms of today's learners are extending the definition of literacy and directly affecting how reading and writing skills are acquired (Leu, 2000). Mirroring an ever-expanding definition of literacy, new college and K-12 curricular programs that redefine digital media are popping up all over the country. Story is…
... oxygen into energy), and behavior or habits. Energy Balance Energy balance is important for maintaining a healthy weight. The ... OUT over time = weight stays the same (energy balance) More energy IN than OUT over time = weight ...
... diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid ... AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a ...
Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)
... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Weight and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Parents > Weight and Diabetes Print A ... or type 2 diabetes. Weight and Type 1 Diabetes Undiagnosed or untreated, type 1 diabetes can make ...
Finite temperature effects and the validity of the Weinberg sum rules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayala, Alejandro; Dominguez, C. A.; Loewe, M.; Zhang, Y.
2016-05-01
Using resent independent results from QCD sum rules for the thermal evolution of hadronic parameters in the vector and the axial-vector channels, we discuss the saturation of the two Weinberg sum rules. It turn out that both sum rules are quite well satisfied in a wide range from T = 0 up to T/T c ≃ 0.7 — 0.8. At higher temperatures, coming closer to Tc , there is an asymmetry between both channels since in the vector case there is a leading order effect, proportional to T2 , due to a one loop pion contribution in the space-like region, which is absent in the axial-vector case. This leads then to a small deviation. More important, though, in this region the QCD sum rules for the hadronic parameters begin to have no solutions since the widths of the ρ and the a1-mesons diverge signaling the occurrence of deconfinement. Close to and at Tc there are no pions left in the medium and chiral symmetry is restored so that the Weinberg sum rules are trivially satisfied.
The operator-sum-difference representation of a quantum noise channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omkar, S.; Srikanth, R.; Banerjee, Subhashish
2015-06-01
When a model for quantum noise is exactly solvable, a Kraus (or operator-sum) representation can be derived from the spectral decomposition of the Choi matrix for the channel. More generally, a Kraus representation can be obtained from any positive-sum (or ensemble) decomposition of the matrix. Here we extend this idea to any Hermitian-sum decomposition. This yields what we call the "operator-sum-difference" (OSD) representation, in which the channel can be represented as the sum and difference of "subchannels." As one application, the subchannels can be chosen to be analytically diagonalizable, even if the parent channel is not (on account of the Abel-Galois irreducibility theorem), though in this case the number of the OSD representation operators may exceed the channel rank. Our procedure is applicable to general Hermitian (completely positive or non-completely positive) maps and can be extended to the more general, linear maps. As an illustration of the application, we derive an OSD representation for a two-qubit amplitude-damping channel.
Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J; Bianconi, Ginestra
2014-01-01
One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of [Formula: see text] nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nutter, June
1995-01-01
Secondary level physical education teachers can have their students use math concepts while working out on the weight-room equipment. The article explains how students can reinforce math skills while weightlifting by estimating their strength, estimating their power, or calculating other formulas. (SM)
Implicit Bias about Weight and Weight Loss Treatment Outcomes
Carels, Robert A; Hinman, Nova G; Hoffmann, Debra A; Burmeister, Jacob M; Borushok, Jessica E.; Marx, Jenna M; Ashrafioun, Lisham
2014-01-01
Objectives The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of a weight loss intervention on implicit bias toward weight, as well as the relationship among implicit bias, weight loss behaviors, and weight loss outcomes. Additionally, of interest was the relationship among these variables when implicit weight bias was measured with a novel assessment that portrays individuals who are thin and obese engaged in both stereotypical and nonstereotypical health-related behaviors. Methods Implicit weight bias (stereotype consistent and stereotype inconsistent), binge eating, self-monitoring, and body weight were assessed among weight loss participants at baseline and post-treatment (N=44) participating in two weight loss programs. Results Stereotype consistent bias significantly decreased from baseline to post-treatment. Greater baseline stereotype consistent bias was associated with lower binge eating and greater self-monitoring. Greater post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with greater percent weight loss. Stereotype inconsistent bias did not change from baseline to post-treatment and was generally unrelated to outcomes. Conclusion Weight loss treatment may reduce implicit bias toward overweight individuals among weight loss participants. Higher post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with a higher percent weight loss, possibly suggesting that losing weight may serve to maintain implicit weight bias. Alternatively, great implicit weight bias may identify individuals motivated to make changes necessary for weight loss. PMID:25261809
