In Socialist market economy, the characteristics of economic development tend to vary in different regions. Accordingly, enterprise education on college students has to be combined with regional economic features, particularly with a profound knowledge about the characteristics of local entrepreneurs. Insufficient resources and inconvenient…
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Raman, Ramya; Raman, Anantanarayanan
The Government at Fort St George determined that a school for instructing and training candidates towards the titles of 'apothecary' was necessary to improve medical help to people in the 1830s. This led to the establishment of the medical school in Madras (presently Chennai) in 1835. The school got renamed as the Madras Medical College in 1850. From 1835, the Madras Medical School offered formal training to personnel to be called either 'apothecaries' or 'dressers' under the superintendence of William Mortimer, who was assisted by George Harding in teaching at the school. Apothecary D'Beaux and Dresser P. S. Muthuswami Mudaliar were subordinate assistants. These apothecaries were recruited essentially under the Subordinate Medical Service of Madras, which was established in 1812 and included non-commissioned medical servants. The Madras apothecaries launched the Madras Apothecaries Society in 1864, which aimed at promoting and advancing medical science and knowledge. This society existed until 1871. Formal training of apothecaries ceased in Madras by the later decades of the 19th century, although informal training continued, especially for army cadets and women. Establishment of medical schools in Royapuram (which developed as the Stanley Medical College and Hospital), Tanjavur and Madurai, in the early decades of the 20th century and the 'branch' of Madras Medical College in Calicut during the Second World War changed the complexion of training of medical personnel immensely in pre- 1947 Madras Presidency. The Royapuram and other Medical Schools in Madras trained medical practitioners granting the title 'Licensed Medical Practitioner' (LMP). Whether the apothecary-dresser training at the 'old' Madras Medical College had a role to play in these developments remains to be verified.
Bao, Min; Bao, Xianwen; Yu, Huaming; Ding, Yang
The Wenzhou Shoal Reclamation Project is the core part of Wenzhou Peninsula Engineering which is a big comprehensive development project to expand the city space. The dynamics of the surrounding area was proved to suffer little effect in response to the Lingni north dyke since it was built approximately along the current direction. Therefore, this paper focuses firstly on the tidal characteristics in the Wenzhou and Yueqing bays with the Lingni north dyke being built and then on the changes resulting from the implementation of the on-going Wenzhou Shoal Reclamation Project (WSRP) which will reclaim land from the whole Wenzhou Shoal. To simulate the tidal dynamics, a high-resolution coastal ocean model with unstructured triangular grids was set up for the Wenzhou and Yueqing Bays. The model resolved the complicated tidal dynamics with the simulated tidal elevation and current in good agreement with observations. In the study area, M2 is the predominant tidal component, which means the tide is semidiurnal. The new reclamation project hardly affects the Yueqing Bay and the open ocean, but there are concentrated effects on the mouth of the southern branch of the Oujiang River and the southwest of Wenzhou Shoal. This study provides an indicative reference to the local government and helps to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of the project.
Shagam, Janet Yagoda
Designed to assist secondary and post-secondary educators develop community interactive science programs, this manual describes steps undertaken at New Mexico's Albuquerque Technical Vocational Institute to develop pre-college medical science programs that encourage local high school students to consider the college's medical technology program.…
Since the new millennium, the medical humanities have become an international phenomenon. Universities worldwide are instituting medical humanities programs for the benefit of their students seeking education to prepare for medical professions, and organizations supporting medical humanities programs have likewise burgeoned. This article will…
Rabiner, David L.; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Costello, E. Jane; Hoyle, Rick H.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott
Objective: To identify the predictors of nonmedical ADHD medication use by college students. Participants: A total of 843 undergraduates attending one public or one private university in southeastern United States. Method: Students completed a Web-based survey inquiring about ADHD medication use during the first semester freshman of their year and…
Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian
The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.
Hilborn, Robert C.
Physics has played an important role in the preparation of future physicians and other health professionals for more than 100 years. Almost all pre-health students take a year of college-level physics as part of their preparation for medical, dental, and pharmacy school. In particular, the widely-used Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) contains a significant number of questions that require physics knowledge and skills. This paper describes the changes in the MCAT to be implemented in 2015, the role of physics in the revised MCAT, and implications for introductory physics courses for the life sciences.
Hu, Dakang; Sun, Zheng; Luo, Xinhua; Liu, Shuangchun; Yu, Lianhua; Qu, Ying; Yang, Jinhong; Yu, Jian; Li, Xiangyang; Zhang, Jin
Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic, facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus. The erythromycin-resistant methylase (erm) gene and macrolide efflux (mef) gene are the 2 main genes that can mediate SP. Transposon (Tn) also plays an important role in the collection and metastasis of the gene. In the present study we investigated the drug resistance characteristics and the macrolide-resistant mechanisms of SP in Wenzhou City, China. Material/Methods Sixty-eight strains of SP were isolated from sputum samples of hospitalized children in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. These strains were analyzed using antimicrobial susceptibility tests to determine their drug resistance to 10 kinds of antibacterials. Macrolide-resistant phenotypes were identified using K-B method. PCR method was used to analyze the erm B gene, mef A gene, and int Tn gene. Results Drug resistance rates of 68 strains of SP were 98.5%, 100.0%, 63.2%, 52.9%, 94.1%, 89.7%, 0.0%, 0.0%, 16.2%, and 14.7% for clindamycin, erythromycin, penicillin G, cefotaxime, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, levofloxacin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, and amoxicillin, respectively. Total detection rates of the erm B gene, mef A gene, and int Tn gene were 98.5%, 91.2%, and 100.0%, respectively. Conclusions SP shows significant multi-drug resistance in Wenzhou City, whereas there is no clinical value of macrolides antibiotics for SP. cMLSB mediated by erm B gene is the most predominant phenotype among macrolide-resistant SP. The int Tn gene may play an important role in horizontal transfer and clonal dissemination of SP drug resistance genes in Wenzhou City. PMID:27483416
Lisasi, Esther; Kulanga, Ahaz; Muiruri, Charles; Killewo, Lucy; Fadhili, Ndimangwa; Mimano, Lucy; Kapanda, Gibson; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory; Nyindo, Mramba; Mteta, Kien; Kessi, Egbert; Ntabaye, Moshi; Bartlett, John
The Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University (KCMU) College and the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) are addressing the crisis in Tanzanian health care manpower by modernizing the college's medical education with new tools and techniques. With a $10 million MEPI grant and the participation of its partner, Duke University, KCMU is harnessing the power of information technology (IT) to upgrade tools for students and faculty. Initiatives in eLearning have included bringing fiber-optic connectivity to the campus, offering campus-wide wireless access, opening student and faculty computer laboratories, and providing computer tablets to all incoming medical students. Beyond IT, the college is also offering wet laboratory instruction for hands-on diagnostic skills, team-based learning, and clinical skills workshops. In addition, modern teaching tools and techniques address the challenges posed by increasing numbers of students. To provide incentives for instructors, a performance-based compensation plan and teaching awards have been established. Also for faculty, IT tools and training have been made available, and a medical education course management system is now being widely employed. Student and faculty responses have been favorable, and the rapid uptake of these interventions by students, faculty, and the college's administration suggests that the KCMU College MEPI approach has addressed unmet needs. This enabling environment has transformed the culture of learning and teaching at KCMU College, where a path to sustainability is now being pursued.
Georgia Medical Coll., Augusta.
The third edition of the Medical College of Georgia (MCG) fact book provides a chronicle of the year 1978-1979, reflecting data and events important to the institution. Sections include: general information/Augusta; general information/MCG; administration; budget and physical plant; library/learning resources; faculty; continuing education;…
Althubaiti, Alaa; Alkhazim, Mohammad
The shortage of Physicians is a major problem in many countries. Medical colleges are often encouraged to increase the graduate numbers. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Saudi physicians form only 37.89% of the physician manpower. The remainder of the physicians are expatriates. It was recently estimated that the Kingdom would need 29,128…
The library facilities, resource materials, training of librarians and so on are described at first. The library collection is that of middle sized medical library. However, since the facilities are not enough to handle it, it is necessary for the library to be supplemented by information services. Then primary information services such as reading of materials, interlibrary loan and journal acquisition system of the recent issues for each laboratory is outlined. Secondary information services centered around on-line information retrieval service, contents sheet service and preparation of index cards are also described. What a medical library should be is considered in terms of its relation to information services.
Mulligan, J L; Garg, M L; Skipper, J K; McNamara, M J
This paper reports a four-year experience in teaching evaluation of care at a three-year medical school, the Medical College of Ohio at Toledo. Informal patient care evaluation evolved to more structured medical care evaluation in seminars and by chart audits. The introduction of professional standards review organizations prompted the teaching and evaluation of the quality and cost of primary care, especially as it applies to learning clinical tasks.
Li, Ming; Shang, Li; Bing, Shoulan
Shanghai New Chinese Medical College set up by Zhu Nanshan and his sons, Zhu Xiaonan and Zhu Hegao, was a medical college of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the most innovative spirit in modern time. Its affiliated research institute held the principle of "realizing the scientific truth of TCM, training TCM advanced talents", marking the beginning of the pioneering of "scientific TCM". The educational plan, clinical research and academic organization based on "carrying forward the quintessence of Chinese culture, absorbing and digesting the new knowledge" showed a certain influence at home and abroad. The College advocated the combination of communicating with famous physicians and the study of theory, cultivation of students' organization and academic society, launching of journals, and organizing students' research associations was aiming at the satisfaction of the social needs and teaching orientation. Its running experience provided useful reference for modern TCM medical education.
Prasad, Rajniti; Kumar, Ranjeet; Jaiswal, B P; Singh, Utpal Kant
Cysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system. The disease has worlwide distribution. The cysticerci might lodge in the brain parenchyma, spinal cord, eyes, ventricular system, subarachnoid space and muscle. These are most often seen in basal meninges. The presence of human lymphocyte antigen-related antigens on the surface of cysticerci has a direct relationship with microscopic signs of damage to cysticerci. The clinical manifestations depend upon number and topography of lesions, the individual immune response to the parasite and the sequelae of previous infestations. The diagnostic criteria of neurocysticercosis can be based on absolute criteria, major criteria, minor criteria and epidemiological criteria. Computerised tomography (CT) head is still most useful diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis but magnetic resonance imaging has some advantages over computerised tomography. The mainstay of therapy lies on medical and surgical intervention. Medical therapy consists of cysticidal drugs. Surgical therapy is indicated in intraventricular and subarachnoid neurocysticercosis. Steriods are used for anti-oedema measures. Anti-epileptics can also be tried. The measures for prevention of cysticercosis are proper disposal of human waste, treatment of water contaminated with human faeces before its use in irrigation of vegetable cultivation, proper cooking of pork and repeated treatment in taenia carriers.
Lisasi, Esther; Kulanga, Ahaz; Muiruri, Charles; Killewo, Lucy; Fadhili, Ndimangwa; Mimano, Lucy; Kapanda, Gibson; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory; Nyindo, Mramba; Mteta, Kien; Kessi, Egbert; Ntabaye, Moshi; Bartlett, John
The Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University (KCMU) College and the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) are addressing the crisis in Tanzanian health care manpower by modernizing the college’s medical education with new tools and techniques. With a $10 million MEPI grant and the participation of its partner, Duke University, KCMU is harnessing the power of information technology (IT) to upgrade tools for students and faculty. Initiatives in eLearning have included bringing fiber-optic connectivity to the campus, offering campus-wide wireless access, opening student and faculty computer laboratories, and providing computer tablets to all incoming medical students. Beyond IT, the college is also offering wet laboratory instruction for hands-on diagnostic skills, team-based learning, and clinical skills workshops. In addition, modern teaching tools and techniques address the challenges posed by increasing numbers of students. To provide incentives for instructors, a performance-based compensation plan and teaching awards have been established. Also for faculty, IT tools and training have been made available, and a medical education course management system is now being widely employed. Student and faculty responses have been favorable, and the rapid uptake of these interventions by students, faculty, and the college’s administration suggests that the KCMU College MEPI approach has addressed unmet needs. This enabling environment has transformed the culture of learning and teaching at KCMU College, where a path to sustainability is now being pursued. PMID:25072581
This issue's feature column reports on the findings of a small survey of library users carried out in an Indian medical college with a traditional curriculum. The study found that the main reason a student visited the library was to consult text books. Although the majority of students were satisfied with the library facilities, the study suggests that more needs to be done to promote self-directed learning. JM.
Rossiter, A M; Greene, B R; Kralewski, J E
This article is the first of two studies conducted by the American College of Medical Practice Executives (ACMPE) that examines the perceived roles of medical practice executives. (Founded in 1956, the American College of Medical Practice Executives is the professional development and credentialing arm of the Medical Group Management Association (MGMA)). This study asked groups of physicians and nonphysician administrators to identify the competencies and associated skills and knowledge for administering group practices in today's changing environment. Those surveyed included administrators who are Fellows in ACMPE and 795 physicians who comprise the Society of Physician Administrators of the Medical Group Management Association. The responses were examined through a framework provided by the Managed Care Process Model. In this model, the focus is on the administrative and clinical processes required by different levels of managed care market penetration. The model progresses from a focus on relatively traditional practice management functions to those activities that are more complex with a greater focus on the integration of both clinical and business processes aimed at the health of populations. The analysis of the perceived competencies indicated that while both executive types perceived the importance of managing the health of populations, that task is not yet being incorporated into their professional roles.
Fincher, Ruth-Marie E.; Albritton, T. Andrew
The Medical College of Georgia's third-year medicine clerkship includes a one-month ambulatory care block rotation in internal medicine, medicine, and dermatology. Students present topics and participate in case discussions in daily and weekly conferences. Program success is resulting in expansion. (MSE)
Savitt, T L
Knoxville College Medical Department (KCMD) was, to all appearances, a missionary medical school established in 1895 by a small black Presbyterian college in the Tennessee mountains to train African-American physicians. In reality, it functioned as a proprietary medical school organized and operated by a group of local white physicians who were more interested in making money than in furthering the school's mission of educating black Christian physicians. KCMD limped along until 1900 when the college's new president reported to the trustees about the white faculty's greed, irreligious behavior, poor teaching, and bad medical reputation, and about how the presence of the medical school on campus undermined the college's overall mission. KCMD graduated two students before closing its doors in 1900. A group of faculty then reopened the school off-campus as the Knoxville Medical College. That school closed in 1910.
Birch, Sally; Magid, Amani; Weber, Alan
The medical humanities, a cross-disciplinary field of practice and research that includes medicine, literature, art, history, philosophy, and sociology, is being increasingly incorporated into medical school curricula internationally. Medical humanities courses in Writing, Literature, Medical Ethics and History can teach physicians-in-training communication skills, doctor-patient relations, and medical ethics, as well as empathy and cross-cultural understanding. In addition to providing educational breadth and variety, the medical humanities can also play a practical role in teaching critical/analytical skills. These skills are utilized in differential diagnosis and problem-based learning, as well as in developing written and oral communications. Communication skills are a required medical competency for passing medical board exams in the U.S., Canada, the UK and elsewhere. The medical library is an integral part of medical humanities training efforts. This contribution provides a case study of the Distributed eLibrary at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar in Doha, and its collaboration with the Writing Program in the Premedical Program to teach and develop the medical humanities. Programs and initiatives of the DeLib library include: developing an information literacy course, course guides for specific courses, the 100 Classic Books Project, collection development of 'doctors' stories' related to the practice of medicine (including medically-oriented movies and TV programs), and workshops to teach the analytical and critical thinking skills that form the basis of humanistic approaches to knowledge. This paper outlines a 'best practices' approach to developing the medical humanities in collaboration among the medical library, faculty and administrative stakeholders.
Birch, Sally; Magid, Amani; Weber, Alan
The medical humanities, a cross-disciplinary field of practice and research that includes medicine, literature, art, history, philosophy, and sociology, is being increasingly incorporated into medical school curricula internationally. Medical humanities courses in Writing, Literature, Medical Ethics and History can teach physicians-in-training communication skills, doctor-patient relations, and medical ethics, as well as empathy and cross-cultural understanding. In addition to providing educational breadth and variety, the medical humanities can also play a practical role in teaching critical/analytical skills. These skills are utilized in differential diagnosis and problem-based learning, as well as in developing written and oral communications. Communication skills are a required medical competency for passing medical board exams in the U.S., Canada, the UK and elsewhere. The medical library is an integral part of medical humanities training efforts. This contribution provides a case study of the Distributed eLibrary at the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar in Doha, and its collaboration with the Writing Program in the Premedical Program to teach and develop the medical humanities. Programs and initiatives of the DeLib library include: developing an information literacy course, course guides for specific courses, the 100 Classic Books Project, collection development of ‘doctors’ stories’ related to the practice of medicine (including medically-oriented movies and TV programs), and workshops to teach the analytical and critical thinking skills that form the basis of humanistic approaches to knowledge. This paper outlines a ‘best practices’ approach to developing the medical humanities in collaboration among the medical library, faculty and administrative stakeholders. PMID:24223240
Devi, Vasudha; Bhat, Vishal; Shenoy, Ganesh K.
Pharmacology is an important aspect of rational therapeutics. There has been a long-standing need for a change in the undergraduate medical curriculum of pharmacology. A review of literature throws up different approaches to improve the curriculum and to provide more importance to conceptualization and relevance to clinical practice. This article describes the undergraduate pharmacology curriculum which is revised to meet the needs of our unique status as an international medical college in India. We highlight how our curriculum prepares the students for future clinical practice by inculcating higher cognitive skills and soft skills. This article also provides a model for program evaluation and also challenges faced by our department while executing the planned curriculum. PMID:28031601
Hossain, M I; Nahar, L; Dad, M S; Islam, M F; Uddin, M M
The purpose of this study was to detect the etiology, type and prevalence of colour blindness & to create awareness among the blind personnel. A survey of colour blindness among 239 ( male-87 & female-152) Medical and Dental first year students during their medical checkup before admission into Mymensingh Medical College in the session of 2012-2013 was done. Among them 8(male-7, female-1) were colour blind and prevalence was 3.35 % with a marked male predominance (male 8.04%, female 0.66 %). In view of the potential difficulties faced by such personnel in clinical works, detection during medical admission allowed appropriate counseling regarding subject selection for their future carrier.
Ghias, Kulsoom; Khan, Kausar S; Ali, Rukhsana; Azfar, Shireen; Ahmed, Rashida
Objective: Aga Khan University, a private medical college, had a vision of producing physicians who are not only scientifically competent, but also socially sensitive, the latter by exposure of medical students to a broad-based curriculum. The objective of this study was to identify the genesis of broad-based education and its integration into the undergraduate medical education program as the Humanities and Social Sciences (HASS) course. Methods: A qualitative methodology was used for this study. Sources of data included document review and in-depth key informant interviews. Nvivo software was utilized to extract themes. Results: The study revealed the process of operationalization of the institutional vision to produce competent and culturally sensitive physicians. The delay in the establishment of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, which was expected to take a lead role in the delivery of a broad-based education, led to the development of an innovative HASS course in the medical curriculum. The study also identified availability of faculty and resistance from students as challenges faced in the implementation and evolution of HASS. Conclusions: The description of the journey and viability of integration of HASS into the medical curriculum offers a model to medical colleges seeking ways to produce socially sensitive physicians. PMID:27648038
MacLean, Linda Garrelts; Hess, Karl; Farmer, Kevin C.; Yurkon, Afton M.; Ha, Carolyn C.; Schwartzman, Emmanuelle; Law, Anandi V.; Milani, Paul A.; Trotta, Katie; Labella, Sara R.; Designor, Rebecca J.
Objective. To determine and describe the nature and extent of medication adherence education in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Methods. A mixed-methods research study was conducted that included a national survey of pharmacy faculty members, a national survey of pharmacy students, and phone interviews of 3 faculty members and 6 preceptors. Results. The majority of faculty members and students agreed that background concepts in medication adherence are well covered in pharmacy curricula. Approximately 40% to 65% of the students sampled were not familiar with several adherence interventions. The 6 preceptors who were interviewed felt they were not well-informed on adherence interventions, unclear on what students knew about adherence, and challenged to provide adherence-related activities for students during practice experiences because of practice time constraints. Conclusions. Intermediate and advanced concepts in medication adherence, such as conducting interventions, are not adequately covered in pharmacy curriculums; therefore stakeholders in pharmacy education must develop national standards and tools to ensure consistent and adequate medication adherence education. PMID:22761520
Mitchell, Karen; Lewis, Richard S; Satterfield, Jason; Hong, Barry A
This year's applicants to medical school took a newly revised version of the Medical College Admission Test. Unlike applicants in the past, they were asked to demonstrate their knowledge and use of concepts commonly taught in introductory psychology courses. The new Psychological, Social, and Biological Foundations of Behavior Test asked applicants to demonstrate the ways in which psychological, social, and biological factors influence perceptions and reactions to the world; behavior and behavior change; what people think about themselves and others; the cultural and social differences that influence well-being; and the relationships among social stratification, access to resources, and well-being. Building from the classic biopsychosocial model, this article provides the rationale for testing psychology concepts in application to medical school. It describes the concepts and skills that the new exam tests and shows how they lay the foundation for learning in medical school about the behavioral and sociocultural determinants of health. This article discusses the implications of these changes for undergraduate psychology faculty and psychology curricula as well as their importance to the profession of psychology at large.
