Sample records for wenchuan earthquake china

  1. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and the Rise and Fall of Earthquake Prediction in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.; Wang, K.

    2009-12-01

    Regardless of the future potential of earthquake prediction, it is presently impractical to rely on it to mitigate earthquake disasters. The practical approach is to strengthen the resilience of our built environment to earthquakes based on hazard assessment. But this was not common understanding in China when the M 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake struck the Sichuan Province on 12 May 2008, claiming over 80,000 lives. In China, earthquake prediction is a government-sanctioned and law-regulated measure of disaster prevention. A sudden boom of the earthquake prediction program in 1966-1976 coincided with a succession of nine M > 7 damaging earthquakes in the densely populated region of the country and the political chaos of the Cultural Revolution. It climaxed with the prediction of the 1975 Haicheng earthquake, which was due mainly to an unusually pronounced foreshock sequence and the extraordinary readiness of some local officials to issue imminent warning and evacuation order. The Haicheng prediction was a success in practice and yielded useful lessons, but the experience cannot be applied to most other earthquakes and cultural environments. Since the disastrous Tangshan earthquake in 1976 that killed over 240,000 people, there have been two opposite trends in China: decreasing confidence in prediction and increasing emphasis on regulating construction design for earthquake resilience. In 1976, most of the seismic intensity XI areas of Tangshan were literally razed to the ground, but in 2008, many buildings in the intensity XI areas of Wenchuan did not collapse. Prediction did not save life in either of these events; the difference was made by construction standards. For regular buildings, there was no seismic design in Tangshan to resist any earthquake shaking in 1976, but limited seismic design was required for the Wenchuan area in 2008. Although the construction standards were later recognized to be too low, those buildings that met the standards suffered much less

  2. Rebuilding Schools after the Wenchuan Earthquake: China Visits OECD, Italy and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CELE Exchange, 2009

    2009-01-01

    As the reconstruction efforts continue in China in the wake of the Great Wenchuan earthquake in May 2008, the China Development Research Foundation, with the support of the OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments, organised an International Training Programme on the Post-Earthquake Reconstruction of Public Facilities from 1 to 11 December…

  3. The Wenchuan, China M8.0 Earthquake: A Lesson and Implication for Seismic Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.

    2008-12-01

    The Wenchuan, China M8.0 earthquake caused great damage and huge casualty. 69,197 people were killed, 374,176 people were injured, and 18,341 people are still missing. The estimated direct economic loss is about 126 billion U.S. dollar. The Wenchuan earthquake again demonstrated that earthquake does not kill people, but the built environments and induced hazards, landslides in particular, do. Therefore, it is critical to strengthen the built environments, such buildings and bridges, and to mitigate the induced hazards in order to avoid such disaster. As a part of the so-called North-South Seismic Zone in China, the Wenchuan earthquake occurred along the Longmen Shan thrust belt which forms a boundary between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Sichuan basin, and there is a long history (~4,000 years) of seismicity in the area. The historical records show that the area experienced high intensity (i.e., greater than IX) in the past several thousand years. In other words, the area is well-known to have high seismic hazard because of its tectonic setting and seismicity. However, only intensity VII (0.1 to 0.15g PGA) has been considered for seismic design for the built environments in the area. This was one of the main reasons that so many building collapses, particularly the school buildings, during the Wenchuan earthquake. It is clear that the seismic design (i.e., the design ground motion or intensity) is not adequate in the Wenchuan earthquake stricken area. A lesson can be learned from the Wenchuan earthquake on the seismic hazard and risk assessment. A lesson can also be learned from this earthquake on seismic hazard mitigation and/or seismic risk reduction.

  4. Focal Mechanisms and Stress Environment of the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan, China, Earthquake Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Luo, Y.; Ni, S.

    2012-12-01

    The 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw=7.9) was the largest earthquake in China ever recorded by modern seismic instruments. It generated numerous moderate sized aftershocks that were well recorded by both permanent stations as well as portable instruments deployed after the mainshock. These waveform records yield high-quality data for the determination of focal mechanisms of aftershocks, which in turn provide important information for the investigation of regional stress field and the seismogenic environment in the Wenchuan earthquake source region. In this study, we determine the focal mechanisms, depths and moment magnitudes of moderate-sized (Mw ≥ 4.0) Wenchuan aftershocks using broadband waveform records. The focal mechanism results are then used to obtain the orientation and ratio of the principle stresses by the damped linear stress inversion method of Hardebeck & Michael (2006). Our results show that the majority of the moderate aftershocks occur at a depth range of 10-20 km and outside of the major rupture zones of the mainshock. The Wenchuan source region remains under a nearly horizontal compression with mostly thrust and occasional strike-slip faulting, especially towards the two ends of the rupture of the main shock. There is also clearly local variations in the orientation of the principle stresses.

  5. Seismicity Increase in North China After the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhagen, G.; Li, C.; Peng, Z.; Wu, J.; Zhao, L.

    2016-12-01

    A large mainshock is capable of setting off an increase in seismicity in areas thousands of kilometers away. This phenomenon, known as remote triggering, is more likely to occur along active fault lines, aftershock zones, or regions with anthropogenic activities (e.g., mining, reservoirs, and fluid injections). By studying these susceptible areas, we can gain a better understanding of subsurface stress conditions, and long-range earthquake interactions. In this study we conduct a systematic search for remotely triggered seismicity in North China along two linear dense arrays (net code 1A and Z8) deployed by Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) following the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. A 5 Hz high pass filter is applied to the broadband seismogram recorded at the 1A array, which is more than 2,000 km away from the mainshock, in order to manually pick local events with double peaks. These local events have higher frequencies than earthquakes in the aftershock zone of the Wenchuan earthquake. An STA/LTA method is then employed as a way to automatically detect microseismicity in a section of the array that showed preliminary evidence of remote triggering. We find a clear increase of small earthquakes, right after the surface waves of the Wenchuan mainshock. These events, were recorded at stations close to the north section of the Tanlu fault and aftershock zones of the 1975, Ms7.3 Haicheng earthquake. This result suggests that remote triggering is more likely near active fault zones or other specific regions, as previous studies have proposed. Future work includes applying a waveform matching method to both arrays and automatically detecting micro-earthquakes missed on the catalog, and using them to better confirm the existence (or lack of) remote triggering following the Wenchuan mainshock. Our finding helps to better classify conditions that lead to the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes at intraplate regions.

  6. Rebuilding Schools after the Wenchuan Earthquake: China Visits OECD, Italy and Turkey. CELE Exchange 2009/7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    As the reconstruction efforts continue in China in the wake of the Great Wenchuan earthquake in May 2008, the China Development Research Foundation, with the support of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Centre for Effective Learning Environments, organised an International Training Programme on the Post-Earthquake…

  7. Assessing Earthquake-Induced Tree Mortality in Temperate Forest Ecosystems: A Case Study from Wenchuan, China

    DOE PAGES

    Zeng, Hongcheng; Lu, Tao; Jenkins, Hillary; ...

    2016-03-17

    Earthquakes can produce significant tree mortality, and consequently affect regional carbon dynamics. Unfortunately, detailed studies quantifying the influence of earthquake on forest mortality are currently rare. The committed forest biomass carbon loss associated with the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China is assessed by a synthetic approach in this study that integrated field investigation, remote sensing analysis, empirical models and Monte Carlo simulation. The newly developed approach significantly improved the forest disturbance evaluation by quantitatively defining the earthquake impact boundary and detailed field survey to validate the mortality models. Based on our approach, a total biomass carbon of 10.9 Tg·C wasmore » lost in Wenchuan earthquake, which offset 0.23% of the living biomass carbon stock in Chinese forests. Tree mortality was highly clustered at epicenter, and declined rapidly with distance away from the fault zone. It is suggested that earthquakes represent a signif icant driver to forest carbon dynamics, and the earthquake-induced biomass carbon loss should be included in estimating forest carbon budgets.« less

  8. Assessing Earthquake-Induced Tree Mortality in Temperate Forest Ecosystems: A Case Study from Wenchuan, China

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zeng, Hongcheng; Lu, Tao; Jenkins, Hillary

    Earthquakes can produce significant tree mortality, and consequently affect regional carbon dynamics. Unfortunately, detailed studies quantifying the influence of earthquake on forest mortality are currently rare. The committed forest biomass carbon loss associated with the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China is assessed by a synthetic approach in this study that integrated field investigation, remote sensing analysis, empirical models and Monte Carlo simulation. The newly developed approach significantly improved the forest disturbance evaluation by quantitatively defining the earthquake impact boundary and detailed field survey to validate the mortality models. Based on our approach, a total biomass carbon of 10.9 Tg·C wasmore » lost in Wenchuan earthquake, which offset 0.23% of the living biomass carbon stock in Chinese forests. Tree mortality was highly clustered at epicenter, and declined rapidly with distance away from the fault zone. It is suggested that earthquakes represent a signif icant driver to forest carbon dynamics, and the earthquake-induced biomass carbon loss should be included in estimating forest carbon budgets.« less

  9. Risk factors of suicidal ideation among adolescents after Wenchuan earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Zhen; Fan, Mei; Li, Rong-Hui; Li, Yuan-Hao; Ou, Guo Jing; Jiang, Zhe; Tong, Yu-Zhen; Fang, Ding-Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Suicidal ideation is a common phenomenon in survivors after disaster event. To identify the change of suicidal ideation, and to test hypotheses concerning the suicidal ideation, depression and PTSD symptoms among adolescent survivors after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. The suicidal ideation among high school students at 6, 12 and 18 months after the Wenchuan earthquake were investigated. Subjects included 737 student survivors in an affected high school. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the Chinese Beck Depression Inventory (C-BDI) were used to measure the symptoms of PTSD and depression. The rates of suicidal ideation among the adolescent survivors at 6-, 12- and 18-month after the earthquake were 35.6%, 35.6% and 30.7% respectively. Depression symptoms in the 18-month follow-up, suicidal ideations at 6 and 12 months after the earthquake were the independent risk factors of suicidal ideation in the 18-month follow-up. Depression symptoms were the strongest predictor of suicidal ideation after earthquake. An increased rate of suicidal ideation after the earthquake may be mainly due to depression but not to PTSD symptoms. The disaster-related psychological sequelae and the risk factors of suicidal ideation, especially depression symptoms, should be considered in the mental health services and suicide prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Landslides and Earthquake Lakes from the Wenchuan, China Earthquake - Can it Happen in the U.S.?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenner, H.; Cydzik, K.; Hamilton, D.; Cattarossi, A.; Mathieson, E.

    2008-12-01

    The May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan, China earthquake destroyed five million homes and schools, causing over 87,650 deaths. Landslides, a secondary effect of the shaking, caused much of the devastation. Debris flows buried homes, rock falls crushed cars, and landslides dammed rivers. Blocked roads greatly impeded emergency access, delaying response. Our August 2008 field experience in the affected area reminded us that the western United States faces serious risks posed by earthquake-induced landslides. The topography of the western U.S. is less extreme than that near Wenchuan, but earthquakes may still cause devastating landslides, damming rivers and blocking access to affected areas. After the Wenchuan earthquake, lakes rapidly rose behind landslide dams, threatening millions of lives. One landslide above Beichuan City created Tangjiashan Lake, a massive body of water upstream of Mianyang, an area with 5.2 million people, 30,000 of whom were killed in the quake. Potential failure of the landslide dam put thousands more people at risk from catastrophic flooding. In 1959, the M7.4 Hebgen Lake earthquake in Montana caused a large landslide, which killed 19 people and dammed the Madison River. The Army Corps excavated sluices to keep the dam from failing catastrophically. The Hebgen Lake earthquake ultimately caused 28 deaths, mostly from landslides, but the affected region was sparsely populated. Slopes prone to strong earthquake shaking and landslides in California, Washington, and Oregon have much larger populations at risk. Landslide hazards continue after the earthquake due to the effect strong shaking has on hillslopes, particularly when subjected to subsequent rain. These hazards must be taken into account. Once a landslide blocks a river, rapid and thoughtful action is needed. The Chinese government quickly and safely mitigated landslide dams that posed the greatest risk to people downstream. It took expert geotechnical advice, the speed and resources of the army

  11. [Family function and depression in relatives of earthquake victims: a survey conducted one year after China's Wenchuan Earthquake].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Lin; Li, Xiao-Lin; Jiang, Xiao-Lian; Li, Rong; Dou, Xin-Man

    2012-10-01

    The Wenchuan Earthquake that hit Sichuan, China in 2008 not only caused huge losses in terms of human life and economic damage. It also caused psychological trauma in survivors, especially those who had lost relatives and close friends (bereaved). In the aftermath of earthquakes, bereaved individuals require family and spiritual renewal in addition to material assistance. This study investigated the status of and relationship between family function and depression in bereaved individuals living in areas devastated by the Wenchuan Earthquake. Results provide baseline information for post-disaster family reconstruction. This cross-sectional study surveyed 264 qualified bereaved individuals who lived in an area hard hit by the Wenchuan Earthquake. Face-to-face interviews were administered based on the family APGAR(adaptation, partnership, growth, affection, resolve) index and Hamilton depression (HAMD) scale. The mean family function score for participants was 6.52 ± 2.65. Results for half (50.0%) of participants indicated "good" family function. Results indicated marital status, family structure and status of having another baby as factors that significantly influence family function (p < .05). Participants' mean depression score was 40.41 ± 9.35, with all (100%) of participants demonstrating symptoms of depression. The 5 most prevalent depressive symptoms were: depressed mood, decreased interest in work, mental anxiety, diminished capacity and agitation. Results showed marital status, leisure frequency, economic status, and having another baby as factors that significantly influenced family function (p < .05). A Pearson's correlation analysis indicated no significant relationship between level of depression and family function (p >.05). Family functions of the bereaved living in areas hard hit by the Wenchuan Earthquake were all undermined to varying degrees. Although participants all exhibited depressive symptoms, this study found no affect of such symptoms on

  12. Multifractal Fluctuations of Jiuzhaigou Tourists Before and after Wenchuan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Kai; Li, Wen-Yong; Liu, Chun-Qiong; Huang, Zheng-Wen

    2013-03-01

    In this work, multifractal methods have been successfully used to characterize the temporal fluctuations of daily Jiuzhai Valley domestic and foreign tourists before and after Wenchuan earthquake in China. We used multifractal detrending moving average method (MF-DMA). It showed that Jiuzhai Valley tourism markets are characterized by long-term memory and multifractal nature in. Moreover, the major sources of multifractality are studied. Based on the concept of sliding window, the time evolutions of the multifractal behavior of domestic and foreign tourists were analyzed and the influence of Wenchuan earthquake on Jiuzhai Valley tourism system dynamics were evaluated quantitatively. The study indicates that the inherent dynamical mechanism of Jiuzhai Valley tourism system has not been fundamentally changed from long views, although Jiuzhai Valley tourism system was seriously affected by the Wenchuan earthquake. Jiuzhai Valley tourism system has the ability to restore to its previous state in the short term.

  13. A short note on ground-motion recordings from the M 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake and ground-motion prediction equations in the Central and Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Z.; Lu, M.

    2011-01-01

    The 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (M 7.9) occurred along the western edge of the eastern China SCR and was well recorded by modern strong-motion instruments: 93 strong-motion stations within 1.4 to 300 km rupture distance recorded the main event. Preliminary comparisons show some similarities between ground-motion attenuation in the Wenchuan region and the central and eastern United States, suggesting that ground motions from the Wenchuan earthquake could be used as a database providing constraints for developing GMPEs for large earthquakes in the central and eastern United States.

  14. [Clinical characteristics of pediatric victims in the Lushan and Wenchuan earthquakes and experience of medical rescue].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xin; Xiang, Bo; Liu, Li-Jun; Liu, Min; Tang, Xue-Yang; Huang, Lu-Gang; Li, Yuan; Peng, Ming-Xing; Xin, Wen-Qiong

    2013-06-01

    To get a more comprehensive understanding of the clinical characteristics of pediatric victims in earthquake and to summarize the experience of medical rescue. The clinical information was collected from the pediatric victims who were admitted to West China Hospital, Sichuan University following the Lushan earthquake in 2013 and Wenchuan earthquake in 2008. The clinical data were compared between the pediatric victims in the two earthquakes. Thirty-four children under 14 years of age, who were injured in the Lushan earthquake, were admitted to the West China Hospital before April 30, 2013. Compared with the data in the Wenchuan earthquake, the mean age of the pediatric victims in the Lushan earthquake was significantly lower (P<0.01), and the mean time from earthquake to hospitalization was significantly shorter (P<0.01). In the Lushan earthquake, 67.6% of the injured children had variable limb fractures; traumatic brain injury was found in 29.4% of hospitalized children, versus 9.5% in the Wenchuan earthquake (P<0.05). Among the 34 children, no amputation and death occurred, and all the 13 severe cases started to recover. There were higher proportions of severely injured children and children with traumatic brain injury in the Lushan earthquake than in the Wenchuan earthquake. But these cases recovered well, which was possibly due to timely on-site rescue and transfer and multi-sector, multi-institution, and multidisciplinary cooperation.

  15. Dietary attitudes and behaviours of women in China after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in three seismically different zones.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Han, Ling-Li; Hou, Feng-Gang; Xu, Xiang-Long; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2016-12-01

    The sudden occurrence of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake not only devastated people's health, but also may have impacted on the psychological and dietary attitudes and behaviours of the survivors. Although the influence of natural disaster on people's health has been extensively investigated, there is a lack of information about the effects on people's dietary attitudes and behaviours. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the Wenchuan earthquake on the dietary attitudes and behaviours of adult women from different zones of China in July 2008. 736 women, aged 18-55 years old, were randomly selected and interviewed after the earthquake. Women were selected from three zones: the earthquake zone (n=206), the shaking zone (n=326), and the non-seismic zone (n=204). Although nutrition knowledge mean scores of women in the three zones were relatively low, the women in the earthquake zone became more vigilant about the nutritional value and acceptability of food than women in the other two zones. Nevertheless, women in the earthquake zone also developed some arguably untoward, if understandable, behaviour after the disaster. They increased their consumption and tendency to stock instant food and snack items. That said, these findings were modulated by other factors such as age, residence, Body Mass Index (BMI), and nutrition knowledge itself, as were post-earthquake eating behaviours, as judged by the ordinal logistic regression analyses performed. The major Wenchuan earthquake was associated with differentials in dietary attitudes and behaviours among women by seismic zone.

  16. Management of limb fractures in a teaching hospital: comparison between Wenchuan and Yushu earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Min, Li; Tu, Chong-qi; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Wen-li; Yi, Min; Song, Yue-ming; Huang, Fu-guo; Yang, Tian-fu; Pei, Fu-xing

    2013-01-01

    To comparatively analyze the medical records of patients with limb fractures as well as rescue strategy in Wenchuan and Yushu earthquakes so as to provide references for post-earthquake rescue. We retrospectively investigated 944 patients sustaining limb fractures, including 891 in Wenchuan earthquake and 53 in Yushu earthquake, who were admitted to West China Hospital (WCH) of Sichuan University. In Wenchuan earthquake, WCH met its three peaks of limb fracture patients influx, on post-earthquake day (PED) 2, 8 and 14 respectively. Between PED 3-14, 585 patients were transferred from WCH to other hospitals outside the Sichuan Province. In Yushu earthquake, the maximum influx of limb fracture patients happened on PED 3, and no one was shifted to other hospitals. Both in Wenchuan and Yushu earthquakes, most limb fractures were caused by blunt strike and crush/burying. In Wenchuan earthquake, there were 396 (396/942, 42.0%) open limb fractures, including 28 Gustilo I, 201 Gustilo II and 167 Gustilo III injuries. But in Yushu earthquake, the incidence of open limb fracture was much lower (6/61, 9.8%). The percent of patients with acute complications in Wenchuan earthquake (167/891, 18.7%) was much higher than that in Yushu earthquake (5/53, 3.8%). In Wenchuan earthquake rescue, 1 018 surgeries were done, composed of debridement in 376, internal fixation in 283, external fixation in 119, and vacuum sealing drainage in 117, etc. While among the 64 surgeries in Yushu earthquake rescue, the internal fixation for limb fracture was mostly adopted. All patients received proper treatment and survived except one who died due to multiple organs failure in Wenchuan earthquake. Provision of suitable and sufficient medical care in a catastrophe can only be achieved by construction of sophisticated national disaster medical system, prediction of the injury types and number of injuries, and confirmation of participating hospitals?exact role. Based on the valuable rescue experiences

  17. Post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among adult survivors 8 years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; He, Huan; Qu, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Chengbin

    2017-03-01

    The Wenchuan earthquake was China's worst natural disaster of the past three decades. Although the psychological sequelae of disasters can last for many years, the long-term sequelae and their risk factors tend to receive little research attention. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalences of symptomalogical PTSD and depression among survivors 8 years after the Wenchuan earthquake, and to identify the shared and unshared risk factors associated with PTSD and depression, using data from a cross-sectional survey. 1369 participants were recruited from two different sites in the areas that were severely affected by the earthquake. Symptomalogical PTSD was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). The Chinese edition of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression. Traumatic exposure to the Wenchuan earthquake was assessed using an exposure checklist designed by this study. Eight years after the Wenchuan earthquake, 11.8% of the respondents had symptomalogical PTSD, and 24.8% of respondents had probable depression. The results also indicated that female gender, low education, poor perceived health, and traumatic experiences after the earthquake were associated with higher odds of both PTSD and depression among survivors. Direct exposure to the earthquake was associated with comorbid symptomalogical PTSD and depression (OR=1.86; 95% CI=1.42, 2.44). Those having only depression were more likely to be unmarried/divorced/widowed, and to have experienced fear at the time of the earthquake (OR=1.34; 95% CI=1.04, 1.72), while those with only symptomalogical PTSD were likely to be from the township of Yongan as opposed to Guangji (OR=1.86; 95% CI=1.06, 3.31). This is a cross-sectional study, and thus is insufficient for determining causal relationships with regard to chronic PTSD or depression. The results of this study indicate that symptomalogical PTSD and depression persist among many

  18. Preliminary investigation of some large landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan Province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, F.; Cheng, Q.; Highland, L.; Miyajima, M.; Wang, Hongfang; Yan, C.

    2009-01-01

    The M s 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake or "Great Sichuan Earthquake" occurred at 14:28 p.m. local time on 12 May 2008 in Sichuan Province, China. Damage by earthquake-induced landslides was an important part of the total earthquake damage. This report presents preliminary observations on the Hongyan Resort slide located southwest of the main epicenter, shallow mountain surface failures in Xuankou village of Yingxiu Town, the Jiufengchun slide near Longmenshan Town, the Hongsong Hydro-power Station slide near Hongbai Town, the Xiaojiaqiao slide in Chaping Town, two landslides in Beichuan County-town which destroyed a large part of the town, and the Donghekou and Shibangou slides in Qingchuan County which formed the second biggest landslide lake formed in this earthquake. The influences of seismic, topographic, geologic, and hydro-geologic conditions are discussed. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Predictive factors of depression symptoms among adolescents in the 18-month follow-up after Wenchuan earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Chui, Cheryl H K; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Li, Rong-Hui; Fan, Mei; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Yuan-Hao; Ou, Guo Jing; Jiang, Zhe; Tong, Yu-Zhen; Fang, Ding-Zhi

    2017-02-01

    It is unclear about the change and risk factors of depression among adolescent survivors after earthquake. This study aimed to explore the change of depression, and identify the predictive factors of depression among adolescent survivors after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. The depression among high school students at 6, 12 and 18 months after the Wenchuan earthquake were investigated. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used in this study to assess the severity of depression. Subjects included 548 student survivors in an affected high school. The rates of depression among the adolescent survivors at 6-, 12- and 18-month after the earthquake were 27.3%, 42.9% and 33.3%, respectively, for males, and 42.9%, 61.9% and 53.4%, respectively, for females. Depression symptoms, trauma-related self-injury, suicidal ideation and PTSD symptoms at the 6-month follow-up were significant predictive factors for depression at the 18-month time interval following the earthquake. This study highlights the need for considering disaster-related psychological sequela and risk factors of depression symptoms in the planning and implementation of mental health services. Long-term mental and psychological supports for victims of natural disasters are imperative.

  20. Longitudinal Linkages between Depressive and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Adolescent Survivors Following the Wenchuan Earthquake in China: A Three-Wave, Cross-Lagged Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Liu-Hua; Wu, Xin-Chun; Lin, Chong-De

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationships between depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of adolescent survivors following the Wenchuan earthquake in China. Two-hundred adolescent survivors were reviewed at 12, 18 and 24-months post-earthquake. Depression and PTSD were assessed by two self-report…

  1. Depressive Symptoms in Bereaved Parents in the 2008 Wenchuan, China Earthquake: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wumei; Fan, Fang; Liu, Jianghong

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to expand the literature on bereavement and response to natural disasters by reporting the prevalence, severity, and correlates of depressive symptoms among bereaved and nonbereaved parents of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China. Bereaved (n = 155) and nonbereaved (n = 35) parents from the Xiang’e township in China were interviewed at 18 months (Wave 1) and 24 months (Wave 2) following the earthquake. From Wave 1 to Wave 2, rates of probable depression fell for both bereaved (65.8% to 44.5%) and nonbereaved parents (34.3% to 20.0%). The depression index of both groups also decreased, but only significantly among bereaved parents. Of bereaved parents, those with fewer years of education had more severe symptoms at both waves. Depressive symptom severity of bereaved mothers improved over time, but that of bereaved fathers remained unchanged. Not becoming pregnant again after the earthquake was significantly linked to worse depressive symptoms in both waves, but this was not significant when age was added to the model. Bereaved parents may need more postearthquake supportive services, with fathers, individuals with fewer years of education, and parents who are not able to become pregnant again after the earthquake being particularly vulnerable. PMID:23536328

  2. Experimental Exploration on Rainfall-induced Mass Re-mobilization after Giant Earthquake: A case study in Wenchuan earthquake hit region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zongji; Bogaard, Thom. A.; Qiao, Jianping; Jiang, Yuanjun

    2015-04-01

    Prevention and mitigation of rainfall induced geological hazards after the Ms=8 Wenchuan earthquake on May 12th, 2008 were gained more significance for the rebuild of earthquake hit regions in China. After the Wenchuan earthquake, there were thousands of slopes failure, which were much more susceptible to subsequent heavy rainfall and many even transformed into potential debris flows. An typical example can be found in the catastrophic disaster occurred in Zhongxing County, Chengdu City on 10th July, 2013 in which the unknown fractured slope up the mountain was triggered by a downpour and transformed into subsequent debris flow which wiped the community downstream, about 200 victims were reported in that tragic event. The transform patterns of rainfall-induced mass re-mobilization was categorized into three major type as the erosion of fractured slopes, initiate on loosen deposit and outbreak of landslide (debris flow) dams according to vast field investigation in the earthquake hit region. Despite the widespread and hidden characters,the complexity of the process also demonstrated in the transforms of the mass re-mobilized by the erosion of both gravity and streams in the small watersheds which have never been reported before the giant Wenchuan Earthquake in many regions. As a result, an increasing number of questions for disaster relief and mitigation were proposed including the threshold of early warning and measurement of the volume for the design of mitigation measures on rainfall-induced mass re-mobilization in debris flow gullies. This study is aimed for answer the essential questions about the threshold and amount of mass initiation triggered by the subsequent rainfall in post earthquake time. In this study, experimental tests were carried out for simulating the failure of the rainfall-induced mass re-mobilization in respectively in a natural co-seismic fractured slope outside and the debris flow simulation platform inside the laboratory. A natural

  3. Comparison of injury epidemiology between the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Zheng, Xi; Yuan, Yong; Pu, Qiang; Liu, Lunxu; Zhao, Yongfan

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to compare injury characteristics and the timing of admissions and surgeries in the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 and the Lushan earthquake in 2013. We retrospectively compared the admission and operating times and injury profiles of patients admitted to our medical center during both earthquakes. We also explored the relationship between seismic intensity and injury type. The time from earthquake onset to the peak in patient admissions and surgeries differed between the 2 earthquakes. In the Wenchuan earthquake, injuries due to being struck by objects or being buried were more frequent than other types of injuries, and more patients suffered injuries of the extremities than thoracic injuries or brain trauma. In the Lushan earthquake, falls were the most common injury, and more patients suffered thoracic trauma or brain injuries. The types of injury seemed to vary with seismic intensity, whereas the anatomical location of the injury did not. Greater seismic intensity of an earthquake is associated with longer delay between the event and the peak in patient admissions and surgeries, higher frequencies of injuries due to being struck or buried, and lower frequencies of injuries due to falls and injuries to the chest and brain. These insights may prove useful for planning rescue interventions in trauma centers near the epicenter.

  4. Numerical Modeling on Co-seismic Influence of Wenchuan 8.0 Earthquake in Sichuan-Yunnan Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Li, H.; Lu, Y.; Li, Y.; Ye, J.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, a three dimensional finite element model for active faults which are handled by contact friction elements in Sichuan-Yunnan area is built. Applying the boundary conditions determined through GPS data, a numerical simulations on spatial patterns of stress-strain changes induced by Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake are performed. Some primary results are: a) the co-seismic displacements in Longmen shan fault zone by the initial cracking event benefit not only the NE-direction expanding of subsequent fracture process but also the focal mechanism conversions from thrust to right lateral strike for the most of following sub-cracking events. b) tectonic movements induced by the Wenchuan earthquake are stronger in the upper wall of Longmen shan fault belt than in the lower wall and are influenced remarkably by the northeast boundary faults of the rhombic block. c) the extrema of stress changes induced by the main shock are 106Pa and its spatial size is about 400km long and 100km wide. The total stress level is reduced in the most regions in Longmen shan fault zone, whereas stress change is rather weak in its southwest segment and possibly result in fewer aftershocks in there. d) effects induced by the Wenchuan earthquake to the major active faults are obviously different from each other. e) triggering effect of the Wenchuan earthquake to the following Huili 6.1 earthquake is very weak.

  5. Did the Zipingpu Reservoir trigger the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ge, S.; Liu, M.; Lu, N.; Godt, J.W.; Luo, G.

    2009-01-01

    The devastating May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) resulted from thrust of the Tibet Plateau on the Longmen Shan fault zone, a consequence of the Indo-Asian continental collision. Many have speculated on the role played by the Zipingpu Reservoir, impounded in 2005 near the epicenter, in triggering the earthquake. This study evaluates the stress changes in response to the impoundment of the Zipingpu Reservoir and assesses their impact on the Wenchuan earthquake. We show that the impoundment could have changed the Coulomb stress by -0.01 to 0.05 MPa at locations and depth consistent with reported hypocenter positions. This level of stress change has been shown to be significant in triggering earthquakes on critically stressed faults. Because the loading rate on the Longmen Shan fault is <0.005 MPa/yr, we thus suggest that the Zipingpu Reservoir potentially hastened the occurrence of the Wenchuan earthquake by tens to hundreds of years. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Impact of Wenchuan earthquake on the giant panda habitat in Wolong National Nature Reserve, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Cheng; Xu, Yu-Yue; Ke, Chang-Qing; He, Yu-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the change of the giant panda habitat is essential to protect this endangered species. The Wolong National Nature Reserve (WNNR) of China, the giant panda habitat, was struck by the Wenchuan earthquake (M=8.0) on May 12, 2008, and was seriously damaged. Landsat images covering the WNNR on four dates, one before and three after the earthquake, are classified using support vector machines to generate land cover maps (with an overall accuracy of ˜90% and Kappa coefficients of ˜0.86). The habitat suitability index and weighted usable area (WUA) are calculated to evaluate the changes of the habitat suitability of the WNNR. The results indicate that the forest area dropped by ˜10% due to the earthquake. The forest located in the east of Wolong town, the home of numerous giant pandas, suffered the most. The WUA decreased significantly after the earthquake, and was showing improvement in 2013, although still not fully recovered to the level of priori earthquake. The habitat between 1200 and 1300 m above sea level (m a.s.l.) was particularly vulnerable and was slowly recovering. Further effective management is necessary to restore and protect the giant panda habitat.

  7. [Comparative analysis of the clinical characteristics of orthopedic inpatients in Lushan and Wenchuan earthquakes].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Guang-Lin; Pei, Fu-Xing; Song, Yue-Ming; Yang, Tian-Fu; Tu, Chong-Qi; Huang, Fu-Guo; Liu, Hao; Lin, Wei

    2013-10-18

    To systematically analyze and compare the clinical characteristics of orthopedic inpatients in Lushan and Wenchuan earthquake, so as to provide useful references for future earthquakes injury rescue. Based on the orthopedic inpatients in Lushan and Wenchuan earthquakes, the data of the age, gender, injury causes, body injured parts and speed of transport were classified and compared. The duration of patients admitted to hospital lasted long and the peak appeared late in Wenchuan earthquake, which is totally opposed to Lushan earthquake. There was no significant difference in the patient's age and gender between the two earthquakes. However, the occurrence rate of crush syndrome, amputation, gas gangrene, vascular injury and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in Wenchuan earthquake was much higher than that in Lushan earthquake. Blunt traumas or crush-related injuries (79.6%) are the major injury cause in Wenchuan earthquake, however, high falling injuries and falls (56.8%) are much higher than blunt trauma or crush-related injuries (39.2%) in Lushan earthquake. The incidence rate of foot fractures, spine fractures and multiple fractures in Lushan earthquake was higher than that in Wenchuan earthquake, but that of open fractures and lower limb fractures was lower than that in Wenchuan earthquake. The rapid rescue scene is the cornerstone of successful treatment, early rescue and transport obviously reduce the incidence of the wound infection, crush syndrome, MODS and amputation. Popularization of correct knowledge of emergency shelters will help to reduce the damage caused by blindly jumping or escaping while earthquake happens.

  8. The prominent role of plastic surgery in the Wenchuan earthquake disaster.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianlin; Ding, Wei; Chen, Aimin; Jiang, Hua

    2010-10-01

    : On May 12, 2008, an earthquake of magnitude 8.0 on Richter scale struck Sichuan Province of China and destroyed Wenchuan County. Two days later, a field hospital from the Second Military Medical University (Shanghai, China) arrived at Anxian County near the epicenter as a reinforcement hospital before rehabilitation of the local medical facilities. Surgical services in the field hospital were supplied by general, orthopedic, plastic, anesthetic, obstetrical surgeons, and two physicians. The plastic surgeons were responsible for assessment of all soft tissue injuries at the hospital and patient needs for plastic surgery services in a crisis intervention field hospital. : Information was gathered regarding soft tissue injuries throughout the activities of the hospital. In addition, patient charts, operation reports, and entry and evacuation logs were reviewed for all patients who were admitted and treated in the field hospital. : Of 1,013 patients who were treated in the field hospital in Wenchuan; 102 (10.07%) sought aid for soft tissue injuries, all of which were earthquake related. Twenty-one percent of the operations performed in the hospital were concerned with the treatment of soft tissue injuries, and 15% of the hospital beds were reserved for plastic surgery patients. : Plastic surgery services at a field hospital play a prominent and irreplaceable role in rescuing casualties in formidable conditions especially in a serious earthquake situation.

  9. Retrospective Cohort Analysis of Chest Injury Characteristics and Concurrent Injuries in Patients Admitted to Hospital in the Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquakes in Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yong; Zhao, Yong-Fan

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare retrospectively the characteristics of chest injuries and frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients after earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Methods We compared the cause, type, and body location of chest injuries as well as the frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients admitted to our hospital after the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China. We explored possible relationships between seismic intensity and the causes and types of injuries, and we assessed the ability of the Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score, and Chest Injury Index to predict respiratory failure in chest injury patients. Results The incidence of chest injuries was 9.9% in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake and 22.2% in the less intensive Lushan earthquake. The most frequent cause of chest injuries in both earthquakes was being accidentally struck. Injuries due to falls were less prevalent in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake, while injuries due to burial were more prevalent. The distribution of types of chest injury did not vary significantly between the two earthquakes, with rib fractures and pulmonary contusions the most frequent types. Spinal and head injuries concurrent with chest injuries were more prevalent in the less violent Lushan earthquake. All three trauma scoring systems showed poor ability to predict respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. Conclusions Previous studies may have underestimated the incidence of chest injury in violent earthquakes. The distributions of types of chest injury did not differ between these two earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Earthquake severity and interval between rescue and treatment may influence the prevalence and types of injuries that co-occur with the chest injury. Trauma evaluation scores on their own are inadequate predictors of respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. PMID

  10. Retrospective cohort analysis of chest injury characteristics and concurrent injuries in patients admitted to hospital in the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xi; Hu, Yang; Yuan, Yong; Zhao, Yong-Fan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare retrospectively the characteristics of chest injuries and frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients after earthquakes of different seismic intensity. We compared the cause, type, and body location of chest injuries as well as the frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients admitted to our hospital after the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China. We explored possible relationships between seismic intensity and the causes and types of injuries, and we assessed the ability of the Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score, and Chest Injury Index to predict respiratory failure in chest injury patients. The incidence of chest injuries was 9.9% in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake and 22.2% in the less intensive Lushan earthquake. The most frequent cause of chest injuries in both earthquakes was being accidentally struck. Injuries due to falls were less prevalent in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake, while injuries due to burial were more prevalent. The distribution of types of chest injury did not vary significantly between the two earthquakes, with rib fractures and pulmonary contusions the most frequent types. Spinal and head injuries concurrent with chest injuries were more prevalent in the less violent Lushan earthquake. All three trauma scoring systems showed poor ability to predict respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. Previous studies may have underestimated the incidence of chest injury in violent earthquakes. The distributions of types of chest injury did not differ between these two earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Earthquake severity and interval between rescue and treatment may influence the prevalence and types of injuries that co-occur with the chest injury. Trauma evaluation scores on their own are inadequate predictors of respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries.

  11. Ductile Gap between the Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquakes Revealed from the Two-dimensional Pg Seismic Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Shunping; Zhang, Haijiang; Su, Jinrong; Cui, Zhongxiong

    2014-01-01

    A high-resolution two-dimensional Pg-wave velocity model is obtained for the upper crust around the epicenters of the April 20, 2013 Ms7.0 Lushan earthquake and the May 12, 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, China. The tomographic inversion uses 47235 Pg arrival times from 6812 aftershocks recorded by 61 stations around the Lushan and Wenchuan earthquakes. Across the front Longmenshan fault near the Lushan earthquake, there exists a strong velocity contrast with higher velocities to the west and lower velocities to the east. Along the Longmenshan fault system, there exist two high velocity patches showing an “X” shape with an obtuse angle along the near northwest-southeast (NW-SE) direction. They correspond to the Precambrian Pengguan and Baoxing complexes on the surface but with a ~20 km shift, respectively. The aftershock gap of the 2008 Wenchuan and the 2013 Lushan earthquakes is associated with lower velocities. Based on the theory of maximum effective moment criterion, this suggests that the aftershock gap is weak and the ductile deformation is more likely to occur in the upper crust within the gap under the near NW-SE compression. Therefore our results suggest that the large earthquake may be hard to happen within the gap. PMID:25267344

  12. Ductile gap between the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes revealed from the two-dimensional Pg seismic tomography.

    PubMed

    Pei, Shunping; Zhang, Haijiang; Su, Jinrong; Cui, Zhongxiong

    2014-09-30

    A high-resolution two-dimensional Pg-wave velocity model is obtained for the upper crust around the epicenters of the April 20, 2013 Ms7.0 Lushan earthquake and the May 12, 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, China. The tomographic inversion uses 47235 Pg arrival times from 6812 aftershocks recorded by 61 stations around the Lushan and Wenchuan earthquakes. Across the front Longmenshan fault near the Lushan earthquake, there exists a strong velocity contrast with higher velocities to the west and lower velocities to the east. Along the Longmenshan fault system, there exist two high velocity patches showing an "X" shape with an obtuse angle along the near northwest-southeast (NW-SE) direction. They correspond to the Precambrian Pengguan and Baoxing complexes on the surface but with a ~20 km shift, respectively. The aftershock gap of the 2008 Wenchuan and the 2013 Lushan earthquakes is associated with lower velocities. Based on the theory of maximum effective moment criterion, this suggests that the aftershock gap is weak and the ductile deformation is more likely to occur in the upper crust within the gap under the near NW-SE compression. Therefore our results suggest that the large earthquake may be hard to happen within the gap.

  13. Natural Hazard Public Policy Implications of the May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cydzik, K.; Hamilton, D.; Stenner, H. D.; Cattarossi, A.; Shrestha, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    The May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan Province, China killed almost 90,000 people and affected a population of over 45.5 million throughout western China. Shaking caused the destruction of five million buildings, many of them homes and schools, and damaged 21 million other structures, inflicting devastating impacts to communities. Landslides, a secondary effect of the shaking, caused much of the devastation. Debris flows buried schools and homes, rock falls crushed cars, and rockslides, landslides, and rock avalanches blocked streams and rivers creating massive, unstable landslide dams, which formed “quake lakes” upstream of the blockages. Impassable roads made emergency access slow and extremely difficult. Collapses of buildings and structures large and small took the lives of many. Damage to infrastructure impaired communication, cut off water supplies and electricity, and put authorities on high alert as the integrity of large engineered dams were reviewed. During our field reconnaissance three months after the disaster, evidence of the extent of the tragedy was undeniably apparent. Observing the damage throughout Sichuan reminded us that earthquakes in the United States and throughout the world routinely cause widespread damage and destruction to lives, property, and infrastructure. The focus of this poster is to present observations and findings based on our field reconnaissance regarding the scale of earthquake destruction with respect to slope failures, landslide dams, damage to infrastructure (e.g., schools, engineered dams, buildings, roads, rail lines, and water resources facilities), human habitation within the region, and the mitigation and response effort to this catastrophe. This is presented in the context of the policy measures that could be developed to reduce risks of similar catastrophes. The rapid response of the Chinese government and the mobilization of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army to help the communities affected

  14. Environmental impact of the landslides caused by the 12 May 2008, Wenchuan, China earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Highland, Lynn; Sun, Ping; Edited by Margottini, Claudio; Canuti, Paolo; Sassa, Kyoji

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude 7.9 (Mw) Wenchuan, China, earthquake of May 12, 2008 caused at least 88,000 deaths of which one third are estimated to be due to the more than 56,000 earthquake-induced landslides. The affected area is mountainous, featuring densely-vegetated, steep slopes through which narrowly confined rivers and streams flow. Numerous types of landslides occurred in the area, including rock avalanches, rock falls, translational and rotational slides, lateral spreads and debris flows. Some landslides mobilized hundreds of million cubic meters of material, often resulting in the damming of rivers and streams, impacting river ecosystems and morphology. Through an extensive search of both Chinese- and English-language publications we provide a summary of pertinent research on environmental effects, emphasizing key findings. Environmental effects caused by landslides include the alteration of agriculture, changes to natural ecosystems, changes in river morphology due to landslide dams and other effects such as sedimentation and flooding. Damage by landslides to the giant panda reserve infrastructure and habitat, was severe, threatening the survival of one of the world’s rarest species. The Panda reserves are of national significance to China, and to the vital tourism economy of the region. One of the major impacts to both the natural and built environment is the complete relocation of some human populations and infrastructure to new areas, resulting in the abandonment of towns and other areas that were damaged by the earthquake and landslides. The landslide effects have affected the biodiversity of the affected area, and it has been hypothesized that strict forest preservation measures taken in the years preceding the earthquake resulted in a reduction of the environmental damage to the area.

  15. Chest injuries associated with earthquakes: an analysis of injuries sustained during the 2008 Wen-Chuan earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia; Guo, Ying-Qiang; Zhang, Er-Yong; Tan, Jin; Shi, Ying-Kang

    2010-08-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the patterns, therapeutic modalities, and short-term outcomes of patients with chest injuries in the aftermath of the Wen-Chuan earthquake, which occurred on May 12, 2008 and registered 8.0 on the Richter scale. Of the 1522 patients who were referred to the West China Hospital of Sichuan University from May 12 to May 27, 169 patients (11.1%) had suffered major chest injuries. The type of injury, the presence of infection, Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS 2005), New Injury Severity Score (NISS), treatment, and short-term outcome were all documented for each case. Isolated chest injuries were diagnosed in 129 patients (76.3%), while multiple injuries with a major chest trauma were diagnosed in 40 patients (23.7%). The mean AIS and the median NISS of the hospitalized patients with chest injuries were 2.5 and 13, respectively. The mortality rate was 3.0% (5 patients). Most of the chest injuries were classified as minor to moderate trauma; however, coexistent multiple injuries and subsequent infection should be carefully considered in medical response strategies. Coordinated efforts among emergency medical support groups and prior training in earthquake preparedness and rescue in earthquake-prone areas are therefore necessary for efficient evacuation and treatment of catastrophic casualties.

  16. Life Events, Coping, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among Chinese Adolescents Exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yuhong; Fan, Fang; Liu, Xianchen; Mo, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between negative life events, coping styles, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adolescent survivors exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China. Methods A survey was conducted in a sample of 2250 adolescent students from two schools in Dujiangyan District, a seriously damaged area, 20 kilometers away from the epicenter, 6 months after the earthquake. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographics, negative life events, coping styles, and PTSD symptoms. Results Academic pressure was the strongest predictor of adolescents' PTSD symptoms among all negative life events. Main effects of negative life events, positive coping and negative coping on PTSD symptoms were significant in both younger adolescents and older adolescents, while the moderator effects of two coping styles were found significant only within older adolescents. Conclusions Coping may play a role to moderate the relationship between post-earthquake negative life events and PTSD symptom, but the function seems to depend on the age of participants. Psychosocial coping skills training may be important in the prevention and intervention of mental health problems in adolescent survivors of traumatic earthquake. PMID:22295059

  17. New insights into seismic faulting during the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Wang, H.; Si, J.; Sun, Z.; Pei, J.; Lei, Z.; He, X.

    2017-12-01

    The WFSD project was implemented promptly after the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. A series of research results on the seismogenic structure, fault deformation, sliding mechanism and fault healing have been obtained, which provide new insights into seismic faulting and mechanisms of the Wenchuan earthquake. The WFSD-1 and -2 drilling core profiles reveal that the Longmen Shan thrust belt is composed of multiple thrust sheets. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake took place in such tectonic setting with strong horizontal shortening. The two ruptured faults have different deformation mechanisms. The Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) is a stick-slip fault characterized by fault gouge with high magnetic susceptibility, Guanxian-Anxian fault (GAF) with creeping features and characterized by fault gouge with low magnetic susceptibility. Two PSZs were found in WFSD-1 and -2 cores in the southern segment of YBF. The upper PSZ1 is a low-angle thrust fault characterized by coseisimc graphitization with an extremely low frictional coefficient. The lower PSZ2 is an oblique dextral-slip thrust fault characterized by frictional melt lubrication. In the northern segment of YBF, the PSZ in WFSD-4S cores shows a high-angle thrust feature with fresh melt as well. Therefore, the oblique dextral-slip thrust faulting with frictional melt lubrication is the main faulting of Wenchuan earthquake. Fresh melt with quenching texture was formed in Wenchuan earthquake implying vigorous fluid circulation occurred during the earthquake, which quenched high-temperature melt, hamper the aftermost fault slip and welding seismic fault. Therefore, fluids in the fault zone not only promotes fault weakening, but also suppress slipping in theWenchuan earthquake. The YBF has an extremely high hydraulic diffusivity (2.4×10-2 m2s-1), implying a vigorous fluid circulation in the Wenchuan fault zone. the permeability of YBF has reduced 70% after the shock, reflecting a rapid healing for the YBF. However, the water

  18. The 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake - a human-caused event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    A catalog of global human-caused earthquakes shows statistical evidence that the triggering of earthquakes by large-scale geoengineering activities depends on geological and tectonic constrains (in Klose 2013). Such geoengineering activities also include the filling of water reservoirs. This presentation illuminates mechanical and statistical aspects of the 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in light of the hypothesis of being NOT human-caused. However, available data suggest that the Wenchuan earthquake was triggered by the filling of the Zipungpu water reservoir 30 months prior to the mainshock. The reservoir spatially extended parallel and near to the main Beichuan fault zone in a highly stressed reverse fault regime. It is mechanically evident that reverse faults tend to be very trigger-sensitive due to mass shifts (static loads) that occur on the surface of the Earth's crust. These circumstances made a triggering of a seismic event of this magnitude at this location possible (in Klose 2008, 2012). The data show that the Wenchuan earthquake is not an outlier. From a statistical view point, the earthquake falls into the upper range of the family of reverse fault earthquakes that were caused by humans worldwide.

  19. Influence of the Wenchuan earthquake on self-reported irregular menstrual cycles in surviving women.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Qin, Lang; Hu, Han; Luo, Shan; Li, Lei; Fan, Wei; Xiao, Zhun; Li, Ying-Xing; Li, Shang-Wei

    2011-09-01

    To explore the influence of stress induced by the Wenchuan earthquake on the menstrual cycles of surviving women. Self-reports of the menstrual cycles of 473 women that survived the Wenchuan earthquake were analyzed. Menstrual regularity was defined as menses between 21 and 35 days long. The death of a child or the loss of property and social resources was verified for all surviving women. The severity of these losses was assessed and graded as high, little, and none. About 21% of the study participants reported that their menstrual cycles became irregular after the Wenchuan earthquake, and this percentage was significantly higher than before the earthquake (6%, p < 0.05). About 30% of the surviving women with a high degree of loss in the earthquake reported menstrual irregularity after the earthquake. Association analyses showed that some stressors of the Wenchuan earthquake were strongly associated with self-reports of menstrual irregularity, including the loss of children (RR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.28), large amounts of property (RR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.15), social resources (RR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.80) and the hormonal contraception use (RR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.83). Self-reported menstrual irregularity is common in women that survived the Wenchuan earthquake, especially in those who lost children, large amounts of property and social resources.

  20. Prevalence of PTSD and Depression among Junior Middle School Students in a Rural Town Far from the Epicenter of the Wenchuan Earthquake in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xue-li; Huang, Yi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Gao, Cheng-ge

    2012-01-01

    Context On May12th 2008, a devastating earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale, struck Wenchuan county and surrounding areas in China. The prevalence of mental illness among children and adolescents in a rural town far from the earthquake epicenter is unknown. Objective To assess the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among junior middle school students in a rural town Ningqiang county, 327 km from the earthquake epicenter. Design, Setting, and Participants A population-based mental health survey was conducted in March, 2009. Main Outcome Measure Survey Self-designed General Condition Survey Scale, Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13), and the Depression Self-rating Scale for Children (DSRSC) were used to sample 1,841 junior middle school students in Ningqiang county, ten months after the Wenchuan earthquake. Results The prevalence rate of a high-risk for PTSD was 28.4%, with 32.7% among females, 23.8% among males (female vs. male, p<0.001), 38.6% in the severe exposure group and 24.3% in the mild exposure group (severe vs. mild exposure, p<0.001). For depressive symptoms, the overall prevalence was 19.5%, with 24.0% among females, 14.7% among males, 24.5% in the severe exposure group and 17.5% in the mild exposure group (female vs. male, p<0.001; severe vs. mild exposure, p<0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, factors such as “having felt despair”, or “danger” and “having own house destroyed or damaged” were significantly associated with PTSD symptoms. Female gender and delayed evacuation in females, and earthquake related experiences in males were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion Traumatic events experienced during the earthquake were significantly associated with symptoms of PTSD and depression in children and adolescents, ten months after the Wenchuan earthquake. These data highlight a need for mental health services for children and adolescents in rural areas, far

  1. Evolution of Mass Movements near Epicentre of Wenchuan Earthquake, the First Eight Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhang, Limin; Lacasse, Suzanne; Nadim, Farrokh

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly clear that landslides represent a major cause of economic costs and deaths in earthquakes in mountains. In the Wenchuan earthquake case, post-seismic cascading landslides continue to represent a major problem eight years on. Failure to anticipate the impact of cascading landslides could lead to unexpected losses of human lives and properties. Previous studies tended to focus on separate landslide processes, with little attention paid to the quantification of long-term evolution of multiple processes or the evolution of mass movements. The very active mass movements near the epicentre of the Wenchuan earthquake provided us a unique opportunity to understand the complex processes of the evolving cascading landslides after a strong earthquake. This study budgets the mass movements on the hillslopes and in the channels in the first eight years since the Wenchuan earthquake and verify a conservation in mass movements. A system illustrating the evolution and interactions of mass movement after a strong earthquake is proposed. PMID:27824077

  2. Water and soil loss from landslide deposits as a function of gravel content in the Wenchuan earthquake area, China, revealed by artificial rainfall simulations.

    PubMed

    Gan, Fengling; He, Binghui; Wang, Tao

    2018-01-01

    A large number of landslides were triggered by the Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake which occurred on 12th May 2008. Landslides impacted extensive areas along the Mingjiang River and its tributaries. In the landslide deposits, soil and gravel fragments generally co-exist and their proportions may influence the hydrological and erosion processes on the steep slopes of the deposit surface. Understanding the effects of the mixtures of soil and gravels in landslide deposits on erosion processes is relevant for ecological reconstruction and water and soil conservation in Wenchuan earthquake area. Based on field surveys, indoor artificial rainfall simulation experiments with three rainfall intensities (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm·min-1) and three proportions of gravel (50%, 66.7% and 80%) were conducted to measure how the proportion of gravel affected soil erosion and sediment yield in landslide sediments and deposits. Where the proportion of gravel was 80%, no surface runoff was produced during the 90 minute experiment under all rainfall intensities. For the 66.7% proportion, no runoff was generated at the lowest rainfall intensity (1.0 mm·min-1). As a result of these interactions, the average sediment yield ranked as 50> 66.6> 80% with different proportions of gravel. In addition, there was a positive correlation between runoff generation and sediment yield, and the sediment yield lagging the runoff generation. Together, the results demonstrate an important role of gravel in moderating the mobilization of landslide sediment produced by large earthquakes, and could lay the foundation for erosion models which provide scientific guidance for the control of landslide sediment in the Wenchuan earthquake zone, China.

  3. Water and soil loss from landslide deposits as a function of gravel content in the Wenchuan earthquake area, China, revealed by artificial rainfall simulations

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Fengling; Wang, Tao

    2018-01-01

    A large number of landslides were triggered by the Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake which occurred on 12th May 2008. Landslides impacted extensive areas along the Mingjiang River and its tributaries. In the landslide deposits, soil and gravel fragments generally co-exist and their proportions may influence the hydrological and erosion processes on the steep slopes of the deposit surface. Understanding the effects of the mixtures of soil and gravels in landslide deposits on erosion processes is relevant for ecological reconstruction and water and soil conservation in Wenchuan earthquake area. Based on field surveys, indoor artificial rainfall simulation experiments with three rainfall intensities (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm·min-1) and three proportions of gravel (50%, 66.7% and 80%) were conducted to measure how the proportion of gravel affected soil erosion and sediment yield in landslide sediments and deposits. Where the proportion of gravel was 80%, no surface runoff was produced during the 90 minute experiment under all rainfall intensities. For the 66.7% proportion, no runoff was generated at the lowest rainfall intensity (1.0 mm·min-1). As a result of these interactions, the average sediment yield ranked as 50> 66.6> 80% with different proportions of gravel. In addition, there was a positive correlation between runoff generation and sediment yield, and the sediment yield lagging the runoff generation. Together, the results demonstrate an important role of gravel in moderating the mobilization of landslide sediment produced by large earthquakes, and could lay the foundation for erosion models which provide scientific guidance for the control of landslide sediment in the Wenchuan earthquake zone, China. PMID:29723279

  4. Scientific Research Database of the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 5 years after the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake, the Ms7.0 Lushan earthquake stroke 70km away along the same fault system. Given the tremendous life loss and property damages as well as the short time and distance intervals between the two large magnitude events, the scientific probing into their causing factors and future seismic activities in the nearby region will continue to be in the center of earthquake research in China and even the world for years to come. In the past five years, scientists have made significant efforts to study the Wenchuan earthquake from various aspects using different datasets and methods. Their studies cover a variety of topics including seismogenic environment, earthquake precursors, rupture process, co-seismic phenomenon, hazard relief, reservoir induced seismicity and more. These studies have been published in numerous journals in Chinese, English and many other languages. In addition, 54 books regarding to this earthquake have been published. The extremely diversified nature of all publications makes it very difficult and time-consuming, if not impossible, to sort out information needed by individual researcher in an efficient way. An information platform that collects relevant scientific information and makes them accessible in various ways can be very handy. With this mission in mind, the Earthquake Research Group in the Chengdu University of Technology has developed a website www.wceq.org to attack this target: (1) articles published by major journals and books are recorded into a database. Researchers will be able to find articles by topics, journals, publication dates, authors and keywords e.t.c by a few clicks; (2) to fast track the latest developments, researchers can also follow upon updates in the current month, last 90days, 180 days and 365 days by clicking on corresponding links; (3) the modern communication tools such as Facebook, Twitter and their Chinese counterparts are accommodated in this site to share

  5. Magnitude Dependent Seismic Quiescence of 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyehiro, K.; Sacks, S. I.; Takanami, T.; Smith, D. E.; Rydelek, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The change in seismicity leading to the Wenchuan Earthquake in 2008 (Mw 7.9) has been studied by various authors based on statistics and/or pattern recognitions (Huang, 2008; Yan et al., 2009; Chen and Wang, 2010; Yi et al., 2011). We show, in particular, that the magnitude-dependent seismic quiescence is observed for the Wenchuan earthquake and that it adds to other similar observations. Such studies on seismic quiescence prior to major earthquakes include 1982 Urakawa-Oki earthquake (M 7.1) (Taylor et al., 1992), 1994 Hokkaido-Toho-Oki earthquake (Mw=8.2) (Takanami et al., 1996), 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw=9.0) (Katsumata, 2011). Smith and Sacks (2013) proposed a magnitude-dependent quiescence based on a physical earthquake model (Rydelek and Sacks, 1995) and demonstrated the quiescence can be reproduced by the introduction of "asperities" (dilantacy hardened zones). Actual observations indicate the change occurs in a broader area than the eventual earthquake fault zone. In order to accept the explanation, we need to verify the model as the model predicts somewhat controversial features of earthquakes such as the magnitude dependent stress drop at lower magnitude range or the dynamically appearing asperities and repeating slips in some parts of the rupture zone. We show supportive observations. We will also need to verify the dilatancy diffusion to be taking place. So far, we only seem to have indirect evidences, which need to be more quantitatively substantiated.

  6. Tectonic Deformation Pattern along the Longmen Shan Fault Zone in Eastern Tibet: Insights from Focal Mechanisms of the Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquake Sequences, Southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, G.; Vallage, A.; Klinger, Y.; Long, F.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    760 ML≥3.5 aftershocks of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the 2013 Lushan mainshock and its 87 ML≥3.5 aftershocks were selected to obtain focal mechanism solutions from CAP waveform inversion method (Zhu and Helmberger, 1996), along with strain rosette (Amelung and King, 1997) and Areal strain (As) (Vallage et al., 2014), we aimed to analyze the tectonic deformation pattern along the Longmen Shan (LMS) fault zone, southwestern China. The As values show that 93% compressional earthquakes for the Lushan sequence are of pure thrust for the southern segment of the LMS fault zone, while only 50% compressional and nearly 40% of strike-slip and oblique-thrust events for the Wenchuan sequence reflect the strike-slip component increase on the central-northern segment of the LMS fault zone, meaning many different faults responsible for the Wenchuan aftershock activity. The strain rosettes with purely NW-trending compressional white lobe for the entire 87 aftershocks and 4 different classes of magnitudes are very similar to that of the Lushan mainshock. We infer that the geological structures for the southern segment are of thrust faulting under NW compressional deformation. The strain rosettes exhibit self-similarity in terms of orientation and shape for all classes, reflecting that the deformation pattern of the southern segment is independent with earthquake size, and suggesting that each class is representative of the overall deformation for the southern segment. We obtained EW-oriented pure compressional strain rosette of the entire 760 aftershocks and NW-oriented white lobe with small NE-oriented black lobe of the Wenchuan mainshock, and this difference may reflect different tectonic deformation pattern during the co-seismic and post-seismic stages. The deformation segmentation along the Wenchuan coseismic surface rupture is also evidenced from the different orientation of strain rosettes, i.e., NW for the southern area, NE for the central and NNW for the northern

  7. Strong motion observations and recordings from the great Wenchuan Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, X.; Zhou, Z.; Yu, H.; Wen, R.; Lu, D.; Huang, M.; Zhou, Y.; Cu, J.

    2008-01-01

    The National Strong Motion Observation Network System (NSMONS) of China is briefly introduced in this paper. The NSMONS consists of permanent free-field stations, special observation arrays, mobile observatories and a network management system. During the Wenchuan Earthquake, over 1,400 components of acceleration records were obtained from 460 permanent free-field stations and three arrays for topographical effect and structural response observation in the network system from the main shock, and over 20,000 components of acceleration records from strong aftershocks occurred before August 1, 2008 were also obtained by permanent free-field stations of the NSMONS and 59 mobile instruments quickly deployed after the main shock. The strong motion recordings from the main shock and strong aftershocks are summarized in this paper. In the ground motion recordings, there are over 560 components with peak ground acceleration (PGA) over 10 Gal, the largest being 957.7 Gal. The largest PGA recorded during the aftershock exceeds 300 Gal. ?? 2008 Institute of Engineering Mechanics, China Earthquake Administration and Springer-Verlag GmbH.

  8. Interpretation of earthquake-induced landslides triggered by the 12 May 2008, M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the Beichuan area, Sichuan Province, China using satellite imagery and Google Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sato, H.P.; Harp, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    The 12 May 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the People's Republic of China represented a unique opportunity for the international community to use commonly available GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, like Google Earth (GE), to rapidly evaluate and assess landslide hazards triggered by the destructive earthquake and its aftershocks. In order to map earthquake-triggered landslides, we provide details on the applicability and limitations of publicly available 3-day-post- and pre-earthquake imagery provided by GE from the FORMOSAT-2 (formerly ROCSAT-2; Republic of China Satellite 2). We interpreted landslides on the 8-m-resolution FORMOSAT-2 image by GE; as a result, 257 large landslides were mapped with the highest concentration along the Beichuan fault. An estimated density of 0.3 landslides/km2 represents a minimum bound on density given the resolution of available imagery; higher resolution data would have identified more landslides. This is a preliminary study, and further study is needed to understand the landslide characteristics in detail. Although it is best to obtain landslide locations and measurements from satellite imagery having high resolution, it was found that GE is an effective and rapid reconnaissance tool. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Emergency medical rescue efforts after a major earthquake: lessons from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lulu; Liu, Xu; Li, Youping; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Zhipeng; Lin, Juncong; Shen, Ji; Tang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Wannian

    2012-03-03

    Major earthquakes often result in incalculable environmental damage, loss of life, and threats to health. Tremendous progress has been made in response to many medical challenges resulting from earthquakes. However, emergency medical rescue is complicated, and great emphasis should be placed on its organisation to achieve the best results. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake was one of the most devastating disasters in the past 10 years and caused more than 370,000 casualties. The lessons learnt from the medical disaster relief effort and the subsequent knowledge gained about the regulation and capabilities of medical and military back-up teams should be widely disseminated. In this Review we summarise and analyse the emergency medical rescue efforts after the Wenchuan earthquake. Establishment of a national disaster medical response system, an active and effective commanding system, successful coordination between rescue forces and government agencies, effective treatment, a moderate, timely and correct public health response, and long-term psychological support are all crucial to reduce mortality and morbidity and promote overall effectiveness of rescue efforts after a major earthquake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring county resilience after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Lam, N.; Qiang, Y.; Li, K.; Yin, L.; Liu, S.; Zheng, W.

    2015-01-01

    The catastrophic earthquake in 2008 has caused serious damage to Wenchuan County and the surrounding area in China. In recent years, great attention has been paid to the resilience of the affected area. This study applied a new framework, the Resilience Inference Measurement (RIM) model, to quantify and validate the community resilience of 105 counties in the affected area. The RIM model uses cluster analysis to classify counties into four resilience levels according to the exposure, damage, and recovery conditions, and then applies discriminant analysis to quantify the influence of socioeconomic characteristics on the county resilience. The analysis results show that counties located right at the epicenter had the lowest resilience, but counties immediately adjacent to the epicenter had the highest resilience capacities. Counties that were farther away from the epicenter returned to normal resiliency. The socioeconomic variables, including sex ratio, per capita GDP, percent of ethnic minority, and medical facilities, were identified as the most influential socio-economic characteristics on resilience. This study provides useful information to improve county resilience to earthquakes and support decision-making for sustainable development.

  11. A contrast study of the traumatic condition between the wounded in 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake and 4.25 Nepal earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ding, Sheng; Hu, Yonghe; Zhang, Zhongkui; Wang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    5.12 Wenchuan earthquake and 4.25 Nepal earthquake are of the similar magnitude, but the climate and geographic environment are totally different. Our team carried out medical rescue in both disasters, so we would like to compare the different traumatic conditions of the wounded in two earthquakes. The clinical data of the wounded respectively in 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake and 4.25 Nepal earthquake rescued by Chengdu Military General Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Then a contrast study between the wounded was conducted in terms of age, sex, injury mechanisms, traumatic conditions, complications and prognosis. Three days after 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake, 465 cases of the wounded were hospitalized in Chengdu Military General Hospital, including 245 males (52.7%) and 220 females (47.3%) with the average age of (47.6±22.7) years. Our team carried out humanitarian relief in Katmandu after 4.25 Nepal earthquake. Three days after this disaster, 71 cases were treated in our field hospital, including 37 males (52.1%) and 34 females (47.9%) with the mean age of (44.8±22.9) years. There was no obvious difference in sex and mean age between two groups, but the age distribution was a little different: there were more wounded people at the age over 60 years in 4.25 Nepal earthquake (p<0.01) while more wounded people at the age between 21 and 60 years in 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake (p<0.05). The main cause of injury in both disasters was bruise by heavy drops but 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake had a higher rate of bruise injury and crush injury (p<0.05) while 4.25 Nepal earthquake had a higher rate of falling injury (p<0.01). Limb fracture was the most common injury type in both disasters. However, compared with 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake, 4.25 Nepal earthquake has a much higher incidence of limb fractures (p<0.01), lung infection (p<0.01) and malnutrition (p<0.05), but a lower incidence of thoracic injury (p<0.05) and multiple injury (p<0.05). The other complications and death rate

  12. Debris flow susceptibility assessment after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuanmei; van Westen, Cees; Tang, Chenxiao; Tang, Chuan

    2014-05-01

    Due to a tremendous amount of loose material from landslides that occurred during the Wenchuan earthquake, the frequency and magnitude of debris flows have been immensely increased, causing many casualties and economic losses. This study attempts to assess the post-earthquake debris flow susceptibility based on catchment units in the Wenchuan county, one of the most severely damaged county by the earthquake. The post earthquake debris flow inventory was created by RS image interpretation and field survey. According to our knowledge to the field, several relevant factors were determined as indicators for post-earthquake debris flow occurrence, including the distance to fault surface rupture, peak ground acceleration (PGA), coseismic landslide density, rainfall data, internal relief, slope, drainage density, stream steepness index, existing mitigation works etc. These indicators were then used as inputs in a heuristic model that was developed by adapting the Spatial Multi Criteria Evaluation (SMCE) method. The relative importance of the indicators was evaluated according to their contributions to the debris flow events that have occurred after the earthquake. The ultimate goal of this study is to estimate the relative likelihood of debris flow occurrence in each catchment, and use this result together with elements at risk and vulnerability information to assess the changing risk of the most susceptible catchment.

  13. Numerical simulation analysis on Wenchuan seismic strong motion in Hanyuan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Gao, M.; Guo, J.; Li, Z.; Li, T.