Cramer, Luise; Schiebel, Hans-Martin; Ernst, Ludger; Beuerle, Till
2013-11-27
Contamination of food and feed with pyrrolizidine alkaloids is currently discussed as a potential health risk. Here, we report the development of a new HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method to quantitate the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content in complex food matrices. The procedure was validated for honey and culinary herbs. Isotopically labeled 7-O-9-O-dibutyroyl-[9,9-(2)H2]-retronecine was synthesized and utilized as an internal standard for validation and quantitation. The total pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of a sample is expressed as a single sum parameter: retronecine equivalents (RE). Ld/Lq for honey was 0.1 μg RE/kg/0.3 μg RE/kg. For culinary herbs, 1.0 μg RE/kg/3.0 μg RE/kg (dry weight, dw) and 0.1 μg RE/kg/0.3 μg RE/kg (fresh weight, fw) were determined, respectively. The new method was applied to analyze 21 herbal convenience products. Fifteen products (71%) were pyrrolizidine alkaloid positive showing pyrrolizidine alkaloid concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 74 μg RE/kg fw. PMID:24245544
Cramer, Luise; Schiebel, Hans-Martin; Ernst, Ludger; Beuerle, Till
2013-11-27
Contamination of food and feed with pyrrolizidine alkaloids is currently discussed as a potential health risk. Here, we report the development of a new HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method to quantitate the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content in complex food matrices. The procedure was validated for honey and culinary herbs. Isotopically labeled 7-O-9-O-dibutyroyl-[9,9-(2)H2]-retronecine was synthesized and utilized as an internal standard for validation and quantitation. The total pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of a sample is expressed as a single sum parameter: retronecine equivalents (RE). Ld/Lq for honey was 0.1 μg RE/kg/0.3 μg RE/kg. For culinary herbs, 1.0 μg RE/kg/3.0 μg RE/kg (dry weight, dw) and 0.1 μg RE/kg/0.3 μg RE/kg (fresh weight, fw) were determined, respectively. The new method was applied to analyze 21 herbal convenience products. Fifteen products (71%) were pyrrolizidine alkaloid positive showing pyrrolizidine alkaloid concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 74 μg RE/kg fw.
Calculation of Coincidence Summing Correction Factors for an HPGe detector using GEANT4.
Giubrone, G; Ortiz, J; Gallardo, S; Martorell, S; Bas, M C
2016-07-01
The aim of this paper was to calculate the True Coincidence Summing Correction Factors (TSCFs) for an HPGe coaxial detector in order to correct the summing effect as a result of the presence of (88)Y and (60)Co in a multigamma source used to obtain a calibration efficiency curve. Results were obtained for three volumetric sources using the Monte Carlo toolkit, GEANT4. The first part of this paper deals with modeling the detector in order to obtain a simulated full energy peak efficiency curve. A quantitative comparison between the measured and simulated values was made across the entire energy range under study. The True Summing Correction Factors were calculated for (88)Y and (60)Co using the full peak efficiencies obtained with GEANT4. This methodology was subsequently applied to (134)Cs, and presented a complex decay scheme. PMID:27085040
Ab initio investigation of the sum-frequency hyperpolarizability of small chiral molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Champagne, Benoı̂t; Fischer, Peer; Buckingham, A. David
2000-11-01
Using a sum-over-states procedure based on configuration interaction singles /6-311++G **, we have computed the sum-frequency hyperpolarizability βijk(-3 ω;2 ω, ω) of two small chiral molecules, R-monofluoro-oxirane and R-(+)-propylene oxide. Excitation energies were scaled to fit experimental UV-absorption data and checked with ab initio values from time-dependent density functional theory. The isotropic part of the computed hyperpolarizabilities, β¯(-3ω;2ω,ω) , is much smaller than that reported previously from sum-frequency generation experiments on aqueous solutions of arabinose. Comparison is made with a single-centre chiral model.
Villa, Francesco
1982-01-01
Method and apparatus for sequentially scanning a plurality of target elements with an electron scanning beam modulated in accordance with variations in a high-frequency analog signal to provide discrete analog signal samples representative of successive portions of the analog signal; coupling the discrete analog signal samples from each of the target elements to a different one of a plurality of high speed storage devices; converting the discrete analog signal samples to equivalent digital signals; and storing the digital signals in a digital memory unit for subsequent measurement or display.
Young, K.K.; Wilkes, R.J.
1995-11-21
A transponder of an active digital sonar system identifies a multifrequency underwater activating sonar signal received from a remote sonar transmitter. The transponder includes a transducer that receives acoustic waves, including the activating sonar signal, and generates an analog electrical receipt signal. The analog electrical receipt signal is converted to a digital receipt signal and cross-correlated with a digital transmission signal pattern corresponding to the activating sonar signal. A relative peak in the cross-correlation value is indicative of the activating sonar signal having been received by the transponder. In response to identifying the activating sonar signal, the transponder transmits a responding multifrequency sonar signal. 4 figs.