Weber, David J.; Hamer, Robert M.
The relationship of three medical college policies on the results of the National Board of Medical Examiners test was examined. Only the policy recommending a review course for the test had a significant effect on test results. (Author/PN)
Banerjee, Indranil; Biswas, Supreeti; Biswas, Ashish; De, Mausumi; Begum, Sabnam Ara; Haldar, Swaraj
The use of computer and information technology is on an escalation. The internet, one of the key developments in this field, provides instant access to latest medical information. The present study was conducted (i) to estimate the extent and purpose of internet usage among undergraduate (UG) and postgraduate (PG) medical students, (ii) to identify factors that encourage the students to use internet for medical information, (iii) to assess the need for incorporating computer education in medical curriculum. A prospective, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted on 150 students of Burdwan Medical College and Hospital between June 2009 and December 2009. Majority of the students accessed internet from their home PC (42% UGs and 52% PGs).Common search engines browsed commonly by both UGs and PGs include Google and yahoo. Regarding principles of telemedicine and evidence-based medicine, majority of the PGs are well versed while UGs are not (p-value 0.0001). Almost all students agreed to incorporate computer education in medical curriculum. Primary source of medical information was textbook for UGs (62%) and internet for the PGs (48%). Majority of UGs (48%) used internet as a ready source of information thus saving time while PGs (68%) primarily relied on internet for recent advances in their disciplines. The primary purposes of internet use are educational for both UGs and PGs. The data obtained indicates that majority of the medical students participating in the present study embrace and use internet to access medical information. It also justifies the need to incorporate internet and associated information technology into existing medical curriculum.
Peking Union Medical College has an important position in medical education history in modern China. There are many administrative documents in the college archives and among them are the college By-laws (1920s-1930s). These recorded changes in the College Board, the establishment of various committees and their power and responsibility, which reflect the governance of the college. The governance is analyzed in the paper, using the different versions of the by-laws, which is of reference value to the current university governance reform in China.
Oberleitner, Lindsay M. S.; Tzilos, Golfo K.; Zumberg, Kathryn M.; Grekin, Emily R.
Objective: To assess whether college students who use psychotropic drugs are (1) aware of potential side effects, (2) appropriately monitored by prescribing physicians, and (3) taking medications as prescribed. Participants: Fifty-five college students, currently taking psychotropic medications, were recruited between Summer 2008 and Fall 2009.…
Kunwar, D; Risal, A; Koirala, S
Background Medical education is intended to prepare graduates for a promoting health and caring for the sick. Medical students are confronted with significant academic, psychological and existential stressors. There is insufficient information regarding psychological morbidity among Nepalese medical students. Objective To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress, among the medical students in Nepal, and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. Method A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted including all students from first to fifth year of student using convenience method of sampling from Kathmandu University Medical School (KUSMS), Dhulikhel and Manipal College of Medical Sciences (MCOMS), Pokhara, Nepal. Depression, Anxiety and stress were assessed using Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). Additional questions regarding demographic variables were also included in the survey. Data analysis was done on Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS version 16. Result A total of 538 students participated in the study giving a response rate of 89.6%. Aamong them 56.5% were from age group 21-25 years, 42.2% were below 20 years and only 1.3% were above 25 years of age. Among them 52% were female and 48% were male. Our study found that the overall prevalence of depression was 29.9%, anxiety was 41.1% and stress was 27% among all participated medical students. Depression was significantly associated (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.43-3.47, p<0.001) with living condition (living in hostel or rented house). Conclusion The higher level of psychiatric morbidity depression 29.9%, anxiety 41.1% and stress 27% among undergraduate medical students warrants needs for strategic plans to alleviate depression anxiety and the stressors right from the time they join medical school and has to be continued till they finish the course.
Saguil, Aaron; Kellermann, Arthur L
Underrepresented minority and first-generation college students are more likely than white students to attend a community college before transferring to a four-year school. Talamantes and colleagues report in this issue that, according to their study of 2012 medical school applicants and matriculants, community-college-first applicants were significantly less likely to be admitted to medical school even after other important predictors, including grade point average and Medical College Admission Test scores, were taken into consideration. These findings suggest that rather than appreciating the "distance traveled" and obstacles overcome by applicants who got their start at a community college, medical school admissions committees may be consciously or subconsciously discounting their achievements. The authors of this Commentary consider the study by Talamantes and colleagues as well as other recent data related to community college graduates and emphasize that community colleges attract many high-achieving applicants who for any of several reasons-limited finances, inadequate advising, insufficient financial aid, or a need to stay close to home-choose not to enroll in a four-year college right away. They argue that if medical school leaders are serious about lowering the social, racial, and economic barriers to medical school, they must start viewing two years of premedical education at a community college as an asset rather than a liability.
Simpson, D E; Marcdante, K W; Duthie, E H; Sheehan, K M; Holloway, R L; Towne, J B
Since the late 1980s faculty and staff at the Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) have actively sought to align their school's academic culture and promotional process with its mission of educational excellence and innovation. As one of the top 50 medical schools receiving NIH funds, MCW has well-established mechanisms to evaluate and recognize the scholarship of discovery. Understanding, evaluating, and recognizing the value of individuals engaged in the scholarship of teaching, however, required changes in individuals' beliefs and in the MCW's promotion processes and organizational infrastructure. Building on the successful introduction of the MCW's Educator's PortfolioCopyright, a tool for documenting educational scholarship, a multifaceted change strategy was implemented to influence underlying beliefs and values about clinician-educators. Retrospectively, this strategy was consistent with John Kotter's eight-step change model, which the authors apply as an organizing framework for this case report of educational evolution at the MCW. Through creating a guiding coalition, developing vision and strategy, generating short-term wins, and anchoring new approaches in the MCW's culture, the MCW has made substantive progress in recognizing and rewarding educational scholarship. Changing academic cultures to value education is itself an educational process, requiring persistence and the ability to teach others about educational scholarship and its associated criteria.
Liu, Shulei; Li, Yamin
With transformation of contemporary modern medical educational modes and improvement of requirement upon doctors' humanistic quality, it seems quite important to strengthen humanistic quality-oriented education in medical colleges and universities. Medical humanistic quality-oriented education in China started late, which determines that there are…
McFarland, Jenny; Pape-Lindstrom, Pamela
Community colleges are significant in the landscape of undergraduate STEM (science technology, engineering, and mathematics) education (9), including biology, premedical, and other preprofessional education. Thirty percent of first-year medical school students in 2012 attended a community college. Students attend at different times in high school, their first 2 yr of college, and postbaccalaureate. The community college pathway is particularly important for traditionally underrepresented groups. Premedical students who first attend community college are more likely to practice in underserved communities (2). For many students, community colleges have significant advantages over 4-yr institutions. Pragmatically, they are local, affordable, and flexible, which accommodates students' work and family commitments. Academically, community colleges offer teaching faculty, smaller class sizes, and accessible learning support systems. Community colleges are fertile ground for universities and medical schools to recruit diverse students and support faculty. Community college students and faculty face several challenges (6, 8). There are limited interactions between 2- and 4-yr institutions, and the ease of transfer processes varies. In addition, faculty who study and work to improve the physiology education experience often encounter obstacles. Here, we describe barriers and detail existing resources and opportunities useful in navigating challenges. We invite physiology educators from 2- and 4-yr institutions to engage in sharing resources and facilitating physiology education improvement across institutions. Given the need for STEM majors and health care professionals, 4-yr colleges and universities will continue to benefit from students who take introductory biology, physiology, and anatomy and physiology courses at community colleges.
Krishnakumar, Mathangi; Atheeshwar, Shweta; Chandrasekar, Mathangi D.
Myopia is amongst the most common refractive errors in the world. Both environmental and genetic factors are attributed to its causation, however all factors contributing to the development of myopia is yet to be found. Recent studies show presence of sex hormone receptor in the eyes. This has been shown to have a role in the development of various ocular pathologies. The second to fourth finger length ratio (2D:4D) has been hypothesised to be determined by exposure to sex steroids prenatally and thus considered a crude measure for prenatal androgen exposure. Hence this study was initiated to assess the association between myopia and 2D:4D ratio (a proxy marker to prenatal sex steroid exposure) among 100 medical college students of either sex and explore the possibility of role of prenatal sex steroids in causation of myopia. This study showed significant negative associations between myopia and digit ratio favouring a probable causal role of sex steroids on eye growth and development of myopia. PMID:24587043
Butler, Barbara Marie
The focus of this study was to explore factors influencing the disparity in the acceptance rate for African American students into medical school as compared to their white counterparts. This study compared the college environment of Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Principally White Institutions, with respect to African American…
Miami-Dade Community Coll., FL.
Part of a systematic, in-depth assessment of Miami-Dade Community College's (MDCC's) educational programs, student support systems, and selected campus-level activities, this volume of the college's institutional self-study report examines the impact and effectiveness of the Medical Center Campus. The report contains the results of a campus study…
Kyalo, Isaac William; Hopkins, Sandra
This study explores the acceptance of online learning (OL) for continuous professional development among lecturers at Kenya Medical Training College in 2009. The large and multi-campus College faces logistical and cost challenges in ensuring that its 700 lecturing staff have access to continuous professional development. Online learning…
Peethambaran, Anil Kumar; Chandran, Raj S
The Department of Neurosurgery founded in the Trivandrum Medical College, Kerala, the first teaching hospital in Kerala state, is celebrating its 50th anniversary. The history of Neurosurgery in this Institute is synonymous with the history of Neurosurgery in the state as this was the first medical college to start a Neurosurgery department within the state.The students after undergoing their rigorous training in the department, went on to establish advanced neurosurgical centres throughout Kerala and in several other parts of the country. This article traces the illustrious history of the Department of Neurosurgery, Trivandrum Medical College and also of the eminent faculty members and residents, who helped in advancing the standards of Neurosurgery in the region as well as the rest of India. The Department of Neurosurgery was founded in the Trivandrum Medical College, Kerala, the first teaching hospital in Kerala state, in the year 1951, and is celebrating its 50th anniversary. The history of Neurosurgery in this Institute is synonymous with the history of Neurosurgery in the state as this was the first medical college to start a Neurosurgery department within the state.The students after undergoing their rigorous training in the department, went on to establish advanced neurosurgical centres throughout Kerala and in several other parts of the country. This article traces the illustrious history of the Department of Neurosurgery, Trivandrum Medical College and also of the eminent faculty members and residents, who helped in advancing the standards of Neurosurgery in the region as well as the rest of India.
This paper addresses key issues concerning the physician workforce and the financing of graduate medical education. The American College of Physicians recommends the establishment of a national advisory organization to develop a coherent and coordinated national policy on the health professions workforce. Given the increasing oversupply of physicians, the College recommends that no new medical schools be created, that total enrollment in U.S. medical schools not increase, and that the number of international medical graduates entering residency training in the United States be restricted. All health care payers should share the cost of graduate medical education, funding should be predictable and stable, and funding should include ambulatory training sites. The number of first-year residents should be linked more closely to the annual number of medical graduates in the United States, and Medicare payments for medical education and training should be made only to the health maintenance organizations that actually incur these costs. The College advises that hospitals providing care primarily to underserved populations and indigent persons need stable funding with which to pay for personnel to replace residents. The College calls for research to evaluate the feasibility of establishing a voucher system, in which each resident would receive payment authorization certificates to fund training at accredited residency sites. Additional research is also recommended to distinguish the individual costs involved in graduate medical education from other costs associated with graduate medical education and the costs of care of indigent persons.
This study uses the admission scores of Taiwan's Joint College Entrance Examination (JCEE) and occupational wage data to estimate the reputation values of engineering and medical schools in Taiwan. It is found that the reputation values of medical schools are more than twice those of engineering schools. It takes about 7 and 19 years of work for…
Caroline, Jan D.; And Others
The results of a predictive validity study of the new Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) using criteria from the clinical years of undergraduate medical education are discussed. The criteria included course grades and faculty ratings of clerks in internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, and psychiatry. (Author/MLW)
Saint Louis Community Coll., MO.
The Allied Medical Development Project was conceived to determine the role of the St. Louis-St. Louis County Junior College District in the education of personnel for allied medical careers in the St. Louis area. The underlying assumption was that the development of needed programs on a sound basis in the St. Louis area would result in general…
Hajjar, David P.; Gotto, Antonio M., Jr.
The graduation of the first class of medical students in May 2008 from the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q), Cornell University's branch campus in the Middle East, was the first time that an M.D. degree from an American university was awarded abroad. It marked a milestone in American higher education. The establishment of WCMC-Q is…
Bates, Tovah; Cohan, Mary; Bragg, Dawn S.; Bedinghaus, Joan
The Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW) Senior Mentor Program (SMP) has been offered to a small group of first and second year medical students as a course alternative to the traditional physician mentor program. The program links students with healthy older adult mentors and includes mentor/student visits, didactic sessions, written assignments,…
Zhang, Luqing; Xiao, Ming; Gu, Mufeng; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Jianliang; Ding, Jiong
The use of human tissue is critical for gross anatomy education in the health professions. Chinese medical colleges have faced a shortage of anatomical specimens over the past decade. While body donation plays an important role in overcoming this gap, this practice has only recently been introduced in China, and the donation rate is relatively low and fraught with a number of difficulties. In the past, traditional Chinese culture focused on preserving the human body intact, which often limited body donation. In recent years, the public has become more open toward body donation. At Nanjing Medical University, only 20 bodies were donated in 2001. After the university became involved in an organized body donation program, this number increased to 70 donated bodies per year (2007 to 2012). This article describes and reviews Chinese medical colleges as a special case study among body donation programs, particularly in terms of the multiple responsibilities and roles that such institutions must assume in the course of adopting these programs. Medical colleges in China must serve as advocates, coordinators, builders, managers, educators, and beneficiaries in undertaking body donation programs. It is important for medical colleges to recognize these pluripotent roles and educate the public in order to promote body donation programs. This case study may also effectively guide and encourage Chinese medical colleges in refining their own body donation programs in the future.
Chatterjee, Subhankar; Datta, Adrija; Chatterjee, Pranab
Mountford Joseph Bramley was one of the educationists whose sincere efforts are undeniable in the making of modern India. After achieving the Member of the Royal College of Surgeons diploma, he joined the Malta Garrison as a Hospital Assistant and was soon promoted to the rank of Assistant Surgeon of the Rifle Brigade. Following his arrival in India in 1826, he held several important medical posts in the British service. He was one of the early researchers to investigate the role of iodine in the causation of goitre. He was appointed as the first Principal of the Medical College of Bengal, the oldest medical college in Asia, in 1835. Bramley was an educationist from the very core of his heart, and he always wished for the betterment of his students. He died early at the age of 34 years. His legacy as a pioneer in the fields of medical education and endocrinology, specifically thyroidology, has largely been shrouded in a miasma of time.
Latif, T; Ali, M A; Majeed, A; Nahar, K; Noor, Z
This cross sectional study was done in the department of Obstetrics and Gynae, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, during the period 1st January to 30th June 2000 to evaluate the labor outcome in primigrvidae women. Total 1250 cases were delivered in this period. Among all 500(40%) were primigravidae. All the primigravidae were included and labor was monitored and managed by close observation. Condition of the baby was determined by applying APGAR (Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity and Respiration) score. Maximum (66.6%) of patients were belonged to 21-29 years age group. Only few 28.2% had regular antenatal check-up. Risk factors were present in 32% cases. Common risk factors were PET (Pre-eclamptic toxemia) and eclampsia. Mode of deliveries were normal vaginal delivery (NVD) in (51.6%) cases, Lower Uterine Caesarean section (LUCS) in 43.8% cases, Ventouse in 2.8% cases, Forceps in 9(1.8%) cases and craniotomy was required in 2(0.4%) cases. Complications during labor were prolonged labor, postpartum hemorrhage, obstructed labor and perineal tear. PET was common (29.62%) in age group 30-36 years and eclampsia was more common (15%) in age group 16-20 years. NVD were more (55.85%) in 21-29 years group than other age group. The duration of labor pain was short in the age group of 21-29 years and was prolonged in the age group 30-36 years. Maternal mortality was 1.6% (8) cases. Causes of death were septic shock, renal failure and Cerebrovascullar accident. Morbidities after delivery were hypertension, wound infection, puerperal psychosis, acute renal failure, vesicovaginal fistula, hypertensive retinopathy, chronic ill health and retention of urine. Among 500 cases 92.6% were live born and 7.4% were still born. Among total cases 81.6% babies were healthy, 6.8% were asphyxiated, 71.2% had normal birth weight 21.4% had low birth weight, 18% were premature and 7.4% were IUGR. This study shows the safest and easiest delivery age group of primigravidae is between 21
Ford, Jason A; Pomykacz, Corey
Data show that the prevalence of non-medical use of prescription stimulants is higher among college students than their same-age peers who do not attend college. Because of this, most of the research in this area focuses on data from samples of college students and on use motivated by academic demands. There is little research that examines whether attending college increases the odds of non-medical use of prescription stimulants while including important covariates in the analytical models. The current research addresses this gap in the literature using data from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health for respondents aged 18 to 25 years old. We estimate a multivariate logistic regression model to determine whether college attendance increased the odds of non-medical use of prescription stimulants. The analysis showed that young adults who enrolled in college full-time were more likely to report non-medical use of prescription stimulants than their same-age peers who did not attend college. There was no significant difference between part-time college students and non-college students. Future research should focus on how specific aspects of the college environment, other than academic stress, may increase the risk of non-medical use of prescription stimulants.
Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Lee, Steve S
The misuse of stimulant medication among college students is a prevalent and growing problem. The purpose of this review and meta-analysis is to summarize the current research on rates and demographic and psychosocial correlates of stimulant medication misuse among college students, to provide methodological guidance and other ideas for future research, and to provide some preliminary suggestions for preventing and reducing misuse on college campuses. Random-effects meta-analysis found that the rate of stimulant medication misuse among college students was estimated at 17 % (95 % CI [0.13, 0.23], p < .001) and identified several psychological variables that differentiated misusers and nonusers, including symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, problems associated with alcohol use, and marijuana use. A qualitative review of the literature also revealed that Greek organization membership, academic performance, and other substance use were associated with misuse. Students are misusing primarily for academic reasons, and the most common source for obtaining stimulant medication is peers with prescriptions. Interpretation of findings is complicated by the lack of a standard misuse definition as well as validated tools for measuring stimulant misuse. The relation between stimulant medication misuse and extra curricular participation, academic outcomes, depression, and eating disorders requires further investigation, as do the reasons why students divert or misuse and whether policies on college campuses contribute to the high rates of misuse among students. Future research should also work to develop and implement effective prevention strategies for reducing the diversion and misuse of stimulant medication on college campuses.
Frankenberger, Kristi A.; Frankenberger, William R.; Peden, Blaine F.; Hunt, Heather L.; Raschick, Christopher M.; Steller, Emily G.; Peterson, Jaclyn A.
The authors examined the impact of pharmaceutical companies' advertisements on college students' perceptions of depression and concomitant treatment with antidepressants among 13 male and 31 female undergraduates from a midwestern university. The students were randomly assigned to groups that read either pharmaceutical company advertisements or…
Panichkul, Suthee; Rangsin, Ram; Aimpun, Pote; Mungthin, Mathirut; Pradubpongsa, Panitan; Heebthamai, Danai; Areekul, Wirote
Phramongkutklao College of Medicine has a unique curriculum for "Military Medicine." Military Medicine involves prevention, threat assessment, evacuations and clinical management of diseases and injuries resulting from military occupational exposures. The Military Medicine curriculum covers all the entities of knowledge of Military Sciences, Combat Medical Skills, Military Preventive Medicine, Military Applied Physiology and Military Contingency Medicine. The highlight of the curriculum is "Operation Petcharavut" that represents simulated battlefield operations, involving multidisciplinary clinical integration and military regulation. In this course, medical cadets review all the knowledge that they have learnt and in addition, Medical Platoon leader strategies, Advanced Cardiac Life support and Phramongkutklao Traumatic Life support, crucial medical practices. Medical cadets would experience simulated patients with minimal injuries to critical wounds and complications including combat stress syndromes in various situations, from advancing to retreating units and from Battalion Aid Station to Division Medical Operations Center, whether during day or night. Since the medical cadets experience all Military Medicine courses from the second to the sixth year class and pass all medical knowledge-based examinations, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine expects all graduates to be excellent in not only all standard requirements of the medical professional set forth by the Medical Council of Thailand but also ready to serve the nation effectively in the Royal Thai Armed Forces.