    2015-12-01

    69227 deaths, 374643 injured, 17923 people missing, direct economic losses 845.1 billion, and a large number houses collapse were caused by Wenchuan Ms8 earthquake in Sichuan Province on May 12, 2008, how to reproduce characteristics of its strong ground motion and predict its intensity distribution, which have important role to mitigate disaster of similar giant earthquake in the future. Taking Yunnan-Sichuan Province, Wenchuan town, Chengdu city, Chengdu basin and its vicinity as the research area, on the basis of the available three-dimensional velocity structure model and newly topography data results from ChinaArray of Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, 2 type complex source rupture process models with the global and local source parameters are established, we simulated the seismic wave propagation of Wenchuan Ms8 earthquake throughout the whole three-dimensional region by the GMS discrete grid finite-difference techniques with Cerjan absorbing boundary conditions, and obtained the seismic intensity distribution in this region through analyzing 50×50 stations data (simulated ground motion output station). The simulated results indicated that: (1)Simulated Wenchuan earthquake ground motion (PGA) response and the main characteristics of the response spectrum are very similar to those of the real Wenchuan earthquake records. (2)Wenchuan earthquake ground motion (PGA) and the response spectra of the Plain are much greater than that of the left Mountain area because of the low velocity of the shallow surface media and the basin effect of the Chengdu basin structure. Simultaneously, (3) the source rupture process (inversion) with far-field P-wave, GPS data and InSAR information and the Longmenshan Front Fault (source rupture process) are taken into consideration in GMS numerical simulation, significantly different waveform and frequency component of the ground motion are obtained, though the strong motion waveform is distinct asymmetric

  14. Preliminary results from the WLGap (seismic gap between the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C.

    2015-12-01

    An array of 20 short-period and 15 broadband seismometers are deployed to monitor the seismic gap between the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake and the 2013 Ms7.0 Lushan earthquake. The Wenchuan earthquake ruptured from epicenter at (31.01°N, 103.42°E) largely northeastward while the Lushan earthquake ruptured from epicenter at (30.3°N, 103.0°E) largely southwestward. The region between the two earthquakes recorded very few aftershocks and cataloged seismicity before and after the two big earthquakes compared to neighboring segments. As one small segment of the 500KM long Longmen Shan fault system, its absence of seismicity draws hot debate on whether a big one is still in brewing or steady creeping is the mechanism to release strain energy. The dense array is deployed in a 70Km by 40km region primarily aimed to detect events that are much smaller than cataloged events and then further to determine if the segment is experiencing constantly creeping. The preliminary findings include: (1) source mechanisms show that the seismic gap appears to be a transition zone between north and south segment. The events to the south are primarily thrust-type while events to its north have more or less striking-slip components. This is also the case for both Lushan earthquake to south and Wenchuan earthquake to north; (2) the event depths show two tilted planes with one dipping to south and another dipping to north with the seismic gap in between. This may indicate a dome or an anticline structure being associated with the seismic gap; (3) tomography indicates the velocity down to 20KM of the gap is relatively smaller than its surrounding regions. More data should be collected and further examinations should be conducted before we can make a sounding conclusion on what mechanism is in control of the seismicity in this region. This project is primarily suppoerted by the State Key Laboratory of Geohazards Prevention and Geoenviroment Protection (run by Chengdu University of

  15. Landslides Triggered by the 12 May 2008, M 7.9 Wenchuan, China Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harp, E.; Jibson, R.; Godt, J.

    2009-04-01

    The 12 May 2008, M 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in eastern Sichuan Province of China triggered tens of thousands of rock falls, rock slides, rock avalanches, and deep, complex, landslides. Of the approximately 87,000 deaths caused by the earthquake, more than 20,000 have been attributed to landsides. Numerous villages were buried by large landslides. Air-blasts resulting from the rapid failure and movement of landslides were observed and documented from numerous eye-witness accounts. More than 100 landslide-dammed lakes were created by the earthquake, 33 of which were evaluated to determine if spillway construction was necessary to minimize flooding by future breaching of the landslide dams. Spillways were ultimately constructed on at least 16 landslide dams. Preliminary observations in the field and from satellite imagery indicate that the most common types of landslides were rock falls and rock slides that ranged in size from several hundred cubic meters to several hundred thousand cubic meters in volume. There were hundreds to perhaps as many as one thousand landslides exceeding 1 million cubic meters in volume. The largest landslide identified using Jaxa's Alos/Prism satellite imagery (2.5 m resolution) is nearly 1 billion cubic meters in volume and is located approximately 12 km north-northeast of the city of Hanwang. This landslide appears to have resulted from the failure of a 1.5-km section of ridge crest that now occupies most of the adjacent valley to the northeast; its toe spills over the next ridge crest to the northeast. The satellite imagery of 4 June 2008 shows two small lakes dammed by the slide debris. Within the mountainous areas in the near-field zone of shaking, rock slides dammed chains of lakes in many drainages. Sections of streams 2-3 km long have been completely covered by rock debris as of the 4 June imagery The debris from the triggered landslides is being redistributed rapidly by post-earthquake rainfall. A 100-year rainstorm in September

  16. Longitudinal relationships between gratitude, deliberate rumination, and posttraumatic growth in adolescents following the Wenchuan earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun

    2015-10-01

    To examine the longitudinal relationship between gratitude, deliberate rumination and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in the adolescent survivors after the Wenchuan earthquake, 217 adolescent survivors were randomly selected from several primary and secondary schools in the county of Wenchuan, and were assessed by questionnaires at three and a half years (T1), four and a half years (T2), five and a half years (T3) after the Wenchuan earthquake, respectively. The results found that there was a one-way predictive relationship of gratitude onto PTG from T1 to T3, and gratitude predicted deliberate rumination from T1 to T2 but not T2 to T3. Deliberate rumination only had a significant positive effect on PTG from T2 to T3, and PTG only predicted deliberate rumination from T1 to T2. These results indicated that gratitude could be a stable predictive factor for the development of PTG, and gratitude could also affect PTG by deliberate rumination. In addition, the predictive effect between deliberate rumination and PTG is unstable with time change. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Seismo-ionospheric anomalies in DEMETER observationsduring the Wenchuan M7.9 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. C.; Liu, J. Y. G.

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies (PEIAs) observed by the French satellite DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) during the 12 May 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. Both daytime and nighttime electron density (Ne), electron temperature (Te), ion density (Ni) and ion temperature (Ti) are investigated. A statistical analysis of the box-and-whisker method is utilized to see if the four DEMETER datasets 1-6 days before and after the earthquake are significantly different. The analysis is employed to investigate the epicenter and three reference areas along the same magnetic latitude and to discriminate the earthquake-related anomalies from global effects. Results show that the nighttime Ne and Ni over the epicenter significantly decrease 1-6 days before the earthquake. The ionospheric total electron content (TEC) of global ionosphere map (GIM) over the epicenter is further inspected to find the sensitive local time for detecting the PEIAs of the M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake.

  18. 12 May 2008 M = 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake calculated to increase failure stress and seismicity rate on three major fault systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toda, S.; Lin, J.; Meghraoui, M.; Stein, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    The Wenchuan earthquake on the Longmen Shan fault zone devastated cities of Sichuan, claiming at least 69,000 lives. We calculate that the earthquake also brought the Xianshuihe, Kunlun and Min Jiang faults 150-400 km from the mainshock rupture in the eastern Tibetan Plateau 0.2-0.5 bars closer to Coulomb failure. Because some portions of these stressed faults have not ruptured in more than a century, the earthquake could trigger or hasten additional M > 7 earthquakes, potentially subjecting regions from Kangding to Daofu and Maqin to Rangtag to strong shaking. We use the calculated stress changes and the observed background seismicity to forecast the rate and distribution of damaging shocks. The earthquake probability in the region is estimated to be 57-71% for M ??? 6 shocks during the next decade, and 8-12% for M ??? 7 shocks. These are up to twice the probabilities for the decade before the Wenchuan earthquake struck. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Analysis of post-earthquake reconstruction for Wenchuan earthquake based on night-time light data from DMSP/OLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Mingxiang; Lei, Xiaohui

    2017-07-01

    At present, most of Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) night-time light data are applied to large-scale regional development assessment, while there are little for the study of earthquake and other disasters. This study has extracted night-time light information before and after earthquake within Wenchuan county with adoption of DMSP/OLS night-time light data. The analysis results show that the night-time light index and average intensity of Wenchuan county were decreased by about 76% and 50% respectively from the year of 2007 to 2008. From the year of 2008 to 2011, the two indicators were increased by about 200% and 556% respectively. These research results show that the night-time light data can be used to extract the information of earthquake and evaluate the occurrence of earthquakes and other disasters.

  20. Automatic recognition of seismic intensity based on RS and GIS: a case study in Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiuwen; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Xiaohong; Su, Bin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, earthquakes have frequently occurred all over the world, which caused huge casualties and economic losses. It is very necessary and urgent to obtain the seismic intensity map timely so as to master the distribution of the disaster and provide supports for quick earthquake relief. Compared with traditional methods of drawing seismic intensity map, which require many investigations in the field of earthquake area or are too dependent on the empirical formulas, spatial information technologies such as Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) can provide fast and economical way to automatically recognize the seismic intensity. With the integrated application of RS and GIS, this paper proposes a RS/GIS-based approach for automatic recognition of seismic intensity, in which RS is used to retrieve and extract the information on damages caused by earthquake, and GIS is applied to manage and display the data of seismic intensity. The case study in Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake in China shows that the information on seismic intensity can be automatically extracted from remotely sensed images as quickly as possible after earthquake occurrence, and the Digital Intensity Model (DIM) can be used to visually query and display the distribution of seismic intensity.

  1. Damaged Speleothems of the Ms 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake, China, and the Implications for Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueqin, Zhao; Fudong, Wang

    2017-04-01

    Broken or deformed speleothems can be used for paleoseismic research since they can be dated with radiometric techniques. But it rarely happens that speleologists are in caves just at the time of strong earthquake shocks, and there are only a few published cases of observations from caves visited immediately after an earthquake. So that it is really plausible that earthquakes break speleothem. Therefore, it needs more evidence of recent strong seismic to prove the way of speleoseismology. In order to provide more on-site data for speleoseismology, four underground cavities in the Longmenshan Fault Zone where a devastating Ms 8.0 earthquake has occurred at 2:28 pm, May 12, 2008, have been selected for speleoseismic analysis. We document damaged carbonate cave deposits by Wenchuan earthquake, including collapsed and broken stalactites, in-situ severed stalagmites and stalactites, collapsed bedrock ceilings, and strictures; and discuss the implications of damaged speleothems as possible earthquake recorder. The results show that massive damaged speleothem, as an effective method for paleoseismic, can compatible with strong earthquake.

  2. Intensity-duration threshold of rainfall-triggered debris flows in the Wenchuan Earthquake affected area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojun; Cui, Peng; Li, Yong; Ma, Li; Ge, Yonggang; Mahoney, William B.

    2016-01-01

    The Ms 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake has greatly altered the rainfall threshold for debris flows in the affected areas. This study explores the local intensity-duration (I-D) relationship based on 252 post-earthquake debris flows. It was found that I = 5.25 D-0.76 accounts for more than 98% of the debris flow occurrences with rainfall duration between 1 and 135 h; therefore the curve defines the threshold for debris flows in the study area. This gives much lower thresholds than those proposed by the previous studies, suggesting that the earthquake has greatly decreased the thresholds in the past years. Moreover, the rainfall thresholds appear to increase annually in the period of 2008-2013, and present a logarithmic increasing tendency, indicating that the thresholds will recover in the future decades.

  3. Focal Mechanism Solutions of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake sequence from P-wave polarities and SH/P amplitude ratios: new results and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yuan; Ning, Jieyuan; Yu, Chunquan; Cai, Chen; Tao, Kai

    2013-12-01

    The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, a major intraplate earthquake with M w 7.9, occurred on the slowly deforming Longmenshan fault. To better understand the causes of this devastating earthquake, we need knowledge of the regional stress field and the underlying geodynamic processes. Here, we determine focal mechanism solutions (FMSs) of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake sequence (WES) using both P-wave first-motion polarity data and SH/P amplitude ratio (AR) data. As P-wave polarities are more reliable information, they are given priority over SH/P AR, the latter of which are used only when the former has loose constraint on the FMSs. We collect data from three categories: (1) permanent stations deployed by the China Earthquake Administration (CEA); (2) the Western Sichuan Passive Seismic Array (WSPSA) deployed by Institute of Geology, CEA; (3) global stations from Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology. Finally, 129 events with magnitude over M s 4.0 in the 2008 WES are identified to have well-constrained FMSs. Among them, 83 are well constrained by P-wave polarities only as shown by Cai et al. (Earthq Sci 24(1):115-125, 2011), and the rest of which are newly constrained by incorporating SH/P AR. Based on the spatial distribution and FMSs of the WES, we draw following conclusions: (1) the principle compressional directions of most FMSs of the WES are subhorizontal, generally in agreement with the conclusion given by Cai et al. (2011) but with a few modifications that the compressional directions are WNW-ESE around Wenchuan and ENE-WSW around Qingchuan, respectively. The subhorizontal compressional direction along the Longmenshan fault from SW to NE seems to have a left-lateral rotation, which agrees well with regional stress field inverted by former researchers (e.g., Xu et al., Acta Seismol Sin 30(5), 1987; Acta Geophys Sin 32(6), 1989; Cui et al., Seismol Geol 27(2):234-242, 2005); (2) the FMSs of the events not only reflected the regional stress state of the

  4. Stress changes from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and increased hazard in the Sichuan basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Ji, C.; Kirby, E.

    2008-01-01

    On 12 May 2008, the devastating magnitude 7.9 (Wenchuan) earthquake struck the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau, collapsing buildings and killing thousands in major cities aligned along the western Sichuan basin in China. After such a large-magnitude earthquake, rearrangement of stresses in the crust commonly leads to subsequent damaging earthquakes. The mainshock of the 12 May earthquake ruptured with as much as 9 m of slip along the boundary between the Longmen Shan and Sichuan basin, and demonstrated the complex strike-slip and thrust motion that characterizes the region. The Sichuan basin and surroundings are also crossed by other active strike-slip and thrust faults. Here we present calculations of the coseismic stress changes that resulted from the 12 May event using models of those faults, and show that many indicate significant stress increases. Rapid mapping of such stress changes can help to locate fault sections with relatively higher odds of producing large aftershocks. ??2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamic modeling of stress evolution and crustal deformation associated with the seismogenic process of the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan, China earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, W.; Wan, Y.; Wang, K.; Zeng, Y.; Shen, Z.

    2009-12-01

    We model stress evolution and crustal deformation associated with the seismogenic process of the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan, China earthquake. This earthquake ruptured a section of the Longmen Shan fault, which is a listric fault separating the eastern Tibetan plateau at northwest from the Sichuan basin at southeast, with a predominantly thrust component for the southwest section of the fault. Different driving mechanisms have been proposed for the fault system: either by channel flow in the lower crust, or lateral push from the eastern Tibetan plateau on the entire crust. A 2-D finite element model is devised to simulate the tectonic process and test validities of the models. A layered viscoelastic media is prescribed, and constrained from seismological and other geophysical investigation results, characterized with a weak lower crust in the western Tibetan plateau and a strong lower crust in the Sichuan basin. The interseismic, coseismic, and postseismic deformation processes are modeled, under constraints of GPS observed deformation fields during these time periods. Our preliminary result shows concentration of elastic strain energy accumulated mainly surrounding the lower part of the locking section of the seismogenic fault during the interseismic time period, implying larger stress drop at the lower part than at the upper part of the locking section of the fault, assuming a total release of the elastic stress accumulation during an earthquake. The coseismic stress change is the largest at the near field in the hanging-wall, offering explanation of extensive aftershock activities occurred in the region after the Wenchuan mainshock. A more complete picture of stress evolution and interaction between the upper and lower crust in the process during an earthquake cycle will be presented at the meeting.

  6. Complex surface rupturing and related formation mechanisms in the Xiaoyudong area for the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xi-bin; Yuan, Ren-mao; Xu, Xi-wei; Chen, Gui-hua; Klinger, Yann; Chang, Chung-Pai; Ren, Jun-jie; Xu, Chong; Li, Kang

    2012-09-01

    The large oblique reverse slip shock of the 2008 Mw = 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, China, produced one of the longest and most complicated surface ruptures ever known. The complexity is particularly evident in the Xiaoyudong area, where three special phenomena occurred: the 7 km long Xiaoyudong rupture perpendicular to the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault; the occurrence of two parallel faults rupturing simultaneously, and apparent discontinuity of the Beichuan-Yingxiu rupture. This paper systematically documents these co-seismic rupture phenomena for the Xiaoyudong area. The discussion and results are based on field investigations and analyses of faulting mechanisms and prevalent stress conditions. The results show that the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault formed a 3.5 km wide restraining stepover at the Xiaoyudong area. The Xiaoyudong fault is not a tear fault suggested by previous researches, but a frontal reverse fault induced by the oblique compression at this stepover; it well accommodates the 'deformation gap' of the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault in the Xiaoyudong area. Further, stress along the Peng-Guan fault plane doubles due to a change in dip angle of the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault across the Xiaoyudong restraining stepover. This resulted in two faults rupturing the ground's surface simultaneously, to the north of the Xiaoyudong area. These results are helpful in deepening our understanding of the dynamic processes that produced surface ruptures during the Wenchuan earthquake. Furthermore, the results suggest more attention be focused on the influence of dextral slip component, the change of the control fault's attitude, and property differences in rocks on either side of faults when discussing the formation mechanism of surface ruptures.

  7. Comprehensive Studies on the Seismic Gap between the Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C.

    2016-12-01

    An array of 20 short-period and 15 broadband seismometers were deployed to monitor the seismic gap between the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake and the 2013 Ms7.0 Lushan earthquake. The Wenchuan earthquake ruptured from epicenter at (31.01°N, 103.42°E) largely northeastward while the Lushan earthquake ruptured from epicenter at (30.3°N, 103.0°E) largely southwestward. The region between the two earthquakes has recorded very few aftershocks and cataloged seismicity before and after the two big earthquakes compared to neighboring segments. As one small segment of the 500KM long Longmen Shan fault system, its absence of seismicity draws hot debate on whether a big one is still in brewing or steady creeping is in control of the strain energy release. The dense array is deployed primarily aimed to detect events that are much smaller than cataloged events and to determine if the segment is experiencing constantly creeping. The preliminary findings include: (1) source mechanisms show that the seismic gap appears to be a transitional zone between north and south segment. The events to the south are primarily thrust while events to north have more or less striking-slip components. This is also the case for both Lushan and Wenchuan earthquake; (2) The receiver function analysis shows that the Moho beneath the seismic Gap is less defined than its adjacent region with relatively weaker Ps conversion phases; (3) Both receiver function and ambient noise tomography show that the velocities in the upper crust is relatively lower in the Gap region than surrounding regions; (4) significant number of small earthquakes are located near surface in the gap region. Further examinations should be conducted before we can make a sounding conclusion on what mechanism is in control of the seismicity in this region.

  8. Topographic changes and their driving factors after 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Wang, M.; Xie, J.; Liu, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake caused topographic change in the stricken areas because of the formation of numerous coseismic landslides. The emergence of new landslides and debris flows and movement of loose materials under the driving force of heavy rainfall could further shape the local topography. Dynamic topographic changes in mountainous areas stricken by major earthquakes have a strong linkage to the development and occurrence of secondary disasters. However, little attention has been paid to continuously monitoring mountain environment change after such earthquakes. A digital elevation model (DEM) is the main feature of the terrain surface, in our research, we extracted DEM in 2013 and 2015 of a typical mountainous area severely impacted by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake from the ZY-3 stereo pair images with validation by field measurement. Combined with the elevation dataset in 2002 and 2010, we quantitatively assessed elevation changes in different years and qualitatively analyzed spatiotemporal variation of the terrain and mass movement across the study area. The results show that the earthquake stricken area experienced substantial elevation changes caused by seismic forces and subsequent rainfalls. Meanwhile, deposits after the earthquake are mainly accumulated on the river-channels and mountain ridges and deep gullies which increase the risk of other geo-hazards. And the heavy rainfalls after the earthquake have become the biggest driver of elevation reduction, which overwhelmed elevation increase during the major earthquake. Our study provided a better understanding of subsequent hazards and risks faced by residents and communities stricken by major earthquakes.

  9. Rupture history of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake: Evaluation of separate and joint inversions of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, Stephen; Mendoza, Carlos; Ramírez-Guzmán, Leonardo; Zeng, Yuesha; Mooney, Walter

    2013-01-01

    An extensive data set of teleseismic and strong-motion waveforms and geodetic offsets is used to study the rupture history of the 2008 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. A linear multiple-time-window approach is used to parameterize the rupture. Because of the complexity of the Wenchuan faulting, three separate planes are used to represent the rupturing surfaces. This earthquake clearly demonstrates the strengths and limitations of geodetic, teleseismic, and strong-motion data sets. Geodetic data (static offsets) are valuable for determining the distribution of shallower slip but are insensitive to deeper faulting and reveal nothing about the timing of slip. Teleseismic data in the distance range 30°–90° generally involve no modeling difficulties because of simple ray paths and can distinguish shallow from deep slip. Teleseismic data, however, cannot distinguish between different slip scenarios when multiple fault planes are involved because steep takeoff angles lead to ambiguity in timing. Local strong-motion data, on the other hand, are ideal for determining the direction of rupture from directivity but can easily be over modeled with inaccurate Green’s functions, leading to misinterpretation of the slip distribution. We show that all three data sets are required to give an accurate description of the Wenchuan rupture. The moment is estimated to be approximately 1.0 × 1021 N · m with the slip characterized by multiple large patches with slips up to 10 m. Rupture initiates on the southern end of the Pengguan fault and proceeds unilaterally to the northeast. Upon reaching the cross-cutting Xiaoyudong fault, rupture of the adjacent Beichuan fault starts at this juncture and proceeds bilaterally to the northeast and southwest.

  10. Social support as a moderator of the relationship between anxiety and depression: an empirical study with adult survivors of Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiuping; Wei, Ying

    2013-01-01

    On May 12th 2008, an earthquake with a magnitude of 8.0 on the Richter scale struck China, causing a large number of casualties and significant economic losses. By interviewing 2080 survivors of Wenchuan earthquake, the objective of this study is to estimate the role of different types of social support as possible moderating factors between anxiety and depression. A stratified random sampling strategy about the cross-sectional study was adopted. The self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) were used. A total of 2080 adult survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake from 19 damaged countries participated in the survey. Correlation analysis and regression analysis were performed to evaluate the moderating role of social support on the relationship between anxiety and depression. One year after the Wenchuan earthquake, anxiety and depression were found to be 37.6% and 40.7%, respectively. Demographic characteristics were seen as significant in the cases of depression, except for age (p=0.599), while age and education level were not found to be significant for anxiety. The results showed that social support, especially subjective support could moderate the association between anxiety and depression. Social support should be particularly focused on female survivors, those of the Han ethnic group, and those with a lower level of education and a lower income. Psychological intervention and care for survivors should focus on those most disoriented by the disaster.

  11. Victims' time discounting 2.5 years after the Wenchuan earthquake: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Zhen; Gui, Dan-Yang; Feng, Chun-Liang; Wang, Wen-Zhong; Du, Bo-Qi; Gan, Tian; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2012-01-01

    Time discounting refers to the fact that the subjective value of a reward decreases as the delay until its occurrence increases. The present study investigated how time discounting has been affected in survivors of the magnitude-8.0 Wenchuan earthquake that occurred in China in 2008. Nineteen earthquake survivors and 22 controls, all school teachers, participated in the study. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) for time discounting tasks involving gains and losses were acquired in both the victims and controls. The behavioral data replicated our previous findings that delayed gains were discounted more steeply after a disaster. ERP results revealed that the P200 and P300 amplitudes were increased in earthquake survivors. There was a significant group (earthquake vs. non-earthquake) × task (gain vs. loss) interaction for the N300 amplitude, with a marginally significantly reduced N300 for gain tasks in the experimental group, which may suggest a deficiency in inhibitory control for gains among victims. The results suggest that post-disaster decisions might involve more emotional (System 1) and less rational thinking (System 2) in terms of a dual-process model of decision making. The implications for post-disaster intervention and management are also discussed.

  12. The role of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in topographic evolution: seismically induced landslides and the associated isostatic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zheng, W.; Zhang, P. Z.

    2017-12-01

    The widely held understanding that reverse-faulting earthquakes play an important role in building mountains has been challenged by recent studies suggesting that co-seismic landslides of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake led to a net co-seismic lowering of surface height. We use precise estimates of co-seismic landslide volumes to calculate the long-term isostatic response to landsliding during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The total isostatic respond volume is 2.0 km3 which did not change much associated with thickness of Te, however, the distribution of the rebound changes associated with thickness of Te. The total co-seismic mass change could be 1.8 km3. The maximum isostatic response due to Wenchuan earthquake may have been as high as 0.9 meters in the highest Pengguan massif of the central Longmen Shan. We also find that the average net uplift is 0.16 meters within the total landslide region due to the Wenchuan earthquake. Our findings suggest that the local topographic evolution of the middle Longmen Shan region is closely related to repeated tectonic events such as the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake.

  13. Continuous Record of Permeability inside the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Lian; Li, Haibing; Brodsky, Emily

    2013-04-01

    Faults are complex hydrogeological structures which include a highly permeable damage zone with fracture-dominated permeability. Since fractures are generated by earthquakes, we would expect that in the aftermath of a large earthquake, the permeability would be transiently high in a fault zone. Over time, the permeability may recover due to a combination of chemical and mechanical processes. However, the in situ fault zone hydrological properties are difficult to measure and have never been directly constrained on a fault zone immediately after a large earthquake. In this work, we use water level response to solid Earth tides to constrain the hydraulic properties inside the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Zone. The transmissivity and storage determine the phase and amplitude response of the water level to the tidal loading. By measuring phase and amplitude response, we can constrain the average hydraulic properties of the damage zone at 800-1200 m below the surface (~200-600 m from the principal slip zone). We use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to evaluate the phase and amplitude responses and the corresponding errors for the largest semidiurnal Earth tide M2 in the time domain. The average phase lag is ~ 30o, and the average amplitude response is 6×10-7 strain/m. Assuming an isotropic, homogenous and laterally extensive aquifer, the average storage coefficient S is 2×10-4 and the average transmissivity T is 6×10-7 m2 using the measured phase and the amplitude response. Calculation for the hydraulic diffusivity D with D=T/S, yields the reported value of D is 3×10-3 m2/s, which is two orders of magnitude larger than pump test values on the Chelungpu Fault which is the site of the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. If the value is representative of the fault zone, then this means the hydrology processes should have an effect on the earthquake rupture process. This measurement is done through continuous monitoring and we could track the evolution for hydraulic properties

  14. Comprehensive Understanding of the Zipingpu Reservoir to the Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H.; Pang, Y. J.; Zhang, H.; Shi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    After the Wenchuan earthquake occurred, whether the big earthquake triggered by the storage of the Zipingpu Reservoir has attracted wide attention in international academic community. In addition to the qualitative discussion, many scholars also adopted the quantitative analysis methods to calculate the stress changes, but due to the different results, they draw very different conclusions. Here, we take the dispute of different teams in the quantitative calculation of Zipingpu reservoir as a starting point. In order to find out the key influence factors of quantitative calculation and know about the existing uncertainty elements during the numerical simulation, we analyze factors which may cause the differences. The preliminary results show that the calculation methods (analytical method or numerical method), dimension of models (2-D or 3-D), diffusion model, diffusion coefficient and focal mechanism are the main factors resulted in the differences, especially the diffusion coefficient of the fractured rock mass. The change of coulomb failure stress of the epicenter of Wenchuan earthquake attained from 2-D model is about 3 times of that of 3-D model. And it is not reasonable that only considering the fault permeability (assuming the permeability of rock mass as infinity) or only considering homogeneous isotropic rock mass permeability (ignoring the fault permeability). The different focal mechanisms also could dramatically affect the change of coulomb failure stress of the epicenter of Wenchuan earthquake, and the differences can research 2-7 times. And the differences the change of coulomb failure stress can reach several hundreds times, when selecting different diffusion coefficients. According to existing research that the magnitude of coulomb failure stress change is about several kPa, we could not rule out the possibility that the Zipingpu Reservoir may trigger the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. However, for the background stress is not clear and coulomb failure

  15. Seismic energy partitioning during the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake from WFSD-1 core sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Li, H.; Janssen, C.; He, X.

    2016-12-01

    The seismic energy, defined as the total energy released from an earthquake, including frictional heating energy, radiated energy and fracture energy, is one of the fundamental parameters for understanding the overall features of the dynamic rupture on the fault. Here we present a natural sample from the Wenchuan earthquake fault scientific drilling project at WFSD-1, at 732.4-732.8 m-depth for frictional heating and fracture energy caculation. Slickenlines are clear on the fresh mirrore-like surface at 732.6 m. Detailed microstructural analyses via optical microscope, SEM and TEM, reveal that a 2 mm-thick amorphous material with quartz grains sitting in are present in fault gouge. Circles with different densities in the amorphous material indicate a melt-origin. Numerous open microcracks in the melt suggest that they are newly formed. Combined with anomaly mercury concentration and logging data at this location, we believe that the melt was generated during the Wenchuan earthquake. In addition, a melt with similar feature is also found at 1084 m-depth in WFSD-4S as the principal slip zone of the Wenchuan earthquake, hence we speculate that the melt may be present all along the Yingxiu-Beichuan rupture zone. TEM-EDX analyses show that the melt is mainly made of feldspar, i.e. feldspar is melted but quartz is not, indicating that the frictional melting temperature was 1230°C < T < 1720°C assuming a dry condition. Therefore, we can calculate the frictional heating using the melt caused by the earthquake. Besides, 120 µm-thick nano-scale quartz-rich layer is visible at the very edge of the melt layer, which compose the mirror-like structure surface with slicklines, produced by the Wenchuan earthquake. Therefore, it can be used to calculate the fracture energy based on the particule size distribution. As previous research show, during an earthquake, most of the energy was released by frictional heating (Scholz, 2002), only a small amount was consumed by seismic wave

  16. Continuous Record of Permeability inside the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, L.; Li, H.; Brodsky, E. E.; Wang, H.; Pei, J.

    2012-12-01

    Faults are complex hydrogeological structures which include a highly permeable damage zone with fracture-dominated permeability. Since fractures are generated by earthquakes, we would expect that in the aftermath of a large earthquake, the permeability would be transiently high in a fault zone. Over time, the permeability may recover due to a combination of chemical and mechanical processes. However, the in situ fault zone hydrological properties are difficult to measure and have never been directly constrained on a fault zone immediately after a large earthquake. In this work, we use water level response to solid Earth tides to constrain the hydraulic properties inside the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Zone. The transmissivity and storage determine the phase and amplitude response of the water level to the tidal loading. By measuring phase and amplitude response, we can constrain the average hydraulic properties of the damage zone at 800-1200 m below the surface (˜200-600 m from the principal slip zone). We use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to evaluate the phase and amplitude responses and the corresponding errors for the largest semidiurnal Earth tide M2 in the time domain. The average phase lag is ˜30°, and the average amplitude response is 6×10-7 strain/m. Assuming an isotropic, homogenous and laterally extensive aquifer, the average storage coefficient S is 2×10-4 and the average transmissivity T is 6×10-7 m2 using the measured phase and the amplitude response. Calculation for the hydraulic diffusivity D with D=T/S, yields the reported value of D is 3×10-3 m2/s, which is two orders of magnitude larger than pump test values on the Chelungpu Fault which is the site of the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. If the value is representative of the fault zone, then this means the hydrology processes should have an effect on the earthquake rupture process. This measurement is done through continuous monitoring and we could track the evolution for hydraulic properties

  17. The relationship between PTSD and suicidality among Wenchuan earthquake survivors: The role of PTG and social support.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Liu, Chengcheng; Kong, Dexia; Solomon, Phyllis; Fu, Mingqi

    2018-08-01

    Previous studies have found that suicide rates are likely to increase after the occurrence of earthquakes. Most existing studies that examined the relationship between PTSD and suicidality focus on risk factors. It remains unclear whether protective factors, such as post-traumatic growth (PTG) and social support, play a role in this relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PTG and social support in the association between PTSD and suicidality, using data from a cross-sectional study conducted in China. 1,369 participants were recruited from two study sites that were severely affected by the Wenchuan earthquake. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between PTSD, PTG, social support, and suicidality. The results indicate that the prevalence of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts among adult survivors were 9.06%, 2.97% and 3.31%, respectively, even after 8 years following the Wenchuan earthquake. Furthermore, the findings show that PTSD was significantly associated with suicidality (OR = 1.96; 95% CI = 1.53, 2.52). Additionally, individuals reporting lower levels of social support and the acquisition of PTSD (OR = 5.99; 95% CI = 1.66, 21.56) were significantly related to suicidality. Moreover, compared to individuals who reported no presence of PTSD and high PTG, those who lived with PTSD and lower levels of PTG (OR = 2.33; 95%CI = 1.00, 5.42) were more likely to report suicidality. The cross-sectional design of this study limits our ability to determine causal relationships. Effects of other related factors, such as cultural and life events, were not examined in this study. Suicidality is a long-term health issue among survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake. PTG and social support play important roles on the association between PTSD and suicidality and are important contributing factors to understanding this relationship. These results contribute

  18. Application and analysis of debris-flow early warning system in Wenchuan earthquake-affected area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. L.; Zhang, S. J.; Yang, H. J.; Zhao, L. Q.; Jiang, Y. H.; Tang, D.; Leng, X. P.

    2016-02-01

    The activities of debris flow (DF) in the Wenchuan earthquake-affected area significantly increased after the earthquake on 12 May 2008. The safety of the lives and property of local people is threatened by DFs. A physics-based early warning system (EWS) for DF forecasting was developed and applied in this earthquake area. This paper introduces an application of the system in the Wenchuan earthquake-affected area and analyzes the prediction results via a comparison to the DF events triggered by the strong rainfall events reported by the local government. The prediction accuracy and efficiency was first compared with a contribution-factor-based system currently used by the weather bureau of Sichuan province. The storm on 17 August 2012 was used as a case study for this comparison. The comparison shows that the false negative rate and false positive rate of the new system is, respectively, 19 and 21 % lower than the system based on the contribution factors. Consequently, the prediction accuracy is obviously higher than the system based on the contribution factors with a higher operational efficiency. On the invitation of the weather bureau of Sichuan province, the authors upgraded their prediction system of DF by using this new system before the monsoon of Wenchuan earthquake-affected area in 2013. Two prediction cases on 9 July 2013 and 10 July 2014 were chosen to further demonstrate that the new EWS has high stability, efficiency, and prediction accuracy.

  19. Stress and structure analysis of the Seismic Gap between the Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chuntao

    2017-04-01

    An array of 20 short-period and 15 broadband seismometers were deployed to monitor the seismic gap between the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake and the 2013 Ms7.0 Lushan earthquake. The Wenchuan earthquake ruptured from epicenter at (31.01°N, 103.42°E) largely northeastward while the Lushan earthquake ruptured from epicenter at (30.3°N, 103.0°E) largely southwestward. The region between the two earthquakes has recorded very few aftershocks and cataloged seismicity before and after the two big earthquakes compared to neighboring segments. As one small segment of the 500KM long Longmen Shan fault system, its absence of seismicity draws hot debate on whether a big one is still in brewing or steady creeping is in control of the strain energy release. The dense array is deployed primarily aimed to detect events that are much smaller than cataloged events and to determine if the segment is experiencing constantly creeping. The preliminary findings include: (1) source mechanisms show that the seismic gap appears to be a transitional zone between north and south segment. The events to the south are primarily thrust while events to north have more or less striking-slip components. This is also the case for both Lushan and Wenchuan earthquake; (2) The receiver function analysis shows that the Moho beneath the seismic Gap is less defined than its adjacent region with relatively weaker Ps conversion phases; (3) Both receiver function and ambient noise tomography show that the velocities in the upper crust is relatively lower in the Gap region than surrounding regions; (4) significant number of small earthquakes are located near surface in the gap region. Further examinations should be conducted before we can make a sounding conclusion on what mechanism is in control of the seismicity in this region.

  20. Real time drilling mud gas response to small-moderate earthquakes in Wenchuan earthquake Scientific Drilling Hole-1 in SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zheng; Li, Haibing; Tang, Lijun; Lao, Changling; Zhang, Lei; Li, Li

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the real time drilling mud gas of the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Hole-1 and their responses to 3918 small-moderate aftershocks happened in the Longmenshan fault zone. Gas profiles for Ar, CH4, He, 222Rn, CO2, H2, N2, O2 are obtained. Seismic wave amplitude, energy density and static strain are calculated to evaluate their power of influence to the drilling site. Mud gases two hours before and after each earthquake are carefully analyzed. In total, 25 aftershocks have major mud gas response, the mud gas concentrations vary dramatically immediately or minutes after the earthquakes. Different gas species respond to earthquakes in different manners according to local lithology encountered during the drill. The gas variations are likely controlled by dynamic stress changes, rather than static stress changes. They have the seismic energy density between 10-5 and 1.0 J/m3 whereas the static strain are mostly less than 10-8. We suggest that the limitation of the gas sources and the high hydraulic diffusivity of the newly ruptured fault zone could have inhibited the drilling mud gas behaviors, they are only able to respond to a small portion of the aftershocks. This work is important for the understanding of earthquake related hydrological changes.

  1. ANALYSIS ON THE GROUND DESTROYED FEATURES AND TECTONIC STRESS FIELD OF THE 2008 WENCHUAN EARTHQUAKE AND OUR TREATING TACTICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y.; Wang, H.; Deng, Z.; You, H.

    2009-12-01

    To research the ground destroyed features and tectonic stress field of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, we went the earthquake-hazard area, Hongkou Town in Dujiangyan City, Yingxiu Town in Wenchuan County, Bailu Town in Pengzhou City, Yinghua Town in Shifang City, Hanwang Town in Mianzhu City and Beichuan Cit early and late twice in 2008. The geological survey was made. Firstly, the ground destroyed features of the Wenchuan Earthquake around both Yingxiu - Beichuan Fracture and Guanxian - Jiangyou Fracture were analyzed. They mainly display as the ground crack ground, road steep slope, ground deformation, road rise high and deformation, road staggering and rupture, etc. Besides, the Wenchuan Earthquake resulted in the great deal of building collapse and lots of bridges damage even break down; It can be seen that the first floor of the building disappeared or damaged seriously; Some building still stood there although damaged by the earthquake; A few of building was damaged slightly and kept intact structure. Furthermore, the earthquake caused earth slide, mudflow and rolling stone, which lead to the building destroyed seriously, river blocked up, the life line engineering destroyed. Secondly, the phenomena of the ground destroy were analyzed preliminarily. The seismic intensity was determined based on the field investigation. The damaged situation of the construction was concluded. Based on the principle of structure geology and making use of the Stereographic projection, the stress field was analyzed according to the attitude, structural nature and relations among the fracture, fault scratch and joint fissure as well as the characteristics of ground deformation thirdly. The geodynamics of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake are probed into preliminarily. The main compressive stress (the maximum main stress) σ1 took Northeast by east direction, and the main tensile stress (the minimum main stress)σ3 took Northwest by north direction. The main fracture shows as the right

  2. Magnetic properties of cores from the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Hole-2 (WFSD-2), China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L., Jr.; Sun, Z.; Li, H.; Cao, Y.; Ye, X.; Wang, L.; Zhao, Y.; Han, S.

    2015-12-01

    During an earthquake, seismic slip and frictional heating may cause the physical and chemical alterations of magnetic minerals within the fault zone. Rock magnetism provides a method for understanding earthquake dynamics. The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Project (WFSD) started right after 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, to investigate the earthquake faulting mechanism. Hole 2 (WFSD-2) is located in the Pengguan Complex in the Bajiaomiao village (Dujiangyan, Sichuan), and reached the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF). We measured the surface magnetic susceptibility of the cores in WFSD-2 from 500 m to 1530 m with an interval of 1 cm. Rocks at 500-599.31 m-depth and 1211.49-1530 m-depth are from the Neoproterozoic Pengguang Complex while the section from 599.31 m to 1211.49 m is composed of Late Triassic sediments. The magnetic susceptibility values of the first part of the Pengguan Complex range from 1 to 25 × 10-6 SI, while the second part ranges from 10 to 200 × 10-6 SI, which indicate that the two parts are not from the same rock units. The Late Triassic sedimentary rocks have a low magnetic susceptibility values, ranging from -5 to 20 × 10-6 SI. Most fault zones coincide with the high value of magnetic susceptibility in the WFSD-2 cores. Fault rocks, mainly fault breccia, cataclasite, gouge and pseudotachylite within the WFSD-2 cores, and mostly display a significantly higher magnetic susceptibility than host rocks (5:1 to 20:1). In particular, in the YBF zone of the WFSD-2 cores (from 600 to 960 m), dozens of stages with high values of magnetic susceptibility have been observed. The multi-layered fault rocks with high magnetic susceptibility values might indicate that the YBF is a long-term active fault. The magnetic susceptibility values change with different types of fault rocks. The gouge and pseudotachylite have higher values of magnetic susceptibility than other fault rocks. Other primary rock magnetism analyses were then performed to

  3. The Analysis of the Resilience of Adults One Year after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Min; Xu, Jiuping; He, Yuan; Wu, Zhibin

    2012-01-01

    Resilience, the ability to spring back from adversity and successfully adapt to it, is becoming an increasingly popular focus in research on the intervention and prevention of mental breakdown. This article aims to assess the resilience of adults exposed to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake 1 year after the occurrence of the earthquake, to explore the…

  4. Impact of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake on river organic carbon provenance: Insight from biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Feng, Xiaojuan; Hilton, Robert; Jin, Zhangdong; Ma, Tian; Zhang, Fei; Li, Gen; Densmore, Alexander; West, A. Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Large earthquakes can trigger widespread landslides in active mountain belts, which can mobilize biospheric organic carbon (OC) from the soil and vegetation. Rivers can erode and export biospheric particulate organic carbon (POC), which is an export of ecosystem productivity and may result in a CO2 sink if buried in sedimentary deposits. Our previous work showed that the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake increased the discharge of biospheric OC by rivers, due to the increased supply by earthquake triggered landslides (Wang et al., 2016). However, while the OC derived from sedimentary rocks could be accounted for, the source of biospheric OC in rivers before and after the earthquake remains poorly constrained. Here we use suspended sediment samples collected from the Zagunao River before and after the Wenchuan earthquake and measured the specific compounds of OC, including fatty acids, lignin phenols and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipids. In combination with the analysis of bulk elemental concentration (C and N) and carbon isotopic ratio, the new data shows differential export patterns for OC components derived from varied terrestrial sources. A high frequency sampling enabled us to explore how the biospheric OC source changes following the earthquake, helping to better understand the link between active tectonics and the carbon cycle. Our results are also important in revealing how sedimentary biomarker records may record past earthquakes.

  5. Impact of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China on subsequent long-term debris flow activities in the epicentral area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Zhang, L. M.

    2017-01-01

    The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake triggered the largest number of landslides among the recent strong earthquake events around the world. The loose landslide materials were retained on steep terrains and deep gullies. In the period from 2008 to 2015, numerous debris flows occurred during rainstorms along the Provincial Road 303 (PR303) near the epicentre of the earthquake, causing serious damage to the reconstructed highway. Approximately 5.24 × 106 m3 of debris-flow sediment was deposited shortly after the earthquake. This paper evaluates the evolution of the debris flows that occurred after the Wenchuan earthquake, which helps understand long-term landscape evolution and cascading effects in regions impacted by mega earthquakes. With the aid of a GIS platform combined with field investigations, we continuously tracked movements of the loose deposit materials in all the debris flow gullies along an 18 km reach of PR303 and the characteristics of the regional debris flows during several storms in the past seven years. This paper presents five important aspects of the evolution of debris flows: (1) supply of debris flow materials; (2) triggering rainfall; (3) initiation mechanisms and types of debris flows; (4) runout characteristics; and (5) elevated riverbed due to the deposited materials from the debris flows. The hillslope soil deposits gradually evolved into channel deposits and the solid materials in the channels moved towards the ravine mouth. Accordingly, channelized debris flows became dominant gradually. Due to the decreasing source material volume and changes in debris flow characteristics, the triggering rainfall tends to increase from 30 mm h- 1 in 2008 to 64 mm h- 1 in 2013, and the runout distance tends to decrease over time. The runout materials blocked the river and elevated the riverbed by at least 30 m in parts of the study area. The changes in the post-seismic debris flow activity can be categorized into three stages, i.e., active, unstable, and

  6. Development of the science of mass casualty incident management: reflection on the medical response to the Wenchuan earthquake and Hangzhou bus fire*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei-feng; Jiang, Li-bing; Jiang, Guan-yu; Zhang, Mao; Ma, Yue-feng; He, Xiao-jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this paper, we review the previous classic research paradigms of a mass casualty incident (MCI) systematically and reflect the medical response to the Wenchuan earthquake and Hangzhou bus fire, in order to outline and develop an improved research paradigm for MCI management. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, China Wanfang, and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases for relevant studies. The following key words and medical subject headings were used: ‘mass casualty incident’, ‘MCI’, ‘research method’, ‘Wenchuan’, ‘earthquake’, ‘research paradigm’, ‘science of surge’, ‘surge’, ‘surge capacity’, and ‘vulnerability’. Searches were performed without year or language restriction. After searching the four literature databases using the above listed key words and medical subject headings, related articles containing research paradigms of MCI, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, July 5 bus fire, and science of surge and vulnerability were independently included by two authors. Results: The current progresses on MCI management include new golden hour, damage control philosophy, chain of survival, and three links theory. In addition, there are three evaluation methods (medical severity index (MSI), potential injury creating event (PICE) classification, and disaster severity scale (DSS)), which can dynamically assess the MCI situations and decisions for MCI responses and can be made based on the results of such evaluations. However, the three methods only offer a retrospective evaluation of MCI and thus fail to develop a real-time assessment of MCI responses. Therefore, they cannot be used as practical guidance for decision-making during MCI. Although the theory of surge science has made great improvements, we found that a very important factor has been ignored—vulnerability, based on reflecting on the MCI response to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and July 5 bus fire in Hangzhou. Conclusions: This new paradigm breaks through the

  7. Health behaviors of victims and related factors in Wenchuan earthquake resettlement sites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaolan; Zhou, Hongyu; Zhou, Huan; Yang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Lingyun; Qiu, Peiyuan; Ma, Xiao

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the health behaviors of earthquake victims related to gastrointestinal and respiratory infectious diseases in the centralized transitional earthquake resettlement sites in Wenchuan, China; and to identify key factors related to health behaviors that may inform local infectious diseases prevention and control strategies. Data were collected using a questionnaire that included questions about socio-demographic characteristics and health beliefs and behaviors. In total, 1411 participants were included through a two-stage random sampling strategy. A bivariate multilevel model was used to explore the related factors. Approximately 67% of the participants wash their hands after going to lavatories every time, and 87% felt uncomfortable spitting on the ground. The more the participants perceived their susceptibility to and the severity of infectious diseases, the better their health-related behaviors (P < 0.05). Both health-related behaviors were influenced by communication modes of health education (P = 0.01) and socio-demographic characteristics. There was heterogeneity of health-related behaviors among different resettlement sites (P < 0.01). Health education intervention, based on the Health Belief Model, is one of the main preventative strategies that should be implemented to inspire self-efficacy and to enhance better health-related behaviors among earthquake victims. Appropriate health education communication modes should be considered among different resettlement sites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Continuous permeability measurements record healing inside the Wenchuan earthquake fault zone.

    PubMed

    Xue, Lian; Li, Hai-Bing; Brodsky, Emily E; Xu, Zhi-Qing; Kano, Yasuyuki; Wang, Huan; Mori, James J; Si, Jia-Liang; Pei, Jun-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Guang; Sun, Zhi-Ming; Huang, Yao

    2013-06-28

    Permeability controls fluid flow in fault zones and is a proxy for rock damage after an earthquake. We used the tidal response of water level in a deep borehole to track permeability for 18 months in the damage zone of the causative fault of the 2008 moment magnitude 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. The unusually high measured hydraulic diffusivity of 2.4 × 10(-2) square meters per second implies a major role for water circulation in the fault zone. For most of the observation period, the permeability decreased rapidly as the fault healed. The trend was interrupted by abrupt permeability increases attributable to shaking from remote earthquakes. These direct measurements of the fault zone reveal a process of punctuated recovery as healing and damage interact in the aftermath of a major earthquake.

  9. Spatial analyses on seismo-ionospheric precursors observed by GIM TEC and DEMETER during the 2008 M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jann-Yenq; Chen, Yuh-Ing; Huang, Ching-Chi; Parrot, Michel; Pulinets, Sergey; Ouzounov, Dimitar

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines seismo-ionospheric precursors (SIPs) in the total electron content (TEC) of the global ionosphere map (GIM) and observations in the French satellite DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) during the 12 May 2008 M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake. The temporal and spatial analyses on the GIM TEC are used to search SIPs of the Wenchuan earthquake. Meanwhile, both daytime and nighttime electron density (Ne), electron temperature (Te), ion density (Ni) and ion temperature (Ti) probed by DEMETER are investigated. A statistical analysis of the box-and-whisker method is utilized to see if the four DEMETER data sets 1-6 days before and after the earthquake are significantly different. The analysis is employed to investigate the epicenter and three reference areas along the same magnetic latitude discriminating the SIPs from global effects. Results show that the nighttime Ne and Ni (daytime Ti) over the epicenter significantly decrease (increase) 1-6 days before the earthquake. The intersections of the global distribution of the significant differences (or anomalous changes) in the nighttime Ne, the nighttime Ni, and the daytime Ti 1-6 days before and after the earthquake specifically appear over the epicenter. The spatial analyses confirm that SIPs of GIM TEC and DEMETER observations appearing 2-6 days before are related to the 2008 M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake.

  10. Slip maxima at fault junctions and rupturing of barriers during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shen, Z.-K.; Sun, Jielun; Zhang, P.; Wan, Y.; Wang, M.; Burgmann, R.; Zeng, Y.; Gan, Weijun; Liao, H.; Wang, Q.

    2009-01-01

    The disastrous 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China took the local population as well as scientists by surprise. Although the Longmen Shan fault zonewhich includes the fault segments along which this earthquake nucleatedwas well known, geologic and geodetic data indicate relatively low (<3 mm yr -1) deformation rates. Here we invert Global Positioning System and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar data to infer fault geometry and slip distribution associated with the earthquake. Our analysis shows that the geometry of the fault changes along its length: in the southwest, the fault plane dips moderately to the northwest but becomes nearly vertical in the northeast. Associated with this is a change in the motion along the fault from predominantly thrusting to strike-slip. Peak slip along the fault occurs at the intersections of fault segments located near the towns of Yingxiu, Beichuan and Nanba, where fatalities and damage were concentrated. We suggest that these locations represent barriers that failed in a single event, enabling the rupture to cascade through several fault segments and cause a major moment magnitude (Mw) 7.9 earthquake. Using coseismic slip distribution and geodetic and geological slip rates, we estimate that the failure of barriers and rupture along multiple segments takes place approximately once in 4,000 years. ?? 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  11. The Mw 7.9 Wenchuan (China) Earthquake: exploring the role of crustal heterogeneities from finite element analysis of DInSAR coseismic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriakopoulos, Christodoulos; Trasatti, Elisa; Atzori, Simone; Bignami, Christian; Chini, Marco; Stramondo, Salvatore; Tolomei, Christiano

    2010-05-01

    A destructive (Mw 7.9) earthquake struck the Sichuan province (China) on May 12, 2008. The seismic event, the largest in China in more than three decades and referred as the Wenchuan earthquake, ruptured approximately 280 km of the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and about 70 km of the Guanxian-Anxian fault. Surface effects were suffered over a wide epicentral area (about 300 km E-W and 250 km N-S). The huge earthquake took place within the context of long term uplift of the Longmen Shan range in eastern Tibet. The Longmen Shan fault zone is the main tectonic boundary between the Sichuan basin and eastern Tibet and is characterized by a large topographic relief (from 500m a.s.l. to more than 4000m) and large variations in rheological properties. The coseismic deformation is imaged by a set of ALOS-PALSAR L-band SAR interferograms. We use an unprecedented high number of data (25 frames from 6 adjacent tracks) to encompass the entire coseismic area. The resulting mosaic of differential interferograms covers an overall area of about 340 km E-W and 240 km N-S. The complex geophysical context of Longmen Shan and the variations of the fault geometry along its length can be better handled by means of numerical methods. The fault geometry is constrained by inversions of geodetic data and by taking into account the geological features of eastern Tibet and Sichuan basin. As a result, we build a Finite Element (FE) model consisting of two non planar faults embedded in a non-homogeneous medium with real topography of the area. We develop a procedure to perform inversions of DInSAR data based on FE computed Green functions of the surface displacement field. We retrieve a complex slip distribution on the fault segments in a heterogeneous medium with realistic surface topography.

  12. The Trembling Earth Before Wenchuan Earthquake: Recognition of Precursory Anomalies through High Frequency Sampling Data of Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, F.

    2017-12-01

    With a magnitude of MS8.0, the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is classified as one of the "great earthquakes", which are potentially the most destructive, since it occurred at shallow depth close to a highly populated area without prediction, due to no confirmative precursors which were detected from a large amount of newly carried out digital observation data. Scientists who specilize in prediction routine work had been condemned and self-condemned for a long time then. After the pain of defeat passed, scientists have been some thinking to analyze the old observation data in new perspectives from longer temporal process, multiple-disciplinaries, and in different frequency. This presentation will show the preliminary results from groundwater level and temperature observed in 3 wells which distribute along the boundaries of tectonic blocks nearby and far from Wenchuan earthquake rupture.

  13. Topographic changes and their driving factors after 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Congrong; Wang, Ming; Liu, Kai; Xie, Jun

    2018-06-01

    The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake caused topographic change in the stricken areas because of the occurrence of numerous coseismic landslides. The emergence of new landslides and debris flows and movement of loose materials under the driving force of high rainfall could further shape the local topography. Currently, little attention has been paid to continuously monitoring and assessing topographic changes after the major earthquake. In this research, we obtained an elevation dataset (2002, 2010, 2013 and 2015) based on digital elevation model (DEM) data and a DEM extracted from ZY-3 stereo paired images with validation by field measurement. We quantitatively assessed elevation changes in different years and qualitatively analyzed spatiotemporal variation of the terrain and mass movement across the study area. The results show that the earthquake affected area experienced substantial elevation changes caused by seismic forces and subsequent rainfalls. High rainfall after the earthquake have become the biggest driver of elevation reduction, which overwhelmed elevation increase caused by the major earthquake. Increased post-earthquake erosion intensity has caused large amounts of loose materials to accumulate in river channels, and gullies and on upper-middle mountain slopes, which increases the risk of flooding and geo-hazards in the area.

  14. Frictional melt generated by the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake and its faulting mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Li, H.; Si, J.; Sun, Z.; Zhang, L.; He, X.

    2017-12-01

    Fault-related pseudotachylytes are considered as fossil earthquakes, conveying significant information that provide improved insight into fault behaviors and their mechanical properties. The WFSD project was carried out right after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, detailed research was conducted in the drilling cores. 2 mm rigid black layer with fresh slickenlines was observed at 732.6 m in WFSD-1 cores drilled at the southern Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF). Evidence of optical microscopy, FESEM and FIB-TEM show it's frictional melt (pseudotachylyte). In the northern part of YBF, 4 mm fresh melt was found at 1084 m with similar structures in WFSD-4S cores. The melts contain numerous microcracks. Considering that (1) the highly unstable property of the frictional melt (easily be altered or devitrified) under geological conditions; (2) the unfilled microcracks; (3) fresh slickenlines and (4) recent large earthquake in this area, we believe that 2-4 mm melt was produced by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. This is the first report of fresh pseudotachylyte with slickenlines in natural fault that generated by modern earthquake. Geochemical analyses show that fault rocks at 732.6 m are enriched in CaO, Fe2O3, FeO, H2O+ and LOI, whereas depleted in SiO2. XRF results show that Ca and Fe are enriched obviously in the 2.5 cm fine-grained fault rocks and Ba enriched in the slip surface. The melt has a higher magnetic susceptibility value, which may due to neoformed magnetite and metallic iron formed in fault frictional melt. Frictional melt visible in both southern and northern part of YBF reveals that frictional melt lubrication played a major role in the Wenchuan earthquake. Instead of vesicles and microlites, numerous randomly oriented microcracks in the melt, exhibiting a quenching texture. The quenching texture suggests the frictional melt was generated under rapid heat-dissipation condition, implying vigorous fluid circulation during the earthquake. We surmise that during

  15. Focal Depth of the WenChuan Earthquake Aftershocks from modeling of Seismic Depth Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Zeng, X.; Chong, J.; Ni, S.; Chen, Y.

    2008-12-01

    After the 05/12/2008 great WenChuan earthquake in Sichuan Province of China, tens of thousands earthquakes occurred with hundreds of them stronger than M4. Those aftershocks provide valuable information about seismotectonics and rupture processes for the mainshock, particularly accurate spatial distribution of aftershocks is very informational for determining rupture fault planes. However focal depth can not be well resolved just with first arrivals recorded by relatively sparse network in Sichuan Province, therefore 3D seismicity distribution is difficult to obtain though horizontal location can be located with accuracy of 5km. Instead local/regional depth phases such as sPmP, sPn, sPL and teleseismic pP,sP are very sensitive to depth, and be readily modeled to determine depth with accuracy of 2km. With reference 1D velocity structure resolved from receiver functions and seismic refraction studies, local/regional depth phases such as sPmP, sPn and sPL are identified by comparing observed waveform with synthetic seismograms by generalized ray theory and reflectivity methods. For teleseismic depth phases well observed for M5.5 and stronger events, we developed an algorithm in inverting both depth and focal mechanism from P and SH waveforms. Also we employed the Cut and Paste (CAP) method developed by Zhao and Helmberger in modeling mechanism and depth with local waveforms, which constrains depth by fitting Pnl waveforms and the relative weight between surface wave and Pnl. After modeling all the depth phases for hundreds of events , we find that most of the M4 earthquakes occur between 2-18km depth, with aftershocks depth ranging 4-12km in the southern half of Longmenshan fault while aftershocks in the northern half featuring large depth range up to 18km. Therefore seismogenic zone in the northern segment is deeper as compared to the southern segment. All the aftershocks occur in upper crust, given that the Moho is deeper than 40km, or even 60km west of the

  16. Re-evaluating the possible link between the Zipingpu reservoir and 2008 Ww7.9 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Z.; Yao, D.; Su, J.; Ruan, X.; Long, F.; Meng, X.

    2017-12-01

    The 12 May 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake ruptured 300 km unilaterally along the Longmenshan Fault Zone (LMSF), which straddles the Tibetan Plateau to the northwest and Sichuan Basin to the southeast. Currently the possible link between the Wenchuan mainshock and the impoundment of Zipingpu reservoir since September 2005 is still under debate. Many studies have indicated that the initiation hypo-central depth could be the key factor to determine the triggering relationship. We first relocate the mainshock hypocenter by carefully picking the P and S phases recorded by 7 short-period stations within 30km in the Zipingpu Reservoir Seismic Network (ZRSN). We find that the Wenchuan earthquake started as a magnitude 5 event at a depth shallower than 10 km, where the Coulomb stress changes from the Zipingpu reservoir was on the order of several tens of kPa, suggesting a possible triggering relationship [e.g., Ge et al., 2009; Ma et al., 2011; Lei, 2012]. We hypothesize that the reservoir directly induced a M 5 event near Shuimo where intensive earthquake swarms have occurred at shallow depth, which in turn dynamically triggered main rupture along the Yinxiu-Beichuan fault. In addition, we conduct a systematic detection and relocation of the long-term seismic behavior preceding the mainshock. Specifically, We first apply a waveform matching method to detect microseismicity using catalog events and available continuous data from Oct 2004 to Dec 2009 recorded by ZRSN. We further relocate all events to examine spatio-temporal evolution of long-term seismicity and its relation to the water level change. We also identify repeating earthquakes with high waveform cross-correlations and use them to monitor temporal variation of seismic velocity before, during and after the mainshock. We hope to better understand the relationship among the impoundment and subsequent changes in water level of the Zipingpu reservoir, background seismicimity and the Wenchuan mainshock. Updated results

  17. Associations between economic loss, financial strain and the psychological status of Wenchuan earthquake survivors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunong; Wong, Hung; Tan, Ngoh Tiong

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the effects of economic loss on the life satisfaction and mental health of Wenchuan earthquake survivors. Economic loss is measured by earthquake impacts on the income and houses of the survivors. The correlation analysis shows that earthquake impact on income is significantly correlated with life satisfaction and depression. The regression analyses indicate that earthquake impact on income is indirectly associated with life satisfaction and depression through its effect on financial strain. The research highlights the importance of coping strategies in maintaining a balance between economic status and living demands for disaster survivors. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  18. Health education and promotion at the site of an emergency: experience from the Chinese Wenchuan earthquake response.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiangyang; Zhao, Genming; Cao, Dequan; Wang, Duoquan; Wang, Liang

    2016-03-01

    Theories and strategies of social mobilization, capacity building, mass and interpersonal communication, as well as risk communication and behavioral change were used to develop health education and promotion campaigns to decrease and prevent injuries and infectious diseases among the survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake in May 2008. We evaluated the effectiveness of the campaigns and short-term interventions using mixed-methods. The earthquake survivors' health knowledge, skills, and practice improved significantly with respect to injury protection, food and water safety, environmental and personal hygiene, and disease prevention. No infectious disease outbreaks were reported after the earthquake, and the epidemic level was lower than before the earthquake. After a short-term intervention among the students of Leigu Township Primary and Junior School, the proportion of those with personal hygiene increased from 59.7% to 98.3% (p< 0.01). Of the sampled survivors from Wenchuan County, 92.3% reported to have improved their health knowledge and 54.9% improved their health practice (p< 0.01). Thus, health education and promotion during public health emergencies such as earthquakes play an important role in preventing injuries and infectious diseases among survivors. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Resilience and quality of life among Wenchuan earthquake survivors: the mediating role of social support.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Ou, L

    2014-05-01

    To examine the extent social support mediates resilience and quality of life in Wenchuan earthquake survivors. Originals. Self-report psychological questionnaires, the standard Chinese 12-item Short Form (SF-12v2), the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), and the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) were used to interview a total of 2080 survivors from 19 counties in the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake area. A regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the mediating effect of social support on quality of life. Males and individuals with a higher level of education were found to have a better quality of life. The association between resilience and quality of life improved after social support was included, suggesting that at least a part of this association was mediated by the level of social support provided. This analysis highlighted that the level of resilience and quality of life after an earthquake was associated with the level of social support. This result has clear policy implications, and indicates that more focus needs to be placed on policies that aim for the provision of early mental health intervention and social support to improve the quality of life of earthquake survivors. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Screening ultrasonography of 2,204 patients with blunt abdominal trauma in the Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jixiang; Huang, Jiwei; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Heqing; Prasoon, Pankaj; Xu, Yinglong; Bai, Yannan; Qiu, Jianguo; Zeng, Yong

    2012-10-01

    Abdominal injuries constitute a small proportion of all earthquake-related traumas; however, it often resulted in fatal hemorrhage. Ultrasonography has been described as an effective triage tool in the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma. We aimed to present an overview of the diagnostic accuracy of screening ultrasonography for patients with blunt abdominal trauma admitted to various hospitals during the Wenchuan earthquake in China. We retrospectively analyzed the patients with blunt abdominal trauma who underwent ultrasonography after admission to various hospitals. Ultrasonography findings were considered positive if evidence of free fluid or a parenchymal injury was identified. Ultrasonography findings were compared with the findings of computed tomography, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, repeated ultrasonography, cystography, operation, and/or the clinical course. Findings from 2,204 ultrasonographic examinations were evaluated. Findings of 199 ultrasonographic examinations (9.0%) were considered positive. Of the patients, 12 (0.5%) had a false-negative ultrasonographic findings; of this group, 3 (25%) required exploratory laparotomy. Ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 91.9%, specificity of 96.9%, and an accuracy of 96.6% for detection of abdominal injuries. Positive predictive value was 68.3%, and negative predictive value was 99.4%. Screening ultrasonography is highly reliable in the setting of blunt abdominal trauma after earthquake. It should be used as an initial diagnostic modality in the evaluation of most blunt abdominal trauma. Diagnostic study, level III.

  1. Numerical simulation of multiple-physical fields coupling for thermal anomalies before earthquakes: A case study of the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake in southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    It has become a highly focused issue that thermal anomalies appear before major earthquakes. There are various hypotheses about the mechanism of thermal anomalies. Because of lacking of enough evidences, the mechanism is still require to be further researched. Gestation and occurrence of a major earthquake is related with the interaction of multi-physical fields. The underground fluid surging out the surface is very likely to be the reason for the thermal anomaly. This study tries to answer some question, such as how the geothermal energy transfer to the surface, and how the multiple-physical fields interacted. The 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake, is one of the largest evens in the last decade in China mainland. Remote sensing studies indicate that distinguishable thermal anomalies occurred several days before the earthquake. The heat anomaly value is more than 3 times the average in normal time and distributes along the Longmen Shan fault zone. Based on geological and geophysical data, 2D dynamic model of coupled stress, seepage and thermal fields (HTM model) is constructed. Then using the COMSOL multi-physics filed software, this work tries to reveal the generation process and distribution patterns of thermal anomalies prior to thrust-type major earthquakes. The simulation get the results: (1)Before the micro rupture, with the increase of compression, the heat current flows to the fault in the footwall on the whole, while in the hanging wall of the fault, particularly near the ground surface, the heat flow upward. In the fault zone, heat flow upward along the fracture surface, heat flux in the fracture zone is slightly larger than the wall rock;, but the value is all very small. (2)After the occurrence of the micro fracture, the heat flow rapidly collects to the faults. In the fault zones, the heat flow accelerates up along the fracture surfaces, the heat flux increases suddenly, and the vertical heat flux reaches to the maximum. The heat flux in the 3 fracture

  2. Empirical prediction for travel distance of channelized rock avalanches in the Wenchuan earthquake area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Weiwei; Fan, Xuanmei; Huang, Runqiu; Pei, Xiangjun; Xu, Qiang; Li, Weile

    2017-06-01

    Rock avalanches are extremely rapid, massive flow-like movements of fragmented rock. The travel path of the rock avalanches may be confined by channels in some cases, which are referred to as channelized rock avalanches. Channelized rock avalanches are potentially dangerous due to their difficult-to-predict travel distance. In this study, we constructed a dataset with detailed characteristic parameters of 38 channelized rock avalanches triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake using the visual interpretation of remote sensing imagery, field investigation and literature review. Based on this dataset, we assessed the influence of different factors on the runout distance and developed prediction models of the channelized rock avalanches using the multivariate regression method. The results suggested that the movement of channelized rock avalanche was dominated by the landslide volume, total relief and channel gradient. The performance of both models was then tested with an independent validation dataset of eight rock avalanches that were induced by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the Ms 7.0 Lushan earthquake and heavy rainfall in 2013, showing acceptable good prediction results. Therefore, the travel-distance prediction models for channelized rock avalanches constructed in this study are applicable and reliable for predicting the runout of similar rock avalanches in other regions.

  3. A General Introduction of the Earthquake Early Warning System Technology Developed in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.

    2015-12-01

    Since the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, a dramatic progress on earthquake early warning (EEW) has been made by Institute of Care-life (ICL) in China. The research on EEW by ICL covers choosing appropriate sensors, methods of installing the sensors, data automatic process methods of the seismic waves for EEW, methods of applying of EEW warnings for public, schools and life-line projects. ICL innovatively applies distributed computing and cloud computing technology. So far, ICL has deployed over 5500 EEW sensors in China, which is 5 times the number of EEW sensors in Japan, covering more than 2.1 million square kilometers. Since June, 2011, over 5000 earthquakes, with 28 of them are destructive quakes, have triggered the EEWS with no false alert. The root mean square (RMS) error of the magnitude for the 28 destructive quakes is 0.32. In addition, innovative work is done to suppress false alarm and miss alarm, which pushes forward the application of EEW in China. The technology is also being applied in Nepal now.