Young, Kenneth K.; Wilkes, R. Jeffrey
1995-01-01
A transponder of an active digital sonar system identifies a multifrequency underwater activating sonar signal received from a remote sonar transmitter. The transponder includes a transducer that receives acoustic waves, including the activating sonar signal, and generates an analog electrical receipt signal. The analog electrical receipt signal is converted to a digital receipt signal and cross-correlated with a digital transmission signal pattern corresponding to the activating sonar signal. A relative peak in the cross-correlation value is indicative of the activating sonar signal having been received by the transponder. In response to identifying the activating sonar signal, the transponder transmits a responding multifrequency sonar signal.
Heterogeneous edge weights promote epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Wei; Song, Zhichao; Qiu, Xiaogang
2016-08-01
The impact that the heterogeneities of links’ weights have on epidemic diffusion in weighted networks has received much attention. Investigating how heterogeneous edge weights affect epidemic spread is helpful for disease control. In this paper, we study a Reed-Frost epidemic model in weighted evolving networks. Our results indicate that a higher heterogeneity of edge weights leads to higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence at earlier stage of epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks. In addition, weighted evolving scale-free networks come with a higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence than unweighted scale-free networks.
Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ohler, Jason
2011-01-01
The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are both proactive and aggressive. Taking this approach will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age…
Digital Library and Digital Reference Service: Integration and Mutual Complementarity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Jia
2008-01-01
Both the digital library and the digital reference service were invented and have been developed under the networked environment. Among their intersections, the fundamental thing is their symbiotic interest--serving the user in a more efficient way. The article starts by discussing the digital library and its service and the digital reference…
Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ohler, Jason
2012-01-01
The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of…
Approximating large convolutions in digital images.
Mount, D M; Kanungo, T; Netanyahu, N S; Piatko, C; Silverman, R; Wu, A Y
2001-01-01
Computing discrete two-dimensional (2-D) convolutions is an important problem in image processing. In mathematical morphology, an important variant is that of computing binary convolutions, where the kernel of the convolution is a 0-1 valued function. This operation can be quite costly, especially when large kernels are involved. We present an algorithm for computing convolutions of this form, where the kernel of the binary convolution is derived from a convex polygon. Because the kernel is a geometric object, we allow the algorithm some flexibility in how it elects to digitize the convex kernel at each placement, as long as the digitization satisfies certain reasonable requirements. We say that such a convolution is valid. Given this flexibility we show that it is possible to compute binary convolutions more efficiently than would normally be possible for large kernels. Our main result is an algorithm which, given an m x n image and a k-sided convex polygonal kernel K, computes a valid convolution in O(kmn) time. Unlike standard algorithms for computing correlations and convolutions, the running time is independent of the area or perimeter of K, and our techniques do not rely on computing fast Fourier transforms. Our algorithm is based on a novel use of Bresenham's (1965) line-drawing algorithm and prefix-sums to update the convolution incrementally as the kernel is moved from one position to another across the image. PMID:18255522
Nonperturbative explanation of the enhancement factors in the QCD sum rule for the {rho} meson
Nie, S.; Kuang, Y.; Wang, Q.; Yi, Y. |
1997-08-01
Taking the sum rule for the {rho} meson as an example, we study the possibility of explaining the phenomenological enhancement factors for certain terms in the vacuum expectation value of operator product expansion in the QCD sum rule. We take a QCD motivated extended Nambu{endash}Jona-Lasinio model as the low energy effective Lagrangian for QCD with which we calculate the nonperpturbative contributions to the vaccum condensate expansion to obtain the enhancement factors. Our result shows that such nonperturbative contributions can cause large enough enhancement factors which can be consistent with the phenomenological values. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
QCD sum rules for {rho} mesons in vacuum and in-medium, re-examined
Kwon, Youngshin; Weise, Wolfram; Procura, Massimiliano
2008-11-15
An updated investigation of QCD sum rules for the first two moments of {rho}-meson spectral functions, both in vacuum and in-medium, is performed with emphasis on the role of the scale related to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. It is demonstrated that these lowest moments of vector current spectral distributions do permit an accurate sum-rule analysis with controlled input including QCD condensates of the lowest dimensions, whereas higher moments are subject to uncertainties from higher dimensional condensates. Possible connections with Brown-Rho scaling are discussed. The factorization approximation for four-quark condensates is shown not to be applicable in any of the cases studied.
Diode laser pumped green light source based on intracavity sum frequency generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, X. H.; Che, Y.; Li, Y. L.; Jiang, H. L.
