Science.gov

Sample records for weld-windsor 115-kv transmission

  1. Buffalo Flat Service 115-KV Transmission Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1987-07-01

    The US Air Force has sited a radar transmitter at Buffalo Flat, near Christmas Valley, Oregon. This report discusses the environmental impacts of providing the electrical service for the installation. A 115 kV power transmission line will be built between LaPine and Buffalo Flat. Route alternatives as well as design alternatives are discussed. (ACR)

  2. Weld-Windsor 115-kV Transmission Line Project, Weld County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration is proposing to rebuild a 3.0 mile segment of the existing Flatiron-Weld 115-kV transmission line in Weld County. The line would be reconductored with new conductor on new wood pole double circuit structures. The new structures would support a double circuit transmission line configuration. The first circuit would be owned by Western and the second by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO). Alternatives considered included no action, constructing PSCO`s circuit on new right-of-way, and reconductoring Western`s existing line on the same structures. The proposed action was selected because it provided an opportunity to share structures with PSCO and, overall, would minimize costs and environmental impacts. The environmental assessment identifies minor effects on existing natural or human resources and minor benefits for agricultural operations.

  3. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-130- Keeler-Tillamook)

    SciTech Connect

    Sherer, Brett M.

    2003-03-10

    Vegetation Management for the Keeler Tillamook 115 kV transmission line from structure 1/7 through structure 58/2, and along adjacent portions of the Keeler-Forest Grove #2 115KV transmission line. In addition the project includes 11miles of the 115KV Timber Tap.

  4. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-127- Eugene-Alvey#2

    SciTech Connect

    Sherer, Brett M.

    2003-02-19

    BPA proposes to remove unwanted vegetation along the right-of-way, access roads, and around tower structures of the subject transmission line corridor that may impede the operation and maintenance of the identified transmission lines. BPA plans to conduct vegetation control with the goal of removing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission line. BPA’s overall goal is to have low-growing plant communities along the rights-of-way to control the development of potentially threatening vegetation. Vegetation Management for the Eugene-Alvey 115 kV transmission line from structure 7/1 through structure 12/2m, and along portions of the following adjacent transmission lines: Hawkins-Alvey 115KV and Alvey-Lane 115KV.

  5. Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, K.

    1988-12-27

    A transmission is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output shaft; a first planetary gear set including a first sun gear selectively connectable by a first clutch to the input shaft, a first carrier selectively connectable by a second clutch to the input shaft and a first ring gear connected to the output shaft. The first sun gear selectively held stationary by a first brake, the first carrier is allowed to rotate in the same forward direction as the input shaft when the second clutch is engaged, but prevented from rotating in a reverse direction opposite to the forward direction by a first one-way clutch, the first carrier being selectively held stationary by a second brake; a second planetary gear set including a second sun gear connected to the input shaft, a second carrier connected to the first ring gear and also the the output shaft, and a second ring gear.

  6. Final environmental assessment: Los Reales 115 kV transmission line alternative routes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) was authorized as a part of the Colorado River Basin Project Act (Public Law 90-537) on September 30, 1968. The primary purpose of the CAP is to furnish water for agricultural, municipal, and industrial uses in central and southern Arizona, and western New Mexico. Due to its magnitude, the CAP is divided into several major features serving separate but interrelated functions. The Tucson Aqueduct Phase B pumping plants were designed and constructed to operate on a looped power system. The entire looped power system, including two switching stations and connecting 115-kv transmission lines, was identified in the FEIS and approved for construction in the Secretary of Interior's Record of Decision dated September 24, 1985. The loop begins in the vicinity of the Twin Peaks Pumping Plant -- the northernmost Phase B pumping station, at the Rattlesnake Switching Station. All of the looped power system has been constructed with the exception of the switching station and portion of transmission line proposed to be constructed in this project. Without construction of this final portion of the looped power system, the Phase B pumping plants will not be able to operate normally without negatively affecting nearby power sources. The CAP will also not be able to provide the reliability necessary for municipal water systems dependent upon CAP water. The purpose of this EA is to describe impacts that would result from relocating the Los Reales 115-kV transmission line, and possibly the switching station, originally identified in the FEIS. It should be mentioned the Department of Energy will complete a separate NEPA review.

  7. Transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  8. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Aoki, H.

    1988-02-02

    An automatic transmission is described comprising: an automatic transmission mechanism portion comprising a single planetary gear unit and a dual planetary gear unit; carriers of both of the planetary gear units that are integral with one another; an input means for inputting torque to the automatic transmission mechanism, clutches for operatively connecting predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units to the input means and braking means for restricting the rotation of predetermined ones of planetary gear elements of both of the planetary gear units. The clutches are disposed adjacent one another at an end portion of the transmission for defining a clutch portion of the transmission; a first clutch portion which is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion for comprising the clutch portion when attached thereto; a second clutch portion that is attachable to the automatic transmission mechanism portion in place of the first clutch portion for comprising the clutch portion when so attached. The first clutch portion comprising first clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a ring gear of the single planetary gear unit and a second clutch for operatively connecting the input means to a single gear of the automatic transmission mechanism portion. The second clutch portion comprising a the first clutch, the second clutch, and a third clutch for operatively connecting the input member to a ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit.

  9. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  10. Power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Yale, O.S.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes a power transmission. It comprises: in combination, a master gear having at least one annular tooth set, means for drivingly engaging the master gear with a power source, driven shaft, a yoke member attached to the shaft and including a screw pump housing extending radially with respect to the shaft with a pair of ports in spaced relation, a pump screw rotatable in the housing and a pump gear attached to the screw and engaging the annular tooth set, and a casing for transmission fluid. The pump housing being located for immersion in the fluid.

  11. HIV Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English Transmisión del VIH Recommend on ...

  12. Rotorcraft transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this presentation outlines that portion of the program that applies to the drive train and its various mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

  13. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.

    1988-02-16

    An automatic transmission is described combining a stator reversing type torque converter and speed changer having first and second sun gears comprising: (a) a planetary gear train composed of first and second planetary gears sharing one planetary carrier in common; (b) a clutch and requisite brakes to control the planetary gear train; and (c) a speed-increasing or speed-decreasing mechanism is installed both in between a turbine shaft coupled to a turbine of the stator reversing type torque converter and the first sun gear of the speed changer, and in between a stator shaft coupled to a reversing stator and the second sun gear of the speed changer.

  14. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, N.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

  15. Transmission Investment: A Primer

    SciTech Connect

    McGarvey, Joe

    2006-10-15

    This primer highlights recent trends in transmission investment, summarizes the division of jurisdictional authority over transmission, and presents four alternative models for transmission ownership. (author)

  16. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, H.

    1989-03-21

    An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

  17. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Hamane, M.; Ohri, H.

    1989-03-21

    This patent describes an automatic transmission connected between a drive shaft and a driven shaft and comprising: a planetary gear mechanism including a first gear driven by the drive shaft, a second gear operatively engaged with the first gear to transmit speed change output to the driven shaft, and a third gear operatively engaged with the second gear to control the operation thereof; centrifugally operated clutch means for driving the first gear and the second gear. It also includes a ratchet type one-way clutch for permitting rotation of the third gear in the same direction as that of the drive shaft but preventing rotation in the reverse direction; the clutch means comprising a ratchet pawl supporting plate coaxially disposed relative to the drive shaft and integrally connected to the third gear, the ratchet pawl supporting plate including outwardly projection radial projections united with one another at base portions thereof.

  18. Planetary transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nerstad, K.A.; Windish, W.E.

    1987-04-21

    A planetary transmission is described comprising: an input shaft; a first planetary gear set having a first sun gear driven by the input shaft, a first planet carrier serving as the output, a first ring gear, and first brake means for selectively holding the fist ring gear stationary; a second planetary gear set having a second sun gear driven by the input shaft, a second planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the first ring gear, a second ring gear, and second brake means for selectively holding the second ring gear stationary; a third planetary gear set having a third sun gear connected for joint rotation to the second planet carrier, a third planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the second ring gear, a third ring gear, and third brake means for selectively holding the third ring gear stationary; and clutch means for connecting the third sun gear to the input shaft and providing a direct drive mode of operation.

  19. Overdrive transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.F.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes an overdrive transmission device for use with a motor vehicle. It consists of: a housing; a driving shaft rotatably mounted within the housing; a planetary gear-train; a driven shaft rotatably mounted in the housing and driven by the planetary gear train; and, a device for selectively connecting the planetary gear carrier to the housing or to the driven shaft for rotation; a hydraulically actuated piston adapted to forcibly contact the clutch friction members of the second clutch; a source of working fluid; a pump in fluid flow communication with the source of working fluid; a first valve downstream of the pump and in fluid flow communication with the pump and the hydraulically activated piston.

  20. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Meyman, U.

    1987-03-10

    An automatic transmission is described comprising wheel members each having discs defining an inner space therebetween; turnable blades and vane members located in the inner space between the discs of at least one of the wheel members, the turnable blades being mechanically connected with the vane members. Each of the turnable blades has an inner surface and an outer surface formed by circular cylindrical surfaces having a common axis, each of the turnable blades being turnable about the common axis of the circular cylindrical surfaces forming the inner and outer surfaces of the respective blade; levers turnable about the axes and supporting the blades; the discs having openings extending coaxially with the surfaces which describe the blades. The blades are partially received in the openings of the discs; and a housing accommodating the wheel members and the turnable blades and the vane members.

  1. Hydromechanical transmission

    DOEpatents

    Orshansky, Jr. deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1978-01-01

    A power transmission having three planetary assemblies, each having its own carrier and its own planet, sun, and ring gears. A speed-varying module is connected in driving relation to the input shaft and in driving relationship to the three sun gears, all of which are connected together. The speed-varying means may comprise a pair of hydraulic units hydraulically interconnected so that one serves as a pump while the other serves as a motor and vice versa, one of the units having a variable stroke and being connected in driving relation to the input shaft, the other unit, which may have a fixed stroke, being connected in driving relation to the sun gears. The input shaft also drives the carrier of the third planetary assembly. A brake grounds the first carrier in the first range and in reverse and causes drive to be delivered to the output through the first ring gear in a hydrostatic mode. The carrier of the third planetary assembly drives the ring gear of the second planetary assembly, and a first clutching means connects the second carrier with the output in a second range, the brake for grounding the first carrier then being released. A second clutching means enables the third ring gear to drive the output shaft in a third range.

  2. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  3. Power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ordo, J.P.; Raszkowski, J.A.; Klemen, D.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a transmission. It comprises a housing having first and second end covers; an input shaft rotatably mounted in the first end cover; an output shaft rotatably supported on the input shaft and in the second end cover; first and second countershafts rotatably supported in the end covers for rotation on respective axis parallel with the input shaft and the output shaft; a first head gear continuously rotatable with the input shaft; second and third head gears meshing with the first head gear and continuously rotatable with the first and second countershafts respectively; ratio gears rotatably supported on each of the countershafts including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear and a second member rotatably supported on the second countershaft; synchronizer clutch means selectively and alternatively connectible with the second ratio gear and the second member of the reverse gear means; output gear means drivingly connected with the output shaft and including a first ratio output gear meshing with the second ratio gear; first selectively engageable friction clutch means for connecting the first ratio gear with the first countershaft for completing a low forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts; and second selectively engageable friction clutch means for selectively connecting the synchronizer clutch means to the second countershaft and cooperating therewith to selectively alternatively complete a reverse drive ratio between the input shaft and the output shaft and another forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts.

  4. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  5. Manual with auxiliary transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, S.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a vehicular transmission of the type in which a manual transmission has two parallel shafts. One shaft is connected through a transmission clutch to an engine in which manual transmission is connected in series to an auxiliary transmission having high and low speed transmission lines. The auxiliary transmission has a high speed transmission line equipped with a hydraulic clutch and a low speed transmission line equipped with a one-way clutch for allowing the overrun of the output side of the low speed transmission line so that the low speed transmission line is established when the hydraulic clutch is released. The high speed transmission is established when the hydraulic clutch is applied. A sleeve shaft is on one of the two shafts. A transmission gear mechanism connects the sleeve shaft to the other shaft. One shaft has an extension with a fixed gear. A coacting gear is fixed on the sleeve shaft, the hydraulic clutch and coacting gear positioned on the extension of one shaft, an idle gear mechanism in meshing engagement with both the coacting gear and the fixed gear. The idle gear mechanism has a low speed transmission line one-way clutch, and the hydraulic clutch is operable to connect and disconnect the sleeve shaft to and from the one shaft.

  6. Automatic transmission adapter kit

    SciTech Connect

    Stich, R.L.; Neal, W.D.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes, in a four-wheel-drive vehicle apparatus having a power train including an automatic transmission and a transfer case, an automatic transmission adapter kit for installation of a replacement automatic transmission of shorter length than an original automatic transmission in the four-wheel-drive vehicle. The adapter kit comprises: an extension housing interposed between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case; an output shaft, having a first end which engages the replacement automatic transmission and a second end which engages the transfer case; first sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the replacement automatic transmission; second sealing means for sealing between the extension housing and the transfer case; and fastening means for connecting the extension housing between the replacement automatic transmission and the transfer case.

  7. Zika and Sexual Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Zika and Sexual Transmission Language: English Español Português ... 1 page] Portuguese [PDF - 1 page] Basics of Zika Virus and Sex Transmission Zika can be passed ...

  8. Automated manual transmission controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Bernier, David R.

    1999-12-28

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  9. Bordetella pertussis transmission.

    PubMed

    Trainor, Elizabeth A; Nicholson, Tracy L; Merkel, Tod J

    2015-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica are Gram-negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough and is considered a human-adapted variant of B. bronchiseptica. Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica share mechanisms of pathogenesis and are genetically closely related. However, despite the close genetic relatedness, these Bordetella species differ in several classic fundamental aspects of bacterial pathogens such as host range, pathologies and persistence. The development of the baboon model for the study of B. pertussis transmission, along with the development of the swine and mouse model for the study of B. bronchiseptica, has enabled the investigation of different aspects of transmission including the route, attack rate, role of bacterial and host factors, and the impact of vaccination on transmission. This review will focus on B. pertussis transmission and how animal models of B. pertussis transmission and transmission models using the closely related B. bronchiseptica have increased our understanding of B. pertussis transmission.

  10. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-23

    Developed to solve specific problem: Assist transmission planning for regional transfers in interconnected power systems. This work was originated in a study for the U.S. Department of State, to recommend transmission reinforcements for the Central American regional system that interconnects 6 countries. Transmission planning analysis is currently performed by engineers with domainspecific and systemspecific knowledge without a unique methodology. The software codes of this disclosure assists engineers by defining systematic analysis procedures to help identify weak points and make decisions on transmission planning of regional interconnected power systems. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool groups PSS/E results of multiple AC contingency analysis and voltage stability analysis and QV analysis of many scenarios of study and arrange them in a systematic way to aid power system planning engineers or transmission operators in effective decision]making process or in the off]line study environment.

  11. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  12. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus. PMID:25654239

  13. Understanding ebola virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

    2015-02-03

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  14. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  16. Passenger car transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings. The Mercedes-Benz 5-speed automatic transmission targets and comparison of concepts. 1991 model year Chrysler mini-van all wheel drive vehicle. Mesh stiffness and transmission error of spur and helical gears. High precision cutting tool system for the manufacture of world class powertrain components.

  17. Data Transmission Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Introduces some basic concepts related to the transmission of data from a computer to its peripherals to help distance educators make decisions regarding computer equipment purchases for their institutions. The following data transmission concepts are described: cables, serial and parallel, synchronous and asynchronous, bandwidth, and analog and…

  18. Automatic transmission control method

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

  19. Tractor Transmissions. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Agricultural Engineering and Vocational Agriculture, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed as a reference for teaching students about transmissions in farm tractors. The manual is divided into five sections: (1) transmission history, (2) gears and bearings in transmission, (3) sliding-gear transmissions, (4) planetary gearing, and (5) glossary. The working principles of the sliding-gear transmission, the most…

  20. Pregnancy & perinatal transmission update.

    PubMed

    Denison, R

    1998-09-01

    According to a June 1998 report from UNAIDS, the majority of children infected with HIV acquired it from their mothers during or near birth. One way to prevent perinatal transmission of HIV is to increase prevention efforts for women. Other ways to prevent perinatal transmission include using AZT treatment, avoiding breastfeeding, and choosing a C-section delivery instead of a vaginal delivery. One important study, called the Thai study, promoted a shorter course of AZT therapy that was less expensive, more accessible, and still prevented transmission in many cases. Several reasons are cited for why some women continue breastfeeding, despite the increased risk of transmitting HIV to their babies. An important factor in preventing perinatal transmission is the overall health of the mother, and her ability to maintain her health and treatment regimen while caring for a newborn.

  1. Downhole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2008-01-15

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. An electrical conductor connects both the transmission elements. The electrical conductor comprises at least three electrically conductive elements insulated from each other. In the preferred embodiment the electrical conductor comprises an electrically conducting outer shield, an electrically conducting inner shield and an electrical conducting core. In some embodiments of the present invention, the electrical conductor comprises an electrically insulating jacket. In other embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises a pair of twisted wires. In some embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises semi-conductive material.

  2. Down hole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy

    2007-07-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

  3. Multiplex television transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    Time-multiplexing system enables several cameras to share a single commercial television transmission channel. This system is useful in industries for visually monitoring several operating areas or instrument panels from a remote location.

  4. Continuously Variable Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Chain slides along two cones, in novel transmission concept. Transmission includes chain drive between two splined shafts. Chain sprockets follow surfaces of two cones. As one chain sprocket moves toward smaller diameter other chain sprocket moves toward larger diameter, thereby changing "gear" ratio. Movement initiated by tension applied to chain by planetary gear mechanism. Device positive, simple, and efficient over wide range of speed ratios.

  5. 77 FR 6554 - Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on January 30... (Commission), 18 CFR 381.302, Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC (Zephyr), Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC...

  6. Multistate differential transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.

    1987-09-01

    A multistate transmission is described having an input shaft and an output shaft comprising: a. planetary gear train means having a ring gear, planetary gears with planetary gear carrier, and a sun gear, the planetary gear train means connected to the output shaft; b. first bypass means connecting the input shaft to the planetary gear train means; c. differential transmission means for receiving its input from the input shaft and having means to adjust the torque and speed output infinitely variable over its range of operation for each state of the transmission; d. power return means for receiving the output of the differential transmission means; e. means including clutch operated speed reversing means for interconnecting the sun gear in the planetary gear train means with the power return means; f. the power return means including a first gear to receive the output of the differential transmission means; g. first multispeed transmission means connecting the means for supporting the carrier shaft to the first bypass means.

  7. National transmission grid study

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Spencer

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  8. Infinitely variable steering transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, B.O.

    1989-04-04

    A steering transmission is described comprising: first and second drive units each driven at a substantially constant speed for producing respective first and second unidirectional, continuous outputs infinitely variable between a minimum speed and a maximum speed; a first output planetary gear drivingly connected to a first transmission output; a second output planetary gear set drivingly connected to a second transmission output; an input gear set; means interconnecting the first and second output planetary gear sets; means connecting the first drive unit to the first output planetary gear set; means applying the second drive unit output to the second output planetary gear set; means applying a substantially constant speed input to the input gear set; means for selectively conditioning the input gear set to drive the one output planetary gear set at a speed having a first predetermined fixed ratio to the constant speed input, whereby to operate the transmission in one speed range; and means for selectively applying the first drive unit output to second output planetary gear set, whereby to operate the transmission in another speed range different from the one speed range.

  9. Torque feedback transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.L.

    1987-01-20

    This patent describes an infinitely variable transmission of inline configuration for interconnecting a primer mover with a load for clutch free operation in a range of speed including hydraulic neutral comprising: a. planetary gear train means having a ring gear, planetary gears supported by a planetary gear carrier, and a sun gear, the sun gear being connected mechanically to the load, output shaft means for joining the sun gear to the load; b. variable torque feedback means comprising (i) a variable displacement hydraulic motor whose rotor shaft is in line with the output shaft means and drivingly connected to the prime mover and the planetary gear carrier during the full range of operation of the transmission, and (ii) a fixed displacement hydraulic pump connected hydraulically to the motor, the rotor shaft of the pump being connected mechanically to the ring gear and being axially displaced from the output shaft means; c. means for adjusting the displacement volume within the hydraulic motor for controlling the torque feedback in the transmission to provide infinitely variable coupling between the prime mover and the load over the full range of the transmission including hydraulic neutral; d. a speed reducer between the primer mover and the motor rotor shaft and a speed multiplier between the sun gear and the load; and e. mechanical transmission assembly means between the speed multiplier and the load in line with the motor rotor shaft and the output shaft means for providing selection of drive, reverse, park, and neutral.

  10. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1981-01-01

    The testing of a Mercury Lynx automatic transmission is reported. The transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-ninety percent range both for drive performance test and coast performance tests. The torque, speed, and efficiency curves are presented, which provide the complete performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx automatic transmission.

  11. Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

  12. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K.

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  13. Automotive transmission linkage system

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, F.Y.; Ardayfio, D.D.

    1990-10-02

    This patent describes a system for converting a manual multi-speed transmission to operate as an automatic-manual transmission, the system being disposed within a vehicle, the transmission having a conventional gearshift lever and a clutch pedal. It comprises: a gearshift position selection panel, the panel being located apart from the gearshift lever, the panel enabling a driver to select the desired gear position of the gearshift lever by manipulating the panel without the necessity of the driver handling the gearshift lever; a controller which transforms the gearshift selection of the driver to an output signal, the signal corresponding to the gearshift position selected by the driver; and actuating means for mechanically repositioning the gearshift lever automatically in accordance with the output signal.

  14. Disease transmission in horses.

    PubMed

    Samper, Juan C; Tibary, Ahmed

    2006-08-01

    Bacterial, viral and protozoal infections may cause severe reproductive losses. The present paper reviews the risk factors, clinical signs and preventive measures for the most important venereal or potential sexually transmitted diseases in horses. The stallion and use of semen for artificial insemination represent major risk factors for the transmission of bacterial contaminants of the penis, including Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, known to cause endometritis and infertility in the mare. The role of the stallion in disease transmission is also due to the non-clinical manifestation of diseases such as contagious equine metritis and equine viral arteritis. Dourine has been eradicated from many countries, but continues to be a problem in other areas of the globe. Strategies for the prevention of introduction and transmission of diseases in breeding operation are discussed.

  15. Heterosexual transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A M; Laga, M

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments concerning heterosexual transmission of HIV (review of 1988 literature only) suggest improved understanding of the pattern of spread and role of risk behaviors and biological cofactors in its transmission. 3 distinct patterns if HIV infection are known: heterosexual spread in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean, spread primarily among homosexuals and injecting drug users in Europe, North American and much of Latin America and Australia, and both homosexual and heterosexual transmission in Asia, the Pacific, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, where prevalence is low. In Africa an estimated 80% of cases are acquired heterosexually. Important risk factors are number of sex partners, sex with prostitutes, being a prostitute, being a sex partner of an infected person, and having a history of other sexually transmitted diseases. Prevalence rates have risen rapidly in Zaire and Kenya. In Africa, acquisition of HIV is related to sexual activity only. In contrast, in the U.S., heterosexual cases make up only 4% of all cases, and in Europe only 6%. Data on types of sexual transmission of HIV are mounting, in aggregate suggestive of a marked heterogeneity in infectivity and possibly susceptibility between individuals. Among couples where the man is positive, in some places individuals appear to be highly infective, notably those from Kinshasa, Zaire and Haiti, while other series of discordant couples the receptive partner remained seronegative for several years. Transmission from women to men appears to be less efficient than from men to women, as has been observed with other STDs such as gonorrhea. Biological cofactors implicated in enhanced HIV transmission appear to be advanced CDC Stage IV AIDS disease, with low T-helper lymphocyte counts and high antigenemia; concomitant STDS, especially those with genital ulceration; lack of circumcision; oral contraceptive use; practice of anal intercourse; inconsistent or no use of condoms. Theoretical models for

  16. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  17. Advanced rotorcraft transmission program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is an Army-funded, joint Army/NASA program to develop and demonstrate lightweight, quiet, durable drivetrain systems for next generation rotorcraft. ART addresses the drivetrain requirements of two distinct next generation aircraft classes: Future Air Attack Vehicle, a 10,000 to 20,000 lb. aircraft capable of undertaking tactical support and air-to-air missions; and Advanced Cargo Aircraft, a 60,000 to 80,000 lb. aircraft capable of heavy life field support operations. Both tiltrotor and more conventional helicopter configurations are included in the ART program. Specific objectives of ART include reduction of drivetrain weight by 25 percent compared to baseline state-of-the-art drive systems configured and sized for the next generation aircraft, reduction of noise level at the transmission source by 10 dB relative to a suitably sized and configured baseline, and attainment of at least a 5000 hr mean-time-between-removal. The technical approach for achieving the ART goals includes application of the latest available component, material, and lubrication technology to advanced concept drivetrains that utilize new ideas in gear configuration, transmission layout, and airframe/drivetrain integration. To date, candidate drivetrain systems were carried to a conceptual design stage, and tradeoff studies were conducted resulting in selection of an ART transmission configuration for each of the four contractors. The final selection was based on comparative weight, noise, and reliability studies. A description of each of the selected ART designs is included. Preliminary design of each of the four selected ART transmission was completed, as have mission impact studies wherein comparisons of aircraft mission performance and life cycle costs are undertaken for the next generation aircraft with ART and with the baseline transmission.

  18. Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional

  19. Mechanical transmission of poleroviruses.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, K; Verbeek, M; Romano, A; Dullemans, A M; van den Heuvel, J F; van der Wilk, F

    2001-02-01

    Previously, transmission of poleroviruses has relied solely on the use of their aphid vectors. Biolistic inoculation allowed for the first time the mechanical transmission of Beet western yellows virus (BWYV) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) to several host plants. Inoculation with purified preparations and viral RNA extracts of PLRV resulted in 30-50% systemically infected Nicotiana occidentalis P1 plants and 15-30% infected Nicotiana clevelandii plants. Particle bombardment was also used successfully to infect N. clevelandii plants with in vitro RNA transcripts of full-length cDNA of BWYV.

  20. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  1. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  2. Continuously variable transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, H.; Okada, M.

    1986-11-25

    This patent describes a continuously variable transmission for transmitting a torque from an engine to a final reduction gear, comprising: an input shaft connected with the engine at one end thereof; a continuously variable transmission means having a driving pulley with a fixed member and a movable member, the movable member being actuated by an hydraulic cylinder to form a V-shaped opening between the fixed member and movable member, a driven pulley with another fixed member and another movable member. The other movable member is similarly actuated by another hydraulic cylinder to form another V-shaped opening between the other fixed member and the other movable member, and a belt member spanning the pulleys provides for a continuously variable transmission ratio; a planetary gear unit including a sun gear, a plurality of pinion gears which mesh with the sun gear and are connected with the driven pulley and a ring gear which meshes with the plurality of pinion gears; and a rotation transmitting means for transmitting rotation of the input shaft to the planetary gear unit. The rotation transmitting means is provided between the input shaft and the planetary gear unit and includes a shaft connected with the sun gear of the planetary gear unit and a first gear connected with the input shaft. The first gear is located between the engine and the continuously variable transmission means.

  3. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  4. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  5. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  6. Transmission of Mumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Transmission of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Español: Transmisión de las paperas Mumps Virus Still Around Mumps still occurs in the ...

  7. Automatic transmission line monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, W. E.; Richards, L. O.

    1971-01-01

    Monitor improves complex network reliability in computer data links and command transmission lines. System evaluates circuit performance against preselected criteria, identifies and stores data indicating out-of-tolerance conditions, conducts closed loop testing, and provides for operation under command of digital computer that determines restoration priorities.

  8. Laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

  9. Facsimile Transmission Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    transmettre les cartes tactiques et les compte rendu de situation. La presente note technique expose les 6lements nec~ssaires A la transmission de t~l6copies...Group MI machines introduced digital scanning techniques in which the single photoelectric cell was replaced with a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) array

  10. Dilemmas of Cultural Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kováts-Németh, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental problem of the 21st century is that in the modern civilization "the transmission of values is not stable." There is nothing, except for the natural sense of justice and some legal traditions, which would exercise selective power on social behavior. At a critical time in 1949 Albert Szent-Györgyi drew the attention to the…

  11. Automatic Transmission Vehicle Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, Malcolm

    1973-01-01

    Four drivers sustained severe injuries when run down by their own automatic cars while adjusting the carburettor or throttle linkages. The transmission had been left in the “Drive” position and the engine was idling. This accident is easily avoidable. PMID:4695693

  12. Transmission planning in China

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jun; Zhang, Jing

    2009-07-15

    Though China is well along in restructuring its power markets, it still has some way to travel before economic considerations receive adequate weight in transmission planning decisions. Adoption of more sophisticated tools such as multi-agent modeling will help China continue in its progress in achieving this. (author)

  13. Multistage Planetary Power Transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, G. B.; Dyba, G. J.; Ragen, M. A.; Kleckner, R. J.; Sheynin, L.

    1986-01-01

    PLANETSYS simulates thermomechanical performance of multistage planetary performance of multistage planetary power transmission. Two versions of code developed, SKF version and NASA version. Major function of program: compute performance characteristics of planet bearing for any of six kinematic inversions. PLANETSYS solves heat-balance equations for either steadystate or transient thermal conditions, and produces temperature maps for mechanical system.

  14. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1997-03-25

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

  15. Categories and Music Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatien, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

  16. [Transmission and prevention].

    PubMed

    Reboulot, B

    1992-01-01

    This work provides an overview of current knowledge of AIDS transmission and attitudes toward prevention in France. Most HIV infections are transmitted sexually. AIDS became established in the homosexual community in California because of mutual infection by members of the community with large numbers of sexual partners. The possibility of heterosexual transmission was not immediately recognized by all observers. Different publications estimate the risk of seroconversion after 1 episode of heterosexual coitus at between 1:100 and 1:1000/ Heterosexual transmission is bidirectional, but male-female transmission appears easier. Factors favoring transmission identified in AFrican studies include multiple partners, sexually transmitted diseases, anal penetration, relations during menstruation, and age. No epidemiologic study has concluded that kissing with mutual salivary contact can lead to infection, but oral-genital sex may pose a risk. As of October 1991, 966 cases of posttransfusion AIDS had been diagnosed in France, and an estimated 6000-9000 HIV seropositive persons were infected through transfusion. 239 AIDS cases were reported in hemophiliacs and others with coagulation disorders. 1200 of 3500 French hemophiliacs receiving transfusions before 1985 are seropositive. The risk of developing AIDS from a transfusions in France is currently estimated at 1/250,000. HIV transmission among drug addicts results from sharing contaminated needles and syringes. The risk of infection for health workers treating those who are HIV positive appears small; only about 30 documented cases have been reported worldwide, including 3 of 10,000 cases in France. The risk that an infected mother will have a seropositive baby is estimated at 25% in France. The number of seropositive women in the world is estimated at over 3 million, with 80% in sub-Saharan Africa. As of October 1991, 16,0000-36,000 seropositive women and 1500 seropositive children were estimated to live in France

  17. Advanced transmission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

  18. Drill string transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  19. Sixteen speed powershift transmission

    SciTech Connect

    McAskill, J.P.

    1991-06-25

    This patent describes a transmission. It includes a transmission housing; a first shaft rotatably mounted in the housing and having a third gear fixed for rotation therewith and fourth and fifth gears rotatably mounted thereto, the fourth and fifth gears meshing with the first and second gears, respectively; first and second clutch means for selectively fixing the fourth and fifth gears, respectively, for rotation with the second shaft; a third shaft rotatably mounted in the housing and having a sixth gear fixed for rotation therewith and seventh and eighth gears rotatably mounted thereto, the seventh and eighth gears meshing with the first and second gears, respectively; third and fourth clutch means for selectively fixing the seventh and eighth gears respectively, for rotation with the third shaft.

  20. Data transmission networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexovich, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A task order was written by the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT) project engineers to investigate data compression techniques that could be applied to the HHVT system, and both existing and planned downlink/uplink capabilities of the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The following tasks were included: (1) Investigate signal channel availability and determine both the maximum possible data rate and the average data rate; (2) Identify time blocks for HHVT video transmission assuming time sharing and interruptions in the communication links; (3) Determine the bit error rates to be expected; and (4) Define the transmit and receive interfaces. A summary chart of the data transmission capabilities for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), the Space Shuttle, Space Station Freedom, Spacelab, and USLab are also presented.

  1. Small passenger car transmission test; Ford C4 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1979 Ford C4 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Ford C4 transmission.

  2. Small passenger car transmission test; Chevrolet LUV transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper ninety percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet LUV transmission.