  4. Structure, Frictional Melting and Fault Weakening during the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake Slip: Observation from the WFSD Drilling Core Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Wang, H.; Li, C.; Zhang, J.; Sun, Z.; Si, J.; Liu, D.; Chevalier, M. L.; Han, L.; Yun, K.; Zheng, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake produced two co-seismic surface ruptures along Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (~270 km) and the Guanxian-Anxian fault (~80 km) simultaneously in the Longmen Shan thrust belt. Besides, two surface rupture zones were tracked in the southern segment of the Yingxiu-Beichuan rupture zone, one along the Yingxiu fault, the other along the Shenxigou-Longchi fault, which both converged into one rupture zone at the Bajiaomiao village, Hongkou town, where one distinct fault plane with two striation orientations was exposed. The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) was carried out right after the earthquake to investigate its faulting mechanisms and rupture process. Six boreholes were drilled along the rupture zones with depths ranging from 600 to 2400 m. WFSD-1 and WFSD-2 are located at the Bajiaomiao area, the southern segment of the Yingxiu-Beichuan rupture zone, while WFSD-4 and WFSD-4S are in the Nanba town area, in the northern part of the rupture zone. Detailed research showed that ~1 mm thick Principal Slip Zone (PSZ) of the Wenchuan earthquake is located at ~589 m-depth in the WFSD-1 cores. Graphite present in the PSZ indicates a low fault strength. Long-term temperature monitoring shows an extremely low fault friction coefficient during the earthquake. Recently, another possible PSZ was found in WFSD-1 cores at ~732 m-depth, with a ~2 mm thick melt layer in the fault gouge, where feldspar was melted but quartz was not, indicating that the frictional melting temperature was 1230°C < T < 1720°C. These two PSZs at depth may correspond to the two co-seismic surface rupture zones. Besides, the Wenchuan earthquake PSZ was also recognized in the WFSD-4S cores, at ~1084 m-depth. About 200-400 μm thick melt layer (fault vein, mainly feldspar), as well as melt injection veins, were observed in the slip zone, where oblique distinct striations were visible on the slip surface. Therefore, there are two PSZs in the shallow

  5. Impoundment of the Zipingpu reservoir and triggering of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, China

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Wei; Masterlark, Timothy; Ronchin, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Impoundment of the Zipingpu reservoir (ZR), China, began in September 2005 and was followed 2.7 years later by the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake (WE) rupturing the Longmen Shan Fault (LSF), with its epicenter ~12 km away from the ZR. Based on the poroelastic theory, we employ three‐dimensional finite element models to simulate the evolution of stress and pore pressure due to reservoir impoundment, and its effect on the Coulomb failure stress on the LSF. The results indicate that the reservoir impoundment formed a pore pressure front that slowly propagated through the crust with fluid diffusion. The reservoir loading induced either moderate or no increase of the Coulomb failure stress at the hypocenter prior to the WE. The Coulomb failure stress, however, grew ~9.3–69.1 kPa in the depth range of 1–8 km on the LSF, which may have advanced tectonic loading of the fault system by ~60–450 years. Due to uncertainties of fault geometry and hypocenter location of the WE, it is inconclusive whether impoundment of the ZR directly triggered the WE. However, a small event at the hypocenter could have triggered large rupture elsewhere on fault, where the asperities were weakened by the ZR. The microseismicity around the ZR also showed an expanding pattern from the ZR since its impoundment, likely associated with diffusion of a positive pore pressure pulse. These results suggest a poroelastic triggering effect (even if indirectly) of the WE due to the impoundment of the ZR. PMID:27812436

  6. Mental health problems among survivors in hard-hit areas of the 5.12 Wenchuan and 4.20 Lushan earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zongtang; Xu, Jiuping; Wu, Zhibin

    2017-02-01

    Earthquake exposure has often been associated with psychological distress. However, little is known about the cumulative effect of exposure to two earthquakes on psychological distress and in particular, the effect on the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression disorders. This study explored the effect of exposure on mental health outcomes after a first earthquake and again after a second earthquake. A population-based mental health survey using self-report questionnaires was conducted on 278 people in the hard-hit areas of Lushan and Baoxing Counties 13-16 months after the Wenchuan earthquake (Sample 1). 191 of these respondents were evaluated again 8-9 months after the Lushan earthquake (Sample 2), which struck almost 5 years after the Wenchuan earthquake. In Sample 1, the prevalence rates for PTSD, anxiety and depression disorders were 44.53, 54.25 and 51.82%, respectively, and in Sample 2 the corresponding rates were 27.27, 38.63 and 36.93%. Females, the middle-aged, those of Tibetan nationality, and people who reported fear during the earthquake were at an increased risk of experiencing post-traumatic symptoms. Although the incidence of PTSD, anxiety and depression disorders decreased from Sample 1 to Sample 2, the cumulative effect of exposure to two earthquakes on mental health problems was serious in the hard-hit areas. Therefore, it is important that psychological counseling be provided for earthquake victims, and especially those exposed to multiple earthquakes.

  7. Connectivity of earthquake-triggered landslides with the fluvial network: Implications for landslide sediment transport after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gen; West, A. Joshua; Densmore, Alexander L.; Hammond, Douglas E.; Jin, Zhangdong; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Jin; Hilton, Robert G.

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating the influence of earthquakes on erosion, landscape evolution, and sediment-related hazards requires understanding fluvial transport of material liberated in earthquake-triggered landslides. The location of landslides relative to river channels is expected to play an important role in postearthquake sediment dynamics. In this study, we assess the position of landslides triggered by the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, aiming to understand the relationship between landslides and the fluvial network of the steep Longmen Shan mountain range. Combining a landslide inventory map and geomorphic analysis, we quantify landslide-channel connectivity in terms of the number of landslides, landslide area, and landslide volume estimated from scaling relationships. We observe a strong spatial variability in landslide-channel connectivity, with volumetric connectivity (ξ) ranging from ~20% to ~90% for different catchments. This variability is linked to topographic effects that set local channel densities, seismic effects (including seismogenic faulting) that regulate landslide size, and substrate effects that may influence both channelization and landslide size. Altogether, we estimate that the volume of landslides connected to channels comprises 43 + 9/-7% of the total coseismic landslide volume. Following the Wenchuan earthquake, fine-grained (<~0.25 mm) suspended sediment yield across the Longmen Shan catchments is positively correlated to catchment-wide landslide density, but this correlation is statistically indistinguishable whether or not connectivity is considered. The weaker-than-expected influence of connectivity on suspended sediment yield may be related to mobilization of fine-grained landslide material that resides in hillslope domains, i.e., not directly connected to river channels. In contrast, transport of the coarser fraction (which makes up >90% of the total landslide volume) may be more significantly affected by landslide locations.

  8. Rapid exposure and loss estimates for the May 12, 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake provided by the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, P.S.; Wald, D.J.; Allen, T.I.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Porter, K.A.; Hearne, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    One half-hour after the May 12th Mw 7.9 Wenchuan, China earthquake, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system distributed an automatically generated alert stating that 1.2 million people were exposed to severe-to-extreme shaking (Modified Mercalli Intensity VIII or greater). It was immediately clear that a large-scale disaster had occurred. These alerts were widely distributed and referenced by the major media outlets and used by governments, scientific, and relief agencies to guide their responses. The PAGER alerts and Web pages included predictive ShakeMaps showing estimates of ground shaking, maps of population density, and a list of estimated intensities at impacted cities. Manual, revised alerts were issued in the following hours that included the dimensions of the fault rupture. Within a half-day, PAGER’s estimates of the population exposed to strong shaking levels stabilized at 5.2 million people. A coordinated research effort is underway to extend PAGER’s capability to include estimates of the number of casualties. We are pursuing loss models that will allow PAGER the flexibility to use detailed inventory and engineering results in regions where these data are available while also calculating loss estimates in regions where little is known about the type and strength of the built infrastructure. Prototype PAGER fatality estimates are currently implemented and can be manually triggered. In the hours following the Wenchuan earthquake, these models predicted fatalities in the tens of thousands.

  9. Lessons learnt from the Wenchuan earthquake: performance evaluation of treatment of critical injuries in hardest-hit areas.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Li, Youping; Huang, Xiaolin; Li, Bing; Su, Lin; Zhong, Dake; Shi, Chenghu; Li, Mingxu; Shan, Juan; Chen, Yin

    2012-08-01

    transfer guided by accurate injury information determine rescue effect for the injured, while there is large space to fulfill as for treatment for critical diseases among the hardest-hit areas under extreme conditions after the Wenchuan earthquake. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  10. Predictors of quality of life and depression in older people living in temporary houses 13 months after the Wenchuan earthquake in western China: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xia; Chen, Yanling; Chen, Hong; Au, Alma; Guo, Hongxia

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we explored the predictors of quality of life and depressive features in older people living in temporary housing 13 months after the Wenchuan earthquake in western China. Anonymous data were collected via questionnaires in a cross-sectional survey of 189 older people living in temporary housing 13 months after the earthquake. To explore the predictors of the outcomes of interest, Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used. The results indicated that interests/hobbies, subjective support, and family function were positive predictors of quality of life, whereas instrumental activities of daily living and depressive symptoms were its negative predictors. In addition, we found that a higher level of instrumental activities of daily living predicted a greater likelihood of depression. These results suggested that developing strategies to decrease the instrumental activities of daily living score of these people helps improve their quality of life and depression. To enhance the quality of life of these individuals, healthcare providers should also focus on developing their interests/hobbies and provide them with adequate social support, especially subjective support. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Forensic Analyses on A Compound Disaster and Its Impacts Following the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The 7.9 Mw Wenchuan Earthquake on May 12 in 2008 was one of the most devastating natural disasters in the 21st century and caused massive damages and vast disruptions in Western China. Our analysis takes a special look into the Wolong National Nature Reserve bear the epicenter, where long-term quantitative and qualitative data on socioeconomic and natural conditions have been collected from late 1990s to 2013. The Reserve is known internationally as the hometown of Giant Pandas and a tourism hotspot, where around 5000 ethnic minorities (e.g., Tibetan, Qiang) also reside. While the Reserve suffered lower level of immediate damages and mortalities relative to several nearby areas, the reconstruction and recovery process in the Reserve have been much slower, mainly due to recurrent flush floods, landslides, and debris flow that took place in every summer since 2008. The suddenly increased frequency and intensity of these secondary natural disasters has led to the formation of compound disaster in the Reserve. The reconstruction of the only road to outside will not be completed till at least 2016, and the livelihoods of the local communities are severely compromised, which has induced a resurrection of illegal logging and hunting in the Reserve. Taking advantage of our longitudinal survey data of~200 local households (on their income, expenditure, energy use, land use behaviors, and perceptions and attitudes toward disasters and polices) over a nine-year period before as well as one and several years after the earthquake and also our in-depth knowledge on the ecology and the institutional arrangements in the area, we conducted, in an interdisciplinary and comprehensive manner, a critical cause analysis to investigate the non-human and human drivers behind the predicament that the Reserve is facing currently. We identified a series of proximate and root causes at various spatial and temporal scales and institutional levels. The results were exchanged with various local

  12. NGO collaboration in community post-disaster reconstruction: field research following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Xu, Jiuping

    2015-04-01

    The number of communities affected by disasters has been rising. As a result, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) that attend community post-disaster reconstruction are often unable to deliver all requirements and have to develop cooperative approaches. However, this collaboration can cause problems because of the complex environments, the fight for limited resources and uncoordinated management, all of which result in poor service delivery to the communities, adding to their woes. From extensive field research and case studies conducted in the post-Wenchuan earthquake-stricken communities, this paper introduces an integrated collaboration framework for community post-disaster reconstruction with the focus on three types of NGOs: international, government organised and civil. The proposed collaboration framework examines the three interrelated components of organisational structure, operational processes and reconstruction goals/implementation areas. Of great significance in better promoting collaborative participation between NGOs are the crucial concepts of participatory reconstruction, double-layer collaborative networks, and circular review and revision. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  13. Fault Structural Control on Earthquake Strong Ground Motions: The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake as an Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Dongli; Li, Xiaojun; Huang, Bei; Zheng, Wenjun; Wang, Yuejun

    2018-02-01

    Continental thrust faulting earthquakes pose severe threats to megacities across the world. Recent events show the possible control of fault structures on strong ground motions. The seismogenic structure of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is associated with high-angle listric reverse fault zones. Its peak ground accelerations (PGAs) show a prominent feature of fault zone amplification: the values within the 30- to 40-km-wide fault zone block are significantly larger than those on both the hanging wall and the footwall. The PGA values attenuate asymmetrically: they decay much more rapidly in the footwall than in the hanging wall. The hanging wall effects can be seen on both the vertical and horizontal components of the PGAs, with the former significantly more prominent than the latter. All these characteristics can be adequately interpreted by upward extrusion of the high-angle listric reverse fault zone block. Through comparison with a low-angle planar thrust fault associated with the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, we conclude that different fault structures might have controlled different patterns of strong ground motion, which should be taken into account in seismic design and construction.

  14. Background Stress State Before the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and the Dynamics of the Longmen Shan Thrust Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kaiying; Rebetsky, Yu. L.; Feng, Xiangdong; Ma, Shengli

    2018-02-01

    A stress reconstruction was performed based on focal mechanisms around the Longmen Shan region prior to the 2008 M s 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake using a newly developed algorithm (known as MCA). The method determines the stress tensor, including principal axes orientations, and quantitative stress values, such as the effective confining pressure and maximum shear stress. The results of the MCA application using data recorded by the regional network from 1989 to April 2008 show the background stress state around the Longmen Shan belt before the Wenchuan earthquake. The characteristics of the stress orientation reveal that the Longmen Shan region is primarily under the eastward extrusion of the eastern Tibetan plateau. Non-uniform quantitative stress distributions show low stress levels in the upper crust of the middle Longmen Shan segment, which is consistent with the observed high-angle reverse faulting associated with the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. In contrast, other study areas, such as the Bayankela block and the NW strip extending to the Sichuan basin, show high stress intensity. This feature coincides with heterogeneity in the wave speed image of the upper crust in this region, which shows high S-wave speed in the high stress areas and comparatively low S-wave speed in low stress areas. Deformation features across the Longmen Shan belt with the slow rates of convergence determined by GPS and the distribution of surface deformation rates also are in keeping with our stress results. We propose a dynamic model in which sloping uplift under the Longmen Shan, which partly counteracts the pushing force from the eastern plateau, causes the low-quantitative stresses in the upper crust beneath the Longmen Shan. The decreasing gravitational potential energy beneath the Longmen Shan leads to earthquake thrust faulting and plays an important role in the geodynamics of the area that results from ductile thickening of the deep crust behind the Sichuan basin, creating a narrow

  15. Joint inversion of GNSS and teleseismic data for the rupture process of the 2017 M w6.5 Jiuzhaigou, China, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Kai; Wang, Dong Zhen; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yu; Qi, Yu Jie

    2018-05-01

    The spatio-temporal slip distribution of the earthquake that occurred on 8 August 2017 in Jiuzhaigou, China, was estimated from the teleseismic body wave and near-field Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data (coseismic displacements and high-rate GPS data) based on a finite fault model. Compared with the inversion results from the teleseismic body waves, the near-field GNSS data can better restrain the rupture area, the maximum slip, the source time function, and the surface rupture. The results show that the maximum slip of the earthquake approaches 1.4 m, the scalar seismic moment is 8.0 × 1018 N·m ( M w ≈ 6.5), and the centroid depth is 15 km. The slip is mainly driven by the left-lateral strike-slip and it is initially inferred that the seismogenic fault occurs in the south branch of the Tazang fault or an undetectable fault, a NW-trending left-lateral strike-slip fault, and belongs to one of the tail structures at the easternmost end of the eastern Kunlun fault zone. The earthquake rupture is mainly concentrated at depths of 5-15 km, which results in the complete rupture of the seismic gap left by the previous four earthquakes with magnitudes > 6.0 in 1973 and 1976. Therefore, the possibility of a strong aftershock on the Huya fault is low. The source duration is 30 s and there are two major ruptures. The main rupture occurs in the first 10 s, 4 s after the earthquake; the second rupture peak arrives in 17 s. In addition, the Coulomb stress study shows that the epicenter of the earthquake is located in the area where the static Coulomb stress change increased because of the 12 May 2017 M w7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. Therefore, the Wenchuan earthquake promoted the occurrence of the 8 August 2017 Jiuzhaigou earthquake.

  16. Joint inversion of GNSS and teleseismic data for the rupture process of the 2017 M w6.5 Jiuzhaigou, China, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Kai; Wang, Dong Zhen; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yu; Qi, Yu Jie

    2018-02-01

    The spatio-temporal slip distribution of the earthquake that occurred on 8 August 2017 in Jiuzhaigou, China, was estimated from the teleseismic body wave and near-field Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data (coseismic displacements and high-rate GPS data) based on a finite fault model. Compared with the inversion results from the teleseismic body waves, the near-field GNSS data can better restrain the rupture area, the maximum slip, the source time function, and the surface rupture. The results show that the maximum slip of the earthquake approaches 1.4 m, the scalar seismic moment is 8.0 × 1018 N·m (M w ≈ 6.5), and the centroid depth is 15 km. The slip is mainly driven by the left-lateral strike-slip and it is initially inferred that the seismogenic fault occurs in the south branch of the Tazang fault or an undetectable fault, a NW-trending left-lateral strike-slip fault, and belongs to one of the tail structures at the easternmost end of the eastern Kunlun fault zone. The earthquake rupture is mainly concentrated at depths of 5-15 km, which results in the complete rupture of the seismic gap left by the previous four earthquakes with magnitudes > 6.0 in 1973 and 1976. Therefore, the possibility of a strong aftershock on the Huya fault is low. The source duration is 30 s and there are two major ruptures. The main rupture occurs in the first 10 s, 4 s after the earthquake; the second rupture peak arrives in 17 s. In addition, the Coulomb stress study shows that the epicenter of the earthquake is located in the area where the static Coulomb stress change increased because of the 12 May 2017 M w7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. Therefore, the Wenchuan earthquake promoted the occurrence of the 8 August 2017 Jiuzhaigou earthquake.

  17. Machine-Learning Inspired Seismic Phase Detection for Aftershocks of the 2008 MW7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Li, Z.; Li, C.; Wang, B.; Chen, Z.; McClellan, J. H.; Peng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial-temporal evolution of aftershocks is important for illumination of earthquake physics and for rapid response of devastative earthquakes. To improve aftershock catalogs of the 2008 MW7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, China, Alibaba cloud and China Earthquake Administration jointly launched a seismological contest in May 2017 [Fang et al., 2017]. This abstract describes how we handle this problem in this competition. We first used Short-Term Average/Long-Term Average (STA/LTA) and Kurtosis function to obtain over 55000 candidate phase picks (P or S). Based on Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), about 40000 phases (P or S) are selected. So far, these 40000 phases have a hit rate of 40% among the manually picks. The causes include that 1) there exist false picks (neither P nor S); 2) some P and S arrivals are mis-labeled. To improve our results, we correlate the 40000 phases over continuous waveforms to obtain the phases missed by during the first pass. This results in 120,000 events. After constructing an affinity matrix based on the cross-correlation for newly detected phases, subspace clustering methods [Vidal 2011] are applied to group those phases into separated subspaces. Initial results show good agreement between empirical and clustered labels of P phases. Half of the empirical S phases are clustered into the P phase cluster. This may be a combined effect of 1) mislabeling isolated P phases to S phases and 2) clustering errors due to a small incomplete sample pool. Phases that were falsely detected in the initial results can be also teased out. To better characterize P and S phases, our next step is to apply subspace clustering methods directly to the waveforms, instead of using the cross-correlation coefficients of detected phases. After that, supervised learning, e.g., a convolutional neural network, can be employed to improve the pick accuracy. Updated results will be presented at the meeting.

  18. Width of the Surface Rupture Zone for Thrust Earthquakes and Implications for Earthquake Fault Zoning: Chi-Chi 1999 and Wenchuan 2008 Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boncio, P.; Caldarella, M.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze the zones of coseismic surface faulting along thrust faults, whit the aim of defining the most appropriate criteria for zoning the Surface Fault Rupture Hazard (SFRH) along thrust faults. Normal and strike-slip faults were deeply studied in the past, while thrust faults were not studied with comparable attention. We analyze the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan (Mw 7.6) and 2008 Wenchuan, China (Mw 7.9) earthquakes. Several different types of coseismic fault scarps characterize the two earthquakes, depending on the topography, fault geometry and near-surface materials. For both the earthquakes, we collected from the literature, or measured in GIS-georeferenced published maps, data about the Width of the coseismic Rupture Zone (WRZ). The frequency distribution of WRZ compared to the trace of the main fault shows that the surface ruptures occur mainly on and near the main fault. Ruptures located away from the main fault occur mainly in the hanging wall. Where structural complexities are present (e.g., sharp bends, step-overs), WRZ is wider then for simple fault traces. We also fitted the distribution of the WRZ dataset with probability density functions, in order to define a criterion to remove outliers (e.g., by selecting 90% or 95% probability) and define the zone where the probability of SFRH is the highest. This might help in sizing the zones of SFRH during seismic microzonation (SM) mapping. In order to shape zones of SFRH, a very detailed earthquake geologic study of the fault is necessary. In the absence of such a very detailed study, during basic (First level) SM mapping, a width of 350-400 m seems to be recommended (95% of probability). If the fault is carefully mapped (higher level SM), one must consider that the highest SFRH is concentrated in a narrow zone, 50 m-wide, that should be considered as a "fault-avoidance (or setback) zone". These fault zones should be asymmetric. The ratio of footwall to hanging wall (FW:HW) calculated here ranges from 1:5 to 1:3.

  19. Distribution and characteristics of gravelly soil liquefaction in the Wenchuan M s 8.0 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhenzhong; Hou, Longqing; Xu, Hongmei; Yuan, Xiaoming

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, a distribution map of gravelly soil liquefaction that was caused by the Wenchuan M s 8.0 earthquake in China is proposed based on a detailed field investigation and an analysis of geological soil profiles. The geological background of the earthquake disaster region is summarized by compiling geological cross sections and borehole logs. Meanwhile, four typical liquefied sites were selected to conduct sample drillings, dynamic penetration tests (DPT), and shear wave velocity tests, to understand the features of liquefied gravelly soil. One hundred and eighteen (118) liquefied sites were investigated shortly after the earthquake. The field investigation showed: (1) sandboils and waterspouts occurred extensively, involving thousands of miles of farmland, 120 villages, eight schools and five factories, which caused damage to some rural houses, schools, manufacturing facilities and wells, etc.; (2) the Chengdu plain is covered by a gravelly soil layer with a thickness of 0 m to 541 m according to the geological cross sections; (3) there were 80 gravelly soil liquefied sites in the Chengdu plain, shaped as five belt areas that varied from 20 km to 40 km in length, and about ten gravelly soil liquefied sites distributed within Mianyang area; and (4) the grain sizes of the sampled soil were relative larger than the ejected soil on the ground, thus the type of liquefied soil cannot be determined by the ejected soil. The gravelly soil liquefied sites are helpful in enriching the global database of gravelly soil liquefaction and developing a corresponding evaluation method in further research efforts.

  20. Creeping Guanxian-Anxian Fault ruptured in the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X.; Li, H.; Wang, H.; Zhang, L.; Si, J.

    2017-12-01

    Crustal active faults can slide either steadily by aseismic creep, or abruptly by earthquake rupture. Creep can relax continuously the stress and reduce the occurrence of large earthquakes. Identifying the behaviors of active faults plays a crucial role in predicting and preventing earthquake disasters. Based on multi-scale structural analyses for fault rocks from the GAF surface rupture zone and the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Zone Science Drilling borehole 3P, we detect the analogous "mylonite structures" develop pervasively in GAF fault rocks. Such specious "ductile deformations", showing intensive foliation, spindly clasts, tailing structure, "boudin structure", "augen structure" and S-C fabrics, are actually formed in brittle faulting, which indicates the creeping behavior of the GAF. Furthermore, some special structures hint the creeping mechanism. The cracks and veins developed in fractured clasts imply pressure and fluid control in the faulting. Under the effect of fluid, clasts are dissolved in pressing direction, and solutions are transferred to stress vacancy area at both ends of clasts and deposit to regenerate clay minerals. The clasts thus present spindly shape and are surrounded by orientational clay minerals constituting continuous foliation structure. The clay minerals are dominated by phyllosilicates that can weaken faults and promote pressure solution. Therefore, pressure solution creep and phyllosilicates weakening reasonably interpret the creeping of GAF. Additionally, GPS velocity data show slip rates of the GAF are respectively 1.5 and 12 mm/yr during 1998-2008 and 2009-2011, which also indicate the GAF is in creeping during interseismic period. According to analysis on aftershocks distribution and P-wave velocity with depth and geological section in the Longmenshan thrust belt, we suggest the GAF is creeping in shallow (<10 km) and locked in deep (10-20 km). Comprehensive research shows stress propagated from the west was concentrated near the

  1. Perception of recovery of households affected by 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: A structural equation model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Le; Wang, Ying; Liu, Tianxue

    2017-01-01

    Much of the literature on recovery focuses on the economy, the physical environment and infrastructure at a macro level, which may ignore the personal experiences of affected individuals during recovery. This paper combines internal factors at a micro level and external factors at a macro level to model for understanding perception of recovery (PoR). This study focuses on areas devastated by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. With respect to three recovery-related aspects (house recovery condition (HRC), family recovery power (FRP) and reconstruction investment (RI)), structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied. It was found that the three aspects (FRP, HRC and RI) effectively explain how earthquake affected households perceive recovery. Internal factors associated with FRP contributed the most to favourable PoR, followed by external factors associated with HRC. Findings identified that for PoR the importance of active recovery within households outweighed an advantageous house recovery condition. At the same time, households trapped in unfavourable external conditions would invest more in housing recovery, which result in wealth accumulation and improved quality of life leading to a high level of PoR. In addition, schooling in households showed a negative effect on improving PoR. This research contributes to current debates around post-disaster permanent housing policy. It is implied that a one-size-fits-all policy in disaster recovery may not be effective and more specific assistance should be provided to those people in need. PMID:28854217

  2. Rupture imaging of the Mw 7.9 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake from back projection of teleseismic P waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Y.; Koper, K.D.; Sufri, O.; Zhu, L.; Hutko, Alexander R.

    2009-01-01

    [1] The Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008 was the most destructive Chinese earthquake since the 1976 Tangshan event. Tens of thousands of people were killed, hundreds of thousands were injured, and millions were left homeless. Here we infer the detailed rupture process of the Wenchuan earthquake by back-projecting teleseismic P energy from several arrays of seismometers. This technique has only recently become feasible and is potentially faster than traditional finite-fault inversion of teleseismic body waves; therefore, it may reduce the notification time to emergency response agencies. Using the IRIS DMC, we collected 255 vertical component broadband P waves at 30-95?? from the epicenter. We found that at periods of 5 s and greater, nearly all of these P waves were coherent enough to be used in a global array. We applied a simple down-sampling heuristic to define a global subarray of 70 stations that reduced the asymmetry and sidelobes of the array response function (ARF). We also considered three regional subarrays of seismometers in Alaska, Australia, and Europe that had apertures less than 30?? and P waves that were coherent to periods as short as 1 s. Individual ARFs for these subarrays were skewed toward the subarrays; however, the linear sum of the regional subarray beams at 1 s produced a symmetric ARF, similar to that of the groomed global subarray at 5 s. For both configurations we obtained the same rupture direction, rupture length, and rupture time. We found that the Wenchuan earthquake had three distinct pulses of high beam power at 0, 23, and 57 s after the origin time, with the pulse at 23 s being highest, and that it ruptured unilaterally to the northeast for about 300 km and 110 s, with an average speed of 2.8 km/s. It is possible that similar results can be determined for future large dip-slip earthquakes within 20-30 min of the origin time using relatively sparse global networks of seismometers such as those the USGS uses to locate

  3. Structural and physical property characterization in the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project — hole 1 (WFSD-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haibing; Xu, Zhiqin; Niu, Yixiong; Kong, Guangsheng; Huang, Yao; Wang, Huan; Si, Jialiang; Sun, Zhiming; Pei, Junling; Gong, Zheng; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Liu, Dongliang

    2014-04-01

    The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) started right after the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake to investigate its faulting mechanism. Hole 1 (WFSD-1) reached the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF), and core samples were recovered from 32 to 1201.15 m-depth. Core investigation and a suite of geophysical downhole logs (including P-wave velocity, natural gamma ray, self-potential, resistivity, density, porosity, temperature, magnetic susceptibility and ultrasound borehole images) were acquired in WFSD-1. Integrated studies of cores and logs facilitate qualitative and quantitative comparison of the structures and physical properties of rocks. Logging data revealed that the geothermal gradient of the volcanic Pengguan complex (above 585.75 m) is 1.85 °C/100 m, while that of the sedimentary Xujiahe Formation (below 585.75 m) is 2.15 °C/100 m. In general, natural gamma ray, resistivity, density, porosity, P-wave velocity and magnetic susceptibility primarily depend on the rock lithology. All major fault zones are characterized by high magnetic susceptibility, low density and high porosity, with mostly low resistivity, high natural gamma ray and sound wave velocity. The high magnetic susceptibility values most likely result from the transformation of magnetic minerals by frictional heating due to the earthquake. The YBF exposed in WFSD-1 can be subdivided into five different parts based on different logging responses, each of them corresponding to certain fault-rocks. The high gamma radiation, porosity and P-wave velocity, as well as low resistivity and temperature anomalies indicate that the Wenchuan earthquake fault zone is located at 585.75-594.5 m-depth, with an average inclination and dip angle of N305° and 71°, respectively. The fact that the fracture directions in the hanging wall and footwall are different suggests that their stress field direction is completely different, implying that the upper Pengguan complex may not be local.

  4. The effects of extraversion, social support on the posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth of adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xuji; Ying, Liuhua; Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun; Lin, Chongde

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among extraversion, social support, posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake. Six hundred thirty-eight participants were selected from the survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Participants completed four main questionnaires, including the Extraversion Subscale, the Social Support Scale, the Child PTSD Symptom Scale, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. A bivariate correlation analysis revealed significant correlations among extraversion, social support, posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth. Extraversion had significant indirect effects on posttraumatic stress disorder (β = -.037, p < .01) and posttraumatic growth (β = .077, p < .001) through social support. The results also indicated that extraversion had a significant direct effect on posttraumatic growth and a nonsignificant direct effect on posttraumatic stress disorder. Social support fully mediates the relationship between extraversion and posttraumatic stress disorder and partially mediates the relationship between extraversion and posttraumatic growth. Psychological interventions and care for survivors of the earthquake should include the various functions and sources of social support and how they serve to benefit individuals.

  5. The Effects of Extraversion, Social Support on the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Growth of Adolescent Survivors of the Wenchuan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xuji; Ying, Liuhua; Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun; Lin, Chongde

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among extraversion, social support, posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake. Methods Six hundred thirty-eight participants were selected from the survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Participants completed four main questionnaires, including the Extraversion Subscale, the Social Support Scale, the Child PTSD Symptom Scale, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Results A bivariate correlation analysis revealed significant correlations among extraversion, social support, posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth. Extraversion had significant indirect effects on posttraumatic stress disorder (β = −.037, p < .01) and posttraumatic growth (β = .077, p < .001) through social support. The results also indicated that extraversion had a significant direct effect on posttraumatic growth and a nonsignificant direct effect on posttraumatic stress disorder. Conclusions Social support fully mediates the relationship between extraversion and posttraumatic stress disorder and partially mediates the relationship between extraversion and posttraumatic growth. Psychological interventions and care for survivors of the earthquake should include the various functions and sources of social support and how they serve to benefit individuals. PMID:25815720

  6. Fracture Modes and Identification of Fault Zones in Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, C.; Pan, H.; Zhao, P.; Qin, R.; Peng, L.

    2017-12-01

    After suffering from the disaster of Wenchuan earthquake on May 12th, 2008, scientists are eager to figure out the structure of formation, the geodynamic processes of faults and the mechanism of earthquake in Wenchuan by drilling five holes into the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault zone and Anxian-Guanxian fault zone. Fractures identification and in-situ stress determination can provide abundant information for formation evaluation and earthquake study. This study describe all the fracture modes in the five boreholes on the basis of cores and image logs, and summarize the response characteristics of fractures in conventional logs. The results indicate that the WFSD boreholes encounter enormous fractures, including natural fractures and induced fractures, and high dip-angle conductive fractures are the most common fractures. The maximum horizontal stress trends along the borehole are deduced as NWW-SEE according to orientations of borehole breakouts and drilling-induced fractures, which is nearly parallel to the strikes of the younger natural fracture sets. Minor positive deviations of AC (acoustic log) and negative deviation of DEN (density log) demonstrate their responses to fracture, followed by CNL (neutron log), resistivity logs and GR (gamma ray log) at different extent of intensity. Besides, considering the fact that the reliable methods for identifying fracture zone, like seismic, core recovery and image logs, can often be hampered by their high cost and limited application, this study propose a method by using conventional logs, which are low-cost and available in even old wells. We employ wavelet decomposition to extract the high frequency information of conventional logs and reconstruction a new log in special format of enhance fracture responses and eliminate nonfracture influence. Results reveal that the new log shows obvious deviations in fault zones, which confirm the potential of conventional logs in fracture zone identification.

  7. Large landslides induced by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and their precursory gravitational slope deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, Masahiro; Wu, Xiyong; Wang, Gonghui; Uchida, Osamu

    2010-05-01

    2008 Wenchuan earthquake induced numerous large landslides, of which many large landslides had been preceded by gravitational deformation. The deformation could be detected by linear depressions and convex slopes observed on satellite images taken before the earthquake. Ground truth survey after the earthquake also found the gravitational deformation of rocks, which could be predated before the earthquake. The Daguanbao landslide, the largest landslide induced by this earthquake, occurred on a slope of bedded carbonate rocks. The area of the landslide, based on measurements made from the ALOS/PRISM images is 7.353 km2. Its volume is estimated to be 0.837 km3 based on the comparison of the PRISM data and the SRTM DEM. It had an open V-shaped main scarp, of which one linear part was along a high angle fault and the other was approximately parallel to the bedding strike. The upslope edge of the V-shaped main scarp was observed as 2- km long linear depressions along the ridge-top on satellite image before the landslide. This indicates that this slope had been already destabilized and small movement occurred along the bedding planes and along the fault before the event. The Wenchuan earthquake pulled the final trigger of this landslide. The major sliding surface was along the bedding plane, which was observed to dip 35° or slightly gentler. It was warped convex upward and the beds were fractured, which suggests that the beds were slightly buckled before the landslide. This deformation may correspond to the formation of the linear depression. The Tangjiashan landslide in Beichuan, which produced the largest landslide dam during the earthquake, occurred on a dip slope of shale and slate. The geologic structures of the landslide was observed on the side flanks of the landslide, which indicated that the beds had been buckled gravitationally beforehand and the sliding surface was made along the bedding plane and a joint parallel to the slope surface. The buckling

  8. Flood Simulation Using WMS Model in Small Watershed after Strong Earthquake -A Case Study of Longxihe Watershed, Sichuan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain watershed in Western China is prone to flash floods. The Wenchuan earthquake on May 12, 2008 led to the destruction of surface, and frequent landslides and debris flow, which further exacerbated the flash flood hazards. Two giant torrent and debris flows occurred due to heavy rainfall after the earthquake, one was on August 13 2010, and the other on August 18 2010. Flash floods reduction and risk assessment are the key issues in post-disaster reconstruction. Hydrological prediction models are important and cost-efficient mitigation tools being widely applied. In this paper, hydrological observations and simulation using remote sensing data and the WMS model are carried out in the typical flood-hit area, Longxihe watershed, Dujiangyan City, Sichuan Province, China. The hydrological response of rainfall runoff is discussed. The results show that: the WMS HEC-1 model can well simulate the runoff process of small watershed in mountainous area. This methodology can be used in other earthquake-affected areas for risk assessment and to predict the magnitude of flash floods. Key Words: Rainfall-runoff modeling. Remote Sensing. Earthquake. WMS.

  9. Developmental Trajectories and Predictors of Prosocial Behavior Among Adolescents Exposed to the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yanyun; Zhou, Ya; Fan, Fang; Chen, Shijian; Huang, Rong; Cai, Rouna; Peng, Ting

    2016-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined the developmental trajectories of prosocial behavior and related predictors among adolescents exposed to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. At 6-, 18-, and 30-months postearthquake, we followed a sample of 1,573 adolescents. Self-report measures were used to assess earthquake exposure, postearthquake negative life events, prosocial behavior, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, social support, and coping style. Data were analyzed using growth mixture modeling and multinomial logistic regressions. Four trajectories of postearthquake prosocial behavior were identified in the sample: (a) high/enhancing (35.0%), (b) high/stable (29.4%), (c) low/declining (33.6%), and (d) low/steeply declining (2.0%). Female gender, more social support, and greater positive coping were significant factors related to a higher probability of developing the high/enhancing trajectory. These findings may be helpful for us to identify adolescents with poor prosocial behavior after exposure to earthquakes so as to provide them with appropriate intervention. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  10. Risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after Wenchuan earthquake: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yongzhong; Wang, Fang; Wen, Jin; Shi, Yingkang

    2014-01-01

    Few clues were found in the literature about the independent risk factors for PTSD among earthquake survivors in Sichuan province three years after the 2008 earthquake. Ours was the first case-control study with matching factors of age and distance from the epicenter among survivors age 16 years or older, three years after the catastrophe. To identify independent risk factors for PTSD among earthquake survivors. We performed a population-based matched case-control study. The cases were drawn from earthquake areas three years after the Wenchuan earthquake, including 113 cases who met positive criteria for PTSD symptoms according to the PCL-C (PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version) score and 452 controls who did not meet the criteria. Cases and controls were matched individually by birth year (+ three years) and the town they lived in when the earthquake occurred. Independent risk factors for PTSD symptoms included two-week disease prevalence (odds ratio [OR],1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.18-3.13), witnessing someone being killed in the earthquake (OR, 2.04;95%CI, 1.17-3.58), having no regular income after the earthquake (OR, 0.52; 95%CI, 0.28-0.98), receiving mental health support only one time after the earthquake (OR, 2.43; 95%CI, 1.09-5.42) and lower social support (lower PSSS score) (OR, 0.95; 95%CI, 0.93-0.97). Earthquake experience, suffering from physical illnesses, lack of stable income, and lower social support were associated with PTSD symptoms.

  11. Lessons learned from the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: Impact on industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausmann, E.; Cruz, A. M.; Affeltranger, B.

    2009-04-01

    The earthquake that shook Wenchuan County in China's Sichuan Province on 12 May 2008 was a major event with a moment magnitude of MW = 7.9 and a depth of only 19 km. It caused a fault rupture of 270 km length and affected a total area of about 500,000 km2. With the intensity reaching XI in the region near the epicentre and peak ground acceleration values as high as 0.63g the earthquake killed almost 70,000 people, injured over 374,000 and rendered 5,000,000 homeless. Over 18,000 are still listed as missing. Prior to the earthquake the area was considered a region of moderate seismicity with a design intensity of 7. Sichuan Province is home to a significant proportion of Chinese chemical and nuclear industry and consequently has a very strong economy. The direct economic loss due to the earthquake amounts to over 1.1 billion Euros. In addition to economic damage there is also concern about earthquake-triggered damage to and destruction of industrial facilities housing or processing hazardous substances and the potential consequences of their release to man or the environment. In order to understand how well the chemical industry fared in the earthquake-affected areas a reconnaissance field trip was organised from 15-21 November, 2008, which included visits to industry in Deyang, Shifang, Mianzhu, Mianyang, Anxian and Dujiangyan. In total we collected information on earthquake effects at 18 industrial facilities. Lessons learned from this reconnaissance field trip confirm the devastating consequences that natural disasters can have on industrial facilities. In addition to casualties and environmental harm the economic losses due to damage, prolonged shut-down periods and business interruption are often ruinous and may result in lay-off of workers. In the case of the visited facilities the shut-down time was up to 6 months. Two facilities were damaged beyond repair and have resulted in significant ammonia, sulphuric acid and other releases that in addition to

  12. Postseismic deformation associated with the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, China: Constraining fault geometry and investigating a detailed spatial distribution of afterslip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhongshan; Yuan, Linguo; Huang, Dingfa; Yang, Zhongrong; Chen, Weifeng

    2017-12-01

    We reconstruct two types of fault models associated with the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, one is a listric fault connecting a shallowing sub-horizontal detachment below ∼20 km depth (fault model one, FM1) and the other is a group of more steeply dipping planes further extended to the Moho at ∼60 km depth (fault model two, FM2). Through comparative analysis of the coseismic inversion results, we confirm that the coseismic models are insensitive to the above two type fault geometries. We therefore turn our attention to the postseismic deformation obtained from GPS observations, which can not only impose effective constraints on the fault geometry but also, more importantly, provide valuable insights into the postseismic afterslip. Consequently, FM1 performs outstandingly in the near-, mid-, and far-field, whether considering the viscoelastic influence or not. FM2 performs more poorly, especially in the data-model consistency in the near field, which mainly results from the trade-off of the sharp contrast of the postseismic deformation on both sides of the Longmen Shan fault zone. Accordingly, we propose a listric fault connecting a shallowing sub-horizontal detachment as the optimal fault geometry for the Wenchuan earthquake. Based on the inferred optimal fault geometry, we analyse two characterized postseismic deformation phenomena that differ from the coseismic patterns: (1) the postseismic opposite deformation between the Beichuan fault (BCF) and Pengguan fault (PGF) and (2) the slightly left-lateral strike-slip motions in the southwestern Longmen Shan range. The former is attributed to the local left-lateral strike-slip and normal dip-slip components on the shallow BCF. The latter places constraints on the afterslip on the southwestern BCF and reproduces three afterslip concentration areas with slightly left-lateral strike-slip motions. The decreased Coulomb Failure Stress (CFS) change ∼0.322 KPa, derived from the afterslip with viscoelastic influence

  13. The influence of topographic stresses on faulting, emphasizing the 2008 Wenchuan, China earthquake rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styron, R. H.; Hetland, E. A.; Zhang, G.

    2013-12-01

    The weight of large mountains produces stresses in the crust that locally may be on the order of tectonic stresses (10-100 MPa). These stresses have a significant and spatially-variable deviatoric component that may be resolved as strong normal and shear stresses on range-bounding faults. In areas of high relief, the shear stress on faults can be comparable to inferred stress drops in earthquakes, and fault-normal stresses may be greater than 50 MPa, and thus may potentially influence fault rupture. Additionally, these stresses may be used to make inferences about the orientation and magnitude of tectonic stresses, for example by indicating a minimum stress needed to be overcome by tectonic stress. We are studying these effects in several tectonic environments, such as the Longmen Shan (China), the Denali fault (Alaska, USA) and the Wasatch Fault Zone (Utah, USA). We calculate the full topographic stress tensor field in the crust in a study region by convolution of topography with Green's functions approximating stresses from a point load on the surface of an elastic halfspace, using the solution proposed by Liu and Zoback [1992]. The Green's functions are constructed from Boussinesq's solutions for a vertical point load on an elastic halfspace, as well as Cerruti's solutions for a horizontal surface point load, accounting for irregular surface boundary and topographic spreading forces. The stress tensor field is then projected onto points embedded in the halfspace representing the faults, and the fault normal and shear stresses at each point are calculated. Our primary focus has been on the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, as this event occurred at the base of one of Earth's highest and steepest topographic fronts and had a complex and well-studied coseismic slip distribution, making it an ideal case study to evaluate topographic influence on faulting. We calculate the topographic stresses on the Beichuan and Pengguan faults, and compare the results to the coseismic slip

  14. The Role of Personality and Subjective Exposure Experiences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Children Following Wenchuan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiacan; Xu, Jiajun; Li, Bin; Li, Na; Guo, Wanjun; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Yanchun; Hu, Junmei

    2017-12-08

    This study aims to investigate the role of personality traits and subjective exposure experiences in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. In Qingchuan, 21,652 children aged 7 to 15 years were assessed using face-to-face interviews one year after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. The Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, a modified earthquake exposure scale, the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (adolescent), and the Adolescent Depression Inventory were used to assess personality characteristics, trauma experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms, respectively. The measurement was completed with 20,749 children. After adjusting for other factors by multinomial logistic regression analysis, neuroticism, having felt unable to escape from the disaster and having been trapped for a longer time were risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. Socialization was a protective factor of them. Having felt extreme panic or fear was a risk factor of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. For depression symptoms, introversion and psychoticism were risk factors, and extraversion was a protective factor. This study was conducted with the largest representative sample of child survivors of a natural, devastating disaster in a developing country. These results could be useful for planning psychological intervention strategies for children and for influencing further research.

  15. Geographical Detector-Based Risk Assessment of the Under-Five Mortality in the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yi; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Xiaohong; Ren, Dan; Zhu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    On 12 May, 2008, a devastating earthquake registering 8.0 on the Richter scale occurred in Sichuan Province, China, taking tens of thousands of lives and destroying the homes of millions of people. Many of the deceased were children, particular children less than five years old who were more vulnerable to such a huge disaster than the adult. In order to obtain information specifically relevant to further researches and future preventive measures, potential risk factors associated with earthquake-related child mortality need to be identified. We used four geographical detectors (risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector, and interaction detector) based on spatial variation analysis of some potential factors to assess their effects on the under-five mortality. It was found that three factors are responsible for child mortality: earthquake intensity, collapsed house, and slope. The study, despite some limitations, has important implications for both researchers and policy makers. PMID:21738660

  16. Geographical detector-based risk assessment of the under-five mortality in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Xiaohong; Ren, Dan; Zhu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    On 12 May, 2008, a devastating earthquake registering 8.0 on the Richter scale occurred in Sichuan Province, China, taking tens of thousands of lives and destroying the homes of millions of people. Many of the deceased were children, particular children less than five years old who were more vulnerable to such a huge disaster than the adult. In order to obtain information specifically relevant to further researches and future preventive measures, potential risk factors associated with earthquake-related child mortality need to be identified. We used four geographical detectors (risk detector, factor detector, ecological detector, and interaction detector) based on spatial variation analysis of some potential factors to assess their effects on the under-five mortality. It was found that three factors are responsible for child mortality: earthquake intensity, collapsed house, and slope. The study, despite some limitations, has important implications for both researchers and policy makers.

  17. Systematic Review on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Survivors of the Wenchuan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chunlan; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) widely occurs among victims or witness of disasters. With flashbacks, hyperarousal, and avoidance being the typical symptoms, PTSD became a focus of psychological research. The earthquake in Wenchuan, China, on May 12, 2008, was without precedent in magnitude and aftermath and caused huge damage, which drew scientists' attention to mental health of the survivors. We conducted a systematic overview by collecting published articles from the PubMed database and classifying them into five points: epidemiology, neuropathology, biochemistry, genetics and epigenetics, and treatment. The large body of research during the past 6 years showed that adolescents and adults were among the most studied populations with high prevalence rates for PTSD. Genomic and transcriptomic studies focusing on gene × environment studies as well as epigenetics are still rare, although a few available data showed great potential to better understand the pathophysiology of PTSD as multifactorial disease. Phytotherapy with Chinese herbs and acupuncture are rarely reported as of yet, although the first published data indicated promising therapy effects. Future studies should focus on the following points: (1) The affected populations under observation should be better defined concerning individual risk factor, time of observation, spatial movement, and individual disease courses of patients. (2) The role of social support for prevalence rates of PTSD should be observed in more detail. (3) Efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine should be studied to find potential interventions and effective treatments of PTSD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Semen quality in adult male survivors 5 years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chen, X M; Chen, S M; Yue, H X; Lin, L; Wu, Y B; Liu, B; Jiang, M; Ma, Y X

    2016-12-01

    The influence of the Wenchuan earthquake on semen quality of adult male survivors is unclear. We investigated the semen quality included 673 male survivors from the worse-affected counties in the earthquake between Aug 2008 and July 2013. Semen parameters including pH, volume, concentration, motility and morphology were measured according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance was used to examine the statistical differences between years, and a logistic regression was used to analyse the impacts caused by earthquake on the changes of semen quality. We found the medians (5th and 95th) were 2.5 ml (0.6-5.5) for semen volume, 59.0 × 10 6  ml -1 [(13.0-133.0)] × 10 6  ml -1 for semen concentration, 46% (13-64%) for sperm progressive motility and 3.0% (0-17.5%) for normal morphology for adult male survivors. Semen concentration, the percentage of sperm progressive motility, total motility and sperm normal morphology were all decreased in the first 3 years, and the differences among years 1, 2 and 3 were significant except the percentage of sperm progressive motility (P < 0.05). The casualties and heavy housing damage caused by earthquake had a negative effect on semen quality. The main findings will provide further diagnosis and therapy basis of male fertility by data, for affected populations in the earthquake. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. [Application of the Children's Impact of Event Scale (Chinese Version) on a rapid assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder among children from the Wenchuan earthquake area].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gao-feng; Zhang, Qiang; Pang, Yan; Ren, Zheng-jia; Peng, Dan; Jiang, Guo-guo; Liu, Shan-ming; Chen, Ying; Geng, Ting; Zhang, Shu-sen; Yang, Yan-chun; Deng, Hong

    2009-11-01

    To explore the reliability and validity of the Children's Impact of Event Scale (Chinese version, CRIES-13) and to determine the value and the optimal cutoff point of the score of CRIES-13 in screening posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), so as to provide evidence for PTSD prevention and identify children at risk in Wenchuan earthquake areas. A total of 253 children experienced the Wenchuan earthquake were tested through Stratified random cluster sampling. The authors examined CRIES-13's internal consistency, discriminative validity and predictive value of the cut-off. PTSD was assessed with the DSM-IV criteria. Area under the curve while sensitivity, specificity and Youden index were computed based on the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Optimal cutoff point was determined by the maximum of Youden index. 20.9% of the subjects were found to have met the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD 7 months after the Wenchuan earthquake accident. The Cronbach's coefficient of CRIES-13 was 0.903 and the mean inter-item correlation coefficients ranged from 0.283 to 0.689, the correlation coefficient of the three factors with the total scale scores ranged from 0.836 to 0.868 while the correlation coefficient among the three factors ranged from 0.568 to 0.718, PTSD cases indicated much higher scores than non-PTSD cases, the Youden index reached maximum value when the total score approached 18 in CRIES-13 with sensitivity and specificity as 81.1% and 76.5% respectively. Consistency check showed that there were no significant differences between the results of CRIES-13 score >/= 32 and clinical diagnosis (Kappa = 0.529) from the screening program. CRIES-13 appeared to be a reliable and valid measure for assessing the posttraumatic stress symptoms among children after the earthquake accident in the Wenchuan area. The CRIES-13 seemed to be a useful self-rating diagnostic instrument for survivors with PTSD symptoms as a clinical concern by using a 18 cut-off in total score

  20. Experimental research on the dam-break mechanisms of the Jiadanwan landslide dam triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fu-gang; Yang, Xing-guo; Zhou, Jia-wen; Hao, Ming-hui

    2013-01-01

    Dam breaks of landslide dams are always accompanied by large numbers of casualties, a large loss of property, and negative influences on the downstream ecology and environment. This study uses the Jiadanwan landslide dam, created by the Wenchuan earthquake, as a case study example. Several laboratory experiments are carried out to analyse the dam-break mechanism of the landslide dam. The different factors that impact the dam-break process include upstream flow, the boulder effect, dam size, and channel discharge. The development of the discharge channel and the failure of the landslide dam are monitored by digital video and still cameras. Experimental results show that the upstream inflow and the dam size are the main factors that impact the dam-break process. An excavated discharge channel, especially a trapezoidal discharge channel, has a positive effect on reducing peak flow. The depth of the discharge channel also has a significant impact on the dam-break process. The experimental results are significant for landslide dam management and flood disaster prevention and mitigation.

  1. Experimental Research on the Dam-Break Mechanisms of the Jiadanwan Landslide Dam Triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fu-gang; Yang, Xing-guo; Hao, Ming-hui

    2013-01-01

    Dam breaks of landslide dams are always accompanied by large numbers of casualties, a large loss of property, and negative influences on the downstream ecology and environment. This study uses the Jiadanwan landslide dam, created by the Wenchuan earthquake, as a case study example. Several laboratory experiments are carried out to analyse the dam-break mechanism of the landslide dam. The different factors that impact the dam-break process include upstream flow, the boulder effect, dam size, and channel discharge. The development of the discharge channel and the failure of the landslide dam are monitored by digital video and still cameras. Experimental results show that the upstream inflow and the dam size are the main factors that impact the dam-break process. An excavated discharge channel, especially a trapezoidal discharge channel, has a positive effect on reducing peak flow. The depth of the discharge channel also has a significant impact on the dam-break process. The experimental results are significant for landslide dam management and flood disaster prevention and mitigation. PMID:23844387

  2. Crustal deformation characteristics of Sichuan-Yunnan region in China on the constraint of multi-periods of GPS velocity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Caiya; Dang, Yamin; Dai, Huayang; Yang, Qiang; Wang, Xiankai

    2018-04-01

    In order to obtain deformation parameters in each block of Sichuan-Yunnan Region (SYG) in China by stages and establish a dynamic model about the variation of the strain rate fields and the surface expansion in this area, we taken the Global Positioning System (GPS) sites velocity in the region as constrained condition and taken advantage of the block strain calculation model based on spherical surface. We also analyzed the deformation of the active blocks in the whole SYG before and after the Wenchuan earthquake, and analyzed the deformation of active blocks near the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake in detail. The results show that, (1) Under the effects of the carving from India plate and the crimping from the potential energy of Tibetan Plateau for a long time, there is a certain periodicity in crustal deformation in SYG. And the period change and the earthquake occurrence have a good agreement. (2) The differences in GPS velocity fields relative Eurasian reference frame shows that the Wenchuan earthquake and the Ya'an earthquake mainly affect the crustal movement in the central and southern part of SYG, and the average velocity difference is about 4-8 mm/a for the Wenchuan earthquake and 2-4 mm/a for the Ya'an earthquake. (3) For the Wenchuan earthquake, the average strain changed from 10 to 20 nanostrian/a before earthquake to 40-50 nanostrian/a after the earthquake, but before and after the Ya'an earthquake, the strain value increased from about 15 nanostrian/a to about 30 nanostrian/a. (4) The Wenchuan earthquake has changed the strain parameter of each active block more or less. Especially, the Longmen block and Chengdu block near the epicenter. The research provides fundamental material for the study of the dynamic mechanism of the push extrusion from the north-east of the India plate and the crimp from Qinghai Tibet Plateau, and it also provides support for the study of crustal stress variation and earthquake prediction in Sichuan Yunnan region.

  3. Co-seismic ruptures of the 12 May 2008, Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan: East-west crustal shortening on oblique, parallel thrusts along the eastern edge of Tibet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu-Zeng, J.; Zhang, Z.; Wen, L.; Tapponnier, P.; Sun, Jielun; Xing, X.; Hu, G.; Xu, Q.; Zeng, L.; Ding, L.; Ji, C.; Hudnut, K.W.; van der Woerd, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Ms 8.0, Wenchuan earthquake, which devastated the mountainous western rim of the Sichuan basin in central China, produced a surface rupture over 200??km-long with oblique thrust/dextral slip and maximum scarp heights of ~ 10??m. It thus ranks as one of the world's largest continental mega-thrust events in the last 150??yrs. Field investigation shows clear surface breaks along two of the main branches of the NE-trending Longmen Shan thrust fault system. The principal rupture, on the NW-dipping Beichuan fault, displays nearly equal amounts of thrust and right-lateral slip. Basin-ward of this rupture, another continuous surface break is observed for over 70??km on the parallel, more shallowly NW-dipping Pengguan fault. Slip on this latter fault was pure thrusting, with a maximum scarp height of ~ 3.5??m. This is one of the very few reported instances of crustal-scale co-seismic slip partitioning on parallel thrusts. This out-of-sequence event, with distributed surface breaks on crustal mega-thrusts, highlights regional, ~ EW-directed, present day crustal shortening oblique to the Longmen Shan margin of Tibet. The long rupture and large offsets with strong horizontal shortening that characterize the Wenchuan earthquake herald a re-evaluation of tectonic models anticipating little or no active shortening of the upper crust along this edge of the plateau, and require a re-assessment of seismic hazard along potentially under-rated active faults across the densely populated western Sichuan basin and mountains. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Coulomb Stress evolution and seismic hazard along the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang Fault Zone of Western Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, B.; Xiong, X.; Zheng, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault system (XXFS) in southwestern China is a curved left-lateral strike-slip structure extending at least 1400 km in the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Fieldworks confirm that the XXFS, whose slip motion releases strain that is related to the convergence between the Indian and Eurasian plates, is one of the largest and most seismically active faults in China. The entire fault has experienced at least 35 earthquakes of M>6 since 1700, and almost all segments of the system have been the locus of major earthquakes within the historic record. Since the XXFS region is heavily populated (over 50 million people), understanding the distribution of large earthquakes in space and time in this region is crucial for improving forecasting and reducing catastrophic life and monetary losses. We investigated a sequence of twenty-five earthquakes (M≥6.5) that occurred along the XXFS since 1713, and the interaction between the historical earthquakes and the Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on the Longmenshan Fault last year. The layered model used in the study and relevant parameters were constrained by seismic studies. Fault rupture locations and geometries, as well as slip distributions of earthquakes were taken from field observations and seismic studies. Numerical results showed a good correlation between stress transfer, accumulation and earthquakes. Fourteen of the twenty-four earthquakes occurred after the 1713 Xundian were encouraged by the preceding earthquakes with positive stress loading. Three events occurred in the stress shadow induced by preceding events. And others occurred in the probable area with Coulomb stress increment. The triggering process on the fault zone may exist. According to our results, there are three visible earthquake gaps along the fault zone, which are consistent with the results of historical earthquake study. The seismic activity and tectonic motion on XXFS reduced the shear stress on the epicenter of M8

  5. Characteristics of strong motions and damage implications of M S6.5 Ludian earthquake on August 3, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peibin; Wen, Ruizhi; Wang, Hongwei; Ji, Kun; Ren, Yefei

    2015-02-01

    The Ludian County of Yunnan Province in southwestern China was struck by an M S6.5 earthquake on August 3, 2014, which was another destructive event following the M S8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, M S7.1 Yushu earthquake in 2010, and M S7.0 Lushan earthquake in 2013. National Strong-Motion Observation Network System of China collected 74 strong motion recordings, which the maximum peak ground acceleration recorded by the 053LLT station in Longtoushan Town was 949 cm/s2 in E-W component. The observed PGAs and spectral ordinates were compared with ground-motion prediction equation in China and the NGA-West2 developed by Pacific Earthquake Engineering Researcher Center. This earthquake is considered as the first case for testing applicability of NGA-West2 in China. Results indicate that the observed PGAs and the 5 % damped pseudo-response spectral accelerations are significantly lower than the predicted ones. The field survey around some typical strong motion stations verified that the earthquake damage was consistent with the official isoseismal by China Earthquake Administration.

  6. Post-traumatic stress disorder status in a rescue group after the Wenchuan earthquake relief

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Junhua; Liu, Qunying; Li, Jinliang; Li, Xuejiang; You, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tian, Changfu; Luan, Rongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12th, 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors. PMID:25206499

  7. Post-earthquake denudation and its impacts on ancient civilizations in the Chengdu Longmenshan region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ningsheng; Li, Jun; Liu, Lihong; Yang, Chenglin; Liu, Mei

    2018-05-01

    This study characterizes significant changes in denudation and disasters in mountainous areas induced in the humid Chengdu Longmenshan region by the Wenchuan Earthquake in 2008. A study focusing on the Longxi-Baisha River Basin was conducted to investigate the amount of denudation triggered by specific flash flood and debris flow events in 2009-2014. The following results were obtained through a comparison of pre-seismic regional denudation rates and denudation characteristics of other seismically active mountain regions. (1) Regional denudation processes occurred in a wave-like process of initial increase then decline, with a peak exhibiting a hyperbolic attenuation trend. This trend indicates that the denudation rate in the Chengdu Longmenshan region is expected to return to the pre-seismic rate of 0.3 mm a-1 after 81 years. In 22 years after the earthquake (Year 2030), debris flow disasters are expected to be rare. (2) Disasters increased significantly in the Chengdu Longmenshan region after the Wenchuan earthquake, with an average of 29.5 people missing or dead per year (22 times greater than the pre-earthquake rate) and average economic losses of 192 million Yuan per year (1.6 times greater than the pre-earthquake rate). (3) The denudation process was jointly controlled by the quantities of loose solid material and precipitation after the Wenchuan earthquake. The amount of loose solid material influenced the extent of denudation, while vegetation coverage rates and soil consolidation determined the overall denudation trend in the region, and changes in precipitation led to denudation fluctuations. (4) The results can be used to analyze the relationship between the potential flash flood-debris flow disasters after earthquakes in the ancient Shu kingdom and changes in historical social settlements. The results can also be used to predict denudation processes and disaster risks from earthquakes in humid mountainous regions around the world, such as the southern

  8. Geodetic Imaging of the Earthquake Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xiaopeng

    In this dissertation I used Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) to recover crustal deformation caused by earthquake cycle processes. The studied areas span three different types of tectonic boundaries: a continental thrust earthquake (M7.9 Wenchuan, China) at the eastern margin of the Tibet plateau, a mega-thrust earthquake (M8.8 Maule, Chile) at the Chile subduction zone, and the interseismic deformation of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS). A new L-band radar onboard a Japanese satellite ALOS allows us to image high-resolution surface deformation in vegetated areas, which is not possible with older C-band radar systems. In particular, both the Wenchuan and Maule InSAR analyses involved L-band ScanSAR interferometry which had not been attempted before. I integrated a large InSAR dataset with dense GPS networks over the entire SAFS. The integration approach features combining the long-wavelength deformation from GPS with the short-wavelength deformation from InSAR through a physical model. The recovered fine-scale surface deformation leads us to better understand the underlying earthquake cycle processes. The geodetic slip inversion reveals that the fault slip of the Wenchuan earthquake is maximum near the surface and decreases with depth. The coseismic slip model of the Maule earthquake constrains the down-dip extent of the fault slip to be at 45 km depth, similar to the Moho depth. I inverted for the slip rate on 51 major faults of the SAFS using Green's functions for a 3-dimensional earthquake cycle model that includes kinematically prescribed slip events for the past earthquakes since the year 1000. A 60 km thick plate model with effective viscosity of 10 19 Pa · s is preferred based on the geodetic and geological observations. The slip rates recovered from the plate models are compared to the half-space model. The InSAR observation reveals that the creeping section of the SAFS is partially locked. This high

  9. [Characteristics of Raman spectra of minerals in the veins of Wenchuan earthquake fault zone].

    PubMed

    Xie, Chao; Zhou, Ben-gang; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Xiao-cheng; Yi, Li; Chen, Zhi; Cui, Yue-ju; Li, Jing; Chen, Zheng-wei; Du, Jian-guo

    2015-01-01

    Quartz in the veins at the Shenxigou section of Wenchuan earthquake fault zone was investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopic measurement, and the distribution of compressive stress in the fault zone was estimated by the frequency shifts of the 464 cm-1 vibrational mode of quartz grains in the veins. It was showed that the 464 cm-1 peak arising from the quartz grains in the veins near the fault plane shifts by 3. 29 cm-1 , and the corresponding compressive stress is 368. 63 MPa, which is significantly lower than the stress accumulation on both sides due to multi-stage events. Stress accumulation increased with moving away from the fault plane in the footwall with the offset of the 464 cm-1 peak arising from the quartz grains in the veins increasing, which can reach 494. 77 MPa at a distance of 21 m with a high offset of 4. 40 cm-1 of the 464 cm-1 peak. The compressive stress gets the maximum value of 519.87 MPa at a distance of 10 m from the fault plane in the hanging wall with the offset of the 464 cm-1 peak arising from the quartz grains in the veins being 4. 62 cm-1, followed by a sudden drop in stress accumulation, and it drops to 359. 59 MPa at a distance of 17 m. Because of moving away from the foult plane at the edge of the foult zone, the stress drops to 359. 59 MPa with a small value of 464 cm-1 peak offset 3. 21 cm-1 at a distance of 27 m from the fault plane in the hanging wall due to the little effect by the fault activity. Therefore, the stress of Wenchuan earthquake fault zone is partially released, but the rest of the stress distribution is uneven, and there is also a high stress accumulation in somewhere in the fault zone, which reflects that the mechanical properties of the rocks in the fault zone have a characteristic of unevenness in space.

  10. Physical and chemical properties of the creeping fault ruptured in the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake from the WFSD-3P cores, eastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, X.; Li, H.; Wang, H.; Zhang, L., Jr.; Chevalier, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Anxian-Guanxian Fault (AGF) is a frontal fault of the Longmen Shan thrust belt, which ruptured during the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. This study focuses on the 551.54 m-depth cores from the shallow hole of the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Project WFSD-3P which drilled across the AGF. Detailed core petrological study, geophysical downhole logs, rock magnetism and XRF analyses were conducted to explore the physical and chemical properties of the AGF, which is helpful to reveal the faulting mechanism and provides a reference to determine behaviors of other faults. The AGF zone in the WFSD-3p mainly consists of fault gouge and fault breccia from 442.41-510.14 m depth cores ( 48 m thick), with a dip angle of 45°. Fine-grained fault gouge and pressolution structures are commonly observed under optical microscope, which indicate the AGF is in creeping. The average magnetic susceptibility value of the fault gouge is slightly less than that of the country rock and the main magnetic carriers are pyrrhotite on the basis of low-temperature magnetic measurement. This phenomenon is different from the characteristics of other seismic faults with high magnetic susceptibility value due to heating by rapid slip friction. In terms of chemical properties, the fault gouge is characterized by relatively low concentration of iron, manganese and calcium, as well as high concentration of copper, vanadium and sulfur according to XRF analyses. In addition, the fluid samples are reductive, with a PH value of 10 and a negative value for redox potential. Combined with the grey-green sandstone along the rupture zone, they indicate that the AGF creeping is in a reducing environment. There are partly locked areas with clasts by rapid slip during the earthquake in the AGF zone. This observation was present at the boundary of the Triassic and Jurassic units ( 507 m depth), near the bottom of the fault zone. It represents the

  11. [Carbon source metabolic diversity of soil microbial community under different climate types in the area affected by Wenchuan earthquake].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Shuai; Lin, Yong-Ming; Ma, Rui-Feng; Deng, Hao-Jun; Du, Kun; Wu, Cheng-Zhen; Hong, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The MS8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 led to huge damage to land covers in northwest Sichuan, one of the critical fragile eco-regions in China which can be divided into Semi-arid dry hot climate zone (SDHC) and Subtropical humid monsoon climate zone (SHMC). Using the method of Bilog-ECO-microplate technique, this paper aimed to determine the functional diversity of soil microbial community in the earthquake-affected areas which can be divided into undamaged area (U), recover area (R) and damaged area without recovery (D) under different climate types, in order to provide scientific basis for ecological recovery. The results indicated that the average-well-color-development (AWCD) in undamaged area and recovery area showed SDHC > SHMC, which was contrary to the AWCD in the damaged area without recovery. The AWCD of damaged area without recovery was the lowest in both climate zones. The number of carbon source utilization types of soil microbial in SHMC zone was significantly higher than that in SDHC zone. The carbon source utilization types in both climate zones presented a trend of recover area > undamaged area > damaged area without recovery. The carbon source metabolic diversity characteristic of soil microbial community was significantly different in different climate zones. The diversity index and evenness index both showed a ranking of undamaged area > recover area > damaged area without recovery. In addition, the recovery area had the highest richness index. The soil microbial carbon sources metabolism characteristic was affected by soil nutrient, aboveground vegetation biomass and vegetation coverage to some extent. In conclusion, earthquake and its secondary disasters influenced the carbon source metabolic diversity characteristic of soil microbial community mainly through the change of aboveground vegetation and soil environmental factors.

  12. Management of gas gangrene in Wenchuan earthquake victims.

    PubMed

    Chen, Enqiang; Deng, Linyu; Liu, Zigui; Zhu, Xia; Chen, Xuebing; Tang, Hong

    2011-02-01

    Gas gangrene is an emergency condition, which usually develops after injuries or surgery. This study was designed to investigate clinical characteristics, appropriate therapy, and effective control of nosocomial cross-infection of gas gangrene in Wenchuan earthquake victims. Data on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of confirmed, suspected, or highly suspected gas gangrene were collected. Sixty-seven (2.41%) cases of suspected gas gangrene were found, in which 32 cases were highly suspected of gas gangrene and 5 cases were confirmed by culture of Clostridium perfringens. Thereof, injury sites were mainly located on the limbs, and typical indications, including crepitation, severe localized pain, swelling, wound discoloration, dark red or black necrotic muscle, foul smell as well as different degrees of systemic toxic performance were common among them. After hospitalization, all patients were isolated and had surgery quickly to remove dead, damaged or infected tissue. The wounds were also exposed for drainage and washed or padded with 3% liquid hydrogen peroxide for disinfection before all diagnostic test results were available. Additionally, high doses of antibiotics (mainly penicillin) were given for the prevention of infection, and supportive therapy was applied for corresponding symptoms control. Among those cases, no fatality was reported. In summary, in post-disaster emergency relief, the diagnosis of gas gangrene should be primarily based on clinical manifestations; while patient isolation, wound debridement and disinfection, as well as antibiotics treatment, is the main measures for proper treatment and control of nosocomial infection for gas gangrene.

  13. Dramatic undercutting of piedmont rivers after the 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Niannian; Nie, Ruihua; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Xingnian

    2016-01-01

    Changes in river channel erosion or deposition affect the geomorphic evolution, aquatic ecosystems, and river regulation strategies. Fluvial processes are determined by the flow, sediment and boundary conditions, and it has long been expected that increasing sediment supply will induce aggradation. Here, based on thorough field surveys, we show the unexpected undercutting of the piedmont rivers influenced by the 2008 Wenchuan (Ms 8.0) Earthquake. The rivers flow from the Longmen Mountain with significant topographic relief to the flat Chengdu plain. In the upstreams, sediment supply increased because of the landslides triggered by the earthquake, causing deposition in the upstream mountain reaches. However, the downstream plain reaches suffered undercutting instead of deposition, and among those rivers, Shiting River was the most seriously affected, with the largest undercutting depth exceeding 20 m. The reasons for this unexpected undercutting are proposed herein and relate to both natural and anthropogenic causes. In addition, we also demonstrate, at least for certain conditions, such as rivers flowing from large-gradient mountain regions to low-gradient plain regions, that upstream sediment pulses may induce aggradation in upstream and degradation in downstream, causing the longitudinal profile to steepen to accommodate the increasing sediment flux. PMID:27857220

  14. Earthquakes drive focused denudation along a tectonically active mountain front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gen; West, A. Joshua; Densmore, Alexander L.; Jin, Zhangdong; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Jin; Clark, Marin; Hilton, Robert G.