2011-07-01
We report a continuous-wave (CW) green laser emission by sum-frequency mixing in Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YLF crystals. Using type-I critical phase-matching (CPM) LBO crystal, a green laser at 538 nm is obtained by 912 and 1313 nm intracavity sum-frequency mixing. The maximum output power of 185 mW is obtained when an incident pump laser of 18.2 W is used. At the output power level of 185 mW, the output stability is better than 3.3%.
Pion-photon transition form factor in light-cone sum rules
Pimikov, A. V.; Bakulev, A. P.; Mikhailov, S. V.; Stefanis, N. G.
2012-10-23
We extract constraints on the pion distribution amplitude from available data on the pionphoton transition form factor in the framework of light-cone sum rules. A pronounced discrepancy (2.7 - 3){sigma} between the Gegenbauer expansion coefficients extracted from the CELLO, CLEO, and Belle experimental data relative to those from BaBar is found. Predictions for the pion-photon transition form factor are presented by employing a pion distribution amplitude obtained long ago from QCD sum rules with nonlocal condensates. These predictions comply with the Belle data but disagree with those of BaBar beyond 9 GeV{sup 2}.
Metrological activity determination of 133Ba by sum-peak absolute method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Silva, R. L.; de Almeida, M. C. M.; Delgado, J. U.; Poledna, R.; Santos, A.; de Veras, E. V.; Rangel, J.; Trindade, O. L.
2016-07-01
The National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation provides gamma sources of radionuclide and standardized in activity with reduced uncertainties. Relative methods require standards to determine the sample activity while the absolute methods, as sum-peak, not. The activity is obtained directly with good accuracy and low uncertainties. 133Ba is used in research laboratories and on calibration of detectors for analysis in different work areas. Classical absolute methods don't calibrate 133Ba due to its complex decay scheme. The sum-peak method using gamma spectrometry with germanium detector standardizes 133Ba samples. Uncertainties lower than 1% to activity results were obtained.
Sum-frequency generation of continuous-wave light at 194 nm.
Berkeland, D J; Cruz, F C; Bergquist, J C
1997-06-20
Over 2 mW of continuous-wave tunable 194-nm light is produced by sum-frequency mixing approximately 500 mW of 792-nm and 500 mW of 257-nm radiation in beta-barium borate (BBO). The powers in both fundamental beams are enhanced in separate ring cavities whose optical paths overlap in the Brewster-cut BBO crystal. Due to the higher circulating fundamental powers, the sum-frequency-generated power is nearly 2 orders of magnitude greater than previously reported values.
Measurement of the summed residual projectile mass in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Stevenson, J.D.; Martinis, J.; Price, P.B.
1981-10-05
Measurements of the summed mass of projectile fragments, M/sub s/ = summationM/sub pf/, are reported for 2.1-GeV/nucleon /sup 20/Ne+C and /sup 20/Ne+Mo. Unlike previous measurements of cross sections for individual projectile fragments, these measurements are quite sensitive to the size of the target nucleus. The distribution of summed residual projectile mass, M/sub s/, provides the first conclusive evidence of the validity of the geometrical ''abrasion'' model of relativistic heavy-ion collisions.
Sum and buffer amplifier for lead-glass barrel calorimeter in the TOPAZ detector
Ujiie, N.; Ikeda, M.; Inaba, S.
1988-02-01
Analog sum and buffer amplifiers have been developed to provide a fast trigger signal from the lead-glass electromagnetic calorimeter in the TOPAZ detector for TRISTAN e/sup +/e/sup -/ collider experiments at KEK. The total kick-back noise from the 4300 channel gate signals of the LeCroy FASTBUS ADC 1885N has been suppressed to less than 40 mV (equivalent to a 0.4 GeV electron signal). The performances of the analog sum and buffer amplifiers that have been developed are described.
Beating photo-degradation in sum-frequency imaging of chiral organic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taupier, Grégory; Boeglin, Alex; Crégut, Olivier; Mager, Loïc; Barsella, Alberto; Gąsior, Katarzyna; Rehspringer, Jean-Luc; (Honorat) Dorkenoo, Kokou D.
2015-07-01
Sum-frequency generation from chiral bulk media holds the promise of a powerful tool in the investigation of biological as well as artificial materials containing optically active elements. Since this technique is based on a nonlinear optical effect, the high intensities of the illuminating light sources may induce spurious artifacts. Using simple conjugated chromophores, we demonstrate that multi-photon induced irreversible photolysis may be avoided while keeping undiminished levels of sum-frequency signals. In addition we show that the concurrent multi-photon induced luminescence may provide complementary means of imaging samples.