  3. Facsimile Transmission of Microforms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-30

    author and Whould not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy, or decision, unless so designated by other documentation...beconstrued as an official Department of the Army position, policy, or decision, unless so designated by other documentation. ,, -- UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY...researcher. Some form of tele- facsimile transmission of microform is needed. This study is designed to to describe the current state of the technology, and

  4. Compact change speed transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanaga, K.; Yamaguchi, T.

    1989-06-06

    A change speed transmission is described comprising: a stationary part; an input member; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets; clutch and brake means for selectively controlling the first and second planetary gear sets to provide a plurality of forward speed rations and a reverse speed ratio between the input and output member; the clutch and brake means including a first clutch, a first one-way clutch, and a second one-way clutch which, when the first clutch is engaged, provide a path of transmission of reaction to the stationary part thereby establishing a path of transmission of torque through at least a part of the first and second planetary gear sets to achieve a predetermined one speed ratio of the forward speed ratios; the clutch and brake means including also a brake and a second slutch which, when both of the brake and the second clutch are engaged, hinder the action of the second one-way clutch and that of the first one-way clutch, respectively, thereby providing engine braking during running with the predetermined one speed ratio; the first clutch including means forming a drum-shaped member disposed radially outwardly of and receiving at least one of the first and second planetary gear sets, and an actuating piston of the first clutch; and the second clutch including an actuating piston slidably disposed within the actuating piston of the first clutch.

  5. Intercultural Transmission of Values: The Role of Transmission Belts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonpflug, Ute

    2001-01-01

    Explored the effect of "transmission belts" (conditions favorable to cultural transmission within particular socioeconomic and cultural contexts) on the similarity of values between Turkish fathers and their sons. Data from father-son dyads in Germany indicated that transmission of values related to the collective value categories of…

  6. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  7. Offset Waveguide Transmission Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravey, Robin

    1997-01-01

    This report describes measurements to determine transmission losses in S-band (2.60-3.95 GHz) waveguide sections due to misalignment of the sections relative to each other. The experiments were performed in support of the Hydrostar program to determine the feasibility of using deployable waveguide sections in a large space radiometer. The waveguide sections would possibly be hinged and folded for launch, then deployed in space to form long sections of waveguide. Since very low losses are required for radiometer applications, the effects of potential misalignment after deployment of the waveguide sections may be significant. These measurements were performed in the Electromagnetic Properties Measurement Laboratory in the Electromagnetics Research Branch.

  8. [Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].

    PubMed

    Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

    2011-02-01

    The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies.

  9. The Born transmission eigenvalue problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Colton, David; Rezac, Jacob D.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we study the distribution of transmission eigenvalues in the complex plane for obstacles whose contrast is small in magnitude. We use a first order approximation of the refractive index to derive and study an approximate interior transmission problem. In the case of spherically stratified media, we prove existence and discreteness of transmission eigenvalues and derive a condition under which the complex part of transmission eigenvalues cannot lie in a strip parallel to the real axis. For obstacles with general shape, we demonstrate that if transmission eigenvalues exist then they form a discrete set.

  10. Household Transmission of Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Tim K; Lau, Lincoln L H; Cauchemez, Simon; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2016-02-01

    Human influenza viruses cause regular epidemics and occasional pandemics with a substantial public health burden. Household transmission studies have provided valuable information on the dynamics of influenza transmission. We reviewed published studies and found that once one household member is infected with influenza, the risk of infection in a household contact can be up to 38%, and the delay between onset in index and secondary cases is around 3 days. Younger age was associated with higher susceptibility. In the future, household transmission studies will provide information on transmission dynamics, including the correlation of virus shedding and symptoms with transmission, and the correlation of new measures of immunity with protection against infection.

  11. Automated manual transmission clutch controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Rausen, David J.

    1999-11-30

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  12. Transmission shift mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.R.

    1989-06-20

    This patent describes a mechanism for selecting the gear of an automatic transmission in a vehicle. The mechanism consists of: a pressure source; a gear selection valve having an inlet means for receiving fluid from the pressure source, first outlet ports, and second outlet ports; a manual override means for opening and blocking communication between the pressure source and the first ports and for simultaneously opening and blocking communication between the pressure source and the second outlet ports; a port selector means within the valve for controlling flow through the second ports, the port selector means being movable to a plurality of positions, each position permitting a selected second outlet port to open; a selector control mans for moving the port selector means from one position to another, the selector control means including a planetary gear set connected by an input shaft to the transmission and connected to a vehicle load by an output shaft, the planetary gear set having a ring gear whose angular position is a function of reaction torque imposed by the load on the output shaft, the selector control means further including an arm assembly connected between the ring gear and the port selector means so that the position of the port selector means is a function of the reaction torque on the output shaft.

  13. Simplified power shift transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, R.A.

    1987-04-21

    A multi-speed transmission is described for transferring power between a first shaft and a second shaft, the transmission comprising: a compound planetary assembly including a sun gear, a ring gear concentric with the sun gear, a reaction gear concentric with the ring gear, a planetary gear carrier rotatably supporting first and second sets of planet gears, the first planet gear set intermeshing with the ring gear. The sun gear and the second planet gear set intermesh with the first planet gear set and the reaction gear, means for selectively coupling the first shaft with the sun gear and the reaction gear, and means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear, and reaction gear and the planetary carrier; a simple planetary assembly comprising a sun gear component concentric with the sun gear of the compound planetary assembly, a ring gear component concentric with both of the sun gears, and a planetary gear carrier component rotatably supporting a set of planet gears, the planet gear set meshing with the sun gear and the ring gear of the simple planetary.

  14. Automatic transmission structure

    SciTech Connect

    Iwase, Y.; Morisawa, K.

    1987-03-24

    An automatic transmission is described comprising: an output shaft of the transmission including a stepped portion; a parking gear spline-connected with the output shaft on a first side of the stepped portion; a plurality of governor values mounted on a rear side of the parking gear and radially disposed around the output shaft on the first side of the stepped portion; a speed meter drive gear spline-connected with the output shaft on a second side of the stepped portion and on a rear side of the governor valves; and an annular spacer fitted on the output shaft on the second side of the stepped portion between the governor valves and the speed meter drive gear to abut on each of the governor valves and the speed meter drive gear. The annular member is constructed separately from the speed meter drive gear and has an outer diameter larger than an outer diameter of the speed meter drive gear thereby resulting in a contact area between the annular space and the speed meter drive gear which is smaller than a contact area between the annular spacer and the rear side of the governor valves; the drive gear being axially secured relative to the output shaft by a bearing thereby enabling a fixed axial positioning of the annular spacer on the output shaft.

  15. Transmission shift control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Dzioba, D.L.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes a transmission shift control assembly mounted on a steering column having a longitudinal axis comprising: bracket means secured to the steering column; transmission shift cable means having a portion secured to the bracket means and a portion linearly movable relative to the secured portion; mounting means on the bracket cable drive arm means having an axis and being rotatably mounted on the rotary axis on the mounting means oblique to the longitudinal axis and including a cable connecting portion secured to the movable portion of the cable means and lever mounting means adjacent the mounting means; operator control means including lever means, pin means for pivotally mounting the lever means on the lever mounting means on an axis substantially perpendicular to the rotary axis and positioning arm means formed on the lever means and extending from the pin means; and detent gate means disposed on the bracket means in position to abut the positioning arm means for limiting the extent of pivotal movement of the lever means.

  16. Colorado Electrical Transmission Grid

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Xcel Energy Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado XcelEnergy NonXcel Transmission Network Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains transmission network of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4540689.017558 m Left: 160606.141934 m Right: 758715.946645 m Bottom: 4098910.893397m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shapefile

  17. Broadband transmission EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Wilfred R

    2013-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9-10 GHz range. Most (bio)molecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin - nuclear spin interactions and electron spin - electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8-2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed.

  18. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Bujold, M P

    1981-09-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1981 Mercury Lynx ATX transaxle. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the 93% range for drive performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx ATX transmission.

  19. Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

  20. Astrocytes Potentiate Synaptic Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Suhita

    2005-03-01

    A recent experimental study shows that astrocytes, a subtype of glia, are able to influence the spontaneous activity in the brain via calcium dependent glutamate release. We model the coupling mechanism between an astrocyte and a neuron based on experimental data. This coupling is dynamic and bi-directional, such that the modulations in intracellular calcium concentrations in astrocytes affect neuronal excitability and vice versa via a glutamatergic pathway. We demonstrate through simple neural-glial circuits that increases in the intracellular calcium concentration in astrocytes nearby can enhance spontaneous activity in a neuron, a significant mechanism said to be involved in plasticity and learning. The pattern of this marked increase in spontaneous firing rate in our model quantitatively follows that observed in the experiment. Further, depending on the type of synaptic connections diverging from the neuron, it can either inhibit or excite the ensuing dynamics and potentiate synaptic transmission, thus reinstating the integral role played by astrocytes in normal neuronal dynamics.

  1. Television Transmission Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The VKP-7990 Multistage Depressed Collector (MDC) Klystron is a result of cooperative development by Varian Associates, Inc., the National Association of Broadcasters, Lewis Research Center, the Public Broadcasting System and TV transmitter manufacturers. The effort was initiated to make power amplifying devices with efficiencies comparable to VHF available to UHF operators. The klystron is a vacuum tube used to generate and amplify ultrahigh frequencies but at low efficiencies because most of the energy is dissipated as waste heat. Lewis had earlier developed the MDC to enhance the efficiency of communications satellite transmissions. Varian Microwave Power Tube Products, which has since become Communications and Power Industries, and Lewis combined the MDC and the klystron, resulting in a product which increases efficiency by recovering some of the residual energy that normally would be lost as heat. The MDC klystron cuts the electric power consumption of UHF-TV transmitters in half; there are 90 units in operation in 36 UHF-TV stations.

  2. Transmission seal development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brien, M.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental evaluation was performed on a high-speed (72.9 m/s, 14,349 ft/min) transmission seal of the synergistic type. During testing of the seal, oil leakage occurred at positive bearing cavity pressures. Modifications were made in an attempt to eliminate the leakage but none were completely successful. Leakage appears to be the result of questionable positioning of the sealing elements resulting in inadequate shaft contact by the oil side sealing element. This condition may be related to the nonsymmetrical shape of the elastomeric retainer and to dimensional changes caused by swelling of the elastomeric retainer from exposure to the sealed fluid. Indications of a speed dependent leakage characteristic were also observed.

  3. The automated command transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Y.; Satoh, S.

    A technique for automated command transmission (ACT) to GEO-stationed satellites is presented. The system is intended for easing the command center workload. The ACT system determines the relation of the commands to on-board units, connects the telemetry with on-board units, defines the control path on the spacecraft, identifies the correspondence of back-up units to primary units, and ascertains sunlight or eclipse conditions. The system also has the address of satellite and command decoders, the ID and content for the mission command sequence, group and inhibit codes, a listing of all available commands, and restricts the data to a command sequence. Telemetry supplies data for automated problem correction. All other missions operations are terminated during system recovery data processing after a crash. The ACT system is intended for use with the GMS spacecraft.

  4. Technology of optical azimuth transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Honggang; Hu, Chunsheng; Wang, Xingshu; Gao, Yang

    2012-11-01

    It often needs transfer a reference from one place to another place in aerospace and guided missile launching. At first, principles of several typical optical azimuth transmission methods are presented. Several typical methods are introduced, such as Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method, Camera series method, Optical apparatus for azimuth method and polarization modulated light transmission method. For these typical azimuth transmission methods, their essential theories are elaborated. Then the devices, the application fields and limitations of these typical methods' are presented. Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method is used in the ground assembly of spacecraft. Camera series method and optical apparatus for azimuth method are used in azimuth transmission between different decks of ship. Polarization modulated light transmission method is used in azimuth transmission of rocket and guided missile. At the last, the further developments of these methods are discussed.

  5. Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...14. ABSTRACT A parallel plate nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) was constructed. Periodic loading of nonlinear dielectric slabs provides the...846-9101 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Dielectric Nonlinear Transmission Line David M. French, Brad W. Hoff

  6. Airborne transmission of Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Warfel, Jason M; Beren, Joel; Merkel, Tod J

    2012-09-15

    Pertussis is a contagious, acute respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Although it is widely believed that transmission of B. pertussis occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets, no controlled study has ever documented airborne transmission of pertussis. We set out to determine if airborne transmission occurs between infected and naive animals, utilizing the baboon model of pertussis. Our results showed that 100% of exposed naive animals became infected even when physical contact was prevented, demonstrating that pertussis transmission occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets.

  7. Multi-speed transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ashikawa, N.; Nakayama, H.; Sumi, M.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a multi-speed transmission having forward speed gear trains and at least one reverse speed gear train, comprising, a pair of parallel fork shafts, one the shaft being fixed, the other the shaft being slidable along its axial direction, means to selectively engage the gear trains and means to retain the selective engagement means in the selected position. The means selectively engages the gear trains including a first shift fork connected to the fixed fork shaft so as to slide to either side of its disengaged neutral position, a second shift fork connected to the slideable fork shaft so as to slide to either side of its disengaged neutral position, and a third shift fork connected to the slidable fork shaft so as to slide in one direction by motion of the slideable fork shaft to only one side of its disengaged neutral position. Also included is a reverse shift fork connected to the slideable fork shaft and adapted to be actuated by motion of the slideable fork shaft in a direction opposite to the direction of the motion which engages the third shift fork.

  8. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-03-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

  9. Virus transmission via food.

    PubMed

    Cliver, D O

    1997-01-01

    Viruses are transmitted to humans via foods as a result of direct or indirect contamination of the foods with human faeces. Viruses transmitted by a faecal-oral route are not strongly dependent on foods as vehicles of transmission, but viruses are important among agents of foodborne disease. Vehicles are most often molluscs from contaminated waters, but many other foods are contaminated directly by infected persons. The viruses most often foodborne are the hepatitis A virus and the Norwalk-like gastroenteritis viruses. Detection methods for these viruses in foods are very difficult and costly; the methods are not routine. Indicators that would rapidly and reliably suggest the presence of viral contamination of foods are still being sought. Contamination can be prevented by keeping faeces out of food or by treating vehicles such as water in order to inactivate virus that might be carried to food in this way. Virus cannot multiply in food, but can usually be inactivated by adequate heating. Other methods of inactivating viruses within a food are relatively unreliable, but viruses in water and on exposed surfaces can be inactivated with ultraviolet light or with strong oxidizing agents.

  10. Transmission of digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showen, Charles R.

    1971-01-01

    The Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, established a pilot project to evaluate equipment that would transmit date recorded on 16-channel paper tapes over voice-grade telephone lines from field offices to the Washington, D.C., Automatic Data Processing Unit (A.D.P. Unit). Such equipment would allow computer-processed data for current-purpose hydrologic data stations to be made available in a more timely manner. The specifications for the equipment were prepared in March 1970; invitations to bid were solicited, a contract was awarded and the equipment was delivered in November 1970. The equipment included two reader/transmitter units, and one receiver/recorder unit. The reader/transmitter units transmit manually entered fixed information, i.e. station number, beginning date and time, and ending date and time, and photoelectrically read and transmit the 16-channel paper tape data. The receiver/recorder unit records the transmitted information on IBM-compatible magnetic tape. This report summarizes the information gained from a year of pilot operation of the equipment, with and without a computer terminal at the field level, and makes recommendations for establishing a data-transmission system in the Water Resources Division.

  11. Transmissive Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutyrev, A. S.; Moseley, H. S.; Fettig, R. K.; Kuhn, J. L.; Woodgate, B. E.; Kimble, R. A.; Orloff, J. H.

    1999-12-01

    We report further progress on the development of a two-dimensional array of microshutters, which can be used as a high efficiency, high contrast field selection device for a multi-object spectrometer for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The device is a close packed array of shutters, with a typical size of 100 microns square and an area filling factor of up to 80%. Each shutter, made of single crystal silicon or silicon nitride with an appropriate optical coating, pivots on a torsion flexure along one edge. Each of the shutters is individually selectable. Although these devices can be used as reflection devices, their primary mode of operation is in transmission, which provides the minimum possible level of scattered light. An original double-shutter mechanism is employed for actuation. Small shutter arrays have been built using a Focus Ion Beam milling machine is a 3 x 3 double shutter actuation with a micro-manipulator under electron microscope observation has been demonstrated. An important aspect of this study has been to demonstrate the reliability of the structures over its expected lifetime. We analyzed stiffness, strength and fatigue issues of two good candidate materials, single crystal silicon and silicon nitride. Both appear to be suitable from the mechanical point of view. This project is supported by NASA grants.

  12. EC Transmission Line Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  13. Automatic transmission for motor vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Sakakibara, S.

    1989-06-27

    An automatic transmission for a motor vehicle is described, comprising: a transmission housing; a hydraulic torque converter having rotational axes, an input shaft, an output shaft and a direct coupling clutch for directly coupling the input shaft to the output shaft; an auxiliary transmission mechanism provided coaxially with the hydraulic torque converter and having an input shaft, an output shaft with an input end and an output end and an overdrive mechanism of planetary gear type having a reduction ratio smaller than 1, the input shaft and the output shaft of the auxiliary transmission being located close to and on the side of the hydraulic torque converter with respect to the auxiliary transmission, respectively, and being coupled with a planetary gear carrier and a ring gear of the overdrive mechanism, respectively, a one-way clutch being provided between the planetary gear carrier and a sun gear of the overdrive mechanism, a clutch being provided between the planetary gear carrier and a position radially and outwardly of the one-way clutch for engaging the disengaging the planetary carrier and the sun gear, a brake being provided between the transmission housing and the sun gear and positioned radially and outwardly of the clutch for controlling engagement of the sun gear with a stationary portion of the transmission housing, and the output end of the output shaft being disposed between the auxiliary transmission mechanism and the hydraulic torque converter.

  14. A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1969-01-01

    Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

  15. Direct current power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Padiyar, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    This book represents text on HVDC transmission available. It deals with the various aspects of the state of the art in HVDC transmission technology. This book presents many aspects of interactions of AC/DC systems. Modeling and analysis of DC systems are also discussed in detail.

  16. Hendra virus ecology and transmission.

    PubMed

    Field, Hume E

    2016-02-01

    Hendra virus causes acute and highly fatal infection in horses and humans. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus, with age and species being risk factors for infection. Urine is the primary route of excretion in flying-foxes, with viral RNA more frequently detected in Pteropus alecto and P. conspicillatus than other species. Infection prevalence in flying-foxes can vary between and within years, with a winter peak of excretion occurring in some regions. Vertical transmission and recrudescing infection has been reported in flying-foxes, but horizontal transmission is evidently the primary mode of transmission. The most parsimonious mode of flying-fox to horse transmission is equine contact (oro-nasal, conjunctival) with infected flying-fox urine, either directly, or via urine-contaminated pasture or surfaces. Horse to horse transmission is inefficient, requiring direct contact with infected body fluids. Flying-fox to human transmission has not been recorded; all human cases have been associated with close and direct contact with infected horses. Canine cases (subclinical) have also been limited to equine case properties. Notwithstanding the recent availability of an effective vaccine for horses, a comprehensive understanding of Hendra virus ecology and transmission is essential to limit inter-species transmission.

  17. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D.; Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R.; Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  18. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  19. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  20. Transmission gearing arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Klemen, D.

    1987-08-04

    A gearing arrangement is described for an automotive power transmission comprising: an input shaft and an output shaft; first, second, and third simple planetary gear sets. Each has a sun gear, a ring gear, and a planet gears meshing with the sun and the ring gears and rotatably supported on a planet carrier; means rigidly interconnecting the ring gear of the third gear set and the carrier of the second gear set; means rigidly interconnecting the ring gear of the second gear set and the carrier of the first gear set; means rigidly connecting the output shaft and the carrier of the third gear set; a first intermediate shaft rigidly interconnecting the sun gears of the second and the third gear sets for unitary rotation; a second intermediate shaft rigidly connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a third intermediate shaft continuously connected to the input shaft and to the sun gear of the first gear set; first, second, and third brake means operative to selectively brake rotation of the ring gears of the first, the second, and the third gear sets, respectively; a first rotating clutch selectively operable to connect the input shaft and the first intermediate shaft for unitary rotation; a second rotating clutch selectively operable to connect the input shaft and the second intermediate shaft for unitary rotation; a fourth simple planetary gear set including a sun gear and a ring gear and planet gears meshing with the sun and the ring gears and rotatably supported on a planet carrier; means rigidly connecting the sun gear of the fourth gear set to the third intermediate shaft; means rigidly connecting the ring gear of the fourth gear set to the carrier of the first gear set; and a fourth brake means selectively operable to brake the carrier of the fourth gear set. The nine forward ratios are obtainable while preserving a single transition shifting over the entire nine forward ratios.

  1. Multistate differential transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.L.

    1989-05-30

    This patent describes a multistate transmission suitable for a colinear configuration having a stationary housing and an input shaft and an output shaft comprising: a first pair of planetary gear trains comprising a first common ring gear having a torque reducing gear train consisting of a sun gear and a planetary gears connected by way of a carrier to the output shaft and a reversing planetary gear train consisting of a sun gear and planetary gears; a second pair of planetary a trains comprising a second common ring gear having a torque reducing gear train consisting of a sun gear and planetary gears connected by way of a carrier to the sun gear in the reversing planetary gear train in the first pair of planetary gear trains and a reversing planetary gear train consisting of a sun gear and planetary gears; carrier means connecting the sun gears in the first pair of planetary gear trains to the housing through a free wheeling clutch to provide for rotation in one direction only and to one side of a first operational clutch. The other side of the clutch is connected to the sun gear in the reversing planetary gear train in the first pair of planetary gear trains; means connecting the planetary gears in the reversing mechanism of the second pair of planetary gear trains to the housing through a second operational clutch and to one side of a third operational clutch. The other side of the third operational clutch is connected to the sun gear in the reversing planetary gear grain in the second pair of planetary gear trains.

  2. [Mentalization and attachment transmission].

    PubMed

    Böhmann, Johann; Fritsch, Sophia; Lück, Monika; Stumpe, Anna; Taubner, Svenja; Vesterling, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study was investigating the predictive role of maternal mentalizing and general as well as depressive symptom burden for attachment security at the end of the first year on a sample of 44 mother-child-dyads from a low-risk community study. Maternal mentalizing was assessed in a multidimensional way as Reflective Functioning (off-line) and Mind-Mindedness (on-line). The design was longitudinal measuring maternal Mind-Mindedness from a videotaped mother-child-play-interaction at the age of three months. General and depressive symptom burden was assessed using the SCL-90-R when the children were nine months old. Maternal attachment and Reflective-Functioning, using the Adult-Attachment-Interview, as well as children's attachment behavior, using the Strange-Situation-Test, were investigated at the age of twelve months. Secure maternal attachment was associated with higher Reflective Functioning, higher frequency of Mind-Mindedness and lower general and depressive symptom burden. A moderation-analysis showed a statistical trend (p = .08) that the interaction of the frequency of mind-related comments, general symptom severity and maternal attachment has a predictive value for infantile attachment security. Results can be tentatively interpreted that mothers with insecure attachment who had a lower general symptom burden and who related to their three-months old babies with a high frequency of mind-related-comments were more likely to have securely attached children. Thus, results may serve as a groundwork for projects aiming to prevent the transmission of insecure attachment by strengthening maternal Mind-Mindedness and working on the reduction of maternal general symptom burden.

  3. Multi-ratio transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, J.C.

    1987-07-14

    A preselected multi-ratio power transmission is described comprising: input means for transmitting drive forces; output means; first, second and third friction clutch means each selectively engageable with the input means for accepting drive forces. First input gear means drivingly connects with the first friction clutch means; second input gear means drivingly connects with the second friction clutch means; third input gear means drivingly connects with the third clutch means; first output gear means drivingly connects with the first input gear means; second output gear means drivingly connects with the first and second input gear means; third output means drivingly connects between the third input gear means and the output means; and one double-acting synchronizer clutch for selectively engaging the first output gear means with the output means and alternately the second output gear means with the output means. The first friction clutch means and the one double-acting synchronizer clutch cooperates during engagement to establish two forward drive ratios between the input and output means. The second friction clutch means and the one double-acting synchronizer clutch cooperates during engagement to establish two other forward drive ratios between the input and output means. The third friction clutch means is engageable to provide another forward drive ratio between the input means and the output means; and the one double-acting synchronizer clutch is relieved of transmitting drive forces during the engagement of the third friction clutch means and being manipulable for alternate connection with either the first output gear or the second output gear while the third friction clutch means is engaged.

  4. Biology of HIV Mucosal Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review HIV-1 mucosal transmission plays a critical role in HIV-1 infection and AIDS pathogenesis. This review summarizes the latest advances in biological studies of HIV-1 mucosal transmission, highlighting the implications of these studies in the development of microbicides to prevent HIV-1 transmission. Recent findings New studies of initial HIV-1 infection using improved culture models updated the current view of mucosal transmission. Mechanistic studies enhanced our understanding of cell-cell transmission of HIV-1 mediated by the major target cells, including dendritic cells, CD4+ T cells, and macrophages. Increasing evidence indicated the significance of host factors and immune responses in HIV-1 mucosal infection and transmission. Summary Recent progress in HIV-1 mucosal infection and transmission enriches our knowledge of virus-host interactions and viral pathogenesis. Functional studies of HIV-1 interactions with host cells can provide new insights into the design of more effective approaches to combat HIV-1 infection and AIDS. PMID:18802490

  5. The evolution of transmission mode

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Mark R.; Hauffe, Heidi C.; Kallio, Eva R.; Okamura, Beth; Sait, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews research on the evolutionary mechanisms leading to different transmission modes. Such modes are often under genetic control of the host or the pathogen, and often in conflict with each other via trade-offs. Transmission modes may vary among pathogen strains and among host populations. Evolutionary changes in transmission mode have been inferred through experimental and phylogenetic studies, including changes in transmission associated with host shifts and with evolution of the unusually complex life cycles of many parasites. Understanding the forces that determine the evolution of particular transmission modes presents a fascinating medley of problems for which there is a lack of good data and often a lack of conceptual understanding or appropriate methodologies. Our best information comes from studies that have been focused on the vertical versus horizontal transmission dichotomy. With other kinds of transitions, theoretical approaches combining epidemiology and population genetics are providing guidelines for determining when and how rapidly new transmission modes may evolve, but these are still in need of empirical investigation and application to particular cases. Obtaining such knowledge is a matter of urgency in relation to extant disease threats. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission’. PMID:28289251

  6. Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2004-12-14

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  7. Hidden hazards of HCV transmission.

    PubMed

    Pondé, Robério Amorim de Almeida

    2011-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection is a global health problem that has important epidemiological and clinical consequences. It has been well established that exposure to infected blood is the main risk factor for HCV transmission. However, in 20% of cases the agent transmission occurs by unknown route or in the presence of an unidentified source of infection. Understanding of the epidemiology of HCV is needed to help us define future control and preventive strategies. Herein, we discuss about diagnosis of HCV infection and hepatitis C surveillance in the context of its transmission.

  8. Load Distribution in Transmissions "Split"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Delgado, Irebert R.

    1998-01-01

    The transmission system of a helicopter must meet particularly critical requirements. It must transmit engine power to the rotor, at the same time ensuring a typical speed reduction of 60 to 1. It must also be safe, reliable, light, and reach a high level of performance while, at the same time, it must produce few vibrations and little noise. Helicopter transmissions have achieved high-level performances thanks to the combination of analyses, experiments, and the application of practical field experience. However, the new generation of helicopters will require transmission systems that are even safer, lighter, less noisy, and more reliable.

  9. Midwest Transmission Workshop I Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Bryan

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The meeting was opened with a review of the purposes of the workshop: (1) Present and discuss key studies and assessments of transmission upgrades, additions and related issues for the upper Midwest, including work that addresses the full range of views on these topics; (2) Understand the various transmission issues in the upper Midwest and discuss options for addressing the issues; and (3) Identify the decision makers and entities that need to play an active role if transmission issues are to be resolved, and agree on next steps for engaging these individuals and organizations through education, outreach, and information dissemination.

  10. Endoscopic transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tytgat, G N

    1995-01-01

    The contamination of endoscopes and biopsy forceps with Helicobacter pylori occurs readily after endoscopic examination of H. pylori-positive patients. Unequivocal proof of iatrogenic transmission of the organism has been provided. Estimates for transmission frequency approximate to 4 per 1000 endoscopies when the infection rate in the endoscoped population is about 60%. Iatrogenic transmission has also been shown to be the cause of the so-called 'acute mucosal lesion' syndrome in Japan. Traditional cleaning and alcohol rinsing is insufficient to eliminate endoscope/forceps contamination. Only meticulous adherence to disinfection recommendations guarantees H. pylori elimination.

  11. Intertwined arbovirus transmission activity: reassessing the transmission cycle paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Luis A.; Flores, Fernando S.; Quaglia, Agustín; Contigiani, Marta S.

    2013-01-01

    Arboviruses are emerging/reemerging infectious agents worldwide. The factors within this scenario include vector and host population fluctuations, climatic changes, anthropogenic activities that disturb ecosystems, an increase in international flights, human mobility, and genetic mutations that allow spill-over phenomenon. Arboviruses are maintained by biologic transmission among vectors and hosts. Sometimes this biological transmission is specific and includes one vector and host species such as Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DENV), and urban Yellow Fever (YFV). However, most of the arboviruses are generalist and they use many vectors and hosts species. From this perspective, arboviruses are maintained through a transmission network rather than a transmission cycle. This allows us to understand the complexity and dynamics of the transmission and maintenance of arboviruses in the ecosystems. The old perspective that arboviruses are maintained in close and stable transmission cycles should be modified by a new more integrative and dynamic idea, representing the real scenario where biological interactions have a much broader representation, indicating the constant adaptability of the biological entities. PMID:23335900

  12. Light aircraft sound transmission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitman, K.; Bernhard, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The plausibility of using the two microphone sound intensity technique to study noise transmission into light aircraft was investigated. In addition, a simple model to predict the interior sound pressure level of the cabin was constructed.

  13. Transmission series power flow control

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.J.; Bian, J.; Williams, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of two gate turn-off (GTO) thyristor voltage-sourced inverter based series power flow control devices, namely the Series Power Flow Controller (SPFC) and the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). These devices represent series extensions of the STATCON, an inverter-based shunt device developed under a tailored collaboration by EPRI, TVA and the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, which will soon be placed in service on the TVA 161kV transmission system for transmission voltage control. Operation of the SPFC and UPFC is illustrated through the use of easily-constructed circle diagrams on the P-Q plane. The circle diagrams provide the transmission planning engineer with a simple means to assess the performance of these devices on the transmission system. A concluding example illustrates that the UPFC provides a level of power now control which is unattainable with more conventional devices.

  14. Transmission series power flow control

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.J.; Bian, J.; Williams, S.L.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the characteristics of two gate turn-off (GTO) thyristor voltage-sourced inverter-based series power flow control devices, namely the Series Power Flow Controller (SPFC) and the Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). These devices represent series extensions of the STATCON, an inverter-based shunt device developed under a tailored collaboration by EPRI, TVA and the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, which will soon be placed in service on the TVA 161kV transmission system for transmission voltage control. Operation of the SPFC and UPFC is illustrated through the use of easily-constructed circle diagrams on the P-Q plane. The circle diagrams provide the transmission planning engineer with a simple means to assess the performance of these devices on the transmission system. A concluding example illustrates that the UPFC provides a level of power flow control which is unattainable with more conventional devices.

  15. Cultural transmission of civic attitudes.

    PubMed

    Miles-Touya, Daniel; Rossi, Máximo

    2016-01-01

    In this empirical paper we attempt to measure the separate influence on civic engagement of educational attainment and cultural transmission of civic attitudes. Unlike most of the previous empirical works on this issue, we are able to approximate the cultural transmission of civic attitudes. We observe that civic returns to education are overstated when the transmission of civic attitudes is ignored. Moreover, the transmission of civic attitudes significantly enhances civic involvement and reinforces civic returns to education. Our findings are in line with the proposals of civic virtue theorists or grass movements who suggest that citizenship education should be included in the compulsory school curricula since, if not, families or local communities will only transmit their particular view of the world.

  16. Transmission of Information: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoma, George R.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines the basic principles underlying the transmission of information, including analog and digital modulation, limitations to communications, configurations of communications networks, optical fiber cables, and earth satellites. Six references are cited. (FM)

  17. Fomite transmission in head lice.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Craig N; Burkhart, Craig G

    2007-06-01

    Control of various infestations requires an accurate understanding of transmission. After thousands of years of lice infestation, scientific documentation of indirect contact transmission has been substantiated. Lice can be transferred in the egg, instar, and adult stages. Lice have now been shown in the laboratory to be readily dislodged by air movements such as blow-drying one's hair, combing, and toweling. Moreover, passive transfer to adjoining fabric is also frequently observed. Louse transmission by fomites occurs more frequently than has been commonly believed. Close proximity suffices to increase the likeliness of a new infestation. Thus louse control measures should take account of fomite transmission and include screening of all individuals within an infested person's immediate circle of contact, laundering of everything within the infested individuals' bed or quarantining of such material for 10 days, thorough vacuuming of floors, carpets, upholstery, with a standard vacuum cleaner.

  18. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  19. Free-Space Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center organized a workshop on technology availability for free-space power transmission (beam power). This document contains a collection of viewgraph presentations that describes the effort by academia, industry, and the national laboratories in the area of high-frequency, high-power technology applicable to free-space power transmission systems. The areas covered were rectenna technology, high-frequency, high-power generation (gyrotrons, solar pumped lasers, and free electron lasers), and antenna technology.

  20. Diversified transmission multichannel detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Tournois, P.; Engelhard, P.

    1984-07-03

    A detection system for imaging by sonar or radar signals. The system associates diversified transmissions with an interferometric base. This base provides an angular channel formation means and each signal formed in this way is processed by matched filtering in a circuit containing copy signals characterizing the space coloring obtained by the diversified transmission means. The invention is particularly applicable to side or front looking detection sonars.

  1. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Gregory F.; Bossler, Robert B., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed by the McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company and Lucas Western, Inc. within the U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program is summarized. The design of a 5000 horsepower transmission for a next generation advanced attack helicopter is described. Government goals for the program were to define technology and detail design the ART to meet, as a minimum, a weight reduction of 25 percent, an internal noise reduction of 10 dB plus a mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) of 5000 hours compared to a state-of-the-art baseline transmission. The split-torque transmission developed using face gears achieved a 40 percent weight reduction, a 9.6 dB noise reduction and a 5270 hour MTBR in meeting or exceeding the above goals. Aircraft mission performance and cost improvements resulting from installation of the ART would include a 17 to 22 percent improvement in loss-exchange ratio during combat, a 22 percent improvement in mean-time-between-failure, a transmission acquisition cost savings of 23 percent of $165K, per unit, and an average transmission direct operating cost savings of 33 percent, or $24K per flight hour. Face gear tests performed successfully at NASA Lewis are summarized. Also, program results of advanced material tooth scoring tests, single tooth bending tests, Charpy impact energy tests, compact tension fracture toughness tests and tensile strength tests are summarized.

  2. Essays on electricity transmission investment and financial transmission rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Wenzhuo

    The U.S. electric power industry has been going through fundamental restructuring and realignment since the 1990's. Many issues and problems have emerged during the transition, and both economists and engineers have been looking for the solutions fervently. In this dissertation, which consists primarily of three essays, we apply economics theory and techniques to the power industry and address two related issues, transmission investment and financial transmission rights (FTRs). The first essay takes the decentralized perspective and investigates the efficiency attribute of market-based transmission investment under perfect competition. We clarify, for the first time, the nature of the externality created by loop flows that causes transmission investment to be inefficient. Our findings have important implications for better understanding of transmission market design and creating incentives for efficient transmission investment. In the second essay, we define several rules for allocating transmission investment cost within the framework of cooperative game theory. These rules provide fair, stable or efficient cost allocations in theory and are good benchmarks against which the allocation mechanism in practice can be compared and improved upon. In the last essay, we make exploratory efforts in analyzing and assessing empirically the performance of the Midwest independent system operator (MISO) FTR auction market. We reveal some stylized facts about this young market and find that it is not efficient under the risk-neutrality assumption. We also point out and correct the drawbacks in previous related work and suggest about more complete empirical work in future. In all, this dissertation makes both theoretic and empirical analysis of the two hot issues related to the power industry and comes up with findings that have important implications for the development of this industry.

  3. Clustering, climate and dengue transmission.

    PubMed

    Junxiong, Pang; Yee-Sin, Leo

    2015-06-01

    Dengue is currently the most rapidly spreading vector-borne disease, with an increasing burden over recent decades. Currently, neither a licensed vaccine nor an effective anti-viral therapy is available, and treatment largely remains supportive. Current vector control strategies to prevent and reduce dengue transmission are neither efficient nor sustainable as long-term interventions. Increased globalization and climate change have been reported to influence dengue transmission. In this article, we reviewed the non-climatic and climatic risk factors which facilitate dengue transmission. Sustainable and effective interventions to reduce the increasing threat from dengue would require the integration of these risk factors into current and future prevention strategies, including dengue vaccination, as well as the continuous support and commitment from the political and environmental stakeholders.

  4. Remote control apparatus for transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ebina, A.

    1989-01-10

    A remote control apparatus for a transmission is described, comprising: means for sending a signal representing an operation state of a change lever; auxiliary power means, remote-controlled by the change lever, for changing a gear position of the transmission and sending a signal representing the gear position; and control means for controlling an operation of the auxiliary power means in accordance with the change lever operation state signal and gear position signal, the control means being provided with neutral position holding means comprises signal transmission delay means. This comprises means for detecting that the shift path on which the striker presently exists is different from the shift path instructed according to the change lever operating signal, then detecting that the striker has reached the first neutral position according to the neutral position signal and generating a neutral position detection signal.

  5. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Rosalind E.; Reiner Jr., Robert C.; Battle, Katherine E.; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J.; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W.; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Smith, David L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  6. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    PubMed

    Howes, Rosalind E; Reiner, Robert C; Battle, Katherine E; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2015-11-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  7. Intercultural Transmission and Intergenerational Transmission in Immigrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nauck, Bernhard

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of intergenerational transmission processes on the intercultural contact and ethnic identification of second generation adolescents from five migrant groups in Germany, distinguishing four possible outcomes of intercultural contact (integration, assimilation, segregation, and marginalization). Data from interviews with same-sex…

  8. Electrical Transmission on the Lunar Surface. Part 1; DC Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Lloyd B.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes a portion of the results from a grant at Auburn University to study the electrical and thermal energy management for lunar facilities. Over the past year (June 1989 to May 1990) the following topics have been investigated: June 1989 to November 1989 - Literature survey, assessment of lunar power needs, and overview study of the requirements of a lunar power system; November 1989 to April 1990 - Develop models for the study of dc electrical power transmission lines for the lunar surface; March 1990 to May 1990 - Develop models for the study of ac electrical power transmission lines for the lunar surface. Because of the large amount of information in the model development and application to a wide parameter space this report is being bound separately. This report specifically contains the model development and parameter study for dc electrical power transmission lines. The end of the funding year (May 1990) will conclude with an annual report including the literature survey, the overview of the requirements of a lunar power system, and summaries of the dc and ac models of electrical transmission lines.

  9. Power transmission line monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Seppa, T.O.

    1993-08-17

    A method for monitoring the sag of an overhead power transmission line comprising the steps of: measuring the tension of the power line; producing an electrical signal representative of the tension measurement; processing said electrical signal in accordance with a predetermined tension-sag relationship to produce a second signal which is a function of sag of the power line; transmitting said second electrical signal to a distant location in a predetermined transmission mode; receiving the second signal at the distant location whereby current in the power line is adjusted in accordance with the received second signal.

  10. Electromagnetic Transmission Through Resonant Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Steven M.

    Electromagnetic resonators store energy in the form of oscillatory electric and magnetic fields and gradually exchange that energy by coupling with their environment. This coupling process can have profound effects on the transmission and reflection properties of nearby interfaces, with rapid transitions from high transmittance to high reflectance over narrow frequency ranges, and has been exploited to design useful optical components such as spectral filters and dielectric mirrors. This dissertation includes analytic, numeric, and experimental investigations of three different electromagnetic resonators, each based on a different method of confining electromagnetic fields near the region of interest. First, we show that a structure with two parallel conducting plates, each containing a subwavelength slit, supports a localized resonant mode bound to the slits and therefore exhibits (in the absence of nonradiative losses), perfect resonant transmission over a narrow frequency range. In practice, the transmission is limited by conduction losses in the sidewalls; nevertheless, experimental results at 10 GHz show a narrowband transmission enhancement by a factor of 104 compared to the non-resonant transmission, with quality factor (ratio of frequency to peak width) Q ~ 3000. Second, we describe a narrowband transmission filter based on a single-layer dielectric grating. We use a group theory analysis to show that, due to their symmetry, several of the grating modes cannot couple to light at normal incidence, while several others have extremely large coupling. We then show how selectively breaking the system symmetry using off-normal light incidence can produce transmission peaks by enabling weak coupling to some of the previously protected modes. The narrowband filtering capabilities are validated by an experimental demonstration in the long wavelength infrared, showing transmission peaks of quality factor Q ~ 100 within a free-spectral range of 8-15 mum. Third, we

  11. Equalization of data transmission cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes an equalization approach utilizing a simple RLC network which can obtain a maximum slope of -12dB/octave for reshaping the frequency characteristics of a data transmission cable, so that data may be generated and detected at the receiver. An experimental procedure for determining equalizer design specifications using distortion analysis is presented. It was found that for lengths of 16 PEV-L cable of up to 5 miles and data transmission rates of up to 1 Mbs, the equalization scheme proposed here is sufficient for generation of the data with acceptable error rates.

  12. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  13. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  14. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  15. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  16. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  17. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  18. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  19. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-79 Section 86...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-79 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with...

  20. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  1. Norovirus transmission on cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Isakbaeva, Elmira T; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Beard, R Suzanne; Bulens, Sandra N; Mullins, James; Monroe, Stephan S; Bresee, Joseph; Sassano, Patricia; Cramer, Elaine H; Glass, Roger I

    2005-01-01

    An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis affected passengers on two consecutive cruises of ship X and continued on 4 subsequent cruises despite a 1-week sanitization. We documented transmission by food and person-to-person contact; persistence of virus despite sanitization onboard, including introductions of new strains; and seeding of an outbreak on land.

  2. Atlas Transmission Line Breakdown Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    The Atlas facility will use 24 radially converging, vertically oriented and tapered, oil insulated, triplate transmission lines between the Marx ...taper from a height of 1.75 m at the Marx end to 0.32 m at the output end. The aluminum conductors, held together by 20 insulating spacers, are

  3. Progressive transmission and compression images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, A. B.

    1996-01-01

    We describe an image data compression strategy featuring progressive transmission. The method exploits subband coding and arithmetic coding for compression. We analyze the Laplacian probability density, which closely approximates the statistics of individual subbands, to determine a strategy for ordering the compressed subband data in a way that improves rate-distortion performance. Results are presented for a test image.

  4. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-06-10

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  5. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  6. Transmission and transmission control device for providing downshifting

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, H.; Akashi, T.

    1986-11-18

    This patent describes a transmission for a vehicle, comprising a transmission mechanism, and an automatic control device; the transmission mechanism comprising: an input shaft; an output shaft, a first on-off clutch; a second on-off clutch; a first one way clutch; a second one way clutch; a first gear train having a first reduction gear ratio; a second gear train having a second reduction gear ratio smaller than the first reduction gear ratio; a third gear train having a third reduction gear ratio smaller than the second reduction gear ratio; and a fourth gear train having a fourth reduction gear ratio smaller than the third reduction gear ratio. A first synchronizer connects the input shaft and the output shaft via a series connection of the first on-off clutch, the first one way clutch, and the first gear train when the first synchronizer is shifted to a first side of a neutral position thereof so as to transmit rotational power from the input shaft to the output shaft in a normal rotational direction at a first speed stage and which connects the input shaft and the output shaft via series connection of the first on-off clutch.

  7. The evolution of plant virus transmission pathways.

    PubMed

    Hamelin, Frédéric M; Allen, Linda J S; Prendeville, Holly R; Hajimorad, M Reza; Jeger, Michael J

    2016-05-07

    The evolution of plant virus transmission pathways is studied through transmission via seed, pollen, or a vector. We address the questions: under what circumstances does vector transmission make pollen transmission redundant? Can evolution lead to the coexistence of multiple virus transmission pathways? We restrict the analysis to an annual plant population in which reproduction through seed is obligatory. A semi-discrete model with pollen, seed, and vector transmission is formulated to investigate these questions. We assume vector and pollen transmission rates are frequency-dependent and density-dependent, respectively. An ecological stability analysis is performed for the semi-discrete model and used to inform an evolutionary study of trade-offs between pollen and seed versus vector transmission. Evolutionary dynamics critically depend on the shape of the trade-off functions. Assuming a trade-off between pollen and vector transmission, evolution either leads to an evolutionarily stable mix of pollen and vector transmission (concave trade-off) or there is evolutionary bi-stability (convex trade-off); the presence of pollen transmission may prevent evolution of vector transmission. Considering a trade-off between seed and vector transmission, evolutionary branching and the subsequent coexistence of pollen-borne and vector-borne strains is possible. This study contributes to the theory behind the diversity of plant-virus transmission patterns observed in nature.

  8. Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald E. Bell

    2004-12-08

    The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

  9. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  10. Defect tolerant transmission lithography mask

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    A transmission lithography mask that utilizes a transparent substrate or a partially transparent membrane as the active region of the mask. A reflective single layer or multilayer coating is deposited on the membrane surface facing the illumination system. The coating is selectively patterned (removed) to form transmissive (bright) regions. Structural imperfections and defects in the coating have negligible effect on the aerial image of the mask master pattern since the coating is used to reflect radiation out of the entrance pupil of the imaging system. Similarly, structural imperfections in the clear regions of the membrane have little influence on the amplitude or phase of the transmitted electromagnetic fields. Since the mask "discards," rather than absorbs, unwanted radiation, it has reduced optical absorption and reduced thermal loading as compared to conventional designs. For EUV applications, the mask circumvents the phase defect problem, and is independent of the thermal load during exposure.

  11. Cultural transmission of social essentialism

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Tworek, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    Social essentialism entails the belief that certain social categories (e.g., gender, race) mark fundamentally distinct kinds of people. Essentialist beliefs have pernicious consequences, supporting social stereotyping and contributing to prejudice. How does social essentialism develop? In the studies reported here, we tested the hypothesis that generic language facilitates the cultural transmission of social essentialism. Two studies found that hearing generic language about a novel social category diverse for race, ethnicity, age, and sex led 4-y-olds and adults to develop essentialist beliefs about that social category. A third study documented that experimentally inducing parents to hold essentialist beliefs about a novel social category led them to produce more generic language when discussing the category with their children. Thus, generic language facilitates the transmission of essentialist beliefs about social categories from parents to children. PMID:22869722

  12. Development of large rotorcraft transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanich, N. E.; Drago, R. J.; Mack, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Army Heavy Lift Helicopter (HLH) represents a large rotorcraft which was developed by an American aerospace company. In the early 1970's with the HLH Advanced Technology Components (ATC) program, the development of large rotorcraft transmission and drive systems was started. Failures in the spiral bevel gearing were experienced in tests because the employed method of analysis had not considered the effect of rim bending. Consequently, new gears with strengthened rims were designed and fabricated. For a more accurate prediction of the load capacity of the gears, an extensive Finite Element Method (FEM) system was developed. The U.S. Army's XCH-62 HLH aft rotor transmission was finally successfully tested at full design torque and speed. A description of the test program is provided, and the analytical program is discussed. The analytical phase includes the development of a preprocessing program which aids in the review of calculated FEM stresses.

  13. Transmission of influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-05-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to 'novel' viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages.

  14. Transmission optical coherence tomography sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trull, A. K.; van der Horst, J.; Bijster, J. G.; Kalkman, J.

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate that Fourier-domain transmission OCT is a versatile tool to measure optical material properties of turbid media. We develop an analytical expression for the transmission OCT signal. Based on this analysis we determine the group refractive index, group velocity dispersion, absorption coefficient, and scattering coefficient. The optical dispersion is accurately measured for glasses, liquids, and water/glucose mixtures. The optical attenuation is measured in the spatial domain and compared to Mie calculations combined with concentration dependent scattering effects. In the wave vector domain the spectral dependence of the optical attenuation is measured and compared to literature values. The developed technique can be used for optical sensing of attenuation and dispersion.

  15. Monitoring Atmospheric Transmission with FLAME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Peter C.; McGraw, J. T.; Zirzow, D. C.; Koppa, M.; Buttler-Pena, K.

    2014-01-01

    Calibration of ground-based observations in the optical and near-infrared requires precise and accurate understanding of atmospheric transmission, at least as precise and accurate as that required for the spectral energy distributions of science targets. Traditionally this has used the Langley extrapolation method, observing targets and calibrators over a range of airmass and extrapolating to zero airmass by assuming a plane-parallel homogeneous atmosphere. The technique we present uses direct measurements of the atmosphere to derive the transmission along the line of sight to science targets at a few well-chosen wavelengths. The Facility Lidar Atmospheric Monitor of Extinction (FLAME) is a 0.5m diameter three Nd:YAG wavelength (355nm, 532nm & 1064nm) elastic backscatter lidar system. Laser pulses are transmitted into the atmosphere in the direction of the science target. Photons scattered back toward the receiver by molecules, aerosols and clouds are collected and time-gated so that the backscatter intensity is measured as a function of range to the scattering volume. The system is housed in a mobile calibration lab, which also contains auxiliary instrumentation to provide a NIST traceable calibration of the transmitted laser power and receiver efficiency. FLAME was designed to create a million photons per minute signal from the middle stratosphere, where the atmosphere is relatively calm and dominated by molecules of the well-mixed atmosphere (O2 & N2). Routine radiosonde measurements of the density at these altitudes constrain the scattering efficiency in this region and, combined with calibration of the transmitter and receiver, the only remaining unknown quantity is the two-way transmission to the stratosphere. These measurements can inform atmospheric transmission models to better understand the complex and ever-changing observatory radiative transfer environment. FLAME is currently under active development and we present some of our ongoing measurements.

  16. Transmission risk of human trichinellosis.

    PubMed

    Takumi, Katsuhisa; Teunis, Peter; Fonville, Manoj; Vallee, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Nöckler, Karsten; van der Giessen, Joke

    2009-02-23

    Trichinella is a food-borne parasitic zoonoses and human cases are still reported in Europe mainly due to the consumption of pig meat originating from small backyard farms. Infections originating from industrialized pig farming have not been reported for decades in Europe, due to control measures to prevent the transmission of Trichinella from wildlife by indoor housing and good management practices. Therefore, risk-based monitoring programs might replace individual carcass control in industrialized pig farming as described in EU legislation SANCO 2075/2005. Transmission of Trichinella species between wildlife and the risk that may pose to humans via consumption of contaminated pork meat has not been studied quantitatively. One pathway by which human trichinellosis can occur is the rat-pig-human route. To evaluate the transmission risk though this pathway the dose responses of rat, pig, and human were studied. Experimental T. spiralis infection was performed in rats with doses of as few as 10 parasites and the data set was analysed using a newly developed dose response model that describes larvae per gram (LPG). Experimental T. spiralis infection in pig was analysed in a similar way. Furthermore nine published outbreaks of human trichinellosis were analysed to determine the dose response in humans. The risk of human trichinellosis via the rat-pig-human transmission was simulated by the Monte Carlo method. A pair of female and male parasites representing the lowest infection pressure from the environment, led to the probability of human trichinellosis by consumption of 100g of raw pork meat equal to 5% via the studied rat-pig-human pathway. In the absence of rodent control near the farm, a low infection pressure from wildlife presents a relatively high risk of human trichinellosis via consumption of uncooked pork meat.

  17. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossler, Robert B., Jr.; Heath, Gregory F.

    1992-01-01

    The current status of the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is reviewed. The discussion includes a general configuration and face gear description, weight analysis, stress analysis, reliability analysis, acoustic analysis, face gear testing, and planned torque split testing. Design descriptions include the face gear webs sized for equal stiffness, a positive engagement clutch, the lubrication system, and a high contact ratio planetary. Test results for five gear materials and three housing materials are presented.

  18. Performance Study of OFDM Transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledesma Goyzueta, Rodolfo

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the important features of OFDM under different channel conditions and to analyze the outcomes. In order to procure this goal, multiple simulations are performed using GNU Octave. The simulations of OFDM transmissions are carried out under Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and/or Rayleigh fading. Besides, PACE is employed to mitigate the effects of Rayleigh fading.

  19. Exoplanet transmission spectroscopy using KMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parviainen, Hannu; Aigrain, Suzanne; Thatte, Niranjan; Barstow, Joanna K.; Evans, Thomas M.; Gibson, Neale

    2015-11-01

    KMOS (K-Band Multi Object Spectrograph) is a novel integral field spectrograph installed in the Very Large Telescope's (VLT's) ANTU unit. The instrument offers an ability to observe 24 2.8 arcsec × 2.8 arcsec subfields positionable within a 7.2 arcmin patrol field, each subfield producing a spectrum with a 14 × 14-pixel spatial resolution. The main science drivers for KMOS are the study of galaxies, star formation, and molecular clouds, but its ability to simultaneously measure spectra of multiple stars makes KMOS an interesting instrument for exoplanet atmosphere characterization via transmission spectroscopy. We set to test whether transmission spectroscopy is practical with KMOS, and what are the conditions required to achieve the photometric precision needed, based on observations of a partial transit of WASP-19b, and full transits of GJ 1214b and HD 209458b. Our analysis uses the simultaneously observed comparison stars to reduce the effects from instrumental and atmospheric sources, and Gaussian processes to model the residual systematics. We show that KMOS can, in theory, deliver the photometric precision required for transmission spectroscopy. However, this is shown to require (a) pre-imaging to ensure accurate centring and (b) a very stable night with optimal observing conditions (seeing ˜0.8 arcsec). Combining these two factors with the need to observe several transits, each with a sufficient out-of-transit baseline (and with the fact that similar or better precision can be reached with telescopes and instruments with smaller pressure), we conclude that transmission spectroscopy is not the optimal science case to take advantage of the abilities offered by KMOS and VLT.

  20. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossler, Robert B., Jr.; Heath, Gregory F.

    1992-07-01

    The current status of the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is reviewed. The discussion includes a general configuration and face gear description, weight analysis, stress analysis, reliability analysis, acoustic analysis, face gear testing, and planned torque split testing. Design descriptions include the face gear webs sized for equal stiffness, a positive engagement clutch, the lubrication system, and a high contact ratio planetary. Test results for five gear materials and three housing materials are presented.

  1. Midwest Transmission Workshop II Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Bryan

    2002-12-05

    OAK-B135 After introductions of all participants, Abby Arnold, RESOLVE, reviewed the purpose of the meeting and the agenda. The purpose of the workshop was to share the results of the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) scenario development for wind and other fuel sources and the corresponding implications for transmission throughout the MISO control area. The workshop agenda is included in Attachment A.

  2. High efficiency ground data transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    It is demonstrated that state-of-the-art communications technology can be implemented and reliably operated on a global basis to increase the transmission rates and efficiencies on circuits with bandwidths greater than the typical speech channel. Optimization is affected by optimum clock recovery procedures, multilevel pulse amplitude modulation, single sideband amplitude modulation, transversal filter equalizers, data scrambling, and active compensation for phase instability.

  3. High current pulse transmission cable

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, W.M.

    1990-09-28

    This invention is comprised of a transmission cable for carrying high current pulses in which an even numbered plurality of electrical conductors surrounds a central ground conductor. Each electrical conductor is connected so that it at any instant in time it will carry current of opposite polarity to the polarity carried by adjacent conductors. This arrangement cancels practically all of the external fields generated by current in the conductors.

  4. Flavivirus transmission focusing on Zika.

    PubMed

    Vasilakis, Nikos; Weaver, Scott C

    2017-02-01

    Flaviviruses are among the most diverse viruses with over 85 species recognized. Taxonomically, this genus is one of the 4 recognized genera within the family Flaviviridae. Most flaviviruses of human public health significance, for example, dengue, yellow fever and Zika viruses, are arthropod-borne (arboviruses) and have two evolutionarily and ecologically distinct transmission cycles: a sylvatic transmission cycle, where the virus circulates between zoonotic vertebrate reservoir and amplification hosts and arboreal mosquitoes; and an urban transmission cycle, where the virus circulates between humans and peridomestic Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus closely related to West Nile, dengue, Spondweni, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, remained in obscurity since its discovery in 1947, but has recently emerged to cause a series of epidemics in the South Pacific, and most recently reaching nearly pandemic levels with its introduction in the Americas. Available epidemiologic and experimental evidence points to Aedes aegypti as the principal urban vector, possibly supplemented by Aedes albopictus in some locations. Unfortunately, the former is one of the most difficult mosquitoes to control owing to its highly anthropophilic behavior.

  5. Split torque transmission load sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

  6. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  7. Gas transmission through microporous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turel, Tacibaht

    2008-10-01

    An ideal protective clothing material should be a good barrier against harmful gases or vapor while allowing moisture vapor and air passage through the material. In the study and design of barrier materials, one of the critical issues is to balance these requirements, which may sometimes be mutually exclusive. Therefore it is critical to understand the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the attack mechanisms as well as the barrier materials and the transport phenomena in such systems. In this study, air and gas transmission through barrier systems consisting of porous membranes was investigated experimentally and a molecular-level probabilistic model was constructed to evaluate the effect of various parameters on the gas flow. The effect of membrane parameters such as porosity, pore size distribution, thickness as well as gas parameters such as molecule diameters were examined at single layer as well as multiple layers. To understand the gas behavior for harmful chemicals and to ensure safety during experimental studies, mimics of such gases were obtained which were comparable to the actual gases in shape, molecular weight and other chemical properties. Air, ammonia and several mimic gases of harmful chemical agents were studied. Beta-pinene was used as a mimic of sarin and prenol was used as a mimic of nitrogen mustard. Gas transmission experiments were conducted on polyester, nylon and polypropylene membranes each of which had different porosity and pore size distributions. Experiments were done at different pressure values and a comparison was made between permeability testing machines based on volumetric and manometric principles as to their ability to accommodate high permeability membranes. Physical and chemical adsorption of such gases on porous membranes was also investigated after the addition of active elements on the membrane surfaces which can interact with the gas molecules. An experimental setup was developed to measure concentration changes

  8. Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control

    SciTech Connect

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2013-01-16

    Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability. The objectives of the project were to: • Develop a simulation environment for integrating transmission and distribution control, • Construct reduced-order controllable models for smart grid assets at the distribution level, • Design and validate closed-loop control strategies for distributed smart grid assets, and • Demonstrate impact of integrating thousands of smart grid assets under closed-loop control demand response strategies on the transmission system. More specifically, GridLAB-D, a distribution system tool, and PowerWorld, a transmission planning tool, are integrated into a single simulation environment. The integrated environment

  9. Microwave transmission system for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The system considered makes use of a combined dipole antenna and rectifier. The dipole elements feed a balanced transmission line low-pass filter. A description of a laboratory model microwave power transmission system is given and a higher-power project with a longer range is discussed. Space power transmission experiments are also considered. It is pointed out that the investigations have shown that high overall transmission link efficiencies are possible.

  10. Assessment of worm gearing for helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev

    1990-01-01

    A high-efficiency hydrostatic worm gear drive for helicopter transmissions is assessed. The example given is for a large cargo helicopter with three 4000-kW engines and transmission reduction ratio of 110. Also contained are: an efficiency calculation, a description of the test stand for evaluating the feasibility of worm gear hydrostatic mesh, a weight calculation, and a comparison with conventional helicopter transmissions of the same power and transmission reduction ratio.

  11. 21 CFR 1311.170 - Transmission requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transmission requirements. 1311.170 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.170 Transmission requirements. (a) The... electronically to on and that transmission failed. (c) The electronic prescription application may print...

  12. 21 CFR 1311.170 - Transmission requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transmission requirements. 1311.170 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.170 Transmission requirements. (a) The... electronically to on and that transmission failed. (c) The electronic prescription application may print...

  13. 47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authorized transmissions. 97.111 Section 97.111... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.111 Authorized transmissions. (a) An amateur station may transmit the following types of two-way communications: (1) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages...

  14. 10 CFR 1017.27 - Transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transmission. 1017.27 Section 1017.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.27 Transmission. (a) Physically transmitting UCNI documents or..., Express, Certified, or Registered mail; (ii) Any means approved for transmission of classified...

  15. 10 CFR 1017.27 - Transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transmission. 1017.27 Section 1017.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.27 Transmission. (a) Physically transmitting UCNI documents or..., Express, Certified, or Registered mail; (ii) Any means approved for transmission of classified...

  16. 10 CFR 1017.27 - Transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transmission. 1017.27 Section 1017.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.27 Transmission. (a) Physically transmitting UCNI documents or..., Express, Certified, or Registered mail; (ii) Any means approved for transmission of classified...

  17. 10 CFR 1017.27 - Transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transmission. 1017.27 Section 1017.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.27 Transmission. (a) Physically transmitting UCNI documents or..., Express, Certified, or Registered mail; (ii) Any means approved for transmission of classified...

  18. 47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authorized transmissions. 97.111 Section 97.111... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.111 Authorized transmissions. (a) An amateur station may transmit the following types of two-way communications: (1) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages...

  19. 21 CFR 1311.170 - Transmission requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transmission requirements. 1311.170 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.170 Transmission requirements. (a) The... electronically to on and that transmission failed. (c) The electronic prescription application may print...

  20. 47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authorized transmissions. 97.111 Section 97.111... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.111 Authorized transmissions. (a) An amateur station may transmit the following types of two-way communications: (1) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages...

  1. 75 FR 8328 - Dominion Transmission, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Dominion Transmission, Inc. February 18, 2010. Take notice that on February 4, 2010, Dominion Transmission, Inc. (DTI), 701 East Cary Street, Richmond, Virginia 23219, filed in... directed to Amanda K. Prestage, Regulatory and Certificates Analyst, Dominion Transmission, Inc., 701...

  2. 47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized transmissions. 97.111 Section 97.111... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.111 Authorized transmissions. (a) An amateur station may transmit the following types of two-way communications: (1) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages...

  3. 10 CFR 1017.27 - Transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transmission. 1017.27 Section 1017.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Physical Protection Requirements § 1017.27 Transmission. (a) Physically transmitting UCNI documents or..., Express, Certified, or Registered mail; (ii) Any means approved for transmission of classified...

  4. 47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authorized transmissions. 97.111 Section 97.111... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.111 Authorized transmissions. (a) An amateur station may transmit the following types of two-way communications: (1) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages...

  5. Malaria transmission rates estimated from serological data.

    PubMed Central

    Burattini, M. N.; Massad, E.; Coutinho, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model was used to estimate malaria transmission rates based on serological data. The model is minimally stochastic and assumes an age-dependent force of infection for malaria. The transmission rates estimated were applied to a simple compartmental model in order to mimic the malaria transmission. The model has shown a good retrieving capacity for serological and parasite prevalence data. PMID:8270011

  6. Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-01-01

    The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

  7. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1985-08-15

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  8. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, Russell B.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  9. The evolution of trophic transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    1999-01-01

    Parasite increased trophic transmission (PITT) is one of the more fascinating tales of parasite evolution. The implications of this go beyond cocktail party anecdotes and science fiction plots as the phenomenon is pervasive and likely to be ecologically and evolutionarily important. Although the subject has already received substantial review, Kevin Lafferty here focuses on evolutionary aspects that have not been fully explored, specifically: (1) How strong should PITT be? (2) How might sexual selection and limb autotomy facilitate PITT? (3) How might infrapopulation regulation in final hosts be important in determining avoidance of infected prey? And (4) what happens when more than one species of parasite is in the same intermediate host?

  10. Force transmission in epithelial tissues.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Martin, Adam C

    2016-03-01

    In epithelial tissues, cells constantly generate and transmit forces between each other. Forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton regulate tissue shape and structure and also provide signals that influence cells' decisions to divide, die, or differentiate. Forces are transmitted across epithelia because cells are mechanically linked through junctional complexes, and forces can propagate through the cell cytoplasm. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for force generation, with a specific focus on the actomyosin cortex and adherens junctions. We then discuss evidence for how these mechanisms promote cell shape changes and force transmission in tissues.

  11. Time scale independent signal transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltin, L.

    1980-05-01

    The paper presents a method which permits the conversion of time scale variations occurring during signal transmission into time shifts proportionally related to these variations. It is demonstrated that the method can be used to reject the adverse effects of the time scale variations (such as wow and flutter in magnetic tape recordings) and/or to determine the scale change exactly (such as would be required in Doppler signal processing). Finally, it is noted that since the system performance degrades with rising frequency of the time scale distortions, an upper bound for this frequency is derived.

  12. Atmospheric transmission computer program CP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Barnett, T. L.; Korb, C. L.; Hanby, W.; Dillinger, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program is described which allows for calculation of the effects of carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide on earth resources remote sensing techniques. A flow chart of the program and operating instructions are provided. Comparisons are made between the atmospheric transmission obtained from laboratory and spacecraft spectrometer data and that obtained from a computer prediction using a model atmosphere and radiosonde data. Limitations of the model atmosphere are discussed. The computer program listings, input card formats, and sample runs for both radiosonde data and laboratory data are included.

  13. FPL's Christmas 1991 transmission outages

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, J.T.; Busch, D.W.; Renowden, J.D. . Transmission Line Dept.)

    1993-10-01

    A record number of contamination related outages occurred on FPL transmission lines during Christmas of 1991 and resulted in an investigation of inservice insulator performance. The field investigation process used was enhanced by recent improvements in outage data recording. Also used in the analysis were weather information, the results of recently completed accelerated aging tests of polymers, and specially conducted tests on the effects of weathering steel stain on porcelain insulators. Specific insulator problems were identified and actions taken to reduce the possibility of recurrence.

  14. 49 CFR 191.13 - Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting distribution pipelines. 191.13 Section 191.13... Distribution systems reporting transmission pipelines; transmission or gathering systems reporting...

  15. 77 FR 55207 - Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 16, 2012, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC (FGT... & Tariffs, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, 5051 Westheimer Road, Houston, Texas, 77056, or call...

  16. Automated manual transmission mode selection controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.

    1999-11-09

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  17. Automated manual transmission shift sequence controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Richard G.; Rausen, David J.

    2000-02-01

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both, an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  18. Transmission for use in motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, S.; Takase, J.; Kuramochi, K.

    1987-03-31

    A transmission is described for use in a motor vehicle, the transmission including a transmission shaft on both ends of which are mounted respectively a first driven gear for receiving power from an engine and a driving gear for driving a second driven gear of a final reduction gear assembly, comprising: a first bearing arranged at a first side of the first driven gear for supporting radially the transmission shaft; and a second bearing arranged at a second side of the driven gear opposite the first side and provided separately from the first bearing and supporting the transmission shaft axially. The second bearing further comprises a thrust needle bearing provided between a housing portion for covering an end of the first driven gear on the transmission shaft and a flange portion of the transmission shaft and the first bearing further comprises a first radial roller bearing.

  19. Energy transmission using recyclable quantum entanglement

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming-Yong; Lin, Xiu-Min

    2016-01-01

    It is known that faster-than-light (FTL) transmission of energy could be achieved if the transmission were considered in the framework of non-relativistic classical mechanics. Here we show that FTL transmission of energy could also be achieved if the transmission were considered in the framework of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. In our transmission protocol a two-spin Heisenberg model is considered and the energy is transmitted by two successive local unitary operations on the initially entangled spins. Our protocol does not mean that FTL transmission can be achieved in reality when the theory of relativity is considered, but it shows that quantum entanglement can be used in a recyclable way in energy transmission. PMID:27465431

  20. Vibration measurements on a car transmission housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Wolfram; Plieske, Marco; Brauchle, Gerhard

    1994-09-01

    In view of stricter future statutory requirements concerning noise emissions by motor vehicles, the acoustic optimization of noise emitting components will become increasingly important. Customers complain about transmission noise when for example gears excite individual resonances (eigenfrequencies) of the transmission housing. Normally the eigenfrequencies and also the excitation frequencies are not moveable out of narrow limits. Therefore, in addition to optimizing gear geometry, the transmission housing must be designed so that dynamic forces acting through the gears onto the shaft bearing points lead to minimum level of radiated sound power from the transmission housing. For this reason, the resonance vibration shapes induced on a car transmission under operating conditions were measured using the laser-transmission test rig. Additionally, a comparison was made between the inspection of an empty transmission housing (using finite element calculation and experimental modal analysis).

  1. Wildlife and electric power transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Goodwin, J.G.; Hunt, J.R.; Fletcher, John L.; Busnel, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of miles of transmission lines have been introduced into our natural environment. These lines and their corridors can be damaging or beneficial to wildlife communities depending on how they are designed, where they are placed, and when they are constructed and maintained. With the current trend toward UHV systems, new problems (associated with additional increments in audible noise, electric and magnetic force fields, etc.) must be addressed. We recommend the following areas for careful study: (1) the response of wilderness species to transmission lines and line construction and maintenance activities (2) the magnitude of bird collision and electrocution mortality, (3) the response of power corridor and power tower in habiting wildlife to laboratory and field doses of electro-chemical oxidants, corona noise, electric and magnetic fields, etc., (4) the productivity of tower inhabiting birds compared with nearby non-tower nesters, and (5) the influence of powerline corridors on mammalian and avian migration patterns. It is our hope that the questions identified in this study will help stimulate further research so that we can maximize wildlife benefits and minimize wildlife detriments.

  2. GABAergic transmission in hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, Olga A

    2013-08-15

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE)(1) is a neuropsychiatric disorder caused by chronic or acute liver failure. Nearly thirty years ago a hypothesis was formulated explaining the neuropathology of HE by increased GABAergic tone. Recent progress in the GABAA-receptor (GABAAR) molecular pharmacology and biochemistry as well as the physiology of GABAergic transmission provided better understanding of GABA's role in health and disease. A detailed analysis of neuronal populations and their GABAergic afferents affected in HE is still missing. The slow progress in understanding the pathology of GABAergic transmission in HE is due to the high complexity of brain circuitries controlled by multiple types of GABAergic interneurons and the large variety of GABAAR, which are differently affected by pathological conditions and not yet fully identified. The mechanisms of action of the GABAAR agonist taurine, allosteric positive modulators (inhibitory neurosteroids, anaesthetics, benzodiazepines and histamine) and inhibitors of the GABAAR (excitatory neurosteroids, Ro15-4513) are discussed with respect to HE pathophysiology. Perspectives for GABAergic drugs in the symptomatic treatment of HE are suggested.

  3. Influenza viruses: transmission between species.

    PubMed

    Webster, R G; Hinshaw, V S; Bean, W J; Sriram, G

    1980-02-25

    The only direct evidence for transmission of influenza viruses between species comes from studies on swine influenza viruses. Antigenically and genetically identical Hsw1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs and man on the same farm in Wisconsin, U.S.A. The isolation of H3N2 influenza viruses from a wide range of lower animals and birds suggests that influenza viruses of man can spread to the lower orders. Under some conditions the H3N2 viruses can persist for a number of years in some species. The isolation, from aquatic birds, of a large number of influenza A viruses that possess surface proteins antigenically similar to the viruses isolated from man, pigs and horses provides indirect evidence for inter-species transmission. There is now a considerable body of evidence which suggests that influenza viruses of lower animals and birds may play a role in the origin of some of the pandemic strains of influenza A viruses. There is no direct evidence that the influenza viruses in aquatic birds are transmitted to man, but they may serve as a genetic pool from which some genes may be introduced into humans by recombination. Preliminary evidence suggests that the molecular basis of host range and virulence may be related to the RNA segments coding for one of the polymerase proteins (P3) and for the nucleoprotein (NP).

  4. Force transmission in migrating cells

    PubMed Central

    Sauser, Roger; Ambrosi, Davide; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Verkhovsky, Alexander B.

    2010-01-01

    During cell migration, forces generated by the actin cytoskeleton are transmitted through adhesion complexes to the substrate. To investigate the mechanism of force generation and transmission, we analyzed the relationship between actin network velocity and traction forces at the substrate in a model system of persistently migrating fish epidermal keratocytes. Front and lateral sides of the cell exhibited much stronger coupling between actin motion and traction forces than the trailing cell body. Further analysis of the traction–velocity relationship suggested that the force transmission mechanisms were different in different cell regions: at the front, traction was generated by a gripping of the actin network to the substrate, whereas at the sides and back, it was produced by the network’s slipping over the substrate. Treatment with inhibitors of the actin–myosin system demonstrated that the cell body translocation could be powered by either of the two different processes, actomyosin contraction or actin assembly, with the former associated with significantly larger traction forces than the latter. PMID:20100912

  5. How vinculin regulates force transmission.

    PubMed

    Dumbauld, David W; Lee, Ted T; Singh, Ankur; Scrimgeour, Jan; Gersbach, Charles A; Zamir, Evan A; Fu, Jianping; Chen, Christopher S; Curtis, Jennifer E; Craig, Susan W; García, Andrés J

    2013-06-11

    Focal adhesions mediate force transfer between ECM-integrin complexes and the cytoskeleton. Although vinculin has been implicated in force transmission, few direct measurements have been made, and there is little mechanistic insight. Using vinculin-null cells expressing vinculin mutants, we demonstrate that vinculin is not required for transmission of adhesive and traction forces but is necessary for myosin contractility-dependent adhesion strength and traction force and for the coupling of cell area and traction force. Adhesion strength and traction forces depend differentially on vinculin head (V(H)) and tail domains. V(H) enhances adhesion strength by increasing ECM-bound integrin-talin complexes, independently from interactions with vinculin tail ligands and contractility. A full-length, autoinhibition-deficient mutant (T12) increases adhesion strength compared with VH, implying roles for both vinculin activation and the actin-binding tail. In contrast to adhesion strength, vinculin-dependent traction forces absolutely require a full-length and activated molecule; V(H) has no effect. Physical linkage of the head and tail domains is required for maximal force responses. Residence times of vinculin in focal adhesions, but not T12 or V(H), correlate with applied force, supporting a mechanosensitive model for vinculin activation in which forces stabilize vinculin's active conformation to promote force transfer.

  6. Money and transmission of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Money is one of the most frequently passed items in the world. The aim of this study was to ascertain the survival status of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Vancomycin- Resistant Enterococci (VRE) on banknotes from different countries and the transmission of bacteria to people who come in contact with the banknotes. The survival rate was highest for the Romanian Leu yielding all three microorganisms used after both three and six hours of drying. Furthermore, the Leu was the only banknote to yield VRE after one day of drying. Other currencies either enabled the survival of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) and VRE (e.g. Euro), but not of MRSA, or the other way round (e.g. US Dollar). While a variety of factors such as community hygiene levels, people’s behaviour, and antimicrobial resistance rates at community level obviously have influence on the transmission of resistant microorganisms, the type of banknote-paper may be an additional variable to consider. PMID:23985137

  7. Detecting social transmission in networks.

    PubMed

    Hoppitt, William; Boogert, Neeltje J; Laland, Kevin N

    2010-04-21

    In recent years researchers have drawn attention to a need for new methods with which to identify the spread of behavioural innovations through social transmission in animal populations. Network-based analyses seek to recognise diffusions mediated by social learning by detecting a correspondence between patterns of association and the flow of information through groups. Here we introduce a new order of acquisition diffusion analysis (OADA) and develop established time of acquisition diffusion analysis (TADA) methods further. Through simulation we compare the merits of these and other approaches, demonstrating that OADA and TADA have greater power and lower Type I error rates than available alternatives, and specifying when each approach should be deployed. We illustrate the new methods by applying them to reanalyse an established dataset corresponding to the diffusion of foraging innovations in starlings, where OADA and TADA detect social transmission that hitherto had been missed. The methods are potentially widely applicable by researchers wishing to detect social learning in natural and captive populations of animals, and to facilitate this we provide code to implement OADA and TADA in the statistical package R.

  8. Transmission of dengue virus without a mosquito vector: nosocomial mucocutaneous transmission and other routes of transmission.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin H; Wilson, Mary E

    2004-09-15

    We report a case of dengue fever in a Boston-area health care worker with no recent history of travel but with mucocutaneous exposure to infected blood from a febrile traveler who had recently returned from Peru. Serologic tests confirmed acute dengue virus infection in both the traveler and the health care worker. We believe that this is the first documented case of dengue virus transmission via the mucocutaneous route. We present case reports and review other ways that dengue virus has been transmitted without a mosquito vector.

  9. Improving Regional Groundwater Models with Transmissivity Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halford, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic-conductivity estimates in groundwater-flow models typically are constrained by a range for each hydrogeologic unit. These often-times wide ranges are derived from interpretations of many aquifer tests binned by hydrogeologic unit. Uncertainty is added to these ranges where hydraulic-conductivity estimates derived from aquifer tests use contributing thicknesses that differ from simulated thicknesses in a numerical model. Transmissivity observations from individual aquifer tests constrain model calibration better than hydraulic-conductivity ranges assigned to hydrogeologic units because simulated transmissivity and aquifer-test results are compared directly. Transmissivity comparisons require that simulated thicknesses and hydraulic conductivities for the volume investigated by the aquifer test be extracted from a model and integrated into a simulated transmissivity. Transmissivity observations have been ignored primarily because sampling simulated transmissivities is mechanically painful from complex models. A suite of programs called T-COMP has been developed to sample simulated transmissivities easily from regional MODFLOW models. Transmissivities of model cells are sampled where drawdown exceeds a user-defined threshold. Sampled transmissivities of model cells are averaged within a layer and summed between layers. This computationally intensive process occurs in separate programs that are executed prior to model calibration. Simulated transmissivities can be sampled quickly during calibration because nodes and their fractional contributions have been defined.

  10. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, K.E.

    1988-07-28

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

  11. New transmission lines: The challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Pierobon, J.R. |

    1995-03-15

    Increasing competition in the electric power industry is likely to entail a little-recognized major complication---difficulty in siting of transmission lines. The stakes will often be greater, the competition could be stronger, and both put a premium on finding a process that can win public acceptance cost-effectively. There are at least three major reasons why siting new lines will become more difficult: (1) More communities in the paths of the new lines will not be served by them and will see no benefit to offset the nuisance, (2) In addition to the perceived health threats of electric and magnetic fields, opposition will arise based on claims about siting of lines in low-income or minority neighborhoods, and (3) Electric power companies that stand to lose market share if the lines are completed may align themselves with the opposition. This article is a review of the challenges that utilities may face in their efforts.

  12. Satellite Data Transmission (SDT) requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chie, C. M.; White, M.; Lindsey, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    An 85 Mb/s modem/codec to operate in a 34 MHz C-band domestic satellite transponder at a system carrier to noise power ratio of 19.5 dB is discussed. Characteristics of a satellite channel and the approach adopted for the satellite data transmission modem/codec selection are discussed. Measured data and simulation results of the existing 50 Mbps link are compared and used to verify the simulation techniques. Various modulation schemes that were screened for the SDT are discussed and the simulated performance of two prime candidates, the 8 PSK and the SMSK/2 are given. The selection process that leads to the candidate codec techniques are documented and the technology of the modem/codec candidates is assessed. Costs of the modems and codecs are estimated.

  13. Parasite transmission through suspension feeding.

    PubMed

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Bidegain, Gorka; Huey, Lauren; Narvaez, Diego A; Bushek, David

    2015-10-01

    Suspension-feeding bivalve molluscs are confronted with a wide range of materials in the benthic marine environment. These materials include various sized plankton and the organic material derived from it, macroalgae, detritus and a diversity of microbial parasites that have adapted life stages to survive in the water column. For bivalve parasites to infect hosts though, they must first survive and remain infectious in the water column to make initial contact with hosts, and once in contact, enter and overcome elaborate pathways for particle sorting and selection. Even past these defenses, bivalve parasites are challenged with efficient systems of mechanical and chemical digestion and highly evolved systems of innate immunity. Here we review how bivalve parasites evade these hurdles to complete their life cycles and establish within bivalve hosts. We broadly cover significant viral, bacterial, and protozoan parasites of marine bivalve molluscs, and illustrate the emergent properties of these host-parasite systems where parasite transmission occurs through suspension feeding.

  14. Transmission of information at criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luković, Mirko; Vanni, Fabio; Svenkeson, Adam; Grigolini, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    We study the problem of information transmission in complex cooperative systems to prove that adaptivity rather than diffusion is the main source of information transport at criticality. We adopt two different cooperative models, the two-dimensional Decision Making Model (DMM), and the one-dimensional Flock Model (FM) inspired by the cooperation between birds. The criticality-induced consensus is intermittently broken by the occurrence of moments of high susceptibility, which we call free-will states. We construct a network A based on the DMM and FM that is perturbed by a similar network B. Some units of A, called lookout birds, follow the directions of the mean field generated by B, while the rest are blind to B. When both networks are at criticality a small percentage of lookout birds establish the synchronization between B and A as a result of the nonergodic nature of the free-will state dynamics.

  15. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Kenneth E.

    1989-01-01

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

  16. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, Larry D.; Ballard, William P.; Clark, M. Collins; Marder, Barry M.

    1988-01-01

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.

  17. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1987-05-19

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.

  18. Structured light, transmission, and scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, David L.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous theoretical and experimental studies have established the principle that beams conveying orbital angular momentum offer a rich scope for information transfer. However, it is not clear how far it is practicable to operate such a concept at the single-photon level - especially when such a beam propagates through a system in which scattering can occur. In cases where scattering leads to photon deflection, it produces losses; however in terms of the retention of information content, there should be more concern over forward scattering. Based on a quantum electrodynamical formulation of theory, this paper aims to frame and resolve the key issues. A quantum amplitude is constructed for the representation of single and multiple scattering events in the propagation an individual photon, from a suitably structured beam. The analysis identifies potential limitations of principle, undermining complete fidelity of quantum information transmission.

  19. 76 FR 77217 - Dominion Transmission, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Dominion Transmission, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 21, 2011, Dominion Transmission, Inc. (DTI), 120 Tredegar Street, Richmond, Virginia 23219 filed... Matthew R. Bley, Manager, Gas Transmission Certificates, Dominion Transmission, Inc., 701 East Cary...

  20. Continuously variable vehicular transmission for reducing transmission torque applied to belt-type continuously variable transmission mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Sumiyoshi, M.; Matsunari, F.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes a continuously variable transmission for a vehicle, comprising: a torque converter driven by an engine; an input shaft connected to an output of the torque converter; a transmission output shaft; a transmission mechanism of variable ratio including a planetary gear mechanism and a controller for controlling rotational states of elements of the planetary gear mechanism. The transmission mechanism has at least reverse and forward low speed ranges of large reduction ratios and a forward high speed range of small reduction ratio. The transmission mechanism of variable ratio is in torque transmitting engagement with the input shaft and the transmission output shaft, the input shaft constituting a first input to the transmission mechanism of variable ratio; a belt-type continuously variable transmission mechanism including an input pulley in torque transmitting engagement with the input shaft and an output pulley provided on a sleeve, each pulley having a stationary flange and a movable flange axially movable with respect to the stationary flange, and torque transmitting means of an endless belt type running on the two pulleys. The output pulley is coupled to the transmission output shaft via the planetary gear mechanism in the forward high speed range.

  1. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) - Component test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Z. S.

    1992-07-01

    The preliminary design of the ART and some of the component test results are presented. The goals for the future rotorcraft transmissions include a 25-percent weight reduction in comparison with current state-of-the-art transmissions, a 10-dB reduction in the transmitted noise level, and a system reliability of 5,000 hr mean-time-between-removal for the transmission. The ART tests completed to date support the attainment of the three major goals of the program.

  2. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy and Meat Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Hester J. T.; Knight, Richard S. G.

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) comprise a wide-ranging group of neurodegenerative diseases found in animals and humans. They have diverse causes and geographical distributions, but have similar pathological features, transmissibility and, are ultimately, fatal. Central to all TSEs is the presence of an abnormal form of a normal host protein, namely the prion protein. Because of their potential transmissibility, these diseases have wide public health ramifications.

  3. Cross-species transmission of CWD prions.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Timothy D; Sigurdson, Christina J

    2016-01-01

    Prions cause fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals and can be transmitted zoonotically. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a highly transmissible prion disease of wild deer and elk that affects cervids over extensive regions of the United States and Canada. The risk of cross-species CWD transmission has been experimentally evaluated in a wide array of mammals, including non-human primates and mouse models expressing human cellular prion protein. Here we review the determinants of cross-species CWD transmission, and propose a model that may explain a structural barrier for CWD transmission to humans.

  4. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  5. RF Transmission Lines on Silicon Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.

    1999-01-01

    A review of RF transmission lines on silicon substrates is presented. Through measurements and calculated results, it is shown that attenuation is dominated by conductor loss if silicon substrates with a resistivity greater than 2500 Ohm-cm are used. Si passivation layers affect the transmission line attenuation; however, measured results demonstrate that passivation layers do not necessarily increase attenuation. If standard, low resistivity Si wafers must be used, alternative transmission lines such as thin film microstrip and Co-Planar Waveguide (CPW) on thick polyimide layers must be used. Measured results presented here show that low loss per unit length is achievable with these transmission lines.

  6. Phylogenetic tree shapes resolve disease transmission patterns

    PubMed Central

    Colijn, Caroline; Gardy, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Whole-genome sequencing is becoming popular as a tool for understanding outbreaks of communicable diseases, with phylogenetic trees being used to identify individual transmission events or to characterize outbreak-level overall transmission dynamics. Existing methods to infer transmission dynamics from sequence data rely on well-characterized infectious periods, epidemiological and clinical metadata which may not always be available, and typically require computationally intensive analysis focusing on the branch lengths in phylogenetic trees. We sought to determine whether the topological structures of phylogenetic trees contain signatures of the transmission patterns underlying an outbreak. Methodology: We use simulated outbreaks to train and then test computational classifiers. We test the method on data from two real-world outbreaks. Results: We show that different transmission patterns result in quantitatively different phylogenetic tree shapes. We describe topological features that summarize a phylogeny’s structure and find that computational classifiers based on these are capable of predicting an outbreak’s transmission dynamics. The method is robust to variations in the transmission parameters and network types, and recapitulates known epidemiology of previously characterized real-world outbreaks. Conclusions and implications: There are simple structural properties of phylogenetic trees which, when combined, can distinguish communicable disease outbreaks with a super-spreader, homogeneous transmission and chains of transmission. This is possible using genome data alone, and can be done during an outbreak. We discuss the implications for management of outbreaks. PMID:24916411

  7. Detonator comprising a nonlinear transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M

    2014-12-30

    Detonators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the detonator includes a nonlinear transmission line that has a variable capacitance. Capacitance of the nonlinear transmission line is a function of voltage on the nonlinear transmission line. The nonlinear transmission line receives a voltage pulse from a voltage source and compresses the voltage pulse to generate a trigger signal. Compressing the voltage pulse includes increasing amplitude of the voltage pulse and decreasing length of the voltage pulse in time. An igniter receives the trigger signal and detonates an explosive responsive to receipt of the trigger signal.

  8. Optical data transmission systems in radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskovar, Branko

    1989-05-01

    The rapidly expanding field of optical data transmission includes a wide variety of particle accelerator, detector and nuclear power facility applications in which transmission systems are required to withstand exposure to the radiation background. Fiber optic links provide several major advantages over conventional electronic data transmission systems. These include immunity to electromagnetic interference and low transmission losses for very high data rates. The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides and receivers in radiation environment is reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of irradiation on the performance of light emitting and laser diodes, optical fiber waveguides, photodiodes and associated electronics components and subassemblies.

  9. Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Svoboda

    2011-04-01

    The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

  10. 75 FR 62023 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... processes and cost allocation and would require cost allocation methods for intraregional and interregional... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 35 Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission... and cost allocation requirements established in Order No. 890 to ensure that...

  11. Multi-speed planetary transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Quick, D.C.; Mc Cormik, S.J.; Ballendux, G.M.

    1987-02-03

    This patent describes a single axis planetary change speed transmission comprising: a stationary housing having wall means defining a hollow interior chamber including interior walls at opposite ends of the chamber defining a pair of axially spaced circular apertures disposed on the axis, a rotatable housing having wall means defining an interior cavity and presenting hollow cylindrical end portions at its opposite ends and in constant rotation therewith, a pair of bearing means rotatably mounting the end portions in the apertures, respectively, the end portions presenting openings, respectively, aligned on the axis, an input shaft coaxial with and extending through the opening in one of the end portions of the rotatable housing, first, second and third coaxial and axially spaced epicyclic gear sets operatively arranged in sequence within the cavity each including a ring gear component, a sun gear component and a planet carrier component rotatably supporting planet gears meshing with the ring and sun gear components, and a first quill shaft encompassing the input shaft and having a central portion extending through the opening in the one of the end portions and presenting an axially inner end connected for rotation with a first of the components of the first gear set.

  12. Gear assembly for automobile transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ikemoto, K.; Tera Kura, Y.; Miyake, T.

    1986-03-25

    This patent describes a gear assembly including a pair of driving and driven gears permanently in meshing engagement with each other to provide a torque transmission therebetween. The driven gear is formed at one side thereof with a boss portion, and an additional gear axially slidable and rotatable on the boss portion of the driven gear and is permanently in meshing engagement with the driving gear to rotate at a gear ratio different from that of the driving and driven gears, additional gear is also resiliently in contact with a synchronizer mechanism assembled adjaecnt to the additional gear and having a spline piece fixed to the boss portion of the driven gear. The improvement wherein a toothed portion of the driven gear is formed at one end thereof with an annual stepped portion for provision of a predetermined annular gap between the additional gear and the one end face of the toothed portion of the driven gear. The resilient means is a waveshaped ring spring arranged in surrounding relationship with the boss portion of the driven gear and is engaged at its one end face with the additional gear and at its other end face with the spline piece of the synchronizer mechanism.

  13. Hydromechanical transmission with hydrodynamic drive

    DOEpatents

    Orshansky, Jr., deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1979-01-01

    This transmission has a first planetary gear assembly having first input means connected to an input shaft, first output means, and first reaction means, and a second planetary gear assembly having second input means connected to the first input means, second output means, and second reaction means connected directly to the first reaction means by a reaction shaft. First clutch means, when engaged, connect the first output means to an output shaft in a high driving range. A hydrodynamic drive is used; for example, a torque converter, which may or may not have a stationary case, has a pump connected to the second output means, a stator grounded by an overrunning clutch to the case, and a turbine connected to an output member, and may be used in a starting phase. Alternatively, a fluid coupling or other type of hydrodynamic drive may be used. Second clutch means, when engaged, for connecting the output member to the output shaft in a low driving range. A variable-displacement hydraulic unit is mechanically connected to the input shaft, and a fixed-displacement hydraulic unit is mechanically connected to the reaction shaft. The hydraulic units are hydraulically connected together so that when one operates as a pump the other acts as a motor, and vice versa. Both clutch means are connected to the output shaft through a forward-reverse shift arrangement. It is possible to lock out the torque converter after the starting phase is over.

  14. Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hong-Gang; Zheng, Haimei

    2016-05-27

    Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has attracted significant interest in recent years. With nanofabricated liquid cells, it has been possible to image through liquids using TEM with subnanometer resolution, and many previously unseen materials dynamics have been revealed. Liquid cell TEM has been applied to many areas of research, ranging from chemistry to physics, materials science, and biology. So far, topics of study include nanoparticle growth and assembly, electrochemical deposition and lithiation for batteries, tracking and manipulation of nanoparticles, catalysis, and imaging of biological materials. In this article, we first review the development of liquid cell TEM and then highlight progress in various areas of research. In the study of nanoparticle growth, the electron beam can serve both as the illumination source for imaging and as the input energy for reactions. However, many other research topics require the control of electron beam effects to minimize electron beam damage. We discuss efforts to understand electron beam-liquid matter interactions. Finally, we provide a perspective on future challenges and opportunities in liquid cell TEM.

  15. Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hong-Gang; Zheng, Haimei

    2016-05-01

    Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has attracted significant interest in recent years. With nanofabricated liquid cells, it has been possible to image through liquids using TEM with subnanometer resolution, and many previously unseen materials dynamics have been revealed. Liquid cell TEM has been applied to many areas of research, ranging from chemistry to physics, materials science, and biology. So far, topics of study include nanoparticle growth and assembly, electrochemical deposition and lithiation for batteries, tracking and manipulation of nanoparticles, catalysis, and imaging of biological materials. In this article, we first review the development of liquid cell TEM and then highlight progress in various areas of research. In the study of nanoparticle growth, the electron beam can serve both as the illumination source for imaging and as the input energy for reactions. However, many other research topics require the control of electron beam effects to minimize electron beam damage. We discuss efforts to understand electron beam-liquid matter interactions. Finally, we provide a perspective on future challenges and opportunities in liquid cell TEM.

  16. Stress Transmission within the Cell

    PubMed Central

    Stamenović, Dimitrije; Wang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    An outstanding problem in cell biology is how cells sense mechanical forces and how those forces affect cellular functions. During past decades, it has become evident that the deformable cytoskeleton (CSK), an intracellular network of various filamentous biopolymers, provides a physical basis for transducing mechanical signals into biochemical responses. To understand how mechanical forces regulate cellular functions, it is necessary to first understand how the CSK develops mechanical stresses in response to applied forces, and how those stresses are propagated through the CSK where various signaling molecules are immobilized. New experimental techniques have been developed to quantify cytoskeletal mechanics, which together with new computational approaches have given rise to new theories and models for describing mechanics of living cells. In this article, we discuss current understanding of cell biomechanics by focusing on the biophysical mechanisms that are responsible for the development and transmission of mechanical stresses in the cell and their effect on cellular functions. We compare and contrast various theories and models of cytoskeletal mechanics, emphasizing common mechanisms that those theories are built upon, while not ignoring irreconcilable differences. We highlight most recent advances in the understanding of mechanotransduction in the cytoplasm of living cells and the central role of the cytoskeletal prestress in propagating mechanical forces along the cytoskeletal filaments to activate cytoplasmic enzymes. It is anticipated that advances in cell mechanics will help developing novel therapeutics to treat pulmonary diseases like asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:23737186

  17. Low cost Image Transmission System

    SciTech Connect

    Skogmo, D.

    1994-06-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, sites protect themselves with intrusion detection systems. Some of these systems have sensors in remote areas. These sensors frequently alarm -- not because they have detected a terrorist skulking around the area, but because they have detected a horse, or a dog, or a bush moving in the breeze. Even though the local security force is 99% sure there is no real threat, they must assess each of these nuisance or false alarms. Generally, the procedure consists of dispatching an inspector to drive to the area and make an assessment. This is expensive in terms of manpower and the assessment is not timely. Often, by the time the inspector arrives, the cause of the alarm has vanished. A television camera placed to view the area protected by the sensor could be used to help in this assessment, but this requires the installation of high-quality cable, optical fiber, or a microwave link. Further, to be of use at the present time, the site must have had the foresight to have installed these facilities in the past and have them ready for use now. What is needed is a device to place between the television camera and a modem connecting to a low-bandwidth channel such as radio or a telephone line. This paper discusses the development of such a device: an Image Transmission System, or ITS.

  18. Stress transmission within the cell.

    PubMed

    Stamenović, Dimitrije; Wang, Ning

    2011-01-01

    An outstanding problem in cell biology is how cells sense mechanical forces and how those forces affect cellular functions. During past decades, it has become evident that the deformable cytoskeleton (CSK), an intracellular network of various filamentous biopolymers, provides a physical basis for transducing mechanical signals into biochemical responses. To understand how mechanical forces regulate cellular functions, it is necessary to first understand how the CSK develops mechanical stresses in response to applied forces, and how those stresses are propagated through the CSK where various signaling molecules are immobilized. New experimental techniques have been developed to quantify cytoskeletal mechanics, which together with new computational approaches have given rise to new theories and models for describing mechanics of living cells. In this article, we discuss current understanding of cell biomechanics by focusing on the biophysical mechanisms that are responsible for the development and transmission of mechanical stresses in the cell and their effect on cellular functions. We compare and contrast various theories and models of cytoskeletal mechanics, emphasizing common mechanisms that those theories are built upon, while not ignoring irreconcilable differences. We highlight most recent advances in the understanding of mechanotransduction in the cytoplasm of living cells and the central role of the cytoskeletal prestress in propagating mechanical forces along the cytoskeletal filaments to activate cytoplasmic enzymes. It is anticipated that advances in cell mechanics will help developing novel therapeutics to treat pulmonary diseases like asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  19. Prioritizing Scientific Data for Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castano, Rebecca; Anderson, Robert; Estlin, Tara; DeCoste, Dennis; Gaines, Daniel; Mazzoni, Dominic; Fisher, Forest; Judd, Michele

    2004-01-01

    A software system has been developed for prioritizing newly acquired geological data onboard a planetary rover. The system has been designed to enable efficient use of limited communication resources by transmitting the data likely to have the most scientific value. This software operates onboard a rover by analyzing collected data, identifying potential scientific targets, and then using that information to prioritize data for transmission to Earth. Currently, the system is focused on the analysis of acquired images, although the general techniques are applicable to a wide range of data modalities. Image prioritization is performed using two main steps. In the first step, the software detects features of interest from each image. In its current application, the system is focused on visual properties of rocks. Thus, rocks are located in each image and rock properties, such as shape, texture, and albedo, are extracted from the identified rocks. In the second step, the features extracted from a group of images are used to prioritize the images using three different methods: (1) identification of key target signature (finding specific rock features the scientist has identified as important), (2) novelty detection (finding rocks we haven t seen before), and (3) representative rock sampling (finding the most average sample of each rock type). These methods use techniques such as K-means unsupervised clustering and a discrimination-based kernel classifier to rank images based on their interest level.

  20. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941,...

  1. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941,...

  2. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941,...

  3. [Importance of cultural transmission in acupuncture translation].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang-Ying; Wu, Jiang-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Xin

    2010-11-01

    The loss of cultural information transmission, inaccurate of translation or misunderstanding of the whole sentence in acupuncture translation are illustrated in this article. It suggests that these mistakes should be paid attention to and avoided; simultaneously, the solutions are stated so as to insure the accurate transmission of acupuncture.

  4. Sexual and vertical transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, Andreia P; Souza, Tayse D; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L

    2014-04-15

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important zoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum, which has in the domestic dog its principal vertebrate host. VL is usually transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, however atypical routes of transmission have been described. In this review we discuss the the role of sexual and vertical transmissions, and their role in the maintenance of VL in canine populations.

  5. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941,...

  6. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941,...

  7. Compressed television transmission: A market survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizak, R. M.; Cagan, L. Q.

    1981-01-01

    NASA's compressed television transmission technology is described, and its potential market is considered; a market that encompasses teleconferencing, remote medical diagnosis, patient monitoring, transit station surveillance, as well as traffic management and control. In addition, current and potential television transmission systems and their costs and potential manufacturers are considered.

  8. Ecological benefits of dc power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Kutuzova, N. B.

    2011-05-15

    The environmental effects of dc overhead transmission lines are examined. The major effects of ac and dc transmission lines are compared. Dc lines have advantages compared to ac lines in terms of electrical safety for people under the lines, biological effects, corona losses, and clearance width.

  9. Breaking beta: deconstructing the parasite transmission function

    PubMed Central

    McCallum, Hamish; Fenton, Andy; Hudson, Peter J.; Lee, Brian; Levick, Beth; Norman, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Transmission is a fundamental step in the life cycle of every parasite but it is also one of the most challenging processes to model and quantify. In most host–parasite models, the transmission process is encapsulated by a single parameter β. Many different biological processes and interactions, acting on both hosts and infectious organisms, are subsumed in this single term. There are, however, at least two undesirable consequences of this high level of abstraction. First, nonlinearities and heterogeneities that can be critical to the dynamic behaviour of infections are poorly represented; second, estimating the transmission coefficient β from field data is often very difficult. In this paper, we present a conceptual model, which breaks the transmission process into its component parts. This deconstruction enables us to identify circumstances that generate nonlinearities in transmission, with potential implications for emergent transmission behaviour at individual and population scales. Such behaviour cannot be explained by the traditional linear transmission frameworks. The deconstruction also provides a clearer link to the empirical estimation of key components of transmission and enables the construction of flexible models that produce a unified understanding of the spread of both micro- and macro-parasite infectious disease agents. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission’. PMID:28289252

  10. Electric motor as the controlled mechanical transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukielka, Krzysztof

    2006-03-01

    The paper shows the possibility of using a brushless torque motor as controlled mechanical transmission. A development system for testing the torque motors was described and role of each component was discussed. Measured and observed phenomena of the research has shown the possibility of control the output rotations, preserving torque with simultaneous power consumption or its recovery, dependent on demanded transmission parameters.

  11. Synaptic Transmission Correlates of General Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRorie, Margaret; Cooper, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and efficiency of synaptic transmission are two possible biological mechanisms that may underpin intelligence. Direct assessments of NCV, without synaptic transmission, show few substantial or reliable correlations with cognitive abilities ["Intelligence" 16 (1992) 273]. We therefore assessed the latencies…

  12. Gear Transmission Error Measurement System Made Operational

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.

    2002-01-01

    A system directly measuring the transmission error between the meshing spur or helical gears was installed at the NASA Glenn Research Center and made operational in August 2001. This system employs light beams directed by lenses and prisms through gratings mounted on the two gear shafts. The amount of light that passes through both gratings is directly proportional to the transmission error of the gears. The device is capable of resolution better than 0.1 mm (one thousandth the thickness of a human hair). The measured transmission error can be displayed in a "map" that shows how the transmission error varies with the gear rotation or it can be converted to spectra to show the components at the meshing frequencies. Accurate transmission error data will help researchers better understand the mechanisms that cause gear noise and vibration and will lead to The Design Unit at the University of Newcastle in England specifically designed the new system for NASA. It is the only device in the United States that can measure dynamic transmission error at high rotational speeds. The new system will be used to develop new techniques to reduce dynamic transmission error along with the resulting noise and vibration of aeronautical transmissions.

  13. Quantifying Transmission Investment in Malaria Parasites.

    PubMed

    Greischar, Megan A; Mideo, Nicole; Read, Andrew F; Bjørnstad, Ottar N

    2016-02-01

    Many microparasites infect new hosts with specialized life stages, requiring a subset of the parasite population to forgo proliferation and develop into transmission forms. Transmission stage production influences infectivity, host exploitation, and the impact of medical interventions like drug treatment. Predicting how parasites will respond to public health efforts on both epidemiological and evolutionary timescales requires understanding transmission strategies. These strategies can rarely be observed directly and must typically be inferred from infection dynamics. Using malaria as a case study, we test previously described methods for inferring transmission stage investment against simulated data generated with a model of within-host infection dynamics, where the true transmission investment is known. We show that existing methods are inadequate and potentially very misleading. The key difficulty lies in separating transmission stages produced by different generations of parasites. We develop a new approach that performs much better on simulated data. Applying this approach to real data from mice infected with a single Plasmodium chabaudi strain, we estimate that transmission investment varies from zero to 20%, with evidence for variable investment over time in some hosts, but not others. These patterns suggest that, even in experimental infections where host genetics and other environmental factors are controlled, parasites may exhibit remarkably different patterns of transmission investment.

  14. 47 CFR 27.1220 - Transmission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transmission standards. 27.1220 Section 27.1220 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... Transmission standards. The width of a channel in the LBS and UBS is 5.5 MHz, with the exception of...

  15. 47 CFR 27.1220 - Transmission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission standards. 27.1220 Section 27.1220 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... Transmission standards. The width of a channel in the LBS and UBS is 5.5 MHz, with the exception of...

  16. 40 CFR 86.228-94 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.228-94 Section 86.228-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.228-94 Transmissions. The provisions of §...

  17. 40 CFR 86.228-94 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.228-94 Section 86.228-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.228-94 Transmissions. The provisions of §...

  18. 40 CFR 86.128-00 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-00 Section 86.128-00 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-00 Transmissions. Section 86.128-00 includes text...

  19. 40 CFR 86.128-00 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-00 Section 86.128-00 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-00 Transmissions. Section 86.128-00 includes text...

  20. 40 CFR 86.128-00 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-00 Section 86.128-00 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-00 Transmissions. Section 86.128-00 includes text...

  1. 40 CFR 86.128-00 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.128-00 Section 86.128-00 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.128-00 Transmissions. Section 86.128-00 includes text...

  2. 40 CFR 86.228-94 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.228-94 Section 86.228-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.228-94 Transmissions. The provisions of §...

  3. 40 CFR 86.228-94 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.228-94 Section 86.228-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.228-94 Transmissions. The provisions of §...

  4. 47 CFR 27.1220 - Transmission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transmission standards. 27.1220 Section 27.1220 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... Transmission standards. The width of a channel in the LBS and UBS is 5.5 MHz, with the exception of...

  5. 47 CFR 27.1220 - Transmission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transmission standards. 27.1220 Section 27.1220 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS... Transmission standards. The width of a channel in the LBS and UBS is 5.5 MHz, with the exception of...

  6. Cultural variant interaction in teaching and transmission.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Marshall

    2015-01-01

    Focus on the way in which cultural variants affect other variants' probabilities of transmission in modeling and empirical work can enrich Kline's conceptualization of teaching. For example, the problem of communicating complex cumulative culture is an adaptive problem; teaching methods that manage transmission so that acquisition of some cultural variants increases the probability of acquiring others, provide a partial solution.

  7. Dual-Rate Transmission Reduces Weather Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    Scheme ensures maximum data received on average. Dual-rate scheme for maximizing data returned during spacecraft mission, adaptable, as is or with modifications, to high-frequency terrestrial data transmission. Data rate fixed in advance at minimum value guarantees reasonable prospect of success during bad weather. Dualrate strategy yields net data rate 2.5 times best achievable with single transmission rate.

  8. Modeling Noise in Geared Transmission Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrahmanyam, C. V. S. R.

    2010-11-01

    Noise is an unwanted sound that affects human and environment if not controlled properly. In the present article an effort is made to reduce noise in geared transmission systems by modeling noise. Numerical solution methods are suggested at the end. Energy considerations in geared transmissions are discussed.

  9. Quantifying Transmission Investment in Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Greischar, Megan A.; Mideo, Nicole; Read, Andrew F.; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.

    2016-01-01

    Many microparasites infect new hosts with specialized life stages, requiring a subset of the parasite population to forgo proliferation and develop into transmission forms. Transmission stage production influences infectivity, host exploitation, and the impact of medical interventions like drug treatment. Predicting how parasites will respond to public health efforts on both epidemiological and evolutionary timescales requires understanding transmission strategies. These strategies can rarely be observed directly and must typically be inferred from infection dynamics. Using malaria as a case study, we test previously described methods for inferring transmission stage investment against simulated data generated with a model of within-host infection dynamics, where the true transmission investment is known. We show that existing methods are inadequate and potentially very misleading. The key difficulty lies in separating transmission stages produced by different generations of parasites. We develop a new approach that performs much better on simulated data. Applying this approach to real data from mice infected with a single Plasmodium chabaudi strain, we estimate that transmission investment varies from zero to 20%, with evidence for variable investment over time in some hosts, but not others. These patterns suggest that, even in experimental infections where host genetics and other environmental factors are controlled, parasites may exhibit remarkably different patterns of transmission investment. PMID:26890485

  10. Infrared Transmission through Screening Smokes: Experimental Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    LASER TRANSMISSION AND SCATTERING. Using Beer’s law (also called Bouguer’s and Beer - Lambert law), it is possible to calculate the...Presented are the basic principles that the experimentalists should consider before measuring the infrared transmission of an aerosol...Three basic methods are examined: laser transmissometers, broadband radiometer-transmissometers, and thermal imaging systems. The effects of single

  11. 75 FR 37883 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... the transmission grid can better support wholesale power markets and thereby ensure that Commission... investment, it could not rely on the self-interest of transmission providers to expand the grid in a not...Connect, ColumbiaGrid, and Northern Tier Transmission Group. B. Technical Conferences and Notice...

  12. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XXII, MICHIGAN/CLARK TRANSMISSION--CONVERTER/TRANSMISSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP A DETAILED UNDERSTANDING OF A SPECIFIC POWER CONVERTER AND TRANSMISSION USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE A CLOSER LOOK AT THE CONVERTER, CONVERTER ASSEMBLY AND INSTALLATION, TRANSMISSION FUNCTION, AND TRANSMISSION SHIFTING. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED…

  13. 49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sequence, starter interlock, and transmission braking effect. 571.102 Section 571.102 Transportation Other... braking effect. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard specifies the requirements for the transmission shift position sequence, a starter interlock, and for a braking effect of automatic transmissions, to reduce...

  14. 49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sequence, starter interlock, and transmission braking effect. 571.102 Section 571.102 Transportation Other... braking effect. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard specifies the requirements for the transmission shift position sequence, a starter interlock, and for a braking effect of automatic transmissions, to reduce...

  15. 49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sequence, starter interlock, and transmission braking effect. 571.102 Section 571.102 Transportation Other... braking effect. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard specifies the requirements for the transmission shift position sequence, a starter interlock, and for a braking effect of automatic transmissions, to reduce...

  16. Broadband Transmission Loss Due to Reverberant Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barisciano, Lawrence P. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The noise transmission characteristics of candidate curved aircraft sidewall panel constructions is examined analytically using finite element models of the selected panel geometries. The models are validated by experimental modal analyses and transmission loss testing. The structural and acoustic response of the models are then examined when subjected to random or reverberant excitation, the simulation of which is also discussed. For a candidate curved honeycomb panel, the effect of add-on trim panel treatments is examined. Specifically, two different mounting configurations are discussed and their effect on the transmission loss of the panel is presented. This study finds that the add-on acoustical treatments do improve on the primary structures transmission loss characteristics, however, much more research is necessary to draw any valid conclusions about the optimal configuration for the maximum noise transmission loss. This paper describes several directions for the extension of this work.

  17. Millimeter wave transmission systems and related devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    A survey was made of the state-of-the-art in millimeter (20 GHz to 300 GHz) wave transmission systems and related devices. The survey includes summaries of analytical studies and theoretical results that were obtained for various transmission line structures. This material was supplemented by further analysis where appropriate. The transmission line structures are evaluated in terms of electrical performance, ease of manufacture, usefulness for building other devices and compatibility with solid state devices. Descriptions of waveguide transmission lines which have commonly been used in the microwave frequency range are provided along with special attention given to the problems that these guides face when their use is extended into the millimeter wave range. Also, guides which have been introduced specifically to satisfy the requirements of millimeter wave transmission are discussed in detail.

  18. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-07-01

    The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program was initiated to advance the state of the art for rotorcraft transmissions. The goal of the ART Program was to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to reduce transmission weight by 25 pct and reduce noise by 10 dB while obtaining a 5000 hr 'mean time between failure'. The research done under the ART Program is summarized. A split path design was selected as best able to meet the program goals. Key part technologies needed for this design were identified, studied, and developed. Two of these technologies are discussed in detail: the load sharing of split path designs including the use of a compliant elastomeric torque splitter and the application of a high ratio, low pitch line velocity gear mesh. Development of an angular contact spherical roller bearing, transmission error analysis, and fretting fatigue testing are discussed. The technologies for a light weight, quiet, and reliable rotorcraft transmission were demonstrated.

  19. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossler, Robert; Heath, Gregory

    1991-01-01

    Reported herein is work done on the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission by McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company under Army/NASA contract. The novel concept pursued includes the use of face gears for power transmission and a torque splitting arrangement. The design reduces the size and weight of the corner-turning hardware and the next reduction stage. New methods of analyzing face gears have increased confidence in their usefulness. Test gears have been designed and manufactured for power transmission testing on the NASA-Lewis spiral bevel test rig. Transmission design effort has included finite element modeling of the split torque paths to assure equal deflection under load. A finite element model of the Apache main transmission has been completed to substantiate noise prediction methods. A positive engagement overrunning clutch design is described. Test spur gears have been made by near-net-shape forging from five different materials. Three housing materials have been procured for evaluation testing.

  20. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program was initiated to advance the state of the art for rotorcraft transmissions. The goal of the ART Program was to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to reduce transmission weight by 25 pct. and reduce noise by 10 dB while obtaining a 5000 hr 'mean time between failure'. The research done under the ART Program is summarized. A split path design was selected as best able to meet the program goals. Key part technologies needed for this design were identified, studied, and developed. Two of these technologies are discussed in detail: the load sharing of split path designs including the use of a compliant elastomeric torque splitter and the application of a high ratio, low pitch line velocity gear mesh. Development of an angular contact spherical roller bearing, transmission error analysis, and fretting fatigue testing are discussed. The technologies for a light weight, quiet, and reliable rotorcraft transmission were demonstrated.

  1. Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Apollonov, Victor V.

    2011-11-10

    For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of 'Impulsar' represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The 'Impulsar' - laser jet engine vehicle - propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO{sub 2}-laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (<30 km) or to the breakdown of ablated material on the board (>30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

  2. Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonov, Victor V.

    2011-11-01

    For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of "Impulsar" represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The "Impulsar"—laser jet engine vehicle—propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO2—laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (<30 km) or to the breakdown of ablated material on the board (>30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

  3. NASA transmission research and its probable effects on helicopter transmission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, E. V.; Coy, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    Transmissions studied for application to helicopters in addition to the more conventional geared transmissions include hybrid (traction/gear), bearingless planetary, and split torque transmissions. Research is being performed to establish the validity of analysis and computer codes developed to predict the performance, efficiency, life, and reliability of these transmissions. Results of this research should provide the transmission designer with analytical tools to design for minimum weight and noise with maximum life and efficiency. In addition, the advantages and limitations of drive systems as well as the more conventional systems will be defined.

  4. Mapping influenza transmission in the ferret model to transmission in humans.

    PubMed

    Buhnerkempe, Michael G; Gostic, Katelyn; Park, Miran; Ahsan, Prianna; Belser, Jessica A; Lloyd-Smith, James O

    2015-09-02

    The controversy surrounding 'gain-of-function' experiments on high-consequence avian influenza viruses has highlighted the role of ferret transmission experiments in studying the transmission potential of novel influenza strains. However, the mapping between influenza transmission in ferrets and in humans is unsubstantiated. We address this gap by compiling and analyzing 240 estimates of influenza transmission in ferrets and humans. We demonstrate that estimates of ferret secondary attack rate (SAR) explain 66% of the variation in human SAR estimates at the subtype level. Further analysis shows that ferret transmission experiments have potential to identify influenza viruses of concern for epidemic spread in humans, though small sample sizes and biological uncertainties prevent definitive classification of human transmissibility. Thus, ferret transmission experiments provide valid predictions of pandemic potential of novel influenza strains, though results should continue to be corroborated by targeted virological and epidemiological research.

  5. Mapping influenza transmission in the ferret model to transmission in humans

    PubMed Central

    Buhnerkempe, Michael G; Gostic, Katelyn; Park, Miran; Ahsan, Prianna; Belser, Jessica A; Lloyd-Smith, James O

    2015-01-01

    The controversy surrounding 'gain-of-function' experiments on high-consequence avian influenza viruses has highlighted the role of ferret transmission experiments in studying the transmission potential of novel influenza strains. However, the mapping between influenza transmission in ferrets and in humans is unsubstantiated. We address this gap by compiling and analyzing 240 estimates of influenza transmission in ferrets and humans. We demonstrate that estimates of ferret secondary attack rate (SAR) explain 66% of the variation in human SAR estimates at the subtype level. Further analysis shows that ferret transmission experiments have potential to identify influenza viruses of concern for epidemic spread in humans, though small sample sizes and biological uncertainties prevent definitive classification of human transmissibility. Thus, ferret transmission experiments provide valid predictions of pandemic potential of novel influenza strains, though results should continue to be corroborated by targeted virological and epidemiological research. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07969.001 PMID:26329460

  6. Extraordinary transmission of gigahertz surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Mezil, Sylvain; Chonan, Kazuki; Otsuka, Paul H.; Tomoda, Motonobu; Matsuda, Osamu; Lee, Sam H.; Wright, Oliver B.

    2016-01-01

    Extraordinary transmission of waves, i.e. a transmission superior to the amount predicted by geometrical considerations of the aperture alone, has to date only been studied in the bulk. Here we present a new class of extraordinary transmission for waves confined in two dimensions to a flat surface. By means of acoustic numerical simulations in the gigahertz range, corresponding to acoustic wavelengths λ ~ 3–50 μm, we track the transmission of plane surface acoustic wave fronts between two silicon blocks joined by a deeply subwavelength bridge of variable length with or without an attached cavity. Several resonant modes of the structure, both one- and two-dimensional in nature, lead to extraordinary acoustic transmission, in this case with transmission efficiencies, i.e. intensity enhancements, up to ~23 and ~8 in the two respective cases. We show how the cavity shape and bridge size influence the extraordinary transmission efficiency. Applications include new metamaterials and subwavelength imaging. PMID:27640998

  7. Investigation of hydraulic transmission noise sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klop, Richard J.

    Advanced hydrostatic transmissions and hydraulic hybrids show potential in new market segments such as commercial vehicles and passenger cars. Such new applications regard low noise generation as a high priority, thus, demanding new quiet hydrostatic transmission designs. In this thesis, the aim is to investigate noise sources of hydrostatic transmissions to discover strategies for designing compact and quiet solutions. A model has been developed to capture the interaction of a pump and motor working in a hydrostatic transmission and to predict overall noise sources. This model allows a designer to compare noise sources for various configurations and to design compact and inherently quiet solutions. The model describes dynamics of the system by coupling lumped parameter pump and motor models with a one-dimensional unsteady compressible transmission line model. The model has been verified with dynamic pressure measurements in the line over a wide operating range for several system structures. Simulation studies were performed illustrating sensitivities of several design variables and the potential of the model to design transmissions with minimal noise sources. A semi-anechoic chamber has been designed and constructed suitable for sound intensity measurements that can be used to derive sound power. Measurements proved the potential to reduce audible noise by predicting and reducing both noise sources. Sound power measurements were conducted on a series hybrid transmission test bench to validate the model and compare predicted noise sources with sound power.

  8. Vertical nontransovarial transmission of Bartonella in fleas.

    PubMed

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Gottlieb, Yuval; Harrus, Shimon

    2013-09-01

    Pathogens use diverse pathways to infect host populations by vertical and/or horizontal routes. Horizontal transmission of bacteria belonging to the Bartonella genus via haematophagous vectors is well known. Vertical transmission of Bartonella species was also suggested to occur but its routes remain to be unveiled. In a previous study, we showed the absence of transovarial transmission of Bartonella species OE 1-1 in Xenopsylla ramesis fleas, and that fleas feeding on Bartonella-positive jirds produced Bartonella-positive gut voids. This current study aimed to investigate whether vertical nontransovarial transmission of Bartonella occurs in fleas. For this aim, the X. ramesis-Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 model was used. Four groups of fleas including Bartonella-positive and Bartonella-negative female fleas and larval offspring had access to either Bartonella-negative or Bartonella-positive gut voids and faeces. Sixteen per cent of flea offspring that had access to Bartonella-positive faeces and gut voids became Bartonella positive. Our findings demonstrate that Bartonella-positive flea faeces and gut voids are proper infection sources for flea larvae and indicate that vertical nontransovarial transmission of bartonellae occurs in fleas. This information broadens our understanding of Bartonella transmission routes in flea vectors and enlightens pathways of bartonellae transmission and maintenance in flea populations in nature.

  9. Local frequency dependence in transcranial ultrasound transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, P. J.; Clement, G. T.; Hynynen, K.

    2006-05-01

    The development of large-aperture multiple-source transducer arrays for ultrasound transmission through the human skull has demonstrated the possibility of controlled and substantial acoustic energy delivery into the brain parenchyma without the necessitation of a craniotomy. The individual control of acoustic parameters from each ultrasound source allows for the correction of distortions arising from transmission through the skull bone and also opens up the possibility for electronic steering of the acoustic focus within the brain. In addition, the capability to adjust the frequency of insonation at different locations on the skull can have an effect on ultrasound transmission. To determine the efficacy and applicability of a multiple-frequency approach with such a device, this study examined the frequency dependence of ultrasound transmission in the range of 0.6-1.4 MHz through a series of 17 points on four ex vivo human skulls. Effects beyond those that are characteristic of frequency-dependent attenuation were examined. Using broadband pulses, it was shown that the reflected spectra from the skull revealed information regarding ultrasound transmission at specific frequencies. A multiple-frequency insonation with optimized frequencies over the entirety of five skull specimens was found to yield on average a temporally brief 230% increase in the transmitted intensity with an 88% decrease in time-averaged intensity transmission within the focal volume. This finding demonstrates a potential applicability of a multiple-frequency approach in transcranial ultrasound transmission.

  10. Flexible Transmission in the Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, Kory Walter

    There is currently a national push to create a smarter electric grid; introducing new technologies that will create a more controllable and flexible grid is part of the smart grid concept and integral to its success. The full control of transmission assets are not currently built into electric energy dispatch optimization models. Optimal transmission switching is a straightforward way to leverage grid controllability: to make better use of the existing system and meet growing demand with existing infrastructure. Previous research has shown that transmission switching as a corrective mechanism can help relieve line overloading, voltage violations, etc. However, there has been limited focus on the use of transmission switching as a means to improve the economic efficiency of the network by incorporating the control of transmission assets into the overall economic dispatch problem. This research discusses the ways that the modeling of flexible transmission assets can benefit the multi-trillion dollar electric industry. It presents and analyzes novel formulations by which the operator can incorporate this flexibility into the economic dispatch formulation. This research focuses on modeling transmission assets so that they can be temporarily taken out of service, i.e., by opening breakers, or kept in service, i.e., by keeping the breakers closed. By incorporating this control into the network optimization problem, this provides the ability for the operator to consider the state of a transmission line as a decision variable instead of treating it as a static asset, which is the current practice today. The possible benefits demonstrated from this research indicate that the benefits to society are substantial. On the contrary, the benefits to individual market participants are uncertain; some will benefit and other will not. Consequently, this research also analyzes the impacts that optimal transmission switching may have on market participants as well as the policy

  11. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, G.; Gilson, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the cause of almost all cases of parenterally transmitted non-A, non-B viral hepatitis (NANBH). HCV is an RNA virus, unrelated to the hepatitis viruses, A, B, D, or E; it was first identified in 1989. Although most infections become chronic, and it may lead to chronic liver disease, most patients with HCV infection are asymptomatic. The predominant modes of transmission are by blood, blood products, or other parenteral exposure, particularly injecting drug use. More contentious is the role of sexual transmission, although evidence for this was provided by studies of NANBH. OBJECTIVE: This review considers the evidence for sexual transmission, and the types of studies used to estimate the rate of transmission and the factors that may influence it. METHOD: A Medline search using the keywords hepatitis C, sex, transmission, and prevalence in MeSH and free text. References in papers were searched, and some unpublished data identified. References were further selected to illustrate different methodologies. FINDINGS: Evidence for sexual transmission is provided by several types of study including prevalence studies in groups at risk of other STDs, investigation of cases identified from surveillance reports, and cross sectional and longitudinal partner studies. Many studies are limited by their small size, the sensitivity and specificity of early assays, lack of controls, or the difficulty of excluding other routes of transmission. One prospective cohort study reported an incidence of 12 per 1000 person years in the sexual partners of HCV infected patients. 1-3% of partners of HCV infected patients are found to be infected in cross sectional studies. Co-infection with HIV, duration of the relationship, or chronic liver disease may be independent cofactors increasing the risk of transmission. A meta-analysis of selected studies may be informative, and further larger prospective studies are required. There is a small but definite risk

  12. Solar collector having a solid transmission medium

    DOEpatents

    Schertz, William W.; Zwerdling, Solomon

    1977-06-14

    There is provided a radiant energy transmission device capable of operation in a concentrative mode in which energy incident on an entrance area is directed toward and concentrated on an exit area of smaller area than the entrance area. The device includes a solid radiant energy transmission medium having surfaces coincident with the entrance and exit areas and particularly contoured reflective side walls. The surface coinciding with the entrance area is coupled to a cover plate formed of a radiant energy transmissive material. An energy transducer is coupled to the surface of the medium coinciding with the exit area.

  13. Robust hyperchaotic synchronization via analog transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadoudi, S.; Tanougast, C.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a novel experimental chaotic synchronization technique via analog transmission is discussed. We demonstrate through Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation design the robust synchronization of two embedded hyperchaotic Lorenz generators interconnected with an analog transmission line. The basic idea of this work consists in combining a numerical generation of chaos and transmitting it with an analog signal. The numerical chaos allows to overcome the callback parameter mismatch problem and the analog transmission offers robust data security. As application, this technique can be applied to all families of chaotic systems including time-delayed chaotic systems.

  14. Enhanced optical transmission at the cutoff transition.

    PubMed

    Laux, E; Genet, C; Ebbesen, T W

    2009-04-27

    The phenomenon of extraordinary transmission in the optical regime for circular hole arrays in optically thick metal films is studied as a function of hole size and depth. In the limit of small holes compared to the depth, the transmission properties follow a waveguide type behavior. By describing the transmission process as resulting from the interference between a resonant and a non-resonant contribution, a transition is clearly revealed through the specific spectral variations of the resonance at a given hole depth. This transition is associated to a change in the attenuation through the hole as its size increases, and corresponds to the optimal condition for surface plasmon excitation.

  15. Concurrent Wind Cooling in Power Transmission Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Jake P Gentle

    2012-08-01

    Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Power Company, with collaboration from Idaho State University, have been working on a project to monitor wind and other environmental data parameters along certain electrical transmission corridors. The combination of both real-time historical weather and environmental data is being used to model, validate, and recommend possibilities for dynamic operations of the transmission lines for power and energy carrying capacity. The planned results can also be used to influence decisions about proposed design criteria for or upgrades to certain sections of the transmission lines.

  16. Transmission spectra of sausage-like microresonators.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ming-Yong; Shen, Mei-Xia; Lin, Xiu-Min

    2015-10-05

    We experimentally develop a sausage-like microresonator (SLM) by making two microtapers on a single-mode fiber, and study whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) in SLMs with different lengths. The transmission spectra from 1530 nm to 1550 nm of several SLMs are presented and SLMs with different lengths are shown to have different transmission features. The maximal Q factor observed in the SLMs is 3.8 * 10(7). For comparison, the transmission spectrum of a fiber cylinder microresonator is given and the maximal Q factor achieved in the fiber microcylinder resonator is 1.7 * 10(7). The strain tuning of the SLM is also demonstrated.

  17. Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ishac, M.F.; White, H.B.

    1995-01-01

    Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towers is proposed.

  18. Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ishac, M.F.; White, H.B.

    1994-12-31

    Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towers is proposed.

  19. Wavelet encoding and variable resolution progressive transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanford, Ronald P.

    1993-01-01

    Progressive transmission is a method of transmitting and displaying imagery in stages of successively improving quality. The subsampled lowpass image representations generated by a wavelet transformation suit this purpose well, but for best results the order of presentation is critical. Candidate data for transmission are best selected using dynamic prioritization criteria generated from image contents and viewer guidance. We show that wavelets are not only suitable but superior when used to encode data for progressive transmission at non-uniform resolutions. This application does not preclude additional compression using quantization of highpass coefficients, which to the contrary results in superior image approximations at low data rates.

  20. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT II, MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL TRANSMISSIONS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF TRANSMISSIONS, (2) RATIO DIFFERENCE, (3) CONSTANT MESH TRANSMISSIONS, (4) FOUR-SPEED TRUCK TRANSMISSION POWER FLOW, AND (5) TRANSMISSION TROUBLESHOOTING.…

  1. Transmission Kikuchi diffraction and transmission electron forescatter imaging of electropolished and FIB manufactured TEM specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Zieliński, W. Płociński, T.; Kurzydłowski, K.J.

    2015-06-15

    We present a study of the efficiency of the utility of scanning electron microscope (SEM)-based transmission methods for characterizing grain structure in thinned bulk metals. Foils of type 316 stainless steel were prepared by two methods commonly used for transmission electron microscopy — double-jet electropolishing and focused ion beam milling. A customized holder allowed positioning of the foils in a configuration appropriate for both transmission electron forward scatter diffraction, and for transmission imaging by the use of a forescatter detector with two diodes. We found that both crystallographic orientation maps and dark-field transmitted images could be obtained for specimens prepared by either method. However, for both methods, preparation-induced artifacts may affect the quality or accuracy of transmission SEM data, especially those acquired by the use of transmission Kikuchi diffraction. Generally, the quality of orientation data was better for specimens prepared by electropolishing, due to the absence of ion-induced damage. - Highlights: • The transmission imaging and diffraction techniques are emerging in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as promising new field of materials characterization. • The manuscript titled: “Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction and Transmission Electron Forescatter Imaging of Electropolished and FIB Manufactured TEM Specimens” documents how different specimen thinning procedures can effect efficiency of transmission Kikuchi diffraction and transmission electron forescatter imaging. • The abilities to make precision crystallographic orientation maps and dark-field images in transmission was studied on electropolished versus focus ion beam manufactured TEM specimens. • Depending on the need, electropolished and focused ion beam technique may produce suitable specimens for transmission imaging and diffraction in SEM.

  2. Vehicle transmission having countershaft and planetary portions

    SciTech Connect

    Nerstad, K.A.; Windish, W.E.

    1986-09-30

    This patent describes a vehicle transmission comprising: a countershaft transmission including an input first shaft, a second shaft, an output third shaft, gears operatively associated with the shafts, a reversing idler gear cooperatively engaging two of the gears, and low, high, and reverse clutch assembly means for selectively connecting the gears in a preselected manner. The reverse clutch assembly provides either one of two forward speeds and one reverse speed at the third shaft, the low and high clutch assembly means being disposed generally along the second shaft; and a planetary transmission serially driven by the third shaft and including interconnected planetary gear sets and brake assembly means for selectively actuating one of the planetary gear sets and providing one speed for use with each speed of the countershaft transmission.

  3. On Dobbert et al, 'Cultural Transmission...'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearing, Frederick

    1984-01-01

    Criticizes Dobbert et al's model of cultural transmission (presented in earlier article) as being a species of social physics. Suggests improvements to the model, notably that observation and analysis at the emic level be taken into account. (RDN)

  4. Data transmission element for downhole drilling components

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael

    2006-01-31

    A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

  5. Load-resistant coaxial transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2006-01-03

    A transmission line for downhole tools that make up all or part of a tool string for drilling and production of oil, gas, and geothermal wells that can withstand the dynamic gravitational forces and other accelerations associated with downhole excavations. The transmission line has a metal tube, or outer conductor, that houses a coaxial wire inner conductor. A non-metallic dielectric material is interposed between the inner and outer conductors. The outer and inner conductors and the dielectric are sufficiently compressed together so that independent motion between them is abated. Compression of the components of the transmission line may be achieved by drawing the transmission through one or more dies in order to draw down the outer conductor onto the dielectric, or by expanding the inner conductor against the dielectric using a mandrel or hydraulic pressure. Non-metallic bead segments may be used in aid of the compression necessary to resist the dynamic forces and accelerations of drilling.

  6. Electrical Transmission Line Diametrical Retention Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2006-01-03

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within downhole components. The invention allows a transmission line to be attached to the internal diameter of drilling components that have a substantially uniform drilling diameter. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to withstand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  7. High Voltage Power Transmission for Wind Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young il

    The high wind speeds and wide available area at sea have recently increased the interests on offshore wind farms in the U.S.A. As offshore wind farms become larger and are placed further from the shore, the power transmission to the onshore grid becomes a key feature. Power transmission of the offshore wind farm, in which good wind conditions and a larger installation area than an onshore site are available, requires the use of submarine cable systems. Therefore, an underground power cable system requires unique design and installation challenges not found in the overhead power cable environment. This paper presents analysis about the benefit and drawbacks of three different transmission solutions: HVAC, LCC/VSC HVDC in the grid connecting offshore wind farms and also analyzed the electrical characteristics of underground cables. In particular, loss of HV (High Voltage) subsea power of the transmission cables was evaluated by the Brakelmann's theory, taking into account the distributions of current and temperature.

  8. Feasibility study of wireless power transmission systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Wireless microwave or laser energy transfers power from a manned earth-orbiting central station to unmanned astronomical substations. More efficient systems are required for the microwave power transmission.

  9. Solar Power Satellite Microwave Transmission and Reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Numerous analytical and experimental investigations related to SPS microwave power transmission and reception are reported. Aspects discussed include system performance, phase control, power amplifiers, radiating elements, rectenna, solid state configurations, and planned program activities.

  10. Reflection and transmission for layered composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graglia, Roberto D.; Uslenghi, Piergiorgio L. E.

    1991-01-01

    A layered planar structure consisting of different bianisotropic materials separated by jump-immittance sheets is considered. Reflection and transmission coefficients are determined via a chain-matrix algorithm. Applications are important for radomes and radar-absorbing materials.

  11. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases. TSEs have been described in several species including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, tr...

  12. Male to male transmission of supernumerary nipples.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, M; Uchida, M; Uchino, S; Fujisawa, R; Kamei, T; Itoh, T

    1997-03-17

    We report on a father and his son with supernumerary nipples. No male-to-male transmission has previously been described with this trait. This observation confirms that this trait is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion.

  13. Biosignatures of Exposure/Transmission and Immunity.

    PubMed

    King, Christopher L; Davies, D Huw; Felgner, Phil; Baum, Elizabeth; Jain, Aarti; Randall, Arlo; Tetteh, Kevin; Drakeley, Christopher J; Greenhouse, Bryan

    2015-09-01

    A blood test that captures cumulative exposure over time and assesses levels of naturally acquired immunity (NAI) would provide a critical tool to monitor the impact of interventions to reduce malaria transmission and broaden our understanding of how NAI develops around the world as a function of age and exposure. This article describes a collaborative effort in multiple International Centers of Excellence in Malaria Research (ICEMRs) to develop such tests using malaria-specific antibody responses as biosignatures of transmission and immunity. The focus is on the use of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax protein microarrays to identify a panel of the most informative antibody responses in diverse malaria-endemic settings representing an unparalleled spectrum of malaria transmission and malaria species mixes before and after interventions to reduce malaria transmission.

  14. Lack of transplacental transmission of Bartonella bovis.

    PubMed

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Boulouis, H-J; Reynaud, K; Thoumire, S; Gandoin, C; Bouillin, C; Cordonnier, N; Maillard, R

    2015-02-01

    Transplacental transmission of Bartonella spp. has been reported for rodents, but not for cats and has never been investigated in cattle. The objective of this study was to assess vertical transmission of Bartonella in cattle. Fifty-six cow-calf pairs were tested before (cows) and after (calves) caesarean section for Bartonella bacteremia and/or serology, and the cotyledons were checked for gross lesions and presence of the bacteria. None of the 29 (52%) bacteremic cows gave birth to bacteremic calves, and all calves were seronegative at birth. Neither placentitis nor vasculitis were observed in all collected cotyledons. Bartonella bovis was not detected in placental cotyledons. Therefore, transplacental transmission of B. bovis and multiplication of the bacteria in the placenta do not seem likely. The lack of transplacental transmission may be associated with the particular structure of the placenta in ruminants or to a poor affinity/agressiveness of B. bovis for this tissue.

  15. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kish, Jules

    1990-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work accomplished to date on the NASA/Army Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program. A 23-percent weight reduction has been demonstrated for a high output reduction ratio split path transmission compared to an aggressive program goal of 25-percent. Greater than 10 dB noise reduction in the cabin is achieved by the use of high contact ratio spur and double helical gears. In addition, mean times between transmission removals have been increased by almost four fold. These performance gains have been achieved by application of advanced transmission technology concepts. Technology areas are being explored which offer high gain but at relatively high risk in such areas as composites, split power gear concepts, double helical gears, new gear materials, high speed spring clutches, and ceramic rolling element bearings.

  16. Modelling of vibration of gear transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, Vladimir; Nemecek, Josef

    The method for mathematical modeling of spatial vibrations of the spur gear transmissions is presented. This method enables a substantial reduction of the number of degrees of freedom with relatively high accuracy in calculating vibration amplitude.

  17. Airborne transmission of disease in hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Eames, I.; Tang, J. W.; Li, Y.; Wilson, P.

    2009-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is an important public health issue with unacceptable levels of morbidity and mortality, over the last 5 years. Disease can be transmitted by air (over large distances), by direct/indirect contact or a combination of both routes. While contact transmission of disease forms the majority of HAI cases, transmission through the air is harder to control, but one where the engineering sciences can play an important role in limiting the spread. This forms the focus of this themed volume. In this paper, we describe the current hospital environment and review the contributions from microbiologists, mechanical and civil engineers, and mathematicians to this themed volume on the airborne transmission of infection in hospitals. The review also points out some of the outstanding scientific questions and possible approaches to mitigating transmission. PMID:19828499

  18. Transmission of torque at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ian; Oğuz, Erdal C.; Speck, Thomas; Bartlett, Paul; Löwen, Hartmut; Royall, C. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In macroscopic mechanical devices, torque is transmitted through gearwheels and clutches. In the construction of devices at the nanoscale, torque and its transmission through soft materials will be a key component. However, this regime is dominated by thermal fluctuations leading to dissipation. Here we demonstrate the principle of torque transmission for a disc-like colloidal assembly exhibiting clutch-like behaviour, driven by 27 particles in optical traps. These are translated on a circular path to form a rotating boundary that transmits torque to additional particles confined to the interior. We investigate this transmission and find that it is determined by solid-like or fluid-like behaviour of the device and a stick-slip mechanism reminiscent of macroscopic gearwheels slipping. The transmission behaviour is predominantly governed by the rotation rate of the boundary and the density of the confined system. We determine the efficiency of our device and thus optimize conditions to maximize power output.

  19. Transmission and Institutional Infection Control of Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Nardell, Edward A

    2015-08-20

    Tuberculosis (TB) transmission control in institutions is evolving with increased awareness of the rapid impact of treatment on transmission, the importance of the unsuspected, untreated case of transmission, and the advent of rapid molecular diagnostics. With active case finding based on cough surveillance and rapid drug susceptibility testing, in theory, it is possible to be reasonably sure that no patient enters a facility with undiagnosed TB or drug resistance. Droplet nuclei transmission of TB is reviewed with an emphasis on risk factors relevant to control. Among environmental controls, natural ventilation and upper-room ultraviolet germicidal ultraviolet air disinfection are the most cost-effective choices, although high-volume mechanical ventilation can also be used. Room air cleaners are generally not recommended. Maintenance is required for all engineering solutions. Finally, personal protection with fit-tested respirators is used in many situations where administrative and engineering methods cannot assure protection.

  20. Spectrally efficient polymer optical fiber transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randel, Sebastian; Bunge, Christian-Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The step-index polymer optical fiber (SI-POF) is an attractive transmission medium for high speed communication links in automotive infotainment networks, in industrial automation, and in home networks. Growing demands for quality of service, e.g., for IPTV distribution in homes and for Ethernet based industrial control networks will necessitate Gigabit speeds in the near future. We present an overview on recent advances in the design of spectrally efficient and robust Gigabit-over-SI-POF transmission systems.

  1. A second transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils

    PubMed Central

    Pye, Ruth J.; Pemberton, David; Tovar, Cesar; Tubio, Jose M. C.; Dun, Karen A.; Fox, Samantha; Darby, Jocelyn; Hayes, Dane; Knowles, Graeme W.; Kreiss, Alexandre; Siddle, Hannah V. T.; Swift, Kate; Lyons, A. Bruce; Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Woods, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Clonally transmissible cancers are somatic cell lineages that are spread between individuals via the transfer of living cancer cells. There are only three known naturally occurring transmissible cancers, and these affect dogs, soft-shell clams, and Tasmanian devils, respectively. The Tasmanian devil transmissible facial cancer was first observed in 1996, and is threatening its host species with extinction. Until now, this disease has been consistently associated with a single aneuploid cancer cell lineage that we refer to as DFT1. Here we describe a second transmissible cancer, DFT2, in five devils located in southern Tasmania in 2014 and 2015. DFT2 causes facial tumors that are grossly indistinguishable but histologically distinct from those caused by DFT1. DFT2 bears no detectable cytogenetic similarity to DFT1 and carries a Y chromosome, which contrasts with the female origin of DFT1. DFT2 shows different alleles to both its hosts and DFT1 at microsatellite, structural variant, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci, confirming that it is a second cancer that can be transmitted between devils as an allogeneic, MHC-discordant graft. These findings indicate that Tasmanian devils have spawned at least two distinct transmissible cancer lineages and suggest that transmissible cancers may arise more frequently in nature than previously considered. The discovery of DFT2 presents important challenges for the conservation of Tasmanian devils and raises the possibility that this species is particularly prone to the emergence of transmissible cancers. More generally, our findings highlight the potential for cancer cells to depart from their hosts and become dangerous transmissible pathogens. PMID:26711993

  2. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOEpatents

    Spielman, Rick B.

    1994-01-01

    A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

  3. Malaria transmission modelling: a network perspective.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiming; Yang, Bo; Cheung, William K; Yang, Guojing

    2012-11-01

    Malaria transmission can be affected by multiple or even hidden factors, making it difficult to timely and accurately predict the impact of elimination and eradication programs that have been undertaken and the potential resurgence and spread that may continue to emerge. One approach at the moment is to develop and deploy surveillance systems in an attempt to identify them as timely as possible and thus to enable policy makers to modify and implement strategies for further preventing the transmission. Most of the surveillance data will be of temporal and spatial nature. From an interdisciplinary point of view, it would be interesting to ask the following important as well as challenging question: Based on the available surveillance data in temporal and spatial forms, how can we build a more effective surveillance mechanism for monitoring and early detecting the relative prevalence and transmission patterns of malaria? What we can note from the existing clustering-based surveillance software systems is that they do not infer the underlying transmission networks of malaria. However, such networks can be quite informative and insightful as they characterize how malaria transmits from one place to another. They can also in turn allow public health policy makers and researchers to uncover the hidden and interacting factors such as environment, genetics and ecology and to discover/predict malaria transmission patterns/trends. The network perspective further extends the present approaches to modelling malaria transmission based on a set of chosen factors. In this article, we survey the related work on transmission network inference, discuss how such an approach can be utilized in developing an effective computational means for inferring malaria transmission networks based on partial surveillance data, and what methodological steps and issues may be involved in its formulation and validation.

  4. A second transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils.

    PubMed

    Pye, Ruth J; Pemberton, David; Tovar, Cesar; Tubio, Jose M C; Dun, Karen A; Fox, Samantha; Darby, Jocelyn; Hayes, Dane; Knowles, Graeme W; Kreiss, Alexandre; Siddle, Hannah V T; Swift, Kate; Lyons, A Bruce; Murchison, Elizabeth P; Woods, Gregory M

    2016-01-12

    Clonally transmissible cancers are somatic cell lineages that are spread between individuals via the transfer of living cancer cells. There are only three known naturally occurring transmissible cancers, and these affect dogs, soft-shell clams, and Tasmanian devils, respectively. The Tasmanian devil transmissible facial cancer was first observed in 1996, and is threatening its host species with extinction. Until now, this disease has been consistently associated with a single aneuploid cancer cell lineage that we refer to as DFT1. Here we describe a second transmissible cancer, DFT2, in five devils located in southern Tasmania in 2014 and 2015. DFT2 causes facial tumors that are grossly indistinguishable but histologically distinct from those caused by DFT1. DFT2 bears no detectable cytogenetic similarity to DFT1 and carries a Y chromosome, which contrasts with the female origin of DFT1. DFT2 shows different alleles to both its hosts and DFT1 at microsatellite, structural variant, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci, confirming that it is a second cancer that can be transmitted between devils as an allogeneic, MHC-discordant graft. These findings indicate that Tasmanian devils have spawned at least two distinct transmissible cancer lineages and suggest that transmissible cancers may arise more frequently in nature than previously considered. The discovery of DFT2 presents important challenges for the conservation of Tasmanian devils and raises the possibility that this species is particularly prone to the emergence of transmissible cancers. More generally, our findings highlight the potential for cancer cells to depart from their hosts and become dangerous transmissible pathogens.

  5. Graded Synaptic Transmission between Spiking Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graubard, Katherine; Raper, Jonathan A.; Hartline, Daniel K.

    1980-06-01

    Graded synaptic transmission occurs between spiking neurons of the lobster stomatogastric ganglion. In addition to eliciting spike-evoked inhibitory potentials in postsynaptic cells, these neurons also release functionally significant amounts of transmitter below the threshold for action potentials. The spikeless postsynaptic potentials grade in amplitude with presynaptic voltage and can be maintained for long periods. Graded synaptic transmission can be modulated by synaptic input to the presynaptic neuron.

  6. Bounds on Transmission Delays for the CCRA.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    a large number of independent, packet transmitting , bursty users request access to a common channel. We consider "random-access" transmission...characteristics imply low-level synchronization among the users. In particular, each user is allowed to transmit at most one packet at the time, and he can...start transmission only at the beginning of some channel slot. Thus, some channel slot is empty if -2- no user transmitted a packet within it. Some

  7. Space-to-earth power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G. H.; Schuh, R.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary analysis was conducted to establish the requirements of a space-to-earth microwave power transmission system. The need for accurate phase control on the transmitter was established and methods for assessing the impact of power density and thermal constraints on system performance were demonstrated. Potential radio frequency interference was considered. The sensitivity of transmission system scale to variations in power source, transportation and orbital fabrication and assembly costs was also determined.

  8. 75 FR 22770 - National Electric Transmission Congestion Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... National Electric Transmission Congestion Study AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE), Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Availability of 2009 National Electric Transmission... notice that it has issued a National Electric Transmission Congestion Study (2009 Congestion Study)...

  9. 47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission... distributed transmission system....

  10. 77 FR 11522 - Dominion Transmission, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Dominion Transmission, Inc.; Notice of Application On February 10, 2012, Dominion Transmission, Inc. (DTI) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) an..., Regulatory and Certificates Analyst III, Dominion Transmission, Inc., 701 East Cary Street,...

  11. 47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission... distributed transmission system....

  12. 76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ...: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration... Rulemaking (ANPRM) titled: ``Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines'' seeking comments on the need for changes to the regulations covering gas transmission pipelines. PHMSA has received requests to extend...

  13. 47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission... distributed transmission system....

  14. 76 FR 5796 - Gas Transmission Northwest Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gas Transmission Northwest Corporation; Notice of Application January 26, 2011. Take notice that on January 14, 2011, Gas Transmission Northwest Corporation (GTN), 717 Texas..., Manager, Project Determinations & Regulatory Administration, Gas Transmission Northwest Corporation,...

  15. Low voltage transmission electron microscopy of graphene.

    PubMed

    Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Zhao, Jiong; Gorantla, Sandeep Madhukar; Martinez, Ignacio Guillermo Gonzalez; Wiedermann, Jerzy; Lee, Changgu; Eckert, Juergen; Rummeli, Mark Hermann

    2015-02-04

    The initial isolation of graphene in 2004 spawned massive interest in this two-dimensional pure sp(2) carbon structure due to its incredible electrical, optical, mechanical, and thermal effects. This in turn led to the rapid development of various characterization tools for graphene. Examples include Raman spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. However, the one tool with the greatest prowess for characterizing and studying graphene is the transmission electron microscope. State-of-the-art (scanning) transmission electron microscopes enable one to image graphene with atomic resolution, and also to conduct various other characterizations simultaneously. The advent of aberration correctors was timely in that it allowed transmission electron microscopes to operate with reduced acceleration voltages, so that damage to graphene is avoided while still providing atomic resolution. In this comprehensive review, a brief introduction is provided to the technical aspects of transmission electron microscopes relevant to graphene. The reader is then introduced to different specimen preparation techniques for graphene. The different characterization approaches in both transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy are then discussed, along with the different aspects of electron diffraction and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The use of graphene for other electron microscopy approaches such as in-situ investigations is also presented.

  16. Laser transmission through thin cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Liou, K N; Takano, Y; Ou, S C; Johnson, M W

    2000-09-20

    A near-infrared airborne-laser transmission model for thin cirrus clouds has been developed on the basis of the successive-order-of-scattering approach to account for multiple scattering by randomly and horizontally oriented ice crystals associated with an aircraft-target system. Direct transmission and transmission due to multiple scattering are formulated specifically for this geometric system, in which scattering and absorption associated with aerosols, water vapor, and air are accounted for. A number of sensitivity experiments have been performed for investigation of the effect of aircraft-target position, cirrus cloud optical depth, and ice crystal size on laser transmission for tactical applications. We show that transmission contributions produced by orders of scattering higher than 1 are small and can be neglected. The possibility of horizontal orientation of ice crystals can enhance transmission of laser beams in the aircraft-target geometry. Transmitted energy is strongly dependent on the horizontal distance between the aircraft and the target and on the cloud optical depth as well as on whether the cloud is above or below the aircraft.

  17. Determinants of Arbovirus Vertical Transmission in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Lequime, Sebastian; Paul, Richard E.; Lambrechts, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Vertical transmission (VT) and horizontal transmission (HT) of pathogens refer to parental and non-parental chains of host-to-host transmission. Combining HT with VT enlarges considerably the range of ecological conditions in which a pathogen can persist, but the factors governing the relative frequency of each transmission mode are poorly understood for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission. Elucidating these factors is particularly important for understanding the epidemiology of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of public health significance. Arboviruses are primarily maintained by HT between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts in nature, but are occasionally transmitted vertically in the vector population from an infected female to her offspring, which is a proposed maintenance mechanism during adverse conditions for HT. Here, we review over a century of published primary literature on natural and experimental VT, which we previously assembled into large databases, to identify biological factors associated with the efficiency of arbovirus VT in mosquito vectors. Using a robust statistical framework, we highlight a suite of environmental, taxonomic, and physiological predictors of arbovirus VT. These novel insights contribute to refine our understanding of strategies employed by arboviruses to persist in the environment and cause substantial public health concern. They also provide hypotheses on the biological processes underlying the relative VT frequency for pathogens with mixed-mode transmission that can be tested empirically. PMID:27171170

  18. Blocking transmission of vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Schorderet-Weber, Sandra; Noack, Sandra; Selzer, Paul M; Kaminsky, Ronald

    2017-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases are responsible for significant health problems in humans, as well as in companion and farm animals. Killing the vectors with ectoparasitic drugs before they have the opportunity to pass on their pathogens could be the ideal way to prevent vector borne diseases. Blocking of transmission might work when transmission is delayed during blood meal, as often happens in ticks. The recently described systemic isoxazolines have been shown to successfully prevent disease transmission under conditions of delayed pathogen transfer. However, if the pathogen is transmitted immediately at bite as it is the case with most insects, blocking transmission becomes only possible if ectoparasiticides prevent the vector from landing on or, at least, from biting the host. Chemical entities exhibiting repellent activity in addition to fast killing, like pyrethroids, could prevent pathogen transmission even in cases of immediate transfer. Successful blocking depends on effective action in the context of the extremely diverse life-cycles of vectors and vector-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance which are summarized in this review. This complexity leads to important parameters to consider for ectoparasiticide research and when considering the ideal drug profile for preventing disease transmission.

  19. Local Frequency Dependence in Transcranial Ultrasound Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, P. J.; Clement, G. T.; Hynynen, K.

    2006-05-01

    The development of large-aperture multiple-source transducer arrays for ultrasound transmission through the human skull has demonstrated the possibility of controlled and substantial acoustic energy delivery into the brain parenchyma without the necessitation of a craniotomy. The individual control of acoustic parameters from each ultrasound source allows for the correction of distortions arising from transmission through the skull bone and also opens up the possibility for electronic steering of the acoustic focus within the brain. In addition, the capability to adjust the frequency of sonication at different locations on the skull can have an effect on ultrasound transmission. To determine the efficacy and applicability of a multiple-frequency approach with such a device, this study examined the frequency dependence of ultrasound transmission in the range of 0.6-1.4 MHz through a series of seventeen points on four ex vivo human skulls. Effects beyond those that are characteristic of frequency-dependent attenuation were examined. Using broadband pulses, it was shown that the reflected spectra from the skull revealed information regarding ultrasound transmission at specific frequencies. This finding demonstrates a potential applicability of a multiple-frequency approach in transcranial ultrasound transmission.

  20. Finite-difference interblock transmissivity for unconfined aquifers and for aquifers having smoothly varying transmissivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, D.J.; Appel, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    More accurate alternatives to the widely used harmonic mean interblock transmissivity are proposed for block-centered finite-difference models of ground-water flow in unconfined aquifers and in aquifers having smoothly varying transmissivity. The harmonic mean is the exact interblock transmissivity for steady-state one-dimensional flow with no recharge if the transmissivity is assumed to be spatially uniform over each finite-difference block, changing abruptly at the block interface. However, the harmonic mean may be inferior to other means if transmissivity varies in a continuous or smooth manner between nodes. Alternative interblock transmissivity functions are analytically derived for the case of steady-state one-dimensional flow with no recharge. The second author has previously derived the exact interblock transmissivity, the logarithmic mean, for one-dimensional flow when transmissivity is a linear function of distance in the direction of flow. We show that the logarithmic mean transmissivity is also exact for uniform flow parallel to the direction of changing transmissivity in a two- or three-dimensional model, regardless of grid orientation relative to the flow vector. For the case of horizontal flow in a homogeneous unconfined or water-table aquifer with a horizontal bottom and with areally distributed recharge, the exact interblock transmissivity is the unweighted arithmetic mean of transmissivity at the nodes. This mean also exhibits no grid-orientation effect for unidirectional flow in a two-dimensional model. For horizontal flow in an unconfined aquifer with no recharge where hydraulic conductivity is a linear function of distance in the direction of flow the exact interblock transmissivity is the product of the arithmetic mean saturated thickness and the logarithmic mean hydraulic conductivity. For several hypothetical two- and three-dimensional cases with smoothly varying transmissivity or hydraulic conductivity, the harmonic mean is shown to yield

  1. An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

    1994-08-01

    References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

  2. Automatic transmission with add-on overdrive

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, R.E.; Woodcock, S.J.

    1989-01-17

    An overdrive unit is described for use with an automatic transmission, the transmission having an extended output shaft extending rearwardly therefrom through the forward open end of an overdrive outer casing and aligned on the longitudinal axis thereof, the overdrive unit comprising: a planetary gear set concentrically disposed about the longitudinal axis and including a sun gear, an annulus gear and a carrier with fore and aft carrier rings supporting a plurality of planetary pinion gears in meshing engagement with the sun gear and the annulus gear, the aft carrier ring concentrically engaged with the transmission output shaft; and a one-way clutch including inner and outer concentrically disposed races with coupling means located therebetween, the one-way clutch positioned rearward of the aft carrier ring, the annulus gear having a rearwardly projecting portion surrounding a portion the outer race concentrically engaged therewith, the inner race concentrically engaged with the transmission output shaft and the outer race concentrically engaged with an overdrive output shaft disposed coaxial with the transmission output shaft.

  3. Control of hydrostatic transmission wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabhandharaks, Danop

    In this study, we proposed a control strategy for a wind turbine that employed a hydrostatic transmission system for transmitting power from the wind turbine rotor via a hydraulic transmission line to a ground level generator. Wind turbine power curve tracking was achieved by controlling the hydraulic pump displacement and, at the other end of the hydraulic line, the hydraulic motor displacement was controlled so that the overall transmission loss was minimized. Steady state response, dynamic response, and system stability were assessed. The maximum transmission efficiency obtained ranged from 79% to 84% at steady state when the proposed control strategy was implemented. The leakage and friction losses of the hydraulic components were the main factors that compromised the efficiency. The simulation results showed that the system was stable and had fast and well-damped transient response. Double wind turbine system sharing hydraulic pipes, a hydraulic motor, and a generator were also studied. The hydraulic pipe diameter used in the double-turbine system increased by 27% compared to the single-turbine system in order to make the transmission coefficient comparable between both systems. The simulation results suggested that the leakage losses were so significant that the efficiency of the system was worsened compared with the single-turbine system. Future studies of other behavioral aspects and practical issues such as fluid dynamics, structure strength, materials, and costs are needed.

  4. Reporter Systems to Study HTLV-1 Transmission.

    PubMed

    Gross, Christine; Thoma-Kress, Andrea K

    2017-01-01

    The retrovirus Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) preferentially infects CD4(+) T-cells via cell-to-cell transmission, while cell-free infection of T-cells is inefficient. Substantial insights into the different routes of transmission have largely been obtained by imaging techniques or by flow cytometry. Recently, strategies to quantify infection events with HTLV-1 improved. In this chapter, we present two different methods to quantitate virus transmission. Both methods are based on measuring gene activity of luciferase with a cost-saving in-house luciferase assay. First, we established a reporter Jurkat T-cell line carrying a luciferase gene under the control of the HTLV-1 core promoter U3R. Upon co-culture with chronically HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, reporter cells are infected, and upon expression of the viral transactivator Tax, the viral promoter is activated resulting in enhanced luciferase activity. However, this assay as presented here does not exclude cell fusion as the mechanism allowing intracellular Tax-dependent activation of luciferase gene expression. Therefore, we describe a second method, the single-cycle replication-dependent reporter system developed by Mazurov et al. (PLoS Pathog 6:e1000788, 2010) that allows quantitation of HTLV-1 infection in co-cultured cells. Taken together, both methods facilitate quantitation of HTLV-1 transmission and will help to unravel pathways required for cell-to-cell transmission on a quantitative basis.

  5. Unraveling the Transmission Ecology of Polio.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Bakker, Micaela; King, Aaron A; Rohani, Pejman

    2015-06-01

    Sustained and coordinated vaccination efforts have brought polio eradication within reach. Anticipating the eradication of wild poliovirus (WPV) and the subsequent challenges in preventing its re-emergence, we look to the past to identify why polio rose to epidemic levels in the mid-20th century, and how WPV persisted over large geographic scales. We analyzed an extensive epidemiological dataset, spanning the 1930s to the 1950s and spatially replicated across each state in the United States, to glean insight into the drivers of polio's historical expansion and the ecological mode of its persistence prior to vaccine introduction. We document a latitudinal gradient in polio's seasonality. Additionally, we fitted and validated mechanistic transmission models to data from each US state independently. The fitted models revealed that: (1) polio persistence was the product of a dynamic mosaic of source and sink populations; (2) geographic heterogeneity of seasonal transmission conditions account for the latitudinal structure of polio epidemics; (3) contrary to the prevailing "disease of development" hypothesis, our analyses demonstrate that polio's historical expansion was straightforwardly explained by demographic trends rather than improvements in sanitation and hygiene; and (4) the absence of clinical disease is not a reliable indicator of polio transmission, because widespread polio transmission was likely in the multiyear absence of clinical disease. As the world edges closer to global polio eradication and continues the strategic withdrawal of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), the regular identification of, and rapid response to, these silent chains of transmission is of the utmost importance.

  6. Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission

    DOEpatents

    Kalns, Ilmars

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

  7. Transmission Line Adapted Analytical Power Charts Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakala, Japhet D.; Daka, James S. J.; Setlhaolo, Ditiro; Malichi, Alec Pulu

    2016-08-01

    The performance of a transmission line has been assessed over the years using power charts. These are graphical representations, drawn to scale, of the equations that describe the performance of transmission lines. Various quantities that describe the performance, such as sending end voltage, sending end power and compensation to give zero voltage regulation, may be deduced from the power charts. Usually required values are read off and then converted using the appropriate scales and known relationships. In this paper, the authors revisit this area of circle diagrams for transmission line performance. The work presented here formulates the mathematical model that analyses the transmission line performance from the power charts relationships and then uses them to calculate the transmission line performance. In this proposed approach, it is not necessary to draw the power charts for the solution. However the power charts may be drawn for the visual presentation. The method is based on applying derived equations and is simple to use since it does not require rigorous derivations.

  8. Unpredictability and the transmission of numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, John M.; Madjid, F. Hadi

    2016-03-01

    Curiously overlooked in physics is its dependence on the transmission of numbers. For example, the transmission of numerical clock readings is implicit in the concept of a coordinate system. The transmission of numbers and other logical distinctions is often achieved over a computer-mediated communications network in the face of an unpredictable environment. By unpredictable we mean something stronger than the spread of probabilities over given possible outcomes, namely an opening to unforeseeable possibilities. Unpredictability, until now overlooked in theoretical physics, makes the transmission of numbers interesting. Based on recent proofs within quantum theory that provide a theoretical foundation to unpredictability, here we show how regularities in physics rest on a background of channels over which numbers are transmitted. As is known to engineers of digital communications, numerical transmissions depend on coordination reminiscent of the cycle of throwing and catching by players tossing a ball back and forth. In digital communications, the players are computers, and the required coordination involves unpredictably adjusting "live clocks" that step these computers through phases of a cycle. We show how this phasing, which we call logical synchronization, constrains number-carrying networks, and, if a spacetime manifold in invoked, put "stripes" on spacetime. Via its logically synchronized channels, a network of live clocks serves as a reference against which to locate events. Such a network in any case underpins a coordinate frame, and in some cases the direct use of a network can be tailored to investigate an unpredictable environment. Examples include explorations of gravitational variations near Earth.

  9. Computational Modeling of Pollution Transmission in Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsaie, Abbas; Haghiabi, Amir Hamzeh

    2015-08-01

    Modeling of river pollution contributes to better management of water quality and this will lead to the improvement of human health. The advection dispersion equation (ADE) is the government equation on pollutant transmission in the river. Modeling the pollution transmission includes numerical solution of the ADE and estimating the longitudinal dispersion coefficient (LDC). In this paper, a novel approach is proposed for numerical modeling of the pollution transmission in rivers. It is related to use both finite volume method as numerical method and artificial neural network (ANN) as soft computing technique together in simulation. In this approach, the result of the ANN for predicting the LDC was considered as input parameter for the numerical solution of the ADE. To validate the model performance in real engineering problems, the pollutant transmission in Severn River has been simulated. Comparison of the final model results with measured data of the Severn River showed that the model has good performance. Predicting the LDC by ANN model significantly improved the accuracy of computer simulation of the pollution transmission in river.

  10. Signal transmissibility in marginal granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinson, Matthew B.; Witten, Thomas A.

    2016-12-01

    We examine the ‘transmissibility’ of a simulated two-dimensional pack of frictionless disks formed by confining dilute disks in a shrinking, periodic box to the point of mechanical stability. Two opposite boundaries are then removed, thus allowing a set of free motions. Small free displacements on one boundary then induce proportional displacements on the opposite boundary. Transmissibility is the ability to distinguish different perturbations by their distant responses. We assess transmissibility by successively identifying free orthonormal modes of motion that have the smallest distant responses. The last modes to be identified in this ‘pessimistic’ basis are the most transmissive. The transmitted amplitudes of these most transmissive modes fall off exponentially with mode number. Similar exponential falloff is seen in a simple elastic medium, though the responsible modes differ greatly in structure in the two systems. Thus the marginal pack’s transmissibility is qualitatively similar to that of a simple elastic medium. We compare our results with recent findings based on the projection of the space of free motion onto interior sites.

  11. 76 FR 49841 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... section 206 of the Federal Power Act (FPA) to adopt reforms to its electric transmission planning and cost... efficient and cost-effective regional transmission planning. As discussed further below, the electric... anticompetitive practices existed in the electric industry and that, absent Commission action, such...

  12. 77 FR 61592 - American Transmission Company LLC v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc., Xcel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission American Transmission Company LLC v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc., Xcel Energy Services Inc,. Northern States Power Company, a Wisconsin Corporation, Northern States Power Company, a Minnesota Corporation; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on October 1,...

  13. Discourse as Medium of Knowledge: Transmission of Knowledge by Transmission of Discourse People Live

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassen, Rukya

    2015-01-01

    This is a study on discourse as medium of knowledge. Informal education is a system of transmission of knowledge by transmission of discourse people live by. In the humanities and social sciences, the term discourse describes a formal way of thinking that can be expressed through language. Discourses are seen to affect our views on all things; it…

  14. 78 FR 22872 - TexStar Transmission, LP; TEAK Texana Transmission Company, LP; Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TexStar Transmission, LP; TEAK Texana Transmission Company, LP; Notice of Filings Take notice that on April 5, 2013, the applicants listed above submitted an amendment to...

  15. 78 FR 25262 - TexStar Transmission, LP; TEAK Texana Transmission Company, LP; Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TexStar Transmission, LP; TEAK Texana Transmission Company, LP; Notice of Filings Take notice that on April 23, 2013, the applicants listed above submitted an amendment to...

  16. Familial Transmission of Mood Disorders: Convergence and Divergence with Transmission of Suicidal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Melhem, Nadine; Ellis, Steven P.; Mann, J. John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Both mood disorder and suicidal behavior are familial. In this study, the authors examine the factors associated with the familial transmission of these two related conditions to learn which are shared or unique risk factors for familial transmission. Method: The 285 offspring of 141 probands with mood disorder were studied. Proband and…

  17. 77 FR 64890 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    .... Consideration of Transmission Needs Driven by 28 Public Policy Requirements B. Nonincumbent Transmission... followed or if a cost allocation method was not followed or produced unjust and unreasonable results for a.... 1000 compliance filings process and make a decision based on the record before us. 3. Consideration...

  18. Value Transmissions between Parents and Children: Gender and Developmental Phase as Transmission Belts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roest, Annette M. C.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study applied the gender role model of socialization theory, the developmental aging theory, and the topic salience perspective to the investigation of parent-child value transmissions. Specifically, we examined whether the bi-directionality and selectivity of value transmissions differed as a function of parents' and children's gender and…

  19. Storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, J. H.; Hagler, R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Current practices and future requirements for the storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen are reviewed in order to identify inadequacies to be corrected before hydrogen can achieve its full potential as a substitute for fossil fuels. Consideration is given to the storage of hydrogen in underground solution-mined salt caverns, portable high-pressure containers and dewars, pressure vessels and aquifers and as metal hydrides, hydrogen transmission in evacuated double-walled insulated containers and by pipeline, and distribution by truck and internal distribution networks. Areas for the improvement of these techniques are indicated, and these technological deficiencies, including materials development, low-cost storage and transmission methods, low-cost, long-life metal hydrides and novel methods for hydrogen storage, are presented as challenges for research and development.

  20. Acoustic Power Transmission Through a Ducted Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Ed

    2016-01-01

    For high-speed ducted fans, when the rotor flowfield is shock-free, the main contribution to the inlet radiated acoustic power comes from the portion of the rotor stator interaction sound field that is transmitted upstream through the rotor. As such, inclusion of the acoustic transmission is an essential ingredient in the prediction of the fan inlet noise when the fan tip relative speed is subsonic. This paper describes a linearized Euler based approach to computing the acoustic transmission of fan tones through the rotor. The approach is embodied in a code called LINFLUX was applied to a candidate subsonic fan called the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP). The results from this study suggest that it is possible to make such prediction with sufficient fidelity to provide an indication of the acoustic transmission trends with the fan tip speed.

  1. Method and apparatus for actuating vehicle transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, H.; Ishihara, M.; Uriuhara, M.

    1988-11-15

    This patent describes a method of actuating a vehicle parallel-gear transmission having gears and an internal lever for moving shift blocks connected with shift rods and shift forks for changing gear ratios of the transmission, a hydraulically controlled select actuator operatively connected to the internal lever for moving the internal lever in a select direction, a hydraulically controlled shift actuator operatively connected to the internal lever for moving the internal lever in a shift direction substantially normal to the select direction, a hydraulically controlled clutch actuator for connecting and disconnecting a clutch of the transmission, and a common fluid discharge passage connected to fluid discharge ports of the select and shift actuators and a fluid discharge port of the clutch actuator, the select and shift actuators being alternately actuatable to effect a gear changing operation.

  2. Mapping residual transmission for malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Robert C; Le Menach, Arnaud; Kunene, Simon; Ntshalintshali, Nyasatu; Hsiang, Michelle S; Perkins, T Alex; Greenhouse, Bryan; Tatem, Andrew J; Cohen, Justin M; Smith, David L

    2015-12-29

    Eliminating malaria from a defined region involves draining the endemic parasite reservoir and minimizing local malaria transmission around imported malaria infections . In the last phases of malaria elimination, as universal interventions reap diminishing marginal returns, national resources must become increasingly devoted to identifying where residual transmission is occurring. The needs for accurate measures of progress and practical advice about how to allocate scarce resources require new analytical methods to quantify fine-grained heterogeneity in malaria risk. Using routine national surveillance data from Swaziland (a sub-Saharan country on the verge of elimination), we estimated individual reproductive numbers. Fine-grained maps of reproductive numbers and local malaria importation rates were combined to show 'malariogenic potential', a first for malaria elimination. As countries approach elimination, these individual-based measures of transmission risk provide meaningful metrics for planning programmatic responses and prioritizing areas where interventions will contribute most to malaria elimination.

  3. Single transmission line data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensors monitor specific process variables and transmit measurement values over the single transmission line to a master station when addressed by the master station. Power for all remote stations (up to 980) is provided by driving the line with constant voltage supplied from the master station and automatically maintained independent of the number of remote stations directly connected to the line. The transmission line can be an RG-62 coaxial cable with lengths up to about 10,000 feet with branches up to 500 feet. The remote stations can be attached randomly along the line. The remote stations can be scanned at rates up to 980 channels/second.

  4. Astrocytes Optimize the Synaptic Transmission of Information

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Suhita; Jung, Peter; Levine, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    Chemical synapses transmit information via the release of neurotransmitter-filled vesicles from the presynaptic terminal. Using computational modeling, we predict that the limited availability of neurotransmitter resources in combination with the spontaneous release of vesicles limits the maximum degree of enhancement of synaptic transmission. This gives rise to an optimal tuning that depends on the number of active zones. There is strong experimental evidence that astrocytes that enwrap synapses can modulate the probabilities of vesicle release through bidirectional signaling and hence regulate synaptic transmission. For low-fidelity hippocampal synapses, which typically have only one or two active zones, the predicted optimal values lie close to those determined by experimentally measured astrocytic feedback, suggesting that astrocytes optimize synaptic transmission of information. PMID:18516277

  5. Asymmetric optical transmission in an optomechanical array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Optical cavity combining a mechanical degree of freedom provides a unique platform to implement information transmission and processing via optomechanical effects, and introduces a strong link between nanophotonics and nanomechanics. Here, we study the optical property of a cascaded optomechanical array, which consists of two or more optomechanical systems. We find that the steady states of the optomechanical array have algebraic duality symmetry for the case of two identical optomechanical resonators, which is exactly the embodiment of the spatial symmetry and leads to symmetric optical transmission. Breaking of the algebraic duality symmetry gives rise to different behaviors between the forward and the backward transmission, which can be remarkable under low input power. Our results may have potential application for achieving high precision measurement and on-chip manipulation of light propagation.

  6. Life and reliability models for helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Knorr, R. J.; Coy, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Computer models of life and reliability are presented for planetary gear trains with a fixed ring gear, input applied to the sun gear, and output taken from the planet arm. For this transmission the input and output shafts are co-axial and the input and output torques are assumed to be coaxial with these shafts. Thrust and side loading are neglected. The reliability model is based on the Weibull distributions of the individual reliabilities of the in transmission components. The system model is also a Weibull distribution. The load versus life model for the system is a power relationship as the models for the individual components. The load-life exponent and basic dynamic capacity are developed as functions of the components capacities. The models are used to compare three and four planet, 150 kW (200 hp), 5:1 reduction transmissions with 1500 rpm input speed to illustrate their use.

  7. Downhole transmission system comprising a coaxial capacitor

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Johnson, Monte L.; Bartholomew, David B.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Rawle, Michael

    2011-05-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a plurality of data transmission elements. A coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer conductor is disposed within a passage in the downhole component such that at least one capacitor is disposed in the passage and having a first terminal coupled to the inner conductor and a second terminal coupled to the outer conductor. Preferably the transmission element comprises an electrically conducting coil. Preferably, within the passage a connector is adapted to electrically connect the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and the lead wire. The coaxial capacitor may be disposed between and in electrically communication with the connector and the passage. In another embodiment a connector is adapted to electrical connect a first and a second portion of the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and a coaxial capacitor is in electrical communication with the connector and the passage.

  8. Data transmission system with distributed microprocessors

    DOEpatents

    Nambu, Shigeo

    1985-01-01

    A data transmission system having a common request line and a special request line in addition to a transmission line. The special request line has priority over the common request line. A plurality of node stations are multi-drop connected to the transmission line. Among the node stations, a supervising station is connected to the special request line and takes precedence over other slave stations to become a master station. The master station collects data from the slave stations. The station connected to the common request line can assign a master control function to any station requesting to be assigned the master control function within a short period of time. Each station has an auto response control circuit. The master station automatically collects data by the auto response controlling circuit independently of the microprocessors of the slave stations.

  9. Transmission fingerprints in quasiperiodic dielectric multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, M. S.; Albuquerque, E. L.

    1999-05-01

    We investigate the optical transmission fingerprints in structures that exhibit deterministic disorders. A class of models that has attracted particular attention in this context are the quasiperiodic dielectric multilayers that obey a substitutional sequence. These substitutional sequence are characterized by the nature of their Fourier spectrum, which can be dense pure point (Fibonacci sequences), singular continuous (Thue-Morse and double-period sequences), and absolutely continuous (Rudin-Shapiro sequence). We use a transfer-matrix approach to derive the optical transmission coefficients. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the self-similar aspect of the spectra, as well as to show the optical fingerprint through a return map of the transmission coefficients.

  10. Neutron transmission and capture of 241Am

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampoudis, C.; Kopecky, S.; Plompen, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Wynants, R.; Gunsing, F.; Sage, C.; Bouland, O.; Noguere, G.

    2013-03-01

    A set of neutron transmission and capture experiments based on the Time Of Flight (TOF) technique, were performed in order to determine the 241Am capture cross section in the energy range from 0.01 eV to 1 keV. The GELINA facility of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) served as the neutron source. A pair of C6D6 liquid scintillators was used to register the prompt gamma rays emerging from the americium sample, while a Li-glass detector was used in the transmission setup. Results from the capture and transmission data acquired are consistent with each other, but appear to be inconsistent with the evaluated data files. Resonance parameters have been derived for the data up to the energy of 100 eV.

  11. Intrinsic emittance reduction in transmission mode photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeri; Cultrera, Luca; Bazarov, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    High quantum efficiency (QE) and low emittance electron beams provided by multi-alkali photocathodes make them of great interest for next generation high brightness photoinjectors. Spicer's three-step model well describes the photoemission process; however, some photocathode characteristics such as their thickness have not yet been completely exploited to further improve the brightness of the generated electron beams. In this work, we report on the emittance and QE of a multi-alkali photocathode grown onto a glass substrate operated in transmission and reflection modes at different photon energies. We observed a 20% reduction in the intrinsic emittance from the reflection to the transmission mode operation. This observation can be explained by inelastic electron-phonon scattering during electrons' transit towards the cathode surface. Due to this effect, we predict that thicker photocathode layers will further reduce the intrinsic emittance of electron beams generated by photocathodes operated in transmission mode.

  12. Highly Efficient Prion Transmission by Blood Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Andréoletti, Olivier; Litaise, Claire; Simmons, Hugh; Corbière, Fabien; Lugan, Séverine; Costes, Pierrette; Schelcher, François; Vilette, Didier; Grassi, Jacques; Lacroux, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    It is now clearly established that the transfusion of blood from variant CJD (v-CJD) infected individuals can transmit the disease. Since the number of asymptomatic infected donors remains unresolved, inter-individual v-CJD transmission through blood and blood derived products is a major public health concern. Current risk assessments for transmission of v-CJD by blood and blood derived products by transfusion rely on infectious titers measured in rodent models of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE) using intra-cerebral (IC) inoculation of blood components. To address the biological relevance of this approach, we compared the efficiency of TSE transmission by blood and blood components when administrated either through transfusion in sheep or by intra-cerebral inoculation (IC) in transgenic mice (tg338) over-expressing ovine PrP. Transfusion of 200 µL of blood from asymptomatic infected donor sheep transmitted prion disease with 100% efficiency thereby displaying greater virulence than the transfusion of 200 mL of normal blood spiked with brain homogenate material containing 103ID50 as measured by intracerebral inoculation of tg338 mice (ID50 IC in tg338). This was consistent with a whole blood titer greater than 103.6 ID50 IC in tg338 per mL. However, when the same blood samples were assayed by IC inoculation into tg338 the infectious titers were less than 32 ID per mL. Whereas the transfusion of crude plasma to sheep transmitted the disease with limited efficacy, White Blood Cells (WBC) displayed a similar ability to whole blood to infect recipients. Strikingly, fixation of WBC with paraformaldehyde did not affect the infectivity titer as measured in tg338 but dramatically impaired disease transmission by transfusion in sheep. These results demonstrate that TSE transmission by blood transfusion can be highly efficient and that this efficiency is more dependent on the viability of transfused cells than the level of infectivity measured by IC

  13. New Gear Transmission Error Measurement System Designed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.

    2001-01-01

    The prime source of vibration and noise in a gear system is the transmission error between the meshing gears. Transmission error is caused by manufacturing inaccuracy, mounting errors, and elastic deflections under load. Gear designers often attempt to compensate for transmission error by modifying gear teeth. This is done traditionally by a rough "rule of thumb" or more recently under the guidance of an analytical code. In order for a designer to have confidence in a code, the code must be validated through experiment. NASA Glenn Research Center contracted with the Design Unit of the University of Newcastle in England for a system to measure the transmission error of spur and helical test gears in the NASA Gear Noise Rig. The new system measures transmission error optically by means of light beams directed by lenses and prisms through gratings mounted on the gear shafts. The amount of light that passes through both gratings is directly proportional to the transmission error of the gears. A photodetector circuit converts the light to an analog electrical signal. To increase accuracy and reduce "noise" due to transverse vibration, there are parallel light paths at the top and bottom of the gears. The two signals are subtracted via differential amplifiers in the electronics package. The output of the system is 40 mV/mm, giving a resolution in the time domain of better than 0.1 mm, and discrimination in the frequency domain of better than 0.01 mm. The new system will be used to validate gear analytical codes and to investigate mechanisms that produce vibration and noise in parallel axis gears.

  14. Modelling climate change and malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Parham, Paul E; Michael, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The impact of climate change on human health has received increasing attention in recent years, with potential impacts due to vector-borne diseases only now beginning to be understood. As the most severe vector-borne disease, with one million deaths globally in 2006, malaria is thought most likely to be affected by changes in climate variables due to the sensitivity of its transmission dynamics to environmental conditions. While considerable research has been carried out using statistical models to better assess the relationship between changes in environmental variables and malaria incidence, less progress has been made on developing process-based climate-driven mathematical models with greater explanatory power. Here, we develop a simple model of malaria transmission linked to climate which permits useful insights into the sensitivity of disease transmission to changes in rainfall and temperature variables. Both the impact of changes in the mean values of these key external variables and importantly temporal variation in these values are explored. We show that the development and analysis of such dynamic climate-driven transmission models will be crucial to understanding the rate at which P. falciparum and P. vivax may either infect, expand into or go extinct in populations as local environmental conditions change. Malaria becomes endemic in a population when the basic reproduction number R0 is greater than unity and we identify an optimum climate-driven transmission window for the disease, thus providing a useful indicator for determing how transmission risk may change as climate changes. Overall, our results indicate that considerable work is required to better understand ways in which global malaria incidence and distribution may alter with climate change. In particular, we show that the roles of seasonality, stochasticity and variability in environmental variables, as well as ultimately anthropogenic effects, require further study. The work presented here

  15. The transmission process: A combinatorial stochastic process for the evolution of transmission trees over networks.

    PubMed

    Sainudiin, Raazesh; Welch, David

    2016-12-07

    We derive a combinatorial stochastic process for the evolution of the transmission tree over the infected vertices of a host contact network in a susceptible-infected (SI) model of an epidemic. Models of transmission trees are crucial to understanding the evolution of pathogen populations. We provide an explicit description of the transmission process on the product state space of (rooted planar ranked labelled) binary transmission trees and labelled host contact networks with SI-tags as a discrete-state continuous-time Markov chain. We give the exact probability of any transmission tree when the host contact network is a complete, star or path network - three illustrative examples. We then develop a biparametric Beta-splitting model that directly generates transmission trees with exact probabilities as a function of the model parameters, but without explicitly modelling the underlying contact network, and show that for specific values of the parameters we can recover the exact probabilities for our three example networks through the Markov chain construction that explicitly models the underlying contact network. We use the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) to consistently infer the two parameters driving the transmission process based on observations of the transmission trees and use the exact MLE to characterize equivalence classes over the space of contact networks with a single initial infection. An exploratory simulation study of the MLEs from transmission trees sampled from three other deterministic and four random families of classical contact networks is conducted to shed light on the relation between the MLEs of these families with some implications for statistical inference along with pointers to further extensions of our models. The insights developed here are also applicable to the simplest models of "meme" evolution in online social media networks through transmission events that can be distilled from observable actions such as "likes", "mentions

  16. Cell culture models of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Béranger, F; Mangé, A; Solassol, J; Lehmann, S

    2001-11-30

    In this review, we describe the generation and use of cell culture models of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, also known as prion diseases. These models include chronically prion-infected cell lines, as well as cultures expressing variable amounts of wild-type, mutated, or chimeric prion proteins. These cell lines have been widely used to investigate the biology of both the normal and the pathological isoform of the prion protein. They have also contributed to the comprehension of the pathogenic processes occurring in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and in the development of new therapeutic approaches of these diseases.

  17. Wireless power transmission for battery charging

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, Chris; Li, Siqi; Nguyen, Trong-Duy; Wang, Junhua; Li, Jiangui; Li, Weihan; Xu, Jun

    2016-11-15

    A wireless power transmission system is provided for high power applications. The power transmission system is comprised generally of a charging unit configured to generate an alternating electromagnetic field and a receive unit configured to receive the alternating electromagnetic field from the charging unit. The charging unit includes a power source; an input rectifier; an inverter; and a transmit coil. The transmit coil has a spirangle arrangement segmented into n coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments. The receive unit includes a receive coil and an output rectifier. The receive coil also has a spirangle arrangement segmented into m coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments.

  18. Strategies for minimizing nosocomial measles transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Biellik, R. J.; Clements, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    As a result of the highly contagious nature of measles before the onset of rash, nosocomial transmission will remain a threat until the disease is eradicated. However, a number of strategies can minimize its nosocomial spread. It is therefore vital to maximize awareness among health care staff that an individual with measles can enter a health facility at any time and that a continual risk of the nosocomial transmission of measles exists. The present review makes two groups of recommendations: those which are generally applicable to all countries, and certain additional recommendations which may be suitable only for industrialized countries. PMID:9342896

  19. Microwave transmission system for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    A small total system model and a large subsystem element similar to those that could be eventually used for wireless power transmission experiments in space have been successfully demonstrated by NASA. The short range, relatively low-power laboratory system achieved a dc-to-dc transmission efficiency of 54%. A separate high-power-level receiving subsystem, tested over a 1.54-km range at Goldstone, California, has achieved the transportation of over 30 kW of dc output power. Both tests used 12-cm wavelength microwaves.

  20. Processor Reformats Data For Transmission In Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Glen F.

    1991-01-01

    Data-processor-and-buffer electronic system receives audio signals digitized in first standard format at relatively low data rate, rearranges data for transmission in bursts in second standard format at relatively high rate, stores second-format bursts, and releases them at higher rate upon request. Conceived for asynchronous, one-way transmission of digitized speech in outer-space communications, concept of system applied in other digital communication systems in which data transmitted from low-rate sources to high-rate sinks not synchronized with sources.

  1. Flux cloning in Josephson transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Gulevich, D R; Kusmartsev, F V

    2006-07-07

    We describe a novel effect related to the controlled birth of a single Josephson vortex. In this phenomenon, the vortex is created in a Josephson transmission line at a T-shaped junction. The "baby" vortex arises at the moment when a "mother" vortex propagating in the adjacent transmission line passes the T-shaped junction. In order to give birth to a new vortex, the mother vortex must have enough kinetic energy. Its motion can also be supported by an externally applied driving current. We determine the critical velocity and the critical driving current for the creation of the baby vortices and briefly discuss the potential applications of the found effect.

  2. A complex journey: transmission of microbial symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Monika; Bulgheresi, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The perpetuation of symbioses through host generations relies on symbiont transmission. Horizontally transmitted symbionts are taken up from the environment anew by each host generation, and vertically transmitted symbionts are most often transferred through the female germ line. Mixed modes also exist. In this Review we describe the journey of symbionts from the initial contact to their final residence. We provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms that mediate symbiont attraction and accumulation, interpartner recognition and selection, as well as symbiont confrontation with the host immune system. We also discuss how the two main transmission modes shape the evolution of the symbiotic partners. PMID:20157340

  3. Recursive integral method for transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ruihao; Struthers, Allan A.; Sun, Jiguang; Zhang, Ruming

    2016-12-01

    Transmission eigenvalue problems arise from inverse scattering theory for inhomogeneous media. These non-selfadjoint problems are numerically challenging because of a complicated spectrum. In this paper, we propose a novel recursive contour integral method for matrix eigenvalue problems from finite element discretizations of transmission eigenvalue problems. The technique tests (using an approximate spectral projection) if a region contains eigenvalues. Regions that contain eigenvalues are subdivided and tested recursively until eigenvalues are isolated with a specified precision. The method is fully parallel and requires no a priori spectral information. Numerical examples show the method is effective and robust.

  4. Transmission in graphene-topological insulator heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Beule, C.; Zarenia, M.; Partoens, B.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate scattering of the topological surface state of a three-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulator when graphene is deposited on the topological-insulator surface. Specifically, we consider the (111) surface of a Bi2Se3 -like topological insulator. We present a low-energy model for the graphene-topological insulator heterostructure and we calculate the transmission probability at zigzag and armchair edges of the deposited graphene, and the conductance through graphene nanoribbon barriers, and show that its features can be understood from antiresonances in the transmission probability.

  5. Transmission electron microscope studies of extraterrestrial materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    1995-01-01

    Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray spectrometry and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy are used to analyse carbon in interplanetary dust particles. Optical micrographs are shown depicting cross sections of the dust particles embedded in sulphur. Selected-area electron diffraction patterns are shown. Transmission Electron Microscope specimens of lunar soil were prepared using two methods: ion-milling and ultramicrotomy. A combination of high resolution TEM imaging and electron diffraction is used to characterize the opaque assemblages. The opaque assemblages analyzed in this study are dominated by ilmenite with lesser rutile and spinel exsolutions, and traces of Fe metal.

  6. Potential of laser for SPS power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    Research on the feasibility of using a laser subsystem as an additional option for the transmission of the satellite power system (STS) power is presented. Current laser work and predictions for future laser performance provide a level of confidence that the development of a laser power transmission system is technologically feasible in the time frame required to develop the SBS. There are significant economic advantages in lower ground distribution costs and a reduction of more than two orders of magnitude in real estate requirements for ground based receiving/conversion sites.

  7. Transmission of polarized light in skeletal muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuaib, Ali; Li, Xin; Yao, Gang

    2011-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to study polarized light transmission in fresh bovine skeletal muscle of varying thicknesses. Two-dimensional polarization-sensitive transmission images were acquired and analyzed using a numerical parametric fitting algorithm. The total transmittance intensity and degree-of-polarization were calculated for both central ballistic and surrounding scattering regions. Full Mueller matrix images were derived from the raw polarization images and the polar decomposition algorithm was applied to extract polarization parameters. The results suggest that polarized light propagation through skeletal muscle is affected by strong birefringence, diattenuation, multiple scattering induced depolarization and the sarcomere diffraction effect.

  8. Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

  9. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Hong-xiang; Yuan, Shou-qi; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2015-11-23

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices.

  10. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission program - A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drago, Raymond J.; Lenski, Joseph W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The work being conducted under the first phase of the joint Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission program is reviewed. The work includes the selection of the Tactical Tilt Rotor (TTR) system and the development plans for assessing advanced component technologies. The TTR drive-system arrangement is outlined, and the comparisons and trade studies of self-aligning bearingless planetary, split torque, and conventional single-stage planetary configurations are presented. The effects of transmission improvements are evaluated, and component development testing is discussed, including noise reduction by active force cancellation, hybrid bidirectional tapered roller bearings, and precision net forged spur gears.

  11. Flux Cloning in Josephson Transmission Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gulevich, D.R.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    2006-07-07

    We describe a novel effect related to the controlled birth of a single Josephson vortex. In this phenomenon, the vortex is created in a Josephson transmission line at a T-shaped junction. The 'baby' vortex arises at the moment when a 'mother' vortex propagating in the adjacent transmission line passes the T-shaped junction. In order to give birth to a new vortex, the mother vortex must have enough kinetic energy. Its motion can also be supported by an externally applied driving current. We determine the critical velocity and the critical driving current for the creation of the baby vortices and briefly discuss the potential applications of the found effect.

  12. EC Transmission Line Risk Identification and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to assist in evaluating and planning for the cost, schedule, and technical project risks associated with the delivery and operation of the EC (Electron cyclotron) transmission line system. In general, the major risks that are anticipated to be encountered during the project delivery phase associated with the implementation of the Procurement Arrangement for the EC transmission line system are associated with: (1) Undefined or changing requirements (e.g., functional or regulatory requirements) (2) Underperformance of prototype, first unit, or production components during testing (3) Unavailability of qualified vendors for critical components Technical risks associated with the design and operation of the system are also identified.

  13. 41 CFR 101-30.101-16 - Data transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data transmission. 101....1-General § 101-30.101-16 Data transmission. Data transmission means the operation of telecommunication equipment for the receipt and transmission of item identification and management data....

  14. 41 CFR 101-30.101-16 - Data transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Data transmission. 101-30....1-General § 101-30.101-16 Data transmission. Data transmission means the operation of telecommunication equipment for the receipt and transmission of item identification and management data....

  15. 41 CFR 101-30.101-16 - Data transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Data transmission. 101-30....1-General § 101-30.101-16 Data transmission. Data transmission means the operation of telecommunication equipment for the receipt and transmission of item identification and management data....

  16. 41 CFR 101-30.101-16 - Data transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Data transmission. 101-30....1-General § 101-30.101-16 Data transmission. Data transmission means the operation of telecommunication equipment for the receipt and transmission of item identification and management data....

  17. 41 CFR 101-30.101-16 - Data transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Data transmission. 101-30....1-General § 101-30.101-16 Data transmission. Data transmission means the operation of telecommunication equipment for the receipt and transmission of item identification and management data....

  18. 18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transmission... AND TARIFFS Transmission Infrastructure Investment Provisions § 35.35 Transmission infrastructure...) rate treatments for transmission of electric energy in interstate commerce by public utilities for...

  19. 47 CFR 80.90 - Suspension of transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suspension of transmission. 80.90 Section 80.90... transmission. Transmission must be suspended immediately upon detection of a transmitter malfunction and must remain suspended until the malfunction is corrected, except for transmission concerning the...

  20. 49 CFR 583.12 - Suppliers of engines and transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suppliers of engines and transmissions. 583.12... § 583.12 Suppliers of engines and transmissions. (a) For each engine or transmission for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests information, the supplier of such engine or transmission shall...

  1. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726... and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract... substation and transmission line construction (including minor modifications or improvements), exclusive...

  2. 49 CFR 583.12 - Suppliers of engines and transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Suppliers of engines and transmissions. 583.12... § 583.12 Suppliers of engines and transmissions. (a) For each engine or transmission for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests information, the supplier of such engine or transmission shall...

  3. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726... and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract... substation and transmission line construction (including minor modifications or improvements), exclusive...

  4. 18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transmission... AND TARIFFS Transmission Infrastructure Investment Provisions § 35.35 Transmission infrastructure...) rate treatments for transmission of electric energy in interstate commerce by public utilities for...

  5. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726... and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract... substation and transmission line construction (including minor modifications or improvements), exclusive...

  6. 49 CFR 583.12 - Suppliers of engines and transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suppliers of engines and transmissions. 583.12... § 583.12 Suppliers of engines and transmissions. (a) For each engine or transmission for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests information, the supplier of such engine or transmission shall...

  7. 49 CFR 583.12 - Suppliers of engines and transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suppliers of engines and transmissions. 583.12... § 583.12 Suppliers of engines and transmissions. (a) For each engine or transmission for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests information, the supplier of such engine or transmission shall...

  8. 47 CFR 80.90 - Suspension of transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suspension of transmission. 80.90 Section 80.90... transmission. Transmission must be suspended immediately upon detection of a transmitter malfunction and must remain suspended until the malfunction is corrected, except for transmission concerning the...

  9. 18 CFR 35.35 - Transmission infrastructure investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transmission... AND TARIFFS Transmission Infrastructure Investment Provisions § 35.35 Transmission infrastructure...) rate treatments for transmission of electric energy in interstate commerce by public utilities for...

  10. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726... and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract... substation and transmission line construction (including minor modifications or improvements), exclusive...

  11. 49 CFR 583.12 - Suppliers of engines and transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Suppliers of engines and transmissions. 583.12... § 583.12 Suppliers of engines and transmissions. (a) For each engine or transmission for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests information, the supplier of such engine or transmission shall...

  12. 47 CFR 80.90 - Suspension of transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Suspension of transmission. 80.90 Section 80.90... transmission. Transmission must be suspended immediately upon detection of a transmitter malfunction and must remain suspended until the malfunction is corrected, except for transmission concerning the...

  13. 49 CFR 192.706 - Transmission lines: Leakage surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. 192.706... Transmission lines: Leakage surveys. Leakage surveys of a transmission line must be conducted at intervals not exceeding 15 months, but at least once each calendar year. However, in the case of a transmission line...

  14. 7 CFR 1726.77 - Substation and transmission line construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Substation and transmission line construction. 1726... and Transmission Facilities § 1726.77 Substation and transmission line construction. (a) Contract... substation and transmission line construction (including minor modifications or improvements), exclusive...

  15. 47 CFR 80.90 - Suspension of transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension of transmission. 80.90 Section 80.90... transmission. Transmission must be suspended immediately upon detection of a transmitter malfunction and must remain suspended until the malfunction is corrected, except for transmission concerning the...

  16. 47 CFR 80.90 - Suspension of transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension of transmission. 80.90 Section 80.90... transmission. Transmission must be suspended immediately upon detection of a transmitter malfunction and must remain suspended until the malfunction is corrected, except for transmission concerning the...

  17. Transmission overhaul estimates for partial and full replacement at repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Lewicki, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    Timely transmission overhauls increase in-flight service reliability greater than the calculated design reliabilities of the individual aircraft transmission components. Although necessary for aircraft safety, transmission overhauls contribute significantly to aircraft expense. Predictions of a transmission's maintenance needs at the design stage should enable the development of more cost effective and reliable transmissions in the future. The frequency is estimated of overhaul along with the number of transmissions or components needed to support the overhaul schedule. Two methods based on the two parameter Weibull statistical distribution for component life are used to estimate the time between transmission overhauls. These methods predict transmission lives for maintenance schedules which repair the transmission with a complete system replacement or repair only failed components of the transmission. An example illustrates the methods.

  18. High-capacity dense space division multiplexing transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Miyamoto, Yutaka

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we review space division multiplexing (SDM) transmission experimental demonstrations and associated technologies. In past years, SDM achieved high capacity transmission through increased spatial multiplicity, and long-haul transmission through improved transmission performance. More recently, dense SDM (DSDM) with a large spatial multiplicity exceeding 30 was demonstrated with multicore technology. Various types of multicore and multimode SDM fibers, amplification, and spatial multi/demultiplexers have helped achieve high-capacity DSDM transmission.

  19. Design of synchromesh mechanism to optimization manual transmission's electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuri, Fuad; Sumarsono, Danardono A.; Adhitya, Muhammad; Siregar, Rolan

    2017-03-01

    Significant research has been attempted on a vehicle that lead to the development of transmission that can reduce energy consumption and improve vehicle efficiency. Consumers also expect safety, convenience, and competitive prices. Automatic transmission (AT), continuously variable transmission (CVT), and dual clutch transmission (DCT) is the latest transmission developed for road vehicle. From literature reviews that have been done that this transmission is less effective on electric cars which use batteries as a power source compared to type manual transmission, this is due to the large power losses when making gear changes. Zeroshift system is the transmission can do shift gears with no time (zero time). It was developed for the automatic manual transmission, and this transmission has been used on racing vehicles to eliminate deceleration when gear shift. Zeroshift transmission still use the clutch to change gear in which electromechanical be used to replace the clutch pedal. Therefore, the transmission is too complex for the transmission of electric vehicles, but its mechanism is considered very suitable to increase the transmission efficiency. From this idea, a new innovation design transmission will be created to electric car. The combination synchromesh with zeroshift mechanism for the manual transmission is a transmission that is ideal for improving the transmission efficiency. Installation synchromesh on zeroshift mechanism is expected to replace the function of the clutch MT, and assisted with the motor torque setting when to change gear. Additionally to consider is the weight of the transmission, ease of manufacturing, ease of installation with an electric motor, as well as ease of use by drivers is a matter that must be done to obtain a new transmission system that is suitable for electric cars.

  20. Planet position errors in planetary transmission: Effect on load sharing and transmission error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Miguel; Fernández, Alfonso; De-Juan, Ana; Sancibrián, Ramón; García, Pablo

    2013-03-01

    In this paper an advanced model of spur gear transmissions developed by the authors is used to study the influence of carrier planet pin hole position errors on the behaviour of the transmission. The model, initially conceived for external gear modeling, has been extended with internal meshing features, and thus increasing its capabilities to include planetary transmission modeling. The new features are presented, along with the summary of the model general approach. The parameters and characteristics of the planetary transmission used in the paper are introduced. The influence of carrier planet pin hole position errors on the planet load sharing is studied, and several static cases are given as examples in order to show the ability of the model. Tangential and radial planet pin hole position errors are considered independently, and the effect of the load level is also taken into account. It is also given attention to the effect on the transmission error of the transmission. Two different configurations for the planetary transmission are used, attending to the fixed or floating condition of the sun, and the differences in terms of load sharing ratio are shown.

  1. 32 CFR 1907.14 - Transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Challenges § 1907.14 Transmission. Authorized holders must direct challenge requests to the CIA as specified... of approved Top Secret facsimile machines or CIA-approved couriers. Further information is available from the CIA as well as corporate or other federal agency security departments. Action on Challenges...

  2. Horizontal transmission of streptococcus mutans in schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Ana M.; Liébana, Maria J.; Castillo, Francisca; Martín-Platero, Antonio; Liébana, José

    2012-01-01

    Objetive: The aim of this study was to analyze possible horizontal transmission patterns of S. mutans among 6-7-yr-old schoolchildren from the same class, identifying genotypes and their diversity and relationship with caries disease status. Study Design: Caries indexes and saliva mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts were recorded in 42 schoolchildren. Mutans streptococci colonies were identified by means of biochemical tests and all S. mutans strains were genotyped by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction. A child was considered free of S. mutans when it could not be isolated in 3 samples at 1-week intervals. Results: S. mutans was isolated in 30 schoolchildren: 20 having one genotype and 10 two genotypes. Higher mutans streptococci and caries index values were found in those with two genotypes. Five genotypes were isolated in more than 1 schoolchild and one of these was isolated in 3 schoolchildren. Our results suggest that horizontal transmission may take place. Conclusion: Schoolchildren aged 6-7 yrs may be the source of mutual transmission of S. mutans. Key words:Streptococcus mutans, Horizontal transmission, AP-PCR, genotyping PMID:22143733

  3. 40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Evaporative Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1228-85 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Evaporative Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1228-85 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Evaporative Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1228-85 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Evaporative Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1228-85 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as...

  7. 60 GHz Tapered Transmission Line Resonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-15

    DARPA TEAM program (contract no. DAAB07-02-1- L428 ), Motorola, and the UC-Micro program. 60 GHz Tapered Transmission Line Resonators by...0403427, wafer fabrication donation by STMicroelectronics, DARPA TEAM program (con- tract no. DAAB07-02-1- L428 ), Motorola, and the UC-Micro program. 1

  8. How financial transmission rights curb market power

    SciTech Connect

    Stoft, S.

    1997-06-01

    This paper demonstrates that financial transmission rights allow their owners to capture at least a portion, and sometimes all, of the congestion rents. This extends work in this area by Shmuel Oren which was limited to the case in which generators could not purchase financial transmission rights. One form of financial rights, Transmission Congestion Contracts (TCCs), is shown to be so effective in reducing market power that as few as two generators facing a demand curve with zero elasticity may be forced to sell at marginal cost. The extent to which market power is limited depends on the extent to which total generation capacity exceeds export capacity and on the size of individual generators. A relationship is derived that determines when TCCs will eliminate market power. In the case of a three line network, it is shown that the reduction in market power that can be accomplished with {open_quotes}active transmission rights{close_quotes} can also be accomplished with simple contracts for differences.

  9. Transmission characteristics of finite periodic dielectric waveguides.

    PubMed

    Luan, Pi-Gang; Chang, Kao-Der

    2006-04-17

    Transmission properties of the periodic dielectric waveguide (PDWG) formed by aligning a sequence of dielectric cylinders in air are investigated theoretically. Unlike photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs), light confinement in a PDWG is due to total internal reflection. Besides, the dispersion relation of the guided modes is strongly influenced by the dielectric periodicity along the waveguide. The band structure for the guided modes is calculated using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The first band is used for guiding light, which makes PDWG single mode. Transmission is calculated using the multiple scattering method for various S shaped PDWGs, each containing two opposite bends. When PDWG operates in appropriate frequency ranges, high transmission (above 90%) is observed, even if the radius of curvature of the bends is reduced to three wavelengths. This feature indicates that the guiding ability of PDWG can be made better than the conventional waveguide when used in an optical circuit. In addition, PDWG has the advantage that it can be bent to any arbitrary shape while still preserves the high transmission, avoiding the geometric restriction that PCWs are subject to.

  10. 47 CFR 97.113 - Prohibited transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... station, except an auxiliary, repeater, or space station, may automatically retransmit the radio signals... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.113 Prohibited transmissions. (a) No amateur station shall... rules; (3) Communications in which the station licensee or control operator has a pecuniary...

  11. 47 CFR 97.113 - Prohibited transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... station, except an auxiliary, repeater, or space station, may automatically retransmit the radio signals... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.113 Prohibited transmissions. (a) No amateur station shall... rules; (3) Communications in which the station licensee or control operator has a pecuniary...

  12. 47 CFR 97.113 - Prohibited transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... station, except an auxiliary, repeater, or space station, may automatically retransmit the radio signals... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.113 Prohibited transmissions. (a) No amateur station shall... rules; (3) Communications in which the station licensee or control operator has a pecuniary...

  13. 47 CFR 97.113 - Prohibited transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... station, except an auxiliary, repeater, or space station, may automatically retransmit the radio signals... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.113 Prohibited transmissions. (a) No amateur station shall... rules; (3) Communications in which the station licensee or control operator has a pecuniary...

  14. 47 CFR 97.113 - Prohibited transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... station, except an auxiliary, repeater, or space station, may automatically retransmit the radio signals... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.113 Prohibited transmissions. (a) No amateur station shall... rules; (3) Communications in which the station licensee or control operator has a pecuniary...

  15. 21 CFR 1311.170 - Transmission requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prescription that has been transmitted only if an intermediary or the designated pharmacy notifies a practitioner that an electronic prescription was not successfully delivered to the designated pharmacy. If this... during transmission between the practitioner and pharmacy. Any change to the content during...

  16. 21 CFR 1311.170 - Transmission requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... been transmitted only if an intermediary or the designated pharmacy notifies a practitioner that an electronic prescription was not successfully delivered to the designated pharmacy. If this occurs, the... during transmission between the practitioner and pharmacy. Any change to the content during...

  17. Measuring Collimator Infrared (IR) Spectral Transmission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    1. Collimated, Distance, and Flooded Test Configurations ..................................... 2 2. Collimator Transmission...collimator by directly viewing a large surface blackbody up close. Both methods flood -filled the pixels of interest on the focal plane and had the...collimator optics. 2   Figure 1. Collimated, Distance, and Flooded Test Configurations III. SETUP AND TESTING The collimator was investigated to

  18. 32 CFR 1802.14 - Transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmission. 1802.14 Section 1802.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Filing...

  19. 32 CFR 1802.14 - Transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmission. 1802.14 Section 1802.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Filing...

  20. 32 CFR 1802.14 - Transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transmission. 1802.14 Section 1802.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Filing...

  1. 32 CFR 1802.14 - Transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transmission. 1802.14 Section 1802.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Filing...

  2. 32 CFR 1802.14 - Transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transmission. 1802.14 Section 1802.14 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER CHALLENGES TO CLASSIFICATION OF DOCUMENTS BY AUTHORIZED HOLDERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 1.9 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 12958 Filing...

  3. Conceptual design for transmission line inspection robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalal, M. F. Abdul; Sahari, K. S. Mohamed; Anuar, A.; Mohd Arshad, A. D.; Idris, M. S.

    2013-06-01

    Power transmission line is used for power distribution purposes due to their cost effective measure compared to underlying cable. However, prolonged exposure to natural weather may cause fatigue stress to the lines as well as induce material failure. Therefore, periodical line inspection is considered uttermost important as a preventive measure to avoid power outage. However, transmission line inspection has always been a high risk and expensive work. Hazardous works that may harm operator as well as routine that requires precise handling can be performed by robots. Various types of robots have been designed and developed for line inspection but only perform well on a straight and continuous line. As these robots encounter an obstacle during the inspection, then the real problem in terms of robot stability and smooth operation arises. In this paper, conceptual design and evaluation for transmission line inspection robot is presented. The inspection robot mobile robot must be able to bypass or avoid obstacles as it travels along the power transmission line.

  4. Helical Gears Modified To Decrease Transmission Errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, R. F.; Coy, J. J.; Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.

    1993-01-01

    Tooth surfaces of helical gears modified, according to proposed design concept, to make gears more tolerant of misalignments and to improve distribution of contact stresses. Results in smaller transmission errors, with concomitant decreases in vibrations and noise and, possibly, increases in service lives.

  5. Extraordinary acoustic transmission mediated by Helmholtz resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koju, Vijay; Rowe, Ebony; Robertson, William M.

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate perfect transmission of sound through a rigid barrier embedded with Helmholtz resonators. The resonators are confined within a waveguide and they are oriented such that one neck protrudes onto each side of the barrier. Perfect sound transmission occurs even though the open area of the necks is less than 3% of the barrier area. Maximum transmission occurs at the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. Because the dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators are much smaller than the resonant wavelength, the transmission is independent of the direction of sound on the barrier and of the relative placement of the necks. Further, we show that the transmitted sound experiences a continuous phase transition of π radians as a function of frequency through resonance. In simulations of adjacent resonators with slightly offset resonance frequencies, the phase difference leads to destructive interference. By expanding the simulation to a linear array of tuned Helmholtz resonators we show that it is possible to create an acoustic lens. The ability of Helmholtz resonator arrays to manipulate the phase of a plane acoustic wave enables a new class of sonic beam-forming devices analogous to diffractive optics.

  6. Transmissible Tumors: Breaking the Cancer Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Ostrander, Elaine A.; Davis, Brian W.; Ostrander, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    Transmissible tumors are those that have transcended the bounds of their incipient hosts by evolving the ability to infect another individual through direct transfer of cancer cells; thus becoming parasitic cancer clones. Coitus, biting, and scratching are transfer mechanisms for the two primary species studied, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) and the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii). Canine transmissible venereal tumors (CTVT) are likely thousands of years old, and have successfully travelled from host to host around the world, while the Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is much younger and geographically localized. The dog tumor is not necessarily lethal, while the devil tumor has driven the population to near extinction. Transmissible tumors are uniform in that they have complex immunologic profiles, which allow them to escape immune detection by their hosts, sometimes for long periods of time. In this review we explore how transmissible tumors in CTVT, DFTD, and as well as the soft-shelled clam and Syrian hamster can advance studies tumor biology. PMID:26686413

  7. Digital compression algorithms for HDTV transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adkins, Kenneth C.; Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Bibyk, Steven B.

    1990-01-01

    Digital compression of video images is a possible avenue for high definition television (HDTV) transmission. Compression needs to be optimized while picture quality remains high. Two techniques for compression the digital images are explained and comparisons are drawn between the human vision system and artificial compression techniques. Suggestions for improving compression algorithms through the use of neural and analog circuitry are given.

  8. HVDC transmission: a path to the future?

    SciTech Connect

    Teichler, Stephen L.; Levitine, Ilia

    2010-05-15

    Direct current transmission has been the poor stepchild of the U.S. electric industry. Although early-generation plants were based on DC technology, it was soon deemed uneconomical to transmit electricity over long distances, but it now appears poised for a change. Both the increasing technical potential and changing economics of HVDC lines promise a growing role in the future. (author)

  9. Some Legal Problems of Satellite Transmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Fred S.

    Now that the technical aspects of satellite transmission have been solved, there remain the more complex and difficult problems of maintaining both order in outer space and the rights of nations and individuals as these rights may be affected by broadcasts transmitted by satellite stations. These broadcasts, whether beamed to a ground station or…

  10. Terahertz homodyne self-mixing transmission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, Till Breuer, Stefan; Blömer, Dominik; Patel, Sanketkumar; Schlosser, Malte; Birkl, Gerhard; Elsäßer, Wolfgang; Simonetta, Marcello; Deninger, Anselm; Giuliani, Guido

    2015-02-09

    A compact homodyne self-mixing terahertz spectroscopy concept is experimentally investigated and confirmed by calculations. This method provides amplitude and phase information of the terahertz radiation emitted by a photoconductive antenna in a transmission experiment where a rotating chopper wheel serves as a feedback mirror. As a proof-of-principle experiment the frequency-dependent refractive index of Teflon is measured.

  11. Introduction to Data Transmission for Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallenbach, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    An introduction is presented to data transmission technology and networks for information retrieval purposes. Data signals are analyzed, modulation techniques are discussed, communication procedures between terminals and the central processing unit are surveyed, and possible network configurations are considered. (Author/PF)

  12. 77 FR 26714 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... implementation plan and Violation Risk Factors (VRFs) and Violation Severity Levels (VSLs), as well as five new... must specify a low-voltage level and a maximum length of time that transient voltages may remain below that level. This requirement will establish more robust transmission planning for organizations...

  13. Methods and systems for micro transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Stalford, Harold L

    2014-12-23

    Methods and systems for micro transmissions for a micro machine may comprise an input shaft assembly coupled to a micro actuator, an output shaft assembly coupled to a micro shaft, and one or more power conversion elements operable to convert a first type of movement from the micro actuator into a second, disparate type of movement for the micro shaft.

  14. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... communications not addressed to a particular station or stations. This provision does not apply to...

  15. Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.

    1996-01-01

    Uses national longitudinal data to explain the intergenerational transmission of divorce. Findings suggest that parental divorce elevates the risk of offspring divorce by increasing the likelihood that offspring exhibit behaviors that interfere with the maintenance of mutually rewarding intimate relationships. Offers four hypotheses for future…

  16. HIV-1 Transmission Networks Across South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Mi Young; Wertheim, Joel O; Kim, Woo Joo; Kim, Shin-Woo; Lee, Jin Soo; Ann, Hea Won; Jeon, Yongduk; Ahn, Jin Young; Song, Je Eun; Oh, Dong Hyun; Kim, Yong Chan; Kim, Eun Jin; Jung, In Young; Kim, Moo Hyun; Jeong, Wooyoung; Jeong, Su Jin; Ku, Nam Su; Kim, June Myung; Smith, Davey M; Choi, Jun Yong

    2017-03-27

    Molecular epidemiology can help clarify the properties and dynamics of HIV-1 transmission networks in both global and regional scales. We studied 143 HIV-1-infected individuals recruited from four medical centers of three cities in South Korea between April 2013 and May 2014. HIV-1 env V3 sequence data were generated (337-793 bp) and analyzed using a pairwise distance-based clustering approach to infer putative transmission networks. Participants whose viruses were ≤2.0% divergent according to Tamura-Nei 93 genetic distance were defined as clustering. We collected demographic, risk, and clinical data and analyzed these data in relation to clustering. Among 143 participants, we identified nine putative transmission clusters of different sizes (range 2-4 participants). The reported risk factor of participants were concordant in only one network involving two participants, that is, both individuals reported homosexual sex as their risk factor. The participants in the other eight networks did not report concordant risk factors, although they were phylogenetically linked. About half of the participants refused to report their risk factor. Overall, molecular epidemiology provides more information to understand local transmission networks and the risks associated with these networks.

  17. LANDSAT D data transmission and dissemination study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An assessment of the quantity of data processed by the system is discussed investigating the various methods for transmission within the system. Various methods of data storage are considered. It is concluded that the entire processing system should be located in White Sands, New Mexico.

  18. Plasmon transmission through excitonic subwavelength gaps.

    PubMed

    Sukharev, Maxim; Nitzan, Abraham

    2016-04-14

    We study the transfer of electromagnetic energy across a subwavelength gap separating two co-axial metal nanorods. In the absence of spacer in the gap separating the rods, the system exhibits strong coupling behavior between longitudinal plasmons in the two rods. The nature and magnitude of this coupling are studied by varying various geometrical parameters. As a function of frequency, the transmission is dominated by a split longitudinal plasmon peak. The two hybrid modes are the dipole-like "bonding" mode characterized by a peak intensity in the gap and a quadrupole-like "antibonding" mode whose amplitude vanishes at the gap center. When the length of one rod is varied, this mode spectrum exhibits the familiar anti-crossing behavior that depends on the coupling strength determined by the gap width. When off-resonant 2-level emitters are placed in the gap, almost no effect on the frequency dependent transmission is observed. In contrast, when the molecular system is resonant with the plasmonic line shape, the transmission is strongly modified, showing characteristics of strong exciton-plasmon coupling. Most strongly modified is the transmission near the lower frequency "bonding" plasmon mode. The presence of resonant molecules in the gap affects not only the molecule-field interaction but also the spatial distribution of the field intensity and the electromagnetic energy flux across the junction.

  19. Plasmon transmission through excitonic subwavelength gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukharev, Maxim; Nitzan, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    We study the transfer of electromagnetic energy across a subwavelength gap separating two co-axial metal nanorods. In the absence of spacer in the gap separating the rods, the system exhibits strong coupling behavior between longitudinal plasmons in the two rods. The nature and magnitude of this coupling are studied by varying various geometrical parameters. As a function of frequency, the transmission is dominated by a split longitudinal plasmon peak. The two hybrid modes are the dipole-like "bonding" mode characterized by a peak intensity in the gap and a quadrupole-like "antibonding" mode whose amplitude vanishes at the gap center. When the length of one rod is varied, this mode spectrum exhibits the familiar anti-crossing behavior that depends on the coupling strength determined by the gap width. When off-resonant 2-level emitters are placed in the gap, almost no effect on the frequency dependent transmission is observed. In contrast, when the molecular system is resonant with the plasmonic line shape, the transmission is strongly modified, showing characteristics of strong exciton-plasmon coupling. Most strongly modified is the transmission near the lower frequency "bonding" plasmon mode. The presence of resonant molecules in the gap affects not only the molecule-field interaction but also the spatial distribution of the field intensity and the electromagnetic energy flux across the junction.

  20. Stabilizing Fiber-Optic Transmission Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, G. F.; Lau, K. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Voltage-controlled optical phase shifter is key. Optical phase shifter stabilizes propagation delay of fiber-optic transmission line by compensating for temperature and pressure effects. Applicable to phased array antenna systems and very-long-baseline interferometer distribution systems.

  1. Laser power transmission concepts for Martian applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, R. J.; Conway, E. J.; Meador, W. E.; Humes, D. H.

    1989-01-01

    Long-term, highly reliable, flexible power will be required to support many diverse activities on Mars and for rapid development of the Mars environment. The potential of laser power transmission for supporting science, materials processing, transportation, and human habitats is discussed. Some advantageous locations for laser power stations in Mars orbit are developed.

  2. Glutamate Transmission Enhancement for Treatment of PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    sessions or more of approximately 1h each to achieve significant beneficial effects. Thus, treatments that enhance the efficacy of extinction therapies...term medication. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that glutamate transmission in the amygdala is necessary for long term extinction of...fearmemories. Furthermore, d-cycloserine (DCS), a partial NMDA receptor agonist acting on the glycine modulator site, significantly enhances fear extinction

  3. Termination for superconducting power transmission systems

    DOEpatents

    Forsyth, E.B.; Jensen, J.E.

    1975-08-26

    This patent relates to a cold, electrical gradient, terminal section for a superconducting cable for alternating current power transmission. A cold electrical gradient section filled with a gaseous coolant acting as an insulator is provided in series with a separate thermal gradient section. (auth)

  4. Intrinsic modulators of auditory thalamocortical transmission.

    PubMed

    Lee, Charles C; Sherman, S Murray

    2012-05-01

    Neurons in layer 4 of the primary auditory cortex receive convergent glutamatergic inputs from thalamic and cortical projections that activate different groups of postsynaptic glutamate receptors. Of particular interest in layer 4 neurons are the Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), which hyperpolarize neurons postsynaptically via the downstream opening of GIRK channels. This pronounced effect on membrane conductance could influence the neuronal processing of synaptic inputs, such as those from the thalamus, essentially modulating information flow through the thalamocortical pathway. To examine how Group II mGluRs affect thalamocortical transmission, we used an in vitro slice preparation of the auditory thalamocortical pathways in the mouse to examine synaptic transmission under conditions where Group II mGluRs were activated. We found that both pre- and post-synaptic Group II mGluRs are involved in the attenuation of thalamocortical EPSP/Cs. Thus, thalamocortical synaptic transmission is suppressed via the presynaptic reduction of thalamocortical neurotransmitter release and the postsynaptic inhibition of the layer 4 thalamorecipient neurons. This could enable the thalamocortical pathway to autoregulate transmission, via either a gating or gain control mechanism, or both.

  5. Transmission of News in the Turkish Village.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroldsen, Edwin O.; Blake, Reed H.

    In the traditional Turkish village, the coffee house acts as a modern-day parish pump in news transmission. Within the coffee house, there is evidence of a two-step flow of communication. The role of the influential person in this study is the same as that in other studies: as a mediator and interpreter of news. In social characteristics, however,…

  6. 32 CFR 1907.14 - Transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Challenges § 1907.14 Transmission. Authorized holders must direct challenge requests to the CIA as specified... of approved Top Secret facsimile machines or CIA-approved couriers. Further information is available from the CIA as well as corporate or other federal agency security departments. Action on Challenges...

  7. 32 CFR 1907.14 - Transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Challenges § 1907.14 Transmission. Authorized holders must direct challenge requests to the CIA as specified... of approved Top Secret facsimile machines or CIA-approved couriers. Further information is available from the CIA as well as corporate or other federal agency security departments. Action on Challenges...

  8. 32 CFR 1907.14 - Transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Challenges § 1907.14 Transmission. Authorized holders must direct challenge requests to the CIA as specified... of approved Top Secret facsimile machines or CIA-approved couriers. Further information is available from the CIA as well as corporate or other federal agency security departments. Action on Challenges...

  9. 32 CFR 1907.14 - Transmission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Challenges § 1907.14 Transmission. Authorized holders must direct challenge requests to the CIA as specified... of approved Top Secret facsimile machines or CIA-approved couriers. Further information is available from the CIA as well as corporate or other federal agency security departments. Action on Challenges...

  10. Noise transmission by viscoelastic sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical study on low frequency noise transmission into rectangular enclosures by viscoelastic sandwich panels is presented. Soft compressible cores with dilatational modes and hard incompressible cores with dilatational modes neglected are considered as limiting cases of core stiffness. It is reported that these panels can effect significant noise reduction.

  11. Progressive Transmission and Compression of Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, A. B.

    1996-01-01

    We describe an image data compression strategy featuring progressive transmission. The method exploits subband coding and arithmetic coding for compression. We analyze the Laplacian probability density, which closely approximates the statistics of individual subbands, to determine a strategy for ordering the compressed subband data in a way that improves rate-distortion performance. Results are presented for a test image.

  12. Extraordinary acoustic transmission mediated by Helmholtz resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Koju, Vijay; Rowe, Ebony; Robertson, William M.

    2014-07-15

    We demonstrate perfect transmission of sound through a rigid barrier embedded with Helmholtz resonators. The resonators are confined within a waveguide and they are oriented such that one neck protrudes onto each side of the barrier. Perfect sound transmission occurs even though the open area of the necks is less than 3% of the barrier area. Maximum transmission occurs at the resonant frequency of the Helmholtz resonator. Because the dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators are much smaller than the resonant wavelength, the transmission is independent of the direction of sound on the barrier and of the relative placement of the necks. Further, we show that the transmitted sound experiences a continuous phase transition of π radians as a function of frequency through resonance. In simulations of adjacent resonators with slightly offset resonance frequencies, the phase difference leads to destructive interference. By expanding the simulation to a linear array of tuned Helmholtz resonators we show that it is possible to create an acoustic lens. The ability of Helmholtz resonator arrays to manipulate the phase of a plane acoustic wave enables a new class of sonic beam-forming devices analogous to diffractive optics.

  13. NASA helicopter transmission system technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, E. V.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Helicopter Transmission System Technology Program is to improve specific mechanical components and the technology for combining these into advanced drive systems to make helicopters more viable and cost competitive for commerical applications. The history, goals, and elements of the program are discussed.

  14. Pneumococcal Disease: Risk Factors and Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... With conditions that weaken the immune system (HIV/AIDS, cancer, or damaged/absent spleen) With cochlear implants or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks (escape of the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord) Who smoke cigarettes Transmission Pneumococcal bacteria spread from person-to-person by ...

  15. Island Concept Electrically Variable Transmission (EVT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    all-wheel-drive (AWD) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design approach for extreme off- road dynamic performances focusing primarily on the powertrain...technologies (such as electric traction, powertrain hybridization, and electrically variable transmission (EVT) concepts) can provide for ground vehicles ...the benefits, and potential limitations of the new technologies. Just as one cannot expect to use a “conventional” vehicle with electric

  16. Transmission line environmental assessment guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.; Pentecost, E.; Muzzarelli, J.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1939, U.S. utility companies have been required to obtain a Presidential Permit to construct electric transmission lines that cross a U.S. border and connect with a foreign utility. The purpose of this document is to provide Presidential Permit applicants with two types of guidance: (1) on the type of environmental and project descriptive information needed to assess the potential impacts of the proposed and alternative actions and (2) on compliance with applicable federal and state regulations. The main three chapters present information on the purpose and content of this document (Chapter 1); legislative, regulatory, and consultation requirements for transmission line interconnect projects (Chapter 2); and identification of basic transmission system design parameters and environmental data requirements for analysis of potential impacts of the proposed action (Chapter 3). Chapter 3 also includes information on possible techniques or measures to mitigate impacts. Appendix A presents an overview of NEPA requirements and DOE`s implementing procedures. Appendix B summarizes information on legislation that may be applicable to transmission line projects proposed in Presidential Permit applications.

  17. Flooding in ephemeral streams: incorporating transmission losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stream flow in semiarid lands commonly occurs as a form of flash floods in dry ephemeral stream beds. The goal of this research is to couple hydrological and hydraulic models treats channel transmission losses and test the methodology in the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW). For h...

  18. Wolbachia transmission dynamics in Formica wood ants

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The role of Wolbachia endosymbionts in shaping the mitochondrial diversity of their arthropod host depends on the effects they have on host reproduction and on the mode of transmission of the bacteria. We have compared the sequence diversity of wsp (Wolbachia surface protein gene) and the host mtDNA in a group of Formica ant species that have diverged approximately 0.5 million years ago (MYA). The aim was to study the relationship of Wolbachia and its ant hosts in terms of vertical and horizontal transmission of the bacteria. Results All studied ant species were doubly infected with two Wolbachia strains (wFex1 and wFex4) all over their geographical distribution area in Eurasia. The most common haplotypes of these strains were identical with strains previously described from a more distantly related Formica ant, with an estimated divergence time of 3.5 – 4 MYA. Some strain haplotypes were associated to the same or closely related mtDNA haplotypes as expected under vertical transmission. However, in several cases the wsp haplotypes coexisted with distant mtDNA haplotypes, a pattern which is more compatible with horizontal transmission of the bacteria. Conclusion Two lines of evidence suggest that the sharing of Wolbachia strains by all F. rufa species is rather due to horizontal than vertical transmission. First, the fact that endosymbiont strains identical to those of F. rufa ants have been found in another species that diverged 3.5–4 MYA strongly suggests that horizontal transfer can and does occur between Formica ants. Second, the frequent sharing of identical Wolbachia strains by distant mitochondrial lineages within the F. rufa group further shows that horizontal transmission has occurred repeatedly. Nevertheless, our dataset also provides some evidence for longer-term persistence of infection, indicating that Wolbachia infection within this host clade has been shaped by both horizontal and vertical transmission of symbionts. The fact that all

  19. Bell Helicopter Advanced Rotocraft Transmission (ART) program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Zachary S.

    1995-06-01

    Future rotorcraft transmissions require key emerging material and component technologies using advanced and innovative design practices in order to meet the requirements for a reduced weight to power ratio, a decreased noise level, and a substantially increased reliability. The specific goals for the future rotorcraft transmission when compared with a current state-of-the-art transmission (SOAT) are: (1) a 25 percent weight reduction; (2) a 10 dB reduction in the transmitted noise level; and (3) a system reliability of 5000 hours mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) for the transmission. This report summarizes the work conducted by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. to achieve these goals under the Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program from 1988 to 1995. The reference aircraft selected by BHTI for the ART program was the Tactical Tiltrotor which is a 17,000 lb gross weight aircraft. A tradeoff study was conducted comparing the ART with a Selected SOAT. The results showed the ART to be 29 percent lighter and up to 13 dB quieter with a calculated MTBR in excess of 5000 hours. The results of the following high risk component and material tests are also presented: (1) sequential meshing high contact ratio planetary with cantilevered support posts; (2) thin dense chrome plated M50 NiL double row spherical roller planetary bearings; (3) reduced kinematic error and increased bending strength spiral bevel gears; (4) high temperature WE43 magnesium housing evaluation and coupon corrosion tests; (5) flexure fatigue tests of precision forged coupons simulating precision forged gear teeth; and (6) flexure fatigue tests of plasma carburized coupons simulating plasma carburized gear teeth.

  20. Review Article: Influenza Transmission on Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Adlhoch, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Air travel is associated with the spread of influenza through infected passengers and potentially through in-flight transmission. Contact tracing after exposure to influenza is not performed systematically. We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the evidence for influenza transmission aboard aircraft. Methods: Using PubMed and EMBASE databases, we identified and critically appraised identified records to assess the evidence of such transmission to passengers seated in close proximity to the index cases. We also developed a bias assessment tool to evaluate the quality of evidence provided in the retrieved studies. Results: We identified 14 peer-reviewed publications describing contact tracing of passengers after possible exposure to influenza virus aboard an aircraft. Contact tracing during the initial phase of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic was described in 11 publications. The studies describe the follow-up of 2,165 (51%) of 4,252 traceable passengers. Altogether, 163 secondary cases were identified resulting in an overall secondary attack rate among traced passengers of 7.5%. Of these secondary cases, 68 (42%) were seated within two rows of the index case. Conclusion: We found an overall moderate quality of evidence for transmission of influenza virus aboard an aircraft. The major limiting factor was the comparability of the studies. A majority of secondary cases was identified at a greater distance than two rows from the index case. A standardized approach for initiating, conducting, and reporting contact tracing could help to increase the evidence base for better assessing influenza transmission aboard aircraft. PMID:27253070