    2017-08-01

    Earthquakes cause widespread landslides that can increase erosional fluxes observed over years to decades. However, the impact of earthquakes on denudation over the longer timescales relevant to orogenic evolution remains elusive. Here we assess erosion associated with earthquake-triggered landslides in the Longmen Shan range at the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. We use the Mw 7.9 2008 Wenchuan and Mw 6.6 2013 Lushan earthquakes to evaluate how seismicity contributes to the erosional budget from short timescales (annual to decadal, as recorded by sediment fluxes) to long timescales (kyr to Myr, from cosmogenic nuclides and low temperature thermochronology). Over this wide range of timescales, the highest rates of denudation in the Longmen Shan coincide spatially with the region of most intense landsliding during the Wenchuan earthquake. Across sixteen gauged river catchments, sediment flux-derived denudation rates following the Wenchuan earthquake are closely correlated with seismic ground motion and the associated volume of Wenchuan-triggered landslides (r2 > 0.6), and to a lesser extent with the frequency of high intensity runoff events (r2 = 0.36). To assess whether earthquake-induced landsliding can contribute importantly to denudation over longer timescales, we model the total volume of landslides triggered by earthquakes of various magnitudes over multiple earthquake cycles. We combine models that predict the volumes of landslides triggered by earthquakes, calibrated against the Wenchuan and Lushan events, with an earthquake magnitude-frequency distribution. The long-term, landslide-sustained "seismic erosion rate" is similar in magnitude to regional long-term denudation rates (∼0.5-1 mm yr-1). The similar magnitude and spatial coincidence suggest that earthquake-triggered landslides are a primary mechanism of long-term denudation in the frontal Longmen Shan. We propose that the location and intensity of seismogenic faulting can contribute to

  15. What are the determinants of post-traumatic stress disorder: age, gender, ethnicity or other? Evidence from 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Kun, P; Tong, X; Liu, Y; Pei, X; Luo, H

    2013-07-01

    To estimate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and assess determinants related to PTSD symptoms among adult earthquake survivors after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. Cross-sectional multicluster sample surveys with data collected from four counties. Surveys were conducted separately in four counties in Sichuan Province, with a total of 2004 respondents. Beichuan County and Dujiangyan City were damaged more severely than Yaan County and Langzhong County during the earthquake. In total, 1890 households were represented, with a mean of 2.2 respondents per household. Data were collected using structured interviews, and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria were used to diagnose PTSD. The prevalence rates of suspected PTSD were 47.3% (n = 436) in heavily damaged areas and 10.4% (n = 93) in moderately damaged areas. The prevalence rates of PTSD symptoms among elderly, middle aged and young adults were 55.8%, 50.2% and 28.6% (P = 0.001), respectively, in heavily damaged areas. Older age, female gender, unmarried/divorced/widowed, ethnic minority, death of family member, no household income and damaged household were independent risk factors for PTSD symptoms in heavily damaged areas. Interventions designed to reduce PTSD among populations affected by the 2008 earthquake should focus on people without household incomes, those with damaged households and those who experienced the death of a family member. Effective, sustainable and culturally sensitive psychosocial interventions and mental health services are required, and attention should be directed to survivors who experienced the death of a family member, women and older adults following the devastating natural disaster. Governments should support income-generating activities and improve living conditions. Trained field personnel can assist with PTSD assessments and referrals, and existing rural healthcare

  16. Gas and Dust Phenomena of Mega-earthquakes and the Cause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Z.

    2013-12-01

    A mega-earthquake suddenly releases a large to extremely large amount of kinetic energy within a few tens to two hundreds seconds and over ten to hundreds kilometer distances in the Earth's crust and on ground surface. It also generates seismic waves that can be received globally and co-seismic ground damages such co-seismic ruptures and landslides. However, such vast, dramatic and devastating kinetic actions in the Earth's crustal rocks and on the ground soils cannot be known or predicted by people at few weeks, days, hours, or minutes before they are happening. Although seismologists can develop and use seismometers to report the locations and magnitudes of earthquakes within minutes of their occurrence, they cannot predict earthquakes at present. Therefore, damage earthquakes have caused and would continue to cause huge disasters, fatalities and injuries to our human beings. This problem may indicate that it is necessary to re-examine the cause of mega-earthquakes in addition to the conventional cause of active fault elastic rebounding. In the last ten years, many mega-earthquakes occurred in China and around the Pacific Ocean and caused many casualties to human beings and devastating disasters to environments. The author will give a brief review on the impacts of the mega-earthquakes happened in recent years. He will then present many gas and dust related phenomena associated with the sudden occurrences of these mega earthquakes. They include the 2001 Kunlunshan Earthquake M8.1, 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake M8.0 and the 2010 Yushu Earthquake M7.1 in China, the 2010 Haiti Earthquake M7.0, the 2010 Mexicali Earthquake M7.2, the 2010 Chile Earthquake M8.8, the 2011 Christchurch earthquake M6.3 and the 2011 Japan Earthquake M9.0 around the Pacific Ocean. He will discuss the cause of these gas and dust related phenomena. He will use these phenomena and their common cause to show that the earthquakes were caused the rapid migration and expansion of highly compressed and

  17. [A follow-up study on the post-traumatic stress disorders among middle school students in Wenchuan earthquake region].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Xia; Zeng, Zi-Qian; Xiang, Ying-Jun; Liu, Zhi-Yue; Hu, Xiao-Qin; Li, Juan; Li, Ting; Hou, Feng-Su; Yuan, Ping

    2011-04-01

    This study was to identify the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) changes and the relative risk factors within one year after Wenchuan earthquake among middle school students in the disaster area. A total of 1966 students from 3 schools in Wenchuan earthquake region were selected as the target population. For each student, personal basic information and standard psychological scale (PCL-C, PSSS) were investigated by a self-administrated questionnaire in the 3rd, the 6th, the 9th and the 12th month after the earthquake, respectively. PTSD trends over the time and the associated risk factors were analyzed through the establishment of multi-level random coefficient model. There were 1677 middle school students fully participated in the PTSD follow-up study by turning in the valid questionnaires. The averaged scores of PTSD at the time of the 3rd, the 6th, the 9th and the 12th month after the earthquake were 35.14 ± 11.08, 32.90 ± 11.03, 30.67 ± 11.28 and 29.75 ± 11.22, respectively. Meanwhile, the general incidences of PTSD were 36.6% (613/1677), 30.7% (515/1677), 24.8% (416/1677)and 22.2% (373/1677), respectively. The median score of perceived social support system was 60.00 and the general incidences of PSS was 17.20% (289/1677). The PTSD scores for the students had a decreasing trend during the period of our observation (β(time) = -1.879, χ(2) = 47.03, P < 0.05). The averaged scores for boys for the 4 follow-up studies were 33.71, 31.61, 29.66, 28.83; for girls were 36.33, 33.98, 31.51, 30.52; for junior school students were 35.46, 33.28, 30.18, 29.22; for senior school students were 34.89, 32.62, 31.04, 30.15. Moreover, two factors, gender and grade, were related with the decreasing trend (the trend for girls and senior school students was sharper than that for boys and junior school students) (β(gender-time) = -0.354, χ(2) = 4.83, P < 0.05; β(grade-time) = 0.622, χ(2) = 11.30, P < 0.05). The prevalence of PTSD was high. Meanwhile, there was a trend

  18. [Medical rescue of China National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Search and Rescue Team in Lushan earthquake].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-hua; Yang, Hui-ning; Liu, Hui-liang; Wang, Fan; Hu, Li-bin; Zheng, Jing-chen

    2013-05-01

    To summarize and analyze the medical mission of China National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Search and Rescue Team (CNESAR) in Lushan earthquake, to promote the medical rescue effectiveness incorporated with search and rescue. Retrospective analysis of medical work data by CNESAR from April 21th, 2013 to April 27th during Lushan earthquake rescue, including the medical staff dispatch and the wounded case been treated. The reasonable medical corps was composed by 22 members, including 2 administrators, 11 doctors [covering emergency medicine, orthopedics (joints and limbs, spinal), obstetrics and gynecology, gastroenterology, cardiology, ophthalmology, anesthesiology, medical rescue, health epidemic prevention, clinical laboratory of 11 specialties], 1 ultrasound technician, 5 nurses, 1 pharmacist, 1 medical instrument engineer and 1 office worker for propaganda. There were two members having psychological consultants qualifications. The medical work were carried out in seven aspects, including medical care assurance for the CNESAR members, first aid cooperation with search and rescue on site, clinical work in refugees' camp, medical round service for scattered village people, evacuation for the wounded, mental intervention, and the sanitary and anti-epidemic work. The medical work covered 24 small towns, and medical staff established 3 medical clinics at Taiping Town, Shuangshi Town of Lushan County and Baoxing County. Medical rescue, mental intervention for the old and kids, and sanitary and anti-epidemic were performed at the above sites. The medical corps had successful evacuated 2 severe wounded patients and treated the wounded over thousands. Most of the wounded were soft tissue injuries, external injury, respiratory tract infections, diarrhea, and heat stroke. Compared with the rescue action in 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the aggregation and departure of rescue team in Lushan earthquake, the traffic control order in disaster area, the self-aid and buddy aid

  19. Multiple injuries after earthquakes: a retrospective analysis on 1,871 injured patients from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Lu-Ping, Zhao; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Qi, Wu; van den Oever, Barbara; Westman, Lina; Albela, Manuel; Liang, Pan; Gao, Chen; De-Sheng, Zhang; Hughes, Melany; von Schreeb, Johan; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2012-05-17

    Multiple injuries have been highlighted as an important clinical dimension of the injury profile following earthquakes, but studies are scarce. We investigated the pattern and combination of injuries among patients with two injuries following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. We also described the general injury profile, causes of injury and socio-demographic characteristics of the injured patients. A retrospective hospital-based analysis of 1,871 earthquake injured patients, totaling 3,177 injuries, admitted between 12 and 31 May 2008 to the People's Hospital of Deyang city (PHDC). An electronic, webserver-based database with International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10-based classification of earthquake-related injury diagnoses (IDs), anatomical sites and additional background variables of the inpatients was used. We analyzed this dataset for injury profile and number of injuries per patient. We then included all patients (856) with two injuries for more in-depth analysis. Possible spatial anatomical associations were determined a priori. Cross-tabulation and more complex frequency matrices for combination analyses were used to investigate the injury profile. Out of the 1,871 injured patients, 810 (43.3%) presented with a single injury. The rest had multiple injuries; 856 (45.8%) had two, 169 (9.0%) patients had three, 32 (1.7%) presented with four injuries, while only 4 (0.2%) were diagnosed with five injuries. The injury diagnoses of patients presenting with two-injuries showed important anatomical intra-site or neighboring clustering, which explained 49.1% of the combinations. For fractures, the result was even more marked as spatial clustering explained 57.9% of the association pattern. The most frequent combination of IDs was a double-fracture, affecting 20.7% of the two-injury patients (n = 177). Another 108 patients (12.6%) presented with fractures associated with crush injury and organ-soft tissue injury. Of the 3,177 injuries, 1,476 (46.5%) were

  20. Rupture history of 2008 May 12 Mw 8.0 Wen-Chuan earthquake: Evidence of slip interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, C.; Shao, G.; Lu, Z.; Hudnut, K.; Jiu, J.; Hayes, G.; Zeng, Y.

    2008-12-01

    We will present the rupture process of the May 12, 2008 Mw 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake using all available data. The current model, using both teleseismic body and surface waves and interferometric LOS displacements, reveals an unprecedented complex rupture process which can not be resolved using either of the datasets individually. Rupture of this earthquake involved both the low angle Pengguan fault and the high angle Beichuan fault, which intersect each other at depth and are separated approximately 5-15 km at the surface. Rupture initiated on the Pengguan fault and triggered rupture on the Beichuan fault 10 sec later. The two faults dynamically interacted and unilaterally ruptured over 270 km with an average rupture velocity of 3.0 km/sec. The total seismic moment is 1.1x1021 Nm (Mw 8.0), roughly equally partitioned between the two faults. However, the spatiotemporal evaluations of the two faults are very different. This study will focus on the evidence for fault interactions and will analyze the corresponding uncertainties, in preparation for future dynamic studies of the same detailed nature.

  1. [Reliability and validity of Professional Quality of Life Scale among government staff in earthquake - stricken areas in China].

    PubMed

    Dang, Weimin; Cheng, Wenhong; Ma, Hong; Lin, Jin; Wu, Baoming; Ma, Ning; Wang, Rongke; Xu, Junting; Zhou, Tianhang; Yu, Xin

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL-30, 4th version, 30 items) among government staff in the Wenchuan earthquake-stricken areas A total of 1,175 members of government staff in the Wenchuan earthquake-stricken areas were selected by convenience sampling and required to complete the ProQOL and Self-Reporting Questionnair (SRQ). The reliability and validity of the scale was evaluated by correlation analysis, t-test, and confirmatory factor analysis. Item-total correlation coefficients of the three subscales were 0.590 - 0.752, 0.389 - 0.603, and 0.340 - 0.647, respectively (P<0.05), and the average coefficients were 0.672, 0.482, and 0.555 respectively (P<0.05). The Cronbach's α coefficients of the three subscales were 0.864, 0.569, and 0.742 respectively, and the split-half reliabilities were 0.829, 0.490, and 0.677, respectively. P value was 0.88 in thE chi-square test of confirmatory factor analysis model. Goodness-of-fit indices of ProQOL-30 included GFI=0.895 NFI=0.856, CFI=0.895, RMSEA=0.063, and AGFI=0.912. For the ProQOL-28 as an optimized version o ProQOL-30, the Cronbach's a coefficients for burnout and trauma/compassion fatigue increased to 0.616 and 0.757, respectively. P value was 0.91 in the chi-square test of confirmatory factor analysis model test. Goodness-of-fit indices of ProQOL-28 were GFI =0.913, AGFI =0.924, NFI =0.900, CFI =0.913, and RMSEA =0.031 CONCLUSION: ProQOL-28 has good reliability and validity among government staff in the earthquake-stricker areas in China.

  2. Geochemistry of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake, southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The spatio-temporal variations of soil gas in the seismic fault zone produced by the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake were investigated based on the field measurements of soil gas concentrations after the main shock. Concentrations of He, H2, CO2, CH4, O2, N2, Rn, and Hg in soil gas were measured in the field at eight short profiles across the seismic rupture zone in June and December 2008 and July 2009. Soil-gas concentrations of more than 800 sampling sites were obtained. The data showed that the magnitudes of the He and H2 anomalies of three surveys declined significantly with decreasing strength of the aftershocks with time. The maximum concentrations of He and H2 (40 and 279.4 ppm, respectively) were found in three replicates at the south part of the rupture zone close to the epicenter. The spatio-temporal variations of CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations differed obviously between the north and south parts of the fault zone. The maximum He and H2 concentrations in Jun 2008 occurred near the parts of the rupture zone where vertical displacements were larger. The anomalies of He, H2, CO2, Rn, and Hg concentrations could be related to the variation in the regional stress field and the aftershock activity. PMID:21134257

  3. Combined effects of climate, restoration measures and slope position in change in soil chemical properties and nutrient loss across lands affected by the Wenchuan Earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yongming; Deng, Haojun; Du, Kun; Rafay, Loretta; Zhang, Guang-Shuai; Li, Jian; Chen, Can; Wu, Chengzhen; Lin, Han; Yu, Wei; Fan, Hailan; Ge, Yonggang

    2017-10-15

    The MS 8.0Wenchuan Earthquake in 2008 caused huge damage to land cover in the northwest of China's Sichuan province. In order to determine the nutrient loss and short term characteristics of change in soil chemical properties, we established an experiment with three treatments ('undestroyed', 'destroyed and treated', and 'destroyed and untreated'), two climate types (semi-arid hot climate and subtropical monsoon climate), and three slope positions (upslope, mid-slope, and bottom-slope) in 2011. Ten soil properties-including pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium-were measured in surface soil samples in December 2014. Analyses were performed to compare the characteristics of 3-year change in soil chemical properties in two climate zones. This study revealed that soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, Ca 2+ content, alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium were significantly higher in subtropical monsoon climate zones than in semi-arid hot climate zones. However, subtropical monsoon climate zones had a higher decrease in soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, and alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen in 'destroyed and untreated' sites than in semi-arid hot climate zones. Most soil chemical properties exhibited significant interactions, indicating that they may degrade or develop concomitantly. 'Destroyed and treated' sites in both climate types had lower C:P and N:P ratios than 'destroyed and untreated' sites. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the first, second, and third principal components explained 76.53% of the variation and might be interpreted as structural integrity, nutrient supply availability, and efficiency of soil; the difference of soil parent material; as well as weathering and leaching effects. Our study indicated that the characteristics of short term

  4. Lg Attenuation and Site Response in the SiChuan basin and the Bayan Har block before the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.

    2017-12-01

    On 12 May, 2008, the Sichuan province in China suffered the catastrophic Wenchuan earthquake (MS 8). Prior to the event, a large number of small to moderate earthquakes occurred in the area were recorded at stations of SiChuan Seismic Network (SCSN). The wave data were collected during the years 2006-2008, The Fourier amplitude spectra of Lg wave are used to determine attenuation and site responses. We analyze over 3300 seismograms for Lg-wave propagation from 291 local and regional earthquakes recorded at distances from 100 to 700 km, the earthquakes varied in ML2.0 and 5.7.A joint inversion method estimating attenuation and site responses from seismic spectral ratios is implemented in the study; modeling errors are determined using a delete-j jackknife resampling technique.Variations of the Lg attenuation in a chronological order are studied. The event occurred on the Longmen Shan Fault (LSF), the LSF constitutes boundary betweeb Bayan Har block and eastern. The data are divided into two subgroups based on the seismic ray paths which contained entirely within the SiChuan basin or the Bayan Har block. The waveforms were processed in a frequency range of 1-7 Hz with an interval of 0.2 Hz. On the vertical component, Lg Attenuation in the Bayan Har block are fit by a frequency-dependent function Q(f)=250.2±13.7f0.52±0.03,the SiChuan basin is characterized by function Q(f)=193±23f0.0.81±0.05. The obtained attenuation curves indicate that the spectral amplitudes decay faster in the SiChuan basin than in the Bayan Har block. Site responses from the 48 stations are estimated, the site responses vary among these stations by more than a factor of 10 within the frequency range of interest.The results from the regrouping of data in chronological order show that when the Whenchuan earthquake is approaching, the changes in attenuation occur significantly, but the changes in site responses do not occur.

  5. Deep conductivity characteristics and preliminary acquaintance of the Lushan earthquake, east edge of Tibetan Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Min, G.

    2013-12-01

    1. Introduction The Longmenshan foreland basin developed as a flexural foredeep at western Yangtze Platfrom during the Late Triassic Indosinian orogeny with strong tectonic activity. 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw7.9) happened along the middle segment of the Longmenshan overthrusting belt. 2013 Lushan earthquake (Mw6.6) occurred along the south segment of Longmenshan tectonic zone which belongs to seismic gap during the Wenchuan earthquake. The recent researches ( Yan Zhan etc., 2013; Zhuqi Zhang etc., 2013; Xiwei Xu etc., 2013) indicate that the Lushan earthquake may closely related to the activity of Longmenshan ';s piedmont fault zone while the seismogenic fault and other issues are still controversial. In order to provide an electromagnetic basis in deep earthquake area structure, we detect magnetotelluric(MT) sounding in Lushan earthquake zone to obtain the electrical structure characteristics of Longmenshan's south segment. 2. Data acquisition and processing To research the deep electrical structure of earthquake zone assigning a MT profile through the epicenter which transects the Sichuan platform concave, Longmenshan tectonic belt and Songpan-Ganzi fold system. To analysis the MT data, we carried out the impedance tensor decompositionincluding the swift rotation and bahr method which based on the phase deviation. Ultimately, NLCG method was adopted to inverse MT data. 3. Conclusion The result of MT data discloses deep electrical structure feature of the southern section of Longmenshan overthrusting belt: the burial depth of conductive layer in the upper crust of Songpan-Ganzi plot is larger than that of middle-northern part; there is no conductive zone in Longmenshan high resistance body which connect with the high conductivity layer in the crust of the western section of Songpan-Ganzi plot; there exists a relatively large range of conductive zone in the basin to Longmenshan tectonic belt, which is mostly related to the piedmont of concealed fault zone and

  6. Hydraulic properties of samples retrieved from the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Project Hole-1 (WFSD-1) and the surface rupture zone: Implications for coseismic slip weakening and fault healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianye; Yang, Xiaosong; Ma, Shengli; Yang, Tao; Niemeijer, André

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we report the hydraulic properties of samples recovered from the first borehole of the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling and from outcrops associated with the surface rupture zone of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Compositional and microstructural analyses have also been performed on selected samples. Using the pore pressure oscillation method, the permeability measurements show that (1) fault gouge samples have low permeabilities, decreasing from 2 × 10-18 m2 at an effective pressure (Pe) of 10 MPa (equivalent to an in situ depth of 600 m) to 9 × 10-21 m2 at 155 MPa. (2) Intact and cemented samples are impermeable with permeabilities less than 2 × 10-20 m2 at 10 MPa. (3) Fractured samples have variable permeabilities, ranging from 3 × 10-15 to 1 × 10-20 m2 at 10 MPa, and are most insensitive to changes in the effective pressure. (4) Granitic cataclasites have a moderate permeability at low pressure (i.e., 10-16 to 10-17 m2 at 10 MPa); which decreases rapidly with increasing Pe. Hydraulic conduction of the fault is believed to be influenced by the permeability of the fractures developed, which is controlled by the density, aperture, and/or connectivity of the fractures. Microstructural and compositional analyses of the samples indicate that the fault zone heals through chemically mediated fracture closure related to mineral precipitation, possibly assisted by pressure solution of stressed fracture asperities. Although other weakening mechanisms remain possible, our laboratory measurements combined with numerical modeling reveal that thermal/thermochemical pressurization, perhaps leading to gouge fluidization, played an important role in the dynamic weakening of the Wenchuan earthquake, at least in the study area.

  7. Methodology to determine the parameters of historical earthquakes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Lin, Guoliang; Zhang, Zhe

    2017-12-01

    China is one of the countries with the longest cultural tradition. Meanwhile, China has been suffering very heavy earthquake disasters; so, there are abundant earthquake recordings. In this paper, we try to sketch out historical earthquake sources and research achievements in China. We will introduce some basic information about the collections of historical earthquake sources, establishing intensity scale and the editions of historical earthquake catalogues. Spatial-temporal and magnitude distributions of historical earthquake are analyzed briefly. Besides traditional methods, we also illustrate a new approach to amend the parameters of historical earthquakes or even identify candidate zones for large historical or palaeo-earthquakes. In the new method, a relationship between instrumentally recorded small earthquakes and strong historical earthquakes is built up. Abundant historical earthquake sources and the achievements of historical earthquake research in China are of valuable cultural heritage in the world.

  8. Motor function and activities of daily living capacity of patients with fractures sustained during the Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Long; He, Hong-Chen; Lin, Hai-Dan; Luo, Qing-Lu; Xia, Lu; Li, Sha-Sha; He, Cheng-Qi

    2011-05-01

    On the afternoon of May 12, 2008, a 8.0-magnitude earthquake hit Sichuan Province, a mountainous region in Western China, killing about 70 000 people and leaving over 18 000 missing. What about the survivors motor functions and activities of daily living (ADL) capacity, especially for fractures? We need the data to guide the rehabilitation for the seismic wounded and it's important to collect the data for the future. We study the survivors to understand the motor functions and ADL capacity of patients with fractures sustained in the Wenchuan earthquake, to provide a basis for rehabilitation and treatment. We used the Manual Muscle Testing method to evaluate muscle strength, the joint angle scale to measure joint range of motion (ROM), and the Barthel index to evaluate the activities of daily living status. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data and the results were tested using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The number of seismic wounded amounted to 487; 81.1% of patients had fractures. Most of the injured had fractures in multiple regions (53.9% of all fracture patients), followed by fractures of the upper limb (34.0% of patients); cranial fractures were rare (2.3%). Totally 82.0% had restricted range of motion, 23.5% had decreased muscle force, and 72.2% of the patients had restricted activities of daily living capacities. With time the activities of daily living capacity of female increased (P < 0.05), compared with the male fracture patients who did not show any relative improvement (P > 0.05). The difference between the patients' ages and ADL capacities did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05), nor was there a significant difference between their ages and the numbers of days in hospital (P > 0.05). Fractures were the main issue in the seismic wounded, many of them had reductions in the ROM, muscle force and ADL capacities. The physicians involved in rehabilitation should pay greater attention to muscle force exercises, joint

  9. Fault geometry and slip distribution of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan, China earthquake, inferred from GPS and InSAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yongge; Shen, Zheng-Kang; Bürgmann, Roland; Sun, Jianbao; Wang, Min

    2017-02-01

    We revisit the problem of coseismic rupture of the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. Precise determination of the fault structure and slip distribution provides critical information about the mechanical behaviour of the fault system and earthquake rupture. We use all the geodetic data available, craft a more realistic Earth structure and fault model compared to previous studies, and employ a nonlinear inversion scheme to optimally solve for the fault geometry and slip distribution. Compared to a homogeneous elastic half-space model and laterally uniform layered models, adopting separate layered elastic structure models on both sides of the Beichuan fault significantly improved data fitting. Our results reveal that: (1) The Beichuan fault is listric in shape, with near surface fault dip angles increasing from ˜36° at the southwest end to ˜83° at the northeast end of the rupture. (2) The fault rupture style changes from predominantly thrust at the southwest end to dextral at the northeast end of the fault rupture. (3) Fault slip peaks near the surface for most parts of the fault, with ˜8.4 m thrust and ˜5 m dextral slip near Hongkou and ˜6 m thrust and ˜8.4 m dextral slip near Beichuan, respectively. (4) The peak slips are located around fault geometric complexities, suggesting that earthquake style and rupture propagation were determined by fault zone geometric barriers. Such barriers exist primarily along restraining left stepping discontinuities of the dextral-compressional fault system. (5) The seismic moment released on the fault above 20 km depth is 8.2×1021 N m, corresponding to an Mw7.9 event. The seismic moments released on the local slip concentrations are equivalent to events of Mw7.5 at Yingxiu-Hongkou, Mw7.3 at Beichuan-Pingtong, Mw7.2 near Qingping, Mw7.1 near Qingchuan, and Mw6.7 near Nanba, respectively. (6) The fault geometry and kinematics are consistent with a model in which crustal deformation at the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau is

  10. A survey of the practice of nurses' skills in Wenchuan earthquake disaster sites: implications for disaster training.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huahua; He, Haiyan; Arbon, Paul; Zhu, Jingci

    2011-10-01

    To determine nursing skills most relevant for nurses participating in disaster response medical teams; make recommendations to enhance training of nurses who will be first responders to a disaster site; to improve the capacity of nurses to prepare and respond to severe natural disasters. Worldwide, nurses play a key role in disaster response teams at disaster sites. They are often not prepared for the challenges of dealing with mass casualties; little research exists into what basic nursing skills are required by nurses who are first responders to a disaster situation. This study assessed the most relevant disaster nursing skills of first responder nurses at the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake disaster site. Data were collected in China in 2008 using a self-designed questionnaire, with 24 participants who had been part of the medical teams that were dispatched to the disaster sites. The top three skills essential for nurses were: intravenous insertion; observation and monitoring; mass casualty triage. The three most frequently used skills were: debridement and dressing; observation and monitoring; intravenous insertion. The three skills performed most proficiently were: intravenous insertion; observation and monitoring; urethral catheterization. The top three ranking skills most important for training were: mass casualty transportation; emergency management; haemostasis, bandaging, fixation, manual handling. The core nursing skills for disaster response training are: mass casualty transportation; emergency management; haemostasis, bandaging, fixation, manual handling; observation and monitoring; mass casualty triage; controlling specific infection; psychological crisis intervention; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; debridement and dressing; central venous catheter insertion; patient care recording. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Scoring annual earthquake predictions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Jiang, Changsheng

    2012-02-01

    The Annual Consultation Meeting on Earthquake Tendency in China is held by the China Earthquake Administration (CEA) in order to provide one-year earthquake predictions over most China. In these predictions, regions of concern are denoted together with the corresponding magnitude range of the largest earthquake expected during the next year. Evaluating the performance of these earthquake predictions is rather difficult, especially for regions that are of no concern, because they are made on arbitrary regions with flexible magnitude ranges. In the present study, the gambling score is used to evaluate the performance of these earthquake predictions. Based on a reference model, this scoring method rewards successful predictions and penalizes failures according to the risk (probability of being failure) that the predictors have taken. Using the Poisson model, which is spatially inhomogeneous and temporally stationary, with the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquake magnitudes as the reference model, we evaluate the CEA predictions based on 1) a partial score for evaluating whether issuing the alarmed regions is based on information that differs from the reference model (knowledge of average seismicity level) and 2) a complete score that evaluates whether the overall performance of the prediction is better than the reference model. The predictions made by the Annual Consultation Meetings on Earthquake Tendency from 1990 to 2003 are found to include significant precursory information, but the overall performance is close to that of the reference model.

  12. Prospective Study on the Effectiveness of Complementary Food Supplements on Improving Status of Elder Infants and Young Children in the Areas Affected by Wenchuan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Caixia; Ge, Pengfei; Ren, Xiaolan; Wang, Jie; Fan, Haoqiang; Yan, Xiang; Yin, Shi-an

    2013-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate the efficiency of daily providing complementary food supplements decreasing malnutrition and anemia prevalence in elder infants and young children living in areas affected by Wenchuan Earthquake. Design Using promotional probability sampling method, 250 to 300 children from six-randomized townships (30 to 50 children in each township) in Kang County affected by the Earthquake were randomly chosen for follow up to evaluate intervention effectiveness using anthropometric measurement and hemoglobin level at six, twelve and eighteen months after start of intervention. Setting and Subjects All children from 6 to 18 months of age in Kang County (in North Western China) were daily provided with complementary food supplements containing multiple vitamins and minerals for up to 24 months of age. The intervention period lasted for one and half year. Results At beginning of intervention, malnutrition prevalence, including underweight, stunting and wasting were respectively 4.5%, 8.9% and 3.5%; anemia prevalence was 74.3%. After one and half year intervention, the growth and anemia status were significantly improved; the percentages of wasting, stunting underweight prevalence were decreased from 3.5%, 8.9% and 4.5% to 1.7%, 5.0% and 3.3% respectively, and the anemia rates were significantly decreased. Conclusions Our results indicated that an intervention using complementary food supplements could improve nutritional status and elevate hemoglobin level in elder infants and young children, which would significantly decrease the prevalence of malnutrition and anemia. PMID:24039797

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder and posttraumatic growth coexistence and the risk factors in Wenchuan earthquake survivors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhibin; Xu, Jiuping; Sui, Yan

    2016-03-30

    Various studies have assessed the negative and/or positive changes in the aftermath of traumatic events. Yet few of these have addressed the factors associated with the coexistence of both negative and positive changes after a devastating earthquake. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between the negative and positive changes and elucidate the risk factors of such changes one year after Wenchuan earthquake. A total of 2080 survivors from 19 counties participated in a self-report questionnaire survey which included the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Check list-Civilian, the posttraumatic growth PTG Inventory (PTGI). The prevalence of PTSD and moderate PTG was found to be 40.1% (95% CI [37.9% 42.3%]) and 51.1% (95% CI [48.9% 53.3%]). The PTSD and moderate PTG coexistence was 19.6% (95% CI [17.8% 21.4%]). PTSD symptom severity was significantly positively associated with the PTG score. Middle aged groups (31-40 and 41-50 years old, OR=2.323, 95% CI [1.059, 5.095] and OR=2.410, 95% CI [1.090, 5.329] respectively), those with lower income levels (OR=8.019, 95% CI [2.421, 26.558]), those living in temporary house (OR=1.946, 95% CI [1.280, 2.956]), and those who had had less social support (OR=1.109, 95% CI [1.076, 1.143]) had a significantly higher possibility for the presence of PTSD and moderate PTG coexistence. The results indicated the widespread positive changes in earthquake survivors. Better income levels and living conditions and higher social support were suggested to promote PTG in those with PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Resilience of an Earthquake-Stricken Rural Community in Southwest China: Correlation with Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ke; Han, Ziqiang; Wang, Dongming

    2018-02-27

    Disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities have given growing attention to building community resilience, but the effects of such efforts on community resilience are still under-investigated, especially in China where the concept of community resilience has only just emerged. Using the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit Assessment Survey, data on self-perceived community resilience were collected in 2017 from a post-disaster Chinese rural community in Yingxiu Town, which was the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake (Magnitude = 8.0) in the year 2008. Linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the correlations between residents' DRR behaviors and perceived community resilience with the control of their socio-demographic characteristics including age, ethnicity, gender, education, income level, employment status and marital status. Results indicate that residents who volunteered for DRR activities received geological disaster education, participated in evacuation drills, and reported higher income levels had a perception of higher community resilience. Practice research is suggested to help clarify the cause and effect of DRR work on the enhancement of community resilience to disasters in China and abroad. Attention is also called to the development of a Chinese indigenous community resilience concept and assessment instrument.

  15. Resilience of an Earthquake-Stricken Rural Community in Southwest China: Correlation with Disaster Risk Reduction Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ke; Wang, Dongming

    2018-01-01

    Disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities have given growing attention to building community resilience, but the effects of such efforts on community resilience are still under-investigated, especially in China where the concept of community resilience has only just emerged. Using the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit Assessment Survey, data on self-perceived community resilience were collected in 2017 from a post-disaster Chinese rural community in Yingxiu Town, which was the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake (Magnitude = 8.0) in the year 2008. Linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the correlations between residents’ DRR behaviors and perceived community resilience with the control of their socio-demographic characteristics including age, ethnicity, gender, education, income level, employment status and marital status. Results indicate that residents who volunteered for DRR activities, received geological disaster education, participated in evacuation drills, and reported higher income levels had a perception of higher community resilience. Practice research is suggested to help clarify the cause and effect of DRR work on the enhancement of community resilience to disasters in China and abroad. Attention is also called to the development of a Chinese indigenous community resilience concept and assessment instrument. PMID:29495473

  16. Analysis on Two Typical Landslide Hazard Phenomena in The Wenchuan Earthquake by Field Investigations and Shaking Table Tests.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changwei; Zhang, Jianjing; Liu, Feicheng; Bi, Junwei; Jun, Zhang

    2015-08-06

    Based on our field investigations of landslide hazards in the Wenchuan earthquake, some findings can be reported: (1) the multi-aspect terrain facing empty isolated mountains and thin ridges reacted intensely to the earthquake and was seriously damaged; (2) the slope angles of most landslides was larger than 45°. Considering the above disaster phenomena, the reasons are analyzed based on shaking table tests of one-sided, two-sided and four-sided slopes. The analysis results show that: (1) the amplifications of the peak accelerations of four-sided slopes is stronger than that of the two-sided slopes, while that of the one-sided slope is the weakest, which can indirectly explain the phenomena that the damage is most serious; (2) the amplifications of the peak accelerations gradually increase as the slope angles increase, and there are two inflection points which are the point where the slope angle is 45° and where the slope angle is 50°, respectively, which can explain the seismic phenomenon whereby landslide hazards mainly occur on the slopes whose slope angle is bigger than 45°. The amplification along the slope strike direction is basically consistent, and the step is smooth.

  17. Analysis on Two Typical Landslide Hazard Phenomena in The Wenchuan Earthquake by Field Investigations and Shaking Table Tests

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Changwei; Zhang, Jianjing; Liu, Feicheng; Bi, Junwei; Jun, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Based on our field investigations of landslide hazards in the Wenchuan earthquake, some findings can be reported: (1) the multi-aspect terrain facing empty isolated mountains and thin ridges reacted intensely to the earthquake and was seriously damaged; (2) the slope angles of most landslides was larger than 45°. Considering the above disaster phenomena, the reasons are analyzed based on shaking table tests of one-sided, two-sided and four-sided slopes. The analysis results show that: (1) the amplifications of the peak accelerations of four-sided slopes is stronger than that of the two-sided slopes, while that of the one-sided slope is the weakest, which can indirectly explain the phenomena that the damage is most serious; (2) the amplifications of the peak accelerations gradually increase as the slope angles increase, and there are two inflection points which are the point where the slope angle is 45° and where the slope angle is 50°, respectively, which can explain the seismic phenomenon whereby landslide hazards mainly occur on the slopes whose slope angle is bigger than 45°. The amplification along the slope strike direction is basically consistent, and the step is smooth. PMID:26258785

  18. Effects of gravel on infiltration, runoff, and sediment yield in landslide deposit slope in Wenchuan earthquake area, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianyang; He, Binghui; Chen, Zhanpeng; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Chuan; Wang, Renxin

    2016-06-01

    Amounts of landslide deposits were triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake with magnitude 8.0 on May 12, 2008. The landslide deposits were composed of soil and rock fragments, which play important roles in hydrological and erosion processes in the steep slope of landslide deposits. The mixtures of soil and gravels are common in the top layers of landslide deposits, and its processes are obviously different with the soil without gravels. Based on the data of field investigation, a series of simulated scouring flow experiments with four proportion of gravel (0, 25, 33.3, and 50 %) and three scouring flow rates (4, 8, 12 L/min) under two steep slopes (67.5, 72.7 %) were conducted sequentially to know the effects of proportion of gravel on infiltration capacity, runoff generation, and sediment production in the steep slope of landslide deposit. Results indicated that gravel had promoted or reduced effects on infiltration capacity which could affect further the cumulative runoff volume and cumulative sediment mass increase or decrease. The cumulative infiltration volume in 25 % proportion of gravel was less than those in 0, 33.3, and 50 % proportion of gravel. The cumulative runoff volume was in an order of 25 > 0 > 33.3 > 50 % while cumulative sediment mass ranked as 25 > 33.3 > 0 > 50 % with different proportions of gravel. A significant power relationship was found between scouring time and cumulative runoff volume as well as cumulative sediment mass. The relationship between average soil and water loss rate and proportion of gravel was able to express by quadratic function, with a high degree of reliability. The results have important implications for soil and water conservation and modeling in landslide deposit but also provide useful information for the similar conditions.

  19. Mineralogical compositions of fault rocks from surface ruptures of Wenchuan earthquake and implication of mineral transformation during the seismic cycle along Yingxiu-Beichuan fault, Sichuan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Jiaxiang; Zhou, Yongsheng; He, Changrong; Ma, Shengli

    2018-06-01

    There are two co-seismic bedrock surface ruptures from the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the northern and central parts of the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault, Sichuan Province, southwest China. In this study, we report on the macrostructure of the fault rocks and results from X-ray powder diffraction analysis of minerals from rocks in the fault zone. The most recent fault gouge (the gouge produced by the most recent co-seismic fault movement) in all the studied outcrops is dark or grayish-black, totally unconsolidated and ultrafine-grained. Older fault gouges in the same outcrops are grayish or yellowish and weakly consolidated. X-ray powder diffraction analysis results show that mineral assemblages in both the old fault gouge and the new fault gouge are more complicated than the mineral assemblages in the bedrock as the fault gouge is rich in clay minerals. The fault gouge inherited its major rock-forming minerals from the parent rocks, but the clay minerals in the fault gouge were generated in the fault zone and are therefore authigenic and synkinematic. In profiles across the fault, clay mineral abundances increase as one traverses from the bedrock to the breccia to the old gouge and from the old gouge to the new gouge. Quartz and illite are found in all collected gouge samples. The dominant clay minerals in the new fault gouge are illite and smectite along the northern part of the surface rupture and illite/smectite mixed-layer clay in the middle part of the rupture. Illite/smectite mixed-layer clay found in the middle part of the rupture indicates that fault slip was accompanied by K-rich fluid circulation. The existence of siderite, anhydrite, and barite in the northern part of the rupture suggests that fault slip at this locality was accompanied by acidic fluids containing ions of Fe, Ca, and Ba.

  20. Determination of three-dimensional stress orientations in the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) hole-1: A preliminary result by anelastic strain recovery measurements of core samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Lin, W.; Wang, L.; Tang, Z.; Sun, D.; Gao, L.; Wang, W.

    2010-12-01

    A great and destructive earthquake (Ms 8.0; Mw 7.9), Wunchuan earthquake struck on the Longmen Shan foreland trust zone in Sichuan province, China on 12 May 2008 (Xu et al., 2008; Episodes, Vol.31, pp.291-301). As a rapid response scientific drilling project, Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) started on 6 November 2008 shorter than a half of year from the date of earthquake main shock. The first pilot borehole (hole-1) has been drilled to the target depth (measured depth 1201 m MD, vertical depth 1179 m) at Hongkou, Dujianyan, Sichuan and passed through the main fault of the earthquake around 589 m MD. We are trying to determine three dimensional in-situ stress states in the WFSD boreholes by a core-based method, anelastic strain recovery (ASR) method (Lin et al., 2006; Tectonophysics, Vol4.26, pp.221-238). This method has been applied in several scientific drilling projects (TCDP: Lin et al., 2007; TAO, Vol.18, pp.379-393; NanTtoSEIZE: Byrne et al., 2009; GRL, Vol.36, L23310). These applications confirm the validity of using the ASR technique in determining in situ stresses by using drilled cores. We collected total 15 core samples in a depth range from 340 m MD to 1180 m MD, approximately for ASR measurements. Anelastic normal strains, measured every ten minutes in nine directions, including six independent directions, were used to calculate the anelastic strain tensors. The data of the ASR tests conducted at hole-1 is still undergoing analysis. As a tentative perspective, more than 10 core samples showed coherent strain recovery over one - two weeks. However, 2 or 3 core samples cannot be re-orientated to the global system. It means that we cannot rink the stress orientation determined by the core samples to geological structure. Unfortunately, a few core samples showed irregular strain recovery and were not analyzed further. The preliminary results of ASR tests at hole-1 show the stress orientations and stress regime changes a lot with the

  1. Environmental impact of CO2, Rn, Hg degassing from the rupture zones produced by Wenchuan M s 8.0 earthquake in western Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaocheng; Chen, Zhi; Cui, Yueju

    2016-10-01

    The concentrations and flux of CO2, (222)Radon (Rn), and gaseous elemental mercury (Hg) in soil gas were investigated based on the field measurements in June 2010 at ten sites along the seismic rupture zones produced by the May 12, 2008, Wenchuan M s 8.0 earthquake in order to assess the environmental impact of degassing of CO2, Rn and Hg. Soil gas concentrations of 344 sampling points were obtained. Seventy measurements of CO2, Rn and Hg flux by the static accumulation chamber method were performed. The results of risk assessment of CO2, Rn and Hg concentration in soil gas showed that (1) the concentration of CO2 in the epicenter of Wenchuan M s 8.0 earthquake and north end of seismic ruptures had low risk of asphyxia; (2) the concentrations of Rn in the north segment of seismic ruptures had high levels of radon, Maximum was up to level 4, according to Chinese code (GB 50325-2001); (3) the average geoaccumulation index I geo of soil Hg denoted the lack of soil contamination, and maximum values classified the soil gas as moderately to strongly polluted in the epicenter. The investigation of soil gas CO2, Rn and Hg degassing rate indicated that (1) the CO2 in soil gas was characterized by a mean [Formula: see text] of -20.4 ‰ and by a mean CO2 flux of 88.1 g m(-2) day(-1), which were in the range of the typical values for biologic CO2 degassing. The maximum of soil CO2 flux reached values of 399 g m(-2) day(-1) in the epicenter; (2) the soil Rn had higher exhalation in the north segment of seismic ruptures, the maximum reached value of 1976 m Bq m(-2) s(-1); (3) the soil Hg flux was lower, ranging from -2.5 to 18.7 n g m(-2) h(-1) and increased from south to north. The mean flux over the all profiles was 4.2 n g m(-2) h(-1). The total output of CO2 and Hg degassing estimated along seismic ruptures for a survey area of 18.17 km(2) were approximately 0.57 Mt year(-1) and 688.19 g year(-1). It is recommended that land-use planners should

  2. Slip History of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake Constrained by Joint Inverting Seismic, Geodetic, and Geological Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, G.; Ji, C.; Lu, Z.; Hudnut, K. W.; Liu, J.; Zhang, W.

    2009-12-01

    We study the kinematic rupture process of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake using all geophysical and geological datasets that we are able to access, including the waveforms of teleseismic long period surface waves, broadband body waves and local strong motions, GPS vectors, interferometic radar (INSAR) images, and geological surface offsets. The relocated aftershock locations have also been included to constrain the potential fault geometry. These datasets have very different sensitivities to not only the slip on the fault but also the “a priori” information of the source inversions, such as the local velocity structure and the details of irregular fault surface. Effects have then been made to reconcile these datasets by reasonably perturbing the velocity structure and fault geometry, which are both poorly constrained. We have used two 1D velocity models, one for the Tibet plateau and the other for Sichuan basin, to calculate the static and dynamic earth responses; and developed a complex fault system including two irregular fault planes for Beichuan and Pengguan faults, respectively. The long wavelength errors of the INSAR LOS displacements have also been considered and been corrected simultaneously during the joint inversions. Our preferred model not only explains the geodetic and tele-seismic data very well, but also reasonably matches most strong motion waveforms. According to this result, the Wenchuan earthquake has an unprecedented complex rupture process. It initiated southwest of the town of Yingxiu at a depth of about 12 km, where the low-angle Pengguan fault and the high-angle Beichuan fault intersect. The rupture initiated on the low angle Pengguan fault and then later triggered the rupture on the high angle Beichuan fault. It then unilaterally ruptured northeastward for 270 km, mainly on the Beichuan fault. The entire rupture duration is over 95 seconds with an average rupture velocity of 3.0 km/s. Except for the region near the hypocenter and

  3. Analysis of post-earthquake landslide activity and geo-environmental effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chenxiao; van Westen, Cees; Jetten, Victor

    2014-05-01

    Large earthquakes can cause huge losses to human society, due to ground shaking, fault rupture and due to the high density of co-seismic landslides that can be triggered in mountainous areas. In areas that have been affected by such large earthquakes, the threat of landslides continues also after the earthquake, as the co-seismic landslides may be reactivated by high intensity rainfall events. Earthquakes create Huge amount of landslide materials remain on the slopes, leading to a high frequency of landslides and debris flows after earthquakes which threaten lives and create great difficulties in post-seismic reconstruction in the earthquake-hit regions. Without critical information such as the frequency and magnitude of landslides after a major earthquake, reconstruction planning and hazard mitigation works appear to be difficult. The area hit by Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, Sichuan province, China, shows some typical examples of bad reconstruction planning due to lack of information: huge debris flows destroyed several re-constructed settlements. This research aim to analyze the decay in post-seismic landslide activity in areas that have been hit by a major earthquake. The areas hit by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake will be taken a study area. The study will analyze the factors that control post-earthquake landslide activity through the quantification of the landslide volume changes well as through numerical simulation of their initiation process, to obtain a better understanding of the potential threat of post-earthquake landslide as a basis for mitigation planning. The research will make use of high-resolution stereo satellite images, UAV and Terrestrial Laser Scanning(TLS) to obtain multi-temporal DEM to monitor the change of loose sediments and post-seismic landslide activities. A debris flow initiation model that incorporates the volume of source materials, vegetation re-growth, and intensity-duration of the triggering precipitation, and that evaluates

  4. Co-located ionospheric and geomagnetic disturbances caused by great earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Zuo

    2016-07-01

    Despite primary energy disturbances from the Sun, oscillations of the Earth surface due to a large earthquake will couple with the atmosphere and therefore the ionosphere, to generate so-called coseismic ionospheric disturbances (CIDs). In the cases of 2008 Wenchuan and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes, infrasonic waves accompanying the propagation of seismic Rayleigh waves were observed in the ionosphere by a combination of techniques, total electron content, HF Doppler, and ground magnetometer. This is the very first report to present CIDs recorded by different techniques at co-located sites and profiled with regard to changes of both ionospheric plasma and current (geomagnetic field) simultaneously. Comparison between the oceanic (2011 Tohoku) and inland (2008 Wenchuan) earthquakes revealed that the main directional lobe of latter case is more distinct which is perpendicular to the direction of the fault rupture. We argue that the different fault slip (inland or submarine) may affect the way of couplings of lithosphere with atmosphere. Zhao, B., and Y. Hao (2015), Ionospheric and geomagnetic disturbances caused by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake: A revisit, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/2015JA021035. Hao, Y. Q., et al. (2013), Teleseismic magnetic effects (TMDs) of 2011 Tohoku earthquake, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1002/jgra.50326. Hao, Y. Q., et al. (2012), Multi-instrument observation on co-seismic ionospheric effects after great Tohoku earthquake, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2011JA017036.

  5. Mapping individuals' earthquake preparedness in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guochun; Han, Ziqiang; Xu, Weijin; Gong, Yue

    2018-05-01

    Disaster preparedness is critical for reducing potential impact. This paper contributes to current knowledge of disaster preparedness using representative national sample data from China, which faces high earthquake risks in many areas of the country. The adoption of earthquake preparedness activities by the general public, including five indicators of material preparedness and five indicators of awareness preparedness, were surveyed and 3245 respondents from all 31 provinces of Mainland China participated in the survey. Linear regression models and logit regression models were used to analyze the effects of potential influencing factors. Overall, the preparedness levels are not satisfied, with a material preparation score of 3.02 (1-5), and awareness preparation score of 2.79 (1-5), nationally. Meanwhile, residents from western China, which has higher earthquake risk, have higher degrees of preparedness. The concern for disaster risk reduction (DRR) and the concern for building safety and participation in public affairs are consistent positive predictors of both material and awareness preparedness. The demographic and socioeconomic variables' effects, such as gender, age, education, income, urban/rural division, and building size, vary according to different preparedness activities. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the theoretical contribution and potential implementation.

  6. Modeling Channel Movement Response to Rainfall Variability and Potential Threats to Post-earthquake Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J.; Wang, M.; Liu, K.

    2017-12-01

    The 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake caused overwhelming destruction to vast mountains areas in Sichuan province. Numerous seismic landslides damaged the forest and vegetation cover, and caused substantial loose sediment piling up in the valleys. The movement and fill-up of loose materials led to riverbeds aggradation, thus made the earthquake-struck area more susceptible to flash floods with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme rainfalls. This study investigated the response of sediment and river channel evolution to different rainfall scenarios after the Wenchuan earthquake. The study area was chosen in a catchment affected by the earthquake in Northeast Sichuan province, China. We employed the landscape evolution model CAESAR-lisflood to explore the material migration rules and then assessed the potential effects under two rainfall scenarios. The model parameters were calibrated using the 2013 extreme rainfall event, and the experimental rainfall scenarios were of different intensity and frequency over a 10-year period. The results indicated that CAESAR-lisflood was well adapted to replicate the sediment migration, particularly the fluvial processes after earthquake. With respect to the effects of rainfall intensity, the erosion severity in upstream gullies and the deposition severity in downstream channels, correspondingly increased with the increasing intensity of extreme rainfalls. The modelling results showed that buildings in the catchment suffered from flash floods increased by more than a quarter from the normal to the enhanced rainfall scenarios in ten years, which indicated a potential threat to the exposures nearby the river channel, in the context of climate change. Simulation on landscape change is of great significance, and contributes to early warning of potential geological risks after earthquake. Attention on the high risk area by local government and the public is highly suggested in our study.

  7. Co-seismic landslide topographic analysis based on multi-temporal DEM-A case study of the Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhikun; Zhang, Zhuqi; Dai, Fuchu; Yin, Jinhui; Zhang, Huiping

    2013-01-01

    Hillslope instability has been thought to be one of the most important factors for landslide susceptibility. In this study, we apply geomorphic analysis using multi-temporal DEM data and shake intensity analysis to evaluate the topographic characteristics of the landslide areas. There are many geomorphologic analysis methods such as roughness, slope aspect, which are also as useful as slope analysis. The analyses indicate that most of the co-seismic landslides occurred in regions with roughness, hillslope and slope aspect of >1.2, >30, and between 90 and 270, respectively. However, the intersection regions from the above three methods are more accurate than that derived by applying single topographic analysis method. The ground motion data indicates that the co-seismic landslides mainly occurred on the hanging wall side of Longmen Shan Thrust Belt within the up-down and horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) contour of 150 PGA and 200 gal, respectively. The comparisons of pre- and post-earthquake DEM data indicate that the medium roughness and slope increased, the roughest and steepest regions decreased after the Wenchuan earthquake. However, slope aspects did not even change. Our results indicate that co-seismic landslides mainly occurred at specific regions of high roughness, southward and steep sloping areas under strong ground motion. Co-seismic landslides significantly modified the local topography, especially the hillslope and roughness. The roughest relief and steepest slope are significantly smoothed; however, the medium relief and slope become rougher and steeper, respectively.

  8. Estimating Intensities and/or Strong Motion Parameters Using Civilian Monitoring Videos: The May 12, 2008, Wenchuan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaolin; Wu, Zhongliang; Jiang, Changsheng; Xia, Min

    2011-05-01

    One of the important issues in macroseismology and engineering seismology is how to get as much intensity and/or strong motion data as possible. We collected and studied several cases in the May 12, 2008, Wenchuan earthquake, exploring the possibility of estimating intensities and/or strong ground motion parameters using civilian monitoring videos which were deployed originally for security purposes. We used 53 video recordings in different places to determine the intensity distribution of the earthquake, which is shown to be consistent with the intensity distribution mapped by field investigation, and even better than that given by the Community Internet Intensity Map. In some of the videos, the seismic wave propagation is clearly visible, and can be measured with the reference of some artificial objects such as cars and/or trucks. By measuring the propagating wave, strong motion parameters can be roughly but quantitatively estimated. As a demonstration of this `propagating-wave method', we used a series of civilian videos recorded in different parts of Sichuan and Shaanxi and estimated the local PGAs. The estimate is compared with the measurement reported by strong motion instruments. The result shows that civilian monitoring video provide a practical way of collecting and estimating intensity and/or strong motion parameters, having the advantage of being dynamic, and being able to be played back for further analysis, reflecting a new trend for macroseismology in our digital era.

  9. Spatial-temporal evolutions of early aftershocks following the 2013 Mw 6.6 Lushan earthquake in Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jing; Yao, Dongdong; Meng, Xiaofeng; Peng, Zhigang; Su, Jinrong; Long, Feng

    2017-04-01

    We perform a comprehensive detection of early aftershocks following the 2013 Mw 6.6 Lushan earthquake, which occurred in the southern Longmenshan Fault Zone in Sichuan Province, China, about 5 years after the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. We use events in both standard and relocated catalogs as templates to scan through continuous waveforms 2 days before and 3 days after the main shock. We successfully reduce the magnitude of completeness Mc by more than 1 order and obtain up to 6 times more events than listed in both catalogs. Aftershocks in the first hour mostly occur around the main shock slip region, and aftershocks at later times show systematic expansions in the along-strike, perpendicular-strike, and updip directions. Although postseismic deformation following the Lushan main shock has not been clearly identified, we suggest that early aftershock expansions are likely driven by afterslip of the Lushan main shock. This is consistent with the observations that most aftershocks were in the stress shadow of the Lushan main shock and that there was significant slip deficit in the top 10 km of the crust. We also find that seismicity on the back thrust fault was activated as soon as 20 min after the main shock, earlier than previously reported. We are unable to detect any clear foreshocks in the last 2 days before the Lushan main shock.

  10. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in parents and adolescents after the Wenchuan earthquake: A longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuliang; Zhou, Ya; Geng, Fulei; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Jieying; Lei, Binbin; Chen, Siyi; Chen, Xiaoyan; Fan, Fang

    2018-01-15

    Previous research has examined the association between parents' and children's posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) after a variety of traumatic events. However, longitudinal parent-child dyadic studies are scarce. Independent self-reports were collected from parent-adolescent dyads (n = 688) after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Adolescents (Mean = 15.22 years; 61.63% female) and one of their parents (Mean = 41.04 years; 58.14% female) each reported on their PTSS at 12 (T 12m ) and 18 months (T 18m ) following the earthquake. Longitudinal actor-partner interdependence models (APIMs) were used to examine PTSS within dyads. The prevalence rates of probable PTSD at T 12m and T 18m were 18.90% and 11.92% in adolescents; as well as 22.09% and 15.12% in parents, showing a significant decline over time. After adjusted for earthquake exposure, both maternal and paternal PTSS at T 12m prospectively predicted adolescent girls' and boys' PTSS at T 18m (mother to daughter: β = 0.13; mother to son: β = 0.17; father to daughter: β = 0.17; father to son: β = 0.33), while adolescent girls' and boys' PTSS at T 12m only predicted maternal PTSS at T 18m (daughter to mother: β = 0.20; son to mother: β = 0.20), but not paternal PTSS at T 18m . Self-reported measures other than clinical reviews were used to collect data. This study highlights the mutual impacts of adolescent and parental (especially maternal) PTSS after a disaster. Psychological prevention and intervention for adolescent disaster survivors should adopt a whole family approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Developing a new perspective to study the health of survivors of Sichuan earthquakes in China: a study on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on survivors’ health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sichuan is a province in China with an extensive history of earthquakes. Recent earthquakes, including the Lushan earthquake in 2013, have resulted in thousands of people losing their homes and their families. However, there is a research gap on the efficiency of government support policies. Therefore, this study develops a new perspective to study the health of earthquake survivors, based on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of survivors of the Sichuan earthquake. Methods This study uses data from a survey conducted in five hard-hit counties (Wenchuan, Qingchuan, Mianzhu, Lushan, and Dujiangyan) in Sichuan in 2013. A total of 2,000 questionnaires were distributed, and 1,672 were returned; the response rate was 83.6%. Results Results of the rescue policies scale and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) scale passed the reliability test. The confirmatory factor analysis model showed that the physical component summary (PCS) directly affected the mental component summary (MCS). The results of structural equation model regarding the effects of rescue policies on HRQOL showed that the path coefficients of six policies (education, orphans, employment, poverty, legal, and social rescue policies) to the PCS of survivors were all positive and passed the test of significance. Finally, although only the path coefficient of the educational rescue policy to the MCS of survivors was positive and passed the test of significance, the other five policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. Conclusions The general HRQOL of survivors is not ideal; the survivors showed a low satisfaction with the post-earthquake rescue policies. Further, the six post-earthquake rescue policies significantly improved the HRQOL of survivors and directly affected the promotion of the PCS of survivors. Aside from the educational rescue policy, all other policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. This finding

  12. Developing a new perspective to study the health of survivors of Sichuan earthquakes in China: a study on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on survivors' health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying; Wang, Xiukun

    2013-10-29

    Sichuan is a province in China with an extensive history of earthquakes. Recent earthquakes, including the Lushan earthquake in 2013, have resulted in thousands of people losing their homes and their families. However, there is a research gap on the efficiency of government support policies. Therefore, this study develops a new perspective to study the health of earthquake survivors, based on the effect of post-earthquake rescue policies on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of survivors of the Sichuan earthquake. This study uses data from a survey conducted in five hard-hit counties (Wenchuan, Qingchuan, Mianzhu, Lushan, and Dujiangyan) in Sichuan in 2013. A total of 2,000 questionnaires were distributed, and 1,672 were returned; the response rate was 83.6%. Results of the rescue policies scale and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) scale passed the reliability test. The confirmatory factor analysis model showed that the physical component summary (PCS) directly affected the mental component summary (MCS). The results of structural equation model regarding the effects of rescue policies on HRQOL showed that the path coefficients of six policies (education, orphans, employment, poverty, legal, and social rescue policies) to the PCS of survivors were all positive and passed the test of significance. Finally, although only the path coefficient of the educational rescue policy to the MCS of survivors was positive and passed the test of significance, the other five policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. The general HRQOL of survivors is not ideal; the survivors showed a low satisfaction with the post-earthquake rescue policies. Further, the six post-earthquake rescue policies significantly improved the HRQOL of survivors and directly affected the promotion of the PCS of survivors. Aside from the educational rescue policy, all other policies affected the MCS indirectly through the PCS. This finding indicates relatively large differences in

  13. [The nutritional status of reproductive women at one year after the disaster of Earthquake in Wenchuan].

    PubMed

    Yin, Shi-an; Zhao, Xian-feng; Zhao, Li-yun; Fu, Ping; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Guan-sheng

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of Wenchuan Earthquake on the nutritional status and the prevalence of nutritional anemia, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and vitamin D deficiency among reproductive women (15 - 44 years old) in the disaster areas one year after the Earthquake. A nutritional survey was conducted in 3 counties in April 2009, one year after the Earthquake. Two towns from each county were selected as study sites, and this survey recruited 58 pregnant, 66 lactating and 242 non-pregnant-non-lactating women. A comparison was made to the results of 2002 Chinese Nutrition and Health Survey. The cereals and roots intakes of the pregnant, lactating and non-pregnant-non-lactating women living in the disaster area were (426.8 ± 271.8), (568.0 ± 306.1), and (483.0 ± 277.7) g/d respectively, which were almost the same results (486.8, 509.3 and 495.1 g/d, respectively) from 2002 National Nutrition and Health Survey. The fat and oil intakes were (41.9 ± 51.6), (55.5 ± 69.2), and (66.9 ± 125.7) g/d, respectively, which were also the same ad the results (45.2, 43.9 and 41.4 g/d, respectively) from 2002 National Nutrition and Health Survey. The intakes of meats and poultries were only (58.1 ± 67.7), (76.3 ± 218.7), and (23.9 ± 29.6) g/d respectively, which were much lower than the recommended food intakes from the Branch of Maternal and Child Nutrition of Chinese Nutrition Society. The vitamin A deficiency and marginal deficiency prevalence were 6.9% (24/347) and 18.2% (63/347), respectively. The deficiency and insufficiency of vitamin D was sum to 93.9% (323/344). The prevalence of anemia was 32.6% (112/344). 51.0% (171/335) reproductive women were iron deficient, and 61.6% (210/347) women were suffering zinc deficiency. The study findings indicated that the dietary structure was seriously effected by the Earthquake. The sources from animal and legume products were relatively low. The micronutrients nutritional status was poor. The vitamin A, vitamin D, and iron, zinc

  14. GIS-based support vector machine modeling of earthquake-triggered landslide susceptibility in the Jianjiang River watershed, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chong; Dai, Fuchu; Xu, Xiwei; Lee, Yuan Hsi

    2012-04-01

    Support vector machine (SVM) modeling is based on statistical learning theory. It involves a training phase with associated input and target output values. In recent years, the method has become increasingly popular. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the mapping power of SVM modeling in earthquake triggered landslide-susceptibility mapping for a section of the Jianjiang River watershed using a Geographic Information System (GIS) software. The river was affected by the Wenchuan earthquake of May 12, 2008. Visual interpretation of colored aerial photographs of 1-m resolution and extensive field surveys provided a detailed landslide inventory map containing 3147 landslides related to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, distance from seismogenic faults, distance from drainages, and lithology were used as the controlling parameters. For modeling, three groups of positive and negative training samples were used in concert with four different kernel functions. Positive training samples include the centroids of 500 large landslides, those of all 3147 landslides, and 5000 randomly selected points in landslide polygons. Negative training samples include 500, 3147, and 5000 randomly selected points on slopes that remained stable during the Wenchuan earthquake. The four kernel functions are linear, polynomial, radial basis, and sigmoid. In total, 12 cases of landslide susceptibility were mapped. Comparative analyses of landslide-susceptibility probability and area relation curves show that both the polynomial and radial basis functions suitably classified the input data as either landslide positive or negative though the radial basis function was more successful. The 12 generated landslide-susceptibility maps were compared with known landslide centroid locations and landslide polygons to verify the success rate and predictive accuracy of each model. The 12 results were further validated using area-under-curve analysis. Group 3 with

  15. Transforming rural health care through information technology: an interventional study in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gordon Guoen; Chen, Yiqun; Qin, Xuezheng

    2014-12-01

    This article estimates the impacts of health information technology (HIT) on health-care delivery in the Wenchuan County of China, where the devastation of the 2008 Great Wenchuan Earthquake and the subsequent large-scale HIT implementation (the Healthy Wenchuan Program) offers a 'natural experiment' opportunity, enabling us to conduct a difference-in-difference evaluation of the potential benefits of HIT on accessibility, affordability and appropriateness of health-care services in the underdeveloped rural area. Based on data collected from two field surveys in township hospitals, we find that for both the inpatient and outpatient samples, the HIT system promotes access to medical care by increasing doctor referrals and encouraging within-county medical utilization, reduces patient financial burden in certain expenditure categories, and contributes to higher patient satisfaction on medical care quality. On the other hand, we also find that HIT leads to increased patient waiting time for hospital registration, reflecting the unique challenges in implementing HIT in the underdeveloped areas. Our study contributes to the growing body of literature on evaluating the impacts of HIT application in the developing regions, and provides implications on the potential role of HIT in China's national health system reforms. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  16. Microstructural and mineral analysis on the fault gouge in the coseismic shear zone of the 2008 M w 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ren-mao; Zhang, Bing-liang; Xu, Xi-wei; Lin, Chuan-yong; Han, Zhu-jun

    2015-07-01

    The 2008 M w 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake formed two coseismic surface rupture zones with the trend of N35°E, known as the Beichuan-Yingxiu rupture and the Pengguan rupture. The Beichuan-Yingxiu rupture is the principle one with abundant fault gouge development along its length. In the exploratory trench at the Saba village along the Beichuan-Yingxiu rupture, the new fault gouge zone is only ~3 mm wide, which suggests that fault slip was constrained in a very narrow zone. In this study, we thus carried out detailed microstructural and mineral component analysis on the oriented fault gouge samples from the Saba exploratory trench to understand their features and geological implication. The results show that different microstructures of localized brittle deformation can be observed in the fault gouges, including Y-shear, R1-shear, R2-shear, P-shear as well as tension fracture, bookshelf glided structure and so on. These microstructures are commonly recognized as the product of seismic fault slipping. Furthermore, within the area between two parallel Y-shears of the fault gouge, a few of microstructures of distributed ductile deformations were developed, such as P-foliation, elongation and asymmetrical trailing structure of detrital particles. The microstructure features of fault gouges implicate the thrust movement of the fault during the Wenchuan earthquake. In addition, the fault gouge has less quartz and feldspar and more clay than the surrounding rocks, which indicates that some quartz and feldspar in the surrounding rocks were transformed into clay, whereas the fault gouge has more illite and less illite/montmorillonite mixed layers than the surrounding rocks, which shows that the illite/montmorillonite mixed layer was partly converted into illite due to temperature increasing induced by coseismic fault slipping friction (also being affected partly by the chemical action of solutions). Such microstructures features and mineral component changes recorded the

  17. Prediction of earthquake-triggered landslide event sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Anika; Havenith, Hans-Balder; Schlögel, Romy

    2016-04-01

    Seismically induced landslides are a major environmental effect of earthquakes, which may significantly contribute to related losses. Moreover, in paleoseismology landslide event sizes are an important proxy for the estimation of the intensity and magnitude of past earthquakes and thus allowing us to improve seismic hazard assessment over longer terms. Not only earthquake intensity, but also factors such as the fault characteristics, topography, climatic conditions and the geological environment have a major impact on the intensity and spatial distribution of earthquake induced landslides. We present here a review of factors contributing to earthquake triggered slope failures based on an "event-by-event" classification approach. The objective of this analysis is to enable the short-term prediction of earthquake triggered landslide event sizes in terms of numbers and size of the affected area right after an earthquake event occurred. Five main factors, 'Intensity', 'Fault', 'Topographic energy', 'Climatic conditions' and 'Surface geology' were used to establish a relationship to the number and spatial extend of landslides triggered by an earthquake. The relative weight of these factors was extracted from published data for numerous past earthquakes; topographic inputs were checked in Google Earth and through geographic information systems. Based on well-documented recent earthquakes (e.g. Haiti 2010, Wenchuan 2008) and on older events for which reliable extensive information was available (e.g. Northridge 1994, Loma Prieta 1989, Guatemala 1976, Peru 1970) the combination and relative weight of the factors was calibrated. The calibrated factor combination was then applied to more than 20 earthquake events for which landslide distribution characteristics could be cross-checked. One of our main findings is that the 'Fault' factor, which is based on characteristics of the fault, the surface rupture and its location with respect to mountain areas, has the most important

  18. Earthquake precursors: spatial-temporal gravity changes before the great earthquakes in the Sichuan-Yunnan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yi-Qing; Liang, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Song

    2018-01-01

    Using multiple-scale mobile gravity data in the Sichuan-Yunnan area, we systematically analyzed the relationships between spatial-temporal gravity changes and the 2014 Ludian, Yunnan Province Ms6.5 earthquake and the 2014 Kangding Ms6.3, 2013 Lushan Ms7.0, and 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquakes in Sichuan Province. Our main results are as follows. (1) Before the occurrence of large earthquakes, gravity anomalies occur in a large area around the epicenters. The directions of gravity change gradient belts usually agree roughly with the directions of the main fault zones of the study area. Such gravity changes might reflect the increase of crustal stress, as well as the significant active tectonic movements and surface deformations along fault zones, during the period of gestation of great earthquakes. (2) Continuous significant changes of the multiple-scale gravity fields, as well as greater gravity changes with larger time scales, can be regarded as medium-range precursors of large earthquakes. The subsequent large earthquakes always occur in the area where the gravity changes greatly. (3) The spatial-temporal gravity changes are very useful in determining the epicenter of coming large earthquakes. The large gravity networks are useful to determine the general areas of coming large earthquakes. However, the local gravity networks with high spatial-temporal resolution are suitable for determining the location of epicenters. Therefore, denser gravity observation networks are necessary for better forecasts of the epicenters of large earthquakes. (4) Using gravity changes from mobile observation data, we made medium-range forecasts of the Kangding, Ludian, Lushan, and Wenchuan earthquakes, with especially successful forecasts of the location of their epicenters. Based on the above discussions, we emphasize that medium-/long-term potential for large earthquakes might exist nowadays in some areas with significant gravity anomalies in the study region. Thus, the monitoring

  19. 2008 Wen-Chuan Mw 8.3 Earthquake: Dynamic Deformation Analysis for Seismic Surface Waveforms with 1-Hz GPS PPP Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, C.; Lou, Y.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, Q.; Liu, J.

    2008-12-01

    Some 1-Hz GPS data in China during Sichuan Wen-Chuan Mw8.3 Earthquake are processed with instantaneous Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique using software PANDA developed in Wuhan University. Near-field GPS stations are located 30km away but lost data after 10s while several far-field sites are 300km~1200km away from epicenter. Results indicate that plane displacements exceed 40cm within 10seconds in near field while the post-seismic deformation is northwestward at the magnitude of around 30cm. Seismic surface waveforms as LOVE and Rayleigh waves can be seen clearly in the dynamic deformation process of station XANY and CHGO (in KunMing city, Yunnan Province). Love wave's first vibration is in northwestward and then southeastward, after about one cycle, Rayleigh wave comes. Love wave is at the speed of about 4km/s, Rayleigh's is about 2.85km/s. There are two deformation pulses in Rayleigh waveforms during the period of about 120 seconds monitored at station XANY, which is about 600km from epicenter. One pulse is in counter-clockwise movement and the other is clock-wise, which seems to reveal the fact that there are two kinds of rupture process in totally opposite direction. Spectral analysis shows that there are mainly two kinds of periods in the surface waves reflected by the 1-Hz horizontal deformations, one is about 5~10s (6s and 8s) and another is about 20s, corresponding to Rayleigh and Love wave respectively. Rayleigh's wavelength is about 20km, which indicates that the hypocenter is about in the depth of 10km.

  20. Ethnic Groups Differences in Domestic Recovery after the Catastrophe: A Case Study of the 2008 Magnitude 7.9 Earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhu, Yingqi; Sui, Qi

    2017-06-02

    This research examined the ethnic differences in domestic recovery after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China. In 2014, 866 valid questionnaires were collected. Han and Qiang & Zang households were analyzed using logistic regression to determine the factors influencing household recovery. It was found that the householder of the Qiang & Zang group played a more important role in household recovery. Different from the Han, females from Qiang & Zang households had negative attitudes on recovery, and Qiang & Zang households did not believe in the effectiveness of public donations for post-quake recovery. The study also showed that local workers in a household were more helpful for household recovery than were migrant workers in a household, regardless of ethnicity. Therefore, the government should create more local jobs in Han and Qiang & Zang households and pay more attention to women in Qiang households. Assistance should be established specifically for the psychological recovery of Qiang women and family recovery projects.

  1. Hydrological Changes Induced by Distant Earthquakes at the Lujiang Well in Anhui, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuchuan; Wang, Guangcai; Tao, Yuechao

    2017-10-01

    The Lujiang well, a 63 °C artesian well, recorded sustained hydrological changes following the 1999 Chi-Chi M w 7.6, the 2008 Wenchuan M w 7.9, and the 2011 Tohoku M w 9.0 earthquakes, including rises in the water radon concentration, water pressure, discharge and water level, and drops in the water temperature. These hydrological changes are synchronous and have similar amplitudes. The permeability inferred through the tidal response of water level showed insignificant change after the three earthquakes. We attribute the observed hydrological changes to the increase in the vertical recharge on the basis that the water radon concentration of the Lujiang well increased following the increase of recharge to the well; significant vertical flow exists in the well-aquifer system; the well has a lower water radon concentration and a higher water temperature than its adjacent wells with different aquifers.

  2. [X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrum analysis of fault gouge in Wenchuan seismic belt].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-Yang; Cao, Jian-Jin; Luo, Song-Ying; Liao, Yi-Peng

    2014-05-01

    Wenchuan earthquake produced a series of co-seismic surface ruptures in Leigu and Zhaojiagou, and we collected samples of co-seismic fault gouge in the surface ruptures as well as the old gouge in the fault of Nanba. Testing The new and old fault gouge was tested with X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption spectra, and its characteristics such as mineral compositions, clay mineral contents and combinations were comprehensively analyzed. The results display obvious differences between the new and old fault gouge, showing that the old fault gouge is mainly composed of wall rock debris or milled powders, while the main components of new fault gouge are clay minerals. The assemblage of clay minerals composition shows that the environment of the fault activity was mainly warm and humid, and the clay minerals were mainly transformed by low temperature and low pressure dynamic metamorphism. And this also partly indicates that the latest way of the fault activity in this area may be a creeping. However the previous researches on the fault gouge of Wenchuan earthquake fault zone are mainly focused on its mechanical properties as well as its texture and structure, the research in this paper is to determine the physical and chemical environment of fault activity through the mineral compositions and clay mineral contents in the fault gouge characteristics, and this research has important scientific significance to the researches on the evolution of the fault environment and the activity mechanism of the earthquake.

  3. Different hydraulic responses to the 2008 Wenchuan and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes in two adjacent far-field wells: the effect of shales on aquifer lithology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Fu, Li-Yun; Ma, Yuchuan; Hu, Junhua

    2016-11-01

    Zuojiazhuang and Baodi are two adjacent wells ( 50 km apart) in northern China. The large 2008 M w 7.9 Wenchuan and 2011 M w 9.1 Tohoku earthquakes induced different co-seismic water-level responses in these far-field (>1000 km) wells. The co-seismic water-level changes in the Zuojiazhuang well exhibited large amplitudes ( 2 m), whereas those in the Baodi well were small and unclear ( 0.05 m). The mechanism of the different co-seismic hydraulic responses in the two wells needs to be revealed. In this study, we used the barometric responses in different frequency domains and the phase shifts and amplitude ratios of the tidal responses (M2 wave), together with the well logs, to explain this inconformity. Our calculations show that the co-seismic phase shifts of the M2 wave decreased or remained unchanged in the Baodi well, which was quite different from the Zuojiazhuang well and from the commonly accepted phenomena. According to the well logs, the lithology of the Baodi well is characterized by the presence of a significant amount of shale. The low porosity/permeability of shale in the Baodi well could be the cause for the unchanged and decreased phase shifts and tiny co-seismic water-level responses. In addition, shale is one of the causes of positive phase shifts and indicates a vertical water-level flow, which may be due to a semi-confined aquifer or the complex and anisotropic fracturing of shale.

  4. Revision of seismic design codes corresponding to building damages in the ``5.12'' Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yayong

    2010-06-01

    A large number of buildings were seriously damaged or collapsed in the “5.12” Wenchuan earthquake. Based on field surveys and studies of damage to different types of buildings, seismic design codes have been updated. This paper briefly summarizes some of the major revisions that have been incorporated into the “Standard for classification of seismic protection of building constructions GB50223-2008” and “Code for Seismic Design of Buildings GB50011-2001.” The definition of seismic fortification class for buildings has been revisited, and as a result, the seismic classifications for schools, hospitals and other buildings that hold large populations such as evacuation shelters and information centers have been upgraded in the GB50223-2008 Code. The main aspects of the revised GB50011-2001 code include: (a) modification of the seismic intensity specified for the Provinces of Sichuan, Shanxi and Gansu; (b) basic conceptual design for retaining walls and building foundations in mountainous areas; (c) regularity of building configuration; (d) integration of masonry structures and pre-cast RC floors; (e) requirements for calculating and detailing stair shafts; and (f) limiting the use of single-bay RC frame structures. Some significant examples of damage in the epicenter areas are provided as a reference in the discussion on the consequences of collapse, the importance of duplicate structural systems, and the integration of RC and masonry structures.

  5. Radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation for the identification of debris flow occurrence over earthquake-affected regions in Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhao; Wei, Fangqiang; Chandrasekar, Venkatachalam

    2018-03-01

    Both Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake on 12 May 2008 and Ms 7.0 Lushan earthquake on 20 April 2013 occurred in the province of Sichuan, China. In the earthquake-affected mountainous area, a large amount of loose material caused a high occurrence of debris flow during the rainy season. In order to evaluate the rainfall intensity-duration (I-D) threshold of the debris flow in the earthquake-affected area, and to fill up the observational gaps caused by the relatively scarce and low-altitude deployment of rain gauges in this area, raw data from two S-band China New Generation Doppler Weather Radar (CINRAD) were captured for six rainfall events that triggered 519 debris flows between 2012 and 2014. Due to the challenges of radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) over mountainous areas, a series of improvement measures are considered: a hybrid scan mode, a vertical reflectivity profile (VPR) correction, a mosaic of reflectivity, a merged rainfall-reflectivity (R - Z) relationship for convective and stratiform rainfall, and rainfall bias adjustment with Kalman filter (KF). For validating rainfall accumulation over complex terrains, the study areas are divided into two kinds of regions by the height threshold of 1.5 km from the ground. Three kinds of radar rainfall estimates are compared with rain gauge measurements. It is observed that the normalized mean bias (NMB) is decreased by 39 % and the fitted linear ratio between radar and rain gauge observation reaches at 0.98. Furthermore, the radar-based I-D threshold derived by the frequentist method is I = 10.1D-0.52 and is underestimated by uncorrected raw radar data. In order to verify the impacts on observations due to spatial variation, I-D thresholds are identified from the nearest rain gauge observations and radar observations at the rain gauge locations. It is found that both kinds of observations have similar I-D thresholds and likewise underestimate I-D thresholds due to undershooting at the core of convective

  6. Five parameters for the evaluation of the soil nonlinearity during the Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake using the HVSR method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yefei; Wen, Ruizhi; Yao, Xinxin; Ji, Kun

    2017-08-01

    The consideration of soil nonlinearity is important for the accurate estimation of the site response. To evaluate the soil nonlinearity during the 2008 Ms8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake, 33 strong-motion records obtained from the main shock and 890 records from 157 aftershocks were collected for this study. The horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method was used to calculate five parameters: the ratio of predominant frequency (RFp), degree of nonlinearity (DNL), absolute degree of nonlinearity (ADNL), frequency of nonlinearity (fNL), and percentage of nonlinearity (PNL). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the soil nonlinearity level of 33 strong-motion stations and to investigate the characteristics, performance, and effective usage of these five parameters. Their correlations with the peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), average uppermost 30-m shear-wave velocity ( V S30), and maximum amplitude of HVSR ( A max) were investigated. The results showed that all five parameters correlate well with PGA and PGV. The DNL, ADNL, and PNL also show a good correlation with A max, which means that the degree of soil nonlinearity not only depends on the ground-motion amplitude (e.g., PGA and PGV) but also on the site condition. The fNL correlates with PGA and PGV but shows no correlation with either A max or V S30, implying that the frequency width affected by the soil nonlinearity predominantly depends on the ground-motion amplitude rather than the site condition. At 16 of the 33 stations analyzed in this study, the site response showed evident (i.e., strong and medium) nonlinearity during the main shock of the Wenchuan Earthquake, where the ground-motion level was almost beyond the threshold of PGA > 200 cm/s2 or PGV > 15 cm/s. The site response showed weak and no nonlinearity at the other 14 and 3 stations. These results also confirm that RFp, DNL, ADNL, and PNL are effective in identifying the soil nonlinearity behavior. The identification

  7. Restoration of Ecological Infrastructure in Rural Areas after Earthquake – A Case Study from Dujiangyan, Sichuan Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Fei

    2018-05-01

    After Wenchuan and Lushan earthquake, the experience of Sichuan reconstruction planning is an important sample of agricultural village human settlements safety and regional ecological environment restoration. This paper combines the experience of the reconstruction of Dujiangyan after the Wenchuan earthquake - that is, the concept of sustainable ecological restoration as well as the concept of regional ecological restoration, and the post-disaster recovery study on Ya'an Zhougongshan Chengqing Temple and the surrounding environment after Lushan earthquake, trying to integrate into the process of post - disaster ecological restoration. Through a comprehensive assessment of the thinking on the regional scale issues and the impact of rural ecological infrastructure, we proposed macro-cognitive and multi-level measures of ecological restoration projects in order to provide effective methods to restore regional ecological environment and reconstruct sustainable human settlements in affected areas in the latest Jiuzhaigou earthquake.

  8. Landslide-dammed lake at Tangjiashan, Sichuan province, China (triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake, May 12, 2008): Risk assessment, mitigation strategy, and lessons learned

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Zhuang, J.; You, Y.; Chen, X.; Scott, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides and rock avalanches triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake produced 257 landslide dams, mainly situated along the eastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where rivers descend approximately 3,000 m into the Sichuan Basin. The largest of these dams blocked the Tongkou River (a tributary of the Fujiang River) at Tangjiashan. The blockage, consisting of 2. 04 ?? 10 7 m 3 of landslide debris, impounded a lake with a projected maximum volume of 3. 15 ?? 10 8 m 3, potentially inundating 8. 92 km 2 of terrain. Its creation during the rainy season and the possibility of an uncontrolled release posed a serious, impending threat to at least 1. 3 million people downstream that could add substantially to the total of 69,200 individuals directly killed by the earthquake. Risk assessment of the blockage indicated that it was unlikely to collapse suddenly, and that eventual overtopping could be mitigated by notching the structure in order to create an engineered breach and achieve safe drainage of the lake. In addition to the installation of monitoring and warning instrumentation, for emergency planning we estimated several outburst scenarios equivalent to 20, 25, 33, and 50% of the dam failing suddenly, creating, respectively, 3. 35, 3. 84, 4. 22, and 4. 65 km 2 of flooded area, and overbank water depths of 4. 6, 5. 1, 5. 7, and 6. 2 m, respectively, in Mianyang, the second largest city in Sichuan Province, 48 km downstream from the blockage. Based on these scenarios, recommendations and plans for excavating a sluiceway, draining the lake, and downstream evacuation were proposed and later were implemented successfully, with the blockage breached by overtopping on June 10, less than a month after dam emplacement. The peak discharge of the release only slightly exceeded the flood of record at Mianyang City. No lives were lost, and significant property damage was avoided. Post-breaching evaluation reveals how future similar mitigation can be improved. Although

  9. Factors Associated with Resilience of Adult Survivors Five Years after the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake in China

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Cuiping; Chow, Meyrick Chum Ming; Jiang, Xiaolian; Li, Sijian; Pang, Samantha Mei Che

    2015-01-01

    Given the paucity of quantitative empirical research on survivors’ resilience and its predictors in the context of long-term recovery after disasters, we examined how resilience predictors differed by gender among adult survivors five years after the Sichuan earthquake. This was a cross-sectional survey study of adult survivors (N = 495; aged 18–60) living in reconstructed communities five years into the recovery process after the Wenchuan earthquake. The instruments we used included assessments of sociodemographic characteristics and earthquake exposure level, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and the Social Support Rating Scale. Support-seeking behaviors emerged as a significant predictor of male survivors’ resilience, while subjective support and marital status were found to be predictors of female survivors’ resilience. Annual household income and chronic disease were predictors for both male and female groups. The findings of this study can be used in devising methods to boost survivors’ resilience by promoting their satisfaction with social support and their ability to obtain effective support. Additionally, the results suggest how to assist survivors who may have relatively poor resilience. PMID:25811775

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Structure in Chinese Adolescents Exposed to a Deadly Earthquake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li; Long, Di; Li, Zhongquan; Armour, Cherie

    2011-01-01

    This present study examined the structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a large sample of Chinese adolescents exposed to a deadly earthquake. A total of 2,800 middle school students aged 12 to 18 years participated in the study 6 months after the "Wenchuan Earthquake". Results of confirmatory factor analysis…

  11. Lg-Wave Cross Correlation and Epicentral Double-Difference Location in and near China

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Schaff, David P.; Richards, Paul G.; Slinkard, Megan

    In this paper, we perform epicentral relocations for a broad area using cross-correlation measurements made on Lg waves recorded at regional distances on a sparse station network. Using a two-step procedure (pairwise locations and cluster locations), we obtain final locations for 5623 events—3689 for all of China from 1985 to 2005 and 1934 for the Wenchuan area from May to August 2008. These high-quality locations comprise 20% of a starting catalog for all of China and 25% of a catalog for Wenchuan. Of the 1934 events located for Wenchuan, 1662 (86%) were newly detected. The final locations explain the residualsmore » 89 times better than the catalog locations for all of China (3.7302–0.0417 s) and 32 times better than the catalog locations for Wenchuan (0.8413–0.0267 s). The average semimajor axes of the 95% confidence ellipses are 420 m for all of China and 370 m for Wenchuan. The average azimuthal gaps are 205° for all of China and 266° for Wenchuan. 98% of the station distances for all of China are over 200 km. The mean and maximum station distances are 898 and 2174 km. The robustness of our location estimates and various trade-offs and sensitivities is explored with different inversion parameters for the location, such as starting locations for iterative solutions and which singular values to include. Finally, our results provide order-of-magnitude improvements in locations for event clusters, using waveforms from a very sparse far-regional network for which data are openly available.« less

  12. Lg-Wave Cross Correlation and Epicentral Double-Difference Location in and near China

    DOE PAGES

    Schaff, David P.; Richards, Paul G.; Slinkard, Megan; ...

    2018-03-20

    In this paper, we perform epicentral relocations for a broad area using cross-correlation measurements made on Lg waves recorded at regional distances on a sparse station network. Using a two-step procedure (pairwise locations and cluster locations), we obtain final locations for 5623 events—3689 for all of China from 1985 to 2005 and 1934 for the Wenchuan area from May to August 2008. These high-quality locations comprise 20% of a starting catalog for all of China and 25% of a catalog for Wenchuan. Of the 1934 events located for Wenchuan, 1662 (86%) were newly detected. The final locations explain the residualsmore » 89 times better than the catalog locations for all of China (3.7302–0.0417 s) and 32 times better than the catalog locations for Wenchuan (0.8413–0.0267 s). The average semimajor axes of the 95% confidence ellipses are 420 m for all of China and 370 m for Wenchuan. The average azimuthal gaps are 205° for all of China and 266° for Wenchuan. 98% of the station distances for all of China are over 200 km. The mean and maximum station distances are 898 and 2174 km. The robustness of our location estimates and various trade-offs and sensitivities is explored with different inversion parameters for the location, such as starting locations for iterative solutions and which singular values to include. Finally, our results provide order-of-magnitude improvements in locations for event clusters, using waveforms from a very sparse far-regional network for which data are openly available.« less

  13. [PTSD-positive screening and factors influencing the mental state in victims evacuated/ not evacuated from Wenchuan earthquake area within 1 month].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xueping; Luo, Xingwei

    2009-06-01

    To explore posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) positive screening and factors influencing the mental state in victims who were evacuated/were not evacuated from Wenchuan earthquake area within 1 month. The 3 groups included 235 victims who were not evacuated from Shifang territory (the incident scene, Group A), 44 victims who were evacuated to Second Xiangya Hospital (the wounded, Group B) and 36 relatives (the relatives, Group C). The mental state of all subjects was evaluated by Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and other tools. (1) One month after the disaster, and the positive rate of PTSD screening in these survivors was 35.56%, the positive rate in women was significantly higher than that in men (chi(2)=16.27,P<0.001). The positive rate of PTSD screening in Group A, Group B and Group C was 39.15%, 31.82%, and 16.67%, respectively, with significant difference (chi(2)(mh)=5.243,P<0.05). Among the three groups which met the diagnosis criterion of PTSD symptoms, the scores for "numbness/avoidance symptom"and "excessive arousing symptom"in Group A were significantly higher than those in Group B and C (P<0.01). (2) The scores for "anxiety"and "depression"and "psychosomatic"symptoms in Group A and Group B were significantly higher than those in Group C (P<0.05). (3) Gender, place of residence and evacuating from the earthquake area or not were factors of PTSD symptoms. One month after the earthquake, the victims suffered psychologically. PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression symptoms were their major mental problems, more attention to especially women victims. The protection factors include dispersing victims to the secure place as soon as possible, expanding and strengthening society support. Early psychological interventions will help victims to raise their psychological endurance and prevent PTSD effectively.

  14. Preliminary results of strong ground motion simulation for the Lushan earthquake of 20 April 2013, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Gengshang; Zhang, Zhenguo; Wen, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xiaofei

    2013-08-01

    The earthquake occurred in Lushan County on 20 April, 2013 caused heavy casualty and economic loss. In order to understand how the seismic energy propagates during this earthquake and how it causes the seismic hazard, we simulated the strong ground motions from a representative kinematic source model by Zhang et al. (Chin J Geophys 56(4):1408-1411, 2013) for this earthquake. To include the topographic effects, we used the curved grids finite difference method by Zhang and Chen (Geophys J Int 167(1):337-353, 2006), Zhang et al. (Geophys J Int 190(1):358-378, 2012) to implement the simulations. Our results indicated that the majority of seismic energy concentrated in the epicentral area and the vicinal Sichuan Basin, causing the XI and VII degree intensity. Due to the strong topographic effects of the mountain, the seismic intensity in the border area across the northeastern of Boxing County to the Lushan County also reached IX degree. Moreover, the strong influence of topography caused the amplifications of ground shaking at the mountain ridge, which is easy to cause landslides. These results are quite similar to those observed in the Wenchuan earthquake of 2008 occurred also in a strong topographic mountain area.

  15. Study on the fixed point in crustal deformation before strong earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, A.; Li, Y.; Yan, W. Mr

    2017-12-01

    Usually, scholars believe that the fault pre-sliding or expansion phenomenon will be observed near epicenter area before strong earthquake, but more and more observations show that the crust deformation nearby epicenter area is smallest(Zhou, 1997; Niu,2009,2012;Bilham, 2005; Amoruso et al., 2010). The theory of Fixed point t is a branch of mathematics that arises from the theory of topological transformation and has important applications in obvious model analysis. An important precursory was observed by two tilt-meter sets, installed at Wenchuan Observatory in the epicenter area, that the tilt changes were the smallest compared with the other 8 stations around them in one year before the Wenchuan earthquake. To subscribe the phenomenon, we proposed the minimum annual variation range that used as a topological transformation. The window length is 1 year, and the sliding length is 1 day. The convergence of points with minimum annual change in the 3 years before the Wenchuan earthquake is studied. And the results show that the points with minimum deformation amplitude basically converge to the epicenter region before the earthquake. The possible mechanism of fixed point of crustal deformation was explored. Concerning the fixed point of crust deformation, the liquidity of lithospheric medium and the isostasy theory are accepted by many scholars (Bott &Dean, 1973; Merer et al.1988; Molnar et al., 1975,1978; Tapponnier et al., 1976; Wang et al., 2001). To explain the fixed point of crust deformation before earthquakes, we study the plate bending model (Bai, et al., 2003). According to plate bending model and real deformation data, we have found that the earthquake rupture occurred around the extreme point of plate bending, where the velocities of displacement, tilt, strain, gravity and so on are close to zero, and the fixed points are located around the epicenter.The phenomenon of fixed point of crust deformation is different from former understandings about the

  16. Dilution of 10Be in detrital quartz by earthquake-induced landslides: Implications for determining denudation rates and potential to provide insights into landslide sediment dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, A. Joshua; Hetzel, Ralf; Li, Gen; Jin, Zhangdong; Zhang, Fei; Hilton, Robert G.; Densmore, Alexander L.

    2014-06-01

    The concentration of 10Be in detrital quartz (10Beqtz) from river sediments is now widely used to quantify catchment-wide denudation rates but may also be sensitive to inputs from bedrock landslides that deliver sediment with low 10Beqtz. Major landslide-triggering events can provide large amounts of low-concentration material to rivers in mountain catchments, but changes in river sediment 10Beqtz due to such events have not yet been measured directly. Here we examine the impact of widespread landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake on 10Beqtz in sediment samples from the Min Jiang river basin, in Sichuan, China. Landslide deposit material associated with the Wenchuan earthquake has consistently lower 10Beqtz than in river sediment prior to the earthquake. River sediment 10Beqtz decreased significantly following the earthquake downstream of areas of high coseismic landslide occurrence (i.e., with greater than ∼0.3% of the upstream catchment area affected by landslides), because of input of the 10Be-depleted landslide material, but showed no systematic changes where landslide occurrence was low. Changes in river sediment 10Beqtz concentration were largest in small first-order catchments but were still significant in large river basins with areas of 104-105 km. Spatial and temporal variability in river sediment 10Beqtz has important implications for inferring representative denudation rates in tectonically active, landslide-dominated environments, even in large basins. Although the dilution of 10Beqtz in river sediment by landslide inputs may complicate interpretation of denudation rates, it also may provide a possible opportunity to track the transport of landslide sediment. The associated uncertainties are large, but in the Wenchuan case, calculations based on 10Be mixing proportions suggest that river sediment fluxes in the 2-3 years following the earthquake increased by a similar order of magnitude in the 0.25-1 mm and the <0.25 mm size fractions

  17. Earthquake Potential Models for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    2002-12-01

    We present three earthquake potential estimates for magnitude 5.4 and larger earthquakes for China. The potential is expressed as the rate density (probability per unit area, magnitude and time). The three methods employ smoothed seismicity-, geologic slip rate-, and geodetic strain rate data. We tested all three estimates, and the published Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Project (GSHAP) model, against earthquake data. We constructed a special earthquake catalog which combines previous catalogs covering different times. We used the special catalog to construct our smoothed seismicity model and to evaluate all models retrospectively. All our models employ a modified Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with three parameters: a multiplicative ``a-value," the slope or ``b-value," and a ``corner magnitude" marking a strong decrease of earthquake rate with magnitude. We assumed the b-value to be constant for the whole study area and estimated the other parameters from regional or local geophysical data. The smoothed seismicity method assumes that the rate density is proportional to the magnitude of past earthquakes and approximately as the reciprocal of the epicentral distance out to a few hundred kilometers. We derived the upper magnitude limit from the special catalog and estimated local a-values from smoothed seismicity. Earthquakes since January 1, 2000 are quite compatible with the model. For the geologic forecast we adopted the seismic source zones (based on geological, geodetic and seismicity data) of the GSHAP model. For each zone, we estimated a corner magnitude by applying the Wells and Coppersmith [1994] relationship to the longest fault in the zone, and we determined the a-value from fault slip rates and an assumed locking depth. The geological model fits the earthquake data better than the GSHAP model. We also applied the Wells and Coppersmith relationship to individual faults, but the results conflicted with the earthquake record. For our geodetic

  18. Earthquake clustering in modern seismicity and its relationship with strong historical earthquakes around Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Main, Ian G.; Musson, Roger M. W.

    2017-11-01

    Beijing, China's capital city, is located in a typical intraplate seismic belt, with relatively high-quality instrumental catalogue data available since 1970. The Chinese historical earthquake catalogue contains six strong historical earthquakes of Ms ≥ 6 around Beijing, the earliest in 294 AD. This poses a significant potential hazard to one of the most densely populated and economically active parts of China. In some intraplate areas, persistent clusters of events associated with historical events can occur over centuries, for example, the ongoing sequence in the New Madrid zone of the eastern US. Here we will examine the evidence for such persistent clusters around Beijing. We introduce a metric known as the `seismic density index' that quantifies the degree of clustering of seismic energy release. For a given map location, this multi-dimensional index depends on the number of events, their magnitudes, and the distances to the locations of the surrounding population of earthquakes. We apply the index to modern instrumental catalogue data between 1970 and 2014, and identify six clear candidate zones. We then compare these locations to earthquake epicentre and seismic intensity data for the six largest historical earthquakes. Each candidate zone contains one of the six historical events, and the location of peak intensity is within 5 km or so of the reported epicentre in five of these cases. In one case—the great Ms 8 earthquake of 1679—the peak is closer to the area of strongest shaking (Intensity XI or more) than the reported epicentre. The present-day event rates are similar to those predicted by the modified Omori law but there is no evidence of ongoing decay in event rates. Accordingly, the index is more likely to be picking out the location of persistent weaknesses in the lithosphere. Our results imply zones of high seismic density index could be used in principle to indicate the location of unrecorded historical of palaeoseismic events, in China and

  19. Attention bias in earthquake-exposed survivors: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Kong, Fanchang; Han, Li; Najam Ul Hasan, Abbasi; Chen, Hong

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese Wenchuan earthquake, which happened on the 28th of May in 2008, may leave deep invisible scars in individuals. China has a large number of children and adolescents, who tend to be most vulnerable because they are in an early stage of human development and possible post-traumatic psychological distress may have a life-long consequence. Trauma survivors without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have received little attention in previous studies, especially in event-related potential (ERP) studies. We compared the attention bias to threat stimuli between the earthquake-exposed group and the control group in a masked version of the dot probe task. The target probe presented at the same space location consistent with earthquake-related words was the congruent trial, while in the space location of neutral words was the incongruent trial. Thirteen earthquake-exposed middle school students without PTSD and 13 matched controls were included in this investigation. The earthquake-exposed group showed significantly faster RTs to congruent trials than to incongruent trials. The earthquake-exposed group produced significantly shorter C1 and P1 latencies and larger C1, P1 and P2 amplitudes than the control group. In particular, enhanced P1 amplitude to threat stimuli was observed in the earthquake-exposed group. These findings are in agreement with the prediction that earthquake-exposed survivors have an attention bias to threat stimuli. The traumatic event had a much greater effect on earthquake-exposed survivors even if they showed no PTSD symptoms than individuals in the controls. These results will provide neurobiological evidences for effective intervention and prevention to post-traumatic mental problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of Regression Methods to Compute Atmospheric Pressure and Earth Tidal Coefficients in Water Level Associated with Wenchuan Earthquake of 12 May 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Anhua; Singh, Ramesh P.; Sun, Zhaohua; Ye, Qing; Zhao, Gang

    2016-07-01

    The earth tide, atmospheric pressure, precipitation and earthquake fluctuations, especially earthquake greatly impacts water well levels, thus anomalous co-seismic changes in ground water levels have been observed. In this paper, we have used four different models, simple linear regression (SLR), multiple linear regression (MLR), principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) to compute the atmospheric pressure and earth tidal effects on water level. Furthermore, we have used the Akaike information criterion (AIC) to study the performance of various models. Based on the lowest AIC and sum of squares for error values, the best estimate of the effects of atmospheric pressure and earth tide on water level is found using the MLR model. However, MLR model does not provide multicollinearity between inputs, as a result the atmospheric pressure and earth tidal response coefficients fail to reflect the mechanisms associated with the groundwater level fluctuations. On the premise of solving serious multicollinearity of inputs, PLS model shows the minimum AIC value. The atmospheric pressure and earth tidal response coefficients show close response with the observation using PLS model. The atmospheric pressure and the earth tidal response coefficients are found to be sensitive to the stress-strain state using the observed data for the period 1 April-8 June 2008 of Chuan 03# well. The transient enhancement of porosity of rock mass around Chuan 03# well associated with the Wenchuan earthquake (Mw = 7.9 of 12 May 2008) that has taken its original pre-seismic level after 13 days indicates that the co-seismic sharp rise of water well could be induced by static stress change, rather than development of new fractures.

  1. Need for continual education about disaster medicine for health professionals in China--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo; Li, Jing; Li, Yunkai; Zhang, Weidong; Pan, Futang; Miao, Shujun

    2011-02-09

    Disaster Medicine training is not included in medical education curriculum in China, even though the country has suffered various disasters annually. We intended to assess the need for continual education regarding disaster management for health professionals in China. A survey was conducted among 324 health professionals who participated in the response to the Wenchuan earthquake medical relief and public health assessment in October, 2008. The most of participants (67.3%) received informal disaster medicine training, and only a few (12.7%) participated in disaster drills. Most of the participants wanted to get continual education about disaster medicine training (89.8%), but prefer on-line training course for the flexibility of time scheduling and travel through China. The need for continual disaster medicine training is high; health professionals should be equipped with knowledge and skills for disaster management.

  2. A quick earthquake disaster loss assessment method supported by dasymetric data for emergency response in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinghai; An, Jiwen; Nie, Gaozong

    2016-04-01

    Improving earthquake disaster loss estimation speed and accuracy is one of the key factors in effective earthquake response and rescue. The presentation of exposure data by applying a dasymetric map approach has good potential for addressing this issue. With the support of 30'' × 30'' areal exposure data (population and building data in China), this paper presents a new earthquake disaster loss estimation method for emergency response situations. This method has two phases: a pre-earthquake phase and a co-earthquake phase. In the pre-earthquake phase, we pre-calculate the earthquake loss related to different seismic intensities and store them in a 30'' × 30'' grid format, which has several stages: determining the earthquake loss calculation factor, gridding damage probability matrices, calculating building damage and calculating human losses. Then, in the co-earthquake phase, there are two stages of estimating loss: generating a theoretical isoseismal map to depict the spatial distribution of the seismic intensity field; then, using the seismic intensity field to extract statistics of losses from the pre-calculated estimation data. Thus, the final loss estimation results are obtained. The method is validated by four actual earthquakes that occurred in China. The method not only significantly improves the speed and accuracy of loss estimation but also provides the spatial distribution of the losses, which will be effective in aiding earthquake emergency response and rescue. Additionally, related pre-calculated earthquake loss estimation data in China could serve to provide disaster risk analysis before earthquakes occur. Currently, the pre-calculated loss estimation data and the two-phase estimation method are used by the China Earthquake Administration.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Moment Tensor Solutions of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake Aftershocks and Their Tectonic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, X.; Dreger, D.; Ge, H.; Xu, P.; Wu, M.; Chiang, A.; Zhao, G.; Yuan, H.

    2018-03-01

    Following the mainshock of the 2008 M8 Wenchuan Earthquake, there were more than 300 ML ≥ 4.0 aftershocks that occurred between 12 May 2008 and 8 September 2010. We analyzed the broadband waveforms for these events and found 160 events with sufficient signal-to-noise levels to invert for seismic moment tensors. Considering the length of the activated fault and the distances to the recording stations, four velocity models were employed to account for variability in crustal structure. The moment tensor solutions show considerable variations with a mixture of mainly reverse and strike-slip mechanisms and a small number of normal events and ambiguous events. We analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution of the aftershocks and their mechanism types to characterize the structure and the deformation occurring in the Longmen Shan fold and thrust belt. Our results suggest that the stress is very complex at the Longmen Shan fault zone. The moment tensors have both a spatial segmentation with two major categories of the moment tensor of thrust and strike slip; and a temporal pattern that the majority of the aftershocks gradually migrated to thrust-type events. The variability of aftershock mechanisms is a strong indication of significant tectonic release and stress reorganization that activated numerous small faults in the system.

  4. The Scary Thing Is the Existence of Only Two Voices: The Internet Surges of Extreme Nationalism and National Nihilism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handing, Liu

    2011-01-01

    Many earthshaking events took place in China in 2008: the ice and snow in South China, the Lhasa riots, the hindrances to the Olympic torch relay, the Wenchuan earthquake, anticorruption in Taiwan, the Beijing Olympics, and many more. Many of these incidents triggered acute Internet altercations. In conformity with the pattern of Internet…

  5. Source parameters of the 2013 Lushan, Sichuan, Ms7.0 earthquake and estimation of the near-fault strong ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, L.; Zhou, L.; Liu, J.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: The April 20, 2013 Ms 7.0 earthquake in Lushan city, Sichuan province of China occurred as the result of east-west oriented reverse-type motion on a north-south striking fault. The source location suggests the event occurred on the Southern part of Longmenshan fault at a depth of 13km. The Lushan earthquake caused a great of loss of property and 196 deaths. The maximum intensity is up to VIII to IX at Boxing and Lushan city, which are located in the meizoseismal area. In this study, we analyzed the dynamic source process and calculated source spectral parameters, estimated the strong ground motion in the near-fault field based on the Brune's circle model at first. A dynamical composite source model (DCSM) has been developed further to simulate the near-fault strong ground motion with associated fault rupture properties at Boxing and Lushan city, respectively. The results indicate that the frictional undershoot behavior in the dynamic source process of Lushan earthquake, which is actually different from the overshoot activity of the Wenchuan earthquake. Based on the simulated results of the near-fault strong ground motion, described the intensity distribution of the Lushan earthquake field. The simulated intensity indicated that, the maximum intensity value is IX, and region with and above VII almost 16,000km2, which is consistence with observation intensity published online by China Earthquake Administration (CEA) on April 25. Moreover, the numerical modeling developed in this study has great application in the strong ground motion prediction and intensity estimation for the earthquake rescue purpose. In fact, the estimation methods based on the empirical relationship and numerical modeling developed in this study has great application in the strong ground motion prediction for the earthquake source process understand purpose. Keywords: Lushan, Ms7.0 earthquake; near-fault strong ground motion; DCSM; simulated intensity

  6. Lower crustal earthquakes in the North China Basin and implications for crustal rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, D. A.; Dong, Y.; Ni, S.; LI, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The North China Basin is a Mesozoic-Cenozoic continental rift basin on the eastern North China Craton. It is the central region of craton destruction, also a very seismically active area suffering severely from devastating earthquakes, such as the 1966 Xingtai M7.2 earthquake, the 1967 Hejian M6.3 earthquake, and the 1976 Tangshan M7.8 earthquake. We found remarkable discrepancies of depth distribution among the three earthquakes, for instance, the Xingtai and Tangshan earthquakes are both upper-crustal earthquakes occurring between 9 and 15 km on depth, but the depth of the Hejian earthquake was reported of about 30 72 km, ranging from lowermost crust to upper mantle. In order to investigate the focal depth of earthquakes near Hejian area, we developed a method to resolve focal depth for local earthquakes occurring beneath sedimentary regions by P and S converted waves. With this method, we obtained well-resolved depths of 44 local events with magnitudes between M1.0 and M3.0 during 2008 to 2016 at the Hejian seismic zone, with a mean depth uncertainty of about 2 km. The depth distribution shows abundant earthquakes at depth of 20 km, with some events in the lower crust, but absence of seismicity deeper than 25 km. In particular, we aimed at deducing some constraints on the local crustal rheology from depth-frequency distribution. Therefore, we performed a comparison between the depth-frequency distribution and the crustal strength envelop, and found a good fit between the depth profile in the Hejian seismic zone and the yield strength envelop in the Baikal Rift Systems. As a conclusion, we infer that the seismogenic thickness is 25 km and the main deformation mechanism is brittle fracture in the North China Basin . And we made two hypotheses: (1) the rheological layering of dominant rheology in the North China Basin is similar to that of the Baikal Rift Systems, which can be explained with a quartz rheology at 0 10 km depth and a diabase rheology at 10 35 km

  7. Comprehensive treatment for gas gangrene of the limbs in earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Lu, Bo; Hao, Peng; Yan, Meng-ning; Dai, Ke-rong

    2013-10-01

    Mortality rates for patients with gas gangrene from trauma or surgery are as high as 25%, but they increase to 50%-80% for patients injured in natural hazards. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for these patients. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics and therapeutic results of 19 patients with gas gangrene of the limbs, who were injured in the May 2008 earthquake in the Wenchuan district of China's Sichuan province and treated in our hospital, to seek how to best diagnose and treat earthquake-induced gas gangrene. Of 226 patients with limbs open injuries sustained during the earthquake, 53 patients underwent smear analysis of wound exudates and gas gangrene was diagnosed in 19 patients. The average elapsed time from injury to arrival at the hospital was 72 hours, from injury to definitive diagnosis was 4.3 days, and from diagnosis to conversion of negative findings on wound smear analysis to positive findings was 12.7 days. Anaerobic cultures were also obtained before wound closure. The average elapsed time from completion of surgery to recovery of normal vital signs was 6.3 days. Of the 19 patients, 16 were treated with open amputation, two with closed amputation, and 1 with successful limb salvage; 18 patients were successfully treated and one died. In earthquakes, rapid, accurate screening and isolation are essential to successful treatment of gas gangrene and helpful in preventing nosocomial diffusion. Early and thorough debridement, open amputation, and active supportive treatment can produce satisfactory therapeutic results.

  8. Magnetic behaviors of cataclasites within Wenchuan earthquake fault zone in heating experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Li, H.; Sun, Z.; Chou, Y. M.; Cao, Y., Jr.; Huan, W.; Ye, X.; He, X.

    2017-12-01

    Previous rock magnetism of fault rocks were used to trace the frictional heating temperature, however, few studies are focus on different temperatures effect of rock magnetic properties. To investigate rock magnetic response to different temperature, we conducted heating experiments on cataclasites from the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling borehole 2 (WFSD-2) cores. Samples of cataclasites were obtained using an electric drill with a 1 cm-diameter drill pipe from 580.65 m-depth. Experiments were performed by a Thermal-optical measurement system under argon atmosphere and elevated temperatures. Both microstructural observations and powder X-ray diffraction analyses show that feldspar and quartz start to melt at 1100 ° and 1300 ° respectively. Magnetic susceptibility values of samples after heating are higher than that before heating. Samples after heating at 700 and 1750 ° have the highest values of magnetic susceptibility. Rock magnetic measurements show that the main ferromagnetic minerals within samples heated below 1100 ° (400, 700, 900 and 1100 °) are magnetite, which is new-formed by transformation of paramagnetic minerals. The χferri results show that the quantity of magnetite is bigger at sample heated by 700° experiment than by 400, 900 and 1100° experiments. Based on the FORC diagrams, we consider that magnetite grains are getting finer from 400 to 900°, and growing coarser when heated from 900 to 1100 °. SEM-EDX results indicate that the pure iron are formed in higher temperature (1300, 1500 and 1750 °), which present as framboids with size <10 μm. Rock magnetic measurements imply pure iron is the main ferromagnetic materials in these heated samples. The amount and size of iron framboids increase with increasing temperature. Therefore, we conclude that the paramagnetic minerals are decomposed into fine magnetite, then to coarse-grained magnetite, finally to pure iron at super high temperature. New-formed magnetite contributes to

  9. Continuous estimates on the earthquake early warning magnitude by use of the near-field acceleration records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Jin, Xing; Wei, Yongxiang; Zhang, Hongcai

    2013-10-01

    In this article, the seismic records of Japan's Kik-net are selected to measure the acceleration, displacement, and effective peak acceleration of each seismic record within a certain time after P wave, then a continuous estimation is given on earthquake early warning magnitude through statistical analysis method, and Wenchuan earthquake record is utilized to check the method. The results show that the reliability of earthquake early warning magnitude continuously increases with the increase of the seismic information, the biggest residual happens if the acceleration is adopted to fit earthquake magnitude, which may be caused by rich high-frequency components and large dispersion of peak value in acceleration record, the influence caused by the high-frequency components can be effectively reduced if the effective peak acceleration and peak displacement is adopted, it is estimated that the dispersion of earthquake magnitude obviously reduces, but it is easy for peak displacement to be affected by long-period drifting. In various components, the residual enlargement phenomenon at vertical direction is almost unobvious, thus it is recommended in this article that the effective peak acceleration at vertical direction is preferred to estimate earthquake early warning magnitude. Through adopting Wenchuan strong earthquake record to check the method mentioned in this article, it is found that this method can be used to quickly, stably, and accurately estimate the early warning magnitude of this earthquake, which shows that this method is completely applicable for earthquake early warning.

  10. A data-based model to locate mass movements triggered by seismic events in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Fabio Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Earthquakes affect the entire world and have catastrophic consequences. On May 12, 2008, an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 on the Richter scale occurred in the Wenchuan area of Sichuan province in China. This event, together with subsequent aftershocks, caused many avalanches, landslides, debris flows, collapses, and quake lakes and induced numerous unstable slopes. This work proposes a methodology that uses a data mining approach and geographic information systems to predict these mass movements based on their association with the main and aftershock epicenters, geologic faults, riverbeds, and topography. A dataset comprising 3,883 mass movements is analyzed, and some models to predict the location of these mass movements are developed. These predictive models could be used by the Chinese authorities as an important tool for identifying risk areas and rescuing survivors during similar events in the future.

  11. Knowledge base about earthquakes as a tool to minimize strong events consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, Nina; Bonnin, Jean; Larionov, Valery; Ugarov, Alexander; Kijko, Andrzej

    2017-04-01

    The paper describes the structure and content of the knowledge base on physical and socio-economical consequences of damaging earthquakes, which may be used for calibration of near real-time loss assessment systems based on simulation models for shaking intensity, damage to buildings and casualties estimates. Such calibration allows to compensate some factors which influence on reliability of expected damage and loss assessment in "emergency" mode. The knowledge base contains the description of past earthquakes' consequences for the area under study. It also includes the current distribution of built environment and population at the time of event occurrence. Computer simulation of the recorded in knowledge base events allow to determine the sets of regional calibration coefficients, including rating of seismological surveys, peculiarities of shaking intensity attenuation and changes in building stock and population distribution, in order to provide minimum error of damaging earthquakes loss estimations in "emergency" mode. References 1. Larionov, V., Frolova, N: Peculiarities of seismic vulnerability estimations. In: Natural Hazards in Russia, volume 6: Natural Risks Assessment and Management, Publishing House "Kruk", Moscow, 120-131, 2003. 2. Frolova, N., Larionov, V., Bonnin, J.: Data Bases Used In Worlwide Systems For Earthquake Loss Estimation In Emergency Mode: Wenchuan Earthquake. In Proc. TIEMS2010 Conference, Beijing, China, 2010. 3. Frolova N. I., Larionov V. I., Bonnin J., Sushchev S. P., Ugarov A. N., Kozlov M. A. Loss Caused by Earthquakes: Rapid Estimates. Natural Hazards Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol.84, ISSN 0921-030, Nat Hazards DOI 10.1007/s11069-016-2653

  12. Validating of Atmospheric Signals Associated with some of the Major Earthquakes in Asia (2003-2009)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouzounov, D. P.; Pulinets, S.; Liu, J. Y.; Hattori, K.; Oarritm N,; Taylor, P. T.

    2010-01-01

    The recent catastrophic earthquake in Haiti (January 2010) has provided and renewed interest in the important question of the existence of precursory signals related to strong earthquakes. Latest studies (VESTO workshop in Japan 2009) have shown that there were precursory atmospheric signals observed on the ground and in space associated with several recent earthquakes. The major question, still widely debated in the scientific community is whether such signals systematically precede major earthquakes. To address this problem we have started to validate the anomalous atmospheric signals during the occurrence of large earthquakes. Our approach is based on integration analysis of several physical and environmental parameters (thermal infrared radiation, electron concentration in the ionosphere, Radon/ion activities, air temperature and seismicity) that were found to be associated with earthquakes. We performed hind-cast detection over three different regions with high seismicity Taiwan, Japan and Kamchatka for the period of 2003-2009. We are using existing thermal satellite data (Aqua and POES); in situ atmospheric data (NOAA/NCEP); and ionospheric variability data (GPS/TEC and DEMETER). The first part of this validation included 42 major earthquakes (M greater than 5.9): 10 events in Taiwan, 15 events in Japan, 15 events in Kamchatka and four most recent events for M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake (May 2008) in China and M7.9 Samoa earthquakes (Sep 2009). Our initial results suggest a systematic appearance of atmospheric anomalies near the epicentral area, 1 to 5 days prior to the largest earthquakes, that could be explained by a coupling process between the observed physical parameters, and the earthquake preparation processes.

  13. Earthquake magnitude estimation using the τ c and P d method for earthquake early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xing; Zhang, Hongcai; Li, Jun; Wei, Yongxiang; Ma, Qiang

    2013-10-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) systems are one of the most effective ways to reduce earthquake disaster. Earthquake magnitude estimation is one of the most important and also the most difficult parts of the entire EEW system. In this paper, based on 142 earthquake events and 253 seismic records that were recorded by the KiK-net in Japan, and aftershocks of the large Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, we obtained earthquake magnitude estimation relationships using the τ c and P d methods. The standard variances of magnitude calculation of these two formulas are ±0.65 and ±0.56, respectively. The P d value can also be used to estimate the peak ground motion of velocity, then warning information can be released to the public rapidly, according to the estimation results. In order to insure the stability and reliability of magnitude estimation results, we propose a compatibility test according to the natures of these two parameters. The reliability of the early warning information is significantly improved though this test.

  14. Exploring geological and socio-demographic factors associated with under-five mortality in the Wenchuan earthquake using neural network model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Xiaohong; Ren, Dan; Driskell, Luke; Zhu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    On 12 May 2008, a devastating earthquake occurred in Sichuan Province, China, taking tens of thousands of lives and destroying the homes of millions of people. Among the large number of dead or missing were children, particularly children aged less than five years old, a fact which drew significant media attention. To obtain relevant information specifically to aid further studies and future preventative measures, a neural network model was proposed to explore some geological and socio-demographic factors associated with earthquake-related child mortality. Sensitivity analysis showed that topographic slope (mean 35.76%), geomorphology (mean 24.18%), earthquake intensity (mean 13.68%), and average income (mean 11%) had great contributions to child mortality. These findings could provide some clues to researchers for further studies and to policy makers in deciding how and where preventive measures and corresponding policies should be implemented in the reconstruction of communities.

  15. Geoelectric precursors to strong earthquakes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulin, Zhao; Fuye, Qian

    1994-05-01

    The main results of searching for electrical precursors to strong earthquakes in China for the last 25 yr are presented. This comprises: the continuous twenty-year resistivity record before and after the great Tangshan earthquake of 1976; spatial and temporal variations in resistivity anomalies observed at more than 6 stations within 150 km of the Tangshan earthquake epicenter; the travel-time curve for the front of the resistivity precursor; and a method of intersection for predicting the epicenter location. These results reveal a number of interesting facts: (1) Resistivity measurements with accuracies of 0.5% or better for over 20 yr show that resistivity decreases of several percent, which began approximately 3 yr prior to the Tangshan earthquake, were larger than the background fluctuations and hence statistically significant. An outstanding example of an intermediate-term resistivity precursor is given. (2) The intermediate-term resistivity precursor decrease before Tangshan earthquake is such a pervasive phenomenon that the mean decrease, in percent, can be contoured on a map of the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region. This shows the maximum decrease centered over the epicenter. (3) The anomalies in resistivity and self-potential, which began 2-0.5 months before the Tangshan main shock, had periods equal to that of the tidal waves M 2 and MS f, respectively, so that the associated anomalies can be identified as impending-earthquake precursors and a modal related to stress-displacement weakening is proposed.

  16. Mechanical and Statistical Evidence of Human-Caused Earthquakes - A Global Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    The causality of large-scale geoengineering activities and the occurrence of earthquakes with magnitudes of up to M=8 is discussed and mechanical and statistical evidence is provided. The earthquakes were caused by artificial water reservoir impoundments, underground and open-pit mining, coastal management, hydrocarbon production and fluid injections/extractions. The presented global earthquake catalog has been recently published in the Journal of Seismology and is available for the public at www.cdklose.com. The data show evidence that geomechanical relationships exist with statistical significance between a) seismic moment magnitudes of observed earthquakes, b) anthropogenic mass shifts on the Earth's crust, and c) lateral distances of the earthquake hypocenters to the locations of the mass shifts. Research findings depend on uncertainties, in particular, of source parameter estimations of seismic events before instrumental recoding. First analyses, however, indicate that that small- to medium size earthquakes (M6) tend to be triggered. The rupture propagation of triggered events might be dominated by pre-existing tectonic stress conditions. Besides event specific evidence, large earthquakes such as China's 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake fall into a global pattern and can not be considered as outliers or simply seen as an act of god. Observations also indicate that every second seismic event tends to occur after a decade, while pore pressure diffusion seems to only play a role when injecting fluids deep underground. The chance of an earthquake to nucleate after two or 20 years near an area with a significant mass shift is 25% or 75% respectively. Moreover, causative effects of seismic activities highly depend on the tectonic stress regime in the Earth's crust in which geoengineering takes place.

  17. On to what extent stresses resulting from the earth's surface trigger earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, C. D.

    2009-12-01

    The debate on static versus dynamic earthquake triggering mainly concentrates on endogenous crustal forces, including fault-fault interactions or seismic wave transients of remote earthquakes. Incomprehensibly, earthquake triggering due to surface processes, however, still receives little scientific attention. This presentation continues a discussion on the hypothesis of how “tiny” stresses stemming from the earth's surface can trigger major earthquakes, such as for example, China's M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake of May 2008. This seismic event is thought to be triggered by up to 1.1 billion metric tons of water (~130m) that accumulated in the Minjiang River Valley at the eastern margin of the Longmen Shan. Specifically, the water level rose by ~80m (static), with additional seasonal water level changes of ~50m (dynamic). Two and a half years prior to mainshock, static and dynamic Coulomb failure stresses were induced on the nearby Beichuan thrust fault system at <17km depth. Triggering stresses were equivalent to levels of daily tides and perturbed a fault area measuring 416+/-96km^2. The mainshock ruptured after 2.5 years when only the static stressing regime was predominant and the transient stressing (seasonal water level) was infinitesimal small. The short triggering delay of about 2 years suggests that the Beichuan fault might have been near the end of its seismic cycle, which may also confirm what previous geological findings have indicated. This presentation shows on to what extend the static and 1-year periodic triggering stress perturbations a) accounted for equivalent tectonic loading, given a 4-10kyr earthquake cycle and b) altered the background seismicity beneath the valley, i.e., daily event rate and earthquake size distribution.

  18. China Earthquake Relief: Participatory Action Work with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Emily Jie; Silverstein, Louise Bordeaux

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a community-focused participatory action project designed to promote children's resilience in the early aftermath of the cataclysmic May 2008 Earthquake in Beichuan, China. Thirty children aged 7- to 15-years-old participated in the project. The project encompassed four phases that evolved from adult-directed/initiated…

  19. Evaluation of earthquake potential in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Yufang

    I present three earthquake potential estimates for magnitude 5.4 and larger earthquakes for China. The potential is expressed as the rate density (that is, the probability per unit area, magnitude and time). The three methods employ smoothed seismicity-, geologic slip rate-, and geodetic strain rate data. I test all three estimates, and another published estimate, against earthquake data. I constructed a special earthquake catalog which combines previous catalogs covering different times. I estimated moment magnitudes for some events using regression relationships that are derived in this study. I used the special catalog to construct the smoothed seismicity model and to test all models retrospectively. In all the models, I adopted a kind of Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with modifications at higher magnitude. The assumed magnitude distribution depends on three parameters: a multiplicative " a-value," the slope or "b-value," and a "corner magnitude" marking a rapid decrease of earthquake rate with magnitude. I assumed the "b-value" to be constant for the whole study area and estimated the other parameters from regional or local geophysical data. The smoothed seismicity method assumes that the rate density is proportional to the magnitude of past earthquakes and declines as a negative power of the epicentral distance out to a few hundred kilometers. I derived the upper magnitude limit from the special catalog, and estimated local "a-values" from smoothed seismicity. I have begun a "prospective" test, and earthquakes since the beginning of 2000 are quite compatible with the model. For the geologic estimations, I adopted the seismic source zones that are used in the published Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Project (GSHAP) model. The zones are divided according to geological, geodetic and seismicity data. Corner magnitudes are estimated from fault length, while fault slip rates and an assumed locking depth determine earthquake rates. The geological model

  20. A grounded theory study of 'turning into a strong nurse': Earthquake experiences and perspectives on disaster nursing education.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Turale, Sue; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia

    2015-09-01

    While Asia has the dubious distinction of being the world's most natural disaster-prone area, disaster nursing education and training are sparse in many Asian countries, especially China where this study took place. To explore the earthquake disaster experiences of Chinese nurses and develop a substantive theory of earthquake disaster nursing that will help inform future development of disaster nursing education. A qualitative study employing grounded theory, informed by symbolic interactionism. Fifteen Chinese registered nurses from five hospitals in Jiangxi Province who undertook relief efforts after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake. Data were collected in 2012-2013 in digitally-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth interviews and reflective field notes, and analyzed using Glaser's grounded theory method. Participants were unprepared educationally and psychologically for their disaster work. Supporting the emergent theory of "working in that terrible environment", was the core category of "turning into a strong nurse", a process of three stages: "going to the disaster"; "immersing in the disaster"; and "trying to let disaster experiences fade away". The participants found themselves thrust in "terrible" scenes of destruction, experienced personal dangers and ethical dilemmas, and tried the best they could to help survivors, communities and themselves, with limited resources and confronting professional work. Our rich findings confirm those of other studies in China and elsewhere, that attention must be paid to disaster education and training for nurses, as well as the mental health of nurses who work in disaster areas. Emergent theory helps to inform nurse educators, researchers, leaders and policy makers in China, and elsewhere in developing strategies to better prepare nurses for future disasters, and assist communities to prepare for and recover after earthquake disasters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Paleoearthquakes and long-term seismic regime in the Longmenshan fault zone, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Rodina, S. N.; Rogozhin, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    The collected paleoseismological data about the ancient earthquakes are analyzed for the zone of the Wenchuan earthquake. Four earthquakes with magnitude M = 8.0 occurred over a period of 10000 years and two earthquakes with magnitude 7.5 occurred over 1200 years. The obtained data allowed us to reconstruct the long-term seismic regime within the studied territory by constructing the frequency-magnitude relationship based on the instrumental, historical, and paleoseismological data.

  2. The October 6, 2008 Mw 6.3 magnitude Damxung earthquake, Yadong-Gulu rift, Tibet, and implications for present-day crustal deformation within Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhong-hai; Ye, Pei-sheng; Barosh, Patrick J.; Wu, Zhen-han

    2011-03-01

    A Mw 6.3 magnitude earthquake occurred on October 6, 2008 in southern Damxung County within the N-S trending Yangyi graben, which forms the northern section of the Yadong-Gulu rift of south-central Tibet. The earthquake had a maximum intensity of IX at the village of Yangyi (also Yangying) (29°43.3'N; 90°23.6'E) and resulted in 10 deaths and 60 injured in this sparsely populated region. Field observations and focal mechanism solutions show normal fault movement occurred along the NNE-trending western boundary fault of the Yangyi graben, in agreement with the felt epicenter, pattern of the isoseismal contours, and distribution of aftershocks. The earthquake and its tectonic relations were studied in detail to provide data on the seismic hazard to the nearby city of Lhasa. The Damxung earthquake is one of the prominent events along normal and strike-slip faults that occurred widely about Tibet before and after the 2008 Mw 7.9 magnitude Wenchuan earthquake. Analysis of these recent M ⩾ 5.0 earthquake sequences demonstrate a kinematic relation between the normal, strike-slip, and reverse causative fault movements across the region. These earthquakes are found to be linked and the result of eastward extrusion of two large structural blocks of central Tibet. The reverse and oblique-slip surface faulting along the Longmenshan thrust belt at the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau causing the Wenchuan earthquake, was the result of eastward directed compression and crustal shortening due to the extrusion. Prior to it, east-west extensional deformation indicated by normal and strike-slip faulting events across central Tibet, had led to a build up of the compression to the east. The subsequent renewal of extensional deformational events in central Tibet appears related to some drag effect due to the crustal shortening of the Wenchuan event. Unraveling the kinematical relation between these earthquake swarms is a very helpful approach for understanding the migration of

  3. Long-Period Ground Motion due to Near-Shear Earthquake Ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koketsu, K.; Yokota, Y.; Hikima, K.

    2010-12-01

    Long-period ground motion has become an increasingly important consideration because of the recent rapid increase in the number of large-scale structures, such as high-rise buildings and large oil storage tanks. Large subduction-zone earthquakes and moderate to large crustal earthquakes can generate far-source long-period ground motions in distant sedimentary basins with the help of path effects. Near-fault long-period ground motions are generated, for the most part, by the source effects of forward rupture directivity (Koketsu and Miyake, 2008). This rupture directivity effect is the maximum in the direction of fault rupture when a rupture velocity is nearly equal to shear wave velocity around a source fault (Dunham and Archuleta, 2005). The near-shear rupture was found to occur during the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake at the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau (Koketsu et al., 2010). The variance of waveform residuals in a joint inversion of teleseismic and strong motion data was the minimum when we adopted a rupture velocity of 2.8 km/s, which is close to the shear wave velocity of 2.6 km/s around the hypocenter. We also found near-shear rupture during the 2010 Mw 6.9 Yushu earthquake (Yokota et al., 2010). The optimum rupture velocity for an inversion of teleseismic data is 3.5 km/s, which is almost equal to the shear wave velocity around the hypocenter. Since, in addition, supershear rupture was found during the 2001 Mw 7.8 Central Kunlun earthquake (Bouchon and Vallee, 2003), such fast earthquake rupture can be a characteristic of the eastern Tibetan plateau. Huge damage in Yingxiu and Beichuan from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and damage heavier than expected in the county seat of Yushu from the medium-sized Yushu earthquake can be attributed to the maximum rupture directivity effect in the rupture direction due to near-shear earthquake ruptures.

  4. Optimized volume models of earthquake-triggered landslides

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chong; Xu, Xiwei; Shen, Lingling; Yao, Qi; Tan, Xibin; Kang, Wenjun; Ma, Siyuan; Wu, Xiyan; Cai, Juntao; Gao, Mingxing; Li, Kang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we proposed three optimized models for calculating the total volume of landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan, China Mw 7.9 earthquake. First, we calculated the volume of each deposit of 1,415 landslides triggered by the quake based on pre- and post-quake DEMs in 20 m resolution. The samples were used to fit the conventional landslide “volume-area” power law relationship and the 3 optimized models we proposed, respectively. Two data fitting methods, i.e. log-transformed-based linear and original data-based nonlinear least square, were employed to the 4 models. Results show that original data-based nonlinear least square combining with an optimized model considering length, width, height, lithology, slope, peak ground acceleration, and slope aspect shows the best performance. This model was subsequently applied to the database of landslides triggered by the quake except for two largest ones with known volumes. It indicates that the total volume of the 196,007 landslides is about 1.2 × 1010 m3 in deposit materials and 1 × 1010 m3 in source areas, respectively. The result from the relationship of quake magnitude and entire landslide volume related to individual earthquake is much less than that from this study, which reminds us the necessity to update the power-law relationship. PMID:27404212

  5. Optimized volume models of earthquake-triggered landslides.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chong; Xu, Xiwei; Shen, Lingling; Yao, Qi; Tan, Xibin; Kang, Wenjun; Ma, Siyuan; Wu, Xiyan; Cai, Juntao; Gao, Mingxing; Li, Kang

    2016-07-12

    In this study, we proposed three optimized models for calculating the total volume of landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan, China Mw 7.9 earthquake. First, we calculated the volume of each deposit of 1,415 landslides triggered by the quake based on pre- and post-quake DEMs in 20 m resolution. The samples were used to fit the conventional landslide "volume-area" power law relationship and the 3 optimized models we proposed, respectively. Two data fitting methods, i.e. log-transformed-based linear and original data-based nonlinear least square, were employed to the 4 models. Results show that original data-based nonlinear least square combining with an optimized model considering length, width, height, lithology, slope, peak ground acceleration, and slope aspect shows the best performance. This model was subsequently applied to the database of landslides triggered by the quake except for two largest ones with known volumes. It indicates that the total volume of the 196,007 landslides is about 1.2 × 10(10) m(3) in deposit materials and 1 × 10(10) m(3) in source areas, respectively. The result from the relationship of quake magnitude and entire landslide volume related to individual earthquake is much less than that from this study, which reminds us the necessity to update the power-law relationship.

  6. Use of spectral gamma ray as a lithology guide for fault rocks: A case study from the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project Borehole 4 (WFSD-4).

    PubMed

    Amara Konaté, Ahmed; Pan, Heping; Ma, Huolin; Qin, Zhen; Guo, Bo; Yevenyo Ziggah, Yao; Kounga, Claude Ernest Moussounda; Khan, Nasir; Tounkara, Fodé

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific drilling project (WFSD) was to produce an in-depth borehole into the Yingxiu-Beichuan (YBF) and Anxian-Guanxian faults in order to gain a much better understanding of the physical and chemical properties as well as the mechanical faulting involved. Five boreholes, namely WFSD-1, WFSD-2, WFSD-3P, WFSD-3 and WFSD-4, were drilled during the project entirety. This study, therefore, presents first-hand WFSD-4 data on the lithology (original rocks) and fault rocks that have been obtained from the WFSD project. In an attempt to determine the physical properties and the clay minerals of the lithology and fault rocks, this study analyzed the spectral gamma ray logs (Total gamma ray, Potassium, Thorium and Uranium) recorded in WFSD-4 borehole on the Northern segment of the YBF. The obtained results are presented as cross-plots and statistical multi log analysis. Both lithology and fault rocks show a variability of spectral gamma ray (SGR) logs responses and clay minerals. This study has shown the capabilities of the SGR logs for well-logging of earthquake faults and proves that SGR logs together with others logs in combination with drill hole core description is a useful method of lithology and fault rocks characterization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Source parameters of the 2013, Ms 7.0, Lushan earthquake and the characteristics of the near-fault strong ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fengfan; Meng, Lingyuan

    2016-04-01

    The April 20, 2013 Ms 7.0, earthquake in Lushan city, Sichuan province of China occurred as the result of east-west oriented reverse-type motion on a north-south striking fault. The source location suggests the event occurred on the Southern part of Longmenshan fault at a depth of 13km. The maximum intensity is up to VIII to IX at Boxing and Lushan city, which are located in the meizoseismal area. In this study, we analyzed the dynamic source process with the source mechanism and empirical relationships, estimated the strong ground motion in the near-fault field based on the Brune's circle model. A dynamical composite source model (DCSM) has been developed to simulate the near-fault strong ground motion with associated fault rupture properties at Boxing and Lushan city, respectively. The results indicate that the frictional undershoot behavior in the dynamic source process of Lushan earthquake, which is actually different from the overshoot activity of the Wenchuan earthquake. Moreover, we discussed the characteristics of the strong ground motion in the near-fault field, that the broadband synthetic seismogram ground motion predictions for Boxing and Lushan city produced larger peak values, shorter durations and higher frequency contents. It indicates that the factors in near-fault strong ground motion was under the influence of higher effect stress drop and asperity slip distributions on the fault plane. This work is financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41404045) and by Science for Earthquake Resilience of CEA (XH14055Y).

  8. Postseismic relaxation process and lithospheric rheology inferred from eight years of postseismic deformation after the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; Burgmann, R.; Rui, X.; Wang, D.; Yu, J.; He, K.

    2017-12-01

    Current inferences of postseismic deformation mechanisms and lithospheric rheology in the eastern Tibetan Plateau strongly depend on spatial and temporal observations of postseismic transients following the 2008 Mw=7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. We processed regional continuously operating and survey-mode GPS data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China and Sichuan Continuous Operation Reference System. These data cover a broad region and time intervals of up to eight years. The determined amplitude of postseismic displacements show clear contrast between the Sichuan Basin and eastern Tibet. In addition to significant amounts of deformation in the region between the Longmen Shan and Longriba fault, reliable deformation transients are also visible in the far field, such as regions to the west of the Longriba fault and along the left-lateral Xianshuihe fault. In contrast, no more than 10 mm of postseismic transients are observed in the Sichuan Basin. Guided by previous studies, we conducted multiple-mechanism models of afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation. We first explored a series of forward viscoelastic relaxation models using a heterogeneous rheological earth structure, and then inverted corresponding afterslip distributions on the shallowly dipping detachment to explain the remaining residuals. Our preliminary results indicate the viscoelastic relaxation in the lower crust and upper mantle dominantly contributed to the mid- and far-field observations, whereas afterslip below the coseismic asperities and on small patches near the surface can explain the near-field measurements. Time-dependent slip inversions illustrate that afterslip decays more rapidly on the shallow portions of the fault interface than on the shallowly dipping detachment. Relatively long-lived right-lateral afterslip is revealed in the north segment of the Beichuan fault, suggesting variations of frictional properties along strike of the fault zone. Our results also support previous

  9. Source discrimination between Mining blasts and Earthquakes in Tianshan orogenic belt, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, L.; Zhang, M.; Wen, L.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, a large number of quarry blasts have been detonated in Tianshan Mountains of China. It is necessary to discriminate those non-earthquake records from the earthquake catalogs in order to determine the real seismicity of the region. In this study, we have investigated spectral ratios and amplitude ratios as discriminants for regional seismic-event identification using explosions and earthquakes recorded at Xinjiang Seismic Network (XJSN) of China. We used a data set that includes 1071 earthquakes and 2881 non-earthquakes as training data recorded by the XJSN between years of 2009 and 2016, with both types of events in a comparable local magnitude range (1.5 to 2.9). The non-earthquake and earthquake groups were well separated by amplitude ratios of Pg/Sg, with the separation increasing with frequency when averaged over three stations. The 8- to 15-Hz Pg/Sg ratio was proved to be the most precise and accurate discriminant, which works for more than 90% of the events. In contrast, the P spectral ratio performed considerably worse with a significant overlap (about 60% overlap) between the earthquake and explosion populations. The comparison results show amplitude ratios between compressional and shear waves discriminate better than low-frequency to high-frequency spectral ratios for individual phases. In discriminating between explosions and earthquakes, none of two discriminants were able to completely separate the two populations of events. However, a joint discrimination scheme employing simple majority voting reduces misclassifications to 10%. In the region of the study, 44% of the examined seismic events were determined to be non-earthquakes and 55% to be earthquakes. The earthquakes occurring on land are related to small faults, while the blasts are concentrated in large quarries.

  10. Mental health problems among children and adolescents experiencing two major earthquakes in remote mountainous regions: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wanjie; Zhao, Jingdong; Lu, Yi; Yan, Tingting; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Jiuping

    2017-01-01

    Millions of children were exposed to major earthquake in China, with serious psychological and developmental consequences. To obtain accurate rate of post-disaster related disorder and identify predictors may help inform post-disaster rescue and rehabilitation efforts. The present longitudinal study explored correlations of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of juvenile survivors of the Ya'an and Wenchuan earthquakes in China with their trajectories of post-disaster related disorder. A total of 435 Chinese children and adolescents who survived the 2013 Ya'an earthquake were recruited from six primary, secondary and high schools in Baoxing County. All survivors were assessed at 12months after the disaster, when a trained psychiatrist assessed mental health problems in a face-to-face structured interview, and 153 survivors were followed up at 30months after the earthquake via telephone. The 12-month assessment indicated a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence of 43.9% as well as depression (20.9%) or the criteria for both PTSD and depression (18.2%) and the other disorder (0.9%). The 30-month assessment indicated that 15.7% of subjects met the criteria for PTSD, 21.6% met the criteria for depression. No subjects met the criteria for other affective or anxiety disorders. Significant predictors of PTSD and depression were death in the family, previous earthquake experience, a poor parent-child relationship and economic pressure or poverty. Clinical interview face to face is quite different from via telephone and the attrition rate in the longitudinal cohort is high, which would directly affect our results of the assessment. PTSD and depression may be as prevalent and persistent in disaster victims in China as elsewhere, and high co-comorbidities remain poorly understood. Although many adolescents recover over time, some exhibit chronic, delayed-onset PTSD and depression, especially those with poor relationships with their parents or those living

  11. Disaster nursing experiences of Chinese nurses responding to the Sichuan Ya'an earthquake.

    PubMed

    Li, Y H; Li, S J; Chen, S H; Xie, X P; Song, Y Q; Jin, Z H; Zheng, X Y

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the disaster experiences of nurses called to assist survivors one month after the 2013 Ya'an earthquake. China has experienced an increasing number of earthquake disasters in the past four decades. Although a health and disaster management system was initiated after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, nurses' roles and experiences in a disaster have been overlooked. The researchers used qualitative descriptive design that included 16 participants. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and observation notes, after which a qualitative content analysis was conducted. Three major themes emerged: the process of being dispatched from hospitals to the disaster zone, the effort involved in getting to and working in the affected site and reflecting on the challenges they encountered. About half of the participants had received disaster nursing training before deploying to the disaster site, but they consistently expressed a lack of physical and psychological preparedness regarding the process of being dispatched from their hospitals to the disaster zone. This was a single-incident experience. Caution should be taken when trying to extend the findings to other parts of China. These findings highlighted the need for disaster in-service training as well as for having disaster plans in place. Hospital and nursing leaders should provide disaster training opportunities that included topics such as compiling resource inventories, formulating disaster drills and simulations, managing emergencies, and using emergency communication methods. Health policy-makers should be required to prioritize capacity-building training for front-line nurses as well as to develop and implement disaster management plans to better prepare nurses for future disasters. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  12. Why did adolescents have sleep problems after earthquakes? Understanding the role of traumatic exposure, fear, and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Xinchun; Chen, Qiuyan; Zhen, Rui

    2017-06-01

    To examine the relationships between trauma exposure, fear, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sleep problems in adolescents, 746 adolescent survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China were assessed at 1 year (T1) and 1.5 years (T2) after the earthquake using a trauma exposure questionnaire, a fear questionnaire, a child posttraumatic stress disorder symptom scale, and a subscale on child sleep problems. The results showed that T1 trauma exposure were not directly associated with sleep problems at T1 and T2, but played a positive role in sleep problems at both T1 and T2 indirectly through T1 posttraumatic stress disorder and T1 fear. T1 trauma exposure was also positively and indirectly associated with T2 sleep problems through T1 posttraumatic stress disorder via T1 sleep problems, or through T1 fear via the path from T1 posttraumatic stress disorder to T1 sleep problems. These findings indicated that fear and posttraumatic stress disorder 1 year after the earthquake played a mediating role in the relationship between trauma exposure at 1 year after the earthquake, and sleep problems at both 1 year and 1.5 years after the earthquake, respectively. In particular, posttraumatic stress disorder also had a multiple mediating effect in the path from trauma exposure to sleep problems via fear. Furthermore, the findings indicated that sleep problems were relatively stable between 1 and 1.5 years after an earthquake. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The kinematics and initiation mechanisms of the earthquake-triggered Daguangbao landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Che-Ming; Cheng, Hui-Yun; Tsao, Chia-Che; Wu, Wen-Jie; Dong, Jia-Jyun; Lee, Chyi-Tyi; Lin, Ming-Lang; Zhang, Wei-Fong; Pei, Xiang-Jun; Wang, Gong-Hui; Huang, Run-Qiu

    2015-04-01

    The Daguangbao (DGB) landslide is one of the largest earthquake-triggered landslides induced by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in the world over the past century. Based on remote sensing images, topography analysis and field investigation, this landslide was speculated a gigantic atypical wedge failure with the folded bedding plane and a zigzag stepping-out joint system, which outcropped at the south and north, respectively. With the inferred failure surfaces, the volume of the DGB landslide is about 1,051 Mm3. The frequently adopted Rigid Wedge Method (RWM), which assumed zero shear stress on the sliding surface along the vectors perpendicular to the intersection line when evaluating the wedge stability, could not be valid for this super large DGB wedge. Under an assumption that the shear strength is fully mobilized on the sliding surface along the vectors perpendicular to the intersection line, this study proposed to use a Maximum Shear Stress Method (MSSM) to calculate the factor of safety (FOS) of the DGB wedge. Based on the assumptions of the two methods, the FOS of the RWM and MSSM are the upper and lower bounds for the wedge stability analysis. Based on the rotary shear tests, the averaged friction coefficients of the representative materials of the two sliding surfaces are 0.79 (bedding parallel fault gauges) and 0.71 (dolomite joints). Without external force, the FOSs of the DGB landslide are 4.14 and 2.51 by the RWM and MSSM, respectively. Restate, the wedge is stable before the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. However, DGB landslide can be triggered at 35.7 sec based on the ground acceleration records of strong motion station MZQP during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and the pseudo-static stability analysis incorporated into MSSM (Acceleration: EW=0.272g, NS=0.152g, Vertical=0.244g). Moreover, using the friction coefficient of the representative materials under large shear displacement under shear velocity of 1.3 m/s (0.16 for bedding parallel fault gouges and 0

  14. Subliminal trauma reminders impact neural processing of cognitive control in adults with developmental earthquake trauma: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Du, Xue; Li, Yu; Ran, Qian; Kim, Pilyoung; Ganzel, Barbara L; Liang, GuangSheng; Hao, Lei; Zhang, Qinglin; Meng, Huaqing; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the effects of developmental trauma on the neural basis of cognitive control among adults who do not have posttraumatic stress disorder. To examine this question, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare the effect of subliminal priming with earthquake-related images on attentional control during a Stroop task in survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China (survivor group, survivors were adolescents at the time of the earthquake) and in matched controls (control group). We found that the survivor group showed greater activation in the left ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus during the congruent versus incongruent condition, as compared to the control group. Depressive symptoms were positively correlated with left vACC activation during the congruent condition. Moreover, psychophysiological interaction results showed that the survivor group had stronger functional connectivity between the left parahippocampal gyrus and the left vACC than the control group under the congruent-incongruent condition. These results suggested that trauma-related information was linked to abnormal activity in brain networks associated with cognitive control (e.g., vACC-parahippocampal gyrus). This may be a potential biomarker for depression following developmental trauma, and it may also provide a mechanism linking trauma reminders with depression.

  15. Ground deformation associated with the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake in China, estimated using a SAR offset-tracking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Takada, Y.; Furuya, M.; Murakami, M.

    2008-12-01

    Introduction: A catastrophic earthquake struck China"fs Sichuan area on May 12, 2008, with the moment magnitude of 7.9 (USGS). The hypocenter and their aftershocks are distributed along the western edge of the Sichuan Basin, suggesting that this seismic event occurred at the Longmeng Shan fault zone which is constituted of major three active faults (Wenchuan-Maowen, Beichuan, and Pengguan faults). However, it is unclear whether these faults were directly involved in the mainshock rupture. An interferometry SAR (InSAR) analysis generally has a merit that we can detect ground deformation in a vast region with high precision, however, for the Sichuan event, the surface deformation near the fault zone has not been satisfactorily detected from the InSAR analyses due to a low coherency. An offset-tracking method is less precise but more robust for detecting large ground deformation than the interferometric approach. Our purpose is to detect the detail ground deformation immediately near the faults involved in the Sichuan event with applying the offset-tracking method. Analysis Method: We analyzed ALOS/PALSAR images, which have been taken from Path 471 to 476 of ascending track, acquired before and after the mainshock. We processed SAR data from the level-1.0 product, using a software package from Gamma Remote Sensing. For offset-tracking analysis we adopt intensity tracking method which is performed by cross-correlating samples of backscatter intensity of a master SAR image with samples from the corresponding search area of a slave image in order to estimate range and azimuth offset fields. We reduce stereoscopic effects that produce apparent offsets, using SRTM3 DEM data. Results: We have successfully obtained the surface deformation in range (radar look direction) component, while in azimuth (flight direction) no significant deformation can be detected in some orbits due to "gazimuth streaks"h that are errors caused by ionospheric effects. Some concluding remarks are

  16. A Rapid Public Health Needs Assessment Framework for after Major Earthquakes Using High-Resolution Satellite Imagery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Ding, Fan; Wang, Zhe; Ren, Jinghuan; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Yeping; Tang, Xuefeng; Wang, Yong; Yao, Jianyi; Li, Qun

    2018-05-30

    Background : Earthquakes causing significant damage have occurred frequently in China, producing enormous health losses, damage to the environment and public health issues. Timely public health response is crucial to reduce mortality and morbidity and promote overall effectiveness of rescue efforts after a major earthquake. Methods : A rapid assessment framework was established based on GIS technology and high-resolution remote sensing images. A two-step casualties and injures estimation method was developed to evaluate health loss with great rapidity. Historical data and health resources information was reviewed to evaluate the damage condition of medical resources and public health issues. Results : The casualties and injures are estimated within a few hours after an earthquake. For the Wenchuan earthquake, which killed about 96,000 people and injured about 288,000, the estimation accuracy is about 77%. 242/294 (82.3%) of the medical existing institutions were severely damaged. About 40,000 tons of safe drinking water was needed every day to ensure basic living needs. The risk of water-borne and foodborne disease, respiratory and close contact transmission disease is high. For natural foci diseases, the high-risk area of schistosomiasis was mapped in Lushan County as an example. Finally, temporary settlements for victims of earthquake were mapped. Conclusions : High resolution Earth observation technology can provide a scientific basis for public health emergency management in the major disasters field, which will be of great significance in helping policy makers effectively improve health service ability and public health emergency management in prevention and control of infectious diseases and risk assessment.

  17. Disaster mitigation science for Earthquakes and Tsunamis -For resilience society against natural disasters-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Hori, T.; Kawaguchi, K.; Isouchi, C.; Fujisawa, K.

    2017-12-01

    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For instance, 2004 Sumatra Earthquake in Indonesia, 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China, 2010 Chile Earthquake and 2011 Tohoku Earthquake in Japan etc., these earthquakes generated very severe damages. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software developments/preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important. In Japan, DONET as the real time monitoring system on the ocean floor is developed and deployed around the Nankai trough seismogenic zone southwestern Japan. So, the early detection of earthquakes and tsunamis around the Nankai trough seismogenic zone will be expected by DONET. The integration of the real time data and advanced simulation researches will lead to reduce damages, however, in the resilience society, the resilience methods will be required after disasters. Actually, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. This means the resilience society. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, geography and psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. Finally, to realize and progress disaster mitigation science, human resource cultivation is indispensable. We already carried out disaster mitigation science under `new disaster mitigation research project on Mega

  18. The UK medical response to the Sichuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Redmond, A D; Li, J

    2011-06-01

    At 14:48 on 12 May 2008 an earthquake of magnitude 8.0 struck the Wenchuan area of Sichuan province, China. A decision to offer/receive UK medical assistance was agreed at a Sino/British political level and a medical team was despatched to the earthquake area. This study describes the team's experience during the immediate aftermath of the earthquake and the following 18 months, during which there have been joint developments in emergency medicine, disaster planning/preparedness and the management of spinal cord injury. The long-term disability following sudden onset natural disaster and the wider impact on healthcare delivery may prove to be a greater burden to the country than the immediate medical needs, and, accordingly, emergency international aid may need to widen its focus. Although international teams usually arrive too late to support resuscitative measures, they can respond to specific requests for specialised assistance, for example plastic and reconstructive surgery to assist with the ongoing management of complex injury, relieve those who have worked continuously through the disaster, and when required maintain routine day-to-day services while local staff continue to manage the disaster. The timing of this does not necessarily need to be immediate. To maximise its impact, the team planned from the outset to build a relationship with Chinese colleagues that would lead to a sharing of knowledge and experience that would benefit major incident responses in both countries in the future. This has been established, and the linkage of emergency humanitarian assistance to longer term development should be considered by others the next time international emergency humanitarian assistance is contemplated.

  19. The Ordered Network Structure and Prediction Summary for M≥7 Earthquakes in Xinjiang Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Ke-Pei; Zhao, Kai

    2014-12-01

    M ≥7 earthquakes have showed an obvious commensurability and orderliness in Xinjiang of China and its adjacent region since 1800. The main orderly values are 30 a × k (k = 1,2,3), 11 12 a, 41 43 a, 18 19 a, and 5 6 a. In the guidance of the information forecasting theory of Wen-Bo Weng, based on previous research results, combining ordered network structure analysis with complex network technology, we focus on the prediction summary of M ≥ 7 earthquakes by using the ordered network structure, and add new information to further optimize network, hence construct the 2D- and 3D-ordered network structure of M ≥ 7 earthquakes. In this paper, the network structure revealed fully the regularity of seismic activity of M ≥ 7 earthquakes in the study region during the past 210 years. Based on this, the Karakorum M7.1 earthquake in 1996, the M7.9 earthquake on the frontier of Russia, Mongol, and China in 2003, and two Yutian M7.3 earthquakes in 2008 and 2014 were predicted successfully. At the same time, a new prediction opinion is presented that the future two M ≥ 7 earthquakes will probably occur around 2019 - 2020 and 2025 - 2026 in this region. The results show that large earthquake occurred in defined region can be predicted. The method of ordered network structure analysis produces satisfactory results for the mid-and-long term prediction of M ≥ 7 earthquakes.

  20. New insight into the 1556 M8 Huaxian earthquake in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.

    2017-12-01

    The disastrous 1556 M8 Huaxian earthquake in China took away 0.8Ma lives then as well as attracted scientists' attention. Although the Huashan front fault and Weinan plateform-front fault at the south margin of Weihe basin was responsible for this earthquake, we know less about the fault behaviors. There's evidence that the modern riverbank offset and older geomorphic scarps in Chishui river site on Weinan plateau-front fault from the Pleiades DEM. Here, we did a 3D trench excavation model using SfM work, drilling profiles and geomorphological measurement there to revive the site for multiearthquakes. It turns out two events occurred on the normal fault with pretty high offsets 9.4m and 7.8-8.0m respectively, the later one resulted from Huaxian earthquake. And we estimate that the fault slip rate approximately 1.48-1.75 mm/a. Thus, we find that the older earthquake also produced a similar fault offsets to the 1556 earthquake showing as characteristics earthquake. The paleoseismic study demonstrates that the Weinan pateform-front fault plays a role in boundary faults of Weihe basin, which can contribute to the basin evolution of regions of active faulting.

  1. Preliminary Study on Earthquake Surface Rupture Extraction from Uav Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, X.; Wang, X.; Ding, X.; Wu, X.; Dou, A.; Wang, S.

    2018-04-01

    Because of the advantages of low-cost, lightweight and photography under the cloud, UAVs have been widely used in the field of seismic geomorphology research in recent years. Earthquake surface rupture is a typical seismic tectonic geomorphology that reflects the dynamic and kinematic characteristics of crustal movement. The quick identification of earthquake surface rupture is of great significance for understanding the mechanism of earthquake occurrence, disasters distribution and scale. Using integrated differential UAV platform, series images were acquired with accuracy POS around the former urban area (Qushan town) of Beichuan County as the area stricken seriously by the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake. Based on the multi-view 3D reconstruction technique, the high resolution DSM and DOM are obtained from differential UAV images. Through the shade-relief map and aspect map derived from DSM, the earthquake surface rupture is extracted and analyzed. The results show that the surface rupture can still be identified by using the UAV images although the time of earthquake elapse is longer, whose middle segment is characterized by vertical movement caused by compression deformation from fault planes.

  2. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sun Dongsheng; Wang Hongcai; Ma Yinsheng

    In-situ stress change near the fault before and after a great earthquake is a key issue in the geosciences field. In this work, based on the 2008 Great Wenchuan earthquake fault slip dislocation model, the co-seismic stress tensor change due to the Wenchuan earthquake and the distribution functions around the Longmen Shan fault are given. Our calculated results are almost consistent with the before and after great Wenchuan earthquake in-situ measuring results. The quantitative assessment results provide a reference for the study of the mechanism of earthquakes.

  3. Hazus® estimated annualized earthquake losses for the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Bausch, Doug; Rozelle, Jesse; Holub, John; McGowan, Sean

    2017-01-01

    Large earthquakes can cause social and economic disruption that can be unprecedented to any given community, and the full recovery from these impacts may or may not always be achievable. In the United States (U.S.), the 1994 M6.7 Northridge earthquake in California remains the third costliest disaster in U.S. history; and it was one of the most expensive disasters for the federal government. Internationally, earthquakes in the last decade alone have claimed tens of thousands of lives and caused hundreds of billions of dollars of economic impact throughout the globe (~90 billion U.S. dollars (USD) from 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan China, ~20 billion USD from 2010 M8.8 Maule earthquake in Chile, ~220 billion USD from 2011 M9.0 Tohoku Japan earthquake, ~25 billion USD from 2011 M6.3 Christchurch New Zealand, and ~22 billion USD from 2016 M7.0 Kumamoto Japan). Recent earthquakes show a pattern of steadily increasing damages and losses that are primarily due to three key factors: (1) significant growth in earthquake-prone urban areas, (2) vulnerability of the older building stock, including poorly engineered non-ductile concrete buildings, and (3) an increased interdependency in terms of supply and demand for the businesses that operate among different parts of the world. In the United States, earthquake risk continues to grow with increased exposure of population and development even though the earthquake hazard has remained relatively stable except for the regions of induced seismic activity. Understanding the seismic hazard requires studying earthquake characteristics and locales in which they occur, while understanding the risk requires an assessment of the potential damage from earthquake shaking to the built environment and to the welfare of people—especially in high-risk areas. Estimating the varying degree of earthquake risk throughout the United States is critical for informed decision-making on mitigation policies, priorities, strategies, and funding levels in the

  4. Active source monitoring at the Wenchuan fault zone: coseismic velocity change associated with aftershock event and its implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Ge, Hongkui; Wang, Baoshan; Hu, Jiupeng; Yuan, Songyong; Qiao, Sen

    2014-12-01

    With the improvement of seismic observation system, more and more observations indicate that earthquakes may cause seismic velocity change. However, the amplitude and spatial distribution of the velocity variation remains a controversial issue. Recent active source monitoring carried out adjacent to Wenchuan Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) revealed unambiguous coseismic velocity change associated with a local M s5.5 earthquake. Here, we carry out forward modeling using two-dimensional spectral element method to further investigate the amplitude and spatial distribution of observed velocity change. The model is well constrained by results from seismic reflection and WFSD coring. Our model strongly suggests that the observed coseismic velocity change is localized within the fault zone with width of ~120 m rather than dynamic strong ground shaking. And a velocity decrease of ~2.0 % within the fault zone is required to fit the observed travel time delay distribution, which coincides with rock mechanical experiment and theoretical modeling.

  5. Construction and development of IGP DMC of China National Seismological Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X.; Zheng, J.; Lin, P.; Yao, Z.; Liang, J.

    2011-12-01

    In 2003, CEA (China Earthquake Administration) commenced the construction of China Digital Seismological Observation Network. By the end of 2007, a new-generation digital seismological observation system had been established, which consists of 1 National Seismic Network, 32 regional seismic networks, 2 small-aperture seismic arrays, 6 volcano monitoring networks and 19 mobile seismic networks, as well as CENC (China Earthquake Network Center) DMC (Data Management Centre) and IGP (Institute of Geophysics) DMC. Since then, the seismological observation system of China has completely entered a digital time. For operational, data backup and data security considerations, the DMC at the Institute of Geophysics (IGP), CEA was established at the end of 2007. IGP DMC now receives and archives waveform data from more than 1000 permanent seismic stations around China in real-time. After the great Wenchuan and Yushu earthquakes, the real-time waveform data from 56 and 8 portable seismic stations deployed in the aftershock area are added to IGP DMC. The technical system of IGP DMC is designed to conduct data management, processing and service through the network of CEA. We developed and integrated a hardware system with high-performance servers, large-capacity disc arrays, tape library and other facilities, as well as software packages for real-time waveform data receiving, storage, quality control, processing and service. Considering the demands from researchers for large quantities of seismic event waveform data, IGP DMC adopts an innovative "user order" method to extract event waveform data. Users can specify seismic stations, epicenter distance and record length. In a short period of 3 years, IGP DMC has supplied about 350 Terabytes waveform data to over 200 researches of more than 40 academic institutions. According to incomplete statistics, over 40 papers have been published in professional journals, in which 30 papers were indexed by SCI. Now, IGP DMC has become an

  6. An integrated analysis on source parameters, seismogenic structure and seismic hazard of the 2014 Ms 6.3 Kangding earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.

    2016-12-01

    On November 22, 2014, the Ms6.3 Kangding earthquake ended 30 years of history of no strong earthquake at the Xianshuihe fault zone. The focal mechanism and centroid depth of the Kangding earthquake are inverted by teleseismic waveforms and regional seismograms with CAP method. The result shows that the two nodal planes of focal mechanism are 235°/82°/-173° and 144°/83°/-8° respectively, the latter nodal plane should be the ruptured fault plane with a focal depth of 9 km. The rupture process model of the Kangding earthquake is obtained by joint inversion of teleseismic data and regional seismograms. The Kangding earthquake is a bilateral earthquake, and the major rupture zone is within a depth range of 5-15 km, spanning 10 km and 12 km along dip and strike directions, and maximum slip is about 0.5m. Most seismic moment was released during the first 5 s and the magnitude is Mw6.01, smaller than the model determined by InSAR data. The discrepancy between co-seismic rupture models of the Kangding and its Ms 5.8 aftershock and the InSAR model implies significant afterslip deformation occurred in the two weeks after the mainshock. The afterslip released energy equals to an Mw5.9 earthquake and mainly concentrates in the northwest side and the shallower side to the rupture zone. The CFS accumulation near the epicenter of the 2014 Kangding earthquake is increased by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, implying that the Kangding earthquake could be triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake. The CFS at the northwest section of the seismic gap along the Kangding-daofu segment is increased by the Kanding earthquake, and the rupture slip of the Kangding earthquake sequence is too small to release the accumulated strain in the seismic gap. Consequently, the northwest section of the Kangding-daofu seismic gap is under high seismic hazard in the future.

  7. Frequency characteristics and far-field effect of gravity perturbation before earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Jian-Ke; Lu, Kai; Zhang, Qian-Jiang; Man, Kai-Feng; Li, Jun-Ying; Mao, Xian-Cheng; Lai, Jian-Qing

    2017-03-01

    We used high-pass filtering and the Fourier transform to analyze tidal gravity data prior to five earthquakes from four superconducting gravity stations around the world. A stable gravitational perturbation signal is received within a few days before the earthquakes. The gravitational perturbation signal before the Wenchuan earthquake on May 12, 2008 has main frequency of 0.1-0.3 Hz, and the other four have frequency bands of 0.12-0.17 Hz and 0.06-0.085 Hz. For earthquakes in continental and oceanic plate fault zones, gravity anomalies often appear on the superconducting gravimeters away from the epicenter, whereas the stations near the epicenter record small or no anomalies. The results suggest that this kind of gravitational perturbation signals correlate with earthquake occurrence, making them potentially useful earthquake predictors. The far-field effect of the gravitational perturbation signals may reveal the interaction mechanisms of the Earth's tectonic plates. However, owing to the uneven distribution of gravity tide stations, the results need to be further confirmed in the future.

  8. Memory effect in M ≥ 6 earthquakes of South-North Seismic Belt, Mainland China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jeen-Hwa

    2013-07-01

    The M ≥ 6 earthquakes occurred in the South-North Seismic Belt, Mainland China, during 1901-2008 are taken to study the possible existence of memory effect in large earthquakes. The fluctuation analysis technique is applied to analyze the sequences of earthquake magnitude and inter-event time represented in the natural time domain. Calculated results show that the exponents of scaling law of fluctuation versus window length are less than 0.5 for the sequences of earthquake magnitude and inter-event time. The migration of earthquakes in study is taken to discuss the possible correlation between events. The phase portraits of two sequent magnitudes and two sequent inter-event times are also applied to explore if large (or small) earthquakes are followed by large (or small) events. Together with all kinds of given information, we conclude that the earthquakes in study is short-term correlated and thus the short-term memory effect would be operative.

  9. Multi-source and multi-angle remote sensing image data collection, application and sharing of Beichuan National Earthquake Ruins Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yueguan; Wang, Wei; Wen, Qi; Huang, He; Lin, Jingli; Zhang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12, 2008 brought huge casualties and property losses to the Chinese people, and Beichuan County was destroyed in the earthquake. In order to leave a site for commemorate of the people, and for science propaganda and research of earthquake science, Beichuan National Earthquake Ruins Museum has been built on the ruins of Beichuan county. Based on the demand for digital preservation of the earthquake ruins park and collection of earthquake damage assessment of research and data needs, we set up a data set of Beichuan National Earthquake Ruins Museum, including satellite remote sensing image, airborne remote sensing image, ground photogrammetry data and ground acquisition data. At the same time, in order to make a better service for earthquake science research, we design the sharing ideas and schemes for this scientific data set.

  10. Risk Factors of Post-traumatic Stress and Depressive Disorders in Longmenshan Adolescents After the 2013 Lushan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiuping; Wang, Yan; Tang, Wanjie

    2018-03-06

    This study examined the severity of post-traumatic stress and depressive disorders in Longmenshan adolescents after the 2013 Lushan earthquake, as well as relationships among earthquake-related exposure, post-earthquake negative factors, previous exposure to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, and level of earthquake impact (city). A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adolescents in Lushan (n = 1416), Baoxing (n = 1102) and Tianquan (n = 1265) at 3 years after the Lushan earthquake. Respondents were evaluated using the Earthquake Experience Scale, the Adolescent Self-rating Life Events Checklist (ASLEC), the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13), and the Depression Self-Rating Scale (KADS-6). High levels of post-traumatic stress and depression symptoms were found among adolescents in the most heavily affected cities, and these symptoms were more severe in respondents exposed to the 2008 earthquake. PTSD correlated most strongly with earthquake exposure, whereas depression correlated most strongly with psychosocial stressors following the event.

  11. Serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with intrusion and avoidance symptoms of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Chinese earthquake survivors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Luobing; Wang, Li; Cao, Chengqi; Cao, Xing; Zhu, Ye; Liu, Ping; Luo, Shu; Zhang, Jianxin

    2018-05-01

    Prior studies have found that the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) interacts with trauma exposure to increase general risk for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). However, there is little knowledge about the effects of the interaction on distinct symptom clusters of PTSD. This study aimed to investigate the relation between the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and earthquake-related exposures and a contemporary phenotypic model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in a traumatised adult sample from China. A cross-sectional design with gene-environment interaction (G × E) approach was adopted. Participants were 1131 survivors who experienced 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. PTSD symptoms were assessed with the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was genotyped with capillary electrophoresis (CE) in ABI 3730xl genetic Analyzer. Although there was no significant interaction between 5-HTTLPR and traumatic exposure on total PTSD symptoms, respondents with the LL genotype of 5-HTTLPR who were highly exposed to the earthquake experienced lower intrusion and avoidance symptoms than those with the S-allele carriers. The findings suggest that the 5-HTTLPR may have an important impact on the development of PTSD and add to the extant knowledge on understanding and treating of posttraumatic psychopathology.

  12. The Lushan earthquake and the giant panda: impacts and conservation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zejun; Yuan, Shibin; Qi, Dunwu; Zhang, Mingchun

    2014-06-01

    Earthquakes not only result in a great loss of human life and property, but also have profound effects on the Earth's biodiversity. The Lushan earthquake occurred on 20 Apr 2013, with a magnitude of 7.0 and an intensity of 9.0 degrees. A distance of 17.0 km from its epicenter to the nearest distribution site of giant pandas recorded in the Third National Survey was determined. Making use of research on the Wenchuan earthquake (with a magnitude of 8.0), which occurred approximately 5 years ago, we briefly analyze the impacts of the Lushan earthquake on giant pandas and their habitat. An earthquake may interrupt ongoing behaviors of giant pandas and may also cause injury or death. In addition, an earthquake can damage conservation facilities for pandas, and result in further habitat fragmentation and degradation. However, from a historical point of view, the impacts of human activities on giant pandas and their habitat may, in fact, far outweigh those of natural disasters such as earthquakes. Measures taken to promote habitat restoration and conservation network reconstruction in earthquake-affected areas should be based on requirements of giant pandas, not those of humans. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves of the seismo-ionospheric precursors in GIM TEC associated with magnitude greater than 6.0 earthquakes in China during 1998-2013.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. H.; Chen, Y. I.; Liu, J. Y. G.; Huang, Y. H.

    2014-12-01

    Statistical evidence of the Seismo-Ionospheric Precursors (SIPs) is reported by statistically investigating the relationship between the Total Electron Content (TEC) in Global Ionosphere Map (GIM) and 56 M≥6.0 earthquakes during 1998-2013 in China. A median-based method and a z test are employed to detect the overall earthquake signatures. It is found that a reduction of positive signatures and an enhancement of negative signatures appear simultaneously on 3-5 days prior to the earthquakes in China. Finally, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are used to measure the power of TEC for predicting M≥6.0 earthquakes in China.

  14. Sichuan Earthquake in China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Sichuan earthquake in China occurred on May 12, 2008, along faults within the mountains, but near and almost parallel the mountain front, northwest of the city of Chengdu. This major quake caused immediate and severe damage to many villages and cities in the area. Aftershocks pose a continuing danger, but another continuing hazard is the widespread occurrence of landslides that have formed new natural dams and consequently new lakes. These lakes are submerging roads and flooding previously developed lands. But an even greater concern is the possible rapid release of water as the lakes eventually overflow the new dams. The dams are generally composed of disintegrated rock debris that may easily erode, leading to greater release of water, which may then cause faster erosion and an even greater release of water. This possible 'positive feedback' between increasing erosion and increasing water release could result in catastrophic debris flows and/or flooding. The danger is well known to the Chinese earthquake response teams, which have been building spillways over some of the new natural dams.

    This ASTER image, acquired on June 1, 2008, shows two of the new large landslide dams and lakes upstream from the town of Chi-Kua-Kan at 32o12'N latitude and 104o50'E longitude. Vegetation is green, water is blue, and soil is grayish brown in this enhanced color view. New landslides appear bright off-white. The northern (top) lake is upstream from the southern lake. Close inspection shows a series of much smaller lakes in an elongated 'S' pattern along the original stream path. Note especially the large landslides that created the dams. Some other landslides in this area, such as the large one in the northeast corner of the image, occur only on the mountain slopes, so do not block streams, and do not form lakes.

  15. Controls of earthquake faulting style on near field landslide triggering: The role of coseismic slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatard, L.; Grasso, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    compare the spatial distributions of seven databases of landslides triggered by Mw=5.6-7.9 earthquakes, using distances normalized by the earthquake fault length. We show that the normalized landslide distance distributions collapse, i.e., the normalized distance distributions overlap whatever the size of the earthquake, separately for the events associated with dip-slip, buried-faulting earthquakes, and surface-faulting earthquakes. The dip-slip earthquakes triggered landslides at larger normalized distances than the oblique-slip event of Loma Prieta. We further identify that the surface-faulting earthquakes of Wenchuan, Chi-Chi, and Kashmir triggered landslides at normalized distances smaller than the ones expected from their Mw ≥ 7.6 magnitudes. These results support a control of the seismic slip (through amplitude, rake, and surface versus buried slip) on the distances at which landslides are triggered. In terms of coseismic landslide management in mountainous areas, our results allow us to propose distances at which 95 and 75% of landslides will be triggered as a function of the earthquake focal mechanism.

  16. Four Examples of Short-Term and Imminent Prediction of Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zeng, zuoxun; Liu, Genshen; Wu, Dabin; Sibgatulin, Victor

    2014-05-01

    We show here 4 examples of short-term and imminent prediction of earthquakes in China last year. They are Nima Earthquake(Ms5.2), Minxian Earthquake(Ms6.6), Nantou Earthquake (Ms6.7) and Dujiangyan Earthquake (Ms4.1) Imminent Prediction of Nima Earthquake(Ms5.2) Based on the comprehensive analysis of the prediction of Victor Sibgatulin using natural electromagnetic pulse anomalies and the prediction of Song Song and Song Kefu using observation of a precursory halo, and an observation for the locations of a degasification of the earth in the Naqu, Tibet by Zeng Zuoxun himself, the first author made a prediction for an earthquake around Ms 6 in 10 days in the area of the degasification point (31.5N, 89.0 E) at 0:54 of May 8th, 2013. He supplied another degasification point (31N, 86E) for the epicenter prediction at 8:34 of the same day. At 18:54:30 of May 15th, 2013, an earthquake of Ms5.2 occurred in the Nima County, Naqu, China. Imminent Prediction of Minxian Earthquake (Ms6.6) At 7:45 of July 22nd, 2013, an earthquake occurred at the border between Minxian and Zhangxian of Dingxi City (34.5N, 104.2E), Gansu province with magnitude of Ms6.6. We review the imminent prediction process and basis for the earthquake using the fingerprint method. 9 channels or 15 channels anomalous components - time curves can be outputted from the SW monitor for earthquake precursors. These components include geomagnetism, geoelectricity, crust stresses, resonance, crust inclination. When we compress the time axis, the outputted curves become different geometric images. The precursor images are different for earthquake in different regions. The alike or similar images correspond to earthquakes in a certain region. According to the 7-year observation of the precursor images and their corresponding earthquake, we usually get the fingerprint 6 days before the corresponding earthquakes. The magnitude prediction needs the comparison between the amplitudes of the fingerpringts from the same

  17. Building Damage Extraction Triggered by Earthquake Using the Uav Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Tang, H.

    2018-04-01

    When extracting building damage information, we can only determine whether the building is collapsed using the post-earthquake satellite images. Even the satellite images have the sub-meter resolution, the identification of slightly damaged buildings is still a challenge. As the complementary data to satellite images, the UAV images have unique advantages, such as stronger flexibility and higher resolution. In this paper, according to the spectral feature of UAV images and the morphological feature of the reconstructed point clouds, the building damage was classified into four levels: basically intact buildings, slightly damaged buildings, partially collapsed buildings and totally collapsed buildings, and give the rules of damage grades. In particular, the slightly damaged buildings are determined using the detected roof-holes. In order to verify the approach, we conduct experimental simulations in the cases of Wenchuan and Ya'an earthquakes. By analyzing the post-earthquake UAV images of the two earthquakes, the building damage was classified into four levels, and the quantitative statistics of the damaged buildings is given in the experiments.

  18. Landslide mobility and connectivity with fluvial networks during earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. K.; West, A. J.; Li, G.; Roback, K.; Zekkos, D.

    2016-12-01

    In some tectonically active mountain belts, coseismic landslide events displace sediment volumes equal to long-term erosion rates when averaged over typical seismic cycles. However, the contribution of landsliding to total erosional budgets depends critically on the export of landslide debris, which in turn is thought to depend on connectivity of landslides with fluvial channels and the sediment transport capacity of fluvial systems. From the 2015 Mw7.8 Gorkha event in central Nepal, we present connectivity data based on a mapped inventory of nearly 25,000 landslides and compare these results to those from the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in China. Landslide runout length in Nepal scales with landslide volume, and has a strong association with slope, elevation and relief. Connectivity is greatest for larger landslides in the high-relief, high-elevation part of the High Himalaya, suggesting that these slope failures may have the most immediate impact on sediment dynamics and cascading hazards, such as landslide reactivation by monsoon rainfall and outburst floods that pose immediate threat to communities far down stream. Although more rare than landslides at lower elevation, large high-elevation landslides that cause outburst flooding due to failure of landslide dams in the upper reaches of large Himalayan rivers may also enhance river incision downstream. The overall high fluvial connectivity (i.e. high percentage of landslide volumes directly intersecting the stream network) of coseismic landsliding in the Gorkha event suggests coupling between the earthquake cycle and sediment/geochemical budgets of fluvial systems in the steep topography of the Himalaya.

  19. Disaster, Civil Society and Education in China: A Case Study of an Independent Non-Government Organization Working in the Aftermath of the Wenchuan Earthquake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menefee, Trey; Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2012-01-01

    In May 2008 nearly 90,000 people died in the most powerful earthquake in modern Chinese history. Many were students killed in substandard schools, creating a sensitive disaster zone inside a nation whose civil society organizations are beginning to flourish. This paper examines the education earthquake relief program of an international NGO, and…

  20. Psychological and behavioural impacts of the 2008 China earthquake on blood donors.

    PubMed

    Tian, F; Wang, J; Huang, Y; Guo, X; Yun, Z; Yang, T; Nelson, K; Schreiber, G B; Ness, P; Shan, H

    2010-08-01

    On May 12, 2008, a severe earthquake hit Sichuan province in China. A post-earthquake survey was conducted to study the earthquake's effect on blood donor behaviour and stress at three blood centres at varying distances from the epicentre. A questionnaire was developed to assess donor post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and attitudes toward giving blood. Responses were compared by centre and donor characteristics using multivariate logistic regression techniques. Of all 17 456 donors, the overall prevalence of PTSD was 13.2%. Donors who knew someone killed or injured by the earthquake were 2.1 times more likely to have PTSD than others (95% CI: 1.8-2.4). 85.2% of donors cited the earthquake as their reason for donating. 16.1% of donors felt it acceptable to be less honest about one's health history in an emergency. After adjusting for PTSD, geographic and demographic characteristics, the donors knowing someone killed or injured by the earthquake were 1.4 times (95% CI: 1.2-1.7) more likely to cite the earthquake as reason for donating, and 1.8 times (95% CI: 1.5-2.1) more likely to accept being less honest about one's health history in case of national emergency. The psychological and behavioural impacts of the earthquake on blood donors extended far from the epicentre. After a disaster, it is important to emphasize that donors must be truthful on the donor questionnaire as some donors appear willing to be less than honest when they perceive an increased need for blood products.

  1. Seismic density and its relationship with strong historical earthquakes around Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WANG, J.

    2012-12-01

    As you know, Beijing is the capital of China. The regional earthquake observation networks have been built around Beijing (115.0°-119.3°E, 38.5°-41.0°N) since 1966. From 1970 to 2009, total 20281 earthquakes were recorded. The accumulation of these data raised a fundamental question: what are the characteristics and the physical nature of small earthquakes? In order to answer such question, we must use a quantitative method to deal with seismic pattern. Here we introduce a new concept of seismic density. The method emphasize that we must pay attention to the accuracy of the epicentre location, but no correction is made for the focal depth, because in any case this uncertainty is in any case greater than that of the epicenter. On the basis of these instrumental data, seismic patterns were calculated. The results illustrate that seismic density is the main character of the seismic pattern. Temporal distribution of small earthquakes in each seismic density zone is analyzed quantitatively. According to the statistics, mainly two types of seismic density are distinguished. Besides of the instrumental data, abundant information of historical earthquakes around Beijing is found in the archives, total 15 strong historical earthquake (M>=6). The earliest one occurred in September 294. After comparing, a very interesting phenomenon was noticed that the epicenters of strong historical earthquakes with high accuracy location corresponding with one of the seismic density type, which temporal distribution is almost stationary. This correspondent means small earthquakes still cluster near the epicenters of historical earthquakes, even if those occurred several hundred years ago. The mechanics of the relationship is analyzed. Strong historical earthquakes and seismic density of small earthquakes are consistent in each case, which reveals the persistent weakness of local crustal medium together. We utilized this relationship to improve the strong historical earthquake locations

  2. CONEDEP: COnvolutional Neural network based Earthquake DEtection and Phase Picking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Huang, Y.; Yue, H.; Zhou, S.; An, S.; Yun, N.

    2017-12-01

    We developed an automatic local earthquake detection and phase picking algorithm based on Fully Convolutional Neural network (FCN). The FCN algorithm detects and segments certain features (phases) in 3 component seismograms to realize efficient picking. We use STA/LTA algorithm and template matching algorithm to construct the training set from seismograms recorded 1 month before and after the Wenchuan earthquake. Precise P and S phases are identified and labeled to construct the training set. Noise data are produced by combining back-ground noise and artificial synthetic noise to form the equivalent scale of noise set as the signal set. Training is performed on GPUs to achieve efficient convergence. Our algorithm has significantly improved performance in terms of the detection rate and precision in comparison with STA/LTA and template matching algorithms.

  3. Socioeconomic implications of donation distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yajing; Guo, Jinzhong; Chen, Qinghua; Wang, Yougui

    2011-11-01

    Individual donation depends on personal wealth and individual willingness to donate. On the basis of a donation model proposed in our previous study, a simplified version of an individual donation model is derived by relaxing the restrictions of the maximum wealth in the economy. Thus, the whole distribution is determined by only two parameters. One of them relates to the exponent of the distribution of society wealth and the other refers to the donation amount of the kindest poorest person. The parameters reflect the degree of wealth inequality and the charitable enthusiasm of society, respectively. Using actual donation data, we develop a specific parameter estimation method combining linear regression and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic to get the value of two socioeconomic indicators. Applications to Chinese individual donations in response to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake indicate a rising inequality in social wealth distribution in China. Also, more charitable enthusiasm is observed in the response to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.

  4. An integrated approach: managing resources for post-disaster reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan; Wilkinson, Suzanne; Brunsdon, David; Seville, Erica; Potangaroa, Regan

    2011-10-01

    A lack of resources for post-disaster housing reconstruction significantly limits the prospects for successful recovery. Following the earthquake in Wenchuan, China, in May 2008, housing reconstruction was not immune to resource shortages and price inflation. Difficulties in sourcing materials and labour considerably impeded recovery. This paper provides evidence of the resourcing bottlenecks inherent in the post-Wenchuan earthquake reconstruction process. Its aim is to present an integrated planning framework for managing resources for post-disaster housing rebuilding. The results are drawn from in-field surveys that highlight the areas where stakeholders need to concentrate effort, including revising legislation and policy, enhancing capacity for rebuilding in the construction industry, strengthening the transportation network, restructuring market mechanisms, and incorporating environmental considerations into overall planning. Although the case study presented here is country-specific, it is hoped that the findings provide a basis for future research to identify resourcing constraints and solutions in other disaster contexts. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  5. Design and application of the emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting in the Wenchuan earthquake zone.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiaqi; Zhou, Maigeng; Li, Yanfei; Guo, Yan; Su, Xuemei; Qi, Xiaopeng; Ge, Hui

    2009-05-01

    To describe the design and application of an emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting. Software engineering and business modeling were used to design and develop the emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting. Seven days after the initiation of the reporting system, the reporting rate in the earthquake zone reached the level of the same period in 2007, using the mobile phone-based information system. Surveillance of the weekly report on morbidity in the earthquake zone after the initiation of the mobile phone reporting system showed the same trend as the previous three years. The emergency response mobile phone-based information system for infectious disease reporting was an effective solution to transmit urgently needed reports and manage communicable disease surveillance information. This assured the consistency of disease surveillance and facilitated sensitive, accurate, and timely disease surveillance. It is an important backup for the internet-based direct reporting system for communicable disease. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  6. Defeating Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by

  7. Earthquakes, March-April, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, Waverly J.

    1993-01-01

    Worldwide, only one major earthquake (7.0earthquake, a magnitude 7.2 shock, struck the Santa Cruz Islands region in the South Pacific on March 6. Earthquake-related deaths occurred in the Fiji Islands, China, and Peru.

  8. InSAR and GPS derived coseismic deformation and fault model of the 2017 Ms7.0 Jiuzhaigou earthquake in the Northeast Bayanhar block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dezheng; Qu, Chunyan; Shan, Xinjian; Gong, Wenyu; Zhang, Yingfeng; Zhang, Guohong

    2018-02-01

    On 8 August 2017, a Ms7.0 earthquake stroke the city of Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan, China. The Jiuzhaigou earthquake occurred on a buried fault in the vicinity of three well-known active faults and this event offers a unique opportunity to study tectonic structures in the epicentral region and stress transferring. Here we present coseismic displacement field maps for this earthquake using descending and ascending Sentinel-1A Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data. Deformation covered an area of approximately 50 × 50 km, with a maximum line-of-sight (LOS) displacement of 22 cm in ascending and 14 cm in descending observations on the west side of the source fault. Based on InSAR and Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements, both separately and jointly, we constructed a one-segment model to invert the coseismic slip distribution and dip angle of this event. Our final fault slip model suggests that slip was concentrated at an upper depth of 15 km; there was a maximum slip of 1.3 m and the rupture was dominated by a left-lateral strike-slip motion. The inverted geodetic moment was approximately 6.75 × 1018 Nm, corresponding to a moment magnitude of Mw6.5, consistent with seismological results. The calculated static Coulomb stress changes indicate that most aftershocks occurred in stress increasing zones caused by the mainshock rupture; the Jiuzhaigou earthquake has brought the western part of the Tazang fault 0.1-0.4 MPa closer to failure, indicating an increasing seismic hazard in this region. The Coulomb stress changes caused by the 2008 Mw7.8 Wenchuan earthquake suggest that stress loading from this event acted as a trigger for the Jiuzhaigou earthquake.

  9. Insight into the Earthquake Risk Information Seeking Behavior of the Victims: Evidence from Songyuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shasha; Zhai, Guofang; Zhou, Shutian; Fan, Chenjing; Wu, Yunqing; Ren, Chongqiang

    2017-01-01

    Efficient risk communication is a vital way to reduce the vulnerability of individuals when facing emergency risks, especially regarding earthquakes. Efficient risk communication aims at improving the supply of risk information and fulfilling the need for risk information by individuals. Therefore, an investigation into individual-level information seeking behavior within earthquake risk contexts is very important for improved earthquake risk communication. However, at present there are very few studies that have explored the behavior of individuals seeking earthquake risk information. Under the guidance of the Risk Information Seeking and Processing model as well as relevant practical findings using the structural equation model, this study attempts to explore the main determinants of an individual’s earthquake risk information seeking behavior, and to validate the mediator effect of information need during the seeking process. A questionnaire-based survey of 918 valid respondents in Songyuan, China, who had been hit by a small earthquake swarm, was used to provide practical evidence for this study. Results indicated that information need played a noteworthy role in the earthquake risk information seeking process, and was detected both as an immediate predictor and as a mediator. Informational subjective norms drive the seeking behavior on earthquake risk information through both direct and indirect approaches. Perceived information gathering capacity, negative affective responses and risk perception have an indirect effect on earthquake risk information seeking behavior via information need. The implications for theory and practice regarding risk communication are discussed and concluded. PMID:28272359

  10. Insight into the Earthquake Risk Information Seeking Behavior of the Victims: Evidence from Songyuan, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Shasha; Zhai, Guofang; Zhou, Shutian; Fan, Chenjing; Wu, Yunqing; Ren, Chongqiang

    2017-03-07

    Efficient risk communication is a vital way to reduce the vulnerability of individuals when facing emergency risks, especially regarding earthquakes. Efficient risk communication aims at improving the supply of risk information and fulfilling the need for risk information by individuals. Therefore, an investigation into individual-level information seeking behavior within earthquake risk contexts is very important for improved earthquake risk communication. However, at present there are very few studies that have explored the behavior of individuals seeking earthquake risk information. Under the guidance of the Risk Information Seeking and Processing model as well as relevant practical findings using the structural equation model, this study attempts to explore the main determinants of an individual's earthquake risk information seeking behavior, and to validate the mediator effect of information need during the seeking process. A questionnaire-based survey of 918 valid respondents in Songyuan, China, who had been hit by a small earthquake swarm, was used to provide practical evidence for this study. Results indicated that information need played a noteworthy role in the earthquake risk information seeking process, and was detected both as an immediate predictor and as a mediator. Informational subjective norms drive the seeking behavior on earthquake risk information through both direct and indirect approaches. Perceived information gathering capacity, negative affective responses and risk perception have an indirect effect on earthquake risk information seeking behavior via information need. The implications for theory and practice regarding risk communication are discussed and concluded.

  11. The Technical Efficiency of Earthquake Medical Rapid Response Teams Following Disasters: The Case of the 2010 Yushu Earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Tang, Bihan; Yang, Hongyang; Liu, Yuan; Xue, Chen; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-12-04

    Performance assessments of earthquake medical rapid response teams (EMRRTs), particularly the first responders deployed to the hardest hit areas following major earthquakes, should consider efficient and effective use of resources. This study assesses the daily technical efficiency of EMRRTs in the emergency period immediately following the 2010 Yushu earthquake in China. Data on EMRRTs were obtained from official daily reports of the general headquarters for Yushu earthquake relief, the emergency office of the National Ministry of Health, and the Health Department of Qinghai Province, for a sample of data on 15 EMRRTs over 62 days. Data envelopment analysis was used to examine the technical efficiency in a constant returns to scale model, a variable returns to scale model, and the scale efficiency of EMRRTs. Tobit regression was applied to analyze the effects of corresponding influencing factors. The average technical efficiency scores under constant returns to scale, variable returns to scale, and the scale efficiency scores of the 62 units of analysis were 77.95%, 89.00%, and 87.47%, respectively. The staff-to-bed ratio was significantly related to global technical efficiency. The date of rescue was significantly related to pure technical efficiency. The type of institution to which an EMRRT belonged and the staff-to-bed ratio were significantly related to scale efficiency. This study provides evidence that supports improvements to EMRRT efficiency and serves as a reference for earthquake emergency medical rapid assistance leaders and teams.

  12. Relocation of the 2012 Ms 7.0 Lushan Earthquake Aftershock Sequences and Its Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, L.; Wu, J.; Sun, Z.; Su, J.; Du, W.

    2013-12-01

    At 08:02 am on 20 April 2013 (Beijing time), an Ms 7.0 earthquake occurred in Lushan County, Sichuan Province. Lushan earthquake is another devastating earthquake occurred in Sichuan Province after 12 May 2008 Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake. 193 people were killed, 25 people were missing and more than ten thousand people were injured in the earthquake. Direct economic losses were estimated to be more than 80 billion yuan (RMB). Lushan earthquake occurred in the southern part of the Longmenshan fault zone. The distance between the epicenters of Lushan earthquake and Wenchuan earthquake is about 87 km. In an effort to maximize observations of the aftershock sequence and study the seismotetonic model, we deployed 35 temporal seismic stations around the source area. The earthquake was followed by a productive aftershock sequence. By the end of 20 July more than 10,254 aftershocks were recorded by the temporal seismic network. The magnitude of the aftershock ranges from ML-0.5 to ML5.6. We first located the aftershocks using Hypo2000 (Kevin, 2000) and refined the location results with HYPODD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth, 2000). The 1-D velocity model used in relocation is modified from a deep seismic sounding profile near Lushan earthquake (Wang et al., 2007). The Vp/Vs ratio is set to 1.83 according to receiver function h-k study. A total of 8,129 events were relocated. The average location error in N-S, E-W and U-D direction is 0.30, 0.29 and 0.59 km, respectively. The relocation results show that the aftershocks spread approximately 35 km in length and 16 km in width. The dominant distribution of the focal depth ranges from 10 to 20 km. A few earthquakes occurred in the shallow crust. Focal depth sections crossing the source area show that the seismogenic fault dips to the northwest, manifested itself as a listric thrust fault. The dip angle of the seismogenic fault is approximately 63° in the shallow crust, about 41° near the source of the mainshock, and about 17° at the

  13. Academia Sinica, TW E-science to Assistant Seismic Observations for Earthquake Research, Monitor and Hazard Reduction Surrounding the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bor-Shouh; Liu, Chun-Chi; Yen, Eric; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Lin, Simon C.; Huang, Win-Gee; Lee, Shiann-Jong; Chen, Hsin-Yen

    Experience from the 1994 giant Sumatra earthquake, seismic and tsunami hazard have been considered as important issues in the South China Sea and its surrounding region, and attracted many seismologist's interesting. Currently, more than 25 broadband seismic instruments are currently operated by Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica in northern Vietnam to study the geodynamic evolution of the Red river fracture zone and rearranged to distribute to southern Vietnam recently to study the geodynamic evolution and its deep structures of the South China Sea. Similar stations are planned to deploy in Philippines in near future. In planning, some high quality stations may be as permanent stations and added continuous GPS observations, and instruments to be maintained and operated by several cooperation institutes, for instance, Institute of Geophysics, Vietnamese Acadamy of Sciences and Technology in Vietnam and Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Philippines. Finally, those stations will be planed to upgrade as real time transmission stations for earthquake monitoring and tsunami warning. However, high speed data transfer within different agencies is always a critical issue for successful network operation. By taking advantage of both EGEE and EUAsiaGrid e-Infrastructure, Academia Sinica Grid Computing Centre coordinates researchers from various Asian countries to construct a platform to high performance data transfer for huge parallel computation. Efforts from this data service and a newly build earthquake data centre for data management may greatly improve seismic network performance. Implementation of Grid infrastructure and e-science issues in this region may assistant development of earthquake research, monitor and natural hazard reduction. In the near future, we will search for new cooperation continually from the surrounding countries of the South China Sea to install new seismic stations to construct a complete seismic network of the

  14. The July 11, 1995 Myanmar-China earthquake: A representative event in the bookshelf faulting system of southeastern Asia observed from JERS-1 SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Lingyun; Wang, Qingliang; Xu, Jing; Ji, Cunwei

    2017-03-01

    On July 11, 1995, an Mw 6.8 earthquake struck eastern Myanmar near the Chinese border; hereafter referred to as the 1995 Myanmar-China earthquake. Coseismic surface displacements associated with this event are identified from JERS-1 (Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1) SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images. The largest relative displacement reached 60 cm in the line-of-sight direction. We speculate that a previously unrecognized dextral strike-slip subvertical fault striking NW-SE was responsible for this event. The coseismic slip distribution on the fault planes is inverted based on the InSAR-derived deformation. The results indicate that the fault slip was confined to two lobes. The maximum slip reached approximately 2.5 m at a depth of 5 km in the northwestern part of the focal region. The inverted geodetic moment was approximately Mw = 6.69, which is consistent with seismological results. The 1995 Myanmar-China earthquake is one of the largest recorded earthquakes that has occurred around the "bookshelf faulting" system between the Sagaing fault in Myanmar and the Red River fault in southwestern China.

  15. Landslides triggered by the Minxian-Zhangxian, China, Mw 5.9 earthquake of 22 July 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chong; Xu, Xiwei; Shyu, J. Bruce H.

    2014-05-01

    On July 22, 2013, an earthquake of Ms 6.6 occurred at the junction area of Minxian and Zhangxian counties, Gansu Province, China. This earthquake triggered many landslides of various types, dominated by small-scale soil falls, slides, and topples on loess scarps. There were also some deep-seated landslides, large-scale soil avalanches, and fissure-developing slopes. In this paper, an inventory of landslides triggered by this event is prepared based on field investigations and visual interpretation of high-resolution satellite images. The spatial distribution of the landslides is then analyzed. The inventory indicates that at least 2,330 landslides were triggered by the earthquake. A correlation statistics of the landslides with topographic, geologic, and earthquake factors is performed based on the GIS platform. The results show that the largest number of landslides and the highest landslide density are at 2,400m-2,600m of absolute elevation, and 200m-300m of relative elevation, respectively. The landslide density does not always increase with slope gradient as previously suggested. The slopes most prone to landslides are in S, SW, W, and NW directions. Concave slopes register higher landslide density and larger number of landslides than convex slopes. The largest number of landslides occurs on topographic position with middle slopes, whereas the highest landslide density corresponds to valleys and lower slopes. The underlying bedrocks consisting of conglomerate and sandstone of Lower Paleogene (Eb) register both the largest number of landslides and the highest landslide density value. There is no clear relationship between PGA and the co-seismic landslides. Correlations of landslide number and landslide density with perpendicular- and along-strike distance from the epicenter show an obvious spatial intensifying character of the co-seismic landslides. The spatial pattern of the co-seismic landslides is strongly controlled by a branch of the Lintan-Dangchang fault

  16. Maternal PTSD following Exposure to the Wenchuan Earthquake Is Associated with Impaired Mental Development of Children

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Dongge; Zhu, Zhongliang; Sun, Hongli; Qi, Yanhua; Xing, Lanying; Zhao, Xiaogui; Wan, Qiuyuan; Su, Qian; Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether earthquake-related maternal Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with impaired development of infants. Participants included 86 women who were pregnant during or after the earthquake in Ningqiang county, and their children. Data were collected from February to March of 2012. PTSD questionnaire (PTSD Checklist, Civilian Version (PCL-C)) was used to measure the effect of the earthquake on mothers, and that the scores greater than 50 were used to indicate presence of PTSD. Each child was assessed using the mental Developmental Screening Test (DST) according to age. Among the 86 women, PTSD scores equal to or greater than 50 accounted for 20.93%. Among the 86 children, 25.60% of development quotient (DQ) scores and 19.80% of mental index (MI) scores were less than 85. The correlation coefficient analysis showed that PTSD scores were inversely related to DQ and MI scores. Maternal PTSD following earthquake exposure is associated with relatively lower intellectual development in children age 0–3 years. Further research is needed to assess the persistent effects of this influence on offspring of mothers exposed to earthquake. PMID:28369095

  17. The Role of Fine Sediment Content on Soil Consolidation and Debris Flows Development after Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, L.; Xu, M., III; Wang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Fine sediment has been identified as an important factor determining the critical runoff that initiates debris flows because its contribution to shear strength through consolidation. Especially, owing to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China enormous of loose sediment with different fractions of fine particles was eroded and supplied as materials for debris flows. The loose materials are gradually consolidated along with time, and therefore stronger rainfall is required to overcome the shear strength and to initiate debris flows. In this study, flume experiments were performed to explore soil consolidation and shear strength on mass failure and debris flow initiation under the conditions that different fractions of fine sediment were contained in the materials. Under the low content of fine sediment conditions (mass percentages: 0-10%), the debris flows formed with large pores and low shear strength and thus fine particles were too few to fill up the pores among the coarse particles. The consolidation rate was mostly influenced by the content of the fine particles. Consolidation of fine particles caused an increase of the shear strength and decrease of the rainfall infiltration, and therefore, debris flow initiation required stronger rainfall as the consolidation of the fine particles developed.

  18. Detection of the Wenchuan aftershock sequence using waveform correlation with a composite regional network

    DOE PAGES

    Slinkard, Megan; Heck, Stephen; Schaff, David; ...

    2016-06-28

    Using template waveforms from aftershocks of the Wenchuan earthquake (12 May 2008, M s 8.0) listed in a global bulletin and continuous data from eight regional stations, we detected more than 6000 additional events in the mainshock source region from 1 May to 12 August 2008. These new detections obey Omori’s law, extend the magnitude of completeness downward by 1.1 magnitude units, and lead to a more than fivefold increase in number of known aftershocks compared with the global bulletins published by the International Data Centre and the Inter national Seismological Centre. Moreover, we detected more M > 2 eventsmore » than were listed by the Sichuan Seismograph Network. Several clusters of these detections were then relocated using the double-difference method, yielding locations that reduced travel-time residuals by a factor of 32 compared with the initial bulletin locations. Finally, our results suggest that using waveform correlation on a few regional stations can find aftershock events very effectively and locate them with precision.« less

  19. Schoolteachers' Traumatic Experiences and Responses in the Context of a Large-Scale Earthquake in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, B.

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the traumatic experience of teachers who experienced the 2008 earthquake in Sichuan, China. A survey measuring participants' personal experiences, professional demands, and psychological responses was distributed to 241 teachers in five selected schools. Although the status of schoolteachers' trauma in a postdisaster…

  20. Long time series analysis of ionospheric TEC disturbance over seismically region in southwest China during low solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiangxiang; Yu, Tao; Shan, Xinjian; Liu, Zhan; Wang, Zhenjie

    2016-04-01

    Recently, there are growing interests in studying the seismo-ionospheric disturbance prior to earthquakes, mainly including the anomalies in the electric field, magnetic field and plasma parameters. However, there are still some controversies over this topic, mainly because of strong day-to-day variability of the ionosphere itself. It is hard to determine whether the different forms of ionospheric disturbances are associated with earthquakes or not. Using data of Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONC) and IGS (International GNSS Service), we attempt to give a statistical investigation about the total electron content (TEC) perturbation before 30 Mw6.0+ earthquakes during January 2000 to December 2010 in China. To determine the abnormal TEC signals, a quartile-based process is performed. At each time point we calculated the median M using the TEC values at the same local time for the preceding 15 days. In addition, we calculated the maps of differential TEC from global ionosphere maps (GIM) in the above period. It is shown that TEC anomalies were detected before 20 earthquakes, nearly 67%. The anomalies represent positive before most events and occurred mostly within 2-6 days before the shocks, significantly during the afternoon period, 1200-2000LT. Part of perturbations appeared more than one time. Moreover, the affected area of TEC is not coincide with the vertical projection of the epicenter but shifts equatorward and is controlled by equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crest. On the other hand, we analyzed variations of TEC over southwest China during a period of low solar and geomagnetic activity in April-October 2008, based on the data of CMONC. During that time, six large earthquakes with magnitude M≧6.0 occurred around the southwest region of China. The method to detect abnormal TEC signals is same with above statistical study. Known that the decisive role in the ionosphere state is performed by space weather effects, we compared the TEC

  1. Mothers Coping With Bereavement in the 2008 China Earthquake: A Dual Process Model Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Fu, Fang; Sha, Wei; Chan, Cecilia L W; Chow, Amy Y M

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the grief experiences of mothers after they lost their children in the 2008 China earthquake. Informed by the dual process model, this study conducted in-depth interviews to explore how six bereaved mothers coped with such grief over a 2-year period. Right after the earthquake, these mothers suffered from intensive grief. They primarily coped with loss-oriented stressors. As time passed, these mothers began to focus on restoration-oriented stressors to face changes in life. This coping trajectory was a dynamic and integral process, which bereaved mothers oscillated between loss- and restoration-oriented stressors. This study offers insight in extending the existing empirical evidence of the dual process model.

  2. Mothers Coping With Bereavement in the 2008 China Earthquake: A Dual Process Model Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Fu, Fang; Sha, Wei; Chan, Cecilia L W; Chow, Amy Y M

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the grief experiences of mothers after they lost their children in the 2008 China earthquake. Informed by the Dual Process Model, this study conducted in-depth interviews to explore how six bereaved mothers coped with such grief over a 2-year period. Right after the earthquake, these mothers suffered from intensive grief. They primarily coped with loss-oriented stressors. As time passed, these mothers began to focus on restoration-oriented stressors to face changes in life. This coping trajectory was a dynamic and integral process, which bereaved mothers oscillated between loss- and restoration-oriented stressors. This study offers insight in extending the existing empirical evidence of the Dual Process Model.

  3. Upper Crust Structure and Earthquake Mechanism Near the Xinfengjiang Reservoir, Guangdong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X.; He, L.; Yang, H.; Shen, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The Xinfengjiang Water Reservoir (XWR) in Guangdong, China locates in Yanshanian granitic blocks, with three major faults crossing in NNW, NNE, and NEE directions. The XWR was built in 1958 and immediately after its impoundment, a series of earthquakes have occurred in the vicinity of the reservoir, including the 1962 M6.1 earthquake that occurred 1 km next to the dam. Numerous small earthquakes take place in this region presently, making it one of the most active seismic zones in Guangdong. Due to limited station coverage and small magnitude earthquakes, few data were available, thus previous seismic studies have limited resolution to understand earthquake activities in this region. To investigate present seismicity and associated crust/fault structure, we have collected waveform data of the 14 permanent Xinfengjiang seismic network stations from year 2012 to 2015, with a total of 1507 earthquakes of magnitude greater than zero. In addition, we also collected waveform data of 160 earthquakes recorded at 42 temporary seismic stations that were deployed near the Renzishi fault zone during 2015/01-2015/02. Finally we handpicked 20,666 P arrival times and 18,868 S times. We then performed tomographic inversion using these times for P and S velocity, respectively. The P-wave tomographic results show that the XWR area is generally divided into two regions by the NE-SW faults. At shallow depth (< 3km), the overall velocities are slower, which may indicate sediment layer or water-filled porous structure; At depths of 4-10 km, the NW part become faster while the SW part is slower; Furthermore, the fast block dips to NW direction to at least 10 km. By examining the earthquake locations, we find that they mainly locate at the border between fast and slow velocity blocks. Mechanism inversion results of earthquakes greater than magnitude 3 show that these "big" earthquakes are primarily dip-slip type, with strike-slip type dominants. The slip directions are approximately NNE

  4. Stress Interactions Between the 1976 Magnitude 7.8 Tangshan Earthquake and Adjacent Fault Systems in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Lin, J.; Chen, Y. J.

    2004-12-01

    The 28 July 1976 ML = 7.8 Tangshan earthquake struck a highly populated metropolitan center in northern China and was one of the most devastating earthquakes in modern history. Its occurrence has significantly changed the Coulomb stresses on a complex network of strike-slip, normal, and thrust faults in the region, potentially heightened the odds of future earthquakes on some of these fault segments. We have conducted a detailed analysis of the 3D stress effects of the Tangshan earthquake on its neighboring faults, the relationship between stress transfer and aftershock locations, and the implications for future seismic hazard in the region. Available seismic and geodetic data, although limited, indicate that the Tangshan main shock sequence is composed of complex rupture on 2-3 fault segments. The dominant rupture mode is right-lateral strike-slip on two adjoining sub-segments that strike N5¡aE and N35¡aE, respectively. We calculated that the Tangshan main shock sequence has increased the Coulomb failure stress by more than 1 bar in the vicinity of the Lunanxian district to the east, where the largest aftershock (ML = 7.1) occurred 15 hours after the Tangshan main event. The second largest aftershock (ML = 6.8) occurred on the Ninghe fault to the southwest of the main rupture, in a transitional region between the calculated Coulomb stress increase and decrease. The majority of the ML > 5.0 aftershocks also occurred in areas of calculated Coulomb stress increase. Our analyses further indicate that the Coulomb stress on portions of other fault segments, including the Leting and Lulong fault to the east and Yejito fault to the north, may also have been increased. Thus it is critical to obtain estimates of earthquake repeat times on these and other tectonic faults and to acquire continuous GPS and space geodetic measurements. Investigation of stress interaction and earthquake triggering in northern China is not only highly societal relevant but also important for

  5. Landslides and dam damage resulting from the Jiuzhaigou earthquake (8 August 2017), Sichuan, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun-sheng; Luo, Yong-hong; Li, Jia; Zhang, Xin; Shen, Tong

    2018-01-01

    At 21.19 on 8 August 2017, an Ms 7.0 earthquake struck the Jiuzhaigou scenic spot in northwestern Sichuan Province, China. The Jiuzhaigou earthquake is a strike-slip earthquake with a focal depth of 20 km at 33.20° N and 103.82° E, and was caused by two concealed faults. According to emergency investigations and remote sensing interpretations, the Jiuzhaigou earthquake triggered 1780 landslides, damaged one dam (Nuorilang Waterfall) and broke one dam (Huohua Lake). The landslides mainly occurred in the Rize Valley and Shuzheng Valley and in Jiuzhai Paradise. The landslides involved hanging wall and back-slope effects, and the slope angle, slope aspect, seismic faults and valley trend were obviously related to the occurrence of the landslides. Specifically, most of the landslides were shallow landslides, rockfalls and rock avalanches and were small in scale. The failure modes of landslides mainly include wedge rock mass failure, residual deposit failure, relaxed rock mass failure and weathered rock mass failure. The initial low stability of the dam coupled with the topographic effect, back-slope effect and excess pore water pressure led to damage to the Nuorilang Waterfall dam. PMID:29657755

  6. Landslides and dam damage resulting from the Jiuzhaigou earthquake (8 August 2017), Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bo; Wang, Yun-sheng; Luo, Yong-hong; Li, Jia; Zhang, Xin; Shen, Tong

    2018-03-01

    At 21.19 on 8 August 2017, an Ms 7.0 earthquake struck the Jiuzhaigou scenic spot in northwestern Sichuan Province, China. The Jiuzhaigou earthquake is a strike-slip earthquake with a focal depth of 20 km at 33.20° N and 103.82° E, and was caused by two concealed faults. According to emergency investigations and remote sensing interpretations, the Jiuzhaigou earthquake triggered 1780 landslides, damaged one dam (Nuorilang Waterfall) and broke one dam (Huohua Lake). The landslides mainly occurred in the Rize Valley and Shuzheng Valley and in Jiuzhai Paradise. The landslides involved hanging wall and back-slope effects, and the slope angle, slope aspect, seismic faults and valley trend were obviously related to the occurrence of the landslides. Specifically, most of the landslides were shallow landslides, rockfalls and rock avalanches and were small in scale. The failure modes of landslides mainly include wedge rock mass failure, residual deposit failure, relaxed rock mass failure and weathered rock mass failure. The initial low stability of the dam coupled with the topographic effect, back-slope effect and excess pore water pressure led to damage to the Nuorilang Waterfall dam.

  7. Landslides and dam damage resulting from the Jiuzhaigou earthquake (8 August 2017), Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Wang, Yun-Sheng; Luo, Yong-Hong; Li, Jia; Zhang, Xin; Shen, Tong

    2018-03-01

    At 21.19 on 8 August 2017, an Ms 7.0 earthquake struck the Jiuzhaigou scenic spot in northwestern Sichuan Province, China. The Jiuzhaigou earthquake is a strike-slip earthquake with a focal depth of 20 km at 33.20° N and 103.82° E, and was caused by two concealed faults. According to emergency investigations and remote sensing interpretations, the Jiuzhaigou earthquake triggered 1780 landslides, damaged one dam (Nuorilang Waterfall) and broke one dam (Huohua Lake). The landslides mainly occurred in the Rize Valley and Shuzheng Valley and in Jiuzhai Paradise. The landslides involved hanging wall and back-slope effects, and the slope angle, slope aspect, seismic faults and valley trend were obviously related to the occurrence of the landslides. Specifically, most of the landslides were shallow landslides, rockfalls and rock avalanches and were small in scale. The failure modes of landslides mainly include wedge rock mass failure, residual deposit failure, relaxed rock mass failure and weathered rock mass failure. The initial low stability of the dam coupled with the topographic effect, back-slope effect and excess pore water pressure led to damage to the Nuorilang Waterfall dam.

  8. Classification of Earthquake-triggered Landslide Events - Review of Classical and Particular Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, A.; Havenith, H. B.; Schlögel, R.

    2016-12-01

    Seismically induced landslides often contribute to a significant degree to the losses related to earthquakes. The identification of possible extends of landslide affected areas can help to target emergency measures when an earthquake occurs or improve the resilience of inhabited areas and critical infrastructure in zones of high seismic hazard. Moreover, landslide event sizes are an important proxy for the estimation of the intensity and magnitude of past earthquakes in paleoseismic studies, allowing us to improve seismic hazard assessment over longer terms. Not only earthquake intensity, but also factors such as the fault characteristics, topography, climatic conditions and the geological environment have a major impact on the intensity and spatial distribution of earthquake induced landslides. Inspired by classical reviews of earthquake induced landslides, e.g. by Keefer or Jibson, we present here a review of factors contributing to earthquake triggered slope failures based on an `event-by-event' classification approach. The objective of this analysis is to enable the short-term prediction of earthquake triggered landslide event sizes in terms of numbers and size of the affected area right after an earthquake event occurred. Five main factors, `Intensity', `Fault', `Topographic energy', `Climatic conditions' and `Surface geology' were used to establish a relationship to the number and spatial extend of landslides triggered by an earthquake. Based on well-documented recent earthquakes (e.g. Haiti 2010, Wenchuan 2008) and on older events for which reliable extensive information was available (e.g. Northridge 1994, Loma Prieta 1989, Guatemala 1976, Peru 1970) the combination and relative weight of the factors was calibrated. The calibrated factor combination was then applied to more than 20 earthquake events for which landslide distribution characteristics could be crosschecked. We present cases where our prediction model performs well and discuss particular cases

  9. Co-seismic strike-slip surface rupture and displacement produced by the 2010 Mw 6.9 Yushu earthquake, China, and implications for Tibetan tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, A.; Rao, G.; Jia, D.; Wu, X.; Yan, B.; Ren, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The magnitude (Mw) 6.9 (Ms 7.1) Yushu earthquake occurred on 14 April 2010 in the Yushu area, central Tibetan Plateau, killing approximately 3000 people (including 270 missing) and causing widespread damage in the high mountain regions of the central Tibetan Plateau. The Yushu earthquake is comparable with the 1997 Mw 7.6 Manyi earthquake, the 2001 Mw 7.8 Kunlun earthquake, and the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, which all occurred in the northern and eastern Tibetan Plateau, in terms of their magnitude and seismotectonic environment, related to the eastward extrusion of the Tibetan Plateau in response to continental collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. Although some prompt reports related to ground deformation and the focal mechanism were published in the Chinese literature soon after the Yushu earthquake, there are scarce data related to the nature of co-seismic strike-slip rupturing structures and displacement distributions because the co-seismic surface ruptures were produced mainly in remote, high mountain regions of the Tibetan Plateau (average elevation >4000 m) and roads to the epicentral area were damaged, which made it difficult to gain access to the area and to undertake fieldwork immediately after the earthquake. Field investigations reveal that the earthquake produced a 33-km-long surface rupture zone, with dominantly left-lateral strike-slip along the Yushu Fault of the pre-existing strike-slip Ganzi-Yushu Fault Zone. The co-seismic surface ruptures are characterized by discontinuous shear faults, right-stepping en echelon tensional cracks, and left-stepping mole track structures that indicate a left-lateral strike-slip shear sense for the seismic fault. Field measurements indicate co-seismic left-lateral strike-slip displacements of approximately 0.3-3.2 m (typically 1-2 m), accompanied by a minor vertical component of <0.6 m. The present results show that (i) the Yushu earthquake occurred upon the pre-existing active Ganzi-Yushu Fault

  10. Infrasound associated with the deep M 7.3 northeastern China earthquake of June 28, 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Il-Young; Kim, Geunyoung; Le Pichon, Alexis

    2013-02-01

    On 28 June, 2002, a deep-focus (566 km) earthquake with a moment magnitude of 7.3 occurred in the China-Russia-North Korea border region. Despite its deep focus, the earthquake produced an infrasound signal that was observed by the remote infrasound array (CHNAR), 682 km from the epicenter, in South Korea. Coherent infrasound signals were detected sequentially at the receiver, with different arrival times and azimuths indicating that the signals were generated both near the epicenter and elsewhere. On the basis of the azimuth, arrival time measurements, and atmospheric ray simulation results, the source area of the infrasonic signals that arrived earlier were located along the eastern coastal areas of North Korea and Russia, whereas later signals were sourced throughout Japan. The geographically-constrained, and discrete, distribution of the sources identified is explained by infrasound propagation effects caused by a westward zonal wind that was active when the event occurred. The amplitude of the deep quake's signal was equivalent to that of a shallow earthquake with a magnitude of approximately 5. This study expands the breadth of seismically-associated infrasound to include deep earthquakes, and also supports the possibility that infrasound measurements could help determine the depth of earthquakes.

  11. Ionospheric Anomalies of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake with Multiple Observations during Magnetic Storm Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang

    2017-04-01

    Ionospheric anomalies linked with devastating earthquakes have been widely investigated by scientists. It was confirmed that GNSS TECs suffered from drastically increase or decrease in some diurnal periods prior to the earthquakes. Liu et al (2008) applied a TECs anomaly calculation method to analyze M>=5.9 earthquakes in Indonesia and found TECs decadence within 2-7 days prior to the earthquakes. Nevertheless, strong TECs enhancement was observed before M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake (Zhao et al 2008). Moreover, the ionospheric plasma critical frequency (foF2) has been found diminished before big earthquakes (Pulinets et al 1998; Liu et al 2006). But little has been done regarding ionospheric irregularities and its association with earthquake. Still it is difficult to understand real mechanism between ionospheric anomalies activities and its precursor for the huge earthquakes. The M9.0 Tohoku earthquake, happened on 11 March 2011, at 05:46 UT time, was recognized as one of the most dominant events in related research field (Liu et al 2011). A median geomagnetic disturbance also occurred accompanied with the earthquake, which makes the ionospheric anomalies activities more sophisticated to study. Seismic-ionospheric disturbance was observed due to the drastic activities of earth. To further address the phenomenon, this paper investigates different categories of ionospheric anomalies induced by seismology activity, with multiple data sources. Several GNSS ground data were chosen along epicenter from IGS stations, to discuss the spatial-temporal correlations of ionospheric TECs in regard to the distance of epicenter. We also apply GIM TEC maps due to its global coverage to find diurnal differences of ionospheric anomalies compared with geomagnetic quiet day in the same month. The results in accordance with Liu's conclusions that TECs depletion occurred at days quite near the earthquake day, however the variation of TECs has special regulation contrast to the normal quiet

  12. Surface rupture of the 1933 M 7.5 Diexi earthquake in eastern Tibet: implications for seismogenic tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Junjie; Xu, Xiwei; Zhang, Shimin; Yeats, Robert S.; Chen, Jiawei; Zhu, Ailan; Liu, Shao

    2018-03-01

    The 1933 M 7.5 Diexi earthquake is another catastrophic event with the loss of over 10 000 lives in eastern Tibet comparable to the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. Because of its unknown surface rupture, the seismogenic tectonics of the 1933 earthquake remains controversial. We collected unpublished reports, literatures and old photos associated with the 1933 earthquake and conducted field investigations based on high-resolution Google Earth imagery. Combined with palaeoseismological analysis, radiocarbon dating and relocated earthquakes, our results demonstrate that the source of the 1933 earthquake is the northwest-trending Songpinggou fault. This quake produced a > 30 km long normal-faulting surface rupture with the coseismic offset of 0.9-1.7 m. Its moment magnitude (Mw) is ˜6.8. The Songpinggou fault undergoes an average vertical slip rate of ˜0.25 mm yr-1 and has a recurrence interval of ˜6700 yr of large earthquakes. The normal-faulting surface rupture of this quake is probably the reactivation of the Mesozoic Jiaochang tectonic belt in gravitational adjustment of eastern Tibet. Besides the major boundary faults, minor structures within continental blocks may take a role in strain partitioning of eastern Tibet and have the potential of producing large earthquake. This study contributes to a full understanding of seismotectonics of large earthquakes and strain partitioning in eastern Tibet.

  13. Earthquakes, November-December 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Person, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    There were two major earthquakes (7.0≤M<8.0) during the last two months of the year, a magntidue 7.5 earthquake on December 12 in the Flores region, Indonesia, and a magnitude 7.0 earthquake on December 20 in the Banda Sea. Earthquakes caused fatalities in China and Indonesia. The greatest number of deaths (2,500) for the year occurred in Indonesia. In Switzerland, six people were killed by an accidental explosion recoreded by seismographs. In teh United States, a magnitude 5.3 earthquake caused slight damage at Big Bear in southern California. 

  14. Regional W-Phase Source Inversion for Moderate to Large Earthquakes in China and Neighboring Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xu; Duputel, Zacharie; Yao, Zhenxing

    2017-12-01

    Earthquake source characterization has been significantly speeded up in the last decade with the development of rapid inversion techniques in seismology. Among these techniques, the W-phase source inversion method quickly provides point source parameters of large earthquakes using very long period seismic waves recorded at teleseismic distances. Although the W-phase method was initially developed to work at global scale (within 20 to 30 min after the origin time), faster results can be obtained when seismological data are available at regional distances (i.e., Δ ≤ 12°). In this study, we assess the use and reliability of regional W-phase source estimates in China and neighboring areas. Our implementation uses broadband records from the Chinese network supplemented by global seismological stations installed in the region. Using this data set and minor modifications to the W-phase algorithm, we show that reliable solutions can be retrieved automatically within 4 to 7 min after the earthquake origin time. Moreover, the method yields stable results down to Mw = 5.0 events, which is well below the size of earthquakes that are rapidly characterized using W-phase inversions at teleseismic distances.

  15. Tectonic Divisions Based on Gravity Data and Earthquake Distribution Characteristics in the North South Seismic Belt, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, T.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, W.

    2017-12-01

    The North South Seismic Belt is located in the middle of China, and this seismic belt can be divided into 12 tectonic zones, including the South West Yunnan (I), the Sichuan Yunnan (II), the Qiang Tang (III), the Bayan Har (IV), the East Kunlun Qaidam (V), the Qi Lian Mountain (VI), the Tarim(VII), the East Alashan (VIII), the East Sichuan (IX), the Ordos(X), the Middle Yangtze River (XI) and the Edge of Qinghai Tibet Block (XII) zone. Based on the Bouguer Gravity data calculated from the EGM2008 model, the Euler deconvolution was used to obtain the edge of tectonic zone to amend the traditional tectonic divisions. In every tectonic zone and the whole research area, the logarithm of the total energy of seismic was calculated. The Time Series Analysis (TSA) for all tectonic zones and the whole area were progressed in R, and 12 equal divisions were made (A1-3, B1-3, C1-3, D1-3) by latitude and longitude as a control group. A simple linear trend fitting of time was used, and the QQ figure was used to show the residual distribution features. Among the zones according to Gravity anomalies, I, II and XII show similar statistical characteristic, with no earthquake free year (on which year there was no earthquake in the zone), and it shows that the more seismic activity area is more similar in statistical characteristic as the large area, no matter how large the zone is or how many earthquakes are in the zone. Zone IV, V, IX, III, VII and VIII show one or several seismic free year during 1970s (IV, V and IX) and 1980s (III, VII and VIII), which may implicate the earthquake activity were low decades ago or the earthquake catalogue were not complete in these zones, or both. Zone VI, X and XI show many earthquake free years even in this decade, which means in these zones the earthquake activity were very low even if the catalogue were not complete. In the control group, the earthquake free year zone appeared random and independent of the seismic density, and in all equal

  16. Assessment of Vegetation Destruction Due to Wenchuan Earthquake and Its Recovery Process Using MODIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Z.; Xiao, X.

    2015-12-01

    With a high temporal resolution and a large covering area, MODIS data are particularly useful in assessing vegetation destruction and recovery of a wide range of areas. In this study, MOD13Q1 data of the growing season (Mar. to Nov.) are used to calculate the Maximum NDVI (NDVImax) of each year. This study calculates each pixel's mean and standard deviation of the NDVImaxs in the 8 years before the earthquake. If the pixel's NDVImax of 2008 is two standard deviation smaller than the mean NDVImax, this pixel is detected as a vegetation destructed pixel. For each vegetation destructed pixel, its similar pixels of the same vegetation type are selected within the latitude difference of 0.5 degrees, altitude difference of 100 meters and slope difference of 3 degrees. Then the NDVImax difference of each vegetation destructed pixel and its similar pixels are calculated. The 5 similar pixels with the smallest NDVImax difference in the 8 years before the earthquake are selected as reference pixels. The mean NDVImaxs of these reference pixels after the earthquake are calculated and serve as the criterion to assess the vegetation recovery process.

  17. Hospital Stay as a Proxy Indicator for Severe Injury in Earthquakes: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lu-Ping; Gerdin, Martin; Westman, Lina; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Wu, Qi; van den Oever, Barbara; Pan, Liang; Albela, Manuel; Chen, Gao; Zhang, De-Sheng; Guha-Sapir, Debarati; von Schreeb, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Earthquakes are the most violent type of natural disasters and injuries are the dominant medical problem in the early phases after earthquakes. However, likely because of poor data availability, high-quality research on injuries after earthquakes is lacking. Length of hospital stay (LOS) has been validated as a proxy indicator for injury severity in high-income settings and could potentially be used in retrospective research of injuries after earthquakes. In this study, we assessed LOS as an adequate proxy indicator for severe injury in trauma survivors of an earthquake. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted using a database of 1,878 injured patients from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Our primary outcome was severe injury, defined as a composite measure of serious injury or resource use. Secondary outcomes were serious injury and resource use, analysed separately. Non-parametric receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and area under the curve (AUC) analysis was used to test the discriminatory accuracy of LOS when used to identify severe injury. An 0.7earthquake survivors. However, LOS was found to be a proxy for major nonorthopaedic surgery and blood transfusion. These findings can be useful for retrospective research on earthquake-injured patients when detailed hospital records are not available. PMID:23585897

  18. Hospital stay as a proxy indicator for severe injury in earthquakes: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu-Ping; Gerdin, Martin; Westman, Lina; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Wu, Qi; van den Oever, Barbara; Pan, Liang; Albela, Manuel; Chen, Gao; Zhang, De-Sheng; Guha-Sapir, Debarati; von Schreeb, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes are the most violent type of natural disasters and injuries are the dominant medical problem in the early phases after earthquakes. However, likely because of poor data availability, high-quality research on injuries after earthquakes is lacking. Length of hospital stay (LOS) has been validated as a proxy indicator for injury severity in high-income settings and could potentially be used in retrospective research of injuries after earthquakes. In this study, we assessed LOS as an adequate proxy indicator for severe injury in trauma survivors of an earthquake. A retrospective analysis was conducted using a database of 1,878 injured patients from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Our primary outcome was severe injury, defined as a composite measure of serious injury or resource use. Secondary outcomes were serious injury and resource use, analysed separately. Non-parametric receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and area under the curve (AUC) analysis was used to test the discriminatory accuracy of LOS when used to identify severe injury. An 0.7earthquake survivors. However, LOS was found to be a proxy for major nonorthopaedic surgery and blood transfusion. These findings can be useful for retrospective research on earthquake-injured patients when detailed hospital records are not available.

  19. Tidal triggering of earthquakes in the Ning'er area of Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Chaodi; Lei, Xinglin; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Ma, Qingbo; Yang, Simeng; Wang, Yingnan

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the potential effect of tidal modulation on the seismicity in the Ning'er area, a seismically and geothermally active zone in Yunnan Province, China, we studied the correlation between Earth tides and the occurrence of M ≥ 6.0 earthquakes dating back to 1970, as well as their aftershock sequences, using theoretically calculated tidal stresses and a statistical test. The results show a significant correlation between Earth tides and the occurrence of earthquakes. Six of seven main events occurred when the Earth tide increased the Coulomb failure stress on the source fault. Four main events occurred in a narrow range of phase angle corresponding to the maximum loading rate of tidal stress. Furthermore, the histories of the aftershock sequence as a function of the tidal phases demonstrate clear tidal modulation with a high significance. Thus, we conclude that Earth tides have a clear role in triggering (or modulating) the rupture of the fault systems in the Ning'er area.

  20. Health status of adolescents in the Tibetan plateau area of western China: 6 years after the Yushu earthquake.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Yang, Hongyang; Tang, Bihan; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Lulu

    2017-07-29

    An earthquake struck Yushu in Qinghai province of China on April 14, 2010, causing 2698 deaths and 12,135 injuries.The present study aimed to assess the health status, and associated determinants, of child survivors in the epicenter of the Yushu earthquake 6 years after the event. A cross-sectional survey was performed among students from two junior schools in Yushu County. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, ANOVA, Wilcoxon rank sum tests, Kruskal-Wallis H tests and stepwise linear regression analysis were used for data analysis. The mean scores onmental component summary (MCS)and physical component summary (PCS) were 42.13 (SD 7.32) and 42.04 (SD 8.07), respectively. Lower PCS in the aftermath of an earthquake was associated with being trapped/in danger, injured to self, receiving no escape training while lowerMCS in the aftermath of an earthquake was associated with a lower grade level, not living with parents, fear during the earthquake, death in the family, and not receiving psychological counseling after the earthquake. In conclusion, the results of the present study help to expand our knowledge regarding the health status of child survivors 6 years after the Yushu earthquake. Our study provides evidence-based suggestions for specific long-term health interventions in such vulnerable populations.

  1. Numerical tsunami simulations in the western Pacific Ocean and East China Sea from hypothetical M 9 earthquakes along the Nankai trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Furumura, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    We carried out tsunami numerical simulations in the western Pacific Ocean and East China Sea in order to examine the behavior of massive tsunami outside Japan from the hypothetical M 9 tsunami source models along the Nankai Trough proposed by the Cabinet Office of Japanese government (2012). The distribution of MTHs (maximum tsunami heights for 24 h after the earthquakes) on the east coast of China, the east coast of the Philippine Islands, and north coast of the New Guinea Island show peaks with approximately 1.0-1.7 m,4.0-7.0 m,4.0-5.0 m, respectively. They are significantly higher than that from the 1707 Ho'ei earthquake (M 8.7), the largest earthquake along the Nankai trough in recent Japanese history. Moreover, the MTH distributions vary with the location of the huge slip(s) in the tsunami source models although the three coasts are far from the Nankai trough. Huge slip(s) in the Nankai segment mainly contributes to the MTHs, while huge slip(s) or splay faulting in the Tokai segment hardly affects the MTHs. The tsunami source model was developed for responding to the unexpected occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, with 11 models along the Nanakai trough, and simulated MTHs along the Pacific coasts of the western Japan from these models exceed 10 m, with a maximum height of 34.4 m. Tsunami propagation was computed by the finite-difference method of the non-liner long-wave equations with the Corioli's force and bottom friction (Satake, 1995) in the area of 115-155 ° E and 8° S-40° N. Because water depth of the East China Sea is shallower than 200 m, the tsunami propagation is likely to be affected by the ocean bottom fiction. The 30 arc-seconds gridded bathymetry data provided by the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO-2014) are used. For long propagation of tsunami we simulated tsunamis for 24 hours after the earthquakes. This study was supported by the"New disaster mitigation research project on Mega thrust earthquakes around Nankai

  2. Rapid estimation of the economic consequences of global earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, operational since mid 2007, rapidly estimates the most affected locations and the population exposure at different levels of shaking intensities. The PAGER system has significantly improved the way aid agencies determine the scale of response needed in the aftermath of an earthquake. For example, the PAGER exposure estimates provided reasonably accurate assessments of the scale and spatial extent of the damage and losses following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) in China, the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.3) in Italy, the 2010 Haiti earthquake (Mw 7.0), and the 2010 Chile earthquake (Mw 8.8). Nevertheless, some engineering and seismological expertise is often required to digest PAGER's exposure estimate and turn it into estimated fatalities and economic losses. This has been the focus of PAGER's most recent development. With the new loss-estimation component of the PAGER system it is now possible to produce rapid estimation of expected fatalities for global earthquakes (Jaiswal and others, 2009). While an estimate of earthquake fatalities is a fundamental indicator of potential human consequences in developing countries (for example, Iran, Pakistan, Haiti, Peru, and many others), economic consequences often drive the responses in much of the developed world (for example, New Zealand, the United States, and Chile), where the improved structural behavior of seismically resistant buildings significantly reduces earthquake casualties. Rapid availability of estimates of both fatalities and economic losses can be a valuable resource. The total time needed to determine the actual scope of an earthquake disaster and to respond effectively varies from country to country. It can take days or sometimes weeks before the damage and consequences of a disaster can be understood both socially and economically. The objective of the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system is

  3. The Geometric Characteristics and Initiation Mechanisms of the Earthquake- Triggered Daguangbao Landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. J.; Tsao, C. C.; Yang, C. M.; Wu, W. J.; Lee, C. T.; Lin, M. L.; Zhang, W. F.; Pei, X. J.; Wang, G. H.; Huang, R.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, catastrophic landslides are getting considerable attentions not only from natural hazard but also from geo-material science. In the past century, the Daguangbao (DGB) landslide which triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake is one of the largest earthquake- triggered landslides. Our main goal is to characterize the geometry of DGB landslide to better determine the initiation mechanisms. Based on the remote sensing images analysis and field investigation, we proposed an atypical wedge model of DGB landslide compose of a folded strata and a zigzag stepping-out joint system, which outcropped at the south and north of the landslide site, respectively. The intersection line of wedge is curved, counterclockwise rotated and daylighted, which fit the pre- and post- position of the mining tent with 1.9 km displacements. The volume of sliding mass was evaluated to 10.51×108 m3 by the atypical wedge model. The identified slip zone of DGB landslide consists of the breccia and gouge layers in the dolomite strata. The rotary-shear tests were performed with the intact dolomite rocks near the slip zone and the gouges in the slip zone to determine the strength of slip surface. The peak and the steady-state friction coefficient of the tested dry dolomite discontinuities, wet gouges are 0.52~0.96, 0.73~0.86 and 0.1~0.57, 0.16~0.63, respectively. Although the result of static wedge stability analysis shows that the slope is quite stable (F.S. = 4), but the result of pseudo-static wedge stability analysis with seismic coefficient will trigger the gigantic wedge by the Wenchuan earthquake. Moreover, the friction coefficient of the tested gouges after long slip displacements as shear velocity exceeds 1.3 m/s will lower than 0.25 (=tan(14°); the intersection line plunged 14°). Therefore, the gigantic wedge can be accelerated by the inertial force and keep moving rapidly with long run-out. According to the calculations of simple one dimensional particle motion model, DGB landslide

  4. Estimation of recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone based on seismic moment accumulation/release model.

    PubMed

    Ren, Junjie; Zhang, Shimin

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7 ± 0.3) × 10¹⁷ N m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900 ± 400 yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region.

  5. Estimation of Recurrence Interval of Large Earthquakes on the Central Longmen Shan Fault Zone Based on Seismic Moment Accumulation/Release Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shimin

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7 ± 0.3) × 1017 N m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900 ± 400 yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region. PMID:23878524

  6. Permeability, storage and hydraulic diffusivity controlled by earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, E. E.; Fulton, P. M.; Xue, L.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquakes can increase permeability in fractured rocks. In the farfield, such permeability increases are attributed to seismic waves and can last for months after the initial earthquake. Laboratory studies suggest that unclogging of fractures by the transient flow driven by seismic waves is a viable mechanism. These dynamic permeability increases may contribute to permeability enhancement in the seismic clouds accompanying hydraulic fracking. Permeability enhancement by seismic waves could potentially be engineered and the experiments suggest the process will be most effective at a preferred frequency. We have recently observed similar processes inside active fault zones after major earthquakes. A borehole observatory in the fault that generated the M9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake reveals a sequence of temperature pulses during the secondary aftershock sequence of an M7.3 aftershock. The pulses are attributed to fluid advection by a flow through a zone of transiently increased permeability. Directly after the M7.3 earthquake, the newly damaged fault zone is highly susceptible to further permeability enhancement, but ultimately heals within a month and becomes no longer as sensitive. The observation suggests that the newly damaged fault zone is more prone to fluid pulsing than would be expected based on the long-term permeability structure. Even longer term healing is seen inside the fault zone of the 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. The competition between damage and healing (or clogging and unclogging) results in dynamically controlled permeability, storage and hydraulic diffusivity. Recent measurements of in situ fault zone architecture at the 1-10 meter scale suggest that active fault zones often have hydraulic diffusivities near 10-2 m2/s. This uniformity is true even within the damage zone of the San Andreas fault where permeability and storage increases balance each other to achieve this value of diffusivity over a 400 m wide region. We speculate that fault zones

  7. [The nutritional status among children under 60 months year-old after one year of the Earthquake in Wenchuan].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xian-feng; Yin, Shi-an; Zhao, Li-yun; Fu, Ping; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Guan-sheng

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of Wenchuan Earthquake on the nutritional status, growth, and the prevalence nutritional anemia, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and vitamin D deficiency among children under 60 months old living in the disaster areas. A nutritional survey was conducted in April 2009. The survey recruited 466 under 60 months old children, including 162 children aged 0 months old and 304 children aged 24 - 59 months old. The children's growth status, prevalence of anemia, and the iron deficiency prevalence, vitamin A, D, B(12), folic acid status were measured. The study findings were compared to the results from 2002 Chinese Nutritional and Health Survey. The exclusive breast milk feeding rate among infants under 6-months was 58.8% (30/51). Among the 0 - 23 months old children, only 10.7% (16/150) got breast feeding within one hour after delivery. Ninety-two per cent (149/162) 0 - 23 months old children never received any nutrient supplements. The average cereals and roots intakes of the 24 - 59 months old children living in the disaster area were (267.2 ± 154.3) g/d, higher than the result of rural children average (178.75 g/d) of 2002 National Nutrition and Health Survey (u = 9.995, P < 0.01). The average intakes of vegetables, aquatic products, meat and poultries were (63.6 ± 56.7), (2.6 ± 7.9), (19.4 ± 24.0) g/d, respectively, significantly lower than 2002 results 135.05, 8.82 and 32.23 g/d (u = 21.971, 13.728 and 9.321, P < 0.01). Fruits, dairy products and legumes intakes were (102.2 ± 110.8), (65.2 ± 123.8) and (20.5 ± 29.0) g/d, respectively, higher than 2002 results (32.81, 2.87 and 6.50 g/d; u = 10.919, 8.778 and 8.417, P < 0.01). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and marginal deficiency was 15.4% (29/188) and 30.3% (57/188), respectively. The sum of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was 92.0% (183/199). The prevalence of anemia of the 0-months old children and 24 - 59 months old children was 47.5% (77/162) and 21.5% (60

  8. Effect of shales on tidal response of water level to large earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, C. Y.; Fu, L. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Tidal response of water level in wells has been widely used to study properties of aquifers and, in particular, the response of groundwater to earthquakes. The affect of lithology on such response has not received deserved attention. Using data from selected wells in the intermediate and far fields of the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan and the 2011 Mw 9.1 Tohoku earthquakes, we examine how the presence of shales affects the tidal response of water level. Three categories of responses are recognized: horizontal flow, vertical flow and combined horizontal and vertical flow, with most wells with shales in the last category. We found that wells with shales are significantly influenced by fractures, leading semi-confined condition and vertical drainage, poorer well bore storage and decreased or unchanged co-seismic phase shifts. We also found a strong correlation between the shale content in the aquifer and the amplitude of tidal response, with higher shale content correlated with lower amplitude response, which we attribute to the compact structure (low porosity/low permeability) of shales.

  9. Testing and comparison of three frequency-based magnitude estimating parameters for earthquake early warning based events in the Yunnan region, China in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianjing; Li, Hongjie

    2018-06-01

    To mitigate potential seismic disasters in the Yunnan region, China, building up suitable magnitude estimation scaling laws for an earthquake early warning system (EEWS) is in high demand. In this paper, the records from the main and after-shocks of the Yingjiang earthquake (M W 5.9), the Ludian earthquake (M W 6.2) and the Jinggu earthquake (M W 6.1), which occurred in Yunnan in 2014, were used to develop three estimators, including the maximum of the predominant period ({{τ }{{p}}}\\max ), the characteristic period (τ c) and the log-average period (τ log), for estimating earthquake magnitude. The correlations between these three frequency-based parameters and catalog magnitudes were developed, compared and evaluated against previous studies. The amplitude and period of seismic waves might be amplified in the Ludian mountain-canyon area by multiple reflections and resonance, leading to excessive values of the calculated parameters, which are consistent with Sichuan’s scaling. As a result, τ log was best correlated with magnitude and τ c had the highest slope of regression equation, while {{τ }{{p}}}\\max performed worst with large scatter and less sensitivity for the change of magnitude. No evident saturation occurred in the case of M 6.1 and M 6.2 in this study. Even though both τ c and τ log performed similarly and can well reflect the size of the Earthquake, τ log has slightly fewer prediction errors for small scale earthquakes (M ≤ 4.5), which was also observed by previous research. Our work offers an insight into the feasibility of a EEWS in Yunnan, China, and this study shows that it is necessary to build up an appropriate scaling law suitable for the warning region.

  10. Earthquake-driven erosion of organic carbon at the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; West, A. J.; Hara, E. K.; Hammond, D. E.; Hilton, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Large earthquakes can trigger massive landsliding that erodes particulate organic carbon (POC) from vegetation, soil and bedrocks, potentially linking seismotectonics to the global carbon cycle. Recent work (Wang et al., 2016, Geology) has highlighted a dramatic increase in riverine export of biospheric POC following the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, in the steep Longmen Shan mountain range at the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. However, a complete, source-to-sink picture of POC erosion after the earthquake is still missing. Here we track POC transfer across the Longmen Shan range from high mountains to the downstream Zipingpu reservoir where riverine-exported POC has been trapped. Building on the work of Wang et al. (2016), who measured the compositions and fluxes of riverine POC, this study is focused on constraining the source and fate of the eroded POC after the earthquake. We have sampled landslide deposits and river sediment, and we have cored the Zipingpu reservoir, following a source-to-sink sampling strategy. We measured POC compositions and grain size of the sediment samples, mapped landslide-mobilized POC using maps of landslide inventory and biomass, and tracked POC loading from landslides to the reservoir sediment to constrain the fate of eroded OC. Constraints on carbon sources, fluxes and fate provide the foundation for constructing a post-earthquake POC budget. This work highlights the role of earthquakes in the mobilization and burial of POC, providing new insight into mechanisms linking tectonics and the carbon cycle and building understanding needed to interpret past seismicity from sedimentary archives.

  11. Association between virtues and posttraumatic growth: preliminary evidence from a Chinese community sample after earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Relationship, vitality, and conscientiousness are three fundamental virtues that have been recently identified as important individual differences to health, well being, and positive development. This cross-sectional study attempted to explore the relationship between the three constructs and post-traumatic growth (PTG) in three directions, including indirect trauma samples without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), direct trauma samples without PTSD, and direct trauma samples with PTSD. Methods. A total of 340 community participants from Sichuan Province, Mainland China involved in the study, most of which experienced Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquake. Participants were required to complete the self-reported questionnaire packages at one time point for obtaining their scores on virtues (Chinese Virtues Questionnaire), PTSD (PTSD Checklist-Specific), and PTG (Post-traumatic Growth Inventory-Chinese). Results. Significant and positive correlations between the three virtues and PTG were identified (r = .39–.56; p < .01). Further regression analysis by stepwise method reveled that: in the indirect trauma samples, vitality explained 32% variance of PTG. In reference to the direct trauma sample without PTSD, both relationship and conscientiousness explained 32% variance of PTG, whereas in the direct trauma sample with PTSD, only conscientiousness accounted for 31% the variance in PTG. Conclusion.This cross-sectional investigation partly revealed the roles of different virtues in trauma context. Findings suggest important implications for strengths-based treatment. PMID:25870774

  12. Numerical Modeling of Earthquake-Induced Landslide Using an Improved Discontinuous Deformation Analysis Considering Dynamic Friction Degradation of Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Da; Song, Yixiang; Cen, Duofeng; Fu, Guoyang

    2016-12-01

    Discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) as an efficient technique has been extensively applied in the dynamic simulation of discontinuous rock mass. In the original DDA (ODDA), the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is employed as the judgment principle of failure between contact blocks, and the friction coefficient is assumed to be constant in the whole calculation process. However, it has been confirmed by a host of shear tests that the dynamic friction of rock joints degrades. Therefore, the friction coefficient should be gradually reduced during the numerical simulation of an earthquake-induced rockslide. In this paper, based on the experimental results of cyclic shear tests on limestone joints, exponential regression formulas are fitted for dynamic friction degradation, which is a function of the relative velocity, the amplitude of cyclic shear displacement and the number of its cycles between blocks with an edge-to-edge contact. Then, an improved DDA (IDDA) is developed by implementing the fitting regression formulas and a modified removing technique of joint cohesion, in which the cohesion is removed once the `sliding' or `open' state between blocks appears for the first time, into the ODDA. The IDDA is first validated by comparing with the theoretical solutions of the kinematic behaviors of a sliding block on an inclined plane under dynamic loading. Then, the program is applied to model the Donghekou landslide triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. The simulation results demonstrate that the dynamic friction degradation of joints has great influences on the runout and velocity of sliding mass. Moreover, the friction coefficient possesses higher impact than the cohesion of joints on the kinematic behaviors of the sliding mass.

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptom structure in Chinese adolescents exposed to a deadly earthquake.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Long, Di; Li, Zhongquan; Armour, Cherie

    2011-07-01

    This present study examined the structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a large sample of Chinese adolescents exposed to a deadly earthquake. A total of 2,800 middle school students aged 12 to 18 years participated in the study 6 months after the "Wenchuan Earthquake". Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a five-factor intercorrelated model composed of intrusion, avoidance, numbing, dysphoric arousal, and anxious arousal, fit data significantly better than both the four-factor numbing model King et al. (Psychological Assessment 10:90-96, 1998) and the four-factor dysphoria model Simms et al. (Journal of Abnormal Psychology 111:637-647, 2002). Further examination of the external convergent and discriminant validity revealed that except for the dysphoric arousal factor, the remaining four PTSD factors yielded significantly different correlations with external measures of anxiety vs. depression. The findings add to the limited literature on the factor structure of PTSD in youths and on the five-factor PTSD model. In addition, they provide more detail into the latent psychopathological processes of PTSD, and inform the forthcoming DSM-5.

  14. Three dimensional surface displacement of the Sichuan earthquake (Mw 7.9, China) from Synthetic Aperture Radar.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Michele, Marcello; Raucoules, Daniel; de Sigoyer, Julia; Pubellier, Manuel; Lasserre, Cecile; Pathier, Erwan; Klinger, Yann; van der Woerd, Jerome; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan range front, in the western Sichuan province, China, on 12 May 2008. It severely affected an area where little historical seismicity and little or no significant active shortening were reported before the earthquake (e.g. Gu et al., 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Gan et al., 2007). The Longmen Shan thrust system bounds the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and is considered as a transpressive zone since Triassic time that was reactivated during the India-Asia collision (e.g., Tapponnier and Molnar, 1977, Chen and Wilson 1996; Arne et al., 1997, Godard et al., 2009). However, contrasting geological evidences of sparse thrusting and marked dextral strike-slip faulting during the Quaternary along with high topography (Burchfiel et al., 1995; Densmore et al., 2007) have led to models of dynamically driven and sustained topography (Royden et al., 1997) limiting the role of earthquakes in relief building and leaving the mechanism of long term strain distribution in this area as an open question. Here we combine C and L band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) offsets data from ascending and descending paths to retrieve the three dimensional surface displacement distribution all along the earthquake ruptures of the Sichuan earthquake. For the first time on this earthquake we present near field 3D co-seismic surface displacement, which is an important datum for constraining modelled fault geometry at depth. Our results complement other Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and field analyses in indicating that crustal shortening is one of the main drivers for topography building in the Longmen Shan (Liu-Zeng, 2009; Shen et al., 2009; Hubbard and Shaw, 2009). Moreover, our results put into evidence a small but significant amount of displacement in the range front that we interpret as due to slip at depth on a blind structure. We verify this hypothesis by inverting the data against a simple elastic dislocation model

  15. Comparison of two large earthquakes: the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake and the 2011 East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Otani, Yuki; Ando, Takayuki; Atobe, Kaori; Haiden, Akina; Kao, Sheng-Yuan; Saito, Kohei; Shimanuki, Marie; Yoshimoto, Norifumi; Fukunaga, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Between August 15th and 19th, 2011, eight 5th-year medical students from the Keio University School of Medicine had the opportunity to visit the Peking University School of Medicine and hold a discussion session titled "What is the most effective way to educate people for survival in an acute disaster situation (before the mental health care stage)?" During the session, we discussed the following six points: basic information regarding the Sichuan Earthquake and the East Japan Earthquake, differences in preparedness for earthquakes, government actions, acceptance of medical rescue teams, earthquake-induced secondary effects, and media restrictions. Although comparison of the two earthquakes was not simple, we concluded that three major points should be emphasized to facilitate the most effective course of disaster planning and action. First, all relevant agencies should formulate emergency plans and should supply information regarding the emergency to the general public and health professionals on a normal basis. Second, each citizen should be educated and trained in how to minimize the risks from earthquake-induced secondary effects. Finally, the central government should establish a single headquarters responsible for command, control, and coordination during a natural disaster emergency and should centralize all powers in this single authority. We hope this discussion may be of some use in future natural disasters in China, Japan, and worldwide.

  16. Shallow microearthquakes near Chongqing, China triggered by the Rayleigh waves of the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Libo; Peng, Zhigang; Johnson, Christopher W.; Pollitz, Fred F.; Li, Lu; Wang, Baoshan; Wu, Jing; Li, Qiang; Wei, Hongmei

    2017-12-01

    We present a case of remotely triggered seismicity in Southwest China by the 2015/04/25 M7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake. A local magnitude ML3.8 event occurred near the Qijiang district south of Chongqing city approximately 12 min after the Gorkha mainshock. Within 30 km of this ML3.8 event there are 62 earthquakes since 2009 and only 7 ML > 3 events, which corresponds to a likelihood of 0.3% for a ML > 3 on any given day by a random chance. This observation motivates us to investigate the relationship between the ML3.8 event and the Gorkha mainshock. The ML3.8 event was listed in the China Earthquake National Center (CENC) catalog and occurred at shallow depth (∼3 km). By examining high-frequency waveforms, we identify a smaller local event (∼ML 2.5) ∼ 15 s before the ML3.8 event. Both events occurred during the first two cycles of the Rayleigh waves from the Gorkha mainshock. We perform seismic event detection based on envelope function and waveform matching by using the two events as templates. Both analyses found a statistically significant rate change during the mainshock, suggesting that they were indeed dynamically triggered by the Rayleigh waves. Both events occurred during the peak normal and dilatational stress changes (∼10-30 kPa), consistent with observations of dynamic triggering in other geothermal/volcanic regions. Although other recent events (i.e., the 2011 M9.1 Tohoku-Oki earthquake) produced similar peak ground velocities, the 2015 Gorkha mainshock was the only event that produced clear dynamic triggering in this region. The triggering site is close to hydraulic fracturing wells that began production in 2013-2014. Hence we suspect that fluid injections may increase the region's susceptibility to remote dynamic triggering.

  17. S-wave attenuation of the shallow sediments in the North China basin based on borehole seismograms of local earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng; Li, Zhiwei

    2018-06-01

    S-wave velocity and attenuation structures of shallow sediments play important roles in accurate prediction of strong ground motion. However, it is more difficult to investigate the attenuation than velocity structures. In this study, we developed a new approach for estimating frequency-dependent S-wave attenuation (Q_S^{ - 1}) structures of shallow sediments based on multiple time window analysis of borehole seismograms from local earthquakes. Multiple time windows for separating direct and surface-reflected S-waves in local earthquake waveforms at borehole stations are selected with a global optimization scheme. With respect to different time windows, the transfer functions between direct and surface-reflected S-waves are achieved with a weighted averaging scheme, based on which frequency dependent Q_S^{ - 1} values are obtained. Synthetic tests suggest that the proposed method can restore robust and reliableQ_S^{ - 1} values, especially when the dataset of local earthquakes is not abundant. We utilize this method for local earthquake waveforms at 14 borehole seismic stations in the North China basin, and obtain Q_S^{ - 1} values in 2 ˜ 10 Hz frequency band, as well as average {V_P}, {V_S} and {V_P}/{{}}{V_S} ratio for shallow sediments deep to a few hundred meters. Results suggest that Q_S^{ - 1} values are to 0.01˜0.06, and generally decrease with frequency. The average attenuation structure of shallow sediments within the depth of a few hundred meters beneath 14 borehole stations in the North China basin can be modeled as Q_S^{ - 1} = 0.056{f^{ - 0.61}}. It is generally consistent with the attenuation structure of sedimentary basins in other areas, such as Mississippi Embayment sediments in the United States and Sendai basin in Japan.

  18. Shallow microearthquakes near Chongqing, China triggered by the Rayleigh waves of the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Han, Libo; Peng, Zhigang; Johnson, Christopher W.; Pollitz, Fred; Li, Lu; Wang, Baoshan; Wu, Jing; Li, Qiang; Wei, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of remotely triggered seismicity in Southwest China by the 2015/04/25 M7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake. A local magnitude ML3.8 event occurred near the Qijiang district south of Chongqing city approximately 12 min after the Gorkha mainshock. Within 30km of this ML3.8 event there are 62 earthquakes since 2009 and only 7 ML>3events, which corresponds to a likelihood of 0.3% for a ML>3on any given day by a random chance. This observation motivates us to investigate the relationship between the ML3.8 event and the Gorkha mainshock. The ML3.8 event is listed in the China Earthquake National Center (CENC) catalog and occurred at shallow depth (∼3km). By examining high-frequency waveforms, we identify a smaller local event (∼ML2.5) ∼15s before the ML3.8 event. Both events occurred during the first two cycles of the Rayleigh waves from the Gorkha mainshock. We perform seismic event detection based on envelope function and waveform matching by using the two events as templates. Both analyses found a statistically significant rate change during the mainshock, suggesting that they were indeed dynamically triggered by the Rayleigh waves. Both events occurred during the peak normal and dilatational stress changes (∼10–30 kPa), consistent with observations of dynamic triggering in other geothermal/volcanic regions. Although other recent events (i.e., the 2011 M9.1 Tohoku-Oki earthquake) produced similar peak ground velocities, the 2015 Gorkha mainshock was the only event that produced clear dynamic triggering in this region. The triggering site is close to hydraulic fracturing wells that began production in 2013–2014. Hence we suspect that fluid injections may increase the region’s susceptibility to remote dynamic triggering.

  19. Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Rachel A.; Conlan, Hilary

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Media reports linking unusual animal behaviour with earthquakes can potentially create false alarms and unnecessary anxiety among people that live in earthquake risk zones. Recently large frog swarms in China and elsewhere have been reported as earthquake precursors in the media. By examining international media reports of frog swarms since 1850 in comparison to earthquake data, it was concluded that frog swarms are naturally occurring dispersal behaviour of juveniles and are not associated with earthquakes. However, the media in seismic risk areas may be more likely to report frog swarms, and more likely to disseminate reports on frog swarms after earthquakes have occurred, leading to an apparent link between frog swarms and earthquakes. Abstract In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of “frog swarms” from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010). All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads). It was concluded that most reported “frog swarms” are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by

  20. Rupture geometry and slip distribution of the 2016 January 21st Ms6.4 Menyuan, China earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    On 21 January 2016, an Ms6.4 earthquake stroke Menyuan country, Qinghai Province, China. The epicenter of the main shock and locations of its aftershocks indicate that the Menyuan earthquake occurred near the left-lateral Lenglongling fault. However, the focal mechanism suggests that the earthquake should take place on a thrust fault. In addition, field investigation indicates that the earthquake did not rupture the ground surface. Therefore, the rupture geometry is unclear as well as coseismic slip distribution. We processed two pairs of InSAR images acquired by the ESA Sentinel-1A satellite with the ISCE software, and both ascending and descending orbits were included. After subsampling the coseismic InSAR images into about 800 pixels, coseismic displacement data along LOS direction are inverted for earthquake source parameters. We employ an improved mixed linear-nonlinear Bayesian inversion method to infer fault geometric parameters, slip distribution, and the Laplacian smoothing factor simultaneously. This method incorporates a hybrid differential evolution algorithm, which is an efficient global optimization algorithm. The inversion results show that the Menyuan earthquake ruptured a blind thrust fault with a strike of 124°and a dip angle of 41°. This blind fault was never investigated before and intersects with the left-lateral Lenglongling fault, but the strikes of them are nearly parallel. The slip sense is almost pure thrusting, and there is no significant slip within 4km depth. The max slip value is up to 0.3m, and the estimated moment magnitude is Mw5.93, in agreement with the seismic inversion result. The standard error of residuals between InSAR data and model prediction is as small as 0.5cm, verifying the correctness of the inversion results.

  1. Sense of Community and Depressive Symptoms among Older Earthquake Survivors Following the 2008 Earthquake in Chengdu China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yawen; Sun, Fei; He, Xusong; Chan, Kin Sun

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of an earthquake as well as the role of sense of community as a protective factor against depressive symptoms among older Chinese adults who survived an 8.0 magnitude earthquake in 2008. A household survey of a random sample was conducted 3 months after the earthquake and 298 older earthquake survivors participated…

  2. Probabilistic Analysis of Earthquake-Led Water Contamination: A Case of Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Lin; Benjamin Zhan, F.; Zhuang, Yanhua

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate seismic-led point source and non-point source water pollution, under the seismic hazard of 10 % probability of exceedance in 50 years, and with the minimum value of the water quality standard in Sichuan, China. The soil conservation service curve number method of calculating the runoff depth in the single rainfall event combined with the seismic damage index were applied to estimate the potential degree of non-point source water pollution. To estimate the potential impact of point source water pollution, a comprehensive water pollution evaluation framework is constructed using a combination of Water Quality Index and Seismic Damage Index methods. The four key findings of this paper are: (1) The water catchment that has the highest factory concentration does not have the highest risk of non-point source water contamination induced by the outbreak of potential earthquake. (2) The water catchment that has the highest numbers of cumulative water pollutants types are typically located in the south western parts of Sichuan where the main river basins in the regions flow through. (3) The most common pollutants in sample factories studied is COD and NH3-N which are found in all catchments. The least common pollutant is pathogen—found present in W1 catchment which has the best rating in the water quality index. (4) Using water quality index as a standardization parameter, parallel comparisons is made among the 16 water catchments. Only catchment W1 reaches level II water quality status which has the rating of moderately polluted in events of earthquake induced water contamination. All other areas suffer from severe water contamination with multiple pollution sources. The results from the data model are significant to urban planning commissions and businesses to strategically choose their factory locations in order to minimize potential hazardous impact during the outbreak of earthquake.

  3. Composite Earthquake Catalog of the Yellow Sea for Seismic Hazard Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S. Y.; Kim, K. H.; LI, Z.; Hao, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Yellow Sea (a.k.a West Sea in Korea) is an epicontinental and semi-closed sea located between Korea and China. Recent earthquakes in the Yellow Sea including, but not limited to, the Seogyuckryulbi-do (1 April 2014, magnitude 5.1), Heuksan-do (21 April 2013, magnitude 4.9), Baekryung-do (18 May 2013, magnitude 4.9) earthquakes, and the earthquake swarm in the Boryung offshore region in 2013, remind us of the seismic hazards affecting east Asia. This series of earthquakes in the Yellow Sea raised numerous questions. Unfortunately, both governments have trouble in monitoring seismicity in the Yellow Sea because earthquakes occur beyond their seismic networks. For example, the epicenters of the magnitude 5.1 earthquake in the Seogyuckryulbi-do region in 2014 reported by the Korea Meteorological Administration and China Earthquake Administration differed by approximately 20 km. This illustrates the difficulty with seismic monitoring and locating earthquakes in the region, despite the huge effort made by both governments. Joint effort is required not only to overcome the limits posed by political boundaries and geographical location but also to study seismicity and the underground structures responsible. Although the well-established and developing seismic networks in Korea and China have provided unprecedented amount and quality of seismic data, high quality catalog is limited to the recent 10s of years, which is far from major earthquake cycle. It is also noticed the earthquake catalog from either country is biased to its own and cannot provide complete picture of seismicity in the Yellow Sea. In order to understand seismic hazard and tectonics in the Yellow Sea, a composite earthquake catalog has been developed. We gathered earthquake information during last 5,000 years from various sources. There are good reasons to believe that some listings account for same earthquake, but in different source parameters. We established criteria in order to provide consistent

  4. The ambient noise and earthquake surface wave tomography of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J.; Obrebski, M. J.; Wu, Q.; Li, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The North China Craton (NCC) is unique for its unusual Phanerozoic tectonic activity. The NCC was internally tectonically stable until Jurassic when its southern margin collided with the Yangzte Craton. Subsequently, the eastern and central part of the NCC underwent distinctive evolutions during the Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. In contrast to the Erdos block located in the western part of NCC and that seems to have preserved the typical features of a stable craton, the eastern NCC has experienced significant lithospheric thinning as evidenced by widespread magmatism activity and normal faulting, among other manifestations. The eastern part of the NCC is also one of the most seismically active intracontinental regions in the world. Here we focus on the region that comprises the North China Basin and the Yanshan-Taihang Mountains, two major tectonic units located to the east and in the center of the NCC, respectively. We combine ambient noise data and ballistic surface wave data recorded by the dense temporary seismic array deployed in the North China to obtain phase velocity maps at periods ranging from 5s to 60s. 1587 and 3667 ray paths were obtained from earthquake surface waves and ambient noise correlations, respectively. The phase velocity distribution was reconstructed with grid size 0.25x0.25 degrees and 0.5x0.5 degrees from ambient noise tomography and earthquake surface wave tomography. For periods shorter than 15s, the phase velocity variations are well correlated with the principal geological units in the NCC, with low-speed anomalies corresponding to the major sedimentary basins and high-speed anomalies coinciding with the main mountain ranges. Within the period range from 20s to 30s, the phase velocity variations seem to be related to the local variations of the crustal thickness. For the periods above 30s, the strength of the phase velocity variations decreases with increasing periods, which may imply that the uppermost mantle is much more homogeneous

  5. Thermal anomaly before earthquake and damage assessment using remote sensing data for 2014 Yutian earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanmei; Huang, Haiying; Jiang, Zaisen; Fang, Ying; Cheng, Xiao

    2014-12-01

    Thermal anomaly appears to be a significant precursor of some strong earthquakes. In this study, time series of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) products from 2001 to 2014 are processed and analyzed to locate possible anomalies prior to the Yutian earthquake (12 February 2014, Xinjiang, CHINA). In order to reduce the seasonal or annual effects from the LST variations, also to avoid the rainy and cloudy weather in this area, a background mean of ten-day nighttime LST are derived using averaged MOD11A2 products from 2001 to 2012. Then the ten-day LST data from Jan 2014 to FebJanuary 2014 were differenced using the above background. Abnormal LST increase before the earthquake is quite obvious from the differential images, indicating that this method is useful in such area with high mountains and wide-area deserts. Also, in order to assess the damage to infrastructure, China's latest civilian high-resolution remote sensing satellite - GF-1 remote sensed data are applied to the affected counties in this area. The damaged infrastructures and ground surface could be easily interpreted in the fused pan-chromatic and multi-spectral images integrating both texture and spectral information.

  6. Study on Vignetting Correction of Uav Images and Its Application to 2010 Ms7.0 Lushan Earthquake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, X.; Wang, X.; Dou, A.; Ding, X.

    2014-12-01

    As the UAV is widely used in earthquake disaster prevention and mitigation, the efficiency of UAV image processing determines the effectiveness of its application to pre-earthquake disaster prevention, post-earthquake emergency rescue, and disaster assessment. Because of bad weather conditions after destructive earthquake, the wide field cameras captured images with serious vignetting phenomenon, which can significantly affects the speed and efficiency of image mosaic, especially the extraction of pre-earthquake building and geological structure information and also the accuracy of post-earthquake quantitative damage extraction. In this paper, an improved radial gradient correction method (IRGCM) was developed to reduce the influence from random distribution of land surface objects on the images based on radial gradient correction method (RGCM, Y. Zheng, 2008; 2013). First, a mean-value image was obtained by the average of serial UAV images. It was used as calibration instead of single images to obtain the comprehensive vignetting function by using RGCM. Then each UAV image would be corrected by the comprehensive vignetting function. A case study was done to correct the UAV images sequence, which were obtained in Lushan County after Ms7.0 Lushan, Sichuan, China earthquake occurred on April 20, 2013. The results show that the comprehensive vignetting function generated by IRGCM is more robust and accurate to express the specific optical response of camera in a particular setting. Thus it is particularly useful for correction of a mass UAV images with non-uniform illuminations. Also, the correction process was simplified and it is faster than conventional methods. After correction, the images have better radial homogeneity and clearer details, to a certain extent, which reduces the difficulties of image mosaic, and provides a better result for further analysis and damage information extraction. Further test shows also that better results were obtained by taking

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder and somatic symptoms among child and adolescent survivors following the Lushan earthquake in China: A six-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Shenyue; Du, Changhui; Zhang, Ye

    2015-08-01

    To explore somatic conditions in a sample of 2299 child and adolescent survivors of an earthquake and their relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-13 scale, a short version of PHQ-15 scale that omits two items involving sexual pain/problems and menstrual problems, and a project-developed questionnaire were administered to participants three and six months after the earthquake. Among child and adolescent survivors, the prevalence rates of probable PTSD were 37.4 and 24.2% three and six months, respectively, after the earthquake. The most common somatic symptoms were trouble sleeping (58.4 and 48.4%), feeling tired or having low energy (52.0 and 46.1%), and stomach pain (45.8 and 45.4%) after three and six months, respectively. Several specific somatic symptoms evaluated three months after the earthquake including trouble sleeping, headache, and shortness of breath were predictors of the overall PTSD symptoms evaluated six months after the earthquake. Additionally, the symptom of hyperarousal evaluated after three months could predict the overall somatic symptoms evaluated after six months. PTSD and somatic symptoms were common after the earthquake, and a longitudinal association between PTSD and somatic symptoms was detected among child and adolescent survivors. These findings have implications in China and possibly elsewhere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Multi-Parameter Observation and Detection of Pre-Earthquake Signals in Seismically Active Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Parrot, M.; Liu, J. Y.; Hattori, K.; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, P.

    2012-01-01

    The recent large earthquakes (M9.0 Tohoku, 03/2011; M7.0 Haiti, 01/2010; M6.7 L Aquila, 04/2008; and M7.9 Wenchuan 05/2008) have renewed interest in pre-anomalous seismic signals associated with them. Recent workshops (DEMETER 2006, 2011 and VESTO 2009 ) have shown that there were precursory atmospheric /ionospheric signals observed in space prior to these events. Our initial results indicate that no single pre-earthquake observation (seismic, magnetic field, electric field, thermal infrared [TIR], or GPS/TEC) can provide a consistent and successful global scale early warning. This is most likely due to complexity and chaotic nature of earthquakes and the limitation in existing ground (temporal/spatial) and global satellite observations. In this study we analyze preseismic temporal and spatial variations (gas/radon counting rate, atmospheric temperature and humidity change, long-wave radiation transitions and ionospheric electron density/plasma variations) which we propose occur before the onset of major earthquakes:. We propose an Integrated Space -- Terrestrial Framework (ISTF), as a different approach for revealing pre-earthquake phenomena in seismically active areas. ISTF is a sensor web of a coordinated observation infrastructure employing multiple sensors that are distributed on one or more platforms; data from satellite sensors (Terra, Aqua, POES, DEMETER and others) and ground observations, e.g., Global Positioning System, Total Electron Content (GPS/TEC). As a theoretical guide we use the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) model to explain the generation of multiple earthquake precursors. Using our methodology, we evaluated retrospectively the signals preceding the most devastated earthquakes during 2005-2011. We observed a correlation between both atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies preceding most of these earthquakes. The second phase of our validation include systematic retrospective analysis for more than 100 major earthquakes (M>5

  9. Depression and anxiety among elderly earthquake survivors in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated depression and anxiety among Chinese elderly earthquake survivors, addressing relevant correlations. We sampled one earthquake-prone city, utilising the Geriatric Depression Scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory. In addition, explorative factor analysis and structural equation model methods were used. Results indicated elderly earthquake survivors exhibited symptoms of moderate depression and anxiety; depression and anxiety are highly positively correlated. The overlap between these two psychological problems may be due to subjective fear and motoric dimensions; subjective fear and motoric dimensions of Beck Anxiety Inventory are more strongly related to Geriatric Depression Scale domains. The two scales exhibit high reliability and validity.

  10. Building damage concentrated in Longtoushan town during the 2014 Ms. 6.5 Ludian earthquake, Yunnan, China: examination of cause and implications based on ground motion and vulnerability analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Kurahashi, Susumu; Wu, Hao; Si, Hongjun; Ma, Qiang; Dang, Ji; Tao, Dongwang; Feng, Jiwei; Irikura, Kojiro

    2017-09-01

    Though the 2014 Ludian Earthquake had only a moderate magnitude (Ms 6.5), high-level ground motions of almost 1 g occurred at Longtoushan Town (seismic station 53LLT), which located near the intersection of a conjugate-shaped seismogenic fault. The building damages on the pluvial fan and the river terrace at Longtoushan was clearly different. In order to examine the generation of the large acceleration at 53LLT, the focal mechanisms and the rupture processes of the conjugate-shaped seismogenic fault were determined. We found that there were two continuous impulsive waves in the records of 53LLT that were generated from two different faults, the Baogunao fault and the Xiaohe fault, respectively. Site effects on the pluvial fan and the river terrace at Longtoushan Town and their relations to different building damages were examined. We found that the predominant period at the pluvial fan was about 0.25 s, close to the fundamental natural period of multi-story confined masonry buildings. Ground motions on the pluvial fan and the river terrace were simulated through convolving synthesized bedrock motions with the transfer functions, which were analyzed using the one-dimensional underground velocity structures identified from H/V spectral ratios of ambient noise. Building collapse ratios (CRs) are estimated based on the vulnerability function of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and are compared with the observed values. We found that the observed building CRs on the pluvial fan are much higher than the estimated values. High-level ground shaking that is far beyond the design level was a reason for serious building damage.

  11. Application of a time-magnitude prediction model for earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Weiping; Jin, Xueshen; Yang, Jialiang; Dong, Peng; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, He

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the physical meaning of the magnitude-time model parameters for earthquake prediction. The gestation process for strong earthquake in all eleven seismic zones in China can be described by the magnitude-time prediction model using the computations of the parameters of the model. The average model parameter values for China are: b = 0.383, c=0.154, d = 0.035, B = 0.844, C = -0.209, and D = 0.188. The robustness of the model parameters is estimated from the variation in the minimum magnitude of the transformed data, the spatial extent, and the temporal period. Analysis of the spatial and temporal suitability of the model indicates that the computation unit size should be at least 4° × 4° for seismic zones in North China, at least 3° × 3° in Southwest and Northwest China, and the time period should be as long as possible.

  12. Media exposure related to the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake predicted probable PTSD among Chinese adolescents in Kunming, China: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Nelson C Y; Lau, Joseph T F; Yu, Nancy Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianping; Xu, Zhening; Choi, Kai Chow; Zhang, Qi; Mak, Winnie W S; Lui, Wacy W S

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the prevalence and the psychosocial predictors of probable PTSD among Chinese adolescents in Kunming (approximately 444 miles from the epicenter), China, who were indirectly exposed to the Sichuan Earthquake in 2008. Using a longitudinal study design, primary and secondary school students (N = 3577) in Kunming completed questionnaires at baseline (June 2008) and 6 months afterward (December 2008) in classroom settings. Participants' exposure to earthquake-related imagery and content, perceptions and emotional reactions related to the earthquake, and posttraumatic stress symptoms were measured. Univariate and forward stepwise multivariable logistic regression models were fit to identify significant predictors of probable PTSD at the 6-month follow-up. Prevalences of probable PTSD (with a Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale score ≥30) among the participants at baseline and 6-month follow-up were 16.9% and 11.1% respectively. In the multivariable analysis, those who were frequently exposed to distressful imagery had experienced at least two types of negative life events, perceived that teachers were distressed due to the earthquake, believed that the earthquake resulted from damages to the ecosystem, and felt apprehensive and emotionally disturbed due to the earthquake reported a higher risk of probable PTSD at 6-month follow-up (all ps < .05). Exposure to distressful media images, emotional responses, and disaster-related perceptions at baseline were found to be predictive of probable PTSD several months after indirect exposure to the event. Parents, teachers, and the mass media should be aware of the negative impacts of disaster-related media exposure on adolescents' psychological health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Coseismic and Posteismic Deformation of a Blind Thrust Ramp from the 3 July 2015 Mw 6.4 Pishan, China Earthquake Detected with Sentinel-1A Radar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingjia; Sun, Jianbao; Shen, Zheng-Kang

    2016-08-01

    Boosted by the launch of Sentinel-1A radar satellite from the European Space Agency (ESA), we now have the opportunity of fast, full and multiple coverage of the land based deformation field of earthquakes. Here we use the data to investigate a strong earthquake struck Pishan, western China on July 3, 2015. The earthquake fault is blind and no ground break features are found on-site, thus Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data give full play to its technical advantage for the recovery of coseismic deformation field. By using the Sentinel-1A radar data in the Interferometric Wide Swath mode, we obtain 1 track of InSAR data over the struck region, and resolve the 3D ground deformation generated by the earthquake. Then the Line-of-Sight (LOS) InSAR data are inverted for the slip-distribution of the seismogenic fault.

  14. Real-time Estimation of Fault Rupture Extent for Recent Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Mori, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    2007 Noto-hanto earthquake, 2008 Iwate-Miyagi earthquake, and 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The on-going rupture extent can be estimated for all datasets as the rupture propagates. For earthquakes with magnitude about 7.0, the determination of the fault parameters converges to the final geometry within 10 seconds.

  15. Causes of unusual distribution of coseismic landslides triggered by the Mw 6.1 2014 Ludian, Yunnan, China earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao-li; Liu, Chun-guo; Wang, Ming-ming; Zhou, Qing

    2018-06-01

    The Mw 6.1 2014 Ludian, Yunnan, China earthquake triggered numerous coseismic landslides that do not appear to be associated with any previously known seismogenic fault. Traditional models of triggering for seismically generated landslides do not provide a reasonable explanation for the landslide pattern observed here. Here the Newmark method is applied to a grid to calculate the minimum accelerations required for slope failures throughout the affected region. The results demonstrate that for much of the study area, the distribution of failure prone slopes is similar to the actual pattern of coseismic landslides, however there are some areas where the model predicts considerably fewer failures than occurred. We suggest that this is a result of the complex source faults that generated the Ludian earthquake, which produced a half-conjugate rupture on nearly EW- and NNW trending faults at depth. The rupture directed much of its seismic moment southeast of the epicenter, increasing ground shaking and the number of resulting landslides.

  16. Triggering Factor of Strong Earthquakes and Its Prediction Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Z. Q.; Ren, S. H.

    After 30 yearsS research, we have found that great earthquakes are triggered by tide- generation force of the moon. ItSs not the tide-generation force in classical view- points, but is a non-classical viewpoint tide-generation force. We call it as TGFR (Tide-Generation ForcesS Resonance). TGFR strongly depends on the tide-generation force at time of the strange astronomical points (SAP). The SAP mostly are when the moon and another celestial body are arranged with the earth along a straight line (with the same apparent right ascension or 180o difference), the other SAP are the turning points of the moonSs relatively motion to the earth. Moreover, TGFR have four different types effective areas. Our study indicates that a majority of earthquakes are triggering by the rare superimposition of TGFRsS effective areas. In China the great earthquakes in the plain area of Hebei Province, Taiwan, Yunnan Province and Sichuan province are trigger by the decompression TGFR; Other earthquakes are trig- gered by compression TGFR which are in Gansu Province, Ningxia Provinces and northwest direction of Beijing. The great earthquakes in Japan, California, southeast of Europe also are triggered by compression of the TGFR. and in the other part of the world like in Philippines, Central America countries, and West Asia, great earthquakes are triggered by decompression TGFR. We have carried out examinational immediate prediction cooperate TGFR method with other earthquake impending signals such as suggested by Professor Li Junzhi. The successful ratio is about 40%(from our fore- cast reports to the China Seismological Administration). Thus we could say the great earthquake can be predicted (include immediate earthquake prediction). Key words: imminent prediction; triggering factor; TGFR (Tide-Generation ForcesS Resonance); TGFR compression; TGFR compression zone; TGFR decompression; TGFR decom- pression zone

  17. Rupture Speed and Dynamic Frictional Processes for the 1995 ML4.1 Shacheng, Hebei, China, Earthquake Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Shi, B.

    2010-12-01

    An earthquake with ML4.1 occurred at Shacheng, Hebei, China, on July 20, 1995, followed by 28 aftershocks with 0.9≤ML≤4.0 (Chen et al, 2005). According to ZÚÑIGA (1993), for the 1995 ML4.1 Shacheng earthquake sequence, the main shock is corresponding to undershoot, while aftershocks should match overshoot. With the suggestion that the dynamic rupture processes of the overshoot aftershocks could be related to the crack (sub-fault) extension inside the main fault. After main shock, the local stresses concentration inside the fault may play a dominant role in sustain the crack extending. Therefore, the main energy dissipation mechanism should be the aftershocks fracturing process associated with the crack extending. We derived minimum radiation energy criterion (MREC) following variational principle (Kanamori and Rivera, 2004)(ES/M0')min≧[3M0/(ɛπμR3)](v/β)3, where ES and M0' are radiated energy and seismic moment gained from observation, μ is the modulus of fault rigidity, ɛ is the parameter of ɛ=M0'/M0,M0 is seismic moment and R is rupture size on the fault, v and β are rupture speed and S-wave speed. From II and III crack extending model, we attempt to reconcile a uniform expression for calculate seismic radiation efficiency ηG, which can be used to restrict the upper limit efficiency and avoid the non-physics phenomenon that radiation efficiency is larger than 1. In ML 4.1 Shacheng earthquake sequence, the rupture speed of the main shock was about 0.86 of S-wave speed β according to MREC, closing to the Rayleigh wave speed, while the rupture speeds of the remained 28 aftershocks ranged from 0.05β to 0.55β. The rupture speed was 0.9β, and most of the aftershocks are no more than 0.35β using II and III crack extending model. In addition, the seismic radiation efficiencies for this earthquake sequence were: for the most aftershocks, the radiation efficiencies were less than 10%, inferring a low seismic efficiency, whereas the radiation efficiency

  18. Regional-Scale Differential Time Tomography Methods: Development and Application to the Sichuan, China, Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Thurber, C.; Wang, W.; Roecker, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    We extended our recent development of double-difference seismic tomography [Zhang and Thurber, BSSA, 2003] to the use of station-pair residual differences in addition to event-pair residual differences. Tomography using station- pair residual differences is somewhat akin to teleseismic tomography but with the sources contained within the model region. Synthetic tests show that the inversion using both event- and station-pair residual differences has advantages in terms of more accurately recovering higher-resolution structure in both the source and receiver regions. We used the Spherical-Earth Finite-Difference (SEFD) travel time calculation method in the tomographic system. The basic concept is the extension of a standard Cartesian FD travel time algorithm [Vidale, 1990] to the spherical case by developing a mesh in radius, co-latitude, and longitude, expressing the FD derivatives in a form appropriate to the spherical mesh, and constructing"stencil" to calculate extrapolated travel times. The SEFD travel time calculation method is more advantageous in dealing with heterogeneity and sphericity of the Earth than the simple Earth flattening transformation and the"sphere-in-a-bo" approach [Flanagan et al., 2007]. We applied this method to the Sichuan, China data set for the period of 2001 to 2004. The Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs models show that there is a clear contrast across the Longmenshan Fault, where the 2008 M8 Wenchuan earthquake initiated.

  19. Conversion of Local and Surface-Wave Magnitudes to Moment Magnitude for Earthquakes in the Chinese Mainland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Gao, M.

    2017-12-01

    The magnitude of an earthquake is one of its basic parameters and is a measure of its scale. It plays a significant role in seismology and earthquake engineering research, particularly in the calculations of the seismic rate and b value in earthquake prediction and seismic hazard analysis. However, several current types of magnitudes used in seismology research, such as local magnitude (ML), surface wave magnitude (MS), and body-wave magnitude (MB), have a common limitation, which is the magnitude saturation phenomenon. Fortunately, the problem of magnitude saturation was solved by a formula for calculating the seismic moment magnitude (MW) based on the seismic moment, which describes the seismic source strength. Now the moment magnitude is very commonly used in seismology research. However, in China, the earthquake scale is primarily based on local and surface-wave magnitudes. In the present work, we studied the empirical relationships between moment magnitude (MW) and local magnitude (ML) as well as surface wave magnitude (MS) in the Chinese Mainland. The China Earthquake Networks Center (CENC) ML catalog, China Seismograph Network (CSN) MS catalog, ANSS Comprehensive Earthquake Catalog (ComCat), and Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) are adopted to regress the relationships using the orthogonal regression method. The obtained relationships are as follows: MW=0.64+0.87MS; MW=1.16+0.75ML. Therefore, in China, if the moment magnitude of an earthquake is not reported by any agency in the world, we can use the equations mentioned above for converting ML to MW and MS to MW. These relationships are very important, because they will allow the China earthquake catalogs to be used more effectively for seismic hazard analysis, earthquake prediction, and other seismology research. We also computed the relationships of and (where Mo is the seismic moment) by linear regression using the Global Centroid Moment Tensor. The obtained relationships are as follows: logMo=18

  20. Joint inversion of high resolution S-wave velocity structure underneath North China Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Li, G.; Niu, F.

    2017-12-01

    North China basin is one of earthquake prone areas in China. Many devastating earthquakes occurred in the last century and before, such as the 1937 M7.0 Heze Earthquake in Shandong province, the 1966 M7.2 Xingtai Earthquake and 1976 Tangshan Earthquake in Hebei province. Knowing the structure of the sediment cover is of great importance to predict strong ground motion caused by earthquakes. Unconsolidated sediments are loose materials, ranging from clay to sand to gravel. Earthquakes can liquefy unconsolidated sediments, thus knowing the distribution and thickness of the unconsolidated sediments has significant implication in seismic hazard analysis of the area. Quantitative estimates of the amount of extension of the North China basin is important to understand the thinning and evolution of the eastern North China craton and the underlying mechanism. In principle, the amount of lithospheric stretching can be estimated from sediment and crustal thickness. Therefore an accurate estimate of the sediment and crustal thickness of the area is also important in understanding regional tectonics. In this study, we jointly invert the Rayleigh wave phase-velocity dispersion and Z/H ratio data to construct a 3-D S-wave velocity model beneath North China area. We use 4-year ambient noise data recorded from 249 temporary stations, and 139 earthquake events to extract Rayleigh wave Z/H ratios. The Z/H ratios obtained from ambient noise data and earthquake data show a good agreement within the overlapped periods. The phase velocity dispersion curve was estimated from the same ambient noise data. The preliminary result shows a relatively low Z/H ratio and low velocity anomaly at the shallow part of sediment basins.

  1. How unusual is the long-runout of the earthquake-triggered giant Luanshibao landslide, Tibetan Plateau, China?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Changbao; Zhang, Yongshuang; Montgomery, David R.; Du, Yuben; Zhang, Guangze; Wang, Shifeng

    2016-04-01

    In the Tibetan Plateau, active tectonic deformation triggers frequent earthquakes, and giant landslides associated with active faults produce serious consequences. A study of the characteristics and mechanism of a historical long-runout landslide in Luanshibao (LSB), Tibetan Plateau, China, finds a maximum sliding distance (L) of 3.83 km with an elevation drop (H) of 820 m. The landslide volume (V) was ~ 0.64-0.94 × 108 m3, and it produced a long-runout (H/L = 0.21). Recent surface offset along the sinistral strike-slip Litang-Dewu fault passes through the middle part of the landslide, which initiated on the hanging wall of the fault. Geological mapping, geophysical prospecting, trenching, and 14C dating together indicate that the LSB landslide occurred in jointed granite ca. 1980 ± 30 YBP, probably triggered by a large earthquake. Compilation of volume and runout distance data for this landslide and other previously published data for volcanic and nonvolcanic long-runout landslides yields a composite runout length-volume relation (L = 12.52V0.37) that closely predicts runout of the LSB landslide, although substantial variation is noted in runout length around the central tendency.

  2. The prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection in Sichuan Province, southwestern China detected by real time PCR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in western China, and becoming an important public health concern. Infected dogs are the main reservoir for Leishmania infantum, and a potential sentinel for human VL in endemic areas. In the present study we investigated the prevalence of Leishmania DNA in dogs from Wenchuan, Heishui and Jiuzhaigou County in Sichuan Province, southwestern China, which are important endemic areas of zoonotic VL, detected by real time PCR. The results will help to design control strategies against visceral leishmaniasis in dogs and humans. Results The overall prevalence of Leishmania DNA in dogs was 24.8% (78/314) in Sichuan Province, with the positive rate of 23.5% (23/98) in Wenchuan County, 28.2% (20/71) in Heishui County, and 24.1% (35/145) in Jiuzhaigou County, and no significant difference was observed among the three counties (P > 0.05). The dogs were further allocated to different groups based on sexes, ages and external clinical symptoms. The logistic regression analysis revealed that a higher prevalence was found in older and external symptomatic dogs, compared to that of younger and asymptomatic dogs (P < 0.05). Conclusions The results revealed that L. infantum infection in dogs is widespread in Sichuan Province, southwestern China, which has a public health significance, due to its contribution to the transmission of the infection to humans by sandflies. It is necessary to take measures, including treatment or eradication of infected dogs, to control canine leishmaniasis, which could be helpful to reduce human VL in this area. PMID:21910882

  3. Earthquake Hazard Analysis Methods: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, A. M.; Fakhrurrozi, A.

    2018-02-01

    One of natural disasters that have significantly impacted on risks and damage is an earthquake. World countries such as China, Japan, and Indonesia are countries located on the active movement of continental plates with more frequent earthquake occurrence compared to other countries. Several methods of earthquake hazard analysis have been done, for example by analyzing seismic zone and earthquake hazard micro-zonation, by using Neo-Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (N-DSHA) method, and by using Remote Sensing. In its application, it is necessary to review the effectiveness of each technique in advance. Considering the efficiency of time and the accuracy of data, remote sensing is used as a reference to the assess earthquake hazard accurately and quickly as it only takes a limited time required in the right decision-making shortly after the disaster. Exposed areas and possibly vulnerable areas due to earthquake hazards can be easily analyzed using remote sensing. Technological developments in remote sensing such as GeoEye-1 provide added value and excellence in the use of remote sensing as one of the methods in the assessment of earthquake risk and damage. Furthermore, the use of this technique is expected to be considered in designing policies for disaster management in particular and can reduce the risk of natural disasters such as earthquakes in Indonesia.

  4. Prevalence and predictors of stress disorders following two earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kang Chuan; Ruo Yao, Zhao; Zhen Yu, Shi; Xu Dong, Zhao; Jian Zhong, Yang; Edwards, Jason Glen; Edwards, Glen David

    2013-09-01

    Studies about stress disorders following a disaster have mainly been based on single-event trauma with little emphasis on multiple traumas. This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of stress disorders following two earthquakes in China. Subjects were randomly sampled from 11 villages in rural China. A total of 624 subjects were administered with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Symptom Checklist -90-R (SCL-90-R), Coping Style Scale and Social Support Rating Scale. This was followed by a structural clinical interview using the Chinese translation of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV-TR axis 1 disorders (SCID-I-P) for acute stress disorder (ASD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The prevalence of ASD and PTSD was 15% and 29%, respectively. Regression analysis indicated that high intensity of trauma exposure, lower educational level, subjective feeling of economic status and psychological stress after the first earthquake significantly predicted the outcome of PTSD. The study suggested that the prevalence of stress disorders in two earthquakes were higher than that experienced in a single disaster. The intensity of trauma exposure, low educational level, bad subjective feeling of economic status, and psychological stress after the first earthquake could be used to identify survivors at risk of developing PTSD in two earthquakes.

  5. Role of S waves and Love waves in coseismic permeability enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chi-yuen; Chia, Yeeping; Wang, Pei-ling; Dreger, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    The 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan, China, caused water level to oscillate and undergo sustained changes in Taiwan, ˜2000 km away from the epicenter. Here we use the responses in three wells recorded at high sampling rate (1 Hz) and the broadband seismograms from a nearby station to document, for the first time, that the major water-level responses associated with Rayleigh waves were preceded by small oscillations that occurred concurrently with S waves and Love waves. We also show that the groundwater flow associated with these small oscillations may be strong enough to remove blockades from sediment pores to enhance aquifer permeability and to facilitate the later major responses.

  6. Orthopaedic injury analysis in the 2010 Yushu, China earthquake.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Jiang, Xieyuan; Chen, Hui; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Xiaobo; Wang, Manyi

    2012-06-01

    By analysing the injuries of the orthopaedic wounded during the 2010 Yushu earthquake, we aim to provide useful medical information for the rational application and allocation of medical resources and better implementation of medical relief in earthquake-stricken areas. Five hundred and eighty-two orthopaedic patients injured during the earthquake. The clinical data, injury conditions and epidemiological features (including age composition, gender ratio, distribution of injury, etc.) were collected and analysed. Altogether 582 orthopaedic patients were analysed. The average age for all patients was 38.8±13.08 years (0-86 years). Adults accounted for 81.62%. There was no gender difference. The most common injuries included limb fractures, pelvic/acetabular fractures and spinal fractures. Fractures accompany with nerve injury were relatively low, only 17 patients account for 2.92%. Fractures complicated by crush syndrome were even lower, only 7 patients account for 1.20%. The patients who experienced fractures in the Yushu earthquake were mostly adults. This was correlated with population composition in Yushu area. This time all the orthopaedic injuries were relative mild with less complication as nerve injury or crush syndrome mainly because of the characteristics of the house structure in Yushu area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Real-time earthquake monitoring using a search engine method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haijiang; Chen, Enhong; Zheng, Yi; Kuang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Xiong

    2014-12-04

    When an earthquake occurs, seismologists want to use recorded seismograms to infer its location, magnitude and source-focal mechanism as quickly as possible. If such information could be determined immediately, timely evacuations and emergency actions could be undertaken to mitigate earthquake damage. Current advanced methods can report the initial location and magnitude of an earthquake within a few seconds, but estimating the source-focal mechanism may require minutes to hours. Here we present an earthquake search engine, similar to a web search engine, that we developed by applying a computer fast search method to a large seismogram database to find waveforms that best fit the input data. Our method is several thousand times faster than an exact search. For an Mw 5.9 earthquake on 8 March 2012 in Xinjiang, China, the search engine can infer the earthquake's parameters in <1 s after receiving the long-period surface wave data.

  8. Co-seismic response of water level in the Jingle well (China) associated with the Gorkha Nepal (Mw 7.8) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Anhua; Fan, Xuefang; Zhao, Gang; Liu, Yang; Singh, Ramesh P.; Hu, Yuliang

    2017-09-01

    Changes in co-seismic water levels associated with the Gorkha Nepal earthquake (25 April 2015, Mw 7.8) were recorded in the Jingle well in Shanxi Province China (longitude E112.03°, latitude N38.35°, about 2769 km from epicenter). Based on the observed water levels, we clearly identified signals relating to P, S and surface waves. However, the water temperature recorded at a depth of 350 m shows no co-seismic changes. A spectrum analysis of co-seismic variations of water level shows that the oscillation frequency and amplitude of water level in the borehole are determined by the natural frequency of the borehole, which is not associated with the propagation of seismic waves. The borehole-aquifer system shows a large amplification associated with ground vibrations generated by earthquakes. Considering the local hydro-geological map and the temperature gradient of the Jingle well, a large volume ;groundwater reservoir; model can be used to explain these processes. Due to seismic wave propagation, the volume of a well-confined aquifer expands and contracts forming fractures that change the water flow. In the well-confined aquifer, water levels oscillate simultaneously with high amplitude ground shaking during earthquakes. However, the water in the center of the ;underground reservoir; remains relatively stationary, without any changes in the water temperature. In addition, a possible precursor wave is recorded in the water level at the Jingle well prior to the Gorkha earthquake.

  9. Assessment of the ripple effects and spatial heterogeneity of total losses in the capital of China after a great catastrophic shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengtao; Li, Ning; Xie, Wei; Liu, Yu; Feng, Jieling; Chen, Xi; Liu, Li

    2017-03-01

    The total losses caused by natural disasters have spatial heterogeneity due to the different economic development levels inside the disaster-hit areas. This paper uses scenarios of direct economic loss to introduce the sectors' losses caused by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (2008 WCE) in Beijing, utilizing the Adaptive Regional Input-Output (ARIO) model and the Inter-regional ripple effect (IRRE) model. The purpose is to assess the ripple effects of indirect economic loss and spatial heterogeneity of both direct and indirect economic loss at the scale of the smallest administrative divisions of China (streets, villages, and towns). The results indicate that the district of Beijing with the most severe indirect economic loss is the Chaoyang District; the finance and insurance industry (15, see Table 1) of Chaowai Street suffers the most in the Chaoyang District, which is 1.46 times that of its direct economic loss. During 2008-2014, the average annual GDP (gross domestic product) growth rate of Beijing was decreased 3.63 % by the catastrophe. Compared with the 8 % of GDP growth rate target, the decreasing GDP growth rate is a significant and noticeable economic impact, and it can be efficiently mitigated by increasing rescue effort and by supporting the industries which are located in the seriously damaged regions.

  10. Urban Earthquakes - Reducing Building Collapse Through Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilham, R.

    2004-12-01

    Fatalities from earthquakes rose from 6000k to 9000k/year in the past decade, yet the ratio of numbers of earthquake fatalities to instantaneous population continues to fall. Since 1950 the ratio declined worldwide by a factor of three, but in some countries the ratio has changed little. E.g in Iran, 1 in 3000 people can expect to die in an earthquake, a percentage that has not changed significantly since 1890. Fatalities from earthquakes remain high in those countries that have traditionally suffered from frequent large earthquakes (Turkey, Iran, Japan, and China), suggesting that the exposure time of recently increased urban populations in other countries may be too short to have interacted with earthquakes with long recurrence intervals. This in turn, suggests that disasters of unprecendented size will occur (more than 1 million fatalities) when future large earthquakes occur close to megacities. However, population growth is most rapid in cities of less than 1 million people in the developing nations, where the financial ability to implement earthquake resistant construction methods is limited. In that structural collapse can often be traced to ignorance about the forces at work in an earthquake, the future collapse of buildings presently under construction could be much reduced were contractors, builders and occupants educated in the principles of earthquake resistant assembly. Education of builders who are tempted to cut assembly costs is likely to be more cost effective than material aid.

  11. Thrust faulting and 3D ground deformation of the 3 July 2015 Mw 6.4 Pishan, China earthquake from Sentinel-1A radar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianbao; Shen, Zheng-Kang; Li, Tao; Chen, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Boosted by the launch of Sentinel-1A radar satellite from the European Space Agency (ESA), we now have the opportunity of fast, full and multiple coverage of the land based deformation field of earthquakes. Here we use the data to investigate a strong earthquake struck Pishan, western China on July 3, 2015. The earthquake fault is blind and no ground break features are found on-site, thus Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data give full play to its technical advantage for the recovery of coseismic deformation field. By using the Sentinel-1A radar data in the Interferometric Wide Swath mode, we obtain 3 tracks of InSAR data over the struck region, and resolve the 3D ground deformation generated by the earthquake. Then the Line-of-Sight (LOS) InSAR data are inverted for the slip-distribution of the seismogenic fault. The final model shows that the earthquake is completely blind with pure-thrust motion. The maximum slip is 0.48 m at a depth of 7 km, consistent with the depth estimate from seismic reflection data. In particular, the inverted model is also compatible with a south-dipping fault ramp among a group of fault interfaces detected by the seismic reflection profile over the region. The seismic moment obtained equals to a Mw 6.4 earthquake. The Pishan earthquake ruptured the frontal part of the thrust ramps under the Slik anticline, and unloaded the coulomb stress of them. However, it may have loaded stress to the back-thrust above the thrust ramps by 1-4 bar, and promoted it for future failure. Moreover, the stress loading on the west side of the earthquake fault is much larger than that on the east side, indicating a higher risk for failure to the west of the Zepu fault.

  12. Using earthquake-triggered landslides as a hillslope-scale shear strength test: Insights into rock strength properties at geomorphically relevant spatial scales in high-relief, tectonically active settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallen, Sean; Clark, Marin; Godt, Jonathan; Lowe, Katherine

    2016-04-01

    The material strength of rock is known to be a fundamental property in setting landscape form and geomorphic process rates as it acts to modulate feedbacks between earth surface processes, tectonics, and climate. Despite the long recognition of its importance in landscape evolution, a quantitative understanding of the role of rock strength in affecting geomorphic processes lags our knowledge of the influence of tectonics and climate. This gap stems largely from the fact that it remains challenging to quantify rock strength at the hillslope scale. Rock strength is strongly scale dependent because the number, size, spacing, and aperture of fractures sets the upper limit on rock strength, making it difficult to extrapolate laboratory measurements to landscape-scale interpretations. Here we present a method to determine near-surface rock strength at the hillslope-scale, relying on earthquake-triggered landslides as a regional-scale "shear strength" test. We define near-surface strength as the average strength of rock sample by the landslides, which is typically < 10 m. Based on a Newmark sliding block model, which approximates slope stability during an earthquake assuming a material with frictional and cohesive strength, we developed a coseismic landslide model that is capable of reproducing statistical characteristics of the distribution of earthquake-triggered landslides. We present results from two well-documented case-studies of earthquakes that caused widespread mass-wasting; the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan Province, China and the 1994 Mw. 6.8 Northridge Earthquake, CA, USA. We show how this model can be used to determine near-surface rock strength and reproduce mapped landslide patterns provided the spatial distribution of local hillslope gradient, earthquake peak ground acceleration (PGA), and coseismic landsliding are well constrained. Results suggest that near-surface rock strength in these tectonically active settings is much lower than that

  13. The Crustal Structure of the North-South Earthquake Belt in China Revealed from Deep Seismic Soundings and Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Guo, Lianghui; Shi, Lei; Li, Yonghua

    2018-01-01

    The North-South earthquake belt (NSEB) is one of the major earthquake regions in China. The studies of crustal structure play a great role in understanding tectonic evolution and in evaluating earthquake hazards in this region. However, some fundamental crustal parameters, especially crustal interface structure, are not clear in this region. In this paper, we reconstructed the crustal interface structure around the NSEB based on both the deep seismic sounding (DSS) data and the gravity data. We firstly reconstructed the crustal structure of crystalline basement (interface G), interface between upper and lower crusts (interface C) and Moho in the study area by compiling the results of 38 DSS profiles published previously. Then, we forwardly calculated the gravity anomalies caused by the interfaces G and C, and then subtracted them from the complete Bouguer gravity anomalies, yielding the regional gravity anomalies mainly due to the Moho interface. We then utilized a lateral-variable density interface inversion technique with constraints of the DSS data to invert the regional anomalies for the Moho depth model in the study area. The reliability of our Moho depth model was evaluated by comparing with other Moho depth models derived from other gravity inversion technique and receiver function analysis. Based on our Moho depth model, we mapped the crustal apparent density distribution in the study area for better understanding the geodynamics around the NSEB.

  14. Earthquake Source Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The past 2 decades have seen substantial progress in our understanding of the nature of the earthquake faulting process, but increasingly, the subject has become an interdisciplinary one. Thus, although the observation of radiated seismic waves remains the primary tool for studying earthquakes (and has been increasingly focused on extracting the physical processes occurring in the “source”), geological studies have also begun to play a more important role in understanding the faulting process. Additionally, defining the physical underpinning for these phenomena has come to be an important subject in experimental and theoretical rock mechanics.In recognition of this, a Maurice Ewing Symposium was held at Arden House, Harriman, N.Y. (the former home of the great American statesman Averill Harriman), May 20-23, 1985. The purpose of the meeting was to bring together the international community of experimentalists, theoreticians, and observationalists who are engaged in the study of various aspects of earthquake source mechanics. The conference was attended by more than 60 scientists from nine countries (France, Italy, Japan, Poland, China, the United Kingdom, United States, Soviet Union, and the Federal Republic of Germany).

  15. Probabilistic tsunami inundation map based on stochastic earthquake source model: A demonstration case in Macau, the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linlin; Switzer, Adam D.; Wang, Yu; Chan, Chung-Han; Qiu, Qiang; Weiss, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Current tsunami inundation maps are commonly generated using deterministic scenarios, either for real-time forecasting or based on hypothetical "worst-case" events. Such maps are mainly used for emergency response and evacuation planning and do not include the information of return period. However, in practice, probabilistic tsunami inundation maps are required in a wide variety of applications, such as land-use planning, engineer design and for insurance purposes. In this study, we present a method to develop the probabilistic tsunami inundation map using a stochastic earthquake source model. To demonstrate the methodology, we take Macau a coastal city in the South China Sea as an example. Two major advances of this method are: it incorporates the most updated information of seismic tsunamigenic sources along the Manila megathrust; it integrates a stochastic source model into a Monte Carlo-type simulation in which a broad range of slip distribution patterns are generated for large numbers of synthetic earthquake events. When aggregated the large amount of inundation simulation results, we analyze the uncertainties associated with variability of earthquake rupture location and slip distribution. We also explore how tsunami hazard evolves in Macau in the context of sea level rise. Our results suggest Macau faces moderate tsunami risk due to its low-lying elevation, extensive land reclamation, high coastal population and major infrastructure density. Macau consists of four districts: Macau Peninsula, Taipa Island, Coloane island and Cotai strip. Of these Macau Peninsula is the most vulnerable to tsunami due to its low-elevation and exposure to direct waves and refracted waves from the offshore region and reflected waves from mainland. Earthquakes with magnitude larger than Mw8.0 in the northern Manila trench would likely cause hazardous inundation in Macau. Using a stochastic source model, we are able to derive a spread of potential tsunami impacts for earthquakes

  16. Coping with earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, Arthur F.; Bekins, Barbara; Burkardt, Nina; Dewey, James W.; Earle, Paul S.; Ellsworth, William L.; Ge, Shemin; Hickman, Stephen H.; Holland, Austin F.; Majer, Ernest; Rubinstein, Justin L.; Sheehan, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Large areas of the United States long considered geologically stable with little or no detected seismicity have recently become seismically active. The increase in earthquake activity began in the mid-continent starting in 2001 (1) and has continued to rise. In 2014, the rate of occurrence of earthquakes with magnitudes (M) of 3 and greater in Oklahoma exceeded that in California (see the figure). This elevated activity includes larger earthquakes, several with M > 5, that have caused significant damage (2, 3). To a large extent, the increasing rate of earthquakes in the mid-continent is due to fluid-injection activities used in modern energy production (1, 4, 5). We explore potential avenues for mitigating effects of induced seismicity. Although the United States is our focus here, Canada, China, the UK, and others confront similar problems associated with oil and gas production, whereas quakes induced by geothermal activities affect Switzerland, Germany, and others.

  17. Focal mechanisms of earthquakes in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodnomsambuu, D.; Natalia, R.; Gangaadorj, B.; Munkhuu, U.; Davaasuren, G.; Danzansan, E.; Yan, R.; Valentina, M.; Battsetseg, B.

    2011-12-01

    Focal mechanism data provide information on the relative magnitudes of the principal stresses, so that a tectonic regime can be assigned. Especially such information is useful for the study of intraplate seismic active regions. A study of earthquake focal mechanisms in the territory of Mongolia as landlocked and intraplate region was conducted. We present map of focal mechanisms of earthquakes with M4.5 which occurred in Mongolia and neighboring regions. Focal mechanisms solutions were constrained by the first motion solutions, as well as by waveform modeling, particularly CMT solutions. Four earthquakes have been recorded in Mongolia in XX century with magnitude more than 8, the 1905 M7.9 Tsetserleg and M8.4 Bolnai earthquakes, the 1931 M8.0 Fu Yun earthquake, the 1957 M8.1 Gobi-Altai earthquake. However the map of focal mechanisms of earthquakes in Mongolia allows seeing all seismic active structures: Gobi Altay, Mongolian Altay, active fringe of Hangay dome, Hentii range etc. Earthquakes in the most of Mongolian territory and neighboring China regions are characterized by strike-slip and reverse movements. Strike-slip movements also are typical for earthquakes in Altay Range in Russia. The north of Mongolia and south part of the Baikal area is a region where have been occurred earthquakes with different focal mechanisms. This region is a zone of the transition between compressive regime associated to India-Eurasian collision and extensive structures localized in north of the country as Huvsgul area and Baykal rift. Earthquakes in the Baikal basin itself are characterized by normal movements. Earthquakes in Trans-Baikal zone and NW of Mongolia are characterized dominantly by strike-slip movements. Analysis of stress-axis orientations, the tectonic stress tensor is presented. The map of focal mechanisms of earthquakes in Mongolia could be useful tool for researchers in their study on Geodynamics of Central Asia, particularly of Mongolian and Baikal regions.

  18. A New Seismic Hazard Model for Mainland China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Y.; Xu, X.; Chen, G.; Cheng, J.; Magistrale, H.; Shen, Z. K.

    2017-12-01

    We are developing a new seismic hazard model for Mainland China by integrating historical earthquake catalogs, geological faults, geodetic GPS data, and geology maps. To build the model, we construct an Mw-based homogeneous historical earthquake catalog spanning from 780 B.C. to present, create fault models from active fault data, and derive a strain rate model based on the most complete GPS measurements and a new strain derivation algorithm. We divide China and the surrounding regions into about 20 large seismic source zones. For each zone, a tapered Gutenberg-Richter (TGR) magnitude-frequency distribution is used to model the seismic activity rates. The a- and b-values of the TGR distribution are calculated using observed earthquake data, while the corner magnitude is constrained independently using the seismic moment rate inferred from the geodetically-based strain rate model. Small and medium sized earthquakes are distributed within the source zones following the location and magnitude patterns of historical earthquakes. Some of the larger earthquakes are distributed onto active faults, based on their geological characteristics such as slip rate, fault length, down-dip width, and various paleoseismic data. The remaining larger earthquakes are then placed into the background. A new set of magnitude-rupture scaling relationships is developed based on earthquake data from China and vicinity. We evaluate and select appropriate ground motion prediction equations by comparing them with observed ground motion data and performing residual analysis. To implement the modeling workflow, we develop a tool that builds upon the functionalities of GEM's Hazard Modeler's Toolkit. The GEM OpenQuake software is used to calculate seismic hazard at various ground motion periods and various return periods. To account for site amplification, we construct a site condition map based on geology. The resulting new seismic hazard maps can be used for seismic risk analysis and management.

  19. Introduction to thematic collection "Historical and geological studies of earthquakes"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, Kenji; Wang, Jian; Hammerl, Christa; Malik, Javed N.

    2017-12-01

    This thematic collection contains eight papers mostly presented at the 2016 AOGS meeting in Beijing. Four papers describe historical earthquake studies in Europe, Japan, and China; one paper uses modern instrumental data to examine the effect of giant earthquakes on the seismicity rate; and three papers describe paleoseismological studies using tsunami deposit in Japan, marine terraces in Philippines, and active faults in Himalayas. Hammerl (Geosci Lett 4:7, 2017) introduced historical seismological studies in Austria, starting from methodology which is state of the art in most European countries, followed by a case study for an earthquake of July 17, 1670 in Tyrol. Albini and Rovida (Geosci Lett 3:30, 2016) examined 114 historical records for the earthquake on April 6, 1667 on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea, compiled 37 Macroseismic Data Points, and estimated the epicenter and the size of the earthquake. Matsu'ura (Geosci Lett 4:3, 2017) summarized historical earthquake studies in Japan which resulted in about 8700 Intensity Data Points, assigned epicenters for 214 earthquakes between AD 599 and 1872, and estimated focal depth and magnitudes for 134 events. Wang et al. (Geosci Lett 4:4, 2017) introduced historical seismology in China, where historical earthquake archives include about 15,000 sources, and parametric catalogs include about 1000 historical earthquakes between 2300 BC and AD 1911. Ishibe et al. (Geosci Lett 4:5, 2017) tested the Coulomb stress triggering hypothesis for three giant (M 9) earthquakes that occurred in recent years, and found that at least the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes caused the seismicity rate change. Ishimura (2017) re-estimated the ages of 11 tsunami deposits in the last 4000 years along the Sanriku coast of northern Japan and found that the average recurrence interval of those tsunamis as 350-390 years. Ramos et al. (2017) studied 1000-year-old marine terraces on the west coast of Luzon Island, Philippines

  20. Impact of Landslides Induced by Earthquake on Hydrologic Response in a Mountainous Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Q.; Su, D.; Ran, Q.

    2013-12-01

    The changes of the underlying surface conditions (topography, vegetation cover rate, etc.), which were caused by the numerous landslides in the Wenchuan earthquake, may influence the hydrologic response and then change the flash flood or other kinds of the disaster risk in the affected areas. The Jianpinggou catchment, located in Sichuan China, is selected as the study area for this paper. It is a steep-slope mountainous catchment, flash flood is the main disaster, and sometimes causes the debris flow. The distribution of the landslides in this catchment is obtained from the remote sensing image data. The changes of topography are obtained from the comparisons among the different periods of digital elevation models (DEMs). A physical-based model, the Integrated Hydrology Model (InHM), is used to simulate the hydrologic response before and after the landslide, respectively. The influence of the underlying surface conditions is then discussed based on the output data, such as the hydrograph, distributed water depth and local runoff. The study leads to the following generalized conclusions: 1) the impact of the landslides on hydrologic response does exist, and the greater the proportion of surface flow in the total runoff is, the greater the impact will be; 2) the peak flow from the outlet increased after the landslide, but the shape of the hydrograph has little change; 3) the effect of the landslides on the local runoff is relatively obvious, and this elevates the local flash floods risk; 4) the difference of hydrologic responses between the two periods (before and after the landslide occurring) becomes larger with the increasing rainfall, with a threshold of rapid growth at the rainfall frequencies of once in every 50 years, but there is a limit. The improved understanding of the impact of landslides on the hydrologic response in Jianpinggou catchment provides valuable theoretical support for the storm flood forecast.

  1. Stress Study on Southern Segment of Longmenshan Fault Constrained by Focal Mechanism Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Liang, C.; Su, J.; Zhou, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Longmenshan fault (LMSF) lies at the eastern margin of Tibetan plateau and constitutes the boundary of the active Bayankala block and rigid Sichuan basin. This fault was misinterpreted as an inactive fault before the great Wenchuan earthquake. Five years after the devastating event, the Lushan MS 7.0 stroke the southern segment of the LMSF but fractured in a very limited scale and formed a seismic gap between the two earthquakes. In this study, we determined focal mechanisms of earthquakes with magnitude M≥3 from Jan 2008 to July 2014 in the southern segment of LMSF, and then applied the damped linear inversion to derive the regional stress field based on the focal mechanisms. Focal mechanisms of 755 earthquakes in total were determined. We further used a damped linear inversion technique to produce a 2D stress map in upper crust in the study region. A dominant thrust regime is determined south of the seismic gap, with a horizontal maximum compression oriented in NWW-SEE. But in the area to the north of the seismic gap is characterized as a much more complex stress environment. To the west of the Dujiangyan city, there appear to be a seismic gap in the Pengguan complex. The maximum compressions show the anti-clockwise and clockwise patterns to the south and north of this small gap. Thus the small gap seems to be an asperity that causes the maximum compression to rotate around it. While combined the maximum compression pattern with the focal solutions of strong earthquakes (Mw≥5) in this region, two of those strong earthquakes located near the back-range-fault have strikes parallel to the Miyaluo fault. Considering a large amount of earthquakes in Lixian branch, the Miyaluo fault may be extended to LMSF following the great Wenchuan earthquake. Investigations on the stress field of different depths indicate complex spatial variations. The Pengguan complex is almost aseismic in shallow depth in its central part. In deeper depth, the maximum compressions show

  2. Influence of the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir on the micro-seismicity and the 2013 M5.1 Badong earthquake (Yangtze, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huai; Cheng, Huihong; Pang, Yajin; Shi, Yaolin; Yuen, David A.

    2016-12-01

    On December 16, 2013, right after the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) reached its highest annual water level, a powerful M5.1 earthquake occurred in Badong County, China's Hubei Province. The epicenter is 5.5 km away from the upstream boundary and 100 km from the dam. Was this earthquake triggered by the impoundment of the TGR, and what are its subsequences? To answer these questions, we constructed a coupled three-dimensional poroelastic finite element model to examine the ground surface deformation, the Coulomb failure stress change (ΔCFS) due to the variation of elastic stress and pore pressure, and the elastic strain energy potential accumulation in the TGR region upon the occurrence of this event. Our calculated maximum surface deformation values beneath the TGR compare well with GPS observations, which validates our numerical model. At the hypocenter of the earthquake, ΔCFS is around 8.0 ∼ 11.0 kPa, revealing that it may be eventually triggered by the impoundment. We also discovered that the total elastic strain energy potential accumulation due to the impounded water load is around 1.7 × 1012 J, merely equivalent to 0.01% of the total energy released by this event, indicating that this earthquake is predominately controlled by the typical regional tectonic settings as well as the weak fault zones, and the reservoir impoundment might only facilitate its procedure or occurrence. Furthermore, the stress level in this region remains high after this earthquake and the subsequent reservoir-triggered micro-seismicity or even bigger event are highly possible.

  3. The Quanzhou large earthquake: environment impact and deep process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WANG, Y.; Gao*, R.; Ye, Z.; Wang, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Quanzhou earthquake is the largest earthquake in China's southeast coast in history. The ancient city of Quanzhou and its adjacent areas suffered serious damage. Analysis of the impact of Quanzhou earthquake on human activities, ecological environment and social development will provide an example for the research on environment and human interaction.According to historical records, on the night of December 29, 1604, a Ms 8.0 earthquake occurred in the sea area at the east of Quanzhou (25.0°N, 119.5°E) with a focal depth of 25 kilometers. It affected to a maximum distance of 220 kilometers from the epicenter and caused serious damage. Quanzhou, which has been known as one of the world's largest trade ports during Song and Yuan periods was heavily destroyed by this earthquake. The destruction of the ancient city was very serious and widespread. The city wall collapsed in Putian, Nanan, Tongan and other places. The East and West Towers of Kaiyuan Temple, which are famous with magnificent architecture in history, were seriously destroyed.Therefore, an enormous earthquake can exert devastating effects on human activities and social development in the history. It is estimated that a more than Ms. 5.0 earthquake in the economically developed coastal areas in China can directly cause economic losses for more than one hundred million yuan. This devastating large earthquake that severely destroyed the Quanzhou city was triggered under a tectonic-extensional circumstance. In this coastal area of the Fujian Province, the crust gradually thins eastward from inland to coast (less than 29 km thick crust beneath the coast), the lithosphere is also rather thin (60 70 km), and the Poisson's ratio of the crust here appears relatively high. The historical Quanzhou Earthquake was probably correlated with the NE-striking Littoral Fault Zone, which is characterized by right-lateral slip and exhibiting the most active seismicity in the coastal area of Fujian. Meanwhile, tectonic

  4. Real-time earthquake monitoring using a search engine method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haijiang; Chen, Enhong; Zheng, Yi; Kuang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Xiong

    2014-01-01

    When an earthquake occurs, seismologists want to use recorded seismograms to infer its location, magnitude and source-focal mechanism as quickly as possible. If such information could be determined immediately, timely evacuations and emergency actions could be undertaken to mitigate earthquake damage. Current advanced methods can report the initial location and magnitude of an earthquake within a few seconds, but estimating the source-focal mechanism may require minutes to hours. Here we present an earthquake search engine, similar to a web search engine, that we developed by applying a computer fast search method to a large seismogram database to find waveforms that best fit the input data. Our method is several thousand times faster than an exact search. For an Mw 5.9 earthquake on 8 March 2012 in Xinjiang, China, the search engine can infer the earthquake’s parameters in <1 s after receiving the long-period surface wave data. PMID:25472861

  5. Crustal deformation at the terminal stage before earthquake occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H.; Meng, G.; Su, X.

    2016-12-01

    GPS data retrieved from 300 stations in China are used in this work to study stressed areas during earthquake preparation periods. Surface deformation data are derived by using the standard method and are smoothed by a temporal moving to mitigate influence from noise. A statistical method is used to distinguish significant variations from the smoothed data. The spatial distributions comprised of those significant variations show that a diameter of a stressed area preparing earthquakes is about 3500 km for a M6 event. The deformation deduced from the significant variations is highly related with the slip direction of the fault plane determined through the focal mechanism solution of earthquakes. Although the causal mechanism of such large stressed areas with rapid changes is not fully understood, the analytical results suggest that the earthquake preparation would be one of the factors dominating the common mode error in GPS studies. Mechanisms and/or numerical models of some pre-earthquake anomalous phenomena would be reconsidered based on this novel observation.

  6. Study on Earthquake Emergency Evacuation Drill Trainer Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChangJiang, L.

    2016-12-01

    With the improvement of China's urbanization, to ensure people survive the earthquake needs scientific routine emergency evacuation drills. Drawing on cellular automaton, shortest path algorithm and collision avoidance, we designed a model of earthquake emergency evacuation drill for school scenes. Based on this model, we made simulation software for earthquake emergency evacuation drill. The software is able to perform the simulation of earthquake emergency evacuation drill by building spatial structural model and selecting the information of people's location grounds on actual conditions of constructions. Based on the data of simulation, we can operate drilling in the same building. RFID technology could be used here for drill data collection which read personal information and send it to the evacuation simulation software via WIFI. Then the simulation software would contrast simulative data with the information of actual evacuation process, such as evacuation time, evacuation path, congestion nodes and so on. In the end, it would provide a contrastive analysis report to report assessment result and optimum proposal. We hope the earthquake emergency evacuation drill software and trainer can provide overall process disposal concept for earthquake emergency evacuation drill in assembly occupancies. The trainer can make the earthquake emergency evacuation more orderly, efficient, reasonable and scientific to fulfill the increase in coping capacity of urban hazard.

  7. Post-traumatic stress disorder and its predictors among bereaved Tibetan adolescents four years after the Yushu earthquake: a cross-sectional survey in China.

    PubMed

    Dongling, Liu; Hui, Chen; Ling, Ma; Wenqian, Bie; Zailiang, Liu; Changying, Chen

    2017-04-01

    To examine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and to explore the predictive factors of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among bereaved adolescents four years after the Yushu earthquake. On 14 April 2010, the 7·1-magnitude Yushu earthquake occurred in the high-altitude, hypoxia-prone regions primarily inhabited by ethnic minorities. Many adolescents lost their parents during the earthquake. This study examined post-traumatic stress disorder and its predictors among bereaved Tibetan adolescents four years after the trauma in China. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. This study used a cross-sectional design with 830 bereaved adolescents. Participant demographic data included gender, age and grade, and the earthquake exposure variables included the deceased relatives, whether they were buried, injured or amputated (non-life-threatening) and whether they witnessed a burial, injury or death. The post-traumatic stress disorder Checklist-Civilian version was used to assess the symptoms and prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder, and the Coping Style Scale assessed coping styles. The results indicated that the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder was 19·3%. Individuals who were buried, injured or amputated (non-life-threatening), who witnessed a burial, injury or death, who suffered severe property loss during the earthquake and who had negative coping skills were the most likely individuals to have post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. The presence of post-traumatic stress disorder was very prevalent among adolescents four years after the Yushu earthquake. Effective mental health services should be developed to facilitate postdisaster recovery for bereaved adolescents at high risk for post-traumatic stress disorder. The findings in this study improve our understanding of post-traumatic stress disorder and related risk factors in bereaved adolescents in non-Western communities, providing useful information for

  8. Injuries sustained by earthquake relief workers: a retrospective analysis of 207 relief workers during Nepal earthquake.

    PubMed

    Du, Feizhou; Wu, Jialing; Fan, Jin; Jiang, Rui; Gu, Ming; He, Xiaowu; Wang, Zhiming; He, Ci

    2016-07-26

    This study aimed to analyse the injuries sustained by rescue workers in earthquake relief efforts in high altitude areas for improving the ways of how to effectively prevent the injuries. The clinical data of 207 relief workers from four military hospitals in Tibet, who were injured in the Tibetan disaster areas of China during '4.25' Nepal earthquake rescue period, was retrospectively analyzed. The demographic features, sites of injury and causes of injury were investigated. The most frequently injured sites were the ankle-foot and hand-wrist (n = 61, 26.5 %), followed by injuries in leg-knee-calf (n = 22, 9.6 %), head-neck (4.87 %), thoracic and abdominal region (2.6 %) and lower back (3.9 %). The specific high-altitude environment increased the challenges associated with earthquake relief. The specific plateau environment and climate increased the burden and challenge in earthquake relief. The injury distribution data shown in this study demonstrated that effective organization and personnel protection can reduce the injury occurrences. Relief workers were prone to suffering various injuries and diseases under specific high-altitude environment.

  9. Earthquake damage to schools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, Heather

    1994-01-01

    These unusual slides show earthquake damage to school and university buildings around the world. They graphically illustrate the potential danger to our schools, and to the welfare of our children, that results from major earthquakes. The slides range from Algeria, where a collapsed school roof is held up only by students' desks; to Anchorage, Alaska, where an elementary school structure has split in half; to California and other areas, where school buildings have sustained damage to walls, roofs, and chimneys. Interestingly, all the United States earthquakes depicted in this set of slides occurred either on a holiday or before or after school hours, except the 1935 tremor in Helena, Montana, which occurred at 11:35 am. It undoubtedly would have caused casualties had the schools not been closed days earlier by Helena city officials because of a damaging foreshock. Students in Algeria, the People's Republic of China, Armenia, and other stricken countries were not so fortunate. This set of slides represents 17 destructive earthquakes that occurred in 9 countries, and covers more than a century--from 1886 to 1988. Two of the tremors, both of which occurred in the United States, were magnitude 8+ on the Richter Scale, and four were magnitude 7-7.9. The events represented by the slides (see table below) claimed more than a quarter of a million lives.

  10. Shake table tests of suspended ceilings to simulate the observed damage in the M s7.0 Lushan earthquake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Duozhi; Dai, Junwu; Qu, Zhe; Ning, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Severe damage to suspended ceilings of metal grids and lay-in panels was observed in public buildings during the 2013 M s7.0 Lushan earthquake in China. Over the past several years, suspended ceilings have been widely used practice in public buildings throughout China, including government offices, schools and hospitals. To investigate the damage mechanism of suspended ceilings, a series of three-dimensional shake table tests was conducted to reproduce the observed damage. A full-scale reinforced concrete frame was constructed as the testing frame for the ceiling, which was single-story and infilled with brick masonry walls to represent the local construction of low-rise buildings. In general, the ceiling in the tests exhibited similar damage phenomena as the field observations, such as higher vulnerability of perimeter elements and extensive damage to the cross runners. However, it exhibited lower fragility in terms of peak ground/roof accelerations at the initiation of damage. Further investigations are needed to clarify the reasons for this behavior.

  11. GPS-derived Coseismic deformations of the 2016 Aktao Ms6.7 earthquake and source modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Zhao, B.; Xiaoqiang, W.; Daiqing, L.; Yushan, A.

    2017-12-01

    On 25th November 2016, a Ms6.7 earthquake occurred on Aktao, a county of Xinjiang, China. This earthquake was the largest earthquake occurred in the northeastern margin of the Pamir Plateau in the last 30 years. By GPS observation, we get the coseismic displacement of this earthquake. The maximum displacement site is located in the Muji Basin, 15km from south of the causative fault. The maximum deformation is down to 0.12m, and 0.10m for coseismic displacement, our results indicate that the earthquake has the characteristics of dextral strike-slip and normal-fault rupture. Based on the GPS results, we inverse the rupture distribution of the earthquake. The source model is consisted of two approximate independent zones with a depth of less than 20km, the maximum displacement of one zone is 0.6m, the other is 0.4m. The total seismic moment is Mw6.6.1 which is calculated by the geodetic inversion. The source model of GPS-derived is basically consistent with that of seismic waveform inversion, and is consistent with the surface rupture distribution obtained from field investigation. According to our inversion calculation, the recurrence period of strong earthquakes similar to this earthquake should be 30 60 years, and the seismic risk of the eastern segment of Muji fault is worthy of attention. This research is financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.41374030)

  12. A longitudinal study of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and its relationship with coping skill and locus of control in adolescents after an earthquake in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiqing; Liu, Hui; Jiang, Xiaolian; Wu, Dongmei; Tian, Yali

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is a common psychological maladaptation among adolescents after undergoing an earthquake. Knowledge about the prevalence and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and the changes of its predictors over time can help medical providers assist adolescent survivors with mitigating long-term impacts. This study examined the changes in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and its relationship with coping skill and locus of control among adolescent earthquake survivors in China. The study used an observational longitudinal design. A total of 1420 adolescents were evaluated twice after the earthquake by using the Post-traumatic stress disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, The Internality, Powerful others and Chance scale and the Coping Styles Scale. The results indicated that the mean scores of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were decreased significantly and the positive rates of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms also declined remarkably at 17 months compared to the 3 months post-earthquake. Internality locus of control and problem solving coping skill were effective resilient factors for the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, while chance locus of control was a powerful risk factor of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms as well as being female, being injured and property loss. Continuous screening is recommended to identify adolescent earthquake survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. More attention should be paid to adolescent survivors who are prone to adopt passive coping strategies responding to trauma events and who own external causal attribution.

  13. Earthquake Potential in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aung, Hla Hla

    Myanmar region is generally believed to be an area of high earthquake potential from the point of view of seismic activity which has been low compared to the surrounding regions like Indonesia, China, and Pakistan. Geoscientists and seismologists predicted earthquakes to occur in the area north of the Sumatra-Andaman Islands, i.e. the southwest and west part of Myanmar. Myanmar tectonic setting relative to East and SE Asia is rather peculiar and unique with different plate tectonic models but similar to the setting of western part of North America. Myanmar crustal blocks are caught within two lithospheric plates of India and Indochina experiencing oblique subduction with major dextral strike-slip faulting of the Sagaing fault. Seismic tomography and thermal structure of India plate along the Sunda subduction zone vary from south to north. Strong partitioning in central Andaman basin where crustal fragmentation and northward dispersion of Burma plate by back-arc spreading mechanism has been operating since Neogene. Northward motion of Burma plate relative to SE Asia would dock against the major continent further north and might have caused the accumulation of strain which in turn will be released as earthquakes in the future.

  14. Landslides and the Fault Surface Ruptures during the 2008 Wengchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, M.; Xiyong, Wu; Takashi, Inokuchi; Gonghui, Wang

    2009-04-01

    2008 Sichuan earthquake with a magnitude of Mw 7.9 induced numerous mass movements around the fault surface ruptures of which maximum separations we observed were 3.6 m vertical and 1.5 m horizontal (right lateral). In order to clarify the distribution of these landslides and to characterize them, we interpreted satellite images and made field investigation for 3 weeks by using these images. We used satellite ALOS images taken by the sensors AVNIR II with a resolution of 10 m and PRISM with a resolution of 2.5 m, both of which were taken on 4th in June. We also used satellite images of before and after the earthquake provided by Google Earth. The affected area was mountainous areas with elevations from 1000 m to 4500 m on the west of the Sichuan Basin. Ridges and valleys are generally trending NE parallel to the trends of the geologic structures, while large rivers, such as the Minjiang River, and the Fujiang River are flowing from the north or northwest to the south or southeast, crossing these trends. The NE-trending Longmenshan fault zone runs along the boundary between the mountains and the Sichuan basin (He and Tsukuda, 2003), of which Yinghsiuwan-Beichuan fault was the main fault that generated the 2008 earthquake (Xu, 2008). The basement rocks of the mountainous areas range from Precambrian to Cretaceous in age. They are basaltic rocks, granite, phyllite, dolostone, limestone, alternating beds of sandstone and shale, etc. (Geologic map of China). Landslide distribution areas were mainly of two types: One was the area along the fault that generated this earthquake, and another was along the steep slopes of inner valleys along the Minjian River. Landslides were concentrated on the hanging wall of the earthquake fault, which appeared for more than 180 km along the Longmenshan fault zone. The distribution area of landslides was wider around the middle and the southwest parts of the surface rupture trace and became narrower to the northeast. The directions of the

  15. Major earthquakes of the past decade (2000-2010): a comparative review of various aspects of management.

    PubMed

    Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Sagafinia, Masoud; Ebrahimi, Ali; Shams, Ehsan; Kalantar Motamedi, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    This article sought to review and compare data of major earthquakes of the past decade and their aftermath in order to compare the magnitude, death toll, type of injuries, management procedures, extent of destruction and effectiveness of relief efforts. A retrospective study of the various aspects of management and aftermath of 5 major earthquakes of the past decade (2000-2010) was undertaken. This included earthquakes occurring in Bam Iran, Sichuan China, Port-au-Prince Haiti, Kashmir Pakistan and Ica Peru. A literature search was done via computer of published articles (indexed in Pubmed). The issues assessed included: 1)Local magnitude,2)Type of building structure 3)Time of the earthquake (day/time/season), 4)Time to rescue, 5)Triage, Transfer, and Treatment 6) Distribution of casualties (dead/ injured), 7)Degree of city damage, 8)Degree of damage to health facilities, 9)Field hospital availability, 10)International aid, 11)Air transfer, 12) Telecommunication systems availability, 13) PTSD prevalence, 14) Most common injury and 15) Most common disease outbreak. The Bam earthquake had the lowest (6.6 Richter's) and the Sichuan earthquake had the greatest magnitude (8.0 Richter's). Mortality in Haiti was 212,000 and it was the deadliest earthquake of the past decade. Collapse of heavy clay roofing structures was a major cause of death in Iran and Pakistan. Earthquakes occurring at night and nonworking days carried a high death toll. The time to rescue and treat was the lengthiest in Haiti (possibly contributing to the death to injured ratio). However, the worst dead to injured ratios were in Bam (51%) and in Pakistan (47%); the best ratio was in China (15%). Iran and Pakistan suffered the highest percentage of damage to the health facilities (90%). Field hospital availability, international aid and air transfer were important issues. Telecommunication systems were best in China and worst in Pakistan. PTSD prevalence was highest in Iran. Respiratory infection was

  16. 'Two go together': Near-simultaneous moment release of two asperities during the 2016 Mw 6.6 Muji, China earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bie, Lidong; Hicks, Stephen; Garth, Thomas; Gonzalez, Pablo; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    On 25 November 2016, a Mw 6.6 earthquake ruptured the Muji fault in western Xinjiang, China. We investigate the earthquake rupture independently using geodetic observations from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and regional seismic recordings. To constrain the fault geometry and slip distribution, we test different combinations of fault dip and slip direction to reproduce InSAR observations. Both InSAR observations and optimal distributed slip model suggest buried rupture of two asperities separated by a gap of greater than 5 km. Additional seismic gaps exist at the end of both asperities that failed in the 2016 earthquake. To reveal the dynamic history of asperity failure, we inverted regional seismic waveforms for multiple centroid moment tensors and construct a moment rate function. The results show a small centroid time gap of 2.6 s between the two sub-events. Considering the >5 km gap between the two asperities and short time interval, we propose that the two asperities failed near-simultaneously, rather than in a cascading rupture propagation style. The second sub-event locates ∼39 km to the east of the epicenter and the centroid time is at 10.7 s. It leads to an estimate of average velocity of 3.7 km/s as an upper bound, consistent with upper crust shear wave velocity in this region. We interpret that the rupture front is propagating at sub-shear wave velocities, but that the second sub-event has a reduced or asymmetric rupture time, leading to the apparent near-simultaneous moment release of the two asperities.

  17. Analysis of sensor network observations during some simulated landslide experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaioni, M.; Lu, P.; Feng, T.; Chen, W.; Wu, H.; Qiao, G.; Liu, C.; Tong, X.; Li, R.

    2012-12-01

    A multi-sensor network was tested during some experiments on a landslide simulation platform established at Tongji University (Shanghai, P.R. China). Here landslides were triggered by means of artificial rainfall (see Figure 1). The sensor network currently incorporates contact sensors and two imaging systems. This represent a novel solution, because the spatial sensor network incorporate either contact sensors and remote sensors (video-cameras). In future, these sensors will be installed on two real ground slopes in Sichuan province (South-West China), where Wenchuan earthquake occurred in 2008. This earthquake caused the immediate activation of several landslide, while other area became unstable and still are a menace for people and properties. The platform incorporates the reconstructed scale slope, sensor network, communication system, database and visualization system. Some landslide simulation experiments allowed ascertaining which sensors could be more suitable to be deployed in Wenchuan area. The poster will focus on the analysis of results coming from down scale simulations. Here the different steps of the landslide evolution can be followed on the basis of sensor observations. This include underground sensors to detect the water table level and the pressure in the ground, a set of accelerometers and two inclinometers. In the first part of the analysis the full data series are investigated to look for correlations and common patterns, as well as to link them to the physical processes. In the second, 4 subsets of sensors located in neighbor positions are analyzed. The analysis of low- and high-speed image sequences allowed to track a dense field of displacement on the slope surface. These outcomes have been compared to the ones obtained from accelerometers for cross-validation. Images were also used for the photogrammetric reconstruction of the slope topography during the experiment. Consequently, volume computation and mass movements could be evaluated on

  18. Study on China’s Earthquake Prediction by Mathematical Analysis and its Application in Catastrophe Insurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianjun, X.; Bingjie, Y.; Rongji, W.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to improve catastrophe insurance level. Firstly, earthquake predictions were carried out using mathematical analysis method. Secondly, the foreign catastrophe insurances’ policies and models were compared. Thirdly, the suggestions on catastrophe insurances to China were discussed. The further study should be paid more attention on the earthquake prediction by introducing big data.

  19. Rupture geometry and slip distribution of the 2016 January 21st Ms6.4 Menyuan, China earthquake inferred from Sentinel-1A InSAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.

    2016-12-01

    On 21 January 2016, an Ms6.4 earthquake stroke Menyuan country, Qinghai Province, China. The epicenter of the main shock and locations of its aftershocks indicate that the Menyuan earthquake occurred near the left-lateral Lenglongling fault. However, the focal mechanism suggests that the earthquake should take place on a thrust fault. In addition, field investigation indicates that the earthquake did not rupture the ground surface. Therefore, the rupture geometry is unclear as well as coseismic slip distribution. We processed two pairs of InSAR images acquired by the ESA Sentinel-1A satellite with the ISCE software, and both ascending and descending orbits were included. After subsampling the coseismic InSAR images into about 800 pixels, coseismic displacement data along LOS direction are inverted for earthquake source parameters. We employ an improved mixed linear-nonlinear Bayesian inversion method to infer fault geometric parameters, slip distribution, and the Laplacian smoothing factor simultaneously. This method incorporates a hybrid differential evolution algorithm, which is an efficient global optimization algorithm. The inversion results show that the Menyuan earthquake ruptured a blind thrust fault with a strike of 124°and a dip angle of 41°. This blind fault was never investigated before and intersects with the left-lateral Lenglongling fault, but the strikes of them are nearly parallel. The slip sense is almost pure thrusting, and there is no significant slip within 4km depth. The max slip value is up to 0.3m, and the estimated moment magnitude is Mw5.93, in agreement with the seismic inversion result. The standard error of residuals between InSAR data and model prediction is as small as 0.5cm, verifying the correctness of the inversion results.

  20. An interdisciplinary approach to study Pre-Earthquake processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S. A.; Hattori, K.; Taylor, P. T.

    2017-12-01

    We will summarize a multi-year research effort on wide-ranging observations of pre-earthquake processes. Based on space and ground data we present some new results relevant to the existence of pre-earthquake signals. Over the past 15-20 years there has been a major revival of interest in pre-earthquake studies in Japan, Russia, China, EU, Taiwan and elsewhere. Recent large magnitude earthquakes in Asia and Europe have shown the importance of these various studies in the search for earthquake precursors either for forecasting or predictions. Some new results were obtained from modeling of the atmosphere-ionosphere connection and analyses of seismic records (foreshocks /aftershocks), geochemical, electromagnetic, and thermodynamic processes related to stress changes in the lithosphere, along with their statistical and physical validation. This cross - disciplinary approach could make an impact on our further understanding of the physics of earthquakes and the phenomena that precedes their energy release. We also present the potential impact of these interdisciplinary studies to earthquake predictability. A detail summary of our approach and that of several international researchers will be part of this session and will be subsequently published in a new AGU/Wiley volume. This book is part of the Geophysical Monograph series and is intended to show the variety of parameters seismic, atmospheric, geochemical and historical involved is this important field of research and will bring this knowledge and awareness to a broader geosciences community.

  1. "Repeating Events" as Estimator of Location Precision: The China National Seismograph Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Changsheng; Wu, Zhongliang; Li, Yutong; Ma, Tengfei

    2014-03-01

    "Repeating earthquakes" identified by waveform cross-correlation, with inter-event separation of no more than 1 km, can be used for assessment of location precision. Assuming that the network-measured apparent inter-epicenter distance X of the "repeating doublets" indicates the location precision, we estimated the regionalized location quality of the China National Seismograph Network by comparing the "repeating events" in and around China by S chaff and R ichards (Science 303: 1176-1178, 2004; J Geophys Res 116: B03309, 2011) and the monthly catalogue of the China Earthquake Networks Center. The comparison shows that the average X value of the China National Seismograph Network is approximately 10 km. The mis-location is larger for the Tibetan Plateau, west and north of Xinjiang, and east of Inner Mongolia, as indicated by larger X values. Mis-location is correlated with the completeness magnitude of the earthquake catalogue. Using the data from the Beijing Capital Circle Region, the dependence of the mis-location on the distribution of seismic stations can be further confirmed.

  2. Paleo-earthquake Analysis from the Morphologic Features of Unconsolidated-sediment Fault Scarp: An Example from Dushanzi Thrust Fault in the Northern Tianshan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Z.; He, H.

    2016-12-01

    Fault scarp is important specific tectonic landform caused by surface-rupture earthquake. The morphology of the fault scarp in unconsolidated sediment could evolve in a predictable, time-dependent diffusion model. As a result, the investigation of fault-generated fault scarps is a prevalent technique used to study fault activity, geomorphic evolution, and the recurrence of faulting events. Addition to obtainment of cumulative displacement, gradient changes, i.e. slope breaks, in the morphology of fault scarps could indicate multiple rupture events along an active fault. In this study, we exacted a large set of densely spaced topographic profiles across fault scarp from LiDAR-derive DEM to detect subtle changes in the fault scarp geometry at the Dushanzi trust fault in the Northern Tianshan, China. Several slope breaks in topographic profiles can be identified, which may represent repeated rupture at the investigated fault. The number of paleo-earthquakes derived from our analysis is 4-3, well in agreement with the investigation results from the paleoseismological trenches. Statistical analysis results show that the scarp height of fault scarp with one slope break is 0.75±0.12 (mean value ±1 standard deviation) m representing the last incremental displacement during earthquakes; the height of fault scarp with two slope breaks is 1.86±0.32 m, and the height of fault scarp with three-four slope break is 6.45±1.44 m. Our approach enables us to obtain paleo-earthquake information from geomorphological analysis of fault scarps, and to assess the multiple rupture history of a complex fault system.

  3. Response mechanism of post-earthquake slopes under heavy rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Hong-zhi; Kong, Ji-ming; Wang, Ren-chao; Cui, Yun; Huang, Sen-wang

    2017-07-01

    This paper uses the catastrophic landslide that occurred in Zhongxing Town, Dujiangyan City, as an example to study the formation mechanism of landslides induced by heavy rainfall in the post-Wenchuan earthquake area. The deformation characteristics of a slope under seismic loading were investigated via a shaking table test. The results show that a large number of cracks formed in the slope due to the tensile and shear forces of the vibrations, and most of the cracks had angles of approximately 45° with respect to the horizontal. A series of flume tests were performed to show how the duration and intensity of rainfall influence the responses of the shaken and non-shaken slopes. Wetting fronts were recorded under different rainfall intensities, and the depth of rainfall infiltration was greater in the shaken slope than in the non-shaken slope because the former experienced a greater extreme rainfall intensity under the same early rainfall and rainfall duration conditions. At the beginning of the rainfall infiltration experiment, the pore water pressure in the slope was negative, and settling occurred at the top of the slope. With increasing rainfall, the pore water pressure changed from negative to positive, and cracks were observed on the back surface of the slope and the shear outlet of the landslide on the front of the slope. The shaken slope was more susceptible to crack formation than the non-shaken slope under the same rainfall conditions. A comparison of the responses of the shaken and non-shaken slopes under heavy rainfall revealed that cracks formed by earthquakes provided channels for infiltration. Soil particles in the cracks of slopes were washed away, and the pore water pressure increased rapidly, especially the transient pore water pressure in the slope caused by short-term concentrated rainfall which decreased rock strength and slope stability.

  4. Major Earthquakes of the Past Decade (2000-2010): A Comparative Review of Various Aspects of Management

    PubMed Central

    Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Sagafinia, Masoud; Ebrahimi, Ali; Shams, Ehsan; Kalantar Motamedi, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article sought to review and compare data of major earthquakes of the past decade and their aftermath in order to compare the magnitude, death toll, type of injuries, management procedures, extent of destruction and effectiveness of relief efforts. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of the various aspects of management and aftermath of 5 major earthquakes of the past decade (2000–2010) was undertaken. This included earthquakes occurring in Bam Iran, Sichuan China, Port-au-Prince Haiti, Kashmir Pakistan and Ica Peru. A literature search was done via computer of published articles (indexed in Pubmed). The issues assessed included: 1)Local magnitude,2)Type of building structure 3)Time of the earthquake (day/time/season), 4)Time to rescue, 5)Triage, Transfer, and Treatment 6) Distribution of casualties (dead/ injured), 7)Degree of city damage, 8)Degree of damage to health facilities, 9)Field hospital availability, 10)International aid, 11)Air transfer, 12) Telecommunication systems availability, 13) PTSD prevalence, 14) Most common injury and 15) Most common disease outbreak. Results: The Bam earthquake had the lowest (6.6 Richter’s) and the Sichuan earthquake had the greatest magnitude (8.0 Richter’s). Mortality in Haiti was 212,000 and it was the deadliest earthquake of the past decade. Collapse of heavy clay roofing structures was a major cause of death in Iran and Pakistan. Earthquakes occurring at night and nonworking days carried a high death toll. The time to rescue and treat was the lengthiest in Haiti (possibly contributing to the death to injured ratio). However, the worst dead to injured ratios were in Bam (51%) and in Pakistan (47%); the best ratio was in China (15%). Iran and Pakistan suffered the highest percentage of damage to the health facilities (90%). Field hospital availability, international aid and air transfer were important issues. Telecommunication systems were best in China and worst in Pakistan. PTSD

  5. Earthquake induced landslide hazard field observatory in the Avcilar peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigarre, Pascal; Coccia, Stella; Theoleyre, Fiona; Ergintav, Semih; Özel, Oguz; Yalçinkaya, Esref; Lenti, Luca; Martino, Salvatore; Gamba, Paolo; Zucca, Francesco; Moro, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake-triggered landslides have an increasing disastrous impact in seismic regions due to the fast growing urbanization and infrastructures. Just considering disasters from the last fifteen years, among which the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, these events generated tens of thousands of coseismic landslides. Those resulted in amazing death toll and considerable damages, affecting the regional landscape including its hydrological main features. Despite a strong impetus in research during past decades, knowledge on those geohazards is still fragmentary, while databases of high quality observational data are lacking. These phenomena call for further collaborative researches aiming eventually to enhance preparedness and crisis management. The MARSITE project gathers research groups in a comprehensive monitoring activity developed in the Sea of Marmara Region, one of the most densely populated parts of Europe and rated at high seismic risk level since the 1999 Izmit and Duzce devastating earthquakes. Besides the seismic threat, landslides in Turkey and in this region constitute an important source of loss. The 6th Work Package of MARSITE project gathers 9 research groups to study earthquake-induced landslides focusing on two sub-regional areas of high interest among which the Cekmece-Avcilar peninsula, located westwards of Istanbul, as a highly urbanized concentrated landslide prone area, showing high susceptibility to both rainfalls while affected by very significant seismic site effects. A multidisciplinary research program based on pre-existing studies has been designed with objectives and tasks linked to constrain and tackle progressively some challenging issues related to data integration, modeling, monitoring and mapping technologies. Since the start of the project, progress has been marked on several important points as follows. The photogeological interpretation and analysis of ENVISAT-ERS DIn

  6. Personality and Post-traumatic Growth of Adolescents 42 Months after the Wenchuan Earthquake: A Mediated Model.

    PubMed

    An, Yuanyuan; Ding, Xu; Fu, Fang

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of teenagers' post-traumatic growth (PTG) and personality and coping style by developing a mediating model with matched data from 772 adolescents. The sample consisted of 772 adolescents (mean age = 12.93, SD = 1.80) from several middle schools located in the areas that were most severely affected by the earthquake. Five factor model of personality, Coping Style Scale and Post-traumatic Growth Inventory were used to measure personality, coping and PTG of adolescents respectively. The results showed that the mean of PTG is 2.87 ( SD = 0.93). Moreover, the relationship between personality and PTG is mediated by cognitive coping. The model's fit indices indicated a good fit (CFI = 0.996, TLI = 0.962, NFI = 0.994, RMSEA = 0.055). Results showed that a positive cognition coping style mediated the relationship between personality and PTG.

  7. Developing a global tsunami propagation database and its application for coastal hazard assessments in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N.; Tang, L.; Titov, V.; Newman, J. C.; Dong, S.; Wei, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The tragedies of the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Japan tsunamis have increased awareness of tsunami hazards for many nations, including China. The low land level and high population density of China's coastal areas place it at high risk for tsunami hazards. Recent research (Komatsubara and Fujiwara, 2007) highlighted concerns of a magnitude 9.0 earthquake on the Nankai trench, which may affect China's coasts not only in South China Sea, but also in the East Sea and Yellow Sea. Here we present our work in progress towards developing a global tsunami propagation database that can be used for hazard assessments by many countries. The propagation scenarios are computed by using NOAA's MOST numerical model. Each scenario represents a typical Mw 7.5 earthquake with predefined earthquake parameters (Gica et al., 2008). The model grid was interpolated from ETOPO1 at 4 arc-min resolution, covering -80° to72°N and 0 to 360°E. We use this database for preliminary tsunami hazard assessment along China's coastlines.

  8. Geomorphic and Geologic Controls of Geohazards induced by Nepal's 2015 Gorkha Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Leonard, G. J.; Shugar, D. H.; Haritashya, U.K.; Bevington, A.; Fielding, E. J.; Fujita, K.; Geertsema, M.; Miles, E. S.; Steiner, J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Gorkha earthquake (Magnitude 7.8) on 25 April 2015 and later aftershocks struck South Asia, killing approx.9,000 and damaging a large region. Supported by a large campaign of responsive satellite data acquisitions over the earthquake disaster zone, our team undertook a satellite image survey of the earthquakes induced geohazards in Nepal and China and an assessment of the geomorphic, tectonic, and lithologic controls on quake-induced landslides. Timely analysis and communication aided response and recovery and informed decision makers. We mapped 4,312 co-seismic and post-seismic landslides. We also surveyed 491 glacier lakes for earthquake damage, but found only 9 landslide-impacted lakes and no visible satellite evidence of outbursts. Landslide densities correlate with slope, peak ground acceleration, surface downdrop, and specific metamorphic lithologies and large plutonic intrusions.

  9. Ionospheric Anomalies on the day of the Devastating Earthquakes during 2000-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Fanfan; Zhou, Yiyan; Zhu, Fuying

    2013-04-01

    anomaly are almost equal. The most significant anomaly on the day may occur at the time very close to the main shock, but sometimes it is not the case. The positions of the maximal deviations always deviate from the epicenter. The direction may be southeast, southwest, northeast or northwest with the almost equal probability. The anomalies may move to the epicenter, deviate to any direction, or stay at the same position and gradually fade out. There is no significant feature, such as occurrence time, position, or motion, and so on, which can indicate the source of the anomalies. References: [1].Le, H., J. Y. Liu, et al. (2011). "A statistical analysis of ionospheric anomalies before 736 M6.0+earthquakes during 2002-2010." J. Geophys. Res. 116. [2].Liu, J.