Duffrin, Christopher; Eakin, Angela; Bertrand, Brenda; Barber-Heidel, Kimberly; Carraway-Stage, Virginia
The American College Health Association estimated that 31% of college students are overweight or obese. It is important that students have a correct perception of body weight status as extra weight has potential adverse health effects. This study assessed accuracy of perceived weight status versus medical classification among 102 college students.…
Lovell, Kathryn; Vignare, Karen
At Michigan State University the two medical schools, College of Human Medicine (CHM; M.D. degree) and College of Osteopathic Medicine (COM; D.O. degree), have offered the same science courses to first year students for many years. Science departments report to both colleges, and the same faculty can effectively teach the content required in the…
Naser, Syed Mohammed; Biswas, Arunava; Nandy, Manab; Niyogi, Soibal; Biswas, Gopa; Das, Anup Kumar
Learning environment in any medical college is found to be important in determining student's academic success. The study was undertaken to know and compare the perceptions of educational environment of undergraduate and postgraduate medical students, find out the problem areas and their remedies at Calcutta National Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata. In the present study, Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) questionnaire was administered to undergraduate (n = 278) and postgraduate (n = 43) student and the scores were compared using a non-parametric test. Among the two groups, the undergraduate students were found to be more satisfied with the learning environment at Calcutta National Medical College and Hospital (as indicated by their higher DREEM score) compared to the postgraduate students. There was insignificant difference in perception among male and female students. The study revealed that both groups of students perceived the learning environment positively. Nevertheless, the study also reflected problematic areas of learning environment in this medical college which generates an idea of adopting some remedial measures in the form of small group learning and problem based learning where there is enough scope of student-teacher interaction and practical exposure.
Butler, Barbara Marie
The focus of this study was to explore factors influencing the disparity in the acceptance rate for African American students into medical school as compared to their white counterparts. This study compared the college environment of Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Principally White Institutions, with respect to African American students' perceptions regarding their college experiences and the extent to which they perceived that their experiences enhanced or diminished their success in gaining access to medical school. The community cultural wealth framework was used to explore whether the HBCU or the PWI is the better environment for undergraduate science majors. By use of the CCW framework the study explored which college environment nurtured students to be successful as a biology major, obtain a competitive MCAT score and ultimately secure acceptance into medical school. A qualitative research design served as the best approach to explore the object of inquiry in this study: the students' perception of their college environment, and their perceptions of their college experiences. The findings suggest that both the HBCU and the PWI reveal characteristics that enhanced and diminished the potential for success in the biology pre-med program. The results of this study specifically addressed barriers to access as factors which may be contributing to the disparities in the number of African American students admitted to medical school. These barriers are related to differences in the social dynamics of the university. In this study both groups of students perceived that there were the negative faculty attitudes, but these seemed to have little impact on access to medical school. Student motivation and identification with a supportive community seemed to have more impact on the potential for career success.
Jardin, Bianca; Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch
Objective: The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the characteristics of college students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms who misuse their prescribed psychostimulant medications. Methods and Participants: Forty-three undergraduate students with a prescription for Ritalin or Adderall completed structured…
American Association of Junior Colleges, Washington, DC.
In response to a growing concern with the quality of health care in this country, this conference met to discuss: (1) the role of junior colleges in training medical technicians, (2) the importance of uniformity in the core curriculum, (3) new occupations and changing job requirements, (4) the need for cooperation and coordination between…
McLaughlin, Michael P.; Starobin, Soko S.; Laanan, Frankie Santos
As the nation's healthcare education system struggles to keep pace with the demand for its services, educators are seeking creative and innovative solutions to meet the needs of a growing number of students. The integration of medical simulation technology into the community college health science curriculum is a creative solution that can meet…
Cullen, Thomas J.; And Others
The predictive validity of the new Medical College Admission Test as it relates to end-of-quarter examinations in anatomy, histology, physiology, biochemistry, and "ages of man" is presented. Results indicate that the Science Knowledge assessment areas of chemistry and physics and the Science Problems subtest were most useful in…
Bills, James L.; VanHouten, Jacob; Grundy, Michelle M.; Chalkley, Roger; Dermody, Terence S.
The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is a quantitative metric used by MD and MD-PhD programs to evaluate applicants for admission. This study assessed the validity of the MCAT in predicting training performance measures and career outcomes for MD-PhD students at a single institution. The study population consisted of 153 graduates of the…
Zhang, Luqing; Xiao, Ming; Gu, Mufeng; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Jianliang; Ding, Jiong
The use of human tissue is critical for gross anatomy education in the health professions. Chinese medical colleges have faced a shortage of anatomical specimens over the past decade. While body donation plays an important role in overcoming this gap, this practice has only recently been introduced in China, and the donation rate is relatively low…
A study examined the needs of medical laboratory technology students at New York City Technical College. The nominal group technique (which involves silent generation of ideas in writing, round-robin feedback, and individual voting on priority ideas) was used to assess the academic and personal needs of 20 students. The following seven significant…
These are the abstracts of the 2017 American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) Annual Scientific Meeting. Included here are 120 abstracts that will be presented in March 2017, including research studies from around the globe and the ToxIC collaboration, clinically significant case reports describing new toxicologic phenomena, and encore presentations from other scientific meetings.
Meara, Kevin; Sireci, Stephen G.
To provide a better understanding of the structure of the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) and to determine if there are structural differences across selected groups of MCAT examinees, several dimensionality analyses were conducted on data from recent administrations of the MCAT. The first set of analyses focused on the global structure of…
Background Paintings have been used in Medical Humanities modules in Nepal at Manipal College of Medical Sciences and KIST Medical College. Detailed participant feedback about the paintings used, the activities carried out, problems with using paintings and the role of paintings in future modules has not been previously done. Hence the present study was carried out. Methods The present module for first year medical students was conducted from February to August 2010 at KIST Medical College, Nepal. Paintings used were by Western artists and obtained from the Literature, Arts and Medicine database. The activities undertaken by the students include answering the questions 'What do you see' and 'What do you feel' about the painting, creating a story of 100 words about the scene depicted, and interpreting the painting using role plays and poems/songs. Feedback was not obtained about the last two activities. In August 2010 we obtained detailed feedback about the paintings used. Results Seventy-eight of the 100 students (78%) participated. Thirty-four students (43.6%) were male. The most common overall comments about the use of paintings were "they helped me feel what I saw" (12 respondents), "enjoyed the sessions" (12 respondents), "some paintings were hard to interpret" (10 respondents) and "were in tune with module objectives" (10 respondents). Forty-eight (61.5%) felt the use of western paintings was appropriate. Suggestions to make annotations about paintings more useful were to make them shorter and more precise, simplify the language and properly introduce the artist. Forty-one students (52.6%) had difficulty with the exercise 'what do you feel'. Seventy-four students (94.9%) wanted paintings from Nepal to be included. Conclusions Participant response was positive and they were satisfied with use of paintings in the module. Use of more paintings from Nepal and South Asia can be considered. Further studies may be required to understand whether use of paintings
Garnier, Laura M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.
Objectives To estimate the prevalence of prescription medication diversion among college students; to compare classes of medications with respect to the likelihood of diversion; to document the most common methods of diversion; and to examine the characteristics of students who diverted medications. Method A cross-sectional analysis of personal interview data collected between August 2006 and August 2007 as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. The cohort of students, who were between the ages 17 and 19 at study onset, attended a large public university in the mid-Atlantic region. Information was gathered regarding a wide variety of variables, including demographics, diversion of medically prescribed drugs, illicit drug use, and childhood conduct problems. Results Among 483 students prescribed a medication, 35.8% diverted a medication at least once in their lifetime. The most commonly diverted medication classes were prescription ADHD medication, with a 61.7% diversion rate, and prescription analgesics (35.1% diversion rate). Sharing was the most common method of diversion, with 33.6% of students sharing their medication(s) and 9.3% selling in their lifetime. Comparative analyses revealed that prescription medication diverters had used more illicit drugs in the past year and had more childhood conduct problems than non-diverters. Conclusions If confirmed, these findings have important clinical implications for improved physician-patient communication and vigilance regarding prescribing analgesic and stimulant medications for young adults. PMID:20331930
Jego, Eric Hajime; Amengual, Olga
In light of the present revolution happening in medical education in Japan as medical schools implement new curricula to conform to global standards, there is a growing demand for more internationalization and higher quality practical medical English education. In response, many institutions including governmental organizations, universities and academic associations are moving ahead with new initiatives to adapt to these changing demands. This paper reviews the current trends and innovations in medical English education in Japan. This paper also describes one initiative by the Japan College of Rheumatology (JCR) known as the JCR International School held yearly in Karuizawa. By examining recent trends and innovations in medical English education in Japan, the most relevant and applicable can be elucidated to illuminate a path forward for improved medical English education within the JCR.
Rozenbroek, Katelyn; Rothstein, William G.
Objectives: To examine medical and nonmedical users of prescription opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants taken individually and in combination. Participants: Undergraduates at an urban mid-Atlantic university with 12,000 students. Methods: A questionnaire administered in classes provided 413 responses, with a usable response…
Fida, Nadia M; Shamim, Muhammad S
Over recent decades, the use of portfolios in medical education has evolved, and is being applied in undergraduate and postgraduate programs worldwide. Portfolios, as a learning process and method of documenting and assessing learning, is supported as a valuable tool by adult learning theories that stress the need for learners to be self-directed and to engage in experiential learning. Thoughtfully implemented, a portfolio provides learning experiences unequaled by any single learning tool. The credibility (validity) and dependability (reliability) of assessment through portfolios have been questioned owing to its subjective nature; however, methods to safeguard these features have been described in the literature. This paper discusses some of this literature, with particular attention to the role of portfolios in relation to self-reflective learning, provides an overview of current use of portfolios in undergraduate medical education in Saudi Arabia, and proposes research-based guidelines for its implementation and other similar contexts.
Gupta, Rajiv Kumar; Raina, Sunil Kumar; Verma, Aruna Kumari; Shora, Tejali
Context: Emergency contraception (EC) is use of drug or device to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse. Unlike other regular methods of contraception which are taken prior to the sexual act, EC is used after the unprotected sex. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude toward use of emergency contraceptives among medical students. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted among all the medical students in the Government Medical College in North-West India. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire seeking information on knowledge and attitude of undergraduate medical students was administered over a period of 4 weeks in the month of February and March 2014. Statistical Analysis: The data were entered in MS excel and expressed using percentages. Chi-square test was used as a test of statistical significance. Results: About 61.6% (247/401) of the participants were aware about the timing of use of EC. Audio visual media (76.6%; 307/401) was the most common source of information for of these medical students. Conclusions: The lack of appropriate in-depth knowledge of EC among future health care professional should alarm the medical teaching system as EC is the only method that can be used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive accident. PMID:27413353
Background An increased interest in professionalism has been reported in the field of medical education due to concerns regarding deterioration of humanism and professional values in the teaching and practice of medicine. The primary aim of this study was to assess attitudes of Pakistani and Pakistani heritage students at a medical college in Pakistan about important elements of professionalism that an ideal medical doctor should possess. A further objective of the study was to determine students’ preferred ways of learning professionalism. Methods A written survey was distributed to undergraduate medical students at a public sector medical college at Karachi, Pakistan in 2011. Using the Penn State College of Medicine (PSCOM) Professionalism Questionnaire, attitudes of medical students of semester 1, 5, and 8 regarding professionalism were assessed anonymously. Results The mean age of the students was 21.11 ± 2.72 years. Forty-three percent of the respondents were male. Forty percent of the students held Pakistani citizenship. Thirty-five percent students were US citizens with Pakistani parents and twenty-five percent were Pakistani heritage students that had dual citizenships. No significant differences in the elements of professionalism (Accountability, Altruism, Duty, Excellence, Honesty & Integrity and Respect) mean scores or in the overall mean score of professionalism among the various classes were found. The total overall Cronbach alpha value for all elements of the professionalism in the selected classes was above 0.9. The most preferred methods for learning professionalism were role modeling by faculty, case based scenarios and role plays. Conclusion The students rated all the attributes of professionalism as important and there was no difference across the study years. The overall internal consistency of each element of professionalism was high in different classes. Faculty role models, case based scenarios and role plays may be used to teach
Mellor, Adrian; Dodds, Naomi; Joshi, Raj; Hall, John; Dhillon, Sundeep; Hollis, Sarah; Davis, Pete; Hillebrandt, David; Howard, Eva; Wilkes, Matthew; Langdana, Burjor; Lee, David; Hinson, Nigel; Williams, Thomas Harcourt; Rowles, Joe; Pynn, Harvey
To support leaders and those involved in providing medical care on expeditions in wilderness environments, the Faculty of Pre-Hospital Care (FPHC) of The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh convened an expert panel of leading healthcare professionals and expedition providers. The aims of this panel were to: (1) provide guidance to ensure the best possible medical care for patients within the geographical, logistical and human factor constraints of an expedition environment. (2) Give aspiring and established expedition medics a 'benchmark' of skills they should meet. (3) Facilitate expedition organisers in selecting the most appropriate medical cover and provider for their planned activity. A system of medical planning is suggested to enable expedition leaders to identify the potential medical risks and their mitigation. It was recognised that the scope of practice for wilderness medicine covers elements of primary healthcare, pre-hospital emergency medicine and preventative medicine. Some unique competencies were also identified. Further to this, the panel recommends the use of a matrix and advisory expedition medic competencies relating to the remoteness and medical threat of the expedition. This advice is aimed at all levels of expedition medic, leader and organiser who may be responsible for delivering or managing the delivery of remote medical care for participants. The expedition medic should be someone equipped with the appropriate medical competencies, scope of practice and capabilities in the expedition environment and need not necessarily be a qualified doctor. In addition to providing guidance regarding the clinical competencies required of the expedition medic, the document provides generic guidance and signposting to the more pertinent aspects of the role of expedition medic.
Background The main purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence, body distributions and factors associated with musculoskeletal pain (MSP) among medical students in a private Malaysian medical college. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted among 232 medical students in a private medical college using an online questionnaire. The questionnaire was a modified Standardized Nordic Questionnaire focused on neck, shoulder and low back pain in the past week and the past year. Results Two hundred and thirty two medical students responded to the questionnaire out of 642. Mean age was 20.7 ± 2.1 years. The majority were female (62.9%), Malay (80.6%) and in the preclinical years (72%). One hundred and six (45.7%) of all students had at least one site of MSP in the past week and 151 (65.1%) had at least one site of MSP in the past year. MSP in the past week was associated significantly with the academic year, (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.15-3.67, P = 0.015), history of trauma (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.3, P = 0.011), family history of MSP (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-3.9, P = 0.023) and Body Mass Index (BMI) (P = 0.028). MSP in the past year was significantly associated with computer use (P = 0.027), daily hours of computer use (median ± IQR (5.0 ±3.0), history of trauma (OR 7.5, 95% CI 2.24-2.56, P < 0.01) and family history of MSP (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.31-4.90, P = 0.006). On multivariate analysis, factors associated with MSP during the past week were a family history of MSP (p = 0.029) and BMI (p = 0.03). Factors associated with MSP during the past year were being in clinical years (p = 0.002, computer use (p = 0.038), and a history of trauma (p = 0.030). Conclusion MSP among medical students was relatively high, thus, further clinical assessment is needed in depth study of ergonomics. The study results indicate that medical school authorities should take measures to prevent MSP due to factors related to medical school
McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Macdonald, Alexandra; Danielson, Carla Kmett; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is one of the fastest growing forms of illicit drug use, with research indicating that college students represent a particularly high risk population. The current study examined demographic characteristics, health/mental health, substance misuse, and rape experiences as potential risk correlates of NMUPD among a national sample of college women (N=2000). Interviews were conducted via telephone using Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing technology. NMUPD was assessed by asking if, participants had used a prescription drug non-medically in the past year. NMUPD was endorsed by 7.8% of the sample (n=155). Although incapacitated and drug–alcohol facilitated rape were associated with NMUPD in the initial model, the final multivariable model showed that only lifetime major depression and other forms of substance use/abuse were significantly uniquely associated with an increased likelihood of NMUPD. Implications for primary and secondary prevention and subsequent research are addressed. PMID:21356576
Jalilian, Farzad; Ataee, Mari; Matin, Behzad Karami; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Jouybari, Touraj Ahmadi; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Alavijeh, Mehdi Mirzaei
Backgrounds: Drug abuse is one of the most serious social problems in many countries. College students, particularly at their first year of education, are considered as one of the at risk groups for drug abuse. The present study aimed to determine cognitive factors related to drug abuse among a sample of Iranian male medical college students based on the social cognitive theory (SCT). Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 425 Iranian male medical college students who were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. The participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed by the SPSS software (ver. 21.0) using bivariate correlations, logistic and linear regression at 95% significant level. Results: Attitude, outcome expectation, outcome expectancies, subjective norms, and self-control were cognitive factors that accounted for 49% of the variation in the outcome measure of the intention to abuse drugs. Logistic regression showed that attitude (OR=1.062), outcome expectancies (OR=1.115), and subjective norms (OR=1.269) were the most influential predictors for drug abuse. Conclusions: The findings suggest that designing and implementation of educational programs may be useful to increase negative attitude, outcome expectancies, and subjective norms towards drug abuse for college students in order to prevent drug abuse. PMID:26156919
Yao, Shang-Man; Yu, Hong-Mei; Ai, Yong-Mei; Song, Ping-Ping; Meng, Su-Yan; Li, Wei
Although staffs in medical colleges have traditionally been characterized as a stressed group of people, there are no specific studies assessing burnout and the relationship to quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate job-related burnout and the relationship to QOL among medical college staff in mainland China. Some 360 medical college staffs from 15 schools and departments were enrolled in the study. The Chinese Teachers' Burnout Inventory (TBI) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life--brief Chinese version were used. Data on sociodemographic, work-related, and health-related factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regression analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the 3 domain scores of the TBI. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the correlation between job-related burnout and QOL. The most significant and common predictors of burnout prevention were a love of the teaching profession and work acknowledgment from a direct supervisor. Job-related burnout had a direct negative effect on QOL. Corresponding health policies and suggestions could be developed to prevent job-related burnout and improve QOL.
Fromm, M. Gerard
In 2002, the first in a series of working conferences was held as a collaboration between the counseling service of Bennington College and the Austen Riggs Center's Erikson Institute. The title of the first conference was "The Escalating Use of Medications by College Students: What Are They Telling Us, What Are We Telling Them?". It was meant to…
Zhou, Ying-Xue; Ou, Chun-Quan; Zhao, Zhi-Tao; Wan, Cheng-Song; Guo, Cui; Li, Li; Chen, Ping-Yan
Students' first-year academic success plays a critical role on their overall development in college, which implies the need to concentrate on identifying ways to improve students' first-year academic success. Different from most research on the subject, this study attempted to combine the sociological perspective of college impact with a psychological perspective to synthetically explore the causal relationship of specific types of self-concept and college involvement with academic success of medical students. A longitudinal study was conducted using 519 matriculates at a medical university in mainland China. We conducted the Cooperative Institutional Research Program freshmen survey and the Your First College Year survey to collect data of the pre-college and college academic and social self-concept, college involvement components, and some input characteristics. The academic success was measured by the first-year grade point average. A pathway analysis was conducted and showed the following results. Having high academic self-concept, being engaged in class and putting effort in homework or study directly contributes to increasing college achievement. Students' pre-college achievement and self-concept, faculty interaction, and homework involvement positively affected students' college academic self-concept development, which indirectly improved average grade point. These findings contribute to our understanding of a student's ability to interact with his or her collegiate environment and to experience academic success.
Peery, Thomas M.; Green, Alan C.
Planning and design procedures which one medical education center employed in translating its educational objectives, philosophy and techniques into laboratory, classroom and clinic facilities are described. Basic planning considerations included--(1) determination of the curriculum, (2) facility utilization rate, (3) housing of research…
Ng, Jia Hui; Yeak, Seth; Phoon, Natalie; Lo, Stephen
INTRODUCTION Although cosmetic procedures have become increasingly popular among the younger population in recent years, limited research on this subject has been done in the Asian context. We aimed to explore the views and knowledge regarding cosmetic procedures among junior college (JC) and medical students in Singapore. METHODS In the first phase of the study, a cross-sectional, self-administered survey of 1,500 JC students aged 16–21 years from six JCs was conducted in 2010. The same survey was then conducted on a random sample of Year 2–5 medical students from an undergraduate medical school in 2011. RESULTS In total, 1,164 JC and 241 medical students responded to the surveys. There was an overall female to male ratio of 1.3:1. Of all the respondents, 2.5% of the JC students and 3.0% of the medical students admitted to having undergone cosmetic procedures. Among those who claimed to have never had cosmetic procedures done, 9.0% and 44.0% of the JC and medical students, respectively, responded that they would consider such procedures in the future. Those who disapproved of their peers undergoing cosmetic surgery comprised 35.0% of JC students and 56.8% of medical students. Among the JC and medical students, 52.0% and 36.1%, respectively, were unaware of any risks associated with cosmetic procedures. CONCLUSION The younger population is increasingly accepting of cosmetic procedures. However, there is a general lack of understanding of the risks associated with such procedures. Education of both the general public and medical students may help prevent potential medicolegal issues. PMID:25189303
Bierig, Jack R
This article examines the antitrust case in which three physicians have challenged the Match Program and various other aspects of the system of graduate medical education in the United States. After describing the parties to the litigation, the author explains the plaintiffs' theories of liability. He suggests how the plaintiffs are likely to claim damages in the multibillion dollar range and speculates about the injunctive relief that the plaintiffs are likely to seek. The author then sets forth some of the principal defenses to the case, as well as the basis for the defendants' position that the plaintiffs have not been injured at all. The author goes on to explore developments that have occurred since the lawsuit was filed on May 7, 2002. These include a motion by the National Residency Matching Program to refer the case to arbitration; motions by certain teaching hospital defendants asserting that they are not subject to suit in the District of Columbia; and motions by the American Medical Association, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, and other organization defendants to the effect that the plaintiffs have not alleged conduct by them that violates the antitrust laws. The author then discusses the motion by the plaintiffs to have the case certified as a class action. Finally, he considers legislative initiatives that the litigation has engendered.
Miami-Dade Junior Coll., FL. Div. of Allied Health Studies.
During Phase I of an Allied Health Professions Basic Improvement Grant, a five-member committee developed a curriculum for a medical laboratory technology program at Miami-Dade Junior College by: (1) defining competencies which differentiate a certified laboratory assistant from a medical laboratory technician, (2) translating expected laboratory…
Ryan, Mary Gene
Health sciences faculty members at a two-year college were concerned about the poor pass rates in medical terminology, a gateway course for all students planning to major in health-related fields. Faculty suspected that students coming out of developmental reading might not have adequate reading skills to do well in medical terminology.…
Messina, Bryan G; Silvestri, Mark M; Diulio, Andrea R; Murphy, James G; Garza, Kimberly B; Correia, Christopher J
The non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is a growing public health concern. College students have been identified as a particularly at risk population for engagement in NMUPD. Across all prescription drug classes, stimulants show the highest ratio of illicit to medical use and are thus important to examine within this population. Emerging research has suggested a relationship between the non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) and alcohol use within the college student population. Finally, the construct of impulsivity may serve as an additional indicator for students who engage in NMUPS as well as those who engage in NMUPS/alcohol co-ingestion. The purpose of this paper is to expand on previous prevalence data collected for the past year NMUPS and NMUPS/alcohol co-ingestion. Additionally, this paper examines whether those who engage in NMUPS or NMUPS/alcohol co-ingestion differ significantly from their non-using counterparts on measures of alcohol use, alcohol related negative consequences, binge drinking, and impulsivity. Finally, binary logistic regression models indicated that increased alcohol use, alcohol related negative consequences, and impulsivity all significantly increase the odds of an individual engaging in NMUPS or NMUPS/alcohol co-ingestion.
Soliman, Mona M; Sattar, Kamran; Alnassar, Sami; Alsaif, Faisal; Alswat, Khalid; Alghonaim, Mohamed; Alhaizan, Maysoon; Al-furaih, Nawaf
Background The students’ perception of the learning environment is an important aspect for evaluation and improvement of the educational program. The College of Medicine at King Saud University (KSU) reformed its curriculum in 2009 from a traditional to a system-oriented hybrid curriculum. Objective The objective of the present study was to determine the perception of the second batch (reformed curriculum) of medical graduates about the educational environment at the College of Medicine, KSU, using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) scale. Methods The fifth year medical students were asked to evaluate the educational program after graduation in May 2014. The questionnaire was distributed to the graduate students electronically. The DREEM questionnaire consisted of 50 items based on Likert’s scale; and five domains, namely, students’ perceptions of learning, perceptions of teachers, academic self-perceptions, perceptions of atmosphere, and social self-perceptions. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results A total of 62 students participated in the study. The score for students’ perception of learning among medical students ranged from 2.93 to 3.64 (overall mean score: 40.17). The score for students’ perception of teachers ranged from 2.85 to 4.01 (overall mean score: 33.35). The score for students’ academic self-perceptions ranged from 3.15 to 4.06 (overall mean score: 28.4). The score for students’ perception of atmosphere ranged from 2.27 to 3.91 (overall mean score: 41.32). The score for students’ social self-perceptions ranged from 2.85 to 4.33 (overall mean score: 24.33). The general perceptions of the students in all five sub-scales were positive. Conclusion The overall student’s perception about the educational environment was satisfactory. This study was important to evaluate the students’ perception of the learning environment among medical graduates of the reformed curriculum and provided guidance on areas of
Kim, Geun Bae
This paper aims to reveal how Hamheung Medical College in North Korea kept up its faculty with the trend of a new political system. The time period consists of three series of evaluations that occurred between the start of a reformation action in 1946 and the establishment of the regime in 1948. At the time, it was difficult to secure college faculty in the medical field, because of a serious shortage of medical personnel. Moreover, the problem in the recruitment of faculty at the medical college grew bigger since the members were required to have a high level of political consciousness. Then how did Hamheung Medical College accomplish this ideal securing of faculty that possessed political ideology and medical expertise? For the first time, a faculty evaluation at the local level was carried out and got rid of a few pro-Japanese or reactionary factions but maintained most of the faculty. Although academic background and research career of the faculty were considered, securing of the manpower in terms of number was crucial for the reconstruction of a professional school level. At the second time, as the central education bureau's intervention tightened the censorship, most of the faculty were evaluated as unqualified. Indeed, it was difficult to satisfy the standard of professionalism which emphasized a high level of academic career and political thought that included affiliation of Workers' Party of North Korea. The Medical College could not find faculty that could replace those professors and therefore, most of them maintained their faculty positions. Since then, the faculty who received excellent evaluations led the school at the very front. At the third time, the Medical College itself led the evaluations and implemented more relaxed standards of political ideology and medical expertise. Faculty who were cooperative to the reformation actions that North Korea carried forward or had working experience at the hospital and health service received a high level of
El-Fadni Suliman, Issameldin
This thesis explores language policies, language conflict and language-user attitudes toward arabicization which refers to the use of Arabic as a medium of instruction in teaching medicine in universities in the Sudan. It follows up these objectives: (1) To highlight the roots of arabicization and implemented language planning activities through document analysis. (2) To report on the advantages and disadvantages of both Arabic and English as media of instruction in teaching medicine in the Sudan. (3) To survey the attitudes of students and their instructors in the colleges of Khartoum, Omdurman and Gezira universities towards arabicization using two similar developed questionnaires and an interview for faculty members. The questionnaires were distributed to the students and faculty members in the three colleges to probe six factors: (I) The extent of use of languages of instruction (2) Readiness of the students to receive medical studies in English (3) The difficulties they face (4) English as a medium of instruction in medical colleges (5) Arabic as a medium of instruction in medical colleges (6) Students' preference of a language of instruction. The study utilized tables, charts and chi square tests to illustrate the attitudes of students and their faculty members. The study has revealed that the attitude of most of the students and their faculty members were in favor of arabicization in principle. In fact, students showed support for the pedagogical benefits of Arabic like they can prepare and study in Arabic in less time than English. They can take more notes in Arabic than in English. The study has highlighted that Arabic as a native language of the students offers them a mighty and indispensable support for the ability to convey ideas, capacity for imaginative or creative thinking than the limited capacity given by the foreign language. Notwithstanding, English is reported to be very important for students' current medical studies and future career. The
Mariappan, M. Rajan; Narayan, Deepak; Fadare, Oluwole; Sankarand, J. R.
Much has been written about the philanthropist Elihu Yale and his life in the Americas and England, where he spent his beginnings and end. Less publicized is his life in India, where he spent the majority of his adult life and where he raised his family. A major contribution of Elihu Yale to medicine in India was his promotion of a local hospital in the major Indian trading port city of Madras. This essay briefly describes the history of that hospital and the medical college that grew out of it. PMID:15829148
This report presents the results of a program to provide technical assistance to Meharry Medical College. The purpose of the program is to facilitate Meharry`s effort to finance a campus-wide facility retrofit. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) funded the program through a grant to the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development (TECD). The University of Memphis-Technology and Energy Services (UM-TES), under contract to TECD, performed program services. The report has three sections: (1) introduction; (2) project definition, financing, and participants; and (3) opportunities for federal participation.
Nataraj, Gita; Baveja, Sujata; Kuyare, Sunil; Poojary, Aruna; Mehta, Preeti; Kshirsagar, Nilima; Gogtay, Nithys
The cornerstone for an effective biomedical waste (BMW) management is appropriate waste segregation. Improper waste segregation practices can have an adverse impact on public health and increase the cost of treatment. Deficiencies in waste segregation practices can be corrected by continuous monitoring and education. Manpower for monitoring waste segregation in a large teaching hospital is scanty. We utilized the undergraduate medical students as monitors and studied the impact on waste segregation practices. A prospective observational study was carried out from August 2004 to January 2005. For monitoring waste segregation, the different areas of the hospital were divided amongst the II M.B.B.S students. They were provided with an observation sheet wherein the status of waste segregation and overall hygiene was recorded on a scale of 1-5. The impact of this programme was then analysed over the study period. The results indicated that a statistically significant improvement in waste segregation practices occurred in all areas. Thus, a large hospital with a medical college can identify students or a similar group for monitoring waste segregation or other aspects of biomedical waste management. This will improve their understanding of good practice in BMW management in future.
Song, X J; Qiu, Z F; Cao, W; Xie, J; Zhang, Z J; Xu, S X; Li, T S
Objective: To better understand the infection status of HIV in the patients seeking medical care in Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Methods: The HIV detection data of the patients in the hospital from 2003-2014 were collected for a statistical analysis with software SPSS 19.0. Results: A total of 715 421 patients were screened, and 1 012 (0.14%) patients were HIV positive, and HIV infection were confirmed in 776 (0.11%) patients by Western Blot testing. The detection rate of HIV infection increased from 0.05% in 2003 to 0.17% in 2014 (trend χ(2)=66.83 , P=0.000), and the increase during 2012-2014 was obvious. Of the 776 newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals, 631 (81.31%) were men and 145 (18.69%) were women. The percentage of the males infected with HIV increased from 50.00% to 90.26% (trend χ(2)=58.41, P=0.000). The median age was 36 years (interquartile range: 27-43), and the age group 18-50 years were mostly affected. In the 776 patients infected with HIV, 634 (81.70% ) were infected through sexual contacts, and the proportion of sexual transmissions increased with year (trend χ(2)=126.38, P=0.000). The proportion of infected men who have sex with men (MSM) increased from 0% in 2003 to 53.90% in 2014 (trend χ(2)=11.96, P=0.001), similar to the trend in western countries. The proportion of infected patients who were not married increased from 18.75% to 42.21% (trend χ(2)=43.74, P=0.000). The top three source departments of HIV/AIDS cases were internal medicine (51.03%), emergency room (18.30%) and dermatology (13.53%). The proportion of the HIV/AIDS patients from department of gynecology and obstetrics declined from 18.75% in 2003 to 2.60% in 2014. No HIV/AIDS patients were detected in department of surgery, department of otorhinolaryngology, department of ophthalmology, department of stomatology and health examination center in 2003, but 14 cases (9.10%), 11 cases (7.14%) and 4 cases (2.60%) were detected in these departments respectively in 2014
Usmani, Ambreen; Omaeer, Quratulain
Objective: To explore the mentoring program on a subset of Pakistani medical students in a private medical college. Method: Total students targeted were 300 MBBS students of 1st Year (group B), 2nd Year (group C) and 3rd Year (group D), of these 256 students filled the self-reported questionnaire. The questionnaire was based on Likert Scale. The statements in the questionnaire are designed in a positive manner so that if the students agree to them the level of satisfaction with the mentoring program was considered significantly good. Open-ended questionnaires were also given so as to have a clearer concept of the students’ perception. This study is a mixed method study catering to both quantitative and qualitative domains. Results : The overall results reported that the junior students of group B and group C showed higher satisfaction in being mentored as compared group D (p-value=0.001). All three groups were compared with each other to check the response of every statement by applying Tukey’s test. Analysis of the result showed that majority of the students considered mentoring program a beneficial tool for their academic and non-academic lives. The students of all three years have reported that the mentor is mostly available and helps to reconcile internal conflicts. They also confirmed that their mentor keeps records but most of the students have reported that communication via email is limited. Conclusion: Majority of students of Bahria University Medical and Dental College are able to carry on with their academic and non-academic routine due to the presence of mentoring. The medical students appreciated the presence of a mentor during thick and thin; they have also accepted that it is due to the presence of this guide that they are able to continue with their difficult studies in these difficult times. PMID:28083051
Prasad, K. Niranjan; Sajeev Kumar, P. B.; Narayanankutty, O. K.; Abraham, Amal; Raj, Zoheb; Madanagopal, Vinayak; Balu, Akash
Purpose: This study is to assess the attitude of the medical interns toward psychiatry, psychiatrists and patients with mental health problems. Materials and Methods: A personal data sheet and the Balon et al. questionnaire was used to assess the attitude among medical interns (n = 44) of a medical college in Northern Kerala. Results: There was modestly good attitude toward psychiatry throughout the study. Data were compared between interns who have completed their posting in psychiatry and those who have not. There was no significant difference except for their awareness about consultation liaison services and the authoritative power of psychiatrists in mental health field. The stigma toward psychiatry is on the decline at least among medical professionals, and more interns are interested in taking up psychiatry as a future specialty. Conclusion: Although the study has evidenced a positive attitude to psychiatry, there is still room to improve. A clearer picture could be attained by conducting similar studies in a bigger sample size. A structured curriculum and compulsory internship during the undergraduate course have greatly contributed toward building a more positive opinion of the subject. PMID:27385855
Hartung, Cynthia M; Canu, Will H; Cleveland, Carolyn S; Lefler, Elizabeth K; Mignogna, Melissa J; Fedele, David A; Correia, Christopher J; Leffingwell, Thad R; Clapp, Joshua D
While stimulant medication is commonly prescribed to treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in children and adolescents (Merikangas, He, Rapoport, Vitiello, & Olfson, 2013; Zuvekas & Vitiello, 2012) and is considered an empirically supported intervention for those groups (Barkley, Murphy, & Fischer, 2008; Pelham & Fabiano, 2008; Safren et al., 2005) surprisingly little is known about the efficacy of stimulants in the slightly older emerging adult population. A focus has emerged, however, on illicit stimulant use among undergraduates, with studies suggesting such behavior is not uncommon (e.g., Arria et al., 2013). Unfortunately, details are lacking regarding outcomes and personal characteristics associated with different patterns of stimulant misuse. The current study compares the characteristics of four groups of college students, including those with stimulant prescriptions who use them appropriately (i.e., appropriate users), those who misuse their prescription stimulants (i.e., medical misusers), those who obtain and use stimulants without a prescription (i.e., nonmedical misusers), and those who do not use stimulant medications at all (i.e., nonusers). Undergraduates (N = 1,153) from the Southeastern, Midwest, and Rocky Mountain regions completed online measures evaluating patterns of use, associated motives, side effects, ADHD symptomatology, and other substance use. Both types of misusers (i.e., students who abused their prescriptions and those who obtained stimulants illegally) reported concerning patterns of other and combined substance use, as well as higher prevalence of debilitating side effects such as insomnia and restlessness. Research and practical implications are discussed.
Elam, Carol L; Scott, Kimberly L; Gilbert, Linda A; Hartmann, Beth A
This paper addresses fluctuations in the applicant and matriculant pools both across United States medical schools and at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine (UKCOM) for 1992-2002. It also presents data regarding the increasing costs of a medical education. Over the past decade, both nationally and at the UKCOM, there has been an over-all reduction in the number of applicants to medical school. In this changing applicant pool, the percentage of female matriculants has increased both nationally and at the UKCOM. However, the number of underrepresented minorities applying to and matriculating in the US and at the UKCOM has dropped since the mid-1990s. Although the applicant pool has decreased in size over the time period examined, the academic quality of applicants as measured by the undergraduate grade point average and Medical College Admission Test scores has increased both nationally and at UKCOM. Costs of a medical education have risen over time, as has the debt burden of medical school graduates due to increasing undergraduate debt, consumer debt, and medical school tuition. Potential causes for and implication of these changing trends are discussed.
Nisha, Catherin; Manjaly, Steve; Kiran, Pretesh; Mathew, Betsy; Kasturi, Arvind
Elder abuse and neglect is a problem that occurs across all settings and all populations. Elder abuse has many forms, such as abandonment, emotional or psychological abuse, financial or material exploitation, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. We conducted this research to determine the prevalence of various types of abuse and neglect and their associated factors among elderly patients attending the urban and rural geriatric clinics at a medical college hospital in Bangalore, India. A total of 200 elderly patients participated in the study. The overall prevalence of elder abuse or neglect was 32 (16%), comprised of: verbal abuse in 25 (12.5%); neglect in 22 (11%); financial abuse in 17 (8.5%); and physical abuse in 3 (1.5%). Hence, many elderly patients had experienced multiple forms of abuse. There was statistically significant association between elder abuse and total financial dependence, lack of social support, and depression among the elderly patients.
Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Ichiro; Tsuji, Hitomi; Ibe, Masaki; Kinouchi, Motoshi; Hashimoto, Yoshio; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Matsuo, Shinobu; Ohkuma, Noritaka; Ohkawara, Akira; Iizuka, Hajime
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which has been increasing during the last 50 years in Japan. The aim of the present study is to analyze psoriatic patients registered from 1983-2007 in Asahikawa Medical College Hospital, which is located in the northern part of Japan. A total of 607 cases were registered at the first inspection in the Department of Dermatology, Asahikawa Medical College. Men (403 cases, 66.4%) were predominant over women (204 cases, 33.6%). The clinical types of psoriasis were psoriasis vulgaris (91.5%), guttate psoriasis (4.2%), psoriasis arthropathica (2.8%), psoriatic erythroderma (0.6%), generalized pustular psoriasis (0.6%), localized pustular psoriasis (0.15%) and infantile psoriasis (0.15%). Topical corticosteroids (78.1%) and vitamin D3 (18.1%) products were the main previous topical agents. Previous systemic treatments included etretinate (7.7%), cyclosporine (1.5%) and methotrexate (0.3%). Use of topical vitamin D3 and cyclosporine therapies have been gradually increasing during the past 25 years. Regarding the previous phototherapy, topical psoralen and ultraviolet A therapy (PUVA) (4.9%) was predominant over ultraviolet B (0.9%), and systemic PUVA (0.7%). Use of ultraviolet B phototherapy has been increasing during the past 5 years. The results are essentially similar to those of a survey of psoriasis in Japan from 1982-2001. Although the incidence of psoriasis might be higher in Hokkaido Prefecture, there is essentially no variation in the disease profile of psoriatic patients.
Rabiner, David L.; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Costello, E. Jane; Hoyle, Rick H.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Swartzwelder, H. Scott
Objective: This study examines why college students without a prescription take ADHD medication, what they perceive the consequences of this to be, and whether attention problems are associated with this behavior. Method: More than 3,400 undergraduates attending one public and one private university in the southeastern United States completed a…
In India, putting a child through engineering or medical college is, for many middle-class families, a life's mission in a way that is almost unknown in the United States. Though middle-class families in India have long steered their children into professions like engineering and medicine, the trend has taken off over the past decade. It's been…
Al Alwan, I.; Al Kushi, M.; Tamim, H.; Magzoub, M.; Elzubeir, M.
High School, Aptitude and Achievement Tests have been utilized since 2002 in Saudi Arabia for the purpose of student selection to health sciences and medical colleges. However, longitudinal studies determining the predictive validity of these so-called cognitive tests for in-course performance is lacking. Our aim was to assess the predictive…
Ghosh, Sarmishtha; Dawka, Violet
Introduces the SPICES curriculum of the Manipal College of Medical Sciences in Nepal, which is student centered, problem based, integrated, community-based, elective oriented, and systematic. Reports that the majority of students opined that the combination of didactic lectures and problem-based learning sessions were definitely beneficial.…
Zeng, Yong; Wu, Yan; Lai, Yanni; Lu, Yingqing; Zou, Hejian; Feng, Xueshan
In the past ten years, the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) project team of the Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University has continuously conducted further study on the development and maintenance of standardized patients and their application in teaching. The team carried out a series of randomized controlled studies on the…
Chinese Education and Society, 2008
The Three Assistances and One Alleviation Plan issued in 2006 is an expansion of the Western China Program issued in 2003. Voluntary services in agricultural, educational, and medical areas by college graduates are organized through the implementation of this policy. The plan aims to recruit 20,000 graduates per year and has provided more detailed…
Bills, James L; VanHouten, Jacob; Grundy, Michelle M; Chalkley, Roger; Dermody, Terence S
The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) is a quantitative metric used by MD and MD-PhD programs to evaluate applicants for admission. This study assessed the validity of the MCAT in predicting training performance measures and career outcomes for MD-PhD students at a single institution. The study population consisted of 153 graduates of the Vanderbilt Medical Scientist Training Program (combined MD-PhD program) who matriculated between 1963 and 2003 and completed dual-degree training. This population was divided into three cohorts corresponding to the version of the MCAT taken at the time of application. Multivariable regression (logistic for binary outcomes and linear for continuous outcomes) was used to analyze factors associated with outcome measures. The MCAT score and undergraduate GPA (uGPA) were treated as independent variables; medical and graduate school grades, time-to-PhD defense, USMLE scores, publication number, and career outcome were dependent variables. For cohort 1 (1963-1977), MCAT score was not associated with any assessed outcome, although uGPA was associated with medical school preclinical GPA and graduate school GPA (gsGPA). For cohort 2 (1978-1991), MCAT score was associated with USMLE Step II score and inversely correlated with publication number, and uGPA was associated with preclinical GPA (mspGPA) and clinical GPA (mscGPA). For cohort 3 (1992-2003), the MCAT score was associated with mscGPA, and uGPA was associated with gsGPA. Overall, MCAT score and uGPA were inconsistent or weak predictors of training metrics and career outcomes for this population of MD-PhD students.
Qamar, Khadija; Rehman, Sabah; Khan, Muhammad Alamgir
A pragmatic and sequential mixed method study was conducted at Army Medical College, from October to December 2014 to determine medical students' perceptions regarding effectiveness of small groups during the CBL(case-based learning) sessions. Tutorial Group Effectiveness Instrument (TGEI) was used after written and informed consent. Free text comments about CBL were invited from the respondents and common ones, and were tabulated. The mean scores were calculated and compared among different subgroups of respondents using appropriate independent sample t-test. Content analysis of qualitative segment was done. Ap-value of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. The analysis of qualitative and quantitative variables was integrated in the final interpretation phase to draw conclusion. The average age of the participants was 19.33 ±0.657 years. The difference in scores was statistically insignificant for cognitive (p = 0.537), motivational (p = 0.868), and demotivational (p = 0.125) effectiveness between males and females. Insignificant difference was also observed for qualification of the overall group productivity among male and female students (p = 0.162), and exposed and non-exposed groups (p = 0.272). The perceptions of overwhelming number of participants were in favour of small group discussion as a component of CBL.
Dolan, Margaret A; Mace, Sharon E
Emergency departments (EDs) are vital in the management of pediatric patients with mental health emergencies (MHE). Pediatric MHE are an increasing part of emergency medical practice because EDs have become the safety net for a fragmented mental health infrastructure which is experiencing critical shortages in services in all sectors. EDs must safely, humanely, and in a culturally and developmentally appropriate manner manage pediatric patients with undiagnosed and known mental illnesses including those with mental retardation, autistic spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and those experiencing a behavioral crisis. EDs also manage patients with suicidal ideation, depression, escalating aggression, substance abuse, post traumatic stress disorder, maltreatment, and those exposed to violence and unexpected deaths. EDs must address not only the physical but also the mental health needs of patients during and after mass casualty incidents and disasters. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Emergency Physicians support the following actions: advocacy for increased mental health resources, including improved pediatric mental health tools for the ED, increased mental health insurance coverage, adequate reimbursement at all levels; acknowledgment of the importance of the child's medical home, and promotion of education and research for mental health emergencies.
Field, Karl; Bailey, Michele; Foresman, Larry L; Harris, Robert L; Motzel, Sherri L; Rockar, Richard A; Ruble, Gaye; Suckow, Mark A
Medical records are considered to be a key element of a program of adequate veterinary care for animals used in research, teaching, and testing. However, prior to the release of the public statement on medical records by the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM), the guidance that was available on the form and content of medical records used for the research setting was not consistent and, in some cases, was considered to be too rigid. To address this concern, ACLAM convened an ad hoc Medical Records Committee and charged the Committee with the task of developing a medical record guideline that was based on both professional judgment and performance standards. The Committee provided ACLAM with a guidance document titled Public Statements: Medical Records for Animals Used in Research, Teaching, and Testing, which was approved by ACLAM in late 2004. The ACLAM public statement on medical records provides guidance on the definition and content of medical records, and clearly identifies the Attending Veterinarian as the individual who is charged with authority and responsibility for oversight of the institution's medical records program. The document offers latitude to institutions in the precise form and process used for medical records but identifies typical information to be included in such records. As a result, the ACLAM public statement on medical records provides practical yet flexible guidelines to assure that documentation of animal health is performed in research, teaching, and testing situations.
Sattar, Kamran; Ahmad, Tauseef; Khalil, Mahmoud Salah; Soliman, Mona Mohamed; Punnamperuma, Gominda Giatry; Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad
Progress test's distinguishing characteristics make it pertinent worldwide. We explored medical students' perceptions and opinions about Progress Test (PT) with a view to identifying areas concomitant with it's execution. This cross-sectional study took place at College of Medicine, Saudi Arabia, during the academic year 2015-16. A questionnaire (14 items) was administered. Reason for majority n=96 (89.7%) of the total participants to take the PT was their keenness to compare their academic standing with their peers from other participating medical colleges. The majority of students were highly satisfied with PT implementation; i.e. its orientation (58.9%) and allocated time (90.7%). Students (76.6%) considered PT to offer academic support as future physicians. Students (75.7%) also agreed to participate in the future PT. Students being highly satisfied with the organization of PT. They found it to be a tool helping them to focus on improving the knowledge domain.
Shearer, Barbara S; Nagy, Suzanne P
The Florida State University (FSU) College of Medicine Medical Library is the first academic medical library to be established since the Web's dramatic appearance during the 1990s. A large customer base for electronic medical information resources is both comfortable with and eager to migrate to the electronic format completely, and vendors are designing radical pricing models that make print journal cancellations economically advantageous. In this (almost) post-print environment, the new FSU Medical Library is being created and will continue to evolve. By analyzing print journal subscription lists of eighteen academic medical libraries with similar missions to the community-based FSU College of Medicine and by entering these and selected quality indicators into a Microsoft Access database, a core list was created. This list serves as a selection guide, as a point for discussion with faculty and curriculum leaders when creating budgets, and for financial negotiations in a broader university environment. After journal titles specific to allied health sciences, veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, library science, and nursing were eliminated from the list, 4,225 unique journal titles emerged. Based on a ten-point scale including SERHOLD holdings and DOCLINE borrowing activity, a list of 449 core titles is identified. The core list has been saved in spreadsheet format for easy sorting by a number of parameters.
Shearer, Barbara S.; Nagy, Suzanne P.
The Florida State University (FSU) College of Medicine Medical Library is the first academic medical library to be established since the Web's dramatic appearance during the 1990s. A large customer base for electronic medical information resources is both comfortable with and eager to migrate to the electronic format completely, and vendors are designing radical pricing models that make print journal cancellations economically advantageous. In this (almost) post-print environment, the new FSU Medical Library is being created and will continue to evolve. By analyzing print journal subscription lists of eighteen academic medical libraries with similar missions to the community-based FSU College of Medicine and by entering these and selected quality indicators into a Microsoft Access database, a core list was created. This list serves as a selection guide, as a point for discussion with faculty and curriculum leaders when creating budgets, and for financial negotiations in a broader university environment. After journal titles specific to allied health sciences, veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, library science, and nursing were eliminated from the list, 4,225 unique journal titles emerged. Based on a ten-point scale including SERHOLD holdings and DOCLINE borrowing activity, a list of 449 core titles is identified. The core list has been saved in spreadsheet format for easy sorting by a number of parameters. PMID:12883565
Hoyte, Christopher O; Albert, Donald; Heard, Kennon J
While the use of performance enhancing substances by professional, collegiate, and Olympic athletes is well described, the rate of use in the general population is not well studied. We explored the use of energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications for the enhancement of athletic performance among college students using an ongoing survey system. We conducted a multi-round online questionnaire collecting data from self-identified students at two-year colleges, four-year colleges, online courses, or technical schools at least part-time during the specified sampling period. The sample is obtained through the use of a survey panel company in which respondents voluntarily register. Survey data were collected from December, 2010 through August, 2011. Subjects who reported participating in athletics were asked if they used any of the following substances to enhance athletic performance (1) energy drinks (2) dietary supplements (3) prescription medications within the last year. Data were analyzed from October, 2011 through January, 2012. There were 462 college students who responded to the survey reporting they participate in sports at various levels. Of these, 397 (85.9 %) responded that within the last year they used energy drinks, dietary supplements, or prescription medications to enhance athletic performance. Energy drinks had the highest prevalence (80.1 %), followed by dietary supplements (64.1 %) and prescription medications (53.3 %). Use was most prevalent amongst intercollegiate athletes (89.4 %) followed by club (88.5 %) and intermural (82.1 %) participants. The vast majority of survey respondents reported using energy drinks, dietary supplements, and prescription medications within the last year for athletic performance enhancement.
Yang, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Pan, Hui; Zhu, Hui-Juan
Objective To evaluate physicians' attitude and knowledge about the management of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) at Peking Union Medical College Hospital and impact factors associated with better decision-making.Methods A 21-question anonymous survey was distributed and collected at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, a major teaching hospital in Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Data of physicians' educational background, clinical training, patient workload per year and continuing medical education in AGHD were collected. Factors associated with appropriate answers were further analyzed by multivariate regression models.Results One hundred and eighteen internal medicine residents, endocrine fellows, attending physicians and visiting physicians responded to the survey. Among them, 44.9% thought that AGHD patients should accept recombinant human growth hormone replacement therapy. Moreover, 56.8% selected insulin tolerance test and growth hormone-releasing hormone-arginine test for the diagnosis of AGHD. Logistic regression analysis of physician demographic data, educational background, and work experience found no consistent independent factors associated with better decision-making, other than continued medical education, that were associated with treatment choice.Conclusions The physicians' reported management of AGHD in this major academic healthcare center in Beijing was inconsistent with current evidence. High quality continued medical education is required to improve Chinese physician management of AGHD.
Nasajpour, Mohammad Reza; Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan; Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Shahrzadi, Leila; Hassanzadeh, Akbar
Introduction: Today, the websites of college and university libraries play an important role in providing the necessary services for clients. These websites not only allow the users to access different collections of library resources, but also provide them with the necessary guidance in order to use the information. The goal of this study is the quality evaluation of the college library websites in Iranian Medical Universities based on the Stover model. Material and Methods: This study uses an analytical survey method and is an applied study. The data gathering tool is the standard checklist provided by Stover, which was modified by the researchers for this study. The statistical population is the college library websites of the Iranian Medical Universities (146 websites) and census method was used for investigation. The data gathering method was a direct access to each website and filling of the checklist was based on the researchers’ observations. Descriptive and analytical statistics (Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)) were used for data analysis with the help of the SPSS software. Findings: The findings showed that in the dimension of the quality of contents, the highest average belonged to type one universities (46.2%) and the lowest average belonged to type three universities (24.8%). In the search and research capabilities, the highest average belonged to type one universities (48.2%) and the lowest average belonged to type three universities. In the dimension of facilities provided for the users, type one universities again had the highest average (37.2%), while type three universities had the lowest average (15%). In general the library websites of type one universities had the highest quality (44.2%), while type three universities had the lowest quality (21.1%). Also the library websites of the College of Rehabilitation and the College of Paramedics, of the Shiraz University of Medical Science, had the highest quality scores. Discussion: The results showed
Menezes, Ritesh G; Subba, S H; Sathian, Brijesh; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Pant, Sadip; Arun, M; Kundapur, Rashmi; Jain, Animesh; Lobo, Stany Wilfred; Ravi Shankar, P
Many studies have been conducted in the developed countries to know the magnitude and factors influencing suicidal ideation among medical students, but such data are sparse in developing countries. This cross-sectional study was therefore conducted to find out the prevalence of suicidal ideation and factors influencing such ideation among students of a medical college in Western Nepal. A total of 206 students were selected using random sampling and questioned about their socio-demographic factors, other risk factors and suicidal ideation using a preformed validated questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows Version 16.0 and the EPI Info 3.5.1 Windows Version. Descriptive statistics and testing of hypothesis were applied for the statistical methodology. The univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were used to examine the association between different variables. Suicidal ideation in the last one year was present in nearly one tenth of the study population and in almost one fifth of them life-time suicidal ideation was present. Factors that were associated with suicidal ideation were primarily dissatisfaction with academic performance, being in the clinical semesters, having history of drug abuse and feeling neglected by parents. Most common reason reported for suicidal ideation was family related followed by self-related. Recognition of suicidal ideation among students and their associated factors can help in detecting it on time, making the right interventions and controlling the problem. Understanding the magnitude of the problem and their epidemiology via scientific study like this would be the first step in this process.
Wahed, F; Latif, S A; Mahamud, M M; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A; Sultana, S Z; Hossain, M B
A record based descriptive type of study was carried out among the under-graduate students of Mymensingh Medical College from the session 1966-67 to 2006-07. The academic years were divided into four decades and admission was followed into three categories such as retained, cancellation and drop-out. Total number of the students was 5892. Among them 3848(65.30%) were male and 2044(34.69%) were female. Out of 5892 students drop-out was 282(4.78%) and admission cancel was 304(5.15%). It was also found that drop-out in male was 232(6.02%) and in female was 50(2.44%) and admission cancel in male was 266(5.87%) and in female was 78(3.81%). The difference was found statistically significant (p<0.001). It was observed that gradually the drop-out and admission cancel rate is decreasing from the very beginning to till now. It was also observed that all drop-out and admission cancellation were in first & second year students. There was no continuation of their class roll numbers in third year registration.
Agrawal, P K; Rai, S K; Khanal, L K; Ghimire, G; Banjara, M R; Singh, A
This study was conducted to find out the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among patients attending Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu from July 2011 to February 2012. A total of 312 stool samples collected in a clean, dry screw capped plastic container were examined using the formal-ether concentration and sucrose-flotation techniques. Overall parasite positivity rate was 30.1% with significant difference between males (34.2%) and Female (26.3%) (p < 0.05). Out of total positive, 90.4% had single parasitism whereas 9.6% had multiple parasitism. Children aged < or = 5 years were found to be highly infected (35.8%), followed by 6-15 years (32.1%) and > 15 years old (26.9%). Rate of infection was significantly higher among patients from inside Kathmandu Valley (31.1%) than outside valley (17.4%) (p < 0.05). E. histolytica (38.5%) and Hookworm (10.6%) were the commonest protozoa and helminthes respectively. Other parasites detected were G. lamblia (26.0%), E. coli (1.0%), T. trichiura (7.7%), A. lumbricoides (6.7%), H. nana (5.8%) and Taenia species (3.8%). Out of total parasites detected, 65.4% were protozoa and 34.6% were helminthes. Positive rate was higher in Dalit (37.5%) and Aadibasi-Janjati (34.3%) than Brahman-Chhetri (22.6%) (p < 0.05).
du Boulay, C
AIM: To discover the attitudes to continuing medical education (CME) of the Wessex pathologists who participated in the Wessex CME pilot scheme and to identify their preferences and difficulties in pursuing CME activities. METHOD: The views of pathologists in the scheme were collected during a period of one year using workshops and discussions. A confidential, anonymous postal questionnaire based on these issues was sent to the 103 pathologists in Wessex who participated in the pilot scheme. RESULTS: A 64% response rate was obtained. The respondents identified lack of time and funded study leave as major barriers to CME and highlighted the gap between CME activity and its recognition and funding by employers. They wanted a wide variety of locally based CME activities to be recognised, and they valued local activities that linked theory with practice. They believed that the college scheme tended to favour academic activities over more practical and locally based ones. They found the paired peer review process time consuming but valuable for identifying their learning needs in some cases, but demonstrated that they have mixed preferences about the way they do their CME. CONCLUSIONS: The Wessex pathologists believe that CME is important and have positive attitudes to it. Their attitudes to CME echo the current literature about what makes CME effective. Unless individuals' preferences and difficulties are taken into account, CME programmes in which they participate are not likely to succeed. PMID:9516886
Abraham, Reem Rachel; Raghavendra, Rao; Surekha, Kamath; Asha, Kamath
A single examination does not fulfill all the functions of assessment. The present study was undertaken to determine the reliability and student satisfaction regarding the objective structured practical examination (OSPE) as a method of assessment of laboratory exercises in physiology before implementing it in the forthcoming university examination. The present study was undertaken in the Department of Physiology of Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal Campus, India. During the OSPE, students were made to rotate through 11 stations, of which 8 stations were composed of questions that tested their knowledge and critical thinking and 2 stations were composed of skills that students had to perform before the examiner. One station was kept as the rest station. Performance of the students was assessed by comparing the students' scores in the traditional practical examination (TPE) and OSPE using "Bland-Altman technique." Student perspectives regarding the OSPE were obtained by asking them to respond to a questionnaire. The Bland-Altman plot showed that approximately 63% of the students showed a performance in the scores obtained using the OSPE and TPE within the acceptable limit of 8; 32% of the students scored much above the anticipated difference in the scores, and the rest scored below the anticipated difference in the scores on the OSPE and TPE. Feedback indicated that students were in favor of the OSPE compared with the TPE. Feedback from the students provided scope for improvement before the OSPE was administered for the first time in the forthcoming university examination.
Fu, Deming; Wang, Hongqi; Yan, Juan; He, Peifeng
With the appearance of the "biological-psychological-social" medical model, the purpose, value and significance of medicine are reviewed and reconsidered by the people, and the history of medicine becomes one of the core subjects in the medical humanist education, along with change of the teaching of general western medical history. Medical history is no longer the accumulation of the achievements of human knowledge and medical experience, the intellectual history of theorytransformation, and the history of reformation of medical technologies, but a concrete and colorful living situation, displayed by the scientists, physicians and normal peoplecommunity during the process of their consistent recognition and transformation on medicine. Therefore, the teaching of generalwestern medical history should adjust the compilation of teaching materials, update the educational concept, change the contents, methods of teaching and examination in order to lay stress on the cultural viewpoint and the function of humanity and quality of education.
Sun, Long; Zhou, Chengchao; Xu, Lingzhong; Li, Shixue; Kong, Fanlei; Chu, Jie
Medical college students are a high-risk population of suicidal ideation, plan and attempt. However, few studies discuss the effect of parental characteristics on suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among medical college students in China. A total of 2198 respondents answered the questionnaires referring social-demographic characteristics, psychological conditions, parental characteristics, suicidal ideation, plan and attempt. The prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan and attempt among the subjects were 17.9%, 5.2% and 4.3%, respectively. The results of multiple logistic regression showed that male, mother's education level, mother's parenting style, relationship in parents and psychological condition were associated with lifetime suicidal ideation. Male, mother's vocation, mother's parenting style, relationship in parents and psychological conditions were associated with suicide plan. Male, relationship in parents and psychological condition were associated with suicide attempt. Those imply that mother may play more roles on suicidal ideation and plan than father among medical college students in China. Psychological condition has a very strong association with suicidal ideation, plan and attempt.
Sharma, Surendra K.; Mohan, Alladi; Chauhan, L.S.; Narain, J.P.; Kumar, P.; Behera, D.; Sachdeva, K.S.; Kumar, Ashok
Medical college faculty, who are academicians are seldom directly involved in the implementation of national public health programmes. More than a decade ago for the first time in the global history of tuberculosis (TB) control, medical colleges of India were involved in the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) of Government of India (GOI). This report documents the unique and extraordinary course of events that led to the involvement of medical colleges in the RNTCP of GOI. It also reports the contributions made by the medical colleges to TB control in India. For more than a decade, medical colleges have been providing diagnostic services (Designated Microscopy Centres), treatment [Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) Centres] referral for treatment, recording and reporting data, carrying out advocacy for RNTCP and conducting operational research relevant to RNTCP. Medical colleges are contributing to diagnosis and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-TB co-infection and development of laboratory infrastructure for early diagnosis of multidrug-resistant and/or extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB) and DOTS-Plus sites for treatment of MDR-TB cases. Overall, at a national level, medical colleges have contributed to 25 per cent of TB suspects referred for diagnosis; 23 per cent of ‘new smear-positives’ diagnosed; 7 per cent of DOT provision within medical college; and 86 per cent treatment success rate among new smear-positive patients. As the Programme widens its scope, future challenges include sustenance of this contribution and facilitating universal access to quality TB care; greater involvement in operational research relevant to the Programme needs; and better co-ordination mechanisms between district, state, zonal and national level to encourage their involvement. PMID:23563371
Chakrabarti, Sudipta; Goswami, Bidyut Krishna; Paul, Prabir Chandra; Sarkar, Supriya; Mondal, Srikrishna; Das, Shikha
There is a scarcity of clinical data in the field of aplastic anaemia from rural India. Present study was conducted in North Bengal Medical College to find out the clinicohaematological profile and the possible aetiological factors in patients with aplastic anaemia. The study population (n = 83) included 21 children with male to female ratio 4.93:1. Weakness was present in all cases and pallor was present in 74.70% cases. Fever, bleeding episodes and localised infection were found in 55.42%, 48.19% and 27.71% cases respectively. There was no difference in clinical manifestations between children and adult except occurrence of fever (p = 0.0365). We identified possible aetiological factors in 32.53% cases as relevant drug intake in 10.84%, exposure to chemicals in 13.25% and hepatitis in 8.43% cases. We found low mean haemoglobin (3.81 +/- 1.71 g/dl), leucocyte and platelet (3.05 +/- 1.3 and 37.30 +/- 35 x 10(3)/cmm), neutrophil (30.28 +/- 21.76%) and high lymphocyte (67.27 +/- 22.50%) in peripheral blood. At the time of presentation, aplastic anaemia was moderate in 59.04% cases, severe in 48.19% cases and mild in 4.82% cases. We estimated the prevalence of aplastic anaemia in 4 districts of West Bengal including tea garden areas was 2.98/million populations per year. It was concluded that aplastic anaemia is a major non-malignant haematological disease in this part of India, and an increasing use of chemicals in agricultural and tea garden areas might be the responsible factor. Larger population based study is suggested.
Rehman, Rehana; Rehan, Rabiya; Usmani, Ambreen
Objective: To determine faculty perception on journal club (JC) presentation at Bahria University Medical and Dental College (BUMDC), Karachi. Pakistan. Methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted from January 2009 to December 2012 to acquire faculty member’s feedback on JC presentations in structured meeting at BUMDC. Feedback was acquired by a self-reported questionnaire on a 3-pt Likert scale with a score of 1= disagree, 2= neutral, 3 = agree. Respondents were divided into Group I; senior faculty (professors, associates and assistants) and Group II of junior faculty (lecturers). Chi square test was applied to compare categorical variables; results considered significant with p value< 0.05. Result: A total of 75JC presentations were made in study period. In Group I, response was acquired by 5 Professors, 3 Associate Professors and 7 Assistant Professors whereas 34 lecturers comprised of Group II. Both groups responded to usefulness of JC equally without any significant difference. JC encouraged literature search in 35(72%), enabled 38(78%) to recall their knowledge and 34(70%) to understand study objectives. The participants 34(70%) were able to comprehend research methodology, 19(38%) understood biostatistics and 29(59%) evaluated the paper critically. The exercise motivated 36(74%) and 30(62%) participants were able to design their research projects. Conclusions: Orientation of research at BUMDC was made possible by JC discussions which encouraged literature review from reputable journals, understanding of research methodology and critical appraisals that facilitated formulation of research plans. PMID:25878630
AL-Jahdali, Hamdan; Alqarni, Turki; AL-Jahdali, Sarah; Baharoon, Salim A.; AL-Harbi, Abdullah S.; Binsalih, Salih A.; Alshimemeri, Abdulah; Al Sayyari, Abdullah A.
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the reasons for and the factors associated with deciding to enter a medical school in our graduate and undergraduate medical students and whether differ between the two groups. Method: This is a cross-sectional study. The survey we developed to investigate demographic and socioeconomic data and…
Xu, Yan; Dong, Zhe; Miao, Le; Ke, Yang
The five-year program is the main path for undergraduate medical training in China. Studies have shown that during the past eleven years, the scale of medical student enrollment increased annually with a relatively simple entrance exam. The ideas, teaching contents and methods, assessment and evaluation should be updated and improved. In general,…
Odusanya, O O; Bamgbala, O A
This study was conducted to determine awareness, level of use of computers and the use of the Internet for medical research amongst final year medical and dental students at the University of Lagos. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data. A response rate of 88% was achieved (136/155). Eighty per cent had used the computer before. Use of software applications was poor with computer games being the most frequently used (19%) followed by word processing softwares (18%). The Internet and electronic mail had been used by 58% but only 23% had used the Internet for medical research. Twenty-one percent classified themselves as proficient on the computer, 59% had little skills and 20% had no skills. Younger students (age less than 26 years) were found to have significantly better skills than older colleagues (p = 004). Majority of final year students at College of Medicine, University of Lagos have little computing skills.
Miadelets, O D; Miadelets, N Ia; Miadelets, V O
This paper deals with the methodological aspects of teaching histology at the medical university and medical college. The authors raise the issue of the necessity of teaching of the topic "Introduction to Special Histology" and the inclusion of the appropriate chapter into the textbooks. This is important for the students, as the formation of the general concepts of organ structure and function, components, and classification will aid in the further study of specific organs during the course of Special Histology. The authors describe their own experience in teaching of the section, dedicated to the general regularities of organ structure, present some definitions and classifications that are used by them for a number of years.
Ruple, Judith A.
This dissertation surveys, analyzes and reports the comparison of direct departmental costs associated with the technical core curriculum of emergency medical technology programs at nine public two-year community colleges for the academic years of 1989-90, 1990-91, and 1991-92. Data were collected using The Emergency Medical Training Technology…
Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.
The proceedings of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) conference on the declining applicant pool and implications for the selection of medical students is presented in six parts. Part 1, The Down Side of the Slope, includes four papers: "The Declining Applicant Pool: An Overview" (R. Petersdorf); "Applications: Disease or…
Subba, Sonu H.; Mandelia, Chetan; Pathak, Vaibhav; Reddy, Divya; Goel, Akanksha; Tayal, Ayushi; Nair, Swati; Nagaraj, Kondagunta
Aims: Technologies like mobile phones may not always work positively but they may have unforeseen adverse effects. This study was conducted to find the proportion of students who experienced ringxiety (phantom ringing) and other perceived effects, as well as the pattern of the mobile phone usage among college students. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out at Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, south India, among 336 medical students by using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Among the total number of students, 335 students possessed mobile phones. Mostly, the persons whom they talked to on their phones were parents for 220 (51%) of the students. 48% (150) talked for less than half hour in a day and 41% (137) were high volume message users. “Ringxiety” was experienced by 34.5% (116) of the students and they were more likely to use their phones at restricted places like classrooms (99%) and libraries (60.3%). A significantly larger proportion of ringxiety sufferers also complained of hampered studies. Conclusion: The pattern of mobile phone use among the medical students appeared to be problematic, as a fairly large proportion suffered from ringxiety, they reported getting very upset and they used their phones at restricted times and places. This problem needs to be recognized, all stakeholders must be made aware of the symptoms and measures must be taken to reduce it. PMID:23542709
Hasan, Suzon Al; Das, Gautam; Khan, Amin Uddin A
Background Interventional pain management (IPM) is a branch of medical science that deals with management of painful medical conditions using specially equipped X-ray machines and anatomical landmarks. Interventional physiatry is a branch of physical medicine and rehabilitation that treats painful conditions through intervention in peripheral joints, the spine, and soft tissues. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using three years of hospital records (2006 to 2008) from the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department at Chittagong Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh, with a view toward highlighting current interventional pain practice in a tertiary medical college hospital. Results The maximum amount of intervention was done in degenerative peripheral joint disorders (600, 46.0%), followed by inflammatory joint diseases (300, 23.0%), soft tissue rheumatism (300, 23.0%), and radicular or referred lower back conditions (100, 8.0%). Of the peripheral joints, the knee was the most common site of intervention. Motor stimulation-guided intralesional injection of methylprednisolone into the piriformis muscle was given in 10 cases of piriformis syndrome refractory to both oral medications and therapeutic exercises. Soft tissue rheumatism of unknown etiology was most common in the form of adhesive capsulitis (90, 64.3%), and is discussed separately. Epidural steroid injection was practiced for various causes of lumbar radiculopathy, with the exception of infective discitis. Conclusions All procedures were performed using anatomical landmarks, as there were no facilities for the C-arm/diagnostic ultrasound required for accurate and safe intervention. A dedicated IPM setup should be a requirement in all PMR departments, to provide better pain management and to reduce the burden on other specialties. PMID:22220242
Kim, Geun Bae
This paper traces how Koreans of north area became medical doctors in colonial Korea. Most of the past research have focused only on the well-known medical doctors, or even when they discussed a great number of doctors, many research tended to only pay attention to the explicit final results of those doctors. This research, on the other hand, includes ordinary medical doctors as well as the renowed ones, and adjusts the focus to the lifetime period of their growth and activities. As a result, the misunderstanding and obscurity about the Korean medical doctors of north area during this period have been cleared. The new characteristics of the Korean medical doctors of this period have been found, along with their embodiment of historical significance. At the time, Koreans had to get through a number of qualifications in order to become doctors. First is the unique background of origin in which the family held interest in the modern education and was capable of supporting it financially. Second is the long-term status of education that the education from elementary to high school was completed without interruption. Third is the academic qualification that among various institutions of higher education, medical science was chosen as a major. Fourth is the condition of career in which as the career as a doctor had consistently continued. Thus, in oder to become a modern medical doctor, Koreans had to properly complete these multiple steps of process. The group of Korean medical doctors in north area, which was formed after getting through these series of process, possessed a number of characteristics. Firstly, as the upper-middle classes constituted the majority of medical doctors in Korea, the societal status of doctors rose and the foundation for the career as a doctor to be persisted as the family occupation settled. Secondly, the research career and academic degree became the principal method to escape from the discrimination and hierarchy existed between doctors. A
Hoover, Eddie L
The last major change in medical education occurred almost 100 years ago following an independent investigation conducted by Dr. Abraham Flexner in 1910. Although individual institutions have implemented drastic changes in their own curriculum and the accrediting agencies have mandated other initiatives intended to maintain medical education at the cutting edge of science and technology, many facets of medical education, from the premedical requirements through medical school and residency training, have not changed in nearly half a century. There are areas that are completely lacking in the process of training physicians, and perhaps the assumption was that physicians were intelligent enough to figure this out on their own. While that may have been true in the past when things were less complicated, this approach offers too many opportunities for misadventure, ultimately to the detriment of physicians and patients. Perhaps what is needed is a more rigorous, didactic training program and more thought put into areas where judgment, morality and ethics converge to create potential hazards that can defeat the finest training, equipment and intent. Although American residency programs produce physicians fully capable of independent practice after their prescribed periods of training, there are elements of these training programs that are outdated, costly and perhaps not the best way to get to the desired endpoint. Perhaps these can be revised to more accurately reflect the changing times. This manuscript addresses some of these issues at all levels of training with recommendations for corrective action.
Predictive value of grade point average (GPA), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), internal examinations (Block) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores on Medical Council of Canada qualifying examination part I (MCCQE-1) scores
Roy, Banibrata; Ripstein, Ira; Perry, Kyle; Cohen, Barry
Background To determine whether the pre-medical Grade Point Average (GPA), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), Internal examinations (Block) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores are correlated with and predict the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I (MCCQE-1) scores. Methods Data from 392 admitted students in the graduating classes of 2010–2013 at University of Manitoba (UofM), College of Medicine was considered. Pearson’s correlation to assess the strength of the relationship, multiple linear regression to estimate MCCQE-1 score and stepwise linear regression to investigate the amount of variance were employed. Results Complete data from 367 (94%) students were studied. The MCCQE-1 had a moderate-to-large positive correlation with NBME scores and Block scores but a low correlation with GPA and MCAT scores. The multiple linear regression model gives a good estimate of the MCCQE-1 (R2 =0.604). Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that 59.2% of the variation in the MCCQE-1 was accounted for by the NBME, but only 1.9% by the Block exams, and negligible variation came from the GPA and the MCAT. Conclusions Amongst all the examinations used at UofM, the NBME is most closely correlated with MCCQE-1. PMID:27103953
Barnard, David; Clouser, K. Danner
The medical school's ethics program evolved through cooperation with the humanities department. Key aspects of the program include the teaching of medical ethics in the context of other issues of value and meaning in medicine, and involvement of humanities faculty in the medical center. (Author/MSE)
Rabiner, David L.; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Costello, E. Jane; Hoyle, Rick H.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Swartzwelder, H. Scott
Objective: This study assesses the misuse and diversion of prescribed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications. Method: One hundred fifteen students, attending two universities, with prescriptions for ADHD medications completed a Web survey in spring 2007. Results: Eighty-nine of 115 students (69%) used their ADHD medications as…
Chew, Yu Wei; Rajakrishnan, Sudeash; Low, Chin Aun; Jayapalan, Prakash Kumar; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T
Information about medical students' choice of specialty can be helpful for planning health manpower. However, such information from medical students in Malaysian medical schools is lacking. We carried out a cross-sectional questionnaire survey among fourth- and fifth-year medical undergraduate students at Melaka-Manipal Medical College. A total of 425 students responded to the survey questionnaire. Nearly a quarter of the students indicated internal medicine as their choice of specialty. Other choices were general surgery (13.2%), pediatrics (11.3%), orthopedics (12.7%) and obstetrics & gynecology (Ob/Gyn) (12.1%). Female students (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.18-3.08), fourth-year students (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.15-3.12), and students who reported a higher self-rated knowledge of their subject of choice were more likely to choose internal medicine and allied specialties (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.07-2.19). The influence of teaching faculty and consultants at the teaching hospitals (74.4%) and inspiration obtained during clinical postings (71.9%) were the factors which were rated by the most students as 'important' for choosing a specialty. About half of the students intended to pursue their postgraduate studies in Malaysia, most of the rest in the United Kingdom or Australia. While internal medicine and surgical subspecialties were preferred, students were not inclined towards primary care or diagnostic subspecialties. Incentives should be provided and other measures should be taken to make these branches more attractive.
Huddle, Thomas S
The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) is urging academic medical centers to ban pharmaceutical detailing. This policy followed from a consideration of behavioral and neuroeconomics research. I argue that this research did not warrant the conclusions drawn from it. Pharmaceutical detailing carries risks of cognitive error for physicians, as do other forms of information exchange. Physicians may overcome such risks; those determined to do so may ethically engage in pharmaceutical detailing. Whether or not they should do so is a prudential judgment about which reasonable people may disagree. The AAMC's ethical condemnation of detailing is unwarranted and will subvert efforts to maintain a realm of physician discretion in clinical work that is increasingly threatened in our present practice environment.
Stansberry, Susan L; Harris, Edward L
Many predicted that in the latter part of the twentieth century modern technology would revolutionize higher education and "create a second Renaissance" (Sculley J. The relationship between business and higher education: A perspective on the 21st century. Commun ACM32:1056-1061, 1989 p1061). However, as the reality of the twenty-first century has set in, it is apparent that these revolutionary prophecies have fallen short. Using the lens of Douglas's Typology of Grid and Group, this case study examines (1) the organizational context of a veterinary medical college at a large Midwestern university; (2) individual faculty members' preferences toward instructional technology use; and (3) the interrelationship of culture and the decision process to implement instructional technology use in curricula. The study has several implications for instructional technology use in veterinary medical educational settings that help explain how cultural context can guide leadership decisions as well as influence faculty motivation and preference. The findings suggest that a key mitigating factor to instructional technology implementation is conflict or concord between the cultural biases of faculty members and actual cultural identity of the college (Stansberry S, Harris EL. Understanding why faculty use (or don't use) IT: Implementation of instructional technology from an organizational culture perspective. In Simonson M, Crawford M, eds. 25th Annual Proceedings: Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the 2002 National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, vol. 1. North Miami Beach, FL: Nova Southeastern University:viii, 507).
Yang, Xiaobo; Huang, Mingbo; Deng, Wei; Huang, Jiegang; Liang, Bingyu; Qin, Bo; Upur, Halmurat; Zhong, Chaohui; Wang, Qianqiu; Wang, Qian; Ruan, Yuhua; Ye, Li; Liang, Hao
Background Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce the risk of female to male transmission of HIV. The goal of this survey was to explore MC’s acceptability and the factors associated with MC among college students in medical universities in western China. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in three provinces in western China (Guangxi, Chongqing and Xinjiang) to assess the acceptability of MC as well as to discover factors associated with the acceptability among college students in medical universities. A total of 1,790 uncircumcised male students from three medical universities were enrolled in this study. In addition, 150 students who had undergone MC were also enrolled in the survey, and they participated in in-depth interviews. Results Of all the uncircumcised participants (n = 1,790), 55.2% (n = 988) were willing to accept MC. Among those who accepted MC, 67.3% thought that MC could improve their sexual partners’ hygiene, 46.3% believed that HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) could be partially prevented by MC. The multivariable logistic regression indicates that MC’s acceptability was associated with three factors: the redundant foreskin (OR = 10.171, 95% CI = 7.629–13.559), knowing the hazard of having a redundant foreskin (OR = 1.597, 95% CI = 1.097–2.323), and enhancing sexual pleasure (OR = 1.628, 95% CI = 1.312–2.021). The in-depth interviews for subjects who had undergone MC showed that the major reason for having MC was the redundant foreskin (87.3%), followed by the benefits and the fewer complications of having MC done. In addition, most of these participants (65.3%) said that the MC could enhance sexual satisfaction. Conclusions MC’s acceptance among college students in medical universities is higher than it is among other populations in western China. An implementation of an MC programme among this population is feasible in the future. PMID:26390212
Baro, Emmanuel E.; Endouware, Benake-ebide C.; Ubogu, Janet O.
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate whether undergraduate students in the College of Health Sciences in Niger Delta University are information literate, and to determine whether they are aware of and use different information resources including electronic ones, and to assess their ability to evaluate information before use.…
Purdy, Leslie, Comp.
These instructional objectives have been selected from materials used at Golden West College (California). These objectives are offered simply as samples that may be used where they correspond to the skills, abilities, and attitudes instructors want their students to acquire. These objectives may also serve as models for assisting instructors to…
DeSantis, Alan D.; Webb, Elizabeth M.; Noar, Seth M.
Objective: The authors used quantitative and qualitative methodologies to investigate college students' perceptions and use of illegal Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) stimulants during spring and summer 2006. Participants: From fall 2005 through fall 2006, the authors studied 1,811 undergraduates at a large, public, southeastern…
Kalyanasundaram, Madhanraj; Abraham, Sherin Billy; Ramachandran, Divija; Jayaseelan, Venkatachalam; Bazroy, Joy; Singh, Zile; Purty, Anil Jacob
Background: The traditional teaching learning methods involve a one way process of transmission of knowledge leaving the students lacking behind in creative abilities. Medical schools need to change their teaching strategies to keep the interest of students and empower them for future self- learning and critical thinking. Objective: To assess the impact of mind mapping technique in information retrieval among medical college students in Puducherry. Methods: A pilot study was conducted using experimental study design among sixth semester MBBS students (n = 64) at a medical college in Puducherry, India. One group (n = 32) followed the text reading method and another group (n = 32) followed the mind mapping technique to learn the same passage given to them. The knowledge about the topic was assessed using a pre designed questionnaire at baseline, day 0 and day 7. The knowledge gain is the primary outcome variable and is compared between two groups. The feedback regarding the teaching methods was obtained from the participants. Results: Mean knowledge score in the text group was lesser than the mind map group at baseline (2.6 Vs 3.5; p = 0.08). On Day 0, the mean score in text group was slightly lesser than the mind map group (8.7 Vs 9.0; p = 0.26). On Day 7, the mean score in mind map group is significantly more than the text group (8.9 Vs 8.5; p = 0.03). Conclusion: The mind mapping technique is an innovative and effective method in remembering things better than the routine way of reading texts. PMID:28331249
Bansal, Ramta; Singh, KD; Kumar, Avnish
Background: Teaching in most Asian countries is still dominated by teacher-centered classrooms in which students passively receive information from the teacher. Studies have shown that students’ inactivity in traditional teacher-centered classes makes them bored that consequently decrease their concentration and learning. To counter these problems active learning methods are being promoted to enhance their interest in studying. This present study was done to explore effective teaching system from a student’s perspective. The aim of the study was to examine the attitude of medical and dental first year students towards teaching methods. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken at on 150 Medical and Dental first year students. The study was conducted using general questionnaires along with feedback form to know their opinion about different teaching methodology. Results: A 94.67% of the students were unsatisfied with traditional Lecture teaching. 89.33% favoured combination of traditional lectures and active learning techniques, 74.67% students find active learning methods to be interesting, 77.33% found them as attention seekers, 89.33% are motivated for in-depth study and 85.33% students are motivated for independents learning. 100% students agreed that active learning methods provide opportunities of student interaction while 86.67% students are happy with the teacher–student interaction it provides. Audio-visual aids are the most favoured (94.67%) and test questions are most criticized active teaching method. Conclusion: Our study disclosed that the majority of student’s positively believe in using different active learning techniques for classroom activities. PMID:25654017
Roy, S; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Haque, N; Barman, T K; Ahmed, S; Nasreen, S A; Hossain, M S; Ahmed, F; Biswas, P; Nahar, F; Begum, H; Islam, M S
The aim of this study was to detect antimicrobial susceptibilities and the presence of drug resistance genes of MRSA from tertiary care hospitals. This study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Mymensingh Medical College during the period from Jan, 2015 to Dec, 2015. Clinical samples, including wound swab, pus, exudates from diabetic ulcer and burn ulcer, aural swab, blood and urine were collected. Standard microbiological procedure & biochemical tests were carried out to detect S. aureus. Oxacillin disk diffusion test was done by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Total 69 isolates of S. aureus were selected for the study. The isolates were collected from three different tertiary care hospitals, of which 33, 27 and 9 were from Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH), BIRDEM hospital and Sir Salimullah Medical College Hospital (SSMCH) respectively. Among the 69 isolates, 17(24.6%) and 52(75.3%) were distinguished as MRSA and MSSA respectively by ODDM (Oxacillin disk diffusion method). In contrast, detection of presence and absence of mecA gene by PCR identified 20 (28.9%) and 49 (71.01%) isolates as MRSA and MSSA respectively. All of the S. aureus (MRSA and MSSA) isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and gentamicin. All MRSA isolates (100%) showed resistance to Penicillin and Oxacillin. Among the MRSA isolates about 88.2% were resistance to Ceftazidime, 64.7% were resistance to Erythromycin and Ciprofloxacin, 11.7% were resistance to Tetracycline. Among the MSSA isolates about 94.2% were resistance to Penicillin and 9.6% resistance to Ciprofloxacin. The MSSA were less resistance for non-beta lactam drugs than MRSA. Regarding drug resistance genes, the blaZ genes were present in 47 out of 49(95.8%) MSSA and in 18 out of 18 (100%) MRSA. The erythromycin resistance gene ermB was found in 8.69% isolates, of which highest 20% in MRSA and 4.08% in MSSA. The ermA was not found in any isolates. Among tetracycline resistance genes, tetK were detected in 10
Karunakaran, Ilavenil; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah; Nalinakumari, Sheela Das
Professionalism and ethics have gained widespread recognition as competencies to be fulfilled, taught, and assessed within medical education. The role of the anatomy course in developed nations has evolved over time and now encompasses multiple domains, including knowledge, skills, and the inculcation of professionalism and ethics. The Medical Council of India recently recommended the integration of professionalism teaching in undergraduate medical curricula. The authors investigated whether the initial orientation lectures and instructions given by faculty at the outset of undergraduate medical anatomy courses throughout India served a "hidden curriculum" regarding professionalism practices, and whether these orientation messages could serve as an early exposure to medical professionalism and ethics for medical students. An online survey was carried out among 102 anatomy faculty members across India requesting details about specific professionalism protocols and instructions regarding behavior in the dissection hall that are routinely given to preclinical students, as well as the importance that they placed on professional behavior. It was found that most faculty members regularly instruct students regarding expected behavior during the anatomy course, including dissection practices. These instructions stress attributes of professionalism like humanism, accountability, and honesty. However, there needs to be a more concentrated effort by educators to prohibit such unprofessional practices like dissection hall photography, and better information is required regarding biomedical waste disposal. Despite the absence of clear guidelines for professionalism teaching in medical education in India, the existing framework of anatomy education provides an opportunity to introduce the concept of professionalism to the first-year medical student. This opportunity may provide an early foundation for designing a professionalism-integrated curriculum. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016
Roxanne Prichard, J
Each year over 50,000 college students and alumni take the Medical College Admissions Test® (MCAT) and apply for admissions to medical school. After an extensive review process, the MCAT has undergone a major revision in form and content in order to better reflect the competencies medical students will need to be successful in their training and practice. Starting in April 2015, for the first time since the test's inception, the MCAT will include social and behavioral sciences content. The new section of the MCAT exam titled "The Psychological, Social and Biological Foundations of Behavior" will test pre-health competencies that combine content knowledge with scientific inquiry and reasoning skills. Anticipating growing interest in curriculum related to the new competency based content on the exam, the AAMC (Association of American Medical Colleges) established the Pre-health Collection within MedEdPORTAL's iCollaborative, a free repository of teaching resources. This online space gives faculty members the opportunity to share access to instructional resources in order to prepare or revise courses to include pre-health competencies. As a result of the increased content related to mind-body connections, undergraduate pre-medical students will be more likely to enroll in neuroscience courses to learn these competencies, or declare neuroscience majors, as the typical neuroscience major course requirements now meet most of the suggested pre-requisite competencies for medical school.
Bader, S. A.
A generalized perception exists that faculty will not be properly rewarded for efforts in developing computer-based educational materials. Faculty governed by traditional promotion and tenure systems thus may be reluctant to devote energies towards development of these materials. Recent national panels on educational reform have called for a reexamination of academic reward structures to insure that faculty receive appropriate scholarly recognition for materials developed in these new formats. A study of policy documents from accredited medical colleges in the United States was conducted to determine the extent to which academic health science institutions have adopted policies to grant recognition of computer-based materials equivalent to that accorded traditional print publications. Results revealed that while some progress has been made by leading-edge institutions, in three-quarters of the institutions, development of computer-based educational materials is considered evidence in support of teaching, not the more highly rewarded research or scholarly activity. PMID:8130576
Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Jalilian, Farzad; Ataee, Mari; Alavijeh, Mehdi Mirzaei; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Afsar, Ali; Aghaei, Abbas
Ritalin misuse can create powerful stimulant effects and serious health risks. The main aim of present study was compared that two cognitive construct (behavioral intention or behavioral willingness) for predicting Ritalin misuse. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 264 Iranian medical college students; participants selected in random sampling, and data were collected by using self-report questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 at 95% significant level. Our findings showed, the three predictor variables of (1) attitude, (2) subjective norms, and (3) prototype accounted for 29% of the variation in intention and 25% of the variation in willingness to Ritalin misuse. In addition, behavioral intention was a stronger prediction factor compared to willingness for Ritalin misuse, with odds ratio estimate of 1.607 [95% CI: 1.167, 2.213]. There is some support to use the prototype willingness model to design interventions to improve individuals' beliefs that academic goals are achievable without the misuse of Ritalin.
Reza, L W; Satyanarayana, S; Pandey, A; Kumar, S; Devendrappa, N M; Anand, L; Singh, G; Kumar, A M V; Chadha, S S; Wilson, N; Sachdeva, K S; Nair, S A
In July 2012, light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy (LED-FM) replaced conventional light microscopy using Ziehl-Neelsen stain in the detection of sputum-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in 190 microscopy centres of medical colleges operating under India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme. We compared the performance of LED-FM (July-December 2012) to that of conventional microscopy (July-December 2011) across 190 sites. Of 222 658 patients examined using conventional microscopy, 28 042 (12.6%) were smear-positive, while of 224 714 examined using LED-FM, 33 552 (14.9%) were smear-positive, an additional yield of 5251 cases after adjusting for the increase in patients examined. We recommend replacing conventional microscopy with LED-FM in high workload microscopy centres in India.
Suwała, Małgorzata; Gerstenkorn, Andrzej; Szewczyk, Anna
Marijuana is the most popular illegal drug in the world. In 2010 17.6% of polish adult population (age 15-64) and 37.3% of youth (age 17-18) declared use of marijuana at least once in their lifetime. Recent years in Poland brought back public discussion regarding decriminalization and legalization of marijuana. The main goal of the study was to reveal the opinion about legalization of marijuana in Poland among students of medical and technical faculty in correlation with chosen socio-demographic factors, college major, attitude to tobacco smoking, use of drugs and religious practice. Study included 230 students (110 from Medical University of Lodz and 120 from Technical University of Lodz). Women consisted on 56.1% of surveyed and men on 43.9%. Study used audit survey as a research method. Results. 40.4% of students considered marijuana as "soft" drug and in majority (65.7%) are convinced that it is not addictive. The main part of studied group (83%) claimed that marijuana is easily accessible in Poland. The majority of the group (38.75%) was against marijuana legalization, a little bit less (35.2%) approved its legalization in Poland and 26.1% had no opinion. Type of college faculty had not been detected as a factor influencing support for legalization. Important factors influencing positive opinion on legalization was: living in the city, tobacco smoking, socializing with legalization supporters, lack of regular religious practice, drug use. CONCLUSION. Young people's diversified opinion regarding legalization of marijuana in Poland should encourage further discussion. Educational and preventive activities within different social groups are necessary to form a conscious opinion on legalization of marijuana in Poland based on the knowledge of actual scientific facts.
Oster-Aaland, Laura; Thompson, Kevin; Eighmy, Myron
This study analyzed the impact of a medical amnesty policy and an online alcohol poisoning video on college students' intentions to seek help when witnessing alcohol poisoning symptoms. Students were randomly assigned to receive an amnesty policy, alcohol poisoning video, or both. The group that received both treatments was most likely to seek…
Stasio, Michael J.; Curry, Kim; Sutton-Skinner, Kelly M.; Glassman, Destinee M.
Objective: A growing number of researchers have examined the use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and herbal or dietary supplements among college students. There is concern about the efficacy and safety of these products, particularly because students appear to use them at a higher rate than does the general public. Participants and Methods:…
Paul, Gina; Verhulst, Steve
Problem: Minority students often score lower than majority students on the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) Verbal Reasoning section. Method: To determine what role schema plays in reading comprehension in 64 adult minority students, the Treatment group viewed a slide presentation regarding a topic that both groups would be tested on in a…
Zhou, Jie-Cheng; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Bi, Chun-Juan; Lü, Jin-Gang; Xu, Shi-Yuan; Pan, Qi
Concentrations of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and surface sediments collected from the urban rivers of Wenzhou city in spring and summer were measured by GC-MS. The results showed that the total PAHs concentrations in water and sediments of the studied rivers varied in ranges of 146.74-3 047.89 ng x L(-1) and 21.01-11 990.48 ng x g(-1), respectively. Higher concentrations occurred in spring. The low and middle rings of 2-4-ring were dominant in both water and sediments, but the concentrations of 5-ring and 6-ring PAHs in sediments were relatively higher than those in water. The EBaP values of PAHs in water of the studied rivers in spring and summer were 1.69-51.95 ng x L(-1) and 0-3.03 ng x L(-1), respectively. Eighty percent of water samples in spring surpassed the limits of BaP in surface water of China. The concentrations of sigma PAHs in the sediments both in spring and summer were lower than the ERM value, but part of the components of PAHs had values higher than the ERM, suggesting possible toxic effect on living organisms. Based on the PAHs molecule ratios and principal component analysis, a mixed PAHs source of petroleum and combustion in water and sediments was diagnosed, while sediments showed a greater proportion of combustion sources.
Knight, Vernon; And Others
Principal features of Baylor's course are annually-revised lecture handouts, medically-oriented laboratory sessions with a manual written especially for the course, and clinical demonstrations of infectious disease. Improvement in student performance seems to be related to the course format, increased teaching proficiency, and allocations of hours…
Singh, Uday Shankar; Solanki, Rajanikant
Context Early undergraduate exposure to research helps in producing physicians who are better equipped to meet their professional needs especially the analytical skills. Aim To assess the effectiveness and acceptability of small group method in teaching research methodology. Setting Sixth semester medical undergraduates (III MBBS-part1) of a self-financed rural medical college. Materials and Methods The workshop was of two full days duration consisting of daily two sessions by faculty for 30 minutes, followed by group activity of about four hours and presentation by students at the end of the day. A simple 8 steps approach was used. These steps are Identify a Problem, Refine the Problem, Determine a Solution, Frame the Question, Develop a Protocol, Take Action, Write the Report and Share your Experience. A Pre-test and post-test assessment was carried out using a questionnaire followed by anonymous feedback at the end of the workshop. The responses were evaluated by blinded evaluator. Results There were 95 (94.8%) valid responses out of the 99 students, who attended the workshop. The mean Pre-test and post-test scores were 4.21 and 10.37 respectively and the differences were found to be significant using Wilcoxon Sign Rank test (p<0.001). The median feedback score regarding relevance, skill learning, quality of facilitation, gain in knowledge was four and that of experience of group learning was 5 on a Likert scale of 1-5.There were no significant differences between male and female students in terms of Pre-test, post-test scores and overall gain in scores. Conclusion Participatory research methodology workshop can play a significant role in teaching research to undergraduate students in an interesting manner. However, the long term effect of such workshops needs to be evaluated. PMID:26393146
Context: A FAIMER (Foundation for Advancement in International Medical Education and Research) fellow organized a comprehensive faculty development program to improve faculty awareness resulting in changed teaching practices and better teacher student relationships using Transactional Analysis (TA). Practicing TA tools help development of ‘awareness’ about intrapersonal and interpersonal processes. Objectives: To improve self-awareness among medical educators.To bring about self-directed change in practices among medical educators.To assess usefulness of TA tools for the same. Methods: An experienced trainer conducted a basic course (12 hours) in TA for faculty members. The PAC model of personality structure, functional fluency model of personal functioning, stroke theory on motivation, passivity and script theories of adult functional styles were taught experientially with examples from the Medical Education Scenario. Self-reported improvement in awareness and changes in practices were assessed immediately after, at three months, and one year after training. Findings: The mean improvement in self-'awareness' is 13.3% (95% C.I 9.3-17.2) among nineteen participants. This persists one year after training. Changes in practices within a year include, collecting feedback, new teaching styles and better relationship with students. Discussion and Conclusions: These findings demonstrate sustainable and measurable improvement in self-awareness by practice of TA tools. Improvement in self-'awareness' of faculty resulted in self-directed changes in teaching practices. Medical faculty has judged the TA tools effective for improving self-awareness leading to self-directed changes. PMID:24358808
Farnan, Jeanne M; Snyder Sulmasy, Lois; Worster, Brooke K; Chaudhry, Humayun J; Rhyne, Janelle A; Arora, Vineet M
User-created content and communications on Web-based applications, such as networking sites, media sharing sites, or blog platforms, have dramatically increased in popularity over the past several years, but there has been little policy or guidance on the best practices to inform standards for the professional conduct of physicians in the digital environment. Areas of specific concern include the use of such media for nonclinical purposes, implications for confidentiality, the use of social media in patient education, and how all of this affects the public's trust in physicians as patient-physician interactions extend into the digital environment. Opportunities afforded by online applications represent a new frontier in medicine as physicians and patients become more connected. This position paper from the American College of Physicians and the Federation of State Medical Boards examines and provides recommendations about the influence of social media on the patient-physician relationship, the role of these media in public perception of physician behaviors, and strategies for physician-physician communication that preserve confidentiality while best using these technologies.
Hendrix, C M; Thompson, I K; Mann, C J
In the 1989 report by the Pew National Veterinary Education Program (PNVEP), communication skills topped the list of characteristics the veterinary graduate should possess in order to function effectively in the twenty-first century. To determine the reading, writing, and oral communication requirements and opportunities in veterinary curricula in the US and Canada, and to determine the perceived communication tasks that might be commonly required of practicing veterinarians in the next century, we sent a 15-item communications skills questionnaire to the academic deans of the 31 veterinary curricula in the US and Canada. The results reinforce the importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine, as detailed by the PNVEP over 10 years ago. Based on the responses to our questionnaire and on our own experiences with veterinary medical students, we make several recommendations to enhance communication instruction in veterinary medical curricula.
Khursheed, Iram; Usman, Yaseen; Usman, Jawaid
The aim of the study was to evaluate undergraduate students' perceptions regarding Objectively Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to be used as a feedback to improve the assessment technique. At the end of OSCE, students were provided with a feedback questionnaire related to OSCE to obtain their views and comments. The feedback was obtained from two consecutive batches of third year medical students and was utilized to incorporate the improvements in the process, wherever possible. A great majority of students (93% from group 'A' and 95% from group 'B') regarded OSCE as a practical and useful assessment tool in early years of medical education. In this study, students appreciated OSCE and offered constructive feedback on structure and organization of the process. However, at some stations they felt that instructions were ambiguous and time allocation was inadequate for the assigned tasks. The overall feedback was very useful and facilitated a critical review of the process.
Ricardo, Maria Paula Ferreira; Marin, Maria José Sanches; Otani, Marcia Aparecida Padovan; Marin, Marina Sanches
There is a lack of knowledge about the effective value of the experience gained by medical students who participate in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF)) during the early stages of their medical training. This teaching strategy is based on learning by experiencing the problems that exist in real life. This study proposed to understand the value of this teaching strategy from the viewpoint of the students who had participated, after their graduation. The method adopted was a qualitative study conducted through interviews with students who graduated in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. The data analysis used the hermeneutic dialectic technique as its model. The graduates considered that this experience enabled them to understand the organization and functioning of the health service and the context of the daily life of the users. This experience facilitated the doctor patient relationship, the development of clinical reasoning and the bond with the user. However the students emphasized that a lack of maturity prevented them gaining a higher level of benefit from the experience. Therefore, although the structure of the course is permeated by advances and challenges, it was concluded that this experience contributed to the student's learning of certain essential elements of medical training.
Hoque, Rozina; Mostafa, Asma; Haque, Mainul
Background Bacterial resistance due to antibiotic misuse is reported every day. Such threat calls for a consensus to develop new strategies to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance of bacteria. Medical doctors must play a pivotal role to control and prevent the misuse of antibiotics. There were complaints that prescribers are lacking behind in updates and advancement in the field. To address such knowledge gap, a study was conducted to know the views of interns on the current antibiotic resistance situation in a teaching hospital in Bangladesh. Methods This study was a cross-sectional, randomized, and questionnaire-based survey. Interns of the medicine, gynecology, and surgery departments of Chattagram Maa O Shishu Hospital Medical College were the study population. Results Out of 50 respondents, 98% would like more education on antibiotic selection. All respondents believed that prescribing inappropriate or unnecessary antibiotics was professionally unethical. Ninety percent of the participants were confident in making an accurate diagnosis of infection. Eighty-four percent of them were confident about dosage schedule. In all, 98% participants thought that antibiotic resistance is a national problem and 64% of the respondents thought that same problem also existed in their hospital. Study participants were of the view that 41%–60% of antibiotic usages are irrational in Bangladesh. Fifty-eight percent of the study population thought that antimicrobial resistance (AR) would be a greater problem in the future. Conclusion The interns believe that there is a knowledge gap on AR. More emphasis should be given to AR and its implications in the undergraduate curriculum. Latest national and international guidelines for antimicrobial therapy and resistance should be made available to the interns. PMID:26316762
Choudhury, Supriyo; Pradhan, Richeek; Dubey, Lily; Barman, Lisa; Biswas, Tanmoy; Das, Manisha; Chatterjee, Suparna
Aims: By virtue of being a specialized field by itself, the science of clinical trials (CTs) may not be well understood by doctors who are not specifically trained in it. A lack of knowledge may translate to a negative perception toward CT. With the idea of getting a situational snapshot, we estimated the knowledge and perception of CTs among doctors from government medical colleges of West Bengal who are not trained on CT in their postgraduate curriculum. Several determinants of knowledge and perception regarding CT were also evaluated. Methods: We have quantified the knowledge and perception of CTs by a structured validated questionnaire. Development and validation of the questionnaire was performed prior to the study. Results: Among 133 participants, 7.5% received focused training on CT and 16.5% participated in CTs as investigators. Majority of the doctors were unfamiliar with the basic terminologies such as, “adverse event” and “good clinical practice.” Encouragingly, 93.3% doctors advised that a detailed discussion of CT methodology should be incorporated in the under graduate medical science curriculum. They had an overall positive attitude toward CTs conducted in India, with a mean score that is 72.6% of the maximum positive score. However, a large number of the doctors were skeptical about the primary motivation and operations of pharmaceutical industry sponsored CTs, with 45% of them believing that patients are exploited in these sponsored CTs. Conclusion: Participant doctors had a basic knowledge of CT methodology. The study has revealed specific areas of deficient knowledge, which might be emphasized while designing focused training on CT methodology. PMID:27141476
Fishleder, Andrew J; Henson, Lindsey C; Hull, Alan L
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine (CCLCM) is an innovative, five-year medical education track within Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine (Case) with a focused mission to attract and educate a limited number of highly qualified persons who seek to become physician investigators. CCLCM curriculum governance, faculty appointments and promotions, and admissions committees are integrated with respective Case committees. The CCLCM curriculum is based on faculty-defined professional attributes that graduates are expected to develop. These attributes were used to create curricular and assessment principles that guided the development of an integrated basic science, clinical science, and research curriculum, conducted in an active learning environment. An organ-system approach is used to solidify an understanding of basic science discipline threads in the context of relevant clinical problems presented in PBL and case-based discussion formats. Clinical skills are introduced in the first year as part of the two-year longitudinal experience with a family practice or internal medicine physician. The research program provides all students with opportunities to learn and experience basic and translational research and clinical research before selecting a research topic for their 12- to 15-month master-level thesis project. All Case students participate in required and elective clinical curriculum after the second year, but CCLCM students return to the Cleveland Clinic on selected Friday afternoons for program-specific research and professionalism-learning activities. A unique portfolio-based assessment system is used to assess student achievements in nine competency areas, seven of which reflect the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies.
Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Jalilian, Farzad; Ataee, Mari; Alavijeh, Mehdi Mirzaei; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Afsar, Ali; Aghaei, Abbas
Ritalin misuse can create powerful stimulant effects and serious health risks. The main aim of present study was compared that two cognitive construct (behavioral intention or behavioral willingness) for predicting Ritalin misuse. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 264 Iranian medical college students; participants selected in random sampling, and data were collected by using self-report questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 at 95% significant level. Our findings showed, the three predictor variables of (1) attitude, (2) subjective norms, and (3) prototype accounted for 29% of the variation in intention and 25% of the variation in willingness to Ritalin misuse. In addition, behavioral intention was a stronger prediction factor compared to willingness for Ritalin misuse, with odds ratio estimate of 1.607 [95% CI: 1.167, 2.213]. There is some support to use the prototype willingness model to design interventions to improve individuals’ beliefs that academic goals are achievable without the misuse of Ritalin. PMID:25363098
Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Emdadi, Shohreh; Jalilian, Farzad; Karami Matin, Behzad; Ataee, Mari; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi
Background Fitness is a very important goal among young adults that may lead to eating disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the factors influencing fitness intention based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and its relationship to eating attitudes. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 231 female college students during the winter of 2012. Participants were randomly selected in proportion to their distribution among the different faculties at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. A structured questionnaire was applied for collecting data and data was analyzed by SPSS version 21 using a T-test, ANOVA, bivariate correlations, and linear regression at a 95% significant level. Results Nearly 21.6% of the participants had abnormal eating attitudes. The TPB variables accounted for 40% of the variation in fitness intention. Bivariate correlations indicated a positive correlation between fitness intention and eating attitude (r = 0.417, P < 0.05). Conclusions Based on our results, it seems that designing and implementing educational programs to reduce positive attitudes and encourage subjective norms toward fitness may be useful for preventing abnormal eating attitudes. PMID:27284282
Cooley, Linda D; Lebo, Matthew; Li, Marilyn M; Slovak, Marilyn L; Wolff, Daynna J
Microarray methodologies, to include array comparative genomic hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphism-based arrays, are innovative methods that provide genomic data. These data should be correlated with the results from the standard methods, chromosome and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization, to ascertain and characterize the genomic aberrations of neoplastic disorders, both liquid and solid tumors. Over the past several decades, standard methods have led to an accumulation of genetic information specific to many neoplasms. This specificity is now used for the diagnosis and classification of neoplasms. Cooperative studies have revealed numerous correlations between particular genetic aberrations and therapeutic outcomes. Molecular investigation of chromosomal abnormalities identified by standard methods has led to discovery of genes, and gene function and dysfunction. This knowledge has led to improved therapeutics and, in some disorders, targeted therapies. Data gained from the higher-resolution microarray methodologies will enhance our knowledge of the genomics of specific disorders, leading to more effective therapeutic strategies. To assist clinical laboratories in validation of the methods, their consistent use, and interpretation and reporting of results from these microarray methodologies, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics has developed the following professional standard and guidelines.
Shi, Wei; Wang, Hongwei; He, Shaoyi
Sentiment analysis of microblogging texts can facilitate both organisations' public opinion monitoring and governments' response strategies development. Nevertheless, most of the existing analysis methods are conducted on Twitter, lacking of sentiment analysis of Chinese microblogging (Weibo), and they generally rely on a large number of manually annotated training or machine learning to perform sentiment classification, yielding with difficulties in application. This paper addresses these problems and employs a sentiment ontology model to examine sentiment analysis of Chinese microblogging. We conduct a sentiment analysis of all public microblogging posts about '7.23 Wenzhou Train Collision' broadcasted by Sina microblogging users between 23 July and 1 August 2011. For every day in this time period, we first extract eight dimensions of sentiment (expect, joy, love, surprise, anxiety, sorrow, angry, and hate), and then build fuzzy sentiment ontology based on HowNet and semantic similarity for sentiment analysis; we also establish computing methods of influence and sentiment of microblogging texts; and we finally explore the change of public sentiment after '7.23 Wenzhou Train Collision'. The results show that the established sentiment analysis method has excellent application, and the change of different emotional values can reflect the success or failure of guiding the public opinion by the government.
Background There is a critical shortage of healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa, and Malawi has one of the lowest physician densities in the region. One of the reasons for this shortage is inadequate retention of medical school graduates, partly due to the desire for specialization training. The University of Malawi College of Medicine has developed specialty training programs, but medical school graduates continue to report a desire to leave the country for specialization training. To understand this desire, we studied medical students’ perspectives on specialization training in Malawi. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews of medical students in the final year of their degree program. We developed an interview guide through an iterative process, and recorded and transcribed all interviews for analysis. Two independent coders coded the manuscripts and assessed inter-coder reliability, and the authors used an “editing approach” to qualitative analysis to identify and categorize themes relating to the research aim. The University of Pittsburgh Institutional Review Board and the University of Malawi College of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee approved this study and authors obtained written informed consent from all participants. Results We interviewed 21 medical students. All students reported a desire for specialization training, with 12 (57%) students interested in specialties not currently offered in Malawi. Students discussed reasons for pursuing specialization training, impressions of specialization training in Malawi, reasons for staying or leaving Malawi to pursue specialization training and recommendations to improve training. Conclusions Graduating medical students in Malawi have mixed views of specialization training in their own country and still desire to leave Malawi to pursue further training. Training institutions in sub-Saharan Africa need to understand the needs of the country’s healthcare workforce and the needs of their
DeFu, He; RuiRui, Chen; EnHui, Zhu; Na, Chen; Bo, Yang; HuaHong, Shi; MinSheng, Huang
Following urbanization, a large number of urban rivers were contaminated and turned to black-odor rivers. The traditional approach for detecting water quality is based on chemical or physical analysis. However, biological toxicity of black-odor water has been less addressed. As two typical black-odor rivers, Jiushanwai River (JS) and Shanxia River (SX) are tributaries of Wen-Rui Tang River in Wenzhou (south of China). The eco-safety of the urban rivers was evaluated by bioassay for water toxicity in this study. Ten and 5 sampling sites were respectively set along JS and SX. Water samples were collected monthly from October 2010 to October 2011. The general physical and chemical parameters of river water were monitored. In order to investigate the ecotoxicological effects of black-odor water, the following bioassays were used: (1) Fish acute toxicity test (Danio rerio, comprehensive toxicity), (2) luminescent bacteria bioassay (Qinghaiensis vibrio, toxicity to bacteria), and (3) tropical claw embryo assay (Xenopus tropicalis, embryo toxicity). Biotoxicity of black-odor rivers water was demonstrated by D. rerio, Q. vibrio, and X. tropicalis embryos. Toxicological effects of black-odor water were respectively shown by mortality of zebrafish, and by the relative inhibitory light rate of luminescent bacteria. However, luminescent bacteria were more sensitive to inspect biotoxicity than zebrafish. In X. tropicalis embryos test, toxicological effects of black-odor water were mostly shown by embryos' survival rate and teratogenic rate. Bioassay results showed that toxicity of SX water was higher than that of JS water, especially in summer. Statistical analysis of luminescent bacteria toxicity test showed that biotoxicity of SX and JS was high in summer, but low in winter and spring. The seasonal changes of water toxicity of the black-odor river were positively correlative with changes of water temperature (p < 0.05), and related to pH and ammonium nitrogen of water
QIAO, Qing-Gang; LIANG, Hong-Ji; BAI, Min-Lan; ZHENG, Wei-Hong; LIU, Jin-Song
Physiological adaptation arises from several fundamental sources of phenotypic variation. Most analyses of metabolic adaptation in birds have focused on the basal metabolic rate (BMR), the lower limit of avian metabolic heat production. In this study, we investigated thermoregulation in three passerine species; the yellow-billed grosbeak Eophona migratoria, white-rumped munia Lonchura striata and black-throated bushtit Aegithalos concinnus, in Wenzhou, China. Metabolic rate was measured using the closed-circuit respirometer containing 3.5 L animal chambers. Body temperature (Tb) was measured during metabolic measurements using a lubricated thermocouple. The minimum thermal conductance of these species was calculated by measuring their Tb and metabolic rates. The yellow-billed grosbeak remained largely normothermic, and the white-rumped munia and black-throated bushtit exhibited variable Tb at ambient temperatures (Ta). Mean metabolic rates within thermal neutral zone were 2.48±0.09 O2 (mL)/g/h for yellow-billed grosbeaks, 3.44±0.16 O2 (mL)/g/h for white-rumped munias, and 3.55±0.20 O2 (mL)/g/h for black-throated bushtits, respectively. Minimum thermal conductance of yellow-billed grosbeak, white-rumped munia and black-throated bushtit were 0.13±0.00, 0.36±0.01, and 0.37±0.01 O2 (mL)/g/h/ ℃, respectively. The ecophysiological characteristics of these species were: (1) the yellowbilled grosbeak had relatively high Tb and BMR, a low lower critical temperature and thermal conductance, and a metabolic rate that was relatively insensitive to variation in Ta; all of which are typical of cold adapted species and explain its broader geographic distribution; (2) the white-rumped munia and blackthroated bushtit had high thermal conductance, lower critical temperature, and relatively low BMR, all which are adapted to warm environments where there is little selection pressure for metabolic thermogenesis. Taken together, these data illustrate small migratory and resident
Wang, Guang-Han; Zhu, Lan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Xu, Tao; Lang, Jing-He
Background: Female genital malformations represent miscellaneous deviations from normal anatomy. This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics of patients who underwent surgery for genital tract malformations at Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) during a 31-year period. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed surgical cases of congenital malformation of the female genital tract at PUMCH for a 31-year period, analyzed the clinical characteristics of 1634 hospitalized patients, and investigated their general condition, diagnosis, and treatment process. Results: The average patient age was 27.6 ± 9.9 years. The average ages of patients who underwent surgery for uterine malformation and vaginal malformation were 31.9 ± 8.8 years and 24.7 ± 9.0 years, respectively; these ages differed significantly (P < 0.01). Among patients with genital tract malformation, the percentages of vaginal malformation, uterine malformation, vulva malformation, cervical malformation, and other malformations were 43.9%, 43.5%, 7.4%, 2.3%, and 2.8%, respectively. Among patients with uterine malformation, 34.5% underwent surgery for the genital tract malformation, whereas in patients with vaginal malformation, the proportion is 70.6%; the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The percentage of complications of the urinary system in patients with vaginal malformations was 10.2%, which was statistically significantly higher than that (5.3%) in patients with uterine malformations (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Compared to patients with uterine malformations, patients with vaginal malformations displayed more severe clinical symptoms, a younger surgical age, and a greater need for attention, early diagnosis, and treatment. Patients with genital tract malformations, particularly vaginal malformations, tend to have more complications of the urinary system and other malformations than patients with uterine malformations. PMID:27748336
Chowdhury, R A; Azad, A K; Sardar, H; Siddiqui, M R; Saad, S; Rahman, S; Sikder, A S
Aspiration is well recognized as a cause of pulmonary disease and is not uncommon in patients with altered consciousness.The mortality rate of aspiration pneumonia is approximately 1% in outpatient setting and upto 25% in those requiring hospitalization. This study was done to see the pattern of pulmonary involvement and outcome of aspiration pneumonia in patients with altered consciousness admitted in medicine department of a tertiary care hospital in our country. This was a prospective observational study conducted among the 52 adult patients of aspiration pneumonia with altered consciousness admitted in the medicine department of Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH), during June 2010 to December 2010. Aspiration pneumonia was confirmed by clinical examination and laboratory investigations. Hematologic measurements (TC of WBC, Hb%, ESR, platelet count), chest X-ray, blood gas analysis, blood urea, creatinine and random blood sugar, sputum for Gram staining, sputum for culture sensitivity and blood culture were done in all patients.Assessment of altered conscious patient was done by application of the Glasgow Coma Scale. Case record forms with appropriate questionnaire were filled for all patients. The mean±SD age was 57.42±13.63 years with ranged from 25 to 90 years. Out of 52 patients, 37(71.15%) patients were male and 15(28.85%) patients were female. Following aspiration 76.92% patients developed pneumonitis, 13.46% patients developed lung abscess and only 9.62% patients developed ARDS. Most (33) of the patients had opacity in right lower zone and 13 patients had opacity in the left lower zone, 6 patients had opacity in right mid zone. Only 10 patients had opacity in both lower zones. In this study overall mortality rate was 23%. If only one lobe was involved radiologically, mortality was 8.33%. If two or more lobes on one or both sides were involved, mortality was in the range of 25-91%.
Zhou, Ying-Xue; Ou, Chun-Quan; Zhao, Zhi-Tao; Wan, Cheng-Song; Guo, Cui; Li, Li; Chen, Ping-Yan
Students' first-year academic success plays a critical role on their overall development in college, which implies the need to concentrate on identifying ways to improve students' first-year academic success. Different from most research on the subject, this study attempted to combine the sociological perspective of college impact with a…
Kaufman, Matthew H
Dr David Maclagan studied medicine in Edinburgh, obtaining the LRCS Edin Diploma in 1804 and graduating with the MD degree in 1805. Because he was too young to enter the army, he spent a year in London, principally at St. George's Hospital, and he gained the MRCS England Diploma in 1807. Then he entered the army as an Assistant Surgeon associated with the 91st Foot Regiment. He served at Walcheren in 1809 and in the Peninsula. Later he was seconded as a Surgeon-Major to the 9th Portuguese Brigade. After his promotion to Physician to the Forces, he superintended the hospital arrangements of the Portuguese Army. Between 1811 and 1814 he sent a series of letters, principally to his wife, giving his personal impressions of his life in the war zone. He also maintained two personal diaries that nominally detailed his activities in the Peninsula between 1812 and 1813. After the end of the fighting he was put on half-pay and returned to Edinburgh. Then he gained the Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh in 1816 and was appointed a Surgeon to the New Town Dispensary. After he established himself in private practice in Edinburgh he became the Honorary Consulting Surgeon to the Dispensary until shortly before his death. He was elected President of the Edinburgh College of Surgeons in 1826-27. He became a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh in 1848, and was elected its President in 1856-57. He founded an important medical and military dynasty. Three of his sons joined the medical profession and four served in the army. One of his sons was appointed Archbishop of York. His eldest son followed in his father's footsteps and was also President of both Royal Colleges, of Surgeons and Physicians, in Edinburgh. His widow, Jane, and his seven sons survived him.
Wang, Jun; Bi, Chun-juan; Chen, Zhen-lou; Zhou, Dong
Four typical rainfalls were monitored in two different research areas of Wenzhou Municipality. Concentrations of BOD5 and COD in six different urban runoffs were measured. In addition the event mean concentration (EMC), M (V) curve and BOD5/COD of pollutant were calculated. The results showed that concentrations of BOD5 and COD in different urban runoffs of Wenzhou ranged from ND to 69.21 mg x L(-1) and ND to 636 mg x L(-1). Concentrations of BOD5 and COD in different urban runoffs were decreasing over time, so it is greatly significant to manage the initial runoff for reducing organic pollution. Judged by EMC of BOD5 and COD in these five rainfalls, concentrations of pollutant in some urban runoffs were out of the integrated wastewater discharge standard. If these runoffs flowed into river, it would cause environmental pressure to the next level receiving water bodies. According to the M (V) curve, the first flush effect of COD in most urban runoffs was common; while the first flush effect of BOD5 was same as that of COD. The result also showed that organic pollution was serious at the beginning of runoff. The underlying surface type could affect the concentration of BOD5 and COD in urban runoff. While the results of BOD5/COD also suggested that biodegradation was considered as one of the effective ways to decrease the pollution load of organics in urban runoff, and the best management plans (BMPs) should be selected for various urban runoff types for the treatment of organic pollution.
May-Miller, Hannah; Hayter, Joanne; Loewenthal, Lola; Hall, Louis; Hilbert, Rebecca; Quinn, Michael; Pearson, Nicola; Patel, Alisha; Law, Rebekah
Quality of documentation is harder to quantify and incentivise, but it has a significant impact on patient care. Good discharge summaries facilitate continuity between secondary and primary care. The junior doctors' forum led this project to improve the quality of electronic discharge summaries (eDS). Baseline measurement revealed significant room for improvement. We measured the quality of 10 summaries per month (across all inpatient specialties), against 23 indicators from the revised Academy of Medical Royal Colleges (AoMRC) standards (2013) that were prioritised by GPs as a "minimum dataset". Junior doctors felt that the Trust's dual eDS systems were responsible for great variation in quality. This was confirmed by the results of a comparison audit of the systems in April 2014: one system greatly outperformed the other (57% mean compliance with iSoft clinical management (iCM) based system vs. 77% with InfoPath-based system). We recommended that the Trust move to a single eDS system, decommissioning the iCM-based system, and this proposal was approved by several Trust committees. We worked with information services, junior doctors, general practitioners and hospital physicians to develop and implement a generic template to further improve compliance with AoMRC standards. In August 2014, the iCM-based system was withdrawn, the new template went live, and training was delivered, coinciding with the changeover of junior doctors to minimise disruption. Median compliance increased from 66.7% to 77.8%. Quality of discharge summaries had improved across the specialties. There was a reduction in the number of complaints and positive qualitative feedback from general practitioners and junior doctors. Completion of discharge summaries within 24 hours was not affected by this change. There is still more to be done to improve quality; average compliance with the full AoMRC standards (39 indicators) is 59.5%. With the approval of the Trust executive committee further plan
May-Miller, Hannah; Hayter, Joanne; Loewenthal, Lola; Hall, Louis; Hilbert, Rebecca; Quinn, Michael; Pearson, Nicola; Patel, Alisha; Law, Rebekah
Quality of documentation is harder to quantify and incentivise, but it has a significant impact on patient care. Good discharge summaries facilitate continuity between secondary and primary care. The junior doctors’ forum led this project to improve the quality of electronic discharge summaries (eDS). Baseline measurement revealed significant room for improvement. We measured the quality of 10 summaries per month (across all inpatient specialties), against 23 indicators from the revised Academy of Medical Royal Colleges (AoMRC) standards (2013) that were prioritised by GPs as a “minimum dataset”. Junior doctors felt that the Trust's dual eDS systems were responsible for great variation in quality. This was confirmed by the results of a comparison audit of the systems in April 2014: one system greatly outperformed the other (57% mean compliance with iSoft clinical management (iCM) based system vs. 77% with InfoPath-based system). We recommended that the Trust move to a single eDS system, decommissioning the iCM-based system, and this proposal was approved by several Trust committees. We worked with information services, junior doctors, general practitioners and hospital physicians to develop and implement a generic template to further improve compliance with AoMRC standards. In August 2014, the iCM-based system was withdrawn, the new template went live, and training was delivered, coinciding with the changeover of junior doctors to minimise disruption. Median compliance increased from 66.7% to 77.8%. Quality of discharge summaries had improved across the specialties. There was a reduction in the number of complaints and positive qualitative feedback from general practitioners and junior doctors. Completion of discharge summaries within 24 hours was not affected by this change. There is still more to be done to improve quality; average compliance with the full AoMRC standards (39 indicators) is 59.5%. With the approval of the Trust executive committee further
Bruyn, Hery B.
Presented before the combined session of the Section on Administration and the Section on Clinical Medicine, American College Health Association, Forty-sixth Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, Minnesota May 3, 1968.
Watson, Joseph C; Ho, Stephen V
Charles Edouard Brown-Séquard was one of the most colorful characters in modern physiology. His scientific methods of self-experimentation and animal vivisection led to many great observations, including the eponymous syndrome of hemisection of the spinal cord. Despite his renown, he stayed but one year in his first major academic post. Details of his sojourn at the Medical College of Virginia (now part of Virginia Commonwealth University) in Richmond were divined from perusal of archival material, letters, and from the available literature. His notoriety in the field of physiology landed him a post at the Medical College of Virginia in 1854 as the chair of physiology. During a brief time here, he was able to publish his landmark monograph of 1855 on the pathways of the spinal cord "Experimental and Clinical Researches on the Physiology and Pathology of the Spinal Cord." He had a near-death experience while experimenting on himself to determine the function of the skin. It was rumored that his English was poor, his lectures unintelligible, and his scientific methods disturbing to the neighbors and that for those reasons he was asked to vacate his post. Personal communications and other accounts indicate a different view: his mixed-blood heritage and his views on slavery were unpopular in the pre-Civil War southern United States. These disparate viewpoints lend an insight into the life and career of this pioneer in modern medicine and experimental design and to the clash of science and social views.
Elnashar, Maha; Abdelrahim, Huda; Fetters, