Science.gov

Sample records for welfare equipment chromosome

  1. Italy-Japan international project-based learning for developing human resources using design of welfare equipment as a subject.

    PubMed

    Hanafusa, A; Komeda, T; Ito, K; Zobel, P Beomonte

    2015-08-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) is effective for developing human resources of young students. The design of welfare equipment, such as wheelchairs and gait assistive devices, is taken as the subject in this study because these devices must be fit to their environment, users, and method of use; students must consider the circumstances of each country concerned. The program commenced in 2012 at L'Aquila, Italy, and the Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan and has been continuing for three years. Students were divided into four groups and discussions were held on how to adapt the equipment to the user and environment. After discussion, they designed and simulated a model of the equipment using CAD. Finally, they presented their designs to each other. Through the program, students had fruitful discussions, exchanged ideas from different cultures, and learned from each other. Furthermore, friendships among the students were nurtured. It is believed that the objective of the program was satisfactorily accomplished.

  2. Chromosome

    MedlinePlus

    Chromosomes are structures found in the center (nucleus) of cells that carry long pieces of DNA. DNA ... is the building block of the human body. Chromosomes also contain proteins that help DNA exist in ...

  3. [Survey of analytical work done for drugs at the emergency and critical care centers equipped with high-performance instruments provided by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (at present: Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare) in fiscal 1998].

    PubMed

    Hori, Yasushi; Iseki, Ken; Suzuki, Koichiro; Namera, Akira; Fukumoto, Mariko; Fuke, Chiaki; Mori, Hiromi; Soma, Kazui

    2010-09-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 73 emergency and critical care centers where high-performance instruments for analyzing drugs and chemicals were provided by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (currently Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare) in fiscal 1998. 52 centers (71.2%) responded to the questionnaire. Among these, the instruments have been in operation at 36 centers. This means that analytical work has been performed in at least 49.3% (36/73) of facilities with the instruments. A positive correlation was observed between the annual number of patients tested for drugs and chemicals and analytical work hours at the 36 facilities. The results indicated that 150 cases may be tested for drugs and chemicals in a year on the condition that 100 hours a month of analytical work are secured, and 200 or more cases may be tested if 200 hours a month are secured. As for the running costs required for the operation of the instruments, the instrument maintenance and repair cost was estimated at 2 million yen a year, and it was calculated that 100 cases could be handled with a maximum annual supply expense of 1 million yen and 150 cases could be handled with a maximum annual supply expense of 2 million yen. These results suggest that the instrument running cost would be fully covered at nationwide emergency and critical care centers if the additional 5,000 NHI points (1 point = 10 yen) for hospital admission, which is approved for advanced emergency and critical care centers, were applicable to all facilities. Among the 36 facilities, the implementation of analysis varied for each of the 15 toxic substances recommended for analysis by the Japanese Society for Clinical Toxicology. Further research will be necessary to investigate and assess the frequency of analysis requests and combination of simple qualitative and instrumental analyses for each of the 15 substances, in order to evaluate the approach to the 15 substances in analytical work.

  4. 45 CFR 2543.34 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment. 2543.34 Section 2543.34 Public Welfare... Requirements Property Standards § 2543.34 Equipment. (a) Title to equipment acquired by a recipient with... not use equipment acquired with Federal funds to provide services to non-Federal outside...

  5. 45 CFR 74.34 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment. 74.34 Section 74.34 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.34 Equipment. (a) Title to equipment... section. (b)(1) The recipient shall not use equipment acquired with HHS funds to provide services to...

  6. 45 CFR 92.32 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment. 92.32 Section 92.32 Public Welfare..., Property, and Subawards § 92.32 Equipment. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest upon acquisition...

  7. Family welfare.

    PubMed

    Sinha, N K

    1992-01-01

    Between 1901-1921, India gained 12.9 million people because mortality remained high. The death rate fell between 1921-1951, but birth rates remained the same. Therefore 110 million people were added--2 times the population increase between 1891-1921. Between 1951-1981, the population increased to 324 million. Socioeconomic development was responsible for most of the downward trend in the birth rate during the 20th century. Even though large families were the norm in early India, religious leaders encouraged small family size. The 1st government family planning clinics in the world opened in Mysore and Bangalore in 1930. Right before Independence, the Bhore Committee made recommendations to reduce population growth such as increasing the age of marriage for girls. Since 1951 there has been a change in measures and policies geared towards population growth with each of the 7 5-Year Plans because policy makers applied what they learned from each previous plan. The 1st 5-Year Plan emphasized the need to understand what factors contribute to population growth. It also integrated family planning services into health services of hospitals and health centers. The government was over zealous in its implementation of the sterilization program (2nd 5-Year Plan, 1956-1961), however, which hurt family planning programs for many years. As of early 1992, sterilization, especially tubectomy, remained the most popular family planning method, however. The 7th 5-Year Plan changed its target of reaching a Net Reproductive Rate of 1 by 2001 to 2006-2011. It set a goal of 100% immunization coverage by 1990 but it did not occur. In 1986, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare planned to make free contraceptives available in urban and rural areas and to involve voluntary organizations. The government needs to instill measures to increase women's status, women's literacy, and age of marriage as well as to eliminate poverty, ensure old age security, and ensure child survival and

  8. Zoo animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Kohn, B

    1994-03-01

    The history of zoo animal welfare legislation extends back to 1876, and is often tied to general animal welfare regulations. As knowledge and societal values have changed, so have the focus of zoos and the regulations governing them. Today, the issues involved in zoo animal welfare are complex and broad-based. Building on the basic welfare tenets of adequate feed, water, shelter, sanitation and veterinary care, current issues include the following: handling and training of captive animals, psychological well-being and environmental enrichment, enclosure design, species preservation, environmental and conservation issues, captive-breeding programmes. Complicating the matter further, government regulations try to assimilate all aspects of zoo animal welfare into the laws to provide humane care and handling for all species concerned. Zoo animal welfare will remain a challenging area, as increasing demands are placed on zoos and regulatory agencies to manage this diminishing resource.

  9. Welfare in horse breeding

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. L. H.; Sandøe, P.

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

  10. The Child Welfare Cartel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  11. Jobs, Welfare and Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einbinder, Susan; And Others

    This report provides objective information about the relationship of poverty, welfare, and homelessness to California's regional economy and about the design of programs that help people in poverty build working lives. California does not have enough jobs for its workforce, and welfare caseloads are consequently determined by the economy. The…

  12. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  13. Chromosomal Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... 150 babies is born with a chromosomal condition. Down syndrome is an example of a chromosomal condition. Because ... all pregnant women be offered prenatal tests for Down syndrome and other chromosomal conditions. A screening test is ...

  14. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Ben Sassi, Neila; Averós, Xavier; Estevez, Inma

    2016-01-01

    Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability. PMID:27727169

  15. 45 CFR 2541.320 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment. 2541.320 Section 2541.320 Public... Changes, Property and Subawards § 2541.320 Equipment. (a) Title. Subject to the obligations and conditions set forth in this section, title to equipment acquired under a grant or subgrant will vest...

  16. Getting off Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, F. Nelson; Llamas, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Describes Massachusetts' Employment and Training Choices Program that seeks to move people from welfare dependency to economic self-sufficiency. Program components are career assessment and planning, training and job placement, educational services, and support services. (JOW)

  17. Environmental and Welfare Effects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View English or Spanish-language version of a fact sheet that highlights the key effects that support the EPA’s determination that current and future concentrations of greenhouse gases endanger public welfare.

  18. Marker chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kiran Prabhaker; Belogolovkin, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Marker chromosomes are a morphologically heterogeneous group of structurally abnormal chromosomes that pose a significant challenge in prenatal diagnosis. Phenotypes associated with marker chromosomes are highly variable and range from normal to severely abnormal. Clinical outcomes are very difficult to predict when marker chromosomes are detected prenatally. In this review, we outline the classification, etiology, cytogenetic characterization, and clinical consequences of marker chromosomes, as well as practical approaches to prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  19. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  20. Welfare of competition horses.

    PubMed

    Atock, M A; Williams, R B

    1994-03-01

    In the large majority of cases and circumstances, horses benefit from their association with man. However, abuse of horses can occur, due to neglect or through the pressures of competition. The welfare of all animals, including competition horses, has become increasingly topical over the past ten years. Equestrian sport is coming under closer public scrutiny due to reports of apparent abuse. The bodies responsible for regulating these sports strenuously endeavour to protect the welfare of horses which compete under their rules and regulations. The Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI: International Equestrian Federation) is the sole authority for all international events in dressage, show-jumping, three-day event, driving, endurance riding and vaulting. The FEI rules illustrate the ways in which the welfare of competing horses is safeguarded.

  1. Child Welfare Policy Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document conveys mandatory policies that have their basis in Federal Law and/or program regulations. It also provides interpretations of Federal Statutes and program regulations initiated by inquiries from State Child Welfare agencies or Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Regional Offices. The manual replaces the Children's…

  2. Children and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the…

  3. Welfare Reform and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  4. Welfare. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.; Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The opinions expressed in the selections in each series title examine many different aspects of a single issue. Detractors of the welfare system have long argued that the system promotes dependency. They…

  5. 45 CFR 95.707 - Equipment management and disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment management and disposition. 95.707... PROGRAMS) Equipment Acquired Under Public Assistance Programs § 95.707 Equipment management and disposition. (a) An item of equipment is subject to the property rules in subpart O of 45 CFR part 74 if the...

  6. Cortisol and finfish welfare.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Tim; Yildiz, Hijran Yavuzcan; López-Olmeda, Jose; Spedicato, Maria Teresa; Tort, Lluis; Øverli, Øyvind; Martins, Catarina I M

    2012-02-01

    Previous reviews of stress, and the stress hormone cortisol, in fish have focussed on physiology, due to interest in impacts on aquaculture production. Here, we discuss cortisol in relation to fish welfare. Cortisol is a readily measured component of the primary (neuroendocrine) stress response and is relevant to fish welfare as it affects physiological and brain functions and modifies behaviour. However, we argue that cortisol has little value if welfare is viewed purely from a functional (or behavioural) perspective-the cortisol response itself is a natural, adaptive response and is not predictive of coping as downstream impacts on function and behaviour are dose-, time- and context-dependent and not predictable. Nevertheless, we argue that welfare should be considered in terms of mental health and feelings, and that stress in relation to welfare should be viewed as psychological, rather than physiological. We contend that cortisol can be used (with caution) as a tractable indicator of how fish perceive (and feel about) their environment, psychological stress and feelings in fish. Cortisol responses are directly triggered by the brain and fish studies do indicate cortisol responses to psychological stressors, i.e., those with no direct physicochemical action. We discuss the practicalities of using cortisol to ask the fish themselves how they feel about husbandry practices and the culture environment. Single time point measurements of cortisol are of little value in assessing the stress level of fish as studies need to account for diurnal and seasonal variations, and environmental and genetic factors. Areas in need of greater clarity for the use of cortisol as an indicator of fish feelings are the separation of (physiological) stress from (psychological) distress, the separation of chronic stress from acclimation, and the interactions between feelings, cortisol, mood and behaviour.

  7. Welfare Policies and Black Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trader, Harriet Peat

    1979-01-01

    The family is an important resource for minority persons, and many minority families depend on public welfare for their survival. This article offers a compact analysis of how welfare policies often work to the disadvantage of poor Black families. (Author)

  8. The Gentrification of Public Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dattalo, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Notes that public welfare agencies are serving middle-class Americans. Examines six factors that may contribute to gentrification of public welfare agencies: growing demands for services from nontraditional clients; restructuring of public welfare's service delivery system; declining resources; increasing emphasis on child protective services;…

  9. Reforming Welfare in America. Book Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Edward T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three books on welfare reform: "The Poverty of Welfare Reform" (Joel F. Handler); "The Politics of Welfare Reform" (Donald F. Norris, Lyke Thompson, editors); and "Living on the Edge: The Realities of Welfare in America" (Mark Robert Rank). (JOW)

  10. Chromosomal Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists have shown that a genetic element on one chromosome may direct gene activity on another. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) researchers report that a multitasking master-control region appears to over-see both a set of its own genes and a related gene on a nearby chromosome. The findings reinforce the growing importance of location…

  11. Modeling Chromosomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Learning about chromosomes is standard fare in biology classrooms today. However, students may find it difficult to understand the relationships among the "genome", "chromosomes", "genes", a "gene locus", and "alleles". In the simple activity described in this article, which follows the 5E approach…

  12. Evaluation of Patient Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Piedmont, Eugene B.; Dornblaser, Bright M.

    1970-01-01

    A multifaceted attempt is made to measure patients' well-being quantitatively in a complex interdisciplinary research and experimental construction project. Parallel studies were conducted in adjoining traditionally shaped and spoke-design hospital buildings. Major innovations were made, in both plants, in the organization of nursing staffs and in communications and logistical support. Smaller nursing staffs achieved significant increases in time spent in direct patient (“bedside”) care, without negative effects on patient welfare, in both buildings; but these effects were maximized in the spoke-design building. PMID:5494267

  13. 45 CFR 1304.53 - Facilities, materials, and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facilities, materials, and equipment. 1304.53... GRANTEE AND DELEGATE AGENCIES Program Design and Management § 1304.53 Facilities, materials, and equipment... security of all Early Head Start and Head Start facilities, materials and equipment. (8) Grantee...

  14. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this

  15. Draught animals and welfare.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, N S

    1994-03-01

    In fifty developing countries, which contain half of the total human population of the world, there is a heavy dependence on draught animals as an energy source. These animals are used for agriculture operations in 52% of cultivated areas of the world, as well as for hauling 25 million carts. This situation is likely to continue for at least another fifty years. The work performed annually by these draught animals would require 20 million tons of petroleum, valued at US$6 billion, if it were performed by motorized vehicles. The poor working conditions of these animals often adversely affect their productivity. The application of improved technology and better management (i.e. through better feed and health services, and improved design of agricultural implements and carts) could considerably improve the welfare of these animals. Improved systems would generate sufficient benefits for the economy to justify the required investment. High priority should therefore be given to draught animal power in the economic development agenda.

  16. Indian Child Welfare in Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull Knife Memorial Coll., Lame Deer, MT.

    This report is based upon a 1985-86 survey conducted by the Dull Knife Memorial College Indian Child Welfare Project. A series of workshops were conducted throughout Montana to acquaint providers of services for abused and neglected Indian children with the requirements of and issues associated with the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978.…

  17. Career Maturity of Welfare Recipients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Carol M.

    To investigate the career maturity of welfare recipients, this thesis examines six independent variables: (1) race; (2) sex; (3) age; (4) level of formal education; (5) general intelligence; and (6) locus of control. Scales taken from the Career Maturity Inventory served as the dependent variables. The sample consisted of 83 welfare recipients who…

  18. Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Bruce A., Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Whitener, Leslie A., Ed.

    The 16 chapters in this five-part book, each by different authors, trace the effects of welfare reform (mandated by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), upon poor people in rural areas of the United States. The book begins with an introduction called "As the Dust Settles: Welfare Reform and Rural…

  19. The science of animal welfare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    People differ in their culture, education, economic status, and values; thus they may view an animal’s welfare status as good or poor based on their individuality. However, regardless of these human differences in perception the actual state of welfare for the animal does exist in a range from good ...

  20. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  1. Welfare Reform and Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Metsch, Lisa R; Pollack, Harold A

    2005-01-01

    The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) changed the nature, purpose, and financing of public aid. Researchers, administrators, and policymakers expressed special concern about the act's impact on low-income mothers with substance use disorders. Before PRWORA's passage, however, little was known about the true prevalence of these disorders among welfare recipients or about the likely effectiveness of substance abuse treatment interventions for welfare recipients. Subsequent research documented that substance abuse disorders are less widespread among welfare recipients than was originally thought and are less common than other serious barriers to self-sufficiency. This research also showed significant administrative barriers to the screening, assessment, and referral of drug-dependent welfare recipients. This article summarizes current research findings and examines implications for welfare reform reauthorization. PMID:15787954

  2. Welfare recipients’ involvement with child protective services after welfare reform

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Yunju; Meezan, William; Danziger, Sandra K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study identifies factors associated with child protective services (CPS) involvement among current and former welfare recipients after welfare reform legislation was passed in the US in 1996. Method Data come from the Women’s Employment Study, a longitudinal study of randomly selected welfare recipients living in a Michigan city in 1997 (N = 541). In order to identify risk factors for CPS involvement among current and former welfare recipients, multinomial logit analyses with 29 independent variables were employed on a trichotomous dependent variable: no CPS involvement, investigation only, and supervision by CPS after investigation. Results The relationship between work and involvement with CPS differs by work experience prior to welfare reform. As the percentage of months working after welfare reform increased, the risk of being investigated by CPS declined among those with prior work experience but the risk increased among those without prior work experience. However, work variables were not significant predictors of supervision by CPS after an initial investigation. Further, race, cohabitation, childhood welfare receipt, having a learning disability, having a large number of children, being newly divorced, living in a high problem neighborhood, and being convicted of a crime were associated with one’s probability of being either investigated or supervised by CPS. Conclusions These findings suggest that employment could have increased the stress levels of current or former welfare recipients without prior work experience to the point where they were prone to minor child rearing mistakes that resulted in a CPS investigation, but were not severe enough to warrant opening the case for supervision. Supports should be provided to welfare mothers who are prone to involvement with CPS; expansions in the childcare subsidy and a reduction or delay in work requirements might also help these families. PMID:17116329

  3. Synthetic chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Daniel; Waldminghaus, Torsten

    2015-11-01

    What a living organism looks like and how it works and what are its components-all this is encoded on DNA, the genetic blueprint. Consequently, the way to change an organism is to change its genetic information. Since the first pieces of recombinant DNA have been used to transform cells in the 1970s, this approach has been enormously extended. Bigger and bigger parts of the genetic information have been exchanged or added over the years. Now we are at a point where the construction of entire chromosomes becomes a reachable goal and first examples appear. This development leads to fundamental new questions, for example, about what is possible and desirable to build or what construction rules one needs to follow when building synthetic chromosomes. Here we review the recent progress in the field, discuss current challenges and speculate on the appearance of future synthetic chromosomes.

  4. Welfare standards in hospital mergers.

    PubMed

    Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control.

  5. [30 years animal welfare legislation: what has been achieved?].

    PubMed

    Steiger, A

    2008-09-01

    The contribution deals with history and effects of the Swiss animal welfare legislation of 1978. Special descriptions concern the development and increasing dissemination of animal friendly housing systems for cattle, swine, rabbits and poultry, the realization of the prohibition of the usual cages for laying hens until the end of 1991 and the development of aviary systems, the examination and improvement of many housing systems and equipment for farm animals, adaptations of many enclosures for wild animals in zoos and circuses, improvements in animal experimentation and also in housing of companion animals. The new animal welfare law of 2005 and the animal welfare ordinance of 2008 filled loopholes in the legislation. Animal friendly housing forms may also have economic advantages.

  6. Animal welfare and international trade.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B; Babcock, S

    2005-08-01

    Globalisation is becoming a force that is revolutionising international trade, particularly that of animals and animal products. There is increasing interest in animal welfare worldwide, and as part of its 2001-2005 Strategic Plan the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) identified the development of international standards on animal welfare as a priority. The OIE's scientific approach to standard-setting provides the foundation for the development, and acceptance by all OIE Member Countries, of these animal welfare guidelines. The paper discusses how these guidelines on animal welfare can be implemented, both within the provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and within the framework of voluntary codes of conduct. Even if animal welfare guidelines are not covered by any WTO agreements in the future, bi- and multilateral agreements, voluntary corporate codes, and transparent labelling of products should result in a progressive acceptance of OIE guidelines. Ultimately, consumer demands and demonstrable gains in animal production will result in an incremental evolution in animal welfare consciousness and adherence to international standards.

  7. Positive animal welfare states and reference standards for welfare assessment.

    PubMed

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Developments in affective neuroscience and behavioural science during the last 10-15 years have together made it increasingly apparent that sentient animals are potentially much more sensitive to their environmental and social circumstances than was previously thought to be the case. It therefore seems likely that both the range and magnitude of welfare trade-offs that occur when animals are managed for human purposes have been underestimated even when minimalistic but arguably well-intentioned attempts have been made to maintain high levels of welfare. In light of these neuroscience-supported behaviour-based insights, the present review considers the extent to which the use of currently available reference standards might draw attention to these previously neglected areas of concern. It is concluded that the natural living orientation cannot provide an all-embracing or definitive welfare benchmark because of its primary focus on behavioural freedom. However assessments of this type, supported by neuroscience insights into behavioural motivation, may now carry greater weight when used to identify management practices that should be avoided, discontinued or substantially modified. Using currently accepted baseline standards as welfare reference points may result in small changes being accorded greater significance than would be the case if they were compared with higher standards, and this could slow the progress towards better levels of welfare. On the other hand, using "what animals want" as a reference standard has the appeal of focusing on the specific resources or conditions the animals would choose themselves and can potentially improve their welfare more quickly than the approach of making small increments above baseline standards. It is concluded that the cautious use of these approaches in different combinations could lead to recommendations that would more effectively promote positive welfare states in hitherto neglected areas of concern.

  8. 45 CFR 602.32 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... subgrantee in the program or project for which it was acquired as long as needed, whether or not the project... or project, the equipment may be used in other activities currently or previously supported by...

  9. 45 CFR 602.32 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... subgrantee in the program or project for which it was acquired as long as needed, whether or not the project... or project, the equipment may be used in other activities currently or previously supported by...

  10. 45 CFR 602.32 - Equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... subgrantee in the program or project for which it was acquired as long as needed, whether or not the project... or project, the equipment may be used in other activities currently or previously supported by...

  11. 45 CFR 95.705 - Equipment costs-Federal financial participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment costs-Federal financial participation... INSURANCE PROGRAMS) Equipment Acquired Under Public Assistance Programs § 95.705 Equipment costs—Federal..., equipment having a unit acquisition cost of $25,000 or less may be claimed in the period acquired...

  12. Chromosome Microarray.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Over the last half century, knowledge about genetics, genetic testing, and its complexity has flourished. Completion of the Human Genome Project provided a foundation upon which the accuracy of genetics, genomics, and integration of bioinformatics knowledge and testing has grown exponentially. What is lagging, however, are efforts to reach and engage nurses about this rapidly changing field. The purpose of this article is to familiarize nurses with several frequently ordered genetic tests including chromosomes and fluorescence in situ hybridization followed by a comprehensive review of chromosome microarray. It shares the complexity of microarray including how testing is performed and results analyzed. A case report demonstrates how this technology is applied in clinical practice and reveals benefits and limitations of this scientific and bioinformatics genetic technology. Clinical implications for maternal-child nurses across practice levels are discussed.

  13. 45 CFR 95.641 - Applicability of rules for charging equipment in Subpart G of this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of rules for charging equipment in... STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS) Automatic Data Processing Equipment and Services-Conditions... equipment in Subpart G of this part. ADP equipment, as well as other equipment acquired under...

  14. Chromosome Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc., provides the foundation for the Powergene line of chromosome analysis and molecular genetic instrumentation. This product employs image processing technology from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and image enhancement techniques from Johnson Space Center. Originally developed to send pictures back to earth from space probes, digital imaging techniques have been developed and refined for use in a variety of medical applications, including diagnosis of disease.

  15. Invertebrate welfare: an overlooked issue.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Kelsey; Angeletti, Dario; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Carere, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    While invertebrates make up the majority of animal species, their welfare is overlooked compared to the concern shown to vertebrates. This fact is highlighted by the near absence of regulations in animal research, with the exception of cephalopods in the European Union. This is often justified by assumptions that invertebrates do not experience pain and stress while lacking the capacity for higher order cognitive functions. Recent research suggests that invertebrates may be just as capable as vertebrates in experiencing pain and stress, and some species display comparable cognitive capacities. Another obstacle is the negative view of invertebrates by the public, which often regards them as pests with no individual personalities, gastronomic entities, or individuals for scientific experimentation without rules. Increasingly, studies have revealed that invertebrates possess individual profiles comparable to the personalities found in vertebrates. Given the large economic impact of invertebrates, developing certain attitude changes in invertebrate welfare may be beneficial for producers while providing higher welfare conditions for the animals. While the immense number and type of species makes it difficult to suggest that all invertebrates will benefit from increased welfare, in this review we provide evidence that the topic of invertebrate welfare should be revisited, more thoroughly investigated, and in cases where appropriate, formally instituted.

  16. 45 CFR 304.24 - Equipment-Federal financial participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment-Federal financial participation. 304.24... HUMAN SERVICES FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION § 304.24 Equipment—Federal financial participation. Claims for Federal financial participation in the cost of equipment under the Child Support...

  17. 45 CFR 205.160 - Equipment-Federal financial participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment-Federal financial participation. 205.160... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.160 Equipment—Federal financial participation. Claims for Federal financial participation in the cost of equipment for the cash assistance...

  18. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve.

  19. A user's guide to animal welfare science.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Marian Stamp

    2006-02-01

    Here, I provide a guide for those new to the burgeoning field of animal welfare science as to what this comprehensive, relatively young discipline is all about. Drawing on all branches of biology, including behavioural ecology and neuroscience, the science of animal welfare asks three big questions: Are animals conscious? How can we assess good and bad welfare in animals? How can we use science to improve animal welfare in practice? I also provide guidelines for an evidence-based approach to welfare issues for policy makers and other users of animal welfare research.

  20. On the Declining Health Status of Welfare Caseloads: Emerging Dilemmas for Serving the Poor

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Laura A.; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Henderson, Stuart; Jacobs, Laurie; Wiley, James

    2014-01-01

    An emerging concern for public policy is welfare reform’s potential to inadvertently affect caseload composition by increasing the proportion of recipients with health-related barriers to employment. We examine this using data from the Welfare Client Longitudinal Study, an in-depth case study of a large California county. Through quantitative analyses, we examine the extent of change in health-related problems since welfare reform and their potential to progressively impact overall composition of the caseload. We augment this with qualitative data on how local welfare providers are responding to the health-related needs of aid recipients. Results suggest that the burden of health-related problems is growing and that welfare providers may be poorly equipped to respond effectively on their own. The changing composition of welfare caseloads may foster several new policy dilemmas that demand broader attention: states and localities may face difficulties meeting federal workforce participation requirements, may need to restructure welfare-to-work programs to serve a more functionally impaired population, and take steps to better integrate health and welfare services at the local level. PMID:21400369

  1. Is Welfare Bad for Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Jacqueline

    A major fear of many who are concerned with the welfare system is that the system itself tends to create pathology among recipients, and in the case of children, to cause mal-socialization. There are a number of problems with these assertions. The chief problem is that there is not much good evidence, one way or another, concerning the effects of…

  2. The Indian Child Welfare Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Katy Jo

    The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (I.C.W.A.) is federal legislation which preempts state law whenever Indian children may be removed from their families. The I.C.W.A. permits Indian tribal courts to decide the future of Indian children, establishes minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children from their families, requires that…

  3. Progressing beyond the Welfare State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Lee; Harkavy, Ira

    1991-01-01

    This paper outlines a neo-Deweyan strategy to transform American public schools into genuine community schools that function as central agencies for the development of a democratic welfare society. John Dewey's thesis was that a well-functioning school system constitutes the necessary, though not sufficient, condition for a well-functioning…

  4. Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

    This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

  5. What Works in Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluger, Miriam P., Ed.; Alexander, Gina, Ed.; Curtis, Patrick A., Ed.

    Noting the importance of identifying the effectiveness of child welfare programs for future policy planning, this book examines features of successful programs. The book is presented in six sections: family preservation and family support services, child protective services, out-of-home care, adoption, child care, and adolescent services. Each…

  6. Data Mining in Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoech, Dick; Quinn, Andrew; Rycraft, Joan R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the historical and larger context of data mining and describes data mining processes, techniques, and tools. Illustrates these using a child welfare dataset concerning the employee turnover that is mined, using logistic regression and a Bayesian neural network. Discusses the data mining process, the resulting models, their predictive…

  7. Rethinking Social Welfare: Toward Assets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherraden, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Suggests that social welfare policy focus on household assets. Asset distribution is less unequal than income distribution. Assets cushion income shocks, reduce household transaction costs, and provide a stake in the future. Reviews the current policy debate. Discusses policy directions in direct financial transfers, housing, and support for…

  8. Immigrants and Welfare Reauthorization. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremstad, Shawn

    Until the 1996 welfare law (which conditioned eligibility on citizenship status) was passed, legal immigrants were generally as eligible for public benefits as citizens. The immigrant restrictions have proven to be extremely controversial. In 1997, Congress restored Supplemental Security Income to most immigrants who were already in the country…

  9. Lifelong Learning and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Colin

    1999-01-01

    An alternative perspective on lifelong learning locates it in culture, civil society, and leisure/consumption lifestyles. Distinctions between education and learning and markets and quasi-markets are used to explore policy models. The relationship to welfare reform policies is discussed. (Author/SK)

  10. Welfare Entitlements: Addressing New Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Jon R.; Fandetti, Donald V.

    1995-01-01

    Because welfare entitlements are increasingly unpopular, social work advocates need to place greater emphasis on job growth and alternate mechanisms for wealth redistribution, including refundable tax credits for working poor people. The Internal Revenue Code can be an effective weapon in combating poverty if antipoverty approaches in the code are…

  11. Solar Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  12. Telescope Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Renaissance Telescope for high resolution and visual astronomy has five 82-degree Field Tele-Vue Nagler Eyepieces, some of the accessories that contribute to high image quality. Telescopes and eyepieces are representative of a family of optical equipment manufactured by Tele-Vue Optics, Inc.

  13. Text, Lies, and the Welfare State: The Portrayal of Welfare Recipients in Welfare-to-Work Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.

    A study analyzed the ideological messages about welfare recipients promoted in two welfare-to-work educational programs. Data were collected through interviews with students, teachers, and administrators at an adult literacy classroom serving unemployed women on welfare and an employment preparation program designed to increase job skills of women…

  14. Health and welfare in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Nordenfelt, Lennart

    2011-06-01

    This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences.

  15. Relationships between chromosome structure and chromosomal aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidelman, Yuri; Andreev, Sergey

    An interphase nucleus of human lymphocyte was simulated by the novel Monte Carlo tech-nique. The main features of interphase chromosome structure and packaging were taken into account: different levels of chromatin organisation; nonrandom localisation of chromosomes within a nucleus; chromosome loci dynamics. All chromosomes in a nucleus were modelled as polymer globules. A dynamic pattern of intra/interchromosomal contacts was simulated. The detailed information about chromosomal contacts, such as distribution of intrachromoso-mal contacts over the length of each chromosome and dependence of contact probability on genomic separation between chromosome loci, were calculated and compared to the new exper-imental data obtained by the Hi-C technique. Types and frequencies of simple and complex radiation-induced chromosomal exchange aberrations (CA) induced by X-rays were predicted with taking formation and decay of chromosomal contacts into account. Distance dependence of exchange formation probability was calculated directly. mFISH data for human lymphocytes were analysed. The calculated frequencies of simple CA agreed with the experimental data. Complex CA were underestimated despite the dense packaging of chromosome territories within a nucleus. Possible influence of chromosome-nucleus structural organisation on the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations is discussed.

  16. Welfare to Work. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    "Welfare to work" is an issue in the substance abuse field because of the high number of people on welfare who have a substance abuse problem. One-fourth of women on welfare either abuse or are addicted to alcohol or other drugs. For women ages 18-24 the incidence is as high as 37%, according to the Center on Addiction and Substance…

  17. Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    2000-01-01

    Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

  18. Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Thomas A.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

  19. Comparing Drug Use between Welfare-Receiving Arrestees and Non-Welfare-Receiving Arrestees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Urbach, Blake J.; Johnson, Regina J.

    2002-01-01

    Compares drug-positive rates between welfare-receiving arrestees, non-welfare receiving arrestees living below the poverty level, and non-welfare arrestees living above the poverty level. Welfare-receiving arrestees were more likely to be female, older, less educated, and to test positive for opiates and benzodiazepines than the other subgroups.…

  20. Welfare reform at 15 and the state of policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Pimpare, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and opponents alike expected the law to have profound consequences, the article considers two ways to explain this surprising outcome, showing that (1) quantitative policy analysis has been ill equipped to capture the PRWORA's effects and (2) expectations were nonetheless wrong because they failed to appreciate how thoroughly Aid to Families with Dependent Children had already been eroded in the decades prior to its reform. Welfare reform was not the beginning of a process of policy change; it was the end of one. In response to these findings, the article describes how a more critical perspective on reform matters for social work researchers, advocates, and practitioners.

  1. The ethics of fish welfare.

    PubMed

    Evans, J C

    2009-12-01

    The topic of fish welfare in the context of commercial fisheries is a difficult one. From traditionally anthropocentric or human-centred perspectives, fishes are simply objects for humans to use as they see fit. When it is argued that anthropocentrism is arbitrary, it may appear that a strong animal rights position is the only recourse, with the result that humans ought not to use animals in the first place, if it is at all possible. It can be argued that both positions fail to view human beings as part of the natural world. If human beings are viewed as part of the world from which they live, then it has to be asked what it means to be respectful of the animals which humans use and from which they live. From this perspective, concern for the welfare of the fishes humans eat is simply what should be expected from humans as good citizens in the community of living creatures.

  2. 45 CFR 205.170 - State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., equipment, and facilities. State plan requirements: A State plan for financial assistance under title I, IV... establish and maintain standards for office space, equipment, and facilities that will adequately and... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State standards for office space, equipment,...

  3. Medical Issues: Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > equipment Equipment Individuals with SMA often require a range of ... you can submit an equipment pool request. Helpful Equipment The following is a list of equipment that ...

  4. Human chromosome 8.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, S

    1988-01-01

    The role of human chromosome 8 in genetic disease together with the current status of the genetic linkage map for this chromosome is reviewed. Both hereditary genetic disease attributed to mutant alleles at gene loci on chromosome 8 and neoplastic disease owing to somatic mutation, particularly chromosomal translocations, are discussed. PMID:3070042

  5. Rescue Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lifeshear cutter, a rescue tool for freeing accident victims from wreckage, was developed under the Clinton Administration's Technology Reinvestment Program. Prior cutting equipment was cumbersome and expensive; the new cutter is 50 percent lighter and 70 percent cheaper. The cutter is pyrotechnically-actuated, using a miniature version of the power cartridges used for separation devices on the Space Shuttle and other NASA spacecraft. Hi-Shear Technology Corporation developed the cutter with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and input from the City of Torrance (California) Fire Department.

  6. Mitotic chromosome structure

    SciTech Connect

    Heermann, Dieter W.

    2012-07-15

    Mounting evidence is compiling linking the physical organizational structure of chromosomes and the nuclear structure to biological function. At the base of the physical organizational structure of both is the concept of loop formation. This implies that physical proximity within chromosomes is provided for otherwise distal genomic regions and thus hierarchically organizing the chromosomes. Together with entropy many experimental observations can be explained with these two concepts. Among the observations that can be explained are the measured physical extent of the chromosomes, their shape, mechanical behavior, the segregation into territories (chromosomal and territories within chromosomes), the results from chromosome conformation capture experiments, as well as linking gene expression to structural organization.

  7. Preparing Social Work Students for Rural Child Welfare Practice: Emerging Curriculum Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riebschleger, Joanne; Norris, Debra; Pierce, Barbara; Pond, Debora L.; Cummings, Cristy

    2015-01-01

    Multiple issues that are unique to child welfare social work practice in rural areas markedly affect workforce recruitment and retention, yet little attention is given to the proficiencies needed to equip emerging social workers for this growing area of the field. Curriculum content is needed that provides students with the opportunity to master…

  8. B Chromosomes - A Matter of Chromosome Drive.

    PubMed

    Houben, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    B chromosomes are supernumerary chromosomes which are often preferentially inherited, deviating from usual Mendelian segregation. The balance between the so-called chromosome drive and the negative effects that the presence of Bs applies on the fitness of their host determines the frequency of Bs in a particular population. Drive is the key for understanding most B chromosomes. Drive occurs in many ways at pre-meiotic, meiotic or post-meiotic divisions, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. The cellular mechanism of drive is reviewed based on the findings obtained for the B chromosomes of rye, maize and other species. How novel analytical tools will expand our ability to uncover the biology of B chromosome drive is discussed.

  9. The Precarious Prokaryotic Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary selection for optimal genome preservation, replication, and expression should yield similar chromosome organizations in any type of cells. And yet, the chromosome organization is surprisingly different between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The nuclear versus cytoplasmic accommodation of genetic material accounts for the distinct eukaryotic and prokaryotic modes of genome evolution, but it falls short of explaining the differences in the chromosome organization. I propose that the two distinct ways to organize chromosomes are driven by the differences between the global-consecutive chromosome cycle of eukaryotes and the local-concurrent chromosome cycle of prokaryotes. Specifically, progressive chromosome segregation in prokaryotes demands a single duplicon per chromosome, while other “precarious” features of the prokaryotic chromosomes can be viewed as compensations for this severe restriction. PMID:24633873

  10. B-chromosome evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, J P; Sharbel, T F; Beukeboom, L W

    2000-01-01

    B chromosomes are extra chromosomes to the standard complement that occur in many organisms. They can originate in a number of ways including derivation from autosomes and sex chromosomes in intra- and interspecies crosses. Their subsequent molecular evolution resembles that of univalent sex chromosomes, which involves gene silencing, heterochromatinization and the accumulation of repetitive DNA and transposons. B-chromosome frequencies in populations result from a balance between their transmission rates and their effects on host fitness. Their long-term evolution is considered to be the outcome of selection on the host genome to eliminate B chromosomes or suppress their effects and on the B chromosome's ability to escape through the generation of new variants. Because B chromosomes interact with the standard chromosomes, they can play an important role in genome evolution and may be useful for studying molecular evolutionary processes. PMID:10724453

  11. Welfare Gains from Financial Liberalization

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Robert M.; Ueda, Kenichi

    2010-01-01

    Financial liberalization has been a controversial issue, as empirical evidence for growth enhancing effects is mixed. Here, we find sizable welfare gains from liberalization (cost to repression), though the gain in economic growth is ambiguous. We take the view that financial liberalization is a government policy that alters the path of financial deepening, while financial deepening is endogenously chosen by agents given a policy and occurs in transition towards a distant steady state. This history-dependent view necessitates the use of simulation analysis based on a growth model. Our application is a specific episode: Thailand from 1976 to 1996. PMID:20806055

  12. Animal welfare and use of silkworm as a model animal.

    PubMed

    Sekimizu, N; Paudel, A; Hamamoto, H

    2012-08-01

    Sacrificing model animals is required for developing effective drugs before being used in human beings. In Japan today, at least 4,210,000 mice and other mammals are sacrificed to a total of 6,140,000 per year for the purpose of medical studies. All the animals treated in Japan, including test animals, are managed under control of "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals". Under the principle of this Act, no person shall kill, injure, or inflict cruelty on animals without due cause. "Animal" addressed in the Act can be defined as a "vertebrate animal". If we can make use of invertebrate animals in testing instead of vertebrate ones, that would be a remarkable solution for the issue of animal welfare. Furthermore, there are numerous advantages of using invertebrate animal models: less space and small equipment are enough for taking care of a large number of animals and thus are cost-effective, they can be easily handled, and many biological processes and genes are conserved between mammals and invertebrates. Today, many invertebrates have been used as animal models, but silkworms have many beneficial traits compared to mammals as well as other insects. In a Genome Pharmaceutical Institute's study, we were able to achieve a lot making use of silkworms as model animals. We would like to suggest that pharmaceutical companies and institutes consider the use of the silkworm as a model animal which is efficacious both for financial value by cost cutting and ethical aspects in animals' welfare.

  13. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos

    PubMed Central

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS. PMID:26440494

  14. A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Ron; Carter, Scott; Allard, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Detroit Zoological Society's (DZS) Center for Zoo Animal Welfare (CZAW) was created to advance the science and policy of the welfare of exotic nonhuman animals in captivity. This important part of the DZS mission is achieved through assessments of, and research on, the welfare of animals in zoos; by recognizing extraordinary achievement in the advancement of animal welfare; by widely sharing knowledge through a bibliographic resource center; by conducting professional training for animal care staff; and by convening important discussions in the form of international symposia. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science features selected papers from the most recent international CZAW symposium held at the Detroit Zoo in November 2014, as well as a universal framework for zoo animal welfare developed by the DZS.

  15. Supernumerary small ring chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Kaffe, S; Kim, H J; Hsu, L Y; Brill, C B; Hirschhorn, K

    1977-01-01

    A supernumerary small ring chromosome was found in 30% of cultured peripheral leucocytes and 50% of skin fibroblasts in a 6-year-old boy with mild mental retardation and midline cleft palate. The extra chromosome appeared to carry a densely staining region on Giemsa banding. The banding patterns of the remaining 46 chromosomes were normal. C banding indicated that the ring chromosome contained mainly centromeric constitutive heterochromatin. Chromosome analysis of both parents showed normal karyotypes by both conventional and banding techniques; thus the origin of the ring chromosome could not be determined. Images PMID:604496

  16. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000443.htm Cleaning supplies and equipment To use the sharing features on this page, ... to clean supplies and equipment. Disinfecting Supplies and Equipment Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment ( ...

  17. Substance abuse and employment among welfare mothers: from welfare to work and back again?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Laura; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Jacobs, Laurie; Wiley, Jim

    2007-01-01

    We have very little research on how substance use impacts employment among welfare mothers. But welfare reform's emphasis on moving aid recipients into the workforce has brought this issue to the fore. Using Cox proportional hazard and logistic regression in a longitudinal study of California welfare mothers in 2001-2003, we examine how substance use impacts the ability to move from welfare to work and to remain economically independent after welfare. While education, work history, and family size consistently predict transitions from welfare to work and back again, substance use-related problems consistently do not. However, the jobs obtained by welfare mothers are short-term and poorly paid regardless of whether they misuse alcohol or use drugs. We argue that, if all that is open to welfare mothers are short-lived work assignments, substance use may have little time to impact job retention. Limitations of the study are noted.

  18. Consumer preferences for pig welfare - Can the market accommodate more than one level of welfare pork?

    PubMed

    Denver, Sigrid; Sandøe, Peter; Christensen, Tove

    2017-02-22

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the market potential of pork labelled to indicate medium and high levels of animal welfare. The paper asks, in particular, whether there is a risk that Danish consumers will abandon high level welfare pork if less expensive products with a medium level of animal welfare became available. The study was based on an online questionnaire with a choice experiment involving 396 Danish respondents. The results indicated that the Danish market could accommodate more than one pork product with a welfare label but the price differential separating medium and high level animal welfare pork will have to be quite narrow. In addition, full willingness-to-pay of consumers who want to buy high level welfare pork cannot be relied upon to incentivise new consumers to buy medium welfare pork. Further, raising brand awareness in the shopping situation and improving consumer's understanding of brand attributes for high level welfare brands were found to be vital.

  19. Ring chromosome 4.

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, A; Voyce, M A; Romain, D

    1977-01-01

    A mentally and physically retarded boy with a 46,XY,ring (4) (p16q35) chromosome complement is described. Chromosome banding showed that the amount of chromosome material deleted from the ring chromosome 4 was minimal, apparently no more than the telomeres. Chromosomal aberrations appear to be restricted to the production of double-sized dicentric rings, and aneuploidy. The mosiacism resulting from the behavioural peculiarities of ring chromosomes is described as dynamic mosaicism. It is suggested that the clinical features associated with this ring chromosome are more likely to be the result of the effects of a diploid/monosomy 4/polysomy 4 mosaicism than to the deficiency of the telomeric regions of the chromosome. Images PMID:881718

  20. Chromosome Disorder Outreach

    MedlinePlus

    ... BLOG Join Us Donate You are not alone. Chromosome Disorder Outreach, Inc. is a non-profit organization, ... Support For all those diagnosed with any rare chromosome disorder. Since 1992, CDO has supported the parents ...

  1. Human X chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 21, describes in detail the human X chromosome. X chromatin (or Barr body) formation, inactivation and reactivation of the X chromosome, X;Y translocations, and sex reversal are discussed. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  3. Public Welfare and Work Incentives: Theory and Practice. Studies in Public Welfare. Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Vee; Townsend, Alair A.

    This chart book summarizes two volumes in the subcommittee's series, "Studies in Public Welfare." Paper No. 4 (Dec. 22, 1972) explored work incentive and disincentive features in existing and proposed public welfare programs (cash welfare, unemployment insurance, social security, veterans' benefits, food stamps, public housing, and medicaid).…

  4. Importing the Poor: Welfare Magnetism and Cross-Border Welfare Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Human Resources, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A study of the welfare programs in two counties bordering different states along with comparative welfare expenditure in interior counties tests the theory that Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients migrate to counties which have a higher per capita welfare budget. Research shows that border counties with a $100 differential…

  5. Societal Factors Impacting Child Welfare: Validating the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Charles; Zeitlin, Wendy; Augsberger, Astraea; McGowan, Brenda G.; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This research examines the psychometric properties of the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale (PCWS). This instrument is designed to assess child welfare workers' understanding of how society views their role and their work. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was utilized to analyze data on 538 child welfare workers. Results:…

  6. A history of animal welfare science.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2011-06-01

    Human attitudes to animals have changed as non-humans have become more widely incorporated in the category of moral agents who deserve some respect. Parallels between the functioning of humans and non-humans have been made for thousands of years but the idea that the animals that we keep can suffer has spread recently. An improved understanding of motivation, cognition and the complexity of social behaviour in animals has led in the last 30 years to the rapid development of animal welfare science. Early attempts to define welfare referred to individuals being in harmony with nature but the first usable definition incorporated feelings and health as part of attempts to cope with the environment. Others considered that welfare is only about feelings but it is argued that as feelings are mechanisms that have evolved they are a part of welfare rather than all of it. Most reviews of welfare now start with listing the needs of the animal, including needs to show certain behaviours. This approach has used sophisticated studies of what is important to animals and has replaced the earlier general guidelines described as freedoms. Many measures of welfare are now used and indicate how good or how poor the welfare is. Naturalness is not a part of the definition of welfare but explains why some needs exist. In recent years, welfare has become established as one of various criteria used to decide on whether a system is sustainable because members of the public will not accept systems that cause poor welfare. The study of welfare has become part of the scientific basis upon which important political decisions are made.

  7. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Chromosomal Disorders and Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on chromosomal aberrations in autism, especially possible gene markers. It notes that Chromosome 15 and numerical and structural abnormalities of the sex chromosomes have been most frequently reported as related to the genesis of autism. (Author/DB)

  9. The human Y chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Goodfellow, P; Darling, S; Wolfe, J

    1985-01-01

    Despite its central role in sex determination, genetic analysis of the Y chromosome has been slow. This poor progress has been due to the paucity of available genetic markers. Whereas the X chromosome is known to include at least 100 functional genetic loci, only three or four loci have been ascribed to the Y chromosome and even the existence of several of these loci is controversial. Other factors limiting genetic analysis are the small size of the Y chromosome, which makes cytogenetic definition difficult, and the absence of extensive recombination. Based on cytogenetic observation and speculation, a working model of the Y chromosome has been proposed. In this classical model the Y chromosome is defined into subregions; an X-Y homologous meiotic pairing region encompassing most of the Y chromosome short arm and, perhaps, including a pseudoautosomal region of sex chromosome exchange; a pericentric region containing the sex determining gene or genes; and a long arm heterochromatic genetically inert region. The classical model has been supported by studies on the MIC2 loci, which encode a cell surface antigen defined by the monoclonal antibody 12E7. The X linked locus MIC2X, which escapes X inactivation, maps to the tip of the X chromosome short arm and the homologous locus MIC2Y maps to the Y chromosome short arm; in both cases, these loci are within the proposed meiotic pairing region. MIC2Y is the first biochemically defined, expressed locus to be found on the human Y chromosome. The proposed simplicity of the classical model has been challenged by recent molecular analysis of the Y chromosome. Using cloned probes, several groups have shown that a major part of the Y chromosome short arm is unlikely to be homologous to the X chromosome short arm. A substantial block of sequences of the short arm are homologous to sequences of the X chromosome long arm but well outside the pairing region. In addition, the short arm contains sequences shared with the Y chromosome

  10. Welfare Reform and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Baltagi, Badi H; Yen, Yin-Fang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of the Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) program on children's health outcomes using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation over the period 1994 to 2005. The TANF policies have been credited with increased employment for single mothers and a dramatic drop in welfare caseload. Our results show that these policies also had a significant effect on various measures of children's medical utilization among low-income families. These health measures include a rating of the child's health status reported by the parents, the number of times that parents consulted a doctor, and the number of nights that the child stayed in a hospital. We compare the overall changes of health status and medical utilization for children with working and nonworking mothers. We find that the child's health status as reported by the parents is affected by the maternal employment status.

  11. Effects of Welfare Participation on Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the widely held premise that welfare participation causes women to refrain from marriage. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,219), we employed an event history approach to study transitions to marriage among mothers who have had a nonmarital birth. We found that welfare participation reduces the…

  12. Climb On! From Welfare to a Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Patti; Kime, Bruce

    In operation since 1990, the Gateway Program is a collaborative welfare reform effort developed by Colorado Mountain College (CMC), the county department of social services, and the local Job Training Partnership Act provider. One component of the program is the Link Program, developed to prepare welfare recipients for enrollment in vocational…

  13. Child Welfare in 25 States: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Child Advocacy (DHEW/OHD), Washington, DC.

    This overview presents a summary of the major findings of a 25-state survey of child welfare service delivery systems, as studied by Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. in association with the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) during the period of November 1975 through February 1976. The initial products of the survey were 25 state profiles; these…

  14. Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

  15. Reconsidering Schools and the American Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Miriam

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses her comparative study of the history of the welfare state in the United States, England, and France, she studies some of the usual features of the welfare state, which include important entitlement programs, such as social insurance, and protective labor legislation, but she also focuses on the development of…

  16. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  17. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  18. Welfare Reforms, Family Resources, and Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of welfare reforms on several measures of child maltreatment. The authors use state-level data from 1990 to 1998 to examine whether recent welfare reforms have increased or reduced the incidence of reported and substantiated cases of maltreatment, the incidence of specific types of substantiated…

  19. Child Welfare Worker Caseload: What's Just Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamatani, Hide; Engel, Rafael; Spjeldnes, Solveig

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to establish a caseload standard for child welfare workers. Understanding reasonable workload expectations for child welfare workers is a cornerstone of quality service provision and the recruitment and retention of qualified workers. Because of the analytic complexity of this question, qualitative and quantitative methods…

  20. INVITED REVIEW: Farm size and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Robbins, J A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Fraser, D; Weary, D M

    2016-12-01

    Critics of agricultural intensification have argued that the transition from smaller to larger farms has compromised animal welfare. To critically examine evidence relevant to this claim, we reviewed more than 150 publications that examined the relationship between farm size and at least one animal welfare indicator. Although much of this literature focuses on dairy cattle, we also reference other farmed species where appropriate. We found little evidence of any simple relationship, negative or positive, between farm size and animal welfare. Instead, the evidence suggests that larger farms provide some opportunities to improve animal welfare but may also create welfare risks. For example, larger farms permit more specialized and professional management of animal health but can make it more difficult to accommodate outdoor access that some view as integral to animal welfare. Future research should attempt to specify the underlying casual mechanisms by which statistical associations between farm size and indicators of welfare are believed to occur. We also suggest that policy and advocacy efforts aimed at reversing increases in farm size would be better directed toward improving welfare on farms of all sizes.

  1. Youth At-Risk of Welfare Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, April

    1999-01-01

    This issue of WIN (Welfare Information Network) Issue Notes focuses on the tendency of children from low-income families to drop out of high school, become teen parents, become involved in drug-related activities, and become involved in other activities that place them at high risk of long-term welfare dependency. Section 1 offers the background.…

  2. Integration into the Social Demographic Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjerm, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the assumption that the social democratic welfare state is better than others in integrating immigrants into society, or at least that the comprehensive welfare state should compensate for the problems of labour market entry. A number of key indicators from The Living Conditions Survey are used to show that this assumption is…

  3. The Climate of Child Welfare Employee Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahalane, Helen; Sites, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes differences in perceptions of the child welfare work environment among Title IV-E educated individuals who remain within public child welfare and those who sought employment elsewhere after fulfilling a legal work commitment. Job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment were predictive of staying…

  4. Animal Welfare: What's coming down the pipe?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concern for farm animal welfare is not a new concept. However, increased public pressure and an increasingly entangled global economy are effecting change across the world. The conversation about farm animal welfare is difficult because the world’s population has become disconnected from agricultur...

  5. Social Service Organizations and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Barbara; Widom, Rebecca

    The Project on Devolution and Urban Change conducted a study to learn how new welfare policies and funding mechanisms, especially devolution and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grants, affect human service agencies in neighborhoods with high concentrations of welfare recipients and people living in poverty. Key personnel at 106…

  6. Rural Child Welfare: Education and Practice Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarleau, Alison T.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews and assesses rural child welfare and rural child welfare services as they exist today. Reviews the literature showing the rural social worker is probably most successful as a generalist who deals with a child as part of an interlocking system involving the school, family, and community. (Author)

  7. The globalisation of farm animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Fraser, D

    2014-04-01

    Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter.

  8. The context of child welfare performance measures.

    PubMed

    Carnochan, Sarah; Samples, Mark; Lawson, Jennifer; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States seeks to improve the outcomes achieved by public agencies through performance measurement strategies. In child welfare policy, a federally mandated performance measurement system has evolved since the 1980s, establishing the federal Child and Family Services Review which uses a series of performance indicators for evaluating the child welfare system. This article reviews the literature on performance measurement and performance management in the public sector in order to develop a conceptual framework for examining the federal child welfare performance measurement system. It briefly summarizes the evolution of federal policy related to performance measurement in child welfare. The framework is then used to guide an analysis of the debate surrounding the establishment of the current child welfare performance measurement system, concluding with recommendations for consideration in future reform efforts.

  9. Chromosome instability syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 11, discusses chromosome instability syndromes. The focus is on the most extensively studied genotypic chromosomal aberrations which include Bloom syndrome, Fanconi anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, and xeroderma pigmentosum. The great interest in these syndromes is out of proportion to their rare occurrence; however, studies of genotypic chromosome breakage have been inspired by the hope of throwing light on chromosome structure and behavior. A table is given which relates chromosomal aberrations in Bloom syndrome which may cause or promote cancer. 34 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Images of welfare in law and society: the British welfare state in comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Wincott, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Designed by Beveridge and built by Attlee's post-war Labour government, the welfare state was created during the 1940s. Britain has been seen – in domestic debates and internationally – as a world first: the place where both the idea and the practice of the welfare state were invented. I draw together comparative welfare state analysis with law and society scholarship (previously largely developed in isolation from one another) – as well as using British political cartoons as a source – to develop a revisionist historical critique of this conventional wisdom. First, the British welfare state has always been comparatively parsimonious. Second, the idea of the welfare state seems to have its origins outside the United Kingdom and this terminology was adopted relatively late and with some ambivalence in public debate and scholarly analysis. Third, a large body of socio-legal scholarship shows that robust ‘welfare rights’ were never embedded in the British ‘welfare state’.

  11. Welfare dynamics, support services, mothers' earnings, and child cognitive development: implications for contemporary welfare reform.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, H

    1999-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY; N = 614), addresses the gap in the research literature regarding the effects of welfare reform on children. Key questions addressed include whether welfare dynamics and support services relevant to welfare reform, both measured across the first 5 years of life, are associated with mothers' earnings in the 6th year and three child cognitive outcomes in the 7th and 8th years: Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) math and reading scores, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). Welfare dynamics are represented by total time on welfare, degree of cycling on and off welfare, and degree to which welfare and work are combined. Support services measured include three forms of child care (relative, babysitter, and center-based), as well as three forms of human capital supports (child support, job training, and education). Controlling for a range of background factors and for different patterns of welfare use across the first 5 years, small positive associations with mother's earnings were found for child support, education, and job training. Small positive associations also were found between child support and both math and reading scores. Finally positive associations of medium effect size were found between center care and both mothers' earnings and child PPVT scores. Although effect sizes are generally small, the results suggest the potential value of welfare reform approaches that emphasize long-term human capital development. Interactions between welfare dynamics and support services suggest subgroup differences. Specifically, positive effects of support services on earnings are strongest among mothers with higher levels of human capital (higher levels of work while on welfare, lower total time on welfare). Babysitter care appears to have negative effects on both reading and math scores of children whose mothers report low levels of work while on welfare

  12. An epidemiological approach to welfare research in zoos: the Elephant Welfare Project.

    PubMed

    Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A; Meehan, Cheryl; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Multi-institutional studies of welfare have proven to be valuable in zoos but are hampered by limited sample sizes and difficulty in evaluating more than just a few welfare indicators. To more clearly understand how interactions of husbandry factors influence the interrelationships among welfare outcomes, epidemiological approaches are needed as well as multifactorial assessments of welfare. Many questions have been raised about the housing and care of elephants in zoos and whether their environmental and social needs are being met in a manner that promotes good welfare. This article describes the background and rationale for a large-scale study of elephant welfare in North American zoos funded by the (U.S.) Institute of Museum and Library Services. The goals of this project are to document the prevalence of positive and negative welfare states in 291 elephants exhibited in 72 Association of Zoos and Aquariums zoos and then determine the environmental, management, and husbandry factors that impact elephant welfare. This research is the largest scale nonhuman animal welfare project ever undertaken by the zoo community, and the scope of environmental variables and welfare outcomes measured is unprecedented.

  13. Personal protective equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000447.htm Personal protective equipment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Personal protective equipment is special equipment you wear to create a ...

  14. Common NICU Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... care unit (NICU) > Common NICU equipment Common NICU equipment E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... understand how they can help your baby. What equipment is commonly used in the NICU? Providers use ...

  15. Analysis of plant meiotic chromosomes by chromosome painting.

    PubMed

    Lysak, Martin A; Mandáková, Terezie

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome painting (CP) refers to visualization of large chromosome regions, entire chromosome arms, or entire chromosomes via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For CP in plants, contigs of chromosome-specific bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) from the target species or from a closely related species (comparative chromosome painting, CCP) are typically applied as painting probes. Extended pachytene chromosomes provide the highest resolution of CP in plants. CP enables identification and tracing of particular chromosome regions and/or entire chromosomes throughout all meiotic stages as well as corresponding chromosome territories in premeiotic interphase nuclei. Meiotic pairing and structural chromosome rearrangements (typically inversions and translocations) can be identified by CP. Here, we describe step-by-step protocols of CP and CCP in plant species including chromosome preparation, BAC DNA labeling, and multicolor FISH.

  16. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Europe.

    PubMed

    Caporale, V; Alessandrini, B; Dalla Villa, P; Del Papa, S

    2005-08-01

    Effective implementation and enforcement of legislation is essential to ensure animal welfare. In the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) European Region the well-established body of national and European Union laws in existence is growing continuously. The growth is due to various factors, such as new technology in animal farming and experimentation, exploitation of wildlife, new understanding of animal needs, and increasing public awareness and concern. The latter, in particular, determines the need for new animal welfare legislation to regulate and discipline the 'use' of animals for different purposes, such as food production, companionship, work and leisure. This paper intends to provide an overview of the more relevant activities carried out by the Council of Europe and the European Union in the field of animal welfare. The authors identify eLearning as a tool to harmonise the interpretation and the implementation of animal welfare legislation.

  17. Fragile Families in the American Welfare State

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, Irwin; Zilanawala, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    The proportion of children born out of wedlock is now over 40 percent. At birth, about half of these parents are co-habiting. This paper examines data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 4,271) to describe for the first time the role of welfare state benefits in the economic lives of married, cohabiting, and single parent families with young children. Surprisingly, total welfare state benefits received by the three family types are relatively similar. Nearly half of the full incomes of fragile families come from welfare state transfers. For single parent families the proportion is slightly more than two thirds. Though aggregate welfare state transfers are approximately equal across family type and thus change very little as marital status changes, these transfers and the taxes required to finance them cushion family status changes and substantially narrow the gap in full income between married and fragile families. PMID:27114616

  18. Welfare reform: a women's health perspective.

    PubMed

    Davis, M F

    1996-01-01

    Welfare reform programs currently being considered and implemented by the federal government and the states pose serious risks to poor women's health. Many of the proposed reforms, such as inflexible work requirements and time limits that threaten to reduce or eliminate current benefits, will make it more difficult for women to leave abusive relationships and will exacerbate the risks associated with violence against women. Other proposals target women's reproductive behavior. Programs that, for example, deny welfare benefits to teen mothers or to children born to women on welfare, increase the emotional stress experienced by poor pregnant women and may effectively coerce some women to seek abortions they would not otherwise choose. Benefit cuts also exacerbate the well-documented ill effects of poverty on children and families. The goals of welfare reform-increasing work participation and reducing poverty-can be more effectively achieved by means that do not pose these serious health risks to poor women.

  19. Immune responses to improving welfare.

    PubMed

    Berghman, L R

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between animal welfare and the immune status of an animal has a complex nature. Indeed, the intuitive notion that "increased vigilance of the immune system is by definition better" because it is expected to better keep the animal healthy, does not hold up under scrutiny. This is mostly due to the fact that the immune system consists of 2 distinct branches, the innate and the adaptive immune system. While they are intimately intertwined and synergistic in the living organism, they are profoundly different in their costs, both in terms of performance and wellbeing. In contrast to the adaptive immune system, the action of the innate immune system has a high metabolic cost as well as undesirable behavioral consequences. When a pathogen breaches the first line of defense (often a mucosal barrier), that organism's molecular signature is recognized by resident macrophages. The macrophages respond by releasing a cocktail of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including interleukin-1 and -6) that signal the brain via multiple pathways (humoral as well as neural) of the ongoing peripheral innate immune response. The behavioral response to the release of proinflammatory cytokines, known as "sickness behavior," includes nearly all the behavioral aspects that are symptomatic for clinical depression in humans. Hence, undesired innate immune activity, such as chronic inflammation, needs to be avoided by the industry. From an immunological standpoint, one of the most pressing poultry industry needs is the refinement of our current veterinary vaccine arsenal. The response to a vaccine, especially to a live attenuated vaccine, is often a combination of innate and adaptive immune activities, and the desired immunogenicity comes at the price of high reactogenicity. The morbidity, albeit limited and transient, caused by live vaccines against respiratory diseases and coccidiosis are good examples. Thankfully, the advent of various post-genomics technologies, such as DNA

  20. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Molomo, M; Mumba, T

    2014-04-01

    Livestock in Africa represent on average 30% of the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and about 10% of the national GDP. Up to 300 million people depend on livestock for their income and livelihood. Accordingly, livestock are considered to be important for the African continent. Despite this, little or no provision for animal welfare is made in the laws and regulations of most African countries. However, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Tool includes animal welfare as a critical competency in Veterinary Services, and most African countries have now conducted PVS appraisals. The development of a Regional Animal Welfare Strategy in Africa is also important because it will provide opportunities for full engagement by all relevant parties. Key elements in this process should include collaboration and coordination in information dissemination to all stakeholders, who should include all those in the value chain. The roles played by the OIE Member Delegates and Focal Points, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), in driving animal welfare policy in most African countries are notable. Without a level of understanding of animal welfare that is sufficient to support clear animal welfare policy development and implementation, problems may appear in the near future which could jeopardise the attainment of increased animal productivity and product quality. This may have negative implications for economic growth and for national and international trade.

  1. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint.

  2. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  3. Longitudinal Effects of Domestic Violence on Employment and Welfare Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindhorst, Taryn; Oxford, Monica; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

    2007-01-01

    This study uses longitudinal data spanning 13 years from a study of 234 adolescent mothers to evaluate the effects of cumulative domestic violence on employment and welfare use before and after welfare reform. Domestic violence increased the odds of unemployment after welfare reform, but not before; domestic violence had no effect on welfare use…

  4. Welfare Reform. At Issue, An Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    Efforts to reform the welfare system in the United States have been gaining momentum since the late 1980s. Critics have been arguing that states should receive federal waivers to create their own programs to encourage welfare recipients to find work. The thrust of the 1996 welfare reform act transfers control over welfare spending to the states.…

  5. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

  6. Chromosomal differentiation of cells

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 16, discusses the chromosomal differentiation of cells. The chromosomes of differentiated cells have been much less studies than those of meristematic or germline cells, probably because such cells do not usually divide spontaneously. However, in many cases they can be induced to undergo mitosis. 26 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Immune responses to improving welfare

    PubMed Central

    Berghman, L. R.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between animal welfare and the immune status of an animal has a complex nature. Indeed, the intuitive notion that “increased vigilance of the immune system is by definition better” because it is expected to better keep the animal healthy, does not hold up under scrutiny. This is mostly due to the fact that the immune system consists of 2 distinct branches, the innate and the adaptive immune system. While they are intimately intertwined and synergistic in the living organism, they are profoundly different in their costs, both in terms of performance and wellbeing. In contrast to the adaptive immune system, the action of the innate immune system has a high metabolic cost as well as undesirable behavioral consequences. When a pathogen breaches the first line of defense (often a mucosal barrier), that organism's molecular signature is recognized by resident macrophages. The macrophages respond by releasing a cocktail of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including interleukin-1 and -6) that signal the brain via multiple pathways (humoral as well as neural) of the ongoing peripheral innate immune response. The behavioral response to the release of proinflammatory cytokines, known as “sickness behavior,” includes nearly all the behavioral aspects that are symptomatic for clinical depression in humans. Hence, undesired innate immune activity, such as chronic inflammation, needs to be avoided by the industry. From an immunological standpoint, one of the most pressing poultry industry needs is the refinement of our current veterinary vaccine arsenal. The response to a vaccine, especially to a live attenuated vaccine, is often a combination of innate and adaptive immune activities, and the desired immunogenicity comes at the price of high reactogenicity. The morbidity, albeit limited and transient, caused by live vaccines against respiratory diseases and coccidiosis are good examples. Thankfully, the advent of various post-genomics technologies, such as DNA

  8. XYY chromosome anomaly and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, M; MacBeth, R; Varma, S L

    1998-02-07

    Sex chromosome anomalies have been associated with psychoses, and most of the evidence is linked to the presence of an additional X chromosome. We report a patient with XYY chromosome anomaly who developed schizophrenia.

  9. Sexually antagonistic chromosomal cuckoos

    PubMed Central

    Rice, William R.; Gavrilets, Sergey; Friberg, Urban

    2009-01-01

    The two kinds of sex chromosomes in the heterogametic parent are transmitted to offspring with different sexes, causing opposite-sex siblings to be completely unrelated for genes located on these chromosomes. Just as the nest-parasitic cuckoo chick is selected to harm its unrelated nest-mates in order to garner more shared resources, sibling competition causes the sex chromosomes to be selected to harm siblings that do not carry them. Here we quantify and contrast this selection on the X and Y, or Z and W, sex chromosomes. We also develop a hypothesis for how this selection can contribute to the decay of the non-recombining sex chromosome. PMID:19364719

  10. Capturing Chromosome Conformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Job; Rippe, Karsten; Dekker, Martijn; Kleckner, Nancy

    2002-02-01

    We describe an approach to detect the frequency of interaction between any two genomic loci. Generation of a matrix of interaction frequencies between sites on the same or different chromosomes reveals their relative spatial disposition and provides information about the physical properties of the chromatin fiber. This methodology can be applied to the spatial organization of entire genomes in organisms from bacteria to human. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we could confirm known qualitative features of chromosome organization within the nucleus and dynamic changes in that organization during meiosis. We also analyzed yeast chromosome III at the G1 stage of the cell cycle. We found that chromatin is highly flexible throughout. Furthermore, functionally distinct AT- and GC-rich domains were found to exhibit different conformations, and a population-average 3D model of chromosome III could be determined. Chromosome III emerges as a contorted ring.

  11. Child Protective Intervention in the Context of Welfare Reform: The Effects of Work and Welfare on Maltreatment Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slack, Kristen Shook; Holl, Jane L.; Lee, Bong Joo; McDaniel, Marla; Altenbernd, Lisa; Stevens, Amy Bush

    2003-01-01

    Recent changes in welfare policy have produced changes in parental work and welfare receipt. These factors are assessed in relation to investigated reports of child abuse and neglect using survey data on 1998 welfare recipients in nine Illinois counties, in conjunction with longitudinal administrative data on cash welfare benefits, employment, and…

  12. Education and Partnerships in Child Welfare: Mapping the Implementation of a Child Welfare Certificate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Scottye J.; Mathiesen, Sally G.; Barbanell, Lisa D.; Smith, Thomas E.; Graham, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of focus groups conducted with participants following the completion of a Child Welfare Practice Certificate Program. Concept mapping was used as the guiding research method for the data collection and analysis. Social work students and child welfare workers generated statements during the focus group session that…

  13. Methamphetamine and the Changing Face of Child Welfare: Practice Principles for Child Welfare Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell-Carrick, Kelli

    2007-01-01

    Methamphetamine use and production is changing child welfare practice. Methamphetamine is a significant public health threat (National Institute of Justice, 1999) reaching epidemic proportions (Anglin, Burke, Perrochet, Stamper, & Dawud-Nouris, 2000). The manufacturing of methamphetamine is a serious problem for the child welfare system, yet…

  14. Welfare Reform in Missouri. A Report of the Welfare Reform Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Simone, Peter, Ed.; Kunz, Julia, Ed.

    This report outlines findings and recommendations of a committee study of whether the State of Missouri is in need of welfare reform. The major finding is that Missouri's current welfare system is substantially deficient and requires correction of laws, policies, practices, and resource allocation. Three major themes are the following: (1) welfare…

  15. An Assessment of Social Welfare in Spain: Territorial Analysis Using a Synthetic Welfare Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espina, Pilar Zarzosa; Arechavala, Noelia Somarriba

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is measure social welfare in Spanish provinces. To achieve this, we use the distance method P[subscript 2] to compose a synthetic indicator of welfare for 2007, the last year for which data are available. The index comprises information on different social indicators from various life domains and enables a classification of…

  16. Children and Welfare Reform: A Guide to Evaluating the Effects of State Welfare Policies on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Although targeted explicitly at changing adult behaviors and outcomes, welfare reform has direct implications for children. This guidebook details the results of the Project on State-Level Child Outcomes, designed to assist states in measuring child outcomes in the context of welfare reform programs. The guidebook is presented in three sections.…

  17. Engaging Parents in Child Welfare Services: Bridging Family Needs and Child Welfare Mandates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Susan P.; Marcenko, Maureen O.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Vesneski, William

    2009-01-01

    Calls for expanded use of tested child mental health interventions in child welfare practice add new urgency to the longstanding question of how to enhance parent engagement in child welfare services, where low and uneven levels of engagement are pervasive, and services to parents and children tend to be separated, leaving important opportunities…

  18. Challenges of welfare-to-work programs.

    PubMed

    Precin, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Governmental expectations of placement outcomes were often high given the severity of work barriers that were present in disabled welfare recipients in the United States [11]. The purpose of this article is to identify challenges that were inherent in welfare-to-work programs and solutions to these challenges. Although rich with opportunity, welfare-to-work programs presented the challenge of employing large numbers of difficult-to-employ individuals before their public assistance benefits expired\\cite{5}. Many clients also had symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) secondary to childhood physical or sexual abuse (59%) or severe domestic violence (55%) [8]. Few funds were available for work training and education. Instead, the employment-first model was expected even though most consumers did not have a high school diploma, had not worked in years, and were fearful and resistant about returning to work [3]. Performance based payment systems presented a challenge because the program's future depended on the compliance of its consumers. There was an impetus for substance abusers to return to work even if they were still using drugs, which contradicted the teachings of many recovery models. This paper presents possible solutions to each of these problems and reports outcomes of one particular welfare-to-work program. By examining the challenges of welfare-to-work programs, by identifying solutions, and by realizing that these solutions are inherent in the basic principles of rehabilitation, this article provides therapists with tools and motivation to make unique contributions to this area of practice.

  19. Standardized Welfare Terms for the Zebrafish Community

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Natasha A.; Blackledge, Samuel; Clark, Bradley; Keeble, Rosemary; Kovacs, Ceri; Murray, Katrina N.; Price, Michael; Thompson, Peter; Bussell, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Managing the welfare of laboratory animals is critical to animal health, vital in the understanding of phenotypes created by treatment or genetic alteration and ensures compliance of regulations. Part of an animal welfare assessment is the requirement to record observations, ensuring all those responsible for the animals are aware of their health status and can act accordingly. Although the use of zebrafish in research continues to increase, guidelines for conducting welfare assessments and the reporting of observations are considered unclear compared to mammalian species. To support the movement of zebrafish between facilities, significant improvement would be achieved through the use of standardized terms to ensure clarity and consistency between facilities. Improving the clarity of terminology around welfare not only addresses our ethical obligation but also supports the research goals and provides a searchable description of the phenotypes. A Collaboration between the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and Cambridge University (Department of Medicine-Laboratory of Molecular Biology) has led to the creation of the zebrafish welfare terms from which standardization of terminology can be achieved. PMID:27096380

  20. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, Sanford A.

    1995-07-18

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism's chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

  1. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, S.A.

    1995-07-18

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes. 9 figs.

  2. Human chromosome 22.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, J C; Aurias, A; Julier, C; Prieur, M; Szajnert, M F

    1987-01-01

    The acrocentric chromosome 22, one of the shortest human chromosomes, carries about 52 000 kb of DNA. The short arm is made up essentially of heterochromatin and, as in other acrocentric chromosomes, it contains ribosomal RNA genes. Ten identified genes have been assigned to the long arm, of which four have already been cloned and documented (the cluster of lambda immunoglobulin genes, myoglobin, the proto-oncogene c-sis, bcr). In addition, about 10 anonymous DNA segments have been cloned from chromosome 22 specific DNA libraries. About a dozen diseases, including at least four different malignancies, are related to an inherited or acquired pathology of chromosome 22. They have been characterised at the phenotypic or chromosome level or both. In chronic myelogenous leukaemia, with the Ph1 chromosome, and Burkitt's lymphoma, with the t(8;22) variant translocation, the molecular pathology is being studied at the DNA level, bridging for the first time the gap between cytogenetics and molecular genetics. PMID:3550088

  3. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Lacks, S.A.

    1991-12-31

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA and chromosomal DNA cloned by this method are disclosed. The method includes the selection of a target organism having a segment of chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned. A first DNA segment, having a first restriction enzyme site on either side. homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

  4. THE HUMAN CHROMOSOME

    PubMed Central

    Abuelo, J. G.; Moore, Dorothy E.

    1969-01-01

    Human lymphocytes were grown in short-term tissue culture and were arrested in metaphase with Colcemid. Their chromosomes were prepared by the Langmuir trough-critical point drying technique and were examined under the electron microscope. In addition, some chromosomes were digested with trypsin, Pronase, or DNase. The chromosomes consist entirely of tightly packed, 240 ± 50-A chromatin fibers. Trypsin and Pronase treatments induce relaxation of fiber packing and reveal certain underlying fiber arrangements. Furthermore, trypsin treatment demonstrates that the chromatin fiber has a 25–50 A trypsin-resistant core surrounded by a trypsin-sensitive sheath. DNase digestion suggests that this core contains DNA. PMID:5775795

  5. Chromosome Segregation Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Nicklas, R. Bruce

    1974-01-01

    Most aspects of chromosome distribution to the daughter cells in meiosis and mitosis are now understood, at the cellular level. The most striking evidence that the proposed explanation is valid is that it correctly predicts the outcome of experiments on living cells in which the experimenter (1) can determine the distribution of any chosen chromosome to a chosen daughter cell, (2) can induce a mal-orientation, and (3) can stabilize a mal-orientation, causing non-disjunction of a chosen bivalent. Recent reviews of chromosome distribution mechanisms are also considered, in an attempt to clarify the remaining unsolved problems. PMID:4442702

  6. Animal Welfare: Data from an Online Consultation

    PubMed Central

    Baldinelli, Chiara; Iulietto, Maria F.; Goga, Beniamino T. Cenci

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses data obtained from an online survey related to animal welfare and religious slaughter topics. The questionnaire was conducted with the purpose of examining the purchase behaviour of a group of consumers (with different religious orientation) and their views on animal protection and ritual slaughter. The main results of the consultation were two. The first evidenced the respondents’ great interest about the question on animal welfare, which is in accordance with the growing interest of European citizens concerning this issue. The second was the demand for a more transparent labelling of animal products, which would also reflect animal welfare and the slaughter method used. These results are in contrast with marketing analysis, which finds that consumers want to only receive positive information. Paradoxically, the more information is transmitted to reassure consumers, the higher is the risk to alarm them. PMID:27800424

  7. Animal welfare: a social networks perspective.

    PubMed

    Kleinhappel, Tanja K; John, Elizabeth A; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna; Burman, Oliver H P

    2016-01-01

    Social network theory provides a useful tool to study complex social relationships in animals. The possibility to look beyond dyadic interactions by considering whole networks of social relationships allows researchers the opportunity to study social groups in more natural ways. As such, network-based analyses provide an informative way to investigate the factors influencing the social environment of group-living animals, and so has direct application to animal welfare. For example, animal groups in captivity are frequently disrupted by separations, reintroductions and/or mixing with unfamiliar individuals and this can lead to social stress and associated aggression. Social network analysis ofanimal groups can help identify the underlying causes of these socially-derived animal welfare concerns. In this review we discuss how this approach can be applied, and how it could be used to identify potential interventions and solutions in the area of animal welfare.

  8. Social welfare with a foreign competitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, we consider a mixed market in which a state-owned welfare-maximizing public (domestic) firm competes against a profit-maximizing private (foreign) firm. We suppose that the domestic firm is less efficient than the foreign firm. However, the domestic firm can lower its marginal costs by conducting cost-reducing R&D investment. We examine the impacts of entry of a foreign firm on decisions upon cost-reducing R&D investment by the domestic firm and how these affect the domestic welfare.

  9. Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-06-02

    This final rule replaces the Statewide and Tribal Automated Child Welfare Information Systems (S/TACWIS) rule with the Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System (CCWIS) rule. The rule also makes conforming amendments in rules in related requirements. This rule will assist title IV-E agencies in developing information management systems that leverage new innovations and technology in order to better serve children and families. More specifically, this final rule supports the use of cost-effective, innovative technologies to automate the collection of high-quality case management data and to promote its analysis, distribution, and use by workers, supervisors, administrators, researchers, and policy makers.

  10. Social Welfare Expenditures and Infant Mortality.

    PubMed

    Shim, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of social welfare expenditures on infant mortality (deaths younger than age 1 per 1,000 live births) across 19 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries from 1980 to 2010. Data are obtained from various sources including the OECD, World Health Organization, and World Bank. The findings indicate that among three social welfare expenditure measures for families, the expenditures on family cash allowances are predicted to reduce infant mortality. However, the other two measures-the expenditures on parental and maternity leave and expenditures on family services-have no significant effects on infant mortality.

  11. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  12. Chromosome doubling method

    DOEpatents

    Kato, Akio

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for chromosome doubling in plants. The technique overcomes the low yields of doubled progeny associated with the use of prior techniques for doubling chromosomes in plants such as grasses. The technique can be used in large scale applications and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in maize. Following treatment in accordance with the invention, plants remain amenable to self fertilization, thereby allowing the efficient isolation of doubled progeny plants.

  13. Chromosome evolution in Eulipotyphla.

    PubMed

    Biltueva, L; Vorobieva, N

    2012-01-01

    We integrated chromosome painting information on 5 core-insectivora species available in the literature with new Zoo-FISH data for Iberian shrew (Sorex granarius) and Altai mole (Talpa altaica). Our analysis of these 7 species allowed us to determine the chromosomal features of Eulipotyphla genomes and to update the previously proposed ancestral karyotype for 2 main groups of the Sorex genus. The chromosome painting evidence with human painting probes (HSA) reveals the presence of the 2 unique associations HSA4/5 and 1/10p/12/22b, which support Eulipotyphla. There are a series of synapomorphies both for Erinaceidae (HSA3/1/5, 3/17, 11/15 and 10/20) and for Soricinae (HSA5/9, 6/7/16, 8/3/21 and 11/12/22). We found associations that link Talpidae/Erinaceidae (HSA7/8, 1/5 and 1/19p), Talpidae/Soricidae (HSA1/8/4) and Erinaceidae/Soricidae (HSA4/20 and 2/13). Genome conservation in Eulipotyphla was estimated on the basis of the number of evolutionary breaks in the ancestral mammalian chromosomes. In total, 7 chromosomes of the boreo-eutherian ancestor (BEA8 or 10, 9, 17, 18, 20-22) were retained in all eulipotyphlans studied; among them moles show the highest level of chromosome conservation. The integration of sequence data into the chromosome painting information allowed us to further examine the chromosomal syntenies within a phylogenetic perspective. Based on our analysis we offer the most parsimonious reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in Eulipotyphla. The cytogenetic reconstructions based on these data do not conflict with molecular phylogenies supporting basal position of Talpidae in the order.

  14. [Sex chromosomes and meiosis].

    PubMed

    Guichaoua, M-R; Geoffroy-Siraudin, C; Tassistro, V; Ghalamoun-Slaimi, R; Perrin, J; Metzler-Guillemain, C

    2009-01-01

    Sex chromosome behaviour fundamentally differs between male and female meiosis. In oocyte, X chromosomes synapse giving a XX bivalent which is not recognizable in their morphology and behaviour from autosomal bivalents. In human male, X and Y chromosomes differ from one another in their morphology and their genetic content, leading to a limited pairing and preventing genetic recombination, excepted in homologous region PAR1. During pachytene stage of the first meiotic prophase, X and Y chromosomes undergo a progressive condensation and form a transcriptionally silenced peripheral XY body. The condensation of the XY bivalent during pachytene stage led us to describe four pachytene substages and to localize the pachytene checkpoint between substages 2 and 3. We also defined the pachytene index (PI=P1+P2/P1+P2+P3+P4) which is always less than 0.50 in normal meiosis. XY body undergoes decondensation at diplotene stage, but transcriptional inactivation of the two sex chromosomes or Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation (MSCI) persists through to the end of spermatogenesis. Sex chromosome inactivation involves several proteins, some of them were now identified. Two isoforms of the HP1 protein, HP1beta and HP1gamma, are involved in the facultative heterochromatinization of the XY body, but the initiation of this process involves the phosphorylation of the protein H2AX by the kinase ATR whose recruitment depends on BRCA1. Extensive researches on the inactivation of the sex chromosomes during male meiosis will allow to a better understanding of some male infertilities.

  15. Genetic markers on chromosome 7.

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, L C

    1988-01-01

    Chromosome 7 is frequently associated with chromosome aberrations, rearrangements, and deletions. It also contains many important genes, gene families, and disease loci. This brief review attempts to summarise these and other interesting aspects of chromosome 7. With the rapid accumulation of cloned genes and polymorphic DNA fragments, this chromosome has become an excellent substrate for molecular genetic studies. PMID:3290488

  16. Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations, among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes frequently reported in chromosomal disorders. Methods Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature. Results In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG anomalies seems to be quite typical, in others the manifestations appear aspecific and no strictly linked with the chromosomal imbalance. The onset of seizures is often during the neonatal period of the infancy. Conclusions A better characterization of the electro clinical patterns associated with specific chromosomal aberrations could give us a valuable key in the identification of epilepsy susceptibility of some chromosomal loci, using the new advances in molecular cytogenetics techniques - such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), subtelomeric analysis and CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) microarray. However further studies are needed to understand the mechanism of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:20438626

  17. Mobile Equipment Expands Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, Robert L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes the Mobile Equipment Modules (MEM) system in Duluth, Minnesota. MEM is a way to hold down costs and increase learning opportunities by consolidating purchases of expensive shop equipment within the school district, grouping the equipment in modules, and scheduling and moving it from school to school as needed. (MF)

  18. Micromechanics of human mitotic chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingxuan; Kawamura, Ryo; Marko, John F.

    2011-02-01

    Eukaryote cells dramatically reorganize their long chromosomal DNAs to facilitate their physical segregation during mitosis. The internal organization of folded mitotic chromosomes remains a basic mystery of cell biology; its understanding would likely shed light on how chromosomes are separated from one another as well as into chromosome structure between cell divisions. We report biophysical experiments on single mitotic chromosomes from human cells, where we combine micromanipulation, nano-Newton-scale force measurement and biochemical treatments to study chromosome connectivity and topology. Results are in accord with previous experiments on amphibian chromosomes and support the 'chromatin network' model of mitotic chromosome structure. Prospects for studies of chromosome-organizing proteins using siRNA expression knockdowns, as well as for differential studies of chromosomes with and without mutations associated with genetic diseases, are also discussed.

  19. Welfare reform and child care: evidence from 10 experimental welfare-to-work programs.

    PubMed

    Robins, Philip K

    2007-10-01

    This article examines the employment and child care responses of families participating in 10 experimental welfare reform programs conducted in the United States between 1989 and 2002. For the programs analyzed, child care use increases by about the same amount as the increase in employment. Most of the increased child care comprises informal care by a relative, particularly care by a sibling or a grandparent. Although there are significant differences in the child care responses across the various programs tested, there are no significant differences in the impacts for persons leaving welfare versus persons staying on welfare.

  20. Equine Welfare in England and Wales: Exploration of Stakeholders' Understanding.

    PubMed

    Horseman, Susan V; Buller, Henry; Mullan, Siobhan; Knowles, Toby G; Barr, Alistair R S; Whay, Helen R

    2017-01-01

    Investigating how those responsible for the care of nonhuman animals understand the concept of animal welfare is important for animal welfare improvement. In-depth interviews with 31 equine stakeholders were used to explore their perceptions and understanding of welfare. The results showed the stakeholders understood the concept of welfare in 4 ways. Firstly, welfare was understood in terms of the provision of resources-for example, food. Secondly, a "horse-centered" understanding of welfare was articulated; this understanding included the horses' mental state and was linked to natural behavior. Thirdly, the word welfare had negative connotations, and for some, good welfare was achieved through avoidance of negative states. Finally, interviewees discussed incidents that occurred in their own familiar contexts but suggested that these were not welfare problems. Evidence indicated that the ways in which equine stakeholders understood the concept of welfare might have been acting as a barrier to the alleviation of some equine welfare problems. There is a need for strategies aimed at improving equine welfare to consider stakeholder constructs of welfare and the ways in which these constructs are generated and acted upon.

  1. Mental Health Practice Guidelines for Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The guidelines and supporting rationale presented in this paper were developed from the October 2007 "Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference" sponsored by Casey Family Programs, the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the REACH Institute (REsource for Advancing Children's Health). The purpose of the conference was to…

  2. Literary Fiction Influences Attitudes Toward Animal Welfare.

    PubMed

    Małecki, Wojciech; Pawłowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group) people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912) read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items) measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended) to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare.

  3. Leaving Welfare: Independence or Continued Vulnerability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Jacquelyn; Gaddis, Barbara J.; Fletcher, Cynthia Needles; Winter, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with seven women before and 6 months after leaving welfare revealed barriers to self-sufficiency (low wages, lack of advancement opportunities in jobs, confusion about program regulations) and survival strategies (continued reliance on income and family support, banking of care benefits under the 5-year limit as a safety net). (SK)

  4. Global Perspectives on Child Welfare. Preface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the effects of a global perspective on awareness of issues affecting child welfare worldwide, including warfare, land mines, AIDS, child labor, child sexual exploitation, and immigration. Considers programs and policies from other countries, including nongovernmental organizations, that can be replicated worldwide to better children's…

  5. Measuring Racial Disparity in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Terry V.; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Magruder, Joseph; Needell, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Overrepresentation of certain racial/ethnic groups in the foster care system is one of the most troubling and challenging issues in child welfare today. In response, many states have started reporting outcomes by race and ethnicity to identify disproportionately high rates of system contact. The identification of disproportional representation is…

  6. Team Leader; Refugee Welfare Field Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Thomas

    The preparatory manual is one of a series produced by the Refugee Welfare Training Team in Qui Nhon, Binh-Dinh Province, Vietnam, for use in training teams of government personnel to work with refugees. The purpose was to improve living conditions, overcome lethargy and despair, develop a community structure, engage group action, and prepare for…

  7. [Multi-Family-Groups in Youth Welfare].

    PubMed

    Ochs, Matthias; Hermans, Björn Enno; Lingnau-Carduck, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Multi-Family-Groups are an intervention setting, that is mainly applied in the context of systemic therapy and counselling. In this article we introduce some basics of that setting and sketch some specifics and two examples of use for the application in the context of youth welfare.

  8. Welfare Careers and Low Wage Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joe A.; Ferman, Louis A.

    A sample of 1010 low-wage workers in Detroit (stratified by sex and welfare status) were interviewed in 1969. Data were collected on background characteristics, labor market experiences, and work career histories. The data relate to sexism as an important determinant of income in low-wage groups (women earn less and have lower status jobs),…

  9. The use of animal welfare indicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At any given time, an animal’s welfare ranges on a scale of very good to very poor. It contains both physical elements and mental elements. The physical elements, such as behaviour, physiology, health, productivity and pathology, can be measured relatively easily, in an experimental setting, but the...

  10. Culture, Cooperation, and the General Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berigan, Nick; Irwin, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Solutions to social dilemmas require cooperation. Given that there are commonly multiple avenues for cooperation, sometimes social dilemmas require coordination of strategies in addition to sufficient cooperation to be successful. This study examines one social dilemma where such coordination is necessary: supporting the general welfare. Using…

  11. Utilization of Education by Maryland's Welfare Customers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Human Resources, Baltimore.

    Research was conducted on the use of education services by welfare recipients in Maryland through surveying local departments of social services and using university research departments. Information was sought on the following: the number of Temporary Cash Assistance (TCA) customers engaged in educational activities, the types of activities,…

  12. School Inequality and the Welfare State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, John D.

    This book begins with an examination of school inequality in the United States. The discussion focuses successively on the issues of: the paradox of unequal schools in a welfare state, the distribution of educational resources in American cities: some new empirical evidence, inequalities in the allocation of educational resources among cities and…

  13. The View from 1999: A Welfare Fantasy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olasky, Marvin

    1995-01-01

    This fantasy looks back from 1999 to chronicle the imagined scenario of welfare reform in the presidency of Forrest Gump (and the vice-presidency of William Bennett). The decline in government assistance is matched by an increase in private sources of aid and a heightened sense of personal responsibility among Americans. (SLD)

  14. Adoption and Child Welfare Protection in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumaret, Annick-Camille; Rosset, Dominique-Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the French Child Protection system, which is managed by Child Welfare of the local authorities (Aide Sociale a l'Enfance) and by Judicial Juvenile Protection depending on the central government (Protection Judiciaire de la Jeunesse) Children's judges are involved in child protection. The majority of children in care live in…

  15. Welfare Triangles and Economic Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    Shows how the concepts of consumer's surplus and producer's surplus can be related to basic welfare economics. Provides illustrations of the ways in which these concepts can be applied in introductory economics courses. Examines the social cost of monopoly, the tax burden, free trade, tariffs, and the English Channel Tunnel. (KO)

  16. Summary: Ecosystem Services and Human Welfare

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecosystem services paradigm is a framework conceived to engage support among people, especially policy- and decision-makers, for the recognition that human welfare, prosperity, security, and well-being are intrinsically linked to the health of the environment. Simply stated, ...

  17. Welfare and Support Services for Farm Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stayner, Richard; Barclay, Elaine

    Following the extended Australian drought of the 1990s, a review was undertaken to assess the programs and services that support farm families and respond to their welfare needs. A total of 43 service providers and 21 farm families were interviewed in New South Wales and Queensland. Following an introduction and description of methodology, the…

  18. Training Social Welfare Manpower; The Essential Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Social Work Education, New York, NY.

    Attended by high level administrators and advisors from 96 countries, both developing and industrialized, the 1968 Conference of Ministers Responsible for Social Welfare focused on implications for national development, government responsibility, the meeting of professional and nonprofessional manpower needs, and forms of international…

  19. Car Ownership and Welfare-to-Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the role of car ownership in facilitating employment among recipients under the current welfare-to-work law. Because of a potential problem with simultaneity, the analysis uses predicted car ownership constructed from two instrumental variables, insurance premiums and population density for car ownership. The data come from a…

  20. Welfare Use when Approaching the Time Limit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzolari, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    Time limits reduce caseloads directly by cutting off benefits after a time-limited usage, but may also provide families with an incentive to reduce welfare use in order to conserve their benefits. Both effects depend on the stock of remaining months of eligibility. This is the first empirical study to incorporate information on this crucial…

  1. Searching for behavioral indicators of welfare in zoos: uncovering anticipatory behavior.

    PubMed

    Watters, Jason V

    2014-01-01

    A current focus of zoo-based research aims to identify indicators of animal welfare. Reliable behavioral indicators of welfare are highly desirable as behavioral observation is non invasive and requires little in the way of specialized equipment and other costly resources-save for observer time. Anticipatory behavior is an indicator of an animal's sensitivity to reward and as such, it is a real-time indicator of animals' own perceptions of their well-being. In fact, anticipatory behavior may generate a positive affective state and thus be at least a brief manifestation of good welfare itself. The husbandry conditions of most captive animals are such that food acquisition and other positive outcomes are highly scheduled and easily signaled. These conditions promote the development of anticipatory behavior, yet little research has either documented or interpreted this behavior in zoo and aquarium animals. This commentary suggests that anticipatory behavior could be a useful tool for assessing welfare and calls upon zoo and aquarium researchers to begin to develop this tool by describing the behavior and the circumstances that lead to its modulation.

  2. Assessing the welfare of laboratory mice in their home environment using animal-based measures--a benchmarking tool.

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, Elin M F; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-02-01

    Welfare problems in laboratory mice can be a consequence of an ongoing experiment, or a characteristic of a particular genetic line, but in some cases, such as breeding animals, they are most likely to be a result of the design and management of the home cage. Assessment of the home cage environment is commonly performed using resource-based measures, like access to nesting material. However, animal-based measures (related to the health status and behaviour of the animals) can be used to assess the current welfare of animals regardless of the inputs applied (i.e. the resources or management). The aim of this study was to design a protocol for assessing the welfare of laboratory mice using only animal-based measures. The protocol, to be used as a benchmarking tool, assesses mouse welfare in the home cage and does not contain parameters related to experimental situations. It is based on parameters corresponding to the 12 welfare criteria established by the Welfare Quality® project. Selection of animal-based measures was performed by scanning existing published, web-based and informal protocols, and by choosing parameters that matched these criteria, were feasible in practice and, if possible, were already validated indicators of mouse welfare. The parameters should identify possible animal welfare problems and enable assessment directly in an animal room during cage cleaning procedures, without the need for extra equipment. Thermal comfort behaviours and positive emotional states are areas where more research is needed to find valid, reliable and feasible animal-based measures.

  3. Philadelphia chromosome duplication as a ring-shaped chromosome.

    PubMed

    Borjas-Gutierrez, Cesar; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The gain of a second copy of the Philadelphia chromosome is one of the main secondary chromosomal changes related to the clonal evolution of cells with t(9;22) in chronic myelogenous leukemia. This gain causes the acquisition of another copy of the BCR/ABL1 fusion gene. Isochromosomes of the der(22) chromosome or double minute chromosomes are well known to lead an increased copy number of BCR/ABL1 gene. There is no antecedent of Philadelphia chromosome duplication as a ring chromosome. A recent published report contains evidence that strongly suggests that the Philadelphia chromosome was duplicated as a ring chromosome, observation that was overlooked by the authors. The instability inherent to the ring chromosome increases the risk of emergence of clones containing more and more BCR/ABL1 gene copies, which would produce increased fitness for clonal selection, resulting in worsening of the patient's prognosis.

  4. What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, A. J. F.

    1998-06-01

    My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

  5. Hispanic on Welfare--the Facts and Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcelo, Cosme J., Jr.; Breiter, Toni

    1977-01-01

    The article presented an overview of Hispanic participation rates in specifically defined "welfare" programs. It was noted that data on national participation rates of Hispanics in these welfare programs is somewhat scattered and at times incomplete. (NQ)

  6. The 'Real Welfare' scheme: benchmarking welfare outcomes for commercially farmed pigs.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, F; Stoddart, K; Wainwright, N; Kyriazakis, I; Edwards, S A

    2017-03-02

    Animal welfare standards have been incorporated in EU legislation and in farm assurance schemes, based on scientific information and aiming to safeguard the welfare of the species concerned. Recently, emphasis has shifted from resource-based measures of welfare to animal-based measures, which are considered to assess more accurately the welfare status. The data used in this analysis were collected from April 2013 to May 2016 through the 'Real Welfare' scheme in order to assess on-farm pig welfare, as required for those finishing pigs under the UK Red Tractor Assurance scheme. The assessment involved five main measures (percentage of pigs requiring hospitalization, percentage of lame pigs, percentage of pigs with severe tail lesions, percentage of pigs with severe body marks and enrichment use ratio) and optional secondary measures (percentage of pigs with mild tail lesions, percentage of pigs with dirty tails, percentage of pigs with mild body marks, percentage of pigs with dirty bodies), with associated information about the environment and the enrichment in the farms. For the complete database, a sample of pens was assessed from 1928 farm units. Repeated measures were taken in the same farm unit over time, giving 112 240 records at pen level. These concerned a total of 13 480 289 pigs present on the farm during the assessments, with 5 463 348 pigs directly assessed using the 'Real Welfare' protocol. The three most common enrichment types were straw, chain and plastic objects. The main substrate was straw which was present in 67.9% of the farms. Compared with 2013, a significant increase of pens with undocked-tail pigs, substrates and objects was observed over time (P0.3). The results from the first 3 years of the scheme demonstrate a reduction of the prevalence of animal-based measures of welfare problems and highlight the value of this initiative.

  7. "Chromosome": a knowledge-based system for the chromosome classification.

    PubMed

    Ramstein, G; Bernadet, M

    1993-01-01

    Chromosome, a knowledge-based analysis system has been designed for the classification of human chromosomes. Its aim is to perform an optimal classification by driving a tool box containing the procedures of image processing, pattern recognition and classification. This paper presents the general architecture of Chromosome, based on a multiagent system generator. The image processing tool box is described from the met aphasic enhancement to the fine classification. Emphasis is then put on the knowledge base intended for the chromosome recognition. The global classification process is also presented, showing how Chromosome proceeds to classify a given chromosome. Finally, we discuss further extensions of the system for the karyotype building.

  8. Organizational influences on data use among child welfare workers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jung; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Berlin, Lisa J

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses organizational factors associated with child welfare workers' data use in their day-to-day work. Survey data from 237 respondents were analyzed using logistic regression. Familiarity with data and supervisor support were significant predictors of child welfare workers' data use. Findings highlight the value of child welfare organizations (a) facilitating workers' familiarity with child welfare data and data use and (b) training or educating supervisors so that they can support workers' use of data.

  9. Pupil Welfare in Finnish Schools -- Communal or Falling Apart?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskela, Teija; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2013-01-01

    The need for pupil welfare has increased in schools as has the need to renew the traditional teacher's work. The purpose of this article is to find out how committed the teachers are to pupil welfare work and how the school organisation supports pupil welfare work structurally and practically. The original research was carried out in northern…

  10. Impacts of toxic plants on the welfare of grazing livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in farm animal welfare has been increasing for several decades. Animal health is an integral part of animal welfare, but the concept of animal welfare has evolved from an emphasis on physical health, and coping ability to a greater sensitivity to and recognition of animals’ experiences of...

  11. Governmental and Nongovernmental Youth Welfare in the New German Lander.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawlik, Marion; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Survey of the general conditions of youth welfare departments in eastern Germany revealed severe money shortages. Increasing demands on youth welfare, rising social problems, right-wing extremism, and widespread unemployment among youths cause long-term social problems and prohibit effective youth welfare. (RJM)

  12. 12 CFR 24.3 - Public welfare investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.3 Public welfare investments. A national bank or national bank subsidiary may make an investment directly or... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public welfare investments. 24.3 Section...

  13. Toward a New Vision for Child Welfare in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharf, Brian

    1995-01-01

    Identifies the major themes that have emerged in this special issue on child welfare in Canada, and presents a critique of the policies and practices now dominating the Canadian child welfare enterprise. Outlines the changes required to move child welfare from its residual stance into an enterprise that develops a capacity for innovative practice.…

  14. Globalization, Child Welfare Policy, and the Economics of Social Uplift.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casella, Ronnie

    2002-01-01

    Explores both the development of child welfare in the United States and the impact of international declarations of human and child rights from a global perspective, focusing on: child welfare and the visiting teacher profession in the United States; research on the well-being of children; child welfare policy in an international context; the…

  15. The Impact of Welfare Reform on Asian Immigrant Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiwara, Lynn H.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the policy implications of welfare reform on the Asian-immigrant community, beginning with a systematic analysis of the relationships between Asian immigrants and the public-welfare system since 1965. The dismantling of welfare that has coincided with immigration reform has left naturalization as the only protection in the current…

  16. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Timothy P.; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent’s personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes. PMID:26554361

  17. The Relationship of Welfare Receipt to Child Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Anne K.; Moore, Kristin A.

    Receipt of welfare is often negatively correlated with children's outcomes. However, because virtually all children who live in households that receive public assistance are poor, the question arises whether poor child outcomes are truly an effect of welfare, have only a spurious relationship to welfare receipt, or are a result of welfare…

  18. The Legacy of Welfare: Economic Endowments or Cultural Characteristics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomae, Suzanne; Fox, Jonathan J.; McKenry, Patrick C.

    2004-01-01

    The current study explores the impact of parental welfare history on individuals' current use of welfare by decomposing intergenerational differences using techniques traditionally employed in the race and sex wage discrimination literature. This research extends Rank and Cheng's examination of welfare across generations by including various…

  19. Devolution and Welfare Reform: Re-Evaluating "Success"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheely, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The passage of welfare reform shifted significant authority for welfare provision from the federal government to state and local governments. Proponents of devolution point to drastic caseload declines as evidence that state-run programs are decreasing dependency among families. However, welfare rolls in many states have remained stagnant or…

  20. Child Welfare Research and Training: A Response to David Stoesz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brenda D.; Vandiver, Vikki L.

    2016-01-01

    In this response to David Stoesz' critique, "The Child Welfare Cartel," the authors agree that child welfare research and training must be improved. The authors disagree, however, with Stoesz' critique of social work education, his assessment of the most-needed forms of child welfare research, and his depiction of the goals and…

  1. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the...) Chapter 1-43 of the Department Grants Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2...

  2. 48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Animal welfare. 252.235... Clauses 252.235-7002 Animal welfare. As prescribed in 235.072(a), use the following clause: Animal Welfare... animals only from dealers licensed by the Secretary of Agriculture under 7 U.S.C. 2133 and 9 CFR subpart...

  3. 48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Animal welfare. 252.235... Clauses 252.235-7002 Animal welfare. As prescribed in 235.072(a), use the following clause: Animal Welfare... animals only from dealers licensed by the Secretary of Agriculture under 7 U.S.C. 2133 and 9 CFR subpart...

  4. 48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Animal welfare. 252.235... Clauses 252.235-7002 Animal welfare. As prescribed in 235.072(a), use the following clause: Animal Welfare... animals only from dealers licensed by the Secretary of Agriculture under 7 U.S.C. 2133 and 9 CFR subpart...

  5. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section 86.19... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be... concerning animal welfare. 2 The Department Grants Administration Manual is available for inspection at...

  6. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section 86.19... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be... concerning animal welfare. 2 The Department Grants Administration Manual is available for inspection at...

  7. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the...) Chapter 1-43 of the Department Grants Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2...

  8. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section 86.19... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be... concerning animal welfare. 2 The Department Grants Administration Manual is available for inspection at...

  9. 48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Animal welfare. 252.235... Clauses 252.235-7002 Animal welfare. As prescribed in 235.072(a), use the following clause: Animal Welfare... animals only from dealers licensed by the Secretary of Agriculture under 7 U.S.C. 2133 and 9 CFR subpart...

  10. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the...) Chapter 1-43 of the Department Grants Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2...

  11. 48 CFR 252.235-7002 - Animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Animal welfare. 252.235... Clauses 252.235-7002 Animal welfare. As prescribed in 235.072(a), use the following clause: Animal Welfare... animals only from dealers licensed by the Secretary of Agriculture under 7 U.S.C. 2133 and 9 CFR subpart...

  12. 12 CFR 24.3 - Public welfare investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public welfare investments. 24.3 Section 24.3... DEVELOPMENT ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.3 Public welfare investments. A national bank or national bank subsidiary may make an investment directly...

  13. A Look at Child Welfare from a Homeless Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Although navigating the child welfare system can be daunting for those working in the field of homeless education, local liaisons and others must determine whether children in the child welfare system are eligible for McKinney-Vento services and collaborate with child welfare staff. This document provides an overview of the U.S. child welfare…

  14. The Child Welfare Profession's Perception of Residential Care for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry W.

    2008-01-01

    This research study explored the Child Welfare League of America's (CWLA) perception of residential care for children, as a reflection of the child welfare profession as a whole. A content analysis of CWLA's national conference programs and the journal "Child Welfare" from 1997 to 2006 found that the profession emphasizes family foster care and…

  15. Sex Chromosome Drive

    PubMed Central

    Helleu, Quentin; Gérard, Pierre R.; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosome drivers are selfish elements that subvert Mendel's first law of segregation and therefore are overrepresented among the products of meiosis. The sex-biased progeny produced then fuels an extended genetic conflict between the driver and the rest of the genome. Many examples of sex chromosome drive are known, but the occurrence of this phenomenon is probably largely underestimated because of the difficulty to detect it. Remarkably, nearly all sex chromosome drivers are found in two clades, Rodentia and Diptera. Although very little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms of drive, epigenetic processes such as chromatin regulation could be involved in many instances. Yet, its evolutionary consequences are far-reaching, from the evolution of mating systems and sex determination to the emergence of new species. PMID:25524548

  16. Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Turner, James M A

    2007-05-01

    X chromosome inactivation is most commonly studied in the context of female mammalian development, where it performs an essential role in dosage compensation. However, another form of X-inactivation takes place in the male, during spermatogenesis, as germ cells enter meiosis. This second form of X-inactivation, called meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) has emerged as a novel paradigm for studying the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. New studies have revealed that MSCI is a special example of a more general mechanism called meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC), which silences chromosomes that fail to pair with their homologous partners and, in doing so, may protect against aneuploidy in subsequent generations. Furthermore, failure in MSCI is emerging as an important etiological factor in meiotic sterility.

  17. Vibrios Commonly Possess Two Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Kazuhisa; Iida, Tetsuya; Kita-Tsukamoto, Kumiko; Honda, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of the two-chromosome configuration was investigated in 34 species of vibrios and closely related species. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of undigested genomic DNA suggested that vibrios commonly have two chromosomes. The size of the large chromosome is predominantly within a narrow range (3.0 to 3.3 Mb), whereas the size of the small chromosome varies considerably among the vibrios (0.8 to 2.4 Mb). This fact suggests that the structure of the small chromosome is more flexible than that of the large chromosome during the evolution of vibrios. PMID:15629946

  18. Chromosomes and clinical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Robert James McKinlay

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome abnormalities may cast light on the nature of mechanisms whereby normal anatomy evolves, and abnormal anatomy arises. Correlating genotype to phenotype is an exercise in which the geneticist and the anatomist can collaborate. The increasing power of the new genetic methodologies is enabling an increasing precision in the delineation of chromosome imbalances, even to the nucleotide level; but the classical skills of careful observation and recording remain as crucial as they always have been. Clin. Anat. 29:540-546, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Moving People from Welfare to Work: Lessons from the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Gayle

    The findings of the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies (NEWWS) were analyzed to identify ways of improving the process of moving people from welfare to work. Selected lessons from the analysis were as follows: (1) welfare-to-work programs that rely on adult basic education programs for the general population are unlikely to improve…

  20. Welfare Program Implementation and Parents’ Depression

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how the frontline practices in welfare offices explain variation in program impacts on parents’ depression. The study uses data from four large-scale experimental studies and conducts multilevel statistical modeling on 6,761 families in 22 local welfare offices. Analyses examine the ways that two program implementation practices (emphasis on quick job entry and personal client attention) are associated with program impacts on parents’ depressive symptoms. Effects vary by the age composition of the parents’ children, such that programmatic emphasis on quick job entry is associated with increases in depression among parents with preschool-age children but not among parents with school-age children. Findings have implications for research, policy, and practice. PMID:22058575

  1. Captive care and welfare considerations for beavers.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Palmer, Róisín; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Beavers (Castor spp.) tend not to be a commonly held species and little published material exists relating to their captive care. We review published material and discuss husbandry issues taking into account the requirements of wild beavers. As social mammals with complex chemical communication systems and with such an ability to modify their environments, studies of wild counterparts suggest the captive requirements of beavers may actually be more sophisticated than generally perceived. Common field techniques may have practical application in the captive setting. Their widespread utilisation in conservation, including reintroductions, translocations and habitat management, also requires components of captive care. As welfare science advances there is increasing pressure on captive collections to improve standards and justify the keeping of animals. Conservation science is increasingly challenged to address individual welfare standards. Further research focusing on the captive care of beavers is required.

  2. Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations.

  3. Do children from welfare families obtain less education?

    PubMed

    Ku, Inhoe; Plotnick, Robert

    2003-02-01

    In this study, we analyzed whether parents' receipt of welfare affects children's educational attainment in early adulthood, independent of its effect through changing family income. We used data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with information on parents' welfare receipt over the first 15 years of childhood. Cross-sectional results show that greater exposure to welfare is significantly associated with children's poorer educational attainment. Family fixed-effect regressions also indicate a negative effect of exposure to welfare, but its overall pattern is less consistent. Although exposure to welfare in early childhood has no effect, in adolescence and, to a lesser degree, in middle childhood, its effect is often negative.

  4. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Africa.

    PubMed

    Masiga, W N; Munyua, S J M

    2005-08-01

    Livestock production systems, production objectives, the cultural values of livestock keepers, and the close relationship between keepers and their livestock have evolved over the years and have influenced the quality of animal welfare in Africa. An equivalent level and quality of care is not evident for companion animals, especially dogs and donkeys, who are often mistreated and physically abused. In the densely populated highland and humid coastal belts of Africa, profit-driven commercial large-scale intensive livestock production systems predominate. As the main production objective of these operations is to maximise profit, the operators of these production systems do not exhibit the same kind of attachment to their livestock as traditional farmers. In some large-scale commercial systems animals and birds are kept in sub-standard poorly constructed structures that greatly restrict the animals' movements. In Africa, conservation of wildlife habitats is part of animal welfare, but due to an increasing human population and a greater demand for land for grazing, cultivation, and housing, wildlife reserves are quickly diminishing. This essentially means that the land that was previously set aside for wildlife and forests is being encroached upon and previously unsettled plains and marginal lands are being used for agriculture and mining. In most places there is significant conflict between humans and wildlife, such that wildlife are considered to be pests that need to be destroyed. This is a particular problem in areas where wildlife have destroyed crops, attacked man and/or livestock, or there has been disease transmission between animals and humans. In situations and/or areas that do not have official animal control services, crude weapons, poisons, and traps are used to kill the wildlife. Animal welfare issues, domestic and wildlife related, need to be urgently addressed through policy and legal frameworks and supported by community awareness of, education about

  5. Literary Fiction Influences Attitudes Toward Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Pawłowski, Bogusław; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Literary fiction has been credited with considerable power to improve attitudes toward outgroups. It was even argued that it has been an important factor behind the global decline of violence against various minorities in the last centuries. Could it also help to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of animals? To test this, we studied the attitude toward animal welfare of n = 921 (experimental group) people of both sexes who read a short fragment of an unpublished novel with a motif of the physical abuse of an animal. The control group (n = 912) read a fragment of a similar length but not related to animals. After reading the text all subjects filled out an on-line questionnaire with seven items (camouflaged among many others items) measuring attitudes toward animal welfare. The questionnaire included also demographical questions, such as whether the subject keeps pets. We found that in comparison with the control group, the experimental group was significantly more concerned about animal welfare. This result indicates that literary fiction can influence attitudes toward other species. It is also worth noting that our study is characterized by a high level of ecological validity, i.e. a relatively high extent to which its results can be generalized (or extended) to real-world settings. Due to its specific design, which involved the cooperation of a bestselling author and his publisher, the study approximated the typical conditions in which people read fiction in a remarkably accurate way. Finally, our research has potential practical implications for promoting animal welfare. PMID:28006033

  6. Characterization of chromosomal architecture in Arabidopsis by chromosome conformation capture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The packaging of long chromatin fibers in the nucleus poses a major challenge, as it must fulfill both physical and functional requirements. Until recently, insights into the chromosomal architecture of plants were mainly provided by cytogenetic studies. Complementary to these analyses, chromosome conformation capture technologies promise to refine and improve our view on chromosomal architecture and to provide a more generalized description of nuclear organization. Results Employing circular chromosome conformation capture, this study describes chromosomal architecture in Arabidopsis nuclei from a genome-wide perspective. Surprisingly, the linear organization of chromosomes is reflected in the genome-wide interactome. In addition, we study the interplay of the interactome and epigenetic marks and report that the heterochromatic knob on the short arm of chromosome 4 maintains a pericentromere-like interaction profile and interactome despite its euchromatic surrounding. Conclusion Despite the extreme condensation that is necessary to pack the chromosomes into the nucleus, the Arabidopsis genome appears to be packed in a predictive manner, according to the following criteria: heterochromatin and euchromatin represent two distinct interactomes; interactions between chromosomes correlate with the linear position on the chromosome arm; and distal chromosome regions have a higher potential to interact with other chromosomes. PMID:24267747

  7. Auditing animal welfare at slaughter plants.

    PubMed

    Grandin, Temple

    2010-09-01

    The OIE Welfare Standards on slaughter transport, and killing of animals for disease control are basic minimum standards that every country should follow. The OIE, European Union, and many private standards used by commercial industry have an emphasis on animal based outcome standards instead of engineering based standards. Numerical scoring is used by both private industry and some governments to access animal welfare at slaughter plants. Five variables are measured. They are: 1) Percentage of animals effectively stunned on the first attempt, 2) Percentage rendered insensible, 3) Percentage that vocalize (bellow, moo, squeal) during handling and stunning, 4) Percentage that fall during handling, and 5) Percentage moved with an electric goad. Each one of these critical control points measures the outcome of many problems. A good animal welfare auditing system also has standards that prohibit really bad practices such as dragging, dropping, throwing, puntilla, and hoisting live animals before ritual slaughter. On farm and transport problems that can be measured at the slaughter plant are: percentage of lame animals, percentage of thin animals, percentage of dirty animals, percentage with sores, bruises or lesions, death losses, morbidity, and percentage of birds with broken wings and legs.

  8. Welfare of non-traditional pets.

    PubMed

    Schuppli, C A; Fraser, D; Bacon, H J

    2014-04-01

    The keeping of non-traditional or 'exotic' pets has been growing in popularity worldwide. In addition to the typical welfare challenges of keeping more traditional pet species like dogs and cats, ensuring the welfare of non-traditional pets is complicated by factors such as lack of knowledge, difficulties meeting requirements in the home and where and how animals are obtained. This paper uses examples of different species to highlight three major welfare concerns: ensuring that pets under our care i) function well biologically, ii) are free from negative psychological states and able to experience normal pleasures, and iii) lead reasonably natural lives. The keeping of non-traditional pets also raises ethical concerns about whether the animal poses any danger to others (e.g. transmission of zoonotic diseases) and whether the animal might cause environmental damage (e.g. invading non-native habitats when released). The authors used these considerations to create a checklist, which identifies and organises the various concerns that may arise over keeping non-traditional species as pets. An inability to address these concerns raises questions about how to mitigate them or even whether or not certain species should be kept as pets at all. Thus, the authors propose five categories, which range from relatively unproblematic pet species to species whose keeping poses unacceptable risks to the animals, to humans, or to the environment. This approach to the evaluation and categorisation of species could provide a constructive basis for advocacy and regulatory actions.

  9. Rapid animal welfare assessment: an archaeological approach

    PubMed Central

    Schork, Ivana Gabriela; Young, Robert John

    2014-01-01

    The welfare of an individual depends on its capacity to overcome suboptimal conditions in its environment; otherwise, its physical and psychological health becomes compromised. A situation that clearly indicates lack of control of the environment is the expression of abnormal behaviours, such as stereotypies. This study aimed to verify the well-being of police horses using a new rapid form of welfare assessment: an archaeological approach. To this end, we sampled and quantified marks found on the stables, deposited as a result of abnormal behaviour. We cross-referenced these physical marks with veterinary records of diseases, such as colic, known to be associated with stress. A total of 46 horses were sampled and the results showed a significant medium-strength, positive correlation between bite mark frequency on stable doors and the incidence of colic. A weak significant positive correlation was found between length of scratch marks (from pawing) and the incidence of lameness. We conclude that these marks reflect the accumulated expression of abnormal behaviour and can provide rapid insight into the welfare of individual animals. PMID:25209197

  10. Slowed ageing, welfare, and population problems.

    PubMed

    Wareham, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Biological studies have demonstrated that it is possible to slow the ageing process and extend lifespan in a wide variety of organisms, perhaps including humans. Making use of the findings of these studies, this article examines two problems concerning the effect of life extension on population size and welfare. The first--the problem of overpopulation--is that as a result of life extension too many people will co-exist at the same time, resulting in decreases in average welfare. The second--the problem of underpopulation--is that life extension will result in too few people existing across time, resulting in decreases in total welfare. I argue that overpopulation is highly unlikely to result from technologies that slow ageing. Moreover, I claim that the problem of underpopulation relies on claims about life extension that are false in the case of life extension by slowed ageing. The upshot of these arguments is that the population problems discussed provide scant reason to oppose life extension by slowed ageing.

  11. Chromosome Variations And Human Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soudek, D.

    1974-01-01

    Article focused on the science of cytogenetics, which studied the transmission of the units of heredity called chromosomes, and considered the advantage of proper diagnosis of genetic diseases, treated on the chromosomal level. (Author/RK)

  12. Chromosomes, cancer and radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Samouhos, E.

    1983-08-01

    Some specific chromosomal abnormalities are associated with certain cancers. The earliest description of such a specific association is the one of the Philadelphia chromosome and myelogenous leukemia (1960). Other congenital karyotype abnormalities are associated with specific cancers. Examples of these are Down's syndrome with leukemia and Klinefelter's syndrome with male breast cancer. Genetic diseases of increased chromosome breakage, or of defective chromosome repair, are associated with greatly increased cancer incidence. Three such diseases have been recognized: 1) Fanconi's anemia, associated with leukemias and lymphomas, 2) Bloom's syndrome, associated with acute leukemias and lymphosarcoma, and 3) ataxia telangiectasia, associated with Hodgkin's disease, leukemia, and lymphosarcomas. Ten percent of individuals with ataxia telangiectasia will develop one of these neoplasms. Individuals with certain of these syndromes display an unusually high radiosensitivity. Radiation therapy for cancers has been fatal in patients who received as low as 3000 rad. This remarkable radiosensitivity has been quantitated in cell cultures from such cases. Evidence suggests that the apparent sensitivity may reflect subnormal ability to repair radiation damage. The rapid proliferation of information in this field stems from the interdigitation of many disciplines and specialties, including cytogenetics, cell biology, molecular biology, epidemiology, radiobiology, and several others. This paper is intended for clinicians; it presents a structured analytic scheme for correlating and classifying this multidisciplinary information as it becomes available.

  13. Why Chromosome Palindromes?

    PubMed Central

    Betrán, Esther; Demuth, Jeffery P.; Williford, Anna

    2012-01-01

    We look at sex-limited chromosome (Y or W) evolution with particular emphasis on the importance of palindromes. Y chromosome palindromes consist of inverted duplicates that allow for local recombination in an otherwise nonrecombining chromosome. Since palindromes enable intrachromosomal gene conversion that can help eliminate deleterious mutations, they are often highlighted as mechanisms to protect against Y degeneration. However, the adaptive significance of recombination resides in its ability to decouple the evolutionary fates of linked mutations, leading to both a decrease in degeneration rate and an increase in adaptation rate. Our paper emphasizes the latter, that palindromes may exist to accelerate adaptation by increasing the potential targets and fixation rates of incoming beneficial mutations. This hypothesis helps reconcile two enigmatic features of the “palindromes as protectors” view: (1) genes that are not located in palindromes have been retained under purifying selection for tens of millions of years, and (2) under models that only consider deleterious mutations, gene conversion benefits duplicate gene maintenance but not initial fixation. We conclude by looking at ways to test the hypothesis that palindromes enhance the rate of adaptive evolution of Y-linked genes and whether this effect can be extended to palindromes on other chromosomes. PMID:22844637

  14. The Y Chromosome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Y chromosome is of great interest to students and can be used to teach about many important biological concepts in addition to sex determination. This paper discusses mutation, recombination, mammalian sex determination, sex determination in general, and the evolution of sex determination in mammals. It includes a student activity that…

  15. A survey of Chinese citizens' perceptions on farm animal welfare.

    PubMed

    You, Xiaolin; Li, Yibo; Zhang, Min; Yan, Huoqi; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-01-01

    Farm animal welfare has been gradually recognized as an important issue in most parts of the world. In China, domestic animals were traditionally raised in backyard and treated as an important component of family wealth. Industrialization of animal production brings forth the farm animal welfare concerns recently in China, yet the modern concept of animal welfare has not been publicized and a comprehensive recognition on how consumers and farmers perceive animal welfare is lacking. Therefore, we conducted a survey on public opinions toward farm animal welfare in China, based on pigs (including sows, piglets, and fattening pigs), domestic fowls (including layers and broilers) and their products. From 6,006 effective questionnaires approximately two thirds of the respondents had never heard of 'animal welfare'; 72.9% of the respondents claimed that, for the sake of animal derived food safety, human beings should improve the rearing conditions for pigs and domestic fowls; 65.8% of the respondents totally or partly agreed on establishing laws to improve animal welfare; more than half of the respondents were willing, or to some extent willing, to pay more for high-welfare animal products, whereas 45.5% of the respondents were not willing or reluctant to pay more. In summary, farm animal welfare is still in its early stage of development and more efforts are needed to improve the public conception to animal welfare in the process of establishing farm animal welfare standards and legislations in China.

  16. Technology Equipment Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Examines telecommunications equipment room design features that allow for growth and can accommodate numerous equipment replacements and upgrades with minimal service disruption and with minimal cost. Considerations involving the central hub, power and lighting needs, air conditioning, and fire protection are discussed. (GR)

  17. Shipboard Electronic Equipments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of major electronic equipments on board ships are presented in this text prepared for naval officers in general. Basic radio principles are discussed in connection with various types of transmitters, receivers, antennas, couplers, transfer panels, remote-control units, frequency standard equipments, teletypewriters, and facsimile…

  18. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents several new products and equipment for teaching college science courses such as laser optics bench, portable digital thermometer, solar energy furnaces and blackboard optics kit. A description of all equipment or products, cost, and addresses of manufacturers are also included. (HM)

  19. Engineer Equipment Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on engineer equipment mechanics is designed to advance the professional competence of privates through sergeants as equipment mechanics, Military Occupation Specialty 1341, and is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include…

  20. Equipment Operator 1 & C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Program Development Center, Pensacola, FL.

    The Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package to assist Navy Equipment Operators First and Chief in fulfilling the requirements of their rating. (Navy Equipment Operators First and Chief direct and coordinate efforts of individuals and crews in construction, earthmoving, roadbuilding, quarrying, and…

  1. AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT STANDARDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PATTERSON, PIERCE E.; AND OTHERS

    RECOMMENDED STANDARDS FOR AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT WERE PRESENTED SEPARATELY FOR GRADES KINDERGARTEN THROUGH SIX, AND FOR JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EQUIPMENT CONSIDERED WAS THE FOLLOWING--CLASSROOM LIGHT CONTROL, MOTION PICTURE PROJECTOR WITH MOBILE STAND AND SPARE REELS, COMBINATION 2 INCH X 2 INCH SLIDE AND FILMSTRIP…

  2. Adaptive Recreational Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Designed for teachers interested in therapeutic recreation, the document lists sources of adaptive recreational equipment and their homemade counterparts. Brief descriptions for ordering or constructing recreational equipment for the visually impaired, poorly coordinated, physically impaired, and mentally retarded are given. Specific adaptations…

  3. [Dicentric Y chromosome].

    PubMed

    Abdelmoula, N Bouayed; Amouri, A

    2005-01-01

    Dicentric Y chromosomes are the most common Y structural abnormalities and their influence on gonadal and somatic development is extremely variable. Here, we report the third comprehensive review of the literature concerning dicentric Y chromosomes reported since 1994. We find 78 new cases for which molecular studies (PCR or FISH) have been widely applied to investigate SRY (68% of cases), GBY, ZFY, RFS4Y, GCY and different genes at AZF region. For dic(Yq), all cases (n = 20) were mosaic for 45,X and 4 of them were also mosaic for a 46,XY cell line. When breakpoints were available (15/20 cases), they were in Yp11. 50% of cases were phenotypic female and 20% phenotypic male while 20% of cases were reported with gonadal dysgenesis. Gonadal histology was defined in 8 cases but only in one case, gonadal tissu was genetically investigated because of gonadoblastoma. For dic(Yp) (n = 55), mosaicism concerned only 45,X cell line and was found in 50 cases while the remainder five cases were homogeneous. When breakpoints were available, it was at Yq11 in 50 cases and at Yq12 in two cases. 54% of cases were phenotypic female, 26% were phenotypic male and 18% were associated with genitalia ambiguous. SRY was analyzed in 33 cases, sequenced in 9 cases and was muted in only one case. Gonads were histologically explored in 34 cases and genetically investigated in 8 cases. Gonadoblastoma was found in only two cases. Through this review, it seems that phenotype-genotype correlations are still not possible and that homogeneous studies of dic(Y) in more patients using molecular tools for structural characterization of the rearranged Y chromosome and assessment of mosaicism in many organs are necessary to clarify the basis of the phenotypic heterogeneity of dicentric Y chromosomes and then to help phenotypic prediction of such chromosome rearrangement.

  4. Research with animals: requirement, responsibility, welfare.

    PubMed

    Uvarov, O

    1985-01-01

    Recognition of unacceptable cruelty to animals in pasttimes such as bull-baiting, dates in Britain from the early 19th century. The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was founded in 1824. Several bills to curb cruelty were discussed in Parliament, and the Cruel and Improper Treatment of Cattle Act was passed in 1822. Other Acts have followed over the years. Cruelty in the form of painful scientific experiments, including dissection of living, conscious animals, vivisection, was proscribed by the Cruelty to Animals Act 1876. That Act required anyone wishing to experiment with animals to obtain a licence from the Secretary of State. Conditions for issue of licences were strict and remain so to this day. The Act is still valid, and is enforced by the Home Office, with its medical and veterinary Inspectors. The Cruelty to Animals Act 1876 allows experiments on animals under strictly controlled conditions. Experiments must have the clear objective of improving the welfare of man and/or animals. Benefits from experiments carried out under the Act have been enormous, covering every aspect of diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis in human and veterinary medicine. Coincidentally, the welfare of laboratory animals has also been greatly improved. There has always been some opposition to the use of animals in biomedical research. The subject is emotive but, by and large, discussion has been rational and within the law. In recent years, however, the morality of using experimental animals has been examined more closely. The possibility of replacing them by alternative methods has been investigated. Where these alternatives are applicable, they are used and further research on them continues. The questioning of animal experiments has emphasized the need to look constantly at animal welfare to ensure humane treatment of all animals, especially those restricted in a laboratory or on a farm. Attention has been drawn in this work to our existing laws protecting animals

  5. A New Fractal Model of Chromosome and DNA Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouallegue, K.

    Dynamic chromosome structure remains unknown. Can fractals and chaos be used as new tools to model, identify and generate a structure of chromosomes?Fractals and chaos offer a rich environment for exploring and modeling the complexity of nature. In a sense, fractal geometry is used to describe, model, and analyze the complex forms found in nature. Fractals have also been widely not only in biology but also in medicine. To this effect, a fractal is considered an object that displays self-similarity under magnification and can be constructed using a simple motif (an image repeated on ever-reduced scales).It is worth noting that the problem of identifying a chromosome has become a challenge to find out which one of the models it belongs to. Nevertheless, the several different models (a hierarchical coiling, a folded fiber, and radial loop) have been proposed for mitotic chromosome but have not reached a dynamic model yet.This paper is an attempt to solve topological problems involved in the model of chromosome and DNA processes. By combining the fractal Julia process and the numerical dynamical system, we have finally found out four main points. First, we have developed not only a model of chromosome but also a model of mitosis and one of meiosis. Equally important, we have identified the centromere position through the numerical model captured below. More importantly, in this paper, we have discovered the processes of the cell divisions of both mitosis and meiosis. All in all, the results show that this work could have a strong impact on the welfare of humanity and can lead to a cure of genetic diseases.

  6. The preferred role and perceived performance of the welfare state: European welfare attitudes from a multidimensional perspective.

    PubMed

    Roosma, Femke; van Oorschot, Wim; Gelissen, John

    2014-03-01

    Welfare state support has two core dimensions: attitudes about what the welfare state should do and beliefs about its actual performance. People can combine any position on one dimension with any position on the other, yielding four opinion clusters: people can combine preferences for a relatively strong role of the welfare state with a perception of a relatively low or high welfare state performance; likewise, people preferring a small role of the welfare state can perceive a high or low performing welfare state. We apply Latent Class Factor Analysis to data of 22 European countries from the 2008/9 European Social Survey. We find that each of the four clusters contains a substantial proportion of respondents that differs between welfare regimes. In addition, cluster membership is also related to covariates that measure people's structural positions and ideological preferences.

  7. Karyotyping human and mouse cells using probes from single-sorted chromosomes and open source software.

    PubMed

    Potapova, Tamara A; Unruh, Jay R; Box, Andrew C; Bradford, William D; Seidel, Christopher W; Slaughter, Brian D; Sivagnanam, Shamilene; Wu, Yuping; Li, Rong

    2015-12-01

    Multispectral karyotyping analyzes all chromosomes in a single cell by labeling them with chromosome-specific probes conjugated to unique combinations of fluorophores. Currently available multispectral karyotyping systems require the purchase of specialized equipment and reagents. However, conventional laser scanning confocal microscopes that are capable of separating multiple overlapping emission spectra through spectral imaging and linear unmixing can be utilized for classifying chromosomes painted with multicolor probes. Here, we generated multicolor chromosome paints from single-sorted human and mouse chromosomes and developed the Karyotype Identification via Spectral Separation (KISS) analysis package, a set of freely available open source ImageJ tools for spectral unmixing and karyotyping. Chromosome spreads painted with our multispectral probe sets can be imaged on widely available spectral laser scanning confocal microscopes and analyzed using our ImageJ tools. Together, our probes and software enable academic labs with access to a laser-scanning spectral microscope to perform multicolor karyotyping in a cost-effective manner.

  8. [Chromosomal organization of the genomes of small-chromosome plants].

    PubMed

    Muravenko, O V; Zelenin, A V

    2009-11-01

    An effective approach to study the chromosome organization in genomes of plants with small chromosomes and/or with low-informative C-banding patterns was developed in the course of investigation of the karyotypes of cotton plant, camomile, flax, and pea. To increase the resolving power of chromosome analysis, methods were worked out for revealing early replication patterns on chromosomes and for artificial impairment of mitotic chromosome condensation with the use of a DNA intercalator, 9-aminoacridine (9-AMA). To estimate polymorphism of the patterns of C-banding of small chromosomes on preparations obtained with the use of 9-AMA, it is necessary to choose a length interval that must not exceed three average sizes of metaphase chromosomes without the intercalator. The use of 9-AMA increases the resolution of differential C- and OR-banding and the precision of physical chromosome mapping by the FISH method. Of particular importance in studying small chromosomes is optimization of the computer-aided methods used to obtain and process chromosome images. The complex approach developed for analysis of the chromosome organization in plant genomes was used to study the karyotypes of 24 species of the genus Linum L. It permitted their chromosomes to be identified for the first time, and, in addition, B chromosomes were discovered and studied in the karyotypes of the species of the section Syllinum. By similarity of the karyotypes, the studied flax species were distributed in eight groups in agreement with the clusterization of these species according to the results of RAPD analysis performed in parallel. Systematic positions and phylogenetic relationships of the studied flax species were verified. Out results can serve as an important argument in favour of the proposal to develop a special program for sequencing the genome of cultivated flax (L. usitatissimum L.), which is a major representative of small-chromosome species.

  9. 45 CFR 205.170 - State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true State standards for office space, equipment, and... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.170 State standards for office space...-A, X, XIV, or XVI(AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that: (a) The State agency...

  10. 45 CFR 205.170 - State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State standards for office space, equipment, and... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.170 State standards for office space...-A, X, XIV, or XVI(AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that: (a) The State agency...

  11. 45 CFR 205.170 - State standards for office space, equipment, and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true State standards for office space, equipment, and... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.170 State standards for office space...-A, X, XIV, or XVI(AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that: (a) The State agency...

  12. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Companies that produce or sell food products from farm animals can have a major influence on the lives and welfare of these animals. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) conducts an annual evaluation of the farm animal welfare-related disclosures of some of the world’s largest food companies. The programme looks at companies’ published policies and commitments and examines whether these might lead to actions that can improve animal welfare on farms. It also assesses whether companies show leadership in this field. The BBFAW found that, in 2012 and 2013, around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue, and that, between 2012 and 2013, there was clear evidence of an increased level of disclosure on farm animal welfare awareness in the companies that were assessed. However, only 34% (2012) and 44% (2013) of companies had published comprehensive farm animal welfare policies, suggesting that many companies have yet to report on farm animal welfare as a business issue or disclose their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society. Abstract The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company’s commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world’s largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon

  13. Degeneration of a Nonrecombining Chromosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, William R.

    1994-01-01

    Comparative studies suggest that sex chromosomes begin as ordinary autosomes that happen to carry a major sex determining locus. Over evolutionary time the Y chromosome is selected to stop recombining with the X chromosome, perhaps in response to accumulation of alleles beneficial to the heterogametic but harmful to the homogametic sex. Population genetic theory predicts that a nonrecombining Y chromosome should degenerate. Here this prediction is tested by application of specific selection pressures to Drosophila melanogaster populations. Results demonstrate the decay of a nonrecombining, nascent Y chromosome and the capacity for recombination to ameliorate such decay.

  14. From cruelty to welfare: the emergence of farm animal welfare in Britain, 1964-71.

    PubMed

    Woods, Abigail

    2012-03-01

    There is a long history of concern in Britain for how animals are treated. Until the 1960s, these concerns were expressed largely in terms of cruelty or suffering, which was prevented through various acts of Parliament. Over the period 1964-71, amidst public debates about intensive farming, a new discourse of animal welfare emerged. To understand what welfare meant and how it became established as a term, a concept and a target of government regulation, it is necessary to examine farming politics and practices, the existing tradition of animal protection and attempts to rethink the nature of animal suffering.

  15. Accidents associated with equipment.

    PubMed

    Heath, M L

    1984-01-01

    Serious accidents in which the possibility of equipment-related hazards are raised have been reported to the Scientific and Technical Branch of the Department of Health and Social Security. The author has examined anonymous summaries of 23 such reports of events which occurred over a 5-year period. The principle cause of catastrophe in seventeen of the incidents was user error involving disconnexion or misconnexion. Faulty systems of equipment management combined in some cases with inadequate pre-anaesthetic checking of apparatus were responsible for the other instances. Appropriate systems of equipment management and checking together with meticulous basic clinical monitoring are recommended as the best safeguards in anaesthetic practice.

  16. [Medical Equipment Maintenance Methods].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    Due to the high technology and the complexity of medical equipment, as well as to the safety and effectiveness, it determines the high requirements of the medical equipment maintenance work. This paper introduces some basic methods of medical instrument maintenance, including fault tree analysis, node method and exclusive method which are the three important methods in the medical equipment maintenance, through using these three methods for the instruments that have circuit drawings, hardware breakdown maintenance can be done easily. And this paper introduces the processing methods of some special fault conditions, in order to reduce little detours in meeting the same problems. Learning is very important for stuff just engaged in this area.

  17. SOME CHROMOSOME NUMBERS OF DRAPARNALDIA.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J W; Deason, T R

    1969-03-01

    The variability exhibited by Draparnaldia both in nature and in the laboratory makes it difficult to identify the species. The natural variability of Draparnaldia was amplified by the environmental conditions and the media used in this study. With the hope that chromosome studies would aid in taxonomic characterization by providing additional differentiating criteria, special attention was devoted to adapting techniques which could be used to determine chromosome numbers of Draparnaldia isolates. The chromosome numbers reported herein are as follows: (1) Draparnaldia glomerata, Isolate #1, isolated from Davis Falls, Montevallo, Alabama, was found to have a chromosome number of 13. (2) Draparnaldia Isolate #2, an unidentified species obtained from Anniston, Alabama, was found to have a chromosome number of 13. (3) Draparnaldia acuta, Isolate #3 from Northwood Lake, Northport, Alabama, exhibited 26 chromosomes. (4) Draparnaldia plumosa strain 423 (Indiana Culture Collection), 418/a (Cambridge) was observed to have a chromosome number of 13.

  18. Automated Chromosome Breakage Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    An automated karyotyping machine was built at JPL in 1972. It does computerized karyotyping, but it has some hardware limitations. The image processing hardware that was available at a reasonable price in 1972 was marginal, at best, for this job. In the meantime, NASA has developed an interest in longer term spaceflights and an interest in using chromosome breakage studies as a dosimeter for radiation or perhaps other damage that might occur to the tissues. This uses circulating lymphocytes as a physiological dosimeter looking for chromosome breakage on long-term spaceflights. For that reason, we have reactivated the automated karyotyping work at JPL. An update on that work, and a description of where it appears to be headed is presented.

  19. Chromosome 19 International Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Pericak-Vance, M.A. . Medical Center); Ropers, H.H. . Dept. of Human Genetics); Carrano, A.J. )

    1993-01-04

    The Second International Workshop on Human Chromosome 19 was hosted on January 25 and 26, 1992, by the Department of Human Genetics, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands, at the 'Meerdal Conference Center'. The workshop was supported by a grant from the European Community obtained through HUGO, the Dutch Research Organization (NWO) and the Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA). Travel support for American participants was provided by the Department of Energy. The goals of this workshop were to produce genetic, physical and integrated maps of chromosome 19, to identify inconsistencies and gaps, and to discuss and exchange resources and techniques available for the completion of these maps. The second day of the meeting was largely devoted to region or disease specific efforts. In particular, the meeting served as a platform for assessing and discussing the recent progress made into the molecular elucidation of myotonic dystrophy.

  20. Chromosomal evolution in Rodentia.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, S A; Perelman, P L; Trifonov, V A; Graphodatsky, A S

    2012-01-01

    Rodentia is the most species-rich mammalian order and includes several important laboratory model species. The amount of new information on karyotypic and phylogenetic relations within and among rodent taxa is rapidly increasing, but a synthesis of these data is currently lacking. Here, we have integrated information drawn from conventional banding studies, recent comparative painting investigations and molecular phylogenetic reconstructions of different rodent taxa. This permitted a revision of several ancestral karyotypic reconstructions, and a more accurate depiction of rodent chromosomal evolution.

  1. The welfare of livestock transported by ship.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Clive J C; Santurtun, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    The transport of livestock by ship is growing in importance, but there are concerns about the welfare impact on the animals. Short sea journeys are usually completed in the vehicles that are used to transport the animals by road, and injury and stress can result. Long sea journeys require offloading of the animals into pens, where they are mixed and provided with feed, water and sometimes artificial ventilation. In addition, animals are often exposed to high stocking densities, elevated temperature and ammonia concentration, as well as noise and changes in photoperiod and light intensity. Mortality rate is the main measure of welfare used by the Australian live export industry for long distance shipments, and the rate is higher at sea compared to the same period of transport on land. Heat stress often challenges livestock when they are transported from cold to hot regions at high stocking densities with no diurnal temperature fluctuation. Sheep cope with heat stress better than cattle, but can still develop respiratory alkalosis if hyperventilation ensues. Bos taurus cattle cope less well with heat stress than Bos indicus breeds. High ammonia concentrations may accumulate on long voyages, causing mucosal irritation and pulmonary inflammation. Some sheep and goats do not adapt to the pellets provided after extensive grazing in Australia, resulting in inanition, often in combination with salmonellosis, which together are the main cause of high mortality rates. Long distance transport may also result in disease transmission to the recipient country and high standards of biosecurity are necessary. It is concluded that there are significant risks to the welfare of livestock caused by transporting them in ships, especially over long distances.

  2. Influences of Maternal Care on Chicken Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Joanne; Held, Suzanne; Jones, Charlotte; Troisi, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary For a domestic chick, the mother hen is an important role model; chicks learn a great deal from their mother about what to peck, when to rest and how to behave when there is a threat. However, in large farms, natural brooding is not commercially viable and so chicks are hatched in large incubators and reared artificially. Chicks reared without a mother in this way are more fearful and more likely to develop behavioural problems, such as feather pecking. We discuss the important features of maternal care in chickens, the behavioural consequences of deprivation, and the welfare implications on commercial farms. We finish by suggesting ways to simulate natural maternal care to improve commercial chick rearing practice. Abstract In domestic chickens, the provision of maternal care strongly influences the behavioural development of chicks. Mother hens play an important role in directing their chicks’ behaviour and are able to buffer their chicks’ response to stressors. Chicks imprint upon their mother, who is key in directing the chicks’ behaviour and in allowing them to develop food preferences. Chicks reared by a mother hen are less fearful and show higher levels of behavioural synchronisation than chicks reared artificially. In a commercial setting, more fearful chicks with unsynchronised behaviour are more likely to develop behavioural problems, such as feather pecking. As well as being an inherent welfare problem, fear can also lead to panic responses, smothering, and fractured bones. Despite the beneficial effects of brooding, it is not commercially viable to allow natural brooding on farms and so chicks are hatched in large incubators and reared artificially, without a mother hen. In this review we cover the literature demonstrating the important features of maternal care in domestic chickens, the behavioural consequences of deprivation and the welfare implications on commercial farms. We finish by suggesting ways to use research in natural

  3. Construction of human chromosome 21-specific yeast artificial chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, M.K.; Shero, J.H.; Hieter, P.A.; Antonarakis, S.E. ); Cheung, Meichi; Kan, Yuetwai )

    1989-12-01

    Chromosome 21-specific yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) have been constructed by a method that performs all steps in agarose, allowing size selection by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and the use of nanogram to microgram quantities of DNA. The DNA sources used were hybrid cell line WAV-17, containing chromosome 21 as the only human chromosome and flow-sorted chromosome 21. The transformation efficiency of ligation products was similar to that obtained in aqueous transformations and yielded YACs with sizes ranging from 100 kilobases (kb) to > 1 megabase when polyamines were included in the transformation procedure. Twenty-five YACs containing human DNA have been obtained from a mouse-human hybrid, ranging in size from 200 to > 1000 kb, with an average size of 410 kb. Ten of these YACs were localized to subregions of chromosome 21 by hybridization of RNA probes to a panel of somatic cell hybrid DNA. Twenty-one human YACs, ranging in size from 100 to 500 kb, with an average size of 150 kb, were obtained from {approx} 50 ng of flow-sorted chromosome 21 DNA. Three were localized to subregions of chromosome 21. YACs will aid the construction of a physical map of human chromosome 21 and the study of disorders associated with chromosome 21 such as Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome.

  4. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  5. The Welfare Effects of Medical Malpractice Liability

    PubMed Central

    Lakdawalla, Darius N.; Seabury, Seth A.

    2013-01-01

    We use variation in the generosity of local juries to identify the causal impact of medical malpractice liability on social welfare. Growth in malpractice payments contributed at most 5 percentage points to the 33% total real growth in medical expenditures from 1990-2003. On the other hand, malpractice leads to modest mortality reductions; the value of these more than likely exceeds the costs of malpractice liability. Therefore, reducing malpractice liability is unlikely to have a major impact on health care spending, and unlikely to be cost-effective over conventionally accepted values of a statistical life. PMID:23526860

  6. Leasing versus buying equipment.

    PubMed

    Grossman, R

    1983-01-01

    For the upgrading of equipment that is necessary in radiologic practice, leasing is more convenient and less expensive than buying. Changes in tax laws, embodied in the Economic Recovery Act of 1981, have increased tax benefits of this arrangement.

  7. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews new science equipment and products for the laboratory. Includes hand-held calculators, fiberglass fume hoods, motorized microtomy, disposable mouse cages, and electric timers. Describes 11 products total. Provides manufacturer name, address, and price. (MA)

  8. Selecting Library Furniture & Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Media & Methods, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Offers suggestions for selecting school library furniture and equipment. Describes various models of computer workstations; reading tables and chairs; and shelving. Sidebar lists names and addresses of library furniture manufactures and distributors. (AEF)

  9. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies' Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A

    2017-03-06

    The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company's commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world's largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test). However, only 34% (2012) and 44% (2013) of companies published comprehensive animal welfare policies. This increase suggests that global food companies are increasingly aware that farm animal welfare is of interest to their stakeholders, but also that many companies have yet to acknowledge farm animal welfare as a business issue or to demonstrate their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society.

  10. Automatic Test Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-28

    Search Terms Automatic Test Equipment Frequency Analyzers Oscilloscopes Pulse Analyzers Signal Generators "Etc." Third Level Search Guided...VAST Building Block Equipment RF Test Point Control Switch Digital Multimeter Frequency and Time Interval Meter Digital Word Generator Delay...Generator RF Amplifier, 95 Hz-2 GHz RF Amplifier, 2-4 GHz RF Amplifier, 4-8 GHz RF Amplifier, 8-12.2 GHz Signal Generator, 0.1 Hz-50 kHz

  11. Listing of Food Service Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

    A comprehensive listing of food service equipment including--(1) companies authorized to use the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, and (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF standards including soda fountains, spray-type dishwashers, dishwashing equipment, cooking equipment, commerical cooking and warming equipment, freezers,…

  12. Medical equipment management strategies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binseng; Furst, Emanuel; Cohen, Ted; Keil, Ode R; Ridgway, Malcolm; Stiefel, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Clinical engineering professionals need to continually review and improve their management strategies in order to keep up with improvements in equipment technology, as well as with increasing expectations of health care organizations. In the last 20 years, management strategies have evolved from the initial obsession with electrical safety to flexible criteria that fit the individual institution's needs. Few hospitals, however, are taking full advantage of the paradigm shift offered by the evolution of joint Commission standards. The focus should be on risks caused by equipment failure, rather than on equipment with highest maintenance demands. Furthermore, it is not enough to consider risks posed by individual pieces of equipment to individual patients. It is critical to anticipate the impact of an equipment failure on larger groups of patients, especially when dealing with one of a kind, sophisticated pieces of equipment that are required to provide timely and accurate diagnoses for immediate therapeutic decisions or surgical interventions. A strategy for incorporating multiple criteria to formulate appropriate management strategies is provided in this article.

  13. Animal Welfare in Different Human Cultures, Traditions and Religious Faiths

    PubMed Central

    Szűcs, E.; Geers, R.; Jezierski, T.; Sossidou, E. N.; Broom, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly. PMID:25049508

  14. Animal welfare in different human cultures, traditions and religious faiths.

    PubMed

    Szűcs, E; Geers, R; Jezierski, T; Sossidou, E N; Broom, D M

    2012-11-01

    Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly.

  15. Improved animal welfare, the right technology and increased business.

    PubMed

    Støier, S; Larsen, H D; Aaslyng, M D; Lykke, L

    2016-10-01

    Animal welfare is receiving increasing attention from the authorities, the public and NGOs. For this reason, the improvement of animal welfare and animal handling systems is of the utmost importance for the meat industry. Technological developments have led to more animal friendly systems that handle animals on the day of slaughter, and these developments will be even more important as consideration for animal welfare and sustainability is no longer just a trend but a licence to operate. Improvement of animal welfare also leads to a higher value of the carcasses due to higher product quality, less cut-off caused by fewer injuries, and reduced working load, which leads to increased business opportunities. Therefore, good animal welfare is good business, and the development and implementation of new technology is the way to obtain improved animal welfare. These subjects will be addressed using examples and cases from the pork and broiler production industry.

  16. Attitudes of meat retailers to animal welfare in Spain.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Villarroel, Morris; María, Gustavo A

    2013-11-01

    This study analyzes retailer attitude towards animal welfare in Spain, and how this attitude has changed over recent years (2006-2011). Retailers were concerned about animal welfare issues but a declining trend is observed recently, probably due to the financial crisis. The concern about animal welfare was affected by sex, with women retailers expressing a more positive attitude towards animal welfare issues than men. Retailers, based on their experience, perceive a low level of willingness to pay more for welfare friendly products (WFP) on behalf of their customers. This fact is reflected in the sales of the WFP, which declined from 2006 to 2011. The main reason for consumers to buy WFP, according to retailer perception, is organoleptic quality, with improved welfare being second. The results obtained provide a pessimistic picture in relation to the current market positioning of WFP, which is probably a consequence of market contraction.

  17. Animal welfare and developing countries: opportunities for trade in high-welfare products from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bowles, D; Paskin, R; Gutiérrez, M; Kasterine, A

    2005-08-01

    Discussion on the potential for developing countries to develop trade in niche markets such as higher welfare standards has been highlighted with moves by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to set internationally agreed standards for animal welfare. This paper examines the existing and potential trade in value-added higher welfare products using case studies in the beef and poultry sectors from three countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It shows that at present there is only a small trade in these products but that this can have a major effect at a national level. In the beef export trade from Namibia, the existence of the only assurance scheme in Africa setting standards in hygiene, veterinary care and animal welfare has created a trusted, safe and healthy product and ensured that Namibia has grown into Africa's largest exporter of beef to the European Union. In Thailand, the broiler industry, which has enjoyed annual growth in the past 15 years, is developing value-added products to develop markets to counter competition from other countries. The development and implementation of standards for organic products in both Thailand and Argentina over the past decade have also resulted in growth in the export markets of these products. The paper concludes that there is growth potential for the sectors in all three markets which can be assisted by the development of OIE baseline standards.

  18. Racial and Spatial Equity in Welfare Programs: Interstate and Intercounty Differences in Welfare Spending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark

    1999-01-01

    States where a large proportion of the poor are rural residents or racial/ethnic minorities provided less welfare support per poor child under Aid to Families with Dependent Children than did other states. No corresponding rural or racial/ethnic disadvantage was observed for the Food Stamp program, which has nationwide eligibility criteria and…

  19. On Welfare and Terror: Social Welfare Policies and Political-Economic Roots of Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoon, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that social welfare policies may reduce international and domestic terrorism. Social policies likely affect terrorism in offsetting ways but, on balance, should diminish preferences for terrorism by reducing economic insecurity, inequality, poverty, and religious-political extremism. Thus, countries with more generous welfare…

  20. Information Outreach To Reduce Welfare Dependency: A Georgia Welfare Reform Initiative. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuptrine, Sarah C.; McKenzie, Genny G.

    The Georgia Information Outreach to Reduce Welfare Dependency Project began in January 1996. The Georgia Department of Human Resources, Division of Family and Children Services (DFCS), commissioned the Southern Institute on Children and Families to conduct the project. Phase 1 of the project focused on the development of three information outreach…

  1. Associations between Intensity of Child Welfare Involvement and Child Development among Young Children in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Hurlburt, Michael; Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Landsverk, John; Zhang, Jinjin; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine developmental and behavioral status of children in child welfare (CW) over time, by intensity of CW involvement using a national probability sample. Methods: As part of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), data were collected on 1,049 children 12-47 months old investigated by CW agencies for…

  2. Increasing Research Capacity in Ontario Child Welfare Organizations: A Unique University-Child Welfare Agency Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Barbara; Trocmé, Nico; Van Wert, Melissa; Budau, Krista; Ballantyne, Mary; Lwin, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the successes and challenges of a unique knowledge mobilization initiative that was funded through the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. This initiative focused on promoting knowledge mobilization by increasing the capacity of child welfare organizations in Ontario to conduct…

  3. Male social workers in child welfare: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Warde, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study conducted with a cohort of male social workers (N = 17) who practice in child welfare. The findings revealed that among other things, participants experience a high level of satisfaction with their role. Moreover, they believe they have made significant contributions to child welfare practice, which include challenging hegemonic masculinity that supports the notion that child welfare is the exclusive responsibility of women. The findings and their implications are discussed.

  4. B Chromosomes – A Matter of Chromosome Drive

    PubMed Central

    Houben, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    B chromosomes are supernumerary chromosomes which are often preferentially inherited, deviating from usual Mendelian segregation. The balance between the so-called chromosome drive and the negative effects that the presence of Bs applies on the fitness of their host determines the frequency of Bs in a particular population. Drive is the key for understanding most B chromosomes. Drive occurs in many ways at pre-meiotic, meiotic or post-meiotic divisions, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. The cellular mechanism of drive is reviewed based on the findings obtained for the B chromosomes of rye, maize and other species. How novel analytical tools will expand our ability to uncover the biology of B chromosome drive is discussed. PMID:28261259

  5. Health of farmed fish: its relation to fish welfare and its utility as welfare indicator.

    PubMed

    Segner, Helmut; Sundh, Henrik; Buchmann, Kurt; Douxfils, Jessica; Sundell, Kristina Snuttan; Mathieu, Cédric; Ruane, Neil; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Toften, Hilde; Vaughan, Lloyd

    2012-02-01

    This brief review focuses on health and biological function as cornerstones of fish welfare. From the function-based point of view, good welfare is reflected in the ability of the animal to cope with infectious and non-infectious stressors, thereby maintaining homeostasis and good health, whereas stressful husbandry conditions and protracted suffering will lead to the loss of the coping ability and, thus, to impaired health. In the first part of the review, the physiological processes through which stressful husbandry conditions modulate health of farmed fish are examined. If fish are subjected to unfavourable husbandry conditions, the resulting disruption of internal homeostasis necessitates energy-demanding physiological adjustments (allostasis/acclimation). The ensuing energy drain leads to trade-offs with other energy-demanding processes such as the functioning of the primary epithelial barriers (gut, skin, gills) and the immune system. Understanding of the relation between husbandry conditions, allostatic responses and fish health provides the basis for the second theme developed in this review, the potential use of biological function and health parameters as operational welfare indicators (OWIs). Advantages of function- and health-related parameters are that they are relatively straightforward to recognize and to measure and are routinely monitored in most aquaculture units, thereby providing feasible tools to assess fish welfare under practical farming conditions. As the efforts to improve fish welfare and environmental sustainability lead to increasingly diverse solutions, in particular integrated production, it is imperative that we have objective OWIs to compare with other production forms, such as high-density aquaculture. However, to receive the necessary acceptance for legislation, more robust scientific backing of the health- and function-related OWIs is urgently needed.

  6. About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Equipment for Infection Control Questions About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Print Q1. How do manufacturers ensure personal protective equipment (PPE) is safe and effective? A1. To help ...

  7. Polymer Models of Interphase Chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Joshua; Kondev, Jané; Bressen, Debra; Haber, James

    2006-03-01

    Experiments during interphase, the growth phase of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells, have shown that parts of chromosomes are tethered to the nuclear periphery[1]. Using a simple polymer model of interphase chromosomes that includes tethering, we compute the probability distribution for the distance between two marked points on the chromosome. These calculations are inspired by recent experiments with two or more fluorescent markers placed along the chromosome[2]. We demonstrate how experiments of this kind, in conjunction with simpe polymer models, can be used to systematically dissect the spatial organization of interphase chromosomes in the nucleus of living cells. This comparison of theory with experiments has lead to the conclusion that the structure of chromosome III in yeast is consistent with a 10nm-fiber model of chromatin. [1]Wallace F. Marshall. Current Biology, 12, 2002. [2] Kerstin Bystricky, Patrick Heun, Lutz Gehlen, Jörg Langowski and Susan M. Gasser. PNAS, 101(47) 2004

  8. Prioritizing equipment for replacement.

    PubMed

    Capuano, Mike

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that clinical engineers take the lead in formulating evaluation processes to recommend equipment replacement. Their skill, knowledge, and experience, combined with access to equipment databases, make them a logical choice. Based on ideas from Fennigkoh's scheme, elements such as age, vendor support, accumulated maintenance cost, and function/risk were used.6 Other more subjective criteria such as cost benefits and efficacy of newer technology were not used. The element of downtime was also omitted due to the data element not being available. The resulting Periop Master Equipment List and its rationale was presented to the Perioperative Services Program Council. They deemed the criteria to be robust and provided overwhelming acceptance of the list. It was quickly put to use to estimate required capital funding, justify items already thought to need replacement, and identify high-priority ranked items for replacement. Incorporating prioritization criteria into an existing equipment database would be ideal. Some commercially available systems do have the basic elements of this. Maintaining replacement data can be labor-intensive regardless of the method used. There is usually little time to perform the tasks necessary for prioritizing equipment. However, where appropriate, a clinical engineering department might be able to conduct such an exercise as shown in the following case study.

  9. Histone acetylation in insect chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Allfrey, V G; Pogo, B G; Littau, V C; Gershey, E L; Mirsky, A E

    1968-01-19

    Acetylation of histones takes place along the salivary gland chromosomes of Chironomus thummi when RNA synthesis is active. It can be observed but not measured quantitatively by autoradiography of chromosome squashes. The "fixatives" commonly used in preparing squashes of insect chromosomes preferentially extract the highly acetylated "arginine-rich" histone fractions; the use of such fixatives may explain the reported absence of histone acetylation in Drosophila melanogaster.

  10. The Supply Chain’s Role in Improving Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, David; Hubbard, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The ability of supply chains to deliver high(er) levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a) the innovative and adaptive capacity of actors in the chain to respond to society’s demands; (b) consumers actually buying animal-friendly products. Unless citizens are willing to support suppliers who comply with high(er) standards, their votes for better animal welfare risk exporting poor animal welfare to other countries with less rigorous standards. The logic of market failure in the case of animal welfare points to the superiority of consumer subsidies over producer subsidies to deliver improved animal welfare. Abstract Supply chains are already incorporating citizen/consumer demands for improved animal welfare, especially through product differentiation and the associated segmentation of markets. Nonetheless, the ability of the chain to deliver high(er) levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a) the innovative and adaptive capacity of the chain to respond to society’s demands; (b) the extent to which consumers actually purchase animal-friendly products. Despite a substantial literature reporting estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) for animal welfare, there is a belief that in practice people vote for substantially more and better animal welfare as citizens than they are willing to pay for as consumers. This citizen-consumer gap has significant consequences on the supply chain, although there is limited literature on the capacity and willingness of supply chains to deliver what the consumer wants and is willing to pay for. This paper outlines an economic analysis of supply chain delivery of improved standards for farm animal welfare in the EU and illustrates the possible consequences of improving animal welfare standards for the supply chain using a prototype belief network analysis. PMID:26479533

  11. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  12. Medicine As a Corporate Enterprise, Patient Welfare Centered Profession, or Patient Welfare Centered Professional Enterprise?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai; Singh, Shakuntala

    2005-01-01

    corporate enterprise or remain a patient welfare centered profession. A third approach involves an eclectic resolution of the two. Such amount of patient welfare as also ensures profit, and such amount of profit as also ensures patient welfare is to be forwarded. For, profit, without patient welfare, is blind. And patient welfare, without profit, is lame. According to this approach, medicine becomes a patient welfare centered professional enterprise. The various ramifications of each of these approaches are discussed in this monograph. PMID:22679354

  13. Equipment Operational Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  14. Neighborhood Social Influence and Welfare Receipt in Sweden: A Panel Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mood, Carina

    2010-01-01

    This article places the choice to claim welfare benefits in a social context by studying how neighborhood welfare receipt affects welfare receipt among couples in Stockholm, Sweden. It is expected that the propensity to claim welfare should increase with welfare use in the neighborhood, primarily through stigma reduction and increasing…

  15. Equipment Management Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Equipment Management Manual (NHB 4200.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended (42 USC 2473), and sets forth policy, uniform performance standards, and procedural guidance to NASA personnel for the acquisition, management, and use of NASA-owned equipment. This revision is effective upon receipt. This is a controlled manual, issued in loose-leaf form, and revised through page changes. Additional copies for internal use may be obtained through normal distribution.

  16. The XXXXY Chromosome Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Witold A.; Houston, C. Stuart; Pozsonyi, J.; Ying, K. L.

    1966-01-01

    The majority of abnormal sex chromosome complexes in the male have been considered to be variants of Klinefelter's syndrome but an exception should probably be made in the case of the XXXXY individual who has distinctive phenotypic features. Clinical, radiological and cytological data on three new cases of XXXXY syndrome are presented and 30 cases from the literature are reviewed. In many cases the published clinical and radiological data were supplemented and re-evaluated. Mental retardation, usually severe, was present in all cases. Typical facies was observed in many; clinodactyly of the fifth finger was seen in nearly all. Radiological examination revealed abnormalities in the elbows and wrists in all the 19 personally evaluated cases, and other skeletal anomalies were very frequent. Cryptorchism is very common and absence of Leydig's cells may differentiate the XXXXY chromosome anomaly from polysomic variants of Klinefelter's syndrome. The relationship of this syndrome to Klinefelter's syndrome and to Down's syndrome is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:4222822

  17. Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for…

  18. Chromosomal rearrangement interferes with meiotic X chromosome inactivation.

    PubMed

    Homolka, David; Ivanek, Robert; Capkova, Jana; Jansa, Petr; Forejt, Jiri

    2007-10-01

    Heterozygosity for certain mouse and human chromosomal rearrangements is characterized by the incomplete meiotic synapsis of rearranged chromosomes, by their colocalization with the XY body in primary spermatocytes, and by male-limited sterility. Previously, we argued that such X-autosomal associations could interfere with meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. Recently, supporting evidence has reported modifications of histones in rearranged chromosomes by a process called the meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC). Here, we report on the transcriptional down-regulation of genes within the unsynapsed region of the rearranged mouse chromosome 17, and on the subsequent disturbance of X chromosome inactivation. The partial transcriptional suppression of genes in the unsynapsed chromatin was most prominent prior to the mid-pachytene stage of primary spermatocytes. Later, during the mid-late pachytene, the rearranged autosomes colocalized with the XY body, and the X chromosome failed to undergo proper transcriptional silencing. Our findings provide direct evidence on the MSUC acting at the mRNA level, and implicate that autosomal asynapsis in meiosis may cause male sterility by interfering with meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

  19. Distance between homologous chromosomes results from chromosome positioning constraints.

    PubMed

    Heride, Claire; Ricoul, Michelle; Kiêu, Kien; von Hase, Johann; Guillemot, Vincent; Cremer, Christoph; Dubrana, Karine; Sabatier, Laure

    2010-12-01

    The organization of chromosomes is important for various biological processes and is involved in the formation of rearrangements often observed in cancer. In mammals, chromosomes are organized in territories that are radially positioned in the nucleus. However, it remains unclear whether chromosomes are organized relative to each other. Here, we examine the nuclear arrangement of 10 chromosomes in human epithelial cancer cells by three-dimensional FISH analysis. We show that their radial position correlates with the ratio of their gene density to chromosome size. We also observe that inter-homologue distances are generally larger than inter-heterologue distances. Using numerical simulations taking radial position constraints into account, we demonstrate that, for some chromosomes, radial position is enough to justify the inter-homologue distance, whereas for others additional constraints are involved. Among these constraints, we propose that nucleolar organizer regions participate in the internal positioning of the acrocentric chromosome HSA21, possibly through interactions with nucleoli. Maintaining distance between homologous chromosomes in human cells could participate in regulating genome stability and gene expression, both mechanisms that are key players in tumorigenesis.

  20. Family planning offered in local welfare offices.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    This article describes expanded access to family planning (FP) services through community welfare offices in Washington state, US. The government aim is to decrease unintended pregnancies and to help families achieve self-sufficiency. The staff must be sensitive and respectful of clients served. The team effort includes contacting clients in other community locations to offer FP education. The approach is characterized as "1-stop shopping" that includes FP, welfare, access to jobs, training, and medical coupons. Preventing unintended pregnancies is cost effective. A state (90%) investment of $40/person for contraceptives is good business compared to $400/person as a 50/50 state/federal investment in prenatal and delivery costs. The program began in 1992, by educating staff members in community services offices (CSOs) about FP issues. In 1994, the program hired registered nurses and nurse practitioners at CSOs to provide FP services. Almost all CSOs now have nurses, and there are 8 full exam clinics. A resource handbook for CSO workers and FP nurses was compiled by state and local FP personnel. CSOs typically assign 1 staff member to FP, usually on a part time basis. Close collaboration between nurses and CSO workers usually involves more creative strategies and outreach projects. For example, in 1 CSO in Washington, the FP worker offers contraceptive counseling, pregnancy tests, and sexually transmitted disease prevention. Contraceptives are provided at a separate time with local private providers or at health department clinics. CSOs continue to provide counseling regardless of referrals to private clinics. The project is growing and forming collaborations with other FP groups. These 1-stop sites offer accessible, familiar, and comfortable services.

  1. Child Welfare Policy: A Teaching Module. Student's Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deprez, Luisa; And Others

    This document contains the student's outline for a unit of study designed to be incorporated into an undergraduate social work survey course on social welfare policy. The aim of this unit is to explore aspects of social policy relating to child welfare by focusing on policy development, legislative framework, and the application of principles to…

  2. Child Welfare Policy: A Teaching Module. Teacher's Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deprez, Luisa; And Others

    This document contains the teacher's outline for a unit of study designed to be incorporated into an undergraduate social work survey course on social welfare policy. The aim of this unit is to explore aspects of social policy relating to child welfare by focusing on policy development, legislative framework, and the application of principles to…

  3. Charting the Impacts of University-Child Welfare Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine, Ed.; Zlotnik, Joan Levy, Ed.

    Few fields of service command as much public attention as child welfare. Workforce development is often a less visible yet critical response to service delivery crises and efforts to improve child and family outcomes. In the late 1980s, a campaign was undertaken to rebuild public child welfare systems with trained social workers. The subsequent…

  4. Peer Effects in Welfare Dependence: Quasi-Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslund, Olof; Fredriksson, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines peer effects in welfare use among refugees. We exploit a Swedish refugee placement policy, which generated exogenous variation in peer group composition. Our analysis distinguishes between the quantity of contacts--the number of individuals of the same ethnicity--and the quality of contacts--welfare use among members of the…

  5. COMMUNITY PLANNING FOR HEALTH EDUCATION AND WELFARE, AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAYLOR, KANARDY L.

    THE ANNOATATED BIBLIOGRAPHY IS PREPARED ESPECIALLY FOR STATE AND LOCAL PUBLIC WELFARE AGENCIES RESPONSIBLE FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING. IT MAY ALSO BE OF ASSISTANCE TO OTHERS INTERESTED IN HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE. THE SELECTED REFERENCES ON BASIC CONCEPTS AND APPROACHES IN COMMUNITY PLANNING AND RELATED SUBJECTS ARE GENERALLY AVAILABLE IN PUBLIC…

  6. 20 CFR 638.521 - Student welfare association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Student welfare association. 638.521 Section... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.521 Student welfare association. The center operator shall develop a plan for the organization and operation of a student...

  7. 20 CFR 638.521 - Student welfare association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Student welfare association. 638.521 Section... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.521 Student welfare association. The center operator shall develop a plan for the organization and operation of a student...

  8. Television Programming, Monopolistic Competition and Welfare. Technical Report No. 159.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Michael; Owen, Bruce

    An economic analysis of television programing was conducted focusing on the public welfare implications of alternative market structures and policies in the broadcasting industry. Welfare was measured by the sum of producer's and consumer's surplus. It was demonstrated that any of the private market systems considered contain biases against…

  9. Welfare Reform and Child Well-Being. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    This paper examines conflicting evidence regarding the impacts of welfare reform on children's wellbeing. Research shows that poverty rates, teen crime and fertility, and child maltreatment are down. Lack of appropriate state-level data on indicators of child wellbeing precludes serious analysis of the role of welfare reform for most indicators.…

  10. Enhancing Early Childhood Outcomes: Connecting Child Welfare and Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Julie S.; Brown, Samantha M.; Yang, Jessica; Groneman, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Head Start is a preschool program for families with low incomes and nearly 85% of child welfare-involved families are low-income, yet little is known about Head Start and child welfare collaboration. This study uses data from 28 Head Start directors to describe collaboration facilitators and barriers, and collaborative mechanisms in place. The…

  11. The Benefits of Learning Social Welfare: Lessons from Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dichter, Melissa E.; Cnaan, Ram A.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely assumed that most entering MSW students exhibit a primary interest in individual clinical practice but minimal understanding of or interest in welfare policy knowledge. However, this assumption is mostly based on attitudes before and at the beginning of encountering social welfare courses. Using a mixed-methods approach of both…

  12. Morbid Obesity and the Transition from Welfare to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John; Danziger, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    This paper utilizes a rich longitudinal data set--the Women's Employment Study (WES)--to investigate whether obesity, which is common among women of low socioeconomic status, is a barrier to employment and earnings for current and former welfare recipients. We find that former welfare recipients who are both White and morbidly obese have been less…

  13. Jobs First: Final Report on Connecticut's Welfare Reform Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan; Scrivener, Susan; Michalopoulos, Charles; Morris, Pamela; Hendra, Richard; Adams-Ciardullo, Diana; Walter, Johanna

    An evaluation of Jobs First (JF) compared the experiences of JF participants who were subject to welfare reform policies with those of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) participants who were subject to prior welfare rules. It collected information for four years about JF's impacts on participants' children and analyzed its financial…

  14. Welfare Regimes and Educational Inequality: A Cross-National Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Tracey; Edgerton, Jason D.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2010-01-01

    Research on welfare state regimes and research on educational policy share a common concern for the reduction of social inequality. On one hand, welfare state research is typically designed within a comparative approach where scholars investigate similarities and differences in social institutions across selected countries. On the other hand, the…

  15. Validating the Psychological Climate Scale in Voluntary Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitlin, Wendy; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Auerbach, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Organizational climate has emerged as an important factor in understanding and addressing the complexities of providing services in child welfare. This research examines the psychometric properties of each of the dimensions of Parker and colleagues' Psychological Climate Survey in a sample of voluntary child welfare workers. Methods:…

  16. Measuring Is Believing! Improving Conventional Indicators of Welfare State Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaskoaga-Larrauri, Jon; Alaez-Aller, Ricardo; Diaz-de-Basurto, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Welfare effort (social spending as a percentage of GDP) has conventionally been the preferred measure for comparisons in space and time of the level of development of welfare states. However, a wide variety of other measuring systems are potentially available in this field, because there are different sources and different methods for calculating…

  17. Enabling Public Child Welfare Agencies to Promote Family Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelton, Leroy H.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that results of combining helping and policing roles within context of public child welfare agency have been unsatisfactory, and encourages examination of how each role might be hindering successful execution of the other. Proposes transformation of current public child welfare agencies into family preservation agencies by divesting them of…

  18. Does It Pay to Move from Welfare to Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sheldon; Heflin, Colleen M.; Corcoran, Mary E.; Oltmans, Elizabeth; Wang, Hui-Chen

    2002-01-01

    The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act requires welfare recipients to look for work and has made it more difficult for nonworking recipients to remain on the welfare rolls. In addition, the economic boom of the 1990s and changes in federal and state policies have raised the net income gain associated with moving…

  19. Welfare Effects of Entry into International Markets with Licensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, F. A.; Ferreira, Fl.

    2008-10-01

    We study the effects of entry of a foreign firm on domestic welfare in the presence of licensing, when the entrant is technologically inferior to the incumbent. We show that foreign entry increases domestic welfare for intermediate (respectively, sufficiently large) technological differences between the firms under licensing with fixed fee (respectively, output royalty).

  20. Towards a Spiritual Pedagogy of Pastoral Welfare and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotman, Dave

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the role of spirituality in the practice of pastoral welfare and care in English state schools. Set against an educational landscape of increasingly aggressive neoliberal interests combined with growing public disquiet over the mental welfare of young people, the author examines how spirituality might in response contribute to…

  1. Faces of Poverty: Portraits of Women and Children on Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrick, Jill Duerr

    Stories of living on welfare are told by five women and their children. Each represents a group of women who use Aid to Families with Dependent Children. The reasons these women have turned to public aid, and their means of achieving self-sufficiency illustrate why welfare policy and family policy must be redefined to account for the differences…

  2. Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was validated…

  3. Implementing the Abstinence Education Provision of the Welfare Reform Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Ron; Bevan, Carol Statuto

    As part of its 1996 welfare reform bill, the U.S. Congress enacted a $50 million per year program to fund abstinence education. The welfare reform law addresses the problem of births to single adolescents by enforcing child support payments, giving states financial incentives to reduce nonmarital births, and creating the abstinence education…

  4. Childcare Subsidies and the Transition from Welfare to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sandra K.; Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Browning, Kimberly G.

    2004-01-01

    We address how childcare subsidies help in the welfare-to-work transition relative to other factors. We examine how the policy operates, whether childcare problems differ by subsidy receipt, and the effect of subsidy on work. Data are from a random sample panel study of welfare recipients after 1996. Findings show that subsidy receipt reduces…

  5. Welfare Reform and Teenage Pregnancy, Childbirth, and School Dropout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Lingxin; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    This study estimates the effect of welfare reform on adolescent behaviors using a difference-indifferences approach. After defining the prereform and reform cohorts and considering the life course development of adolescent behavior by following each cohort from age 14 to age 16, we compare the welfare-target and nontarget populations in the two…

  6. Devolution and welfare reform: re-evaluating "success".

    PubMed

    Sheely, Amanda

    2012-10-01

    The passage of welfare reform shifted significant authority for welfare provision from the federal government to state and local governments. Proponents of devolution point to drastic caseload declines as evidence that state-run programs are decreasing dependency among families. However, welfare rolls in many states have remained stagnant or decreased since the start of the recession in late 2007. The uneven responsiveness of the welfare system to growing economic needs prompts the question of whether the safety net is functioning as intended. This article evaluates the literature on the state and local implementation of welfare to assess whether devolution has yielded the positive outcomes promised by proponents. Findings suggest that, under welfare reform, state and local governments are enacting diverse programs and do not appear to be limiting welfare provision in new ways to avoid becoming "welfare magnets." However, the type of program they adopt is systematically related to the racial and ethnic composition of the caseloads and the local political climate, leading to a fragmentary system in which some states and localities are more responsive than others. Social workers can help poor families in critical need of assistance by voicing these concerns at the local, state, and national levels.

  7. Demystifying Welfare: Its Feminization and Its Effect on Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas D.

    2008-01-01

    Welfare is misunderstood, mystified, and feminized by many stakeholders (i.e. government, media, majoritarian culture, etc.). This text analysis will assess how well the text achieved the following: (1) articulate why the current U.S. welfare state is based upon myths or false assumptions, (2) analyze what these false assumptions mean for…

  8. The Role of European Welfare States in Explaining Resources Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muffels, Ruud; Fouarge, Didier

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper in this journal (Headey et al., 2000) a comparison was made between three so-called 'best cases' of welfare regime types, the 'Liberal' US, 'the 'Corporatist' Germany and the 'Social-Democratic' Netherlands. The main conclusion was that the Social-Democratic welfare state performed best on nearly all social and economic…

  9. Effective Teaching and Learning in Interprofessional Education in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, Robert F.; Gillespie, Judy; Robinson, Cathy; Watts, Wilda; Carter, Deb

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on research regarding interprofessional education (IPE) in child welfare conducted in 2009 and 2010. Pre service nursing, social worker and teacher education candidates participated in a workshop that "exposed" (Charles, Bainbridge & Gilbert, 2010) students to IPE in child welfare. This paper addresses a gap in…

  10. Meeting the Challenges of Welfare Reform: Programs with Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedie, Jack; Christian, Steve; Groginsky, Scott; Reichert, Dana; Brown, Amy

    As a result of federal legislation aimed at welfare reform, states have been transforming welfare in new ways. Critical questions remain, however, and policymakers must continue to develop new ideas and implement programs from other states. This book contributes to the learning process among states by sharing program innovations and analyses to…

  11. Employer Demand for Welfare Recipients by Race. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Harry J.; Stoll, Michael A.

    This paper uses new survey data on employers in four large metropolitan areas to examine the determinants of employer demand for welfare recipients. Data come from a telephone survey of approximately 750 establishments. Results suggest a high level of demand for welfare recipients, although such demand appears fairly sensitive to business cycle…

  12. Child Welfare Outcomes 2002-2005. Report to Congress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Child Welfare Outcomes 2002-2005: Report to Congress" (Child Welfare Outcomes Report) is the seventh in a series of annual reports from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (the Department). The reports are developed in accordance with section 479A of the Social Security Act (as amended by the Adoption and Safe Families Act…

  13. Supporting Child Welfare Supervisors to Improve Worker Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsman, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    Recent child welfare research has identified supervisors as key to retaining qualified and committed workers. This paper describes implementation of a federally funded child welfare training initiative designed to improve worker retention largely through developing, implementing, and evaluating a statewide supervisor training program in a…

  14. Conducting Culturally Competent Evaluations of Child Welfare Programs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettlaff, Alan J.; Fong, Rowena

    2011-01-01

    As the population of the United States has changed over the last two decades, so has the population of children who come to the attention of the child welfare system, resulting in increasing calls for cultural competence in all aspects of child welfare programming and practice. Given the changing demographics among children involved in the child…

  15. Organizational Constructs as Predictors of Effectiveness in Child Welfare Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jane; Brooks, Devon; Patti, Rino

    2007-01-01

    Organizational context, including line worker characteristics and service settings, may help explain the equivocal findings of intervention studies in the field of child welfare. Yet organizational context has been largely ignored in studies of child welfare interventions. The purpose of this article is to expound upon the likely role of the…

  16. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section 86.19 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may...

  17. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section 86.19 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may...

  18. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  19. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  20. Nobody Asked Us: The WV Welfare Reform Listening Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rick

    West Virginia's state welfare reform plan was in effect by the end of 1997. In 1999, over 175 interviews were conducted with past and present welfare recipients to bring their experiences and concerns to the attention of the public and policymakers. Nearly all interviewees were women and were taking part in work activities. In general, welfare…

  1. Welfare Returns and Temporary Time Limits: A Proportional Hazard Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Vicky N.; King, William C.; Iaci, Ross

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes welfare returns for families who leave welfare for a "sit-out" period of 12 months in response to a temporary time limit requirement in Nevada. Findings reveal that relatively few families return for cash assistance after sitting out and that the majority who do return soon after their sit-out period is complete.…

  2. Welfare Systems and African-Americans: Historical Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Rosetta

    1975-01-01

    An historical discussion of the relationship of American welfare systems to African-Americans, stating that Europeans, primarily from England, reluctantly established meagre, inhumane welfare systems based on seventeenth century English philosophy and tradition for members of their own nationality group after more than two centuries of poverty in…

  3. Welfare Recipiency and Savings Outcomes in Individual Development Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, Min; Sherraden, Michael; Schreiner, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined how welfare recipiency is associated with savings outcomes in individual development accounts (IDAs), a structured savings program for low-income people. They investigated whether welfare recipients can save if they are provided with incentives. Data for this study ore from the American Dream Demonstration (ADD), the first…

  4. Engineer Equipment Operator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by engineer equipment operators. Addressed in the seven individual units of the course are the following topics: introduction to Military Occupation Specialty (MOS) 1345…

  5. Engineer Equipment Chief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by engineer equipment chiefs. Addressed in the five individual units of the course are the following topics: construction management (planning, scheduling, and supervision);…

  6. Homemade Innovative Play Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, L. Roger, Comp.

    Sponsored by the Title III Elementary and Secondary Education Act Project "Discovery Outdoor Education", this guide is a collection of inexpensive, innovative, homemade equipment and devices for physical activities. Although designed for the impaired, disabled, and handicapped, these materials are adaptable to and applicable for groups…

  7. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents information about equipment and new products such as the melting point instrument and TV-microscope coupler which are helpful in college science teaching. Descriptions of each product, how it operates, its prices, and address for ordering are presented. (HM)

  8. Lennox - Student Training Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

    Presents a series of demonstration units designed by Lennox Industries for the purpose of training students to become familiar with Lennox mechanical equipment. Demonstrators are designed to present technical information in a clear simplified manner thus reducing frustration for the beginning trainee. The following demonstrators are available--(1)…

  9. Basic Engineer Equipment Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by basic engineer equipment mechanics. Addressed in the four individual units of the course are the following topics: mechanics and their tools (mechanics, hand tools, and power…

  10. Dairy Equipment Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

  11. STDN ranging equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Final results of the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) Ranging Equipment program are summarized. Basic design concepts and final design approaches are described. Theoretical analyses which define requirements and support the design approaches are presented. Design verification criteria are delineated and verification test results are specified.

  12. Taking account of fish welfare: lessons from aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Huntingford, F A; Kadri, S

    2009-12-01

    This paper explores the possibility that lessons learned from aquaculture might contribute to current debate on welfare and fisheries. After looking briefly at the history of research interest in the welfare of farmed fishes, some implications of using different definitions of and approaches to the concept of welfare are discussed. Consideration is given to the way in which the aquaculture industry has responded to public concern about fish welfare and, for cases where these responses have been effective, why this might be the case. Finally, possible cross-over points between aquaculture and fisheries in the context of fish welfare, as well as experience and expertise that might be shared between these two areas, are identified.

  13. Vocational Education Equipment Standards. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document lists equipment and equipment-like supplies used in classrooms in nine vocational education programs in North Carolina. It was prepared to help local educational agencies assess the adequacy of their vocational education equipment; identify and plan for equipment purchases to meet the minimum requirements; and determine the…

  14. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings.

  15. Social welfare, genetic welfare? Boundary-work in the IVF/PGD clinic.

    PubMed

    Ehrich, Kathryn; Williams, Clare; Scott, Rosamund; Sandall, Jane; Farsides, Bobbie

    2006-09-01

    Through the lens of the 'welfare of the child' assessment, this paper explores how staff working in the area of in vitro fertilisation and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (IVF/PGD) balance reflexive relations of legitimacy and accountability between the public and private spheres, and between medicine, the citizen and the state. The wider research of which this analysis is a part uses multiple methods to study two National Health Service Assisted Conception Units in England. Research methods used included observation clinics and interviews with staff from a range of disciplines. We illustrate how the staff reveal tensions between their views that the welfare of the child assessment can be seen as intrusive and discriminatory, and on the other hand that medical intervention in reproduction should be socially and professionally accountable. These tensions can be understood sociologically in terms of a gradual movement from socially based solutions to fertility problems and disabilities, towards a biomedical, and arguably genetically oriented worldview of such problems. Rather than being viewed as discrete, these two orientations should be seen as indicating an emergent direction of travel along a continuum, with elements of both being present in the accounts. We argue that consideration of the welfare of the child involves staff in ethical boundary-work across the two orientations and between the accountabilities and responsibilities of healthcare professionals, individuals and the state.

  16. Advances in plant chromosome genomics.

    PubMed

    Doležel, Jaroslav; Vrána, Jan; Cápal, Petr; Kubaláková, Marie; Burešová, Veronika; Simková, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) is revolutionizing genomics and is providing novel insights into genome organization, evolution and function. The number of plant genomes targeted for sequencing is rising. For the moment, however, the acquisition of full genome sequences in large genome species remains difficult, largely because the short reads produced by NGS platforms are inadequate to cope with repeat-rich DNA, which forms a large part of these genomes. The problem of sequence redundancy is compounded in polyploids, which dominate the plant kingdom. An approach to overcoming some of these difficulties is to reduce the full nuclear genome to its individual chromosomes using flow-sorting. The DNA acquired in this way has proven to be suitable for many applications, including PCR-based physical mapping, in situ hybridization, forming DNA arrays, the development of DNA markers, the construction of BAC libraries and positional cloning. Coupling chromosome sorting with NGS offers opportunities for the study of genome organization at the single chromosomal level, for comparative analyses between related species and for the validation of whole genome assemblies. Apart from the primary aim of reducing the complexity of the template, taking a chromosome-based approach enables independent teams to work in parallel, each tasked with the analysis of a different chromosome(s). Given that the number of plant species tractable for chromosome sorting is increasing, the likelihood is that chromosome genomics - the marriage of cytology and genomics - will make a significant contribution to the field of plant genetics.

  17. Visualization of early chromosome condensation

    PubMed Central

    Kireeva, Natashe; Lakonishok, Margot; Kireev, Igor; Hirano, Tatsuya; Belmont, Andrew S.

    2004-01-01

    Current models of mitotic chromosome structure are based largely on the examination of maximally condensed metaphase chromosomes. Here, we test these models by correlating the distribution of two scaffold components with the appearance of prophase chromosome folding intermediates. We confirm an axial distribution of topoisomerase IIα and the condensin subunit, structural maintenance of chromosomes 2 (SMC2), in unextracted metaphase chromosomes, with SMC2 localizing to a 150–200-nm-diameter central core. In contrast to predictions of radial loop/scaffold models, this axial distribution does not appear until late prophase, after formation of uniformly condensed middle prophase chromosomes. Instead, SMC2 associates throughout early and middle prophase chromatids, frequently forming foci over the chromosome exterior. Early prophase condensation occurs through folding of large-scale chromatin fibers into condensed masses. These resolve into linear, 200–300-nm-diameter middle prophase chromatids that double in diameter by late prophase. We propose a unified model of chromosome structure in which hierarchical levels of chromatin folding are stabilized late in mitosis by an axial “glue.” PMID:15353545

  18. Cohesin in determining chromosome architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Haering, Christian H.; Jessberger, Rolf

    2012-07-15

    Cells use ring-like structured protein complexes for various tasks in DNA dynamics. The tripartite cohesin ring is particularly suited to determine chromosome architecture, for it is large and dynamic, may acquire different forms, and is involved in several distinct nuclear processes. This review focuses on cohesin's role in structuring chromosomes during mitotic and meiotic cell divisions and during interphase.

  19. Organization of the bacterial chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Krawiec, S; Riley, M

    1990-01-01

    Recent progress in studies on the bacterial chromosome is summarized. Although the greatest amount of information comes from studies on Escherichia coli, reports on studies of many other bacteria are also included. A compilation of the sizes of chromosomal DNAs as determined by pulsed-field electrophoresis is given, as well as a discussion of factors that affect gene dosage, including redundancy of chromosomes on the one hand and inactivation of chromosomes on the other hand. The distinction between a large plasmid and a second chromosome is discussed. Recent information on repeated sequences and chromosomal rearrangements is presented. The growing understanding of limitations on the rearrangements that can be tolerated by bacteria and those that cannot is summarized, and the sensitive region flanking the terminator loci is described. Sources and types of genetic variation in bacteria are listed, from simple single nucleotide mutations to intragenic and intergenic recombinations. A model depicting the dynamics of the evolution and genetic activity of the bacterial chromosome is described which entails acquisition by recombination of clonal segments within the chromosome. The model is consistent with the existence of only a few genetic types of E. coli worldwide. Finally, there is a summary of recent reports on lateral genetic exchange across great taxonomic distances, yet another source of genetic variation and innovation. PMID:2087223

  20. Genetics Home Reference: ring chromosome 20 syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions ring chromosome 20 syndrome ring chromosome 20 syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Ring chromosome 20 syndrome is a condition that affects the ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: ring chromosome 14 syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions ring chromosome 14 syndrome ring chromosome 14 syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Ring chromosome 14 syndrome is a condition characterized by seizures ...

  2. Bacterial chromosome organization and segregation

    PubMed Central

    Badrinarayanan, Anjana; Le, Tung BK; Laub, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    If fully stretched out, a typical bacterial chromosome would be nearly one millimeter long, or approximately 1000 times the length of a cell. Not only must cells massively compact their genetic material, but they must also organize their DNA in a manner that is compatible with a range of cellular processes, including DNA replication, DNA repair, homologous recombination, and horizontal gene transfer. Recent work, driven in part by technological advances, has begun to reveal the general principles of chromosome organization in bacteria. Here, drawing on studies of many different organisms, we review the emerging picture of how bacterial chromosomes are structured at multiple length-scales, highlighting the functions of various DNA-binding proteins and impact of physical forces. Additionally, we discuss the spatial dynamics of chromosomes, particularly during their segregation to daughter cells. Although there has been tremendous progress, we also highlight gaps that remain in understanding chromosome organization and segregation. PMID:26566111

  3. Chromosome choreography: the meiotic ballet.

    PubMed

    Page, Scott L; Hawley, R Scott

    2003-08-08

    The separation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis in eukaryotes is the physical basis of Mendelian inheritance. The core of the meiotic process is a specialized nuclear division (meiosis I) in which homologs pair with each other, recombine, and then segregate from each other. The processes of chromosome alignment and pairing allow for homolog recognition. Reciprocal meiotic recombination ensures meiotic chromosome segregation by converting sister chromatid cohesion into mechanisms that hold homologous chromosomes together. Finally, the ability of sister kinetochores to orient to a single pole at metaphase I allows the separation of homologs to two different daughter cells. Failures to properly accomplish this elegant chromosome dance result in aneuploidy, a major cause of miscarriage and birth defects in human beings.

  4. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION-PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205... with other government and voluntary welfare agencies, and welfare-related business and...

  5. Schizophrenia and chromosomal deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, E.A.; Baldini, A.; Morris, M. A.

    1995-06-01

    Recent genetic linkage analysis studies have suggested the presence of a schizophrenia locus on the chromosomal region 22q11-q13. Schizophrenia has also been frequently observed in patients affected with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a disorder frequently associated with deletions within 22q11.1. It has been hypothesized that psychosis in VCFS may be due to deletion of the catechol-o-methyl transferase gene. Prompted by these observations, we screened for 22q11 deletions in a population of 100 schizophrenics selected from the Maryland Epidemiological Sample. Our results show that there are schizophrenic patients carrying a deletion of 22q11.1 and a mild VCFS phenotype that might remain unrecognized. These findings should encourage a search for a schizophrenia-susceptibility gene within the deleted region and alert those in clinical practice to the possible presence of a mild VCFS phenotype associated with schizophrenia. 9 refs.

  6. Agency Culture and Climate in Child Welfare: Do Perceptions Vary by Exposure to the Child Welfare System?

    PubMed

    Spielfogel, Jill E; Leathers, Sonya J; Christian, Errick

    2016-01-01

    Organizational culture and climate play a critical role in worker retention and outcomes, yet little is known about whether perceptions of culture and climate vary depending on the demands of particular roles. In this study, 113 staff from a child welfare agency completed Organizational Social Context profiles. Staff were divided into three groups according to their proximity to child welfare tasks to assess whether involvement in higher stress child welfare tasks is related to perceptions of the social context. Findings suggest possible differences across groups, with those involved in core child welfare tasks appearing to perceive higher resistance to new ways of providing services and those with the least involvement in traditional child welfare perceiving a more positive social context overall.

  7. Agency Culture and Climate in Child Welfare: Do Perceptions Vary by Exposure to the Child Welfare System?

    PubMed Central

    Spielfogel, Jill E.; Leathers, Sonya J.; Christian, Errick

    2016-01-01

    Organizational culture and climate play a critical role in worker retention and outcomes, yet little is known about whether perceptions of culture and climate vary depending on the demands of particular roles. In this study, 113 staff from a child welfare agency completed Organizational Social Context profiles. Staff were divided into three groups according to their proximity to child welfare tasks to assess whether involvement in higher stress child welfare tasks is related to perceptions of the social context. Findings suggest possible differences across groups, with those involved in core child welfare tasks appearing to perceive higher resistance to new ways of providing services and those with the least involvement in traditional child welfare perceiving a more positive social context overall. PMID:28261634

  8. Findings from a national needs assessment of American Indian/Alaska native child welfare programs.

    PubMed

    Leake, Robin; Potter, Cathryn; Lucero, Nancy; Gardner, Jerry; Deserly, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The National Child Welfare Resource Center for Tribes, a member of the Children's Bureau Child Welfare Training and Technical Assistance Network, conducted a national needs assessment of tribal child welfare. This assessment explored current practices in tribal child welfare to identify unique systemic strengths and challenges. A culturally based, multi-method design yielded findings in five areas: tribal child welfare practice, foster care and adoption, the Indian Child Welfare Act, legal and judicial, and program operations.

  9. CHROMOSOMAL MAPPING IN STRAINS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS , CHROMOSOMES), (*CHROMOSOMES, MAPPING), NITROSO COMPOUNDS, GUANIDINES, GENETICS, MUTATIONS, DRUGS, TOLERANCES(PHYSIOLOGY), TEST METHODS, DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACIDS, INHIBITION, RESISTANCE(BIOLOGY).

  10. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Vagnarelli, Paola

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes of

  11. Astronomical Equipment for Amateurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobberley, Martin

    Telescopes - refractors and reflectors - are the main items of equipment used by almost every amateur astronomer. The purpose of astronomical telescopes is to collect and focus more light than the human eye can, forming an image that can be viewed, photographed, or analysed. Astronomical Equipment for Amateurs makes buying and using both telescopes and their ancillary instruments easy for astronomers of all abilities. It begins by looking at the advantages and disadvantages of the basic types of refractors, reflectors, mountings and accessories. Observation techniques are also included, along with the use of filters, (colour, anti-pollution and nebula), types of photography (piggy-back, prime focus and eyepiece projection), and also CCD imaging (including types of CCD camera and their advantages and disadvantages compared to photography). Martin Mobberley provides a fascinating insight into astronomical software.

  12. Equipment management in practice.

    PubMed

    Garrett, J A

    1984-01-01

    This article describes the setting up, funding and organization of an in-house equipment management service in the Bristol & Weston Health Authority. Existing resources were redeployed to form the present service. The range of equipment now maintained under the auspices of the Medical Physics Bioengineering Group has a capital value of 12 million pounds. All work is costed and a charge made to the client for whom work is carried out. A team of 27 medical physics technicians and three graduate engineers are maintained from this source of income. This method of funding is now making way for a system of job costing which will provide a basis for comparison with an outside service.

  13. Welfare services for migrants: can they be better planned?

    PubMed

    Cox, D

    1985-03-01

    A study of the welfare responses to migrants' welfare needs in different national contexts reveals that countries vary enormously in their welfare responses. These responses reflect prevailing welfare philosophies and structures, different social stratification realities, and the varying circumstances that give rise to the particular intake of migrants. This variation may also reflect some lack of direction, or some inability to plan for the existing and discernible potential needs of particular migrant populations. The 6 levels or areas of welfare intervention appropriate to the migration-integration process are 1) immigration policies and practice (pre-migration), 2) reception-settlement policies and practice, 3) community education, 4) equality of opportunity measures, 5) community development, and 6) provision of personal welfare services. The field of immigrant welfare calls for a set of policies and programs that 1) is comprehensive, 2) is based on a clear understanding of the nature of the migration-integration process, 3) reflects an adequate understanding of the significance of culture, ethnicity, and race, and 4) is based on a framework which can ensure a rational and sensitive relationship between the various levels of development, the many programs established, and the variety of structures involved. While to achieve this goal is not easy, more can be done in most countries. Moreover, a more rational approach than currently prevails will represent, in most cases, a better use of resources, a better deal for immigrants, and a greater chance of more equitable and harmonious societies.

  14. Not just maternalism: marriage and fatherhood in American welfare policy.

    PubMed

    Geva, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    The United States' 1996 welfare reforms are often interpreted as a historical break in transitioning from supporting motherhood to commodifiying women's labor. However, this cannot account for welfare reform's emphasis upon heterosexual marriage and fatherhood promotion. The paper traces continuities and shifts in over a century of familial regulation through American welfare policy, specifying the place of marriage promotion within welfare policy. Up until 1996, families were key sites of intervention through which the American welfare state was erected, especially through single women as mothers - not wives. However, as of the 1960s, concern with African American men's "failed" familial commitments turned policymakers toward concern over marriage promotion for women and men. While marriage "disincentives" for aid recipients were lifted in the 1960s, the 1996 reforms structured a new form of nuclear family governance actively promoting marriage rooted in, but distinct from, the previous. Given the historical absence of welfare policies available to poor men, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families' (TANF) marriage promotion policies have positioned poor women as nodes connecting the state to poor men, simultaneously structuring poor women as breadwinners, mothers, and wives. Recent welfare reform has also started to target poor men directly, especially in fatherhood and marriage promotion initiatives. The article highlights how, in addition to workfare policies, marriage promotion is a neoliberal policy shifting risk to the shoulders of the poor, aiming to produce "strong families" for the purposes of social security.

  15. Ethical challenges with welfare technology: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2013-06-01

    Demographical changes in high income counties will increase the need of health care services but reduce the number of people to provide them. Welfare technology is launched as an important measure to meet this challenge. As with all types of technologies we must explore its ethical challenges. A literature review reveals that welfare technology is a generic term for a heterogeneous group of technologies and there are few studies documenting their efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency. Many kinds of welfare technology break with the traditional organization of health care. It introduces technology in new areas, such as in private homes, and it provides new functions, e.g. offering social stimuli and entertainment. At the same time welfare technology is developed for groups that traditionally have not been extensive technology users. This raises a series of ethical questions with regard to the development and use of welfare technologies, which are presented in this review. The main challenges identified are: (1) Alienation when advanced technology is used at home, (2) conflicting goals, as welfare technologies have many stakeholders with several ends, (3) respecting confidentiality and privacy when third-party actors are involved, (4) guaranteeing equal access and just distribution, and (5) handling conflicts between instrumental rationality and care in terms of respecting dignity and vulnerability. Addressing these issues is important for developing and implementing welfare technologies in a morally acceptable manner.

  16. Multiple jeopardy: poor, economically disconnected, and child welfare involved.

    PubMed

    Marcenko, Maureen O; Hook, Jennifer L; Romich, Jennifer L; Lee, JoAnn S

    2012-08-01

    Although the welfare literature reveals a growing number of parents who are economically disconnected, meaning neither employed nor receiving cash assistance, little is known about the prevalence and impacts of disconnection among child welfare-involved parents. This study took advantage of a statewide survey of child welfare-involved parents to examine economic disconnection in this population and to explore the relationship between disconnection and parent engagement in child welfare. One fifth of the sample reported that they were economically disconnected, with several patterns differentiating disconnected caregivers from those who received benefits or earned income through employment. Disconnected caregivers were younger and more frequently had children in out-of-home placements as opposed to receiving services in home than economically connected caregivers. They also reported higher unmet needs for basic services, such as housing and medical care, but were more likely to report financial help from their informal network. Finally, disconnected caregivers reported lower engagement in child welfare services even when controlling for demographic characteristics, chronic psychosocial risk factors, placement status, and maltreatment type. The findings document economic disconnection among child welfare-involved parents and raise important questions about the implications of disconnection for families and for child welfare outcomes.

  17. Army Equipment Modernization Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    transition , we must continue to provide the Nation with the best equipped, most modernized, and highly capable Army to prevail in any operational...interoperability. • Conducted the Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOTE) for WIN-T Inc 2 provid- ing an initial on-the-move capability to BCTs and...the Joint Air to Ground Missile (JAGM) which supports the transition of Army Hellfire missile to a joint missile system and replaces the Marine

  18. Advanced service equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mockovciak, J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Orbiter-based service equipment needs/usage are identified by considering a broad spectrum of on-orbit operational scenarios associated with three primary mission events: initial launch, revisits, and Earth return. Nominal and alternate modes of operation, contingency situations (as remote manipulator system inoperative), and Orbiter close proximity operations are included. Satellite classes considered are direct delivery and servicing of the orbiter, low Earth orbiter/propulsion, sorties and DOD, geosatellites, and planetary and other satellites.

  19. Secure authenticated video equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Doren, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    In the verification technology arena, there is a pressing need for surveillance and monitoring equipment that produces authentic, verifiable records of observed activities. Such a record provides the inspecting party with confidence that observed activities occurred as recorded, without undetected tampering or spoofing having taken place. The secure authenticated video equipment (SAVE) system provides an authenticated series of video images of an observed activity. Being self-contained and portable, it can be installed as a stand-alone surveillance system or used in conjunction with existing monitoring equipment in a non-invasive manner. Security is provided by a tamper-proof camera enclosure containing a private, electronic authentication key. Video data is transferred communication link consisting of a coaxial cable, fiber-optic link or other similar media. A video review station, located remotely from the camera, receives, validates, displays and stores the incoming data. Video data is validated within the review station using a public key, a copy of which is held by authorized panics. This scheme allows the holder of the public key to verify the authenticity of the recorded video data but precludes undetectable modification of the data generated by the tamper-protected private authentication key.

  20. Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449

  1. Chromosome specific repetitive DNA sequences

    DOEpatents

    Moyzis, Robert K.; Meyne, Julianne

    1991-01-01

    A method is provided for determining specific nucleotide sequences useful in forming a probe which can identify specific chromosomes, preferably through in situ hybridization within the cell itself. In one embodiment, chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family me This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  2. Reference-assisted chromosome assembly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaebum; Larkin, Denis M; Cai, Qingle; Asan; Zhang, Yongfen; Ge, Ri-Li; Auvil, Loretta; Capitanu, Boris; Zhang, Guojie; Lewin, Harris A; Ma, Jian

    2013-01-29

    One of the most difficult problems in modern genomics is the assembly of full-length chromosomes using next generation sequencing (NGS) data. To address this problem, we developed "reference-assisted chromosome assembly" (RACA), an algorithm to reliably order and orient sequence scaffolds generated by NGS and assemblers into longer chromosomal fragments using comparative genome information and paired-end reads. Evaluation of results using simulated and real genome assemblies indicates that our approach can substantially improve genomes generated by a wide variety of de novo assemblers if a good reference assembly of a closely related species and outgroup genomes are available. We used RACA to reconstruct 60 Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) chromosome fragments from 1,434 SOAPdenovo sequence scaffolds, of which 16 chromosome fragments were homologous to complete cattle chromosomes. Experimental validation by PCR showed that predictions made by RACA are highly accurate. Our results indicate that RACA will significantly facilitate the study of chromosome evolution and genome rearrangements for the large number of genomes being sequenced by NGS that do not have a genetic or physical map.

  3. 12. VIEW OF REMOTELY OPERATED EQUIPMENT. OPERATORS VIEWED THE EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF REMOTELY OPERATED EQUIPMENT. OPERATORS VIEWED THE EQUIPMENT THROUGH A WATER-FILLED WINDOW. (10/8/81) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. [Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].

    PubMed

    Tal, H

    2013-10-01

    Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals.

  5. Welfare applications of genetically engineered animals for use in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Maga, E A; Murray, J D

    2010-04-01

    The application of genetic engineering to food animals is often viewed as a means to further increase animal productivity without regard for the welfare of the resulting animals. We offer the perspective that, on the contrary, genetic engineering can, and is, being used to improve animal welfare in modern production systems. Several examples are cited from the current work in the field of animal genetic engineering that should be included in the debate over whether genetically engineered animals should be used in production agriculture. The current debate has slowed the advancement of this technology, which could play a key role in improving animal welfare and sustainability, without considering the potential benefits.

  6. Psychiatry, homeless patients and welfare reforms: historical links and chains.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hamid, Walid Khalid; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2014-02-01

    The birthplace of the specialty of psychiatry was in the asylum, which was created to divert patients from workhouses where the most disadvantaged and destitute people with mental illness were to be found. The current welfare reforms are endangering the welfare and livelihood of the most disadvantaged of our patients. These reforms in the authors' opinion are related more to the historical cycle of societal attitude to homeless people than to seeing them as the undeserving poor. This is particularly true since the current economic crisis was not caused by the poor, so it is very unfair that our poorest patients should suffer most as a result of the welfare reforms.

  7. Gametocidal chromosomes enhancing chromosome aberration in common wheat induced by 5-azacytidine.

    PubMed

    Su, W-Y; Cong, W-W; Shu, Y-J; Wang, D; Xu, G-H; Guo, C-H

    2013-07-08

    The gametocidal (Gc) chromosome from Aegilops spp induces chromosome mutation, which is introduced into common wheat as a tool of chromosome manipulation for genetic improvement. The Gc chromosome functions similar to a restriction-modification system in bacteria, in which DNA methylation is an important regulator. We treated root tips of wheat carrying Gc chromosomes with the hypomethylation agent 5-azacytidine; chromosome breakage and micronuclei were observed in these root tips. The frequency of aberrations differed in wheat containing different Gc chromosomes, suggesting different functions inducing chromosome breakage. Gc chromosome 3C caused the greatest degree of chromosome aberration, while Gc chromosome 3C(SAT) and 2C caused only slight chromosome aberration. Gc chromosome 3C induced different degrees of chromosome aberration in wheat varieties Triticum aestivum var. Chinese Spring and Norin 26, demonstrating an inhibition function in common wheat.

  8. Analysis of chromosome 21 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones

    SciTech Connect

    Tassone, F. A. Gemelli School of Medicine, Rome ); Cheng, S.; Gardiner, K. )

    1992-12-01

    Chromosome 21 contains genes relevant to several important diseases. Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones, because they span >100 kbp, will provide attractive material for initiating searches for such genes. Twenty-two YAC clones, each of which maps to a region of potential relevance either to aspects of the Down syndrome phenotype or to one of the other chromosome 21-associated genetic diseases, have been analyzed in detail. Clones total [approximately]6,000 kb and derive from all parts of the long arm. Rare restriction-site maps have been constructed for each clone and have been used to determine regional variations in clonability, methylation frequency, CpG island density, and CpG island frequency versus gene density. This information will be useful for the isolation and mapping of new genes to chromosome 21 and for walking in YAC libraries. 48 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Analysis of chromosome 21 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones.

    PubMed Central

    Tassone, F; Cheng, S; Gardiner, K

    1992-01-01

    Chromosome 21 contains genes relevant to several important diseases. Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones, because they span > 100 kbp, will provide attractive material for initiating searches for such genes. Twenty-two YAC clones, each of which maps to a region of potential relevance either to aspects of the Down syndrome phenotype or to one of the other chromosome 21-associated genetic diseases, have been analyzed in detail. Clones total approximately 6,000 kb and derive from all parts of the long arm. Rare restriction-site maps have been constructed for each clone and have been used to determine regional variations in clonability, methylation frequency, CpG island density, and CpG island frequency versus gene density. This information will be useful for the isolation and mapping of new genes to chromosome 21 and for walking in YAC libraries. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 PMID:1463009

  10. Bacterial Chromosome Organization and Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Esteban; Shapiro, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial chromosomes are generally ∼1000 times longer than the cells in which they reside, and concurrent replication, segregation, and transcription/translation of this crowded mass of DNA poses a challenging organizational problem. Recent advances in cell-imaging technology with subdiffraction resolution have revealed that the bacterial nucleoid is reliably oriented and highly organized within the cell. Such organization is transmitted from one generation to the next by progressive segregation of daughter chromosomes and anchoring of DNA to the cell envelope. Active segregation by a mitotic machinery appears to be common; however, the mode of chromosome segregation varies significantly from species to species. PMID:20182613

  11. [Chromosome analysis and genetic testing].

    PubMed

    Isobe, Yasushi; Miura, Ikuo

    2014-03-01

    Chromosomal and genetic tests are essential to establish correct diagnoses of the lymphoma. When the tissue examination is planned, these should be done simultaneously with the morphological and immunophenotypic evaluations. Chromosome analyses can identify the genomic alterations of tumor cells. Some chromosome abnormalities define disease subtypes. For example, recurrent 14q32 translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus support the diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma, and their translocation partners identify the types. In contrast, genetic testings are performed to confirm the presence of certain abnormalities including gene rearrangements, mutations, amplifications and deletions in each case. These results provide us detailed information for diagnosis, prognosis, and choice of therapy.

  12. Chromosome Segregation in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, R.; Jha, J; Chattoraj, DK

    2014-01-01

    The study of chromosome segregation is currently one of the most exciting research frontiers in cell biology. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of the chromosome segregation process in Vibrio cholerae, based primarily on findings from fluorescence microscopy experiments. This bacterium is of special interest because of its eukaryotic feature of having a divided genome, a feature shared with 10% of known bacteria. We also discuss how the segregation mechanisms of V. cholerae compare with those in other bacteria, and highlight some of the remaining questions regarding the process of bacterial chromosome segregation. PMID:25732338

  13. Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-04-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa.

  14. Numerous Transitions of Sex Chromosomes in Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa. PMID:25879221

  15. Getting Equipped and Staying Equipped, Part 2: Finding the Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordahl, Gregory; Orwig, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Suggests how school libraries can fund computer equipment; gain assistance from high-tech businesses; develop business partnerships and foundations; lease equipment; accept equipment donations; fund raise; build money into the budget; and communicate school needs with budget voters. Sidebars include leasing advice; resources for parent-teacher…

  16. Highway Maintenance Equipment Operator. Specialized Equipment. Training Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perky, Sandra Dutreau; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials to assist in training equipment operators in the safe and effective use of highway maintenance equipment. It includes 18 units of instruction covering the large equipment used in maintenance operations. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives,…

  17. Chromosome 5 workshop.

    PubMed

    Crowe, R R; Vieland, V

    1998-01-01

    In schizophrenia, evidence consistent with linkage in the 5q23.3-q31.1 region emerged from three independent samples. In addition, a moderately retarded woman with schizophrenia with an interstitial deletion overlapping this region was reported at the workshop. A second region of interest for schizophrenia is the 5p14.1-p13.1 region, where lod scores as high as 4.37 were found in one pedigree. Chromosome 5p15 gave a non-parametric linkage (NPL) score of 2.18 (p < 0.02) in one study. Several genome scans have not found evidence of excess allele sharing in these regions, although in most cases the genome scans did not include the markers that had resulted in provisional evidence of linkage. A large pedigree of bipolar illness has shown provisional evidence of linkage at, or near, the dopamine transporter locus at 5p15.3; the maximum lod score obtained was 2.72 at D5S417. In other regions, a genome scan of bipolar disorder gave NPL scores of 2.98 at D5S812 and 3.76 at D5S423. The third disorder of interest is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) because two studies have reported an association with the 480 bp allele at the dopamine transporter locus. A poster presented at the Congress reported a failure to replicate the association in a sample with considerable power to detect the effect size previously reported.

  18. Chromosome Aberrations in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry A.; Durante, M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A review of currently available data on in vivo induced chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts proves that, after protracted exposure of a few months or more to space radiation, cytogenetic biodosimetry analyses of blood collected within a week or two of return from space provides a reliable estimate of equivalent radiation dose and risk. Recent studies indicate that biodosimetry estimates from single spaceflights lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry and biophysical models, but very large uncertainties are associated with single individual measurements and the total sample population remains low. Retrospective doses may be more difficult to estimate because of the fairly rapid time-dependent loss of "stable" aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Also, biodosimetry estimates from individuals who participate in multiple missions, or very long (interplanetary) missions, may be complicated by an adaptive response to space radiation and/or changes in lymphocyte survival and repopulation. A discussion of published data is presented and specific issues related to space radiation biodosimetry protocols are discussed.

  19. How to Use Equipment Therapeutically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowne, Douglas

    1986-01-01

    Shares therapeutic and economic practices surrounding equipment used in New York's Higher Horizons adventure program of therapy for troubled youth. Encourages educators, therapists, and administrators to explore relationship between equipment selection, program goals, and clients. (NEC)

  20. TELEMETRY EQUIPMENT WITH DIGITAL READING,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Basic peculiarities of telemetry equipment with digital reading ; Elements of pulse technology applied in telemetry equipment with digital... reading ; Digital reading systems; Telemetry systems with digital reading . (Author)

  1. Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

  2. Goal Attainment Scaling in the Context of Rural Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, William Clifford; Pippard, James L.

    1982-01-01

    Through a survey of recent literature, the authors describe the outcome measurement technique of Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) as a case management model and evaluate its suitability for rural child welfare practice. (Author)

  3. Health insurance and access to care among welfare leavers.

    PubMed

    Danziger, Sheldon; Davis, Matthew M; Orzol, Sean; Pollack, Harold A

    2008-01-01

    This analysis explores the effects of the 1996 welfare reform on health insurance coverage and access to care among former recipients of cash aid. Using panel data from the Women's Employment Study, which conducted five interviews between 1997 and 2003 in one Michigan county, we find that 25% of welfare leavers lacked health insurance coverage in fall 2003. Uninsured adults were significantly more likely than others to report that they could not afford a medical or dental visit during the year prior to the 2003 interview. Fixed-effect logistic regression analysis indicates that women who had been off the welfare rolls for at least 12 months (the duration of transitional Medicaid) were significantly more likely to be uninsured than women who had made more recent welfare exits, and were significantly more likely to report financial obstacles to the receipt of medical and dental care.

  4. Uruguay: Population Geography of a Troubled Welfare State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tata, Robert J.

    1977-01-01

    Discussed is whether or not Uruguay's elaborate welfare system can be maintained by a deteriorating economy plagued by social tension and political unrest. Historical background is presented, demographic variables are discussed and modern influences are measured. (Author/DB)

  5. Behaviour as a tool in the assessment of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Marian Stamp

    2003-01-01

    A central issue in animal welfare research is how to assess the welfare state of animals objectively and scientifically. I argue that this issue can be approached by asking two key questions: 1) is the animal physically healthy and 2) does the animal have what it wants? Behaviour is used to answer both of these questions. In the assessment of physical health, it can be used for clinical and pre-clinical diagnosis. In the assessment of what animals want, it has a major role through choice and preference testing. It is particularly important that applied ethologists develop methods for assessing welfare in situ--in the places where concern for animal welfare is greatest such as on farms and in zoos.

  6. Heterogeneous Risk Preferences and the Welfare Cost of Business Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Schulhofer-Wohl, Sam

    2009-01-01

    I study the welfare cost of business cycles in a complete-markets economy where some people are more risk averse than others. Relatively more risk-averse people buy insurance against aggregate risk, and relatively less risk-averse people sell insurance. These trades reduce the welfare cost of business cycles for everyone. Indeed, the least risk-averse people benefit from business cycles. Moreover, even infinitely risk-averse people suffer only finite and, in my empirical estimates, very small welfare losses. In other words, when there are complete insurance markets, aggregate fluctuations in consumption are essentially irrelevant not just for the average person – the surprising finding of Lucas (1987) – but for everyone in the economy, no matter how risk averse they are. If business cycles matter, it is because they affect productivity or interact with uninsured idiosyncratic risk, not because aggregate risk per se reduces welfare. PMID:21709768

  7. The politics of welfare privatization: the British experience.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Gooby, P

    1989-01-01

    The 1980s Conservative government in Britain is committed to policies of welfare privatization for practical and ideological reasons--to facilitate tax cuts and to roll back the state. One problem this policy faces is that the most expensive and interventionist services are highly popular with voters from all parties. In this article, the author examines the extent to which recent privatization policies in welfare are influenced by conflict between the goals of achieving tax cuts and of maintaining electoral support, so that the outcome is a change in the form of state interventionism, rather than a rolling back of the welfare state. It also considers the impact of new policies designed to undermine the consensus across social groups and political parties of support for big-spending state services, which may facilitate reductions in the overall scope of welfare provision in future years.

  8. Public Welfare Agenda or Corporate Research Agenda?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai; Singh, Shakuntala

    2005-01-01

    As things stand today, whether we like it or not, industry funding is on the upswing. The whole enterprise of medicine in booming, and it makes sense for industry to invest more and more of one's millions into it. The pharmaceutical industry has become the single largest direct funding agency of medical research in countries like Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. Since the goals of industry and academia differ, it seems that conflicts of interest are inevitable at times. The crucial decision is whether the public welfare agenda of academia, or the corporate research agenda of industry, should occupy center stage when they conflict. There is enough evidence to show that funding by industry is very systematic, and results that are supportive of the safety and efficacy of sponsor's products alone get the funds. It is no surprise, therefore, that one finds very few negative drug trials reports published, and whatever are, are likely to be by rival companies to serve their commercial interests. Renewed and continued funding by industry decides the future prospects of many academic researchers. At the same time there is now evidence that pharmaceutical companies attempt suppression of research findings, may be selective in publishing results, and may delay or stymie publication of unfavourable results. This is a major area of concern for all conscientious researchers and industry watchers. Industry commonly decides which clinical research/trial gets done, not academia, much though the latter may wish to believe otherwise. It finds willing researchers to carry this out. This can be one area of concern. Another area of pressing concern is when industry decides to both design and control publication of research. It makes sense for researchers to refuse to allow commercial interests to rule research reporting. Research having been reported, the commercial implications of such reporting is industry's concern. But, doctoring of findings to suit commerce is to

  9. Animal welfare: what has changed in the past 50 years?

    PubMed

    2014-07-12

    The 3(rd) CABI symposium on animal welfare and behaviour was held on June 11, and featured a range of talks on 'animals as machines'. The symposium marked the 50(th) anniversary of the publication of the book 'Animal Machines' by Ruth Harrison. The book decried the conditions experienced at that time by many animals kept in intensive farming systems, and the speakers at the symposium discussed how far animal welfare had come since its publication. Georgina Mills reports.

  10. Safety Equipment in the Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Willard A.S.

    1964-01-01

    Findings of two recent surveys on safety equipment in laboratory facilities are presented. The first survey was a pilot study of emergency shower and eye wash equipment. This study was followed by a more comprehensive random survey of safety equipment in 2,820 labs. Among other findings, the surveys indicate that many plants are underequipped, or…

  11. NIH Standard. Animal Care Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Office of Administrative Management.

    The National Institutes of Health standardized animal care equipment is presented in this catalog. Each piece of equipment is illustrated and described in terms of overall dimensions, construction, and general usage. A price list is included to estimate costs in budgeting, planning, and requisitioning animal care equipment. The standards and…

  12. Decision Analysis for Equipment Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cilliers, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    Equipment selection during process design is a critical aspect of chemical engineering and requires engineering judgment and subjective analysis. When educating chemical engineering students in the selection of proprietary equipment during design, the focus is often on the types of equipment available and their operating characteristics. The…

  13. Origin and domestication of papaya Yh chromosome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XYh). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previo...

  14. Methods for chromosome-specific staining

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel

    1995-01-01

    Methods and compositions for chromosome-specific staining are provided. Compositions comprise heterogenous mixtures of labeled nucleic acid fragments having substantially complementary base sequences to unique sequence regions of the chromosomal DNA for which their associated staining reagent is specific. Methods include methods for making the chromosome-specific staining compositions of the invention, and methods for applying the staining compositions to chromosomes.

  15. B chromosomes and sex in animals.

    PubMed

    Camacho, J P M; Schmid, M; Cabrero, J

    2011-01-01

    Supernumerary (B) chromosomes are dispensable elements found in many eukaryote genomes in addition to standard (A) chromosomes. In many respects, B chromosomes resemble sex chromosomes, so that a common ancestry for them has frequently been suggested. For instance, B chromosomes in grasshoppers, and other insects, show a pycnotic cycle of condensation-decondensation during meiosis remarkably similar to that of the X chromosome. In some cases, B chromosome size is even very similar to that of the X chromosome. These resemblances have led to suggest the X as the B ancestor in many cases. In addition, sex chromosome origin from B chromosomes has also been suggested. In this article, we review the existing evidence for both evolutionary pathways, as well as sex differences for B frequency at adult and embryo progeny levels, B chromosome effects or B chromosome transmission. In addition, we review cases found in the literature showing sex-ratio distortion associated with B chromosome presence, the most extreme case being the paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosomes in some Hymenoptera. We finally analyse the possibility of B chromosome regularisation within the host genome and, as a consequence of it, whether B chromosomes can become regular members of the host genome.

  16. Microelasticity of Single Mitotic Chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Michael; Eroglu, Sertac; Chatenay, Didier; Marko, John F.; Hirano, Tatsuya

    2000-03-01

    The force-extension behavior of mitotic chromosomes from the newt TVI tumor cell line was studied using micropipette manipulation and force measuring techniques. Reversible, linear elastic response was observed for extensions up to 5 times the native length; the force required to double chromosome length was 1 nanonewton (nN). For further elongations, the linear response teminates at a force plateau of 15 nN and at an extension of 20x. Beyond this extension, the chromosome breaks at elongations between 20x and 70x. These results will be compared to the similar behavior of mitotic chromosomes from explanted newt cells (Poirier, Eroglu, Chatenay and Marko, Mol. Biol. Cell, in press). Also, the effect of biochemical modifications on the elasticity was studied. Ethidium Bromide, which binds to DNA, induces up to a 10 times increase in the Young's modulus. Anti-XCAP-E, which binds to a putative chromosome folding protein, induces up to a 2 times increase in the Young's modulus. Preliminary results on the dynamical relaxation of chromosomes will also be presented. Support of this research through a Biomedical Engineering Research Grant from The Whitaker Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Computational model for chromosomal instabilty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapperi, Stefano; Bertalan, Zsolt; Budrikis, Zoe; La Porta, Caterina

    2015-03-01

    Faithful segregation of genetic material during cell division requires alignment of the chromosomes between the spindle poles and attachment of their kinetochores to each of the poles. Failure of these complex dynamical processes leads to chromosomal instability (CIN), a characteristic feature of several diseases including cancer. While a multitude of biological factors regulating chromosome congression and bi-orientation have been identified, it is still unclear how they are integrated into a coherent picture. Here we address this issue by a three dimensional computational model of motor-driven chromosome congression and bi-orientation. Our model reveals that successful cell division requires control of the total number of microtubules: if this number is too small bi-orientation fails, while if it is too large not all the chromosomes are able to congress. The optimal number of microtubules predicted by our model compares well with early observations in mammalian cell spindles. Our results shed new light on the origin of several pathological conditions related to chromosomal instability.

  18. Sex chromosome aneuploidies in sperm of 47,XYY men.

    PubMed

    Morel, F; Roux, C; Bresson, J L

    1999-01-01

    The sex chromosomal equipment in 26,675 sperm of 47,XYY males was analyzed. A total of 5.78% of the nuclei exhibited sex chromosome hyperhaploidy. Six studies have analyzed the sperm of 10 XYY patients and, although these studies indicated some degree of elimination of the extra Y chromosome during spermatogenesis, a certain percentage of XYY germinal cells may also be able to achieve meiosis and produce sperm with gonosomal disomies. All these studies show an increased incidence of gonosomal aneuploidies in sperm, but there are significant discrepancies concerning the extent of these abnormalities. The global frequencies of sperm with an abnormal number of sex chromosomes ranged from 0.578 to 13.91%, depending on the patients. There are several explanations for these discrepancies: differences attributed to fluorescence in situ hybridization methodology, the use of dual or multicolor FISH, recruitment, interindividual variations, and intraindividual variations. This study reports an additional series obtained from another XYY individual and compares and discusses the data on gonosomal hyperhaploidies in sperm of 47 XYY males using in situ hybridization analyses.

  19. Availability of online educational content concerning topics of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Petervary, Nicolette; Allen, Tim; Stokes, William S; Banks, Ron E

    2016-05-01

    Animal welfare is an important area of study for professionals in fields of animal care and use, and many turn to self-learning resources to gain a better understanding of topics in this area. We assessed the state of these self-learning resources by evaluating open access, freely available resources on the internet with respect to their content and the reliability of their information. We categorized content using a modified list of the topics described in the American College of Animal Welfare's Role Delineation Document, and we identified subject areas that are underrepresented among freely available resources. We identified that the field needs more content describing practical information on subtopics of animal transportation, humane education and economic issues in animal welfare. We also suggest a targeted approach to improve and increase particular aspects of content that concerns the impacts of human, animal and environment interactions on animal welfare. We recommend that veterinary societies place more emphasis on welfare policies in their websites. Additionally, the field of animal welfare would benefit from more available and authoritative information on certain species and uses of animals that are presently underrepresented.

  20. Do horses with poor welfare show 'pessimistic' cognitive biases?

    PubMed

    Henry, S; Fureix, C; Rowberry, R; Bateson, M; Hausberger, M

    2017-02-01

    This field study tested the hypothesis that domestic horses living under putatively challenging-to-welfare conditions (for example involving social, spatial, feeding constraints) would present signs of poor welfare and co-occurring pessimistic judgement biases. Our subjects were 34 horses who had been housed for over 3 years in either restricted riding school situations (e.g. kept in single boxes, with limited roughage, ridden by inexperienced riders; N = 25) or under more naturalistic conditions (e.g. access to free-range, kept in stable social groups, leisure riding; N = 9). The horses' welfare was assessed by recording health-related, behavioural and postural indicators. Additionally, after learning a location task to discriminate a bucket containing either edible food ('positive' location) or unpalatable food ('negative' location), the horses were presented with a bucket located near the positive position, near the negative position and halfway between the positive and negative positions to assess their judgement biases. The riding school horses displayed the highest levels of behavioural and health-related problems and a pessimistic judgment bias, whereas the horses living under more naturalistic conditions displayed indications of good welfare and an optimistic bias. Moreover, pessimistic bias data strongly correlated with poor welfare data. This suggests that a lowered mood impacts a non-human species' perception of its environment and highlights cognitive biases as an appropriate tool to assess the impact of chronic living conditions on horse welfare.

  1. Do horses with poor welfare show `pessimistic' cognitive biases?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, S.; Fureix, C.; Rowberry, R.; Bateson, M.; Hausberger, M.

    2017-02-01

    This field study tested the hypothesis that domestic horses living under putatively challenging-to-welfare conditions (for example involving social, spatial, feeding constraints) would present signs of poor welfare and co-occurring pessimistic judgement biases. Our subjects were 34 horses who had been housed for over 3 years in either restricted riding school situations ( e.g. kept in single boxes, with limited roughage, ridden by inexperienced riders; N = 25) or under more naturalistic conditions ( e.g. access to free-range, kept in stable social groups, leisure riding; N = 9). The horses' welfare was assessed by recording health-related, behavioural and postural indicators. Additionally, after learning a location task to discriminate a bucket containing either edible food (`positive' location) or unpalatable food (`negative' location), the horses were presented with a bucket located near the positive position, near the negative position and halfway between the positive and negative positions to assess their judgement biases. The riding school horses displayed the highest levels of behavioural and health-related problems and a pessimistic judgment bias, whereas the horses living under more naturalistic conditions displayed indications of good welfare and an optimistic bias. Moreover, pessimistic bias data strongly correlated with poor welfare data. This suggests that a lowered mood impacts a non-human species' perception of its environment and highlights cognitive biases as an appropriate tool to assess the impact of chronic living conditions on horse welfare.

  2. Consumers and animal welfare. A comparison between European Union countries.

    PubMed

    Toma, Luiza; Stott, Alistair W; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata

    2012-04-01

    This paper analyses the impact of a priori identified determinants on stated willingness to change usual place of shopping in order to be able to buy more animal welfare friendly food products of consumers in nine European Union countries. We used Eurobarometer data and structural equation models with observed and latent variables. The results show that the ranking of determinants' impact on the behavioural willingness is similar in the majority of models, with access to information as the strongest determinant, followed by perceived responsibility of consumers and education with strong influence, then by labelling and occupation with lower impact and ending with children, with the lowest influence. This study aims to provide some evidence on the relationship between welfare friendly behavioural willingness and information and labelling issues, amongst other determinants, in the European Union. As both access to information and perception of welfare labelling were found to significantly influence the behavioural willingness, this might suggest the need for the European Union to invest more in improving the welfare labelling system, enhance the welfare information available to the public and improve access to it through measures such as welfare education campaigns.

  3. The Supply Chain's Role in Improving Animal Welfare.

    PubMed

    Harvey, David; Hubbard, Carmen

    2013-08-14

    Supply chains are already incorporating citizen/consumer demands for improved animal welfare, especially through product differentiation and the associated segmentation of markets. Nonetheless, the ability of the chain to deliver high(er) levels and standards of animal welfare is subject to two critical conditions: (a) the innovative and adaptive capacity of the chain to respond to society's demands; (b) the extent to which consumers actually purchase animal-friendly products. Despite a substantial literature reporting estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) for animal welfare, there is a belief that in practice people vote for substantially more and better animal welfare as citizens than they are willing to pay for as consumers. This citizen-consumer gap has significant consequences on the supply chain, although there is limited literature on the capacity and willingness of supply chains to deliver what the consumer wants and is willing to pay for. This paper outlines an economic analysis of supply chain delivery of improved standards for farm animal welfare in the EU and illustrates the possible consequences of improving animal welfare standards for the supply chain using a prototype belief network analysis.

  4. Evolution of cooperation driven by social-welfare-based migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Ye, Hang; Zhang, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Individuals' migration behavior may play a significant role in the evolution of cooperation. In reality, individuals' migration behavior may depend on their perceptions of social welfare. To study the relationship between social-welfare-based migration and the evolution of cooperation, we consider an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) in which an individual's migration depends on social welfare but not on the individual's own payoff. By introducing three important social welfare functions (SWFs) that are commonly studied in social science, we find that social-welfare-based migration can promote cooperation under a wide range of parameter values. In addition, these three SWFs have different effects on cooperation, especially through the different spatial patterns formed by migration. Because the relative efficiency of the three SWFs will change if the parameter values are changed, we cannot determine which SWF is optimal for supporting cooperation. We also show that memory capacity, which is needed to evaluate individual welfare, may affect cooperation levels in opposite directions under different SWFs. Our work should be helpful for understanding the evolution of human cooperation and bridging the chasm between studies of social preferences and studies of social cooperation.

  5. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. From welfare states to welfare sectors: Explaining sectoral differences in occupational pensions with economic and political power of employees

    PubMed Central

    Wiß, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Studies analysing welfare have previously focused on countries as units. In the course of pension cuts and the increasing importance of occupational welfare, our traditional understanding of a homogeneous welfare state is being challenged. In this article, I distinguish between both economic individual power (employee skills) and political collective power (trade unions), and their relation with different occupational pensions. A combined analysis by both factors is not common, where employee skills and power resources are traditionally treated as separate, rival explanations of public welfare. Combining the ‘method of difference’ with the ‘method of agreement’, the article first presents the within-country variety of occupational pensions in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and Denmark. Occupational pensions in the same economic sectors across countries are then used as the units of analysis in order to illustrate the plausible determinants of economic individual power and political collective power. PMID:26663983

  7. Human chromosomes: Structure, behavior, and effects

    SciTech Connect

    Therman, E.; Susman, M.

    1993-12-31

    The book `Human Chromosomes: Structure, Behavior, and Effects` covers the most important topics regarding human chromosomes and current research in cytogenetics. Attention is given both to structure and function of autosomes and sex chromosomes, as well as definitions and causes of chromosomal aberrations. This often involves discussion about various aspects of the cell cycle (both mitosis and meiosis). Methods and techniques involved in researching and mapping human chromosomes are also discussed.

  8. Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ

    DOEpatents

    Christian, Allen T.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Tucker, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ to increase the amount of DNA associated with a chromosome or chromosome region is described. The amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ provides for the synthesis of Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) painting probes from single dissected chromosome fragments, the production of cDNA libraries from low copy mRNAs and improved in Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) procedures.

  9. Welfare Reform's Impact on Adolescents: Early Warning Signs. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Jennifer L.; Hair, Elizabeth C.; Zaslow, Martha J.

    With the passage of the 1996 welfare reform law, numerous commentators expressed concern about the impact of welfare reform on young children of welfare recipients, while few expressed concern about adolescents. However, recent evidence suggests that adolescents are affected negatively when their parents participate in welfare-to-work programs.…

  10. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  11. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to....45 Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. (a) Under..., as prescribed in “Guidelines for the Preparation of State Emergency Welfare Services Plan” issued...

  12. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training. NBER Working Paper No. 16659

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results indicate that welfare reform reduced enrollment in…

  13. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to....45 Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. (a) Under..., as prescribed in “Guidelines for the Preparation of State Emergency Welfare Services Plan” issued...

  14. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... State emergency welfare preparedness. 205.45 Section 205.45 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to....45 Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness. (a) Under..., as prescribed in “Guidelines for the Preparation of State Emergency Welfare Services Plan” issued...

  15. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Child welfare services for refugee children. 400... RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112 Child welfare services for refugee children. (a)...

  16. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400... RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112 Child welfare services for refugee children. (a)...

  17. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Child welfare services for refugee children. 400... RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112 Child welfare services for refugee children. (a)...

  18. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400... RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Child Welfare Services § 400.112 Child welfare services for refugee children. (a)...

  19. Welfare Use Across Generations: How Important Are the Ties That Bind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rank, Mark R.; Cheng, Li-Chen

    1995-01-01

    Examined extent of intergenerational welfare use, strength of the association across generations, and reasons underlying such a dynamic, utilizing nationally representative data set of American households (n=13,017). Three-quarters of welfare recipients do not grow up in households that received welfare. Parent economic background, not welfare use…

  20. Good animal welfare makes economic sense: potential of pig abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool.

    PubMed

    Harley, Sarah; More, Simon; Boyle, Laura; Connell, Niamh O'; Hanlon, Alison

    2012-06-27

    During abattoir meat inspection pig carcasses are partially or fully condemned upon detection of disease that poses a risk to public health or welfare conditions that cause animal suffering e.g. fractures. This incurs direct financial losses to producers and processors. Other health and welfare-related conditions may not result in condemnation but can necessitate 'trimming' of the carcass e.g. bruising, and result in financial losses to the processor. Since animal health is a component of animal welfare these represent a clear link between suboptimal pig welfare and financial losses to the pig industry.Meat inspection data can be used to inform herd health programmes, thereby reducing the risk of injury and disease and improving production efficiency. Furthermore, meat inspection has the potential to contribute to surveillance of animal welfare. Such data could contribute to reduced losses to producers and processors through lower rates of carcass condemnations, trimming and downgrading in conjunction with higher pig welfare standards on farm. Currently meat inspection data are under-utilised in the EU, even as a means of informing herd health programmes. This includes the island of Ireland but particularly the Republic.This review describes the current situation with regard to meat inspection regulation, method, data capture and utilisation across the EU, with special reference to the island of Ireland. It also describes the financial losses arising from poor animal welfare (and health) on farms. This review seeks to contribute to efforts to evaluate the role of meat inspection as a surveillance tool for animal welfare on-farm, using pigs as a case example.

  1. Chromosome I controls chromosome II replication in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jong Hwan; Chattoraj, Dhruba K

    2014-02-01

    Control of chromosome replication involves a common set of regulators in eukaryotes, whereas bacteria with divided genomes use chromosome-specific regulators. How bacterial chromosomes might communicate for replication is not known. In Vibrio cholerae, which has two chromosomes (chrI and chrII), replication initiation is controlled by DnaA in chrI and by RctB in chrII. DnaA has binding sites at the chrI origin of replication as well as outside the origin. RctB likewise binds at the chrII origin and, as shown here, to external sites. The binding to the external sites in chrII inhibits chrII replication. A new kind of site was found in chrI that enhances chrII replication. Consistent with its enhancing activity, the chrI site increased RctB binding to those chrII origin sites that stimulate replication and decreased binding to other sites that inhibit replication. The differential effect on binding suggests that the new site remodels RctB. The chaperone-like activity of the site is supported by the finding that it could relieve the dependence of chrII replication on chaperone proteins DnaJ and DnaK. The presence of a site in chrI that specifically controls chrII replication suggests a mechanism for communication between the two chromosomes for replication.

  2. Deriving welfare measures from discrete choice experiments: inconsistency between current methods and random utility and welfare theory.

    PubMed

    Lancsar, Emily; Savage, Elizabeth

    2004-09-01

    Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are being used increasingly in health economics to elicit preferences for products and programs. The results of such experiments have been used to calculate measures of welfare or more specifically, respondents' 'willingness to pay' (WTP) for products and programs and their 'marginal willingness to pay' (MWTP) for the attributes that make up such products and programs. In this note we show that the methods currently used to derive measures of welfare from DCEs in the health economics literature are not consistent with random utility theory (RUT), or with microeconomic welfare theory more generally. The inconsistency with welfare theory is an important limitation on the use of such WTP estimates in cost-benefit analyses. We describe an alternative method of deriving measures of welfare (compensating variation) from DCEs that is consistent with RUT and is derived using welfare theory. We demonstrate its use in an empirical application to derive the WTP for asthma medication and compare it to the results elicited from the method currently used in the health economics literature.

  3. Social disorganization and the profile of child welfare: Explaining child welfare activity by the community-level factors.

    PubMed

    Harrikari, Timo

    2014-10-01

    This article addresses the question of the structure of local child welfare activities in light of community-level factors. It poses the following research questions: how are different community-level factors related to child welfare client structures in communities and what is the extent to which these factors explain structural differences? The applied theoretical framework is based on social disorganization and strain theories as well as human developmental approach. The data has been collected from two Finnish national databases and it consists of variables containing 257 Finnish municipalities. The method of analysis is multinomial logistic regression. The results suggest that the local child welfare structures are tied to social disorganization, policing and culture as well as to the intensity of control in the communities. In general, the more fragile the communal structures, the more last-resort child welfare there is in the community. Combining fragile communal structures with weak dependency ratio and high proportion of social workers, the more intense the level of child welfare statistics indicated. The results indicate that the theoretical framework for the application of child welfare activity analysis is justified, but they also suggest that it requires further development through both context-bound reflection and application.

  4. Native American Indian child welfare system change: implementation of a culturally appropriate practice model across three tribal child welfare systems.

    PubMed

    Scannapieco, Maria; Iannone, Mary A

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there are 565 federally recognized tribes in the United States who are independent sovereign nations. These tribes have varying capacities to manage and administer child welfare programs. Most provide some type of child welfare service to the children and families within their tribal land. However, there are no national resources to document the number of children in foster care or the extent of abuse and neglect in the families served by tribal child welfare agencies. Information is only known about those Native American/Alaska Native families and children who are reported to state child protection agencies. Native American children represented 0.9% of all children in the United States in the late 1990s, but they comprised 3.1% of the substitute care population in state-run child welfare systems (Morrison, et al., 2010). Incident rates of child welfare referrals, substantiated referrals, and foster care placement among Native American children and families are relatively high compared to other ethnic groups (Earle & Cross, 2001) but precise interpretation of Native American status is difficult due to variations in child welfare reporting systems (Magruder & Shaw, 2008).

  5. The map of chromosome 20.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, N E

    1988-01-01

    The number of gene assignments to human chromosome 20 has increased slowly until recently. Only seven genes and one fragile site were confirmed assignments to chromosome 20 at the Ninth Human Gene Mapping Workshop in September 1987 (HGM9). One fragile site, 13 additional genes, and 10 DNA sequences that identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), however, were provisionally added to the map at HGM9. Five mutated genes on chromosome 20 have a relation to disease: a mutation in the adenosine deaminase gene results in a deficiency of the enzyme and severe combined immune deficiency; mutations in the gene for the growth hormone releasing factor result in some forms of dwarfism; mutations in the closely linked genes for the hormones arginine vasopressin and oxytocin and their neurophysins are probably responsible for some diabetes insipidus; and mutations in the gene that regulates both alpha-neuraminidase and beta-galactosidase activities determine galactosialidosis. The gene for the prion protein is on chromosome 20; it is related to the infectious agent of kuru, Creutzfeld-Jacob disease, and Gertsmann-Straussler syndrome, although the nature of the relationship is not completely understood. Two genes that code for tyrosine kinases are on the chromosome, SRC1 the proto-oncogene and a gene (HCK) coding for haemopoietic kinase (an src-like kinase), but no direct relation to cancer has been shown for either of these kinases. The significance of non-random loss of chromosome 20 in the malignant diseases non-lymphocytic leukaemia and polycythaemia vera is not understood. Twenty-four additional loci are assigned to the chromosome: five genes that code for binding proteins, one for a light chain of ferritin, genes for three enzymes (inosine triphosphatase, s-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, and sterol delta 24-reductase), one for each of a secretory protein and an opiate neuropeptide, a cell surface antigen, two fragile sites, and 10 DNA sequences (one

  6. Heteromorphic variants of chromosome 9

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Heterochromatic variants of pericentromere of chromosome 9 are reported and discussed since decades concerning their detailed structure and clinical meaning. However, detailed studies are scarce. Thus, here we provide the largest ever done molecular cytogenetic research based on >300 chromosome 9 heteromorphism carriers. Results In this study, 334 carriers of heterochromatic variants of chromosome 9 were included, being 192 patients from Western Europe and the remainder from Easter-European origin. A 3-color-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe-set directed against for 9p12 to 9q13~21.1 (9het-mix) and 8 different locus-specific probes were applied for their characterization. The 9het-mix enables the characterization of 21 of the yet known 24 chromosome 9 heteromorphic patterns. In this study, 17 different variants were detected including five yet unreported; the most frequent were pericentric inversions (49.4%) followed by 9qh-variants (23.9%), variants of 9ph (11.4%), cenh (8.2%), and dicentric- (3.8%) and duplication-variants (3.3%). For reasons of simplicity, a new short nomenclature for the yet reported 24 heteromorphic patterns of chromosome 9 is suggested. Six breakpoints involved in four of the 24 variants could be narrowed down using locus-specific probes. Conclusions Based on this largest study ever done in carriers of chromosome 9 heteromorphisms, three of the 24 detailed variants were more frequently observed in Western than in Eastern Europe. Besides, there is no clear evidence that infertility is linked to any of the 24 chromosome 9 heteromorphic variants. PMID:23547710

  7. Chromosome therapy. Correction of large chromosomal aberrations by inducing ring chromosomes in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehyun; Bershteyn, Marina; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The fusion of the short (p) and long (q) arms of a chromosome is referred to as a "ring chromosome." Ring chromosome disorders occur in approximately 1 in 50,000-100,000 patients. Ring chromosomes can result in birth defects, mental disabilities, and growth retardation if additional genes are deleted during the formation of the ring. Due to the severity of these large-scale aberrations affecting multiple contiguous genes, no possible therapeutic strategies for ring chromosome disorders have so far been proposed. Our recent study (Bershteyn et al.) using patient-derived fibroblast lines containing ring chromosomes, found that cellular reprogramming of these fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) resulted in the cell-autonomous correction of the ring chromosomal aberration via compensatory uniparental disomy (UPD). These observations have important implications for studying the mechanism of chromosomal number control and may lead to the development of effective therapies for other, more common, chromosomal aberrations.

  8. Orbital construction support equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Approximately 200 separate construction steps were defined for the three solar power satellite (SPS) concepts. Detailed construction scenarios were developed which describe the specific tasks to be accomplished, and identify general equipment requirements. The scenarios were used to perform a functional analysis, which resulted in the definition of 100 distinct SPS elements. These elements are the components, parts, subsystems, or assemblies upon which construction activities take place. The major SPS elements for each configuration are shown. For those elements, 300 functional requirements were identified in seven generic processes. Cumulatively, these processes encompass all functions required during SPS construction/assembly. Individually each process is defined such that it includes a specific type of activity. Each SPS element may involve activities relating to any or all of the generic processes. The processes are listed, and examples of the requirements defined for a typical element are given.

  9. Chromosome photoinactivation, a new method for high speed chromosome sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.C.; Park, M.; Han, K.T.; Cram, L.S. )

    1993-01-01

    A new optical high-speed chromosome sorting concept is under development which relies on chromosome inactivation rather than droplet sorting to meet the demands of large volume sorting for cloning into large insert vectors. Inactivation can be achieved by photosensitizing and cross-linking metaphase chromosomes. By eliminating the need to create droplets, sorting rates 50 to 100 times faster than the sorting rates of commercial sorters will be achieved. Preliminary experiments using 8-methoxy psoralen in combination with UV doses of about 20 kJ/m2 have shown that: (1) DNA is cross-linked and remains double stranded even under denaturing conditions, (2) the ability of psoralen treated plasmid DNA to transect E. coli XL1-Blue cells is totally blocked following UV exposure, and (3) an average of one interstrand cross-link per 6 kb is produced with these UV doses.

  10. Spatial ordering of chromosomes enhances the fidelity of chromosome partitioning in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Jain, Isha H; Vijayan, Vikram; O'Shea, Erin K

    2012-08-21

    Many cyanobacteria have been shown to harbor multiple chromosome copies per cell, yet little is known about the organization, replication, and segregation of these chromosomes. Here, we visualize individual chromosomes in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus via time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. We find that chromosomes are equally spaced along the long axis of the cell and are interspersed with another regularly spaced subcellular compartment, the carboxysome. This remarkable organization of the cytoplasm along with accurate midcell septum placement allows for near-optimal segregation of chromosomes to daughter cells. Disruption of either chromosome ordering or midcell septum placement significantly increases the chromosome partitioning error. We find that chromosome replication is both asynchronous and independent of the position of the chromosome in the cell and that spatial organization is preserved after replication. Our findings on chromosome organization, replication, and segregation in S. elongatus provide a basis for understanding chromosome dynamics in bacteria with multiple chromosomes.

  11. Drivers of animal welfare policy in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Huertas, S M; Gallo, C; Galindo, F

    2014-04-01

    Owing to its large size and ethnic, social, cultural and economic diversity, the Americas' production volume is set to make the region one of the world's leading providers of animal foodstuffs. Animal husbandry, transport and slaughter conditions vary from country to country in response to their differing climatic and geographic characteristics. This article examines the main drivers of animal welfare in the Americas, including the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), legislation, codes of practice and advances in education, training, research and development. It recognises the important roles played by all the various stakeholders in changing perceptions of animal welfare by raising public awareness and promoting communication and cooperation as drivers of overall change in the Americas. Regional and international organisations, public and private-sector bodies, academia and non-governmental organisations have launched a number of initiatives with encouraging results. In 2009, the OIE established the Chile-Uruguay Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Research, which is now the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems and has recently incorporated Mexico. The Collaborating Centre works closely with official OIE Delegates and the Focal Points for Animal Welfare of national Veterinary Services. The OIE Regional Animal Welfare Strategy for the Americas was adopted in 2012, under the coordination of the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas, as a guide for developing future policies based on a regional approach. The way to achieve cultural change for improving animal welfare, operator safety and the sector's profitability is through training and knowledge transfer. The results demonstrate that the joint efforts of all institutions and the active role of the Collaborating Centre have been most effective, as have the continuing education programmes implemented by universities.

  12. A perfect storm? Welfare, care, gender and generations in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Filgueira, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Magdalena; Papadópulos, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article claims that welfare states modelled on a contributory basis and with a system of entitlements that assumes stable two-parent families, a traditional breadwinner model, full formal employment and a relatively young age structure are profoundly flawed in the context of present-day challenges. While this is true for affluent countries modelled on the Bismarckian type of welfare system, the costs of the status quo are even more devastating in middle-income economies with high levels of inequality. A gendered approach to welfare reform that introduces the political economy and the economy of care and unpaid work is becoming critical to confront what may very well become a perfect storm for the welfare of these nations and their peoples. Through an in-depth study of the Uruguayan case, the authors show how the decoupling of risk and protection has torn asunder the efficacy of welfare devices in the country. An ageing society that has seen a radical transformation of its family and labour market landscapes, Uruguay maintained during the 1980s and 1990s a welfare state that was essentially contributory, elderly and male-oriented, and centred on cash entitlements. This contributed to the infantilization of poverty, increased the vulnerability of women and exacerbated fiscal stress for the system as a whole. Furthermore, because of high levels of income and asset inequality, the redistribution of risk between upper- and lower-income groups presented a deeply regressive pattern. The political economy of care and welfare has begun to change in the last decade or so, bringing about mild reforms in the right direction; but these might prove to be too little and too late.

  13. Welfare state matters: a typological multilevel analysis of wealthy countries.

    PubMed

    Chung, Haejoo; Muntaner, Carles

    2007-02-01

    Building on the social science literature, we hypothesized that population health indicators in wealthy industrialized countries are 'clustered' around welfare state regime types. We tested this hypothesis during a period of welfare state expansion from 1960 to 1994. We categorized data from 19 wealthy countries into 4 different types of welfare state regimes (Social Democratic, Christian Democratic, Liberal and Wage Earner Welfare States). Outcome variables were the infant mortality rate (IMR) and the low birth weight rate (LBW), obtained from the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Health Data 2000 and from the United Nations Common Statistical Database (UNCSD). A two-level multilevel model was constructed, and fixed effects of welfare state were tested. Through the 39 years analyzed, Social Democratic countries exhibited a significantly better population health status, i.e., lower infant mortality rate and low birth weight rate, compared to other countries. Twenty percent of the difference in infant mortality rate among countries could be explained by the type of welfare state, and about 10% for low birth weight rate. The gap between Social Democracies and other countries widened over the 1990s. Our results confirm that countries exhibit distinctive levels of population health by welfare regime types even when adjusted by the level of economic development (GDP per capita) and intra-country correlations. It implies that countries, as groups, adopt similar policies or through any other ways, achieve similar level of health status. Proposed mechanisms of such process and suggestions for future research directions are presented in the discussion.

  14. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research

    PubMed Central

    Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J. C. M.; Velkers, Francisca C.; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S.

    2017-01-01

    Simple summary Intensive farming systems are confronted with a number of animal welfare issues such as injuries from horns in cattle and feather pecking in poultry. To solve these problems, mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are applied routinely. These and other procedures such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions impair animal welfare. Scientific underpinning of the efficacy of these interventions and management practices is poor. We advocate that all stakeholders, in particular animal scientists and veterinarians, take the lead in evaluating common, putative mutilating and welfare reducing procedures and management practices to develop better, scientifically supported alternatives, focused on adaptation of the environment to the animals, to ensure uncompromised animal welfare. Abstract A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting “robust” animals) adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum), or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific

  15. Mechanisms for Complex Chromosomal Insertions

    PubMed Central

    Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Akdemir, Zeynep Coban; Yuan, Bo; Cooper, Mitchell L.; Magriñá, Maria A.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Lalani, Seema R.; Patel, Ankita; Song, Rodger H.; Bi, Weimin; Cheung, Sau Wai; Carvalho, Claudia M. B.; Lupski, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal insertions are genomic rearrangements with a chromosome segment inserted into a non-homologous chromosome or a non-adjacent locus on the same chromosome or the other homologue, constituting ~2% of nonrecurrent copy-number gains. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their formation. We identified 16 individuals with complex insertions among 56,000 individuals tested at Baylor Genetics using clinical array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Custom high-density aCGH was performed on 10 individuals with available DNA, and breakpoint junctions were fine-mapped at nucleotide resolution by long-range PCR and DNA sequencing in 6 individuals to glean insights into potential mechanisms of formation. We observed microhomologies and templated insertions at the breakpoint junctions, resembling the breakpoint junction signatures found in complex genomic rearrangements generated by replication-based mechanism(s) with iterative template switches. In addition, we analyzed 5 families with apparently balanced insertion in one parent detected by FISH analysis and found that 3 parents had additional small copy-number variants (CNVs) at one or both sides of the inserting fragments as well as at the inserted sites. We propose that replicative repair can result in interchromosomal complex insertions generated through chromothripsis-like chromoanasynthesis involving two or three chromosomes, and cause a significant fraction of apparently balanced insertions harboring small flanking CNVs. PMID:27880765

  16. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  17. Chromosome segregation in plant meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Zamariola, Linda; Tiang, Choon Lin; De Storme, Nico; Pawlowski, Wojtek; Geelen, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Faithful chromosome segregation in meiosis is essential for ploidy stability over sexual life cycles. In plants, defective chromosome segregation caused by gene mutations or other factors leads to the formation of unbalanced or unreduced gametes creating aneuploid or polyploid progeny, respectively. Accurate segregation requires the coordinated execution of conserved processes occurring throughout the two meiotic cell divisions. Synapsis and recombination ensure the establishment of chiasmata that hold homologous chromosomes together allowing their correct segregation in the first meiotic division, which is also tightly regulated by cell-cycle dependent release of cohesin and monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores to microtubules. In meiosis II, bi-orientation of sister kinetochores and proper spindle orientation correctly segregate chromosomes in four haploid cells. Checkpoint mechanisms acting at kinetochores control the accuracy of kinetochore-microtubule attachment, thus ensuring the completion of segregation. Here we review the current knowledge on the processes taking place during chromosome segregation in plant meiosis, focusing on the characterization of the molecular factors involved. PMID:24987397

  18. Dean flow fractionation of chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockin, Matt; Sant, Himanshu J.; Capecchi, Mario; Gale, Bruce K.

    2016-03-01

    Efforts to transfer intact mammalian chromosomes between cells have been attempted for more than 50 years with the consistent result being transfer of sub unit length pieces regardless of method. Inertial microfluidics is a new field that has shown much promise in addressing the fractionation of particles in the 2-20 μm size range (with unknown limits) and separations are based upon particles being carried by curving confined flows (within a spiral shaped, often rectangular flow chamber) and migrating to stable "equilibrium" positions of varying distance from a chamber wall depending on the balance of dean and lift forces. We fabricated spiral channels for inertial microfluidic separations using a standard soft lithography process. The concentration of chromosomes, small contaminant DNA and large cell debris in each outlets were evaluated using microscope (60X) and a flow cytometer. Using Dean Flow Fractionation, we were able to focus 4.5 times more chromosomes in outlet 2 compared to outlet 4 where most of the large debris is found. We recover 16% of the chromosomes in outlet #1- 50% in 2, 23% in 3 and 11% in 4. It should be noted that these estimates of recovery do not capture one piece of information- it actually may be that the chromosomes at each outlet are physically different and work needs to be done to verify this potential.

  19. Structure and function of eukaryotic chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hennig, W.

    1987-01-01

    Contents: Introduction; Polytene Chromosomel Giant Chromosomes in Ciliates; The sp-I Genes in the Balbiani Rings of Chironomus Salivary Glands; The White Locus of Drosophila Melanogaster; The Genetic and Molecular Organization of the Dense Cluster of Functionally Related Vital Genes in the DOPA Decarboxylase Region of the Drosophila melanogaster Genome; Heat Shock Puffs and Response to Environmental Stress; The Y Chromosomal Lampbrush Loops of Drosophila; Contributions of Electron Microscopic Spreading Preparations (''Miller Spreads'') to the Analysis of Chromosome Structure; Replication of DNA in Eukaryotic Chromosomes; Gene Amplification in Dipteran Chromosomes; The Significance of Plant Transposable Elements in Biologically Relevant Processes; Arrangement of Chromosomes in Interphase Cell Nuclei; Heterochromatin and the Phenomenon of Chromosome Banding; Multiple Nonhistone Protein-DNA Complexes in Chromatin Regulate the Cell- and Stage-Specific Activity of an Eukaryotic Gene; Genetics of Sex Determination in Eukaryotes; Application of Basic Chromosome Research in Biotechnology and Medicine. This book presents an overview of various aspects of chromosome research.

  20. Array painting: a protocol for the rapid analysis of aberrant chromosomes using DNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Susan M; Ng, Bee Ling; Prigmore, Elena; Fitzgerald, Tomas; Carter, Nigel P

    2012-01-01

    Aarray painting is a technique that uses microarray technology to rapidly map chromosome translocation breakpoints. previous methods to map translocation breakpoints have used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FIsH) and have consequently been labor-intensive, time-consuming and restricted to the low breakpoint resolution imposed by the use of metaphase chromosomes. array painting combines the isolation of derivative chromosomes (chromosomes with translocations) and high-resolution microarray analysis to refine the genomic location of translocation breakpoints in a single experiment. In this protocol, we describe array painting by isolation of derivative chromosomes using a MoFlo flow sorter, amplification of these derivatives using whole-genome amplification and hybridization onto commercially available oligonucleotide microarrays. although the sorting of derivative chromosomes is a specialized procedure requiring sophisticated equipment, the amplification, labeling and hybridization of Dna is straightforward, robust and can be completed within 1 week. the protocol described produces good quality data; however, array painting is equally achievable using any combination of the available alternative methodologies for chromosome isolation, amplification and hybridization. PMID:19893508

  1. Child Welfare Services for Indigenous Populations: A Comparison of Child Welfare Histories, Policies, Practices and Laws for American Indians and Norwegian Samis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Ann; Saus, Merete

    2012-01-01

    This article takes Dixon and Scheurell's framework for understanding colonisation processes within social welfare policies and applies it to child welfare for Indigenous populations in the United States and Norway. While those countries' historical child welfare policies follow Dixon and Scheurell's hypotheses regarding colonisation, each nation…

  2. Animal emotions, behaviour and the promotion of positive welfare states.

    PubMed

    Mellor, D J

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a rationale that may significantly boost the drive to promote positive welfare states in animals. The rationale is based largely, but not exclusively, on an experimentally supported neuropsychological understanding of relationships between emotions and behaviour, an understanding that has not yet been incorporated into animal welfare science thinking. Reference is made to major elements of the neural/cognitive foundations of motivational drives that energise and direct particular behaviours and their related subjective or emotional experiences. These experiences are generated in part by sensory inputs that reflect the animal's internal functional state and by neural processing linked to the animal's perception of its external circumstances. The integrated subjective or emotional outcome of these inputs corresponds to the animal's welfare status. The internally generated subjective experiences represent motivational urges or drives that are predominantly negative and include breathlessness, thirst, hunger and pain. They are generated by, and elicit specific behaviours designed to correct, imbalances in the animal's internal functional state. Externally generated subjective experiences are said to be integral to the operation of interacting 'action-orientated systems' that give rise to particular behaviours and their negative or positive emotional contents. These action-orientated systems, described in neuropsychological terms, give rise to negative emotions that include fear, anger and panic, and positive emotions that include comfort, vitality, euphoria and playfulness. It is argued that early thinking about animal welfare management focused mainly on minimising disturbances to the internal functional states that generate associated unpleasant motivational urges or drives. This strategy produced animal welfare benefits, but at best it could only lift a poor net welfare status to a neutral one. In contrast, strategies designed to manipulate the

  3. Welfare effects of a disease eradication programme for dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Muri, K; Leine, N; Valle, P S

    2016-02-01

    The Norwegian dairy goat industry has largely succeeded in controlling caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE), caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) and paratuberculosis through a voluntary disease eradication programme called Healthier Goats (HG). The aim of this study was to apply an on-farm welfare assessment protocol to assess the effects of HG on goat welfare. A total of 30 dairy goat farms were visited, of which 15 had completed disease eradication and 15 had not yet started. Three trained observers assessed the welfare on 10 farms each. The welfare assessment protocol comprised both resource-based and animal-based welfare measures, including a preliminary version of qualitative behavioural assessments with five prefixed terms. A total of 20 goats in each herd were randomly selected for observations of human-animal interactions and physical health. The latter included registering abnormalities of eyes, nostrils, ears, skin, lymph nodes, joints, udder, claws and body condition score. For individual-level data, robust clustered logistic regression analyses with farm as cluster variable were conducted to assess the association with disease eradication. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used for comparisons of herd-level data between the two groups. Goats with swollen joints (indicative of CAE) and enlarged lymph nodes (indicative of CLA) were registered on 53% and 93% of the non-HG farms, respectively, but on none of the HG farms. The only other health variables with significantly lower levels in HG herds were skin lesions (P=0.008) and damaged ears due to torn out ear tags (P<0.001). Goats on HG farms showed less fear of unknown humans (P=0.013), and the qualitative behavioural assessments indicated that the animals in these herds were calmer than in non-HG herds. Significantly more space and lower gas concentrations reflected the upgrading of buildings usually done on HG farms. In conclusion, HG has resulted in some welfare improvements beyond the elimination of infectious

  4. The Animal Welfare Act: From Enactment to Enforcement

    PubMed Central

    Cardon, Andrew D; Bailey, Matthew R; Bennett, B Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Originally enacted in 1966, the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act has been amended several times and renamed the Animal Welfare Act. Responsibility for administering the Animal Welfare Act was delegated within the United States Department of Agriculture to the Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and regulations and standards have been developed to implement the intent of Congress conveyed in the language of the Act. In our opinion, the key to compliance with the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations and standards is to have in place a proactive, progressive Animal Care and Use Program that uses the semiannual inspection and programmatic review process to improve the day-to-day management of the program. Successfully managing the inspection process has taken on new meaning in what has recently become known as the ‘Age of Enforcement.’ As part of this approach, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service made changes to the inspection process and issued an Enhanced Animal Welfare Enforcement Plan, which included the development of an Inspection Requirements Handbook. The Inspection Requirements Handbook provides inspectors with information on conducting inspections and includes as an attachment a flow chart for Enforcement Action Guidance. The chart describes 4 types of actions that may occur as part of the enforcement process and the steps that will be followed if noncompliant items are documented during an inspection. PMID:22776186

  5. The Impacts of Climate Change Mitigation Strategies on Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Sara; Orme-Evans, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Climate change is probably the most important environmental issue of our time. Raising animals for food contributes to the production of greenhouse gases implicated in the global warming that is causing climate change. To combat this ecological disaster, a number of mitigation strategies involving changes to agricultural practices have been proposed. However, some of these changes will impact the welfare of farmed animals. This paper reviews selected climate change mitigation strategies and explains how different approaches could have negative or positive effects. Abstract The objective of this review is to point out that the global dialog on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in animal agriculture has, thus far, not adequately considered animal welfare in proposed climate change mitigation strategies. Many suggested approaches for reducing emissions, most of which could generally be described as calls for the intensification of production, can have substantial effects on the animals. Given the growing world-wide awareness and concern for animal welfare, many of these approaches are not socially sustainable. This review identifies the main emission abatement strategies in the climate change literature that would negatively affect animal welfare and details the associated problems. Alternative strategies are also identified as possible solutions for animal welfare and climate change, and it is suggested that more attention be focused on these types of options when allocating resources, researching mitigation strategies, and making policy decisions on reducing emissions from animal agriculture. PMID:26479240

  6. Validating the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS) in child welfare organizations.

    PubMed

    Ehrhart, Mark G; Torres, Elisa M; Wright, Lisa A; Martinez, Sandra Y; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in child welfare settings and growing recognition of the importance of the organizational environment, and the organization's climate in particular, for how employees perceive and support EBP implementation. Recently, Ehrhart, Aarons, and Farahnak (2014) reported on the development and validation of a measure of EBP implementation climate, the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS), in a sample of mental health clinicians. The ICS consists of 18 items and measures six critical dimensions of implementation climate: focus on EBP, educational support for EBP, recognition for EBP, rewards for EBP, selection or EBP, and selection for openness. The goal of the current study is to extend this work by providing evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS in a sample of child welfare service providers. Survey data were collected from 215 child welfare providers across three states, 12 organizations, and 43 teams. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good fit to the six-factor model and the alpha reliabilities for the overall measure and its subscales was acceptable. In addition, there was general support for the invariance of the factor structure across the child welfare and mental health sectors. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS measure for use in child welfare service organizations.

  7. Intimate partner violence and welfare participation: a longitudinal causal analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tyrone C

    2013-03-01

    This longitudinal study examined the temporal-ordered causal relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), five mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence, treatment seeking (from physician, counselor, and self-help group), employment, child support, and welfare participation. It was a secondary data analysis of records of 571 women; the records were extracted from the study "Violence Against Women and the Role of Welfare Reform" (VAWRWR). Results from generalized estimating equations (GEE) showed that experiencing controlling behaviors reduced likelihood of welfare participation whereas experiencing physical abuse increased it. Significant impact on welfare participation was wielded by panic attack, drug abuse/dependence, and employment; treatment seeking and child support made no significant impact. The study found no significant mediating effect wielded by panic attack, drug abuse/dependence, employment, or child support on welfare participation's relationship to controlling behaviors or physically abusive behaviors experienced. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  8. Validating the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS) in Child Welfare Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhart, Mark G.; Torres, Elisa M.; Wright, Lisa A.; Martinez, Sandra Y.; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in child welfare settings and growing recognition of the importance of the organizational environment, and the organization’s climate in particular, for how employees perceive and support EBP implementation. Recently, Ehrhart, Aarons, and Farahnak (2014) reported on the development and validation of a measure of EBP implementation climate, the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS), in a sample of mental health clinicians. The ICS consists of 18 items and measures six critical dimensions of implementation climate: focus on EBP, educational support for EBP, recognition for EBP, rewards for EBP, selection or EBP, and selection for openness. The goal of the current study is to extend this work by providing evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS in a sample of child welfare service providers. Survey data were collected from 215 child welfare providers across three states, 12 organizations, and 43 teams. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good fit to the six-factor model and the alpha reliabilities for the overall measure and its subscales was acceptable. In addition, there was general support for the invariance of the factor structure across the child welfare and mental health sectors. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS measure for use in child welfare service organizations. PMID:26563643

  9. Welfare Impacts of Pindone Poisoning in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Penny; Brown, Samantha; Arrow, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The nature and duration of the effects of pindone poisoning in rabbits were evaluated through observational monitoring of affected animals and necropsy. Using the resulting data in a formal assessment framework, the welfare impacts of pindone poisoning were ranked as relatively higher than other vertebrate toxic agents currently used for rabbit control. Abstract Control methods used to manage unwanted impacts of the European rabbit in Australia and New Zealand include the use of toxic bait containing the anticoagulant pindone. Towards increased certainty in evaluating the animal welfare impacts of pindone poisoning in rabbits, we recorded behavioral and post-mortem data from rabbits which ingested lethal quantities of pindone bait in a laboratory trial. Pindone poisoning in rabbits resulted in welfare compromise, primarily through functional impairments related to internal haemorrhage over a maximum duration of 7 days. Applying this data to a formal assessment framework for ranking animal welfare impacts indicated that pindone had relatively high severity and also duration of welfare impacts in comparison to other rabbit control methods. PMID:26927192

  10. The effects of welfare status on psychological distress among Southeast Asian refugees.

    PubMed

    Chung, R C; Bemak, F

    1996-06-01

    It has been established in the general population that there is a relationship between welfare status and psychological well-being. There are few studies, however, which investigate the effects of welfare dependency on Southeast Asian refugees, a population that is highly dependent on welfare. This study examined the relationship between welfare status and psychological well-being among Vietnamese, Cambodian, Laotian, and Hmong refugees. The study compared three welfare groups: those who have never been on welfare, those who were once dependent on welfare and are no longer on welfare, and those who are still welfare-dependent. The results supported three hypotheses: a) a high percentage of all four refugee groups were still dependent on welfare even after being in the United States for an average of 5 to 6 years, b) a significant relationship was found between welfare dependency and psychological distress, and c) dependence on welfare had long-term effects for all four groups. An interesting finding that emerged for the Vietnamese, Cambodians, and Laotians was that individuals who were once on welfare but who are no longer receiving welfare benefits are at similar risk as their counterparts who are currently on welfare of developing psychological distress. The findings therefore showed that for this population, if individuals had been touched by welfare at any period in their lives, they were at risk of developing psychological distress. There was an unexpected different finding for the Hmong; individuals who were no longer on welfare were more at risk than those who continued to receive or never had received welfare. Reasons for the intergroup differences and why refugees tended to stay on welfare longer than the general population were explored, along with a discussion about the implications of the findings for refugee policy.

  11. STUDIES ON THE ISOLATION OF METAPHASE CHROMOSOMES

    PubMed Central

    ChoraŻy, M.; Bendich, A.; Borenfreund, E.; Hutchison, D. J.

    1963-01-01

    A method for the isolation of metaphase chromosomes from mouse L1210 leukemia cells has been developed. Cells, arrested at metaphase with colchicine, were exposed to hypotonic solution and the pH was then adjusted to 5.6 to stabilize the chromosomes. The metaphase figures were subsequently disrupted and the chromosomes isolated by a series of differential centrifugations in sucrose. The isolated chromosomes were well preserved, as judged by morphological criteria. The effect of various enzymes and chemical agents on the isolated chromosomes was studied. Chymotrypsin, trypsin, and deoxyribonuclease caused a marked disintegration of the chromosomes, whereas treatment with pepsin and ribonuclease induced no significant morphological alterations. PMID:14069802

  12. Welding equipment for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhanibekov, V. A.; Zagrebel'Nyi, A. A.; Garvish, S. S.; Stesin, V. V.; Sheliagin, V. D.; Iurchenko, N. N.; Markov, A. V.

    A survey is presented of representative Soviet-period equipment for welding, brazing, coating, and cutting operations that are to be conducted in EVA and other microgravity/vacuum conditions by cosmonauts. Power-supply and process information-processing units are essential components of the 'Isparitel', 'Yantar', and hand-held 'Uri' equipment discussed; in addition, these welding equipment designs strove to achieve the greatest possible lightness, compactness, and energy efficiency. Accounts are given of cosmonaut EVA operational experience with the welding equipment presented.

  13. Orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The baseline for utilization of Orbiter electrical equipment in both electrical and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) thermal analyses is established. It is a composite catalog of Space Shuttle equipment, as defined in the Shuttle Operational Data Book. The major functions and expected usage of each component type are described. Functional descriptions are designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the Orbiter electrical equipment, to insure correlation of equipment usage within nominal analyses, and to aid analysts in the formulation of off-nominal, contingency analyses.

  14. Information technology equipment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  15. Using Chromosomes to Teach Evolution: Chromosomal Rearrangements in Speciation Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Susan

    1994-01-01

    Uses diagrams to aid in discussing how the English map of the human chromosomes, published by Offner in 1993, can be used to illustrate some important questions in evolution, as well as give students a glimpse into some of the mechanisms underlying evolutionary change. (ZWH)

  16. VIEW OF ULTRASONIC TESTING EQUIPMENT IN BUILDING 991. THIS EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ULTRA-SONIC TESTING EQUIPMENT IN BUILDING 991. THIS EQUIPMENT NON-DESTRUCTIVELY TESTS WEAPONS COMPONENTS FOR FLAWS AND CRACKS. (9/11/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Final Assembly & Shipping, Eastern portion of plant site, south of Spruce Avenue, east of Tenth Street & north of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. Power Product Equipment Technician: Equipment Systems. Teacher Edition. Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert

    This packet contains teacher and student editions on the topic of equipment systems, intended for the preparation of power product equipment technicians. This publication contains seven units: (1) principles of power transmission; (2) mechanical drive systems; (3) principles of fluid power; (4) hydraulic and pneumatic drive systems; (5) wheel and…

  18. Ring chromosomes in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans are composed of interspersed sequences from chromosomes 17 and 22.

    PubMed Central

    Naeem, R.; Lux, M. L.; Huang, S. F.; Naber, S. P.; Corson, J. M.; Fletcher, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Ring chromosomes are found in most dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSPs), and recent reports demonstrate that portions of the DFSP ring chromosomes derive from chromosome 17. In this study we characterized ring chromosomes in three DFSPs using a combined approach of karyotyping, chromosome painting, and comparative genomic hybridization. Chromosome painting demonstrated that the ring chromosomes in each DFSP were composed of discontinuous, interwoven sequences from chromosomes 17 and 22. Amplification of chromosomes 17 and 22 sequences was confirmed in each of these cases by comparative genomic hybridization, and over-representation of chromosomes 17 and 22 sequences was also demonstrated by comparative genomic hybridization in 1 of 2 cytogenetically unremarkable DFSPs. We conclude that amplification of chromosomes 17 and 22 sequences, in ring form, is a characteristic aberration in DFSP. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7495279

  19. A proteomics perspective: from animal welfare to food safety.

    PubMed

    Bassols, Anna; Turk, Romana; Roncada, Paola

    2014-03-01

    A fundamental issue of farm animal welfare is to keep animals clinically healthy, without disease or stress, particularly in intensive breeding, in order to produce safe and quality food. This issue is highly relevant for the food industry worldwide as they are directly linked to public health and welfare. The aim of this review is to explore how proteomics can assess and improve the knowledge useful for the strategic management of products of animal origin. Useful indications are provided about the latest proteomics tools for the development of novel biotechnologies serving the public health. The multivariate proteomics approach provides the bases for the discovery of biomarkers useful to investigate adaptation syndromes and oxidative stress. These two responses represent the milestones for the study of animal welfare. Moreover their implementation in the characterization and standardization of raw materials, process development, and quality and safety control of the final product of animal origin represents the current frontier in official surveillance and tests development.

  20. The impact of welfare reform on men's violence against women.

    PubMed

    Riger, S; Krieglstein, M

    2000-10-01

    Welfare reform is likely to have a profound effect on the lives of poor women who are being abused. This article proposes exchange theory and the feminist "backlash hypothesis" as frameworks with which to assess the impact of welfare reform on violence levels in abusive relationships. Exchange theory suggests that if a woman leaves welfare and obtains employment that increases her economic resources, violence against her will decrease. The backlash hypothesis makes a different prediction: Violence will increase as men attempt to compensate for women's enhanced status or independence. Both approaches are examined in light of current data. As demonstrated here, the incorporation into social policy analyses of feminist thinking about dominance and power will enrich our understanding of the impact of social policy changes on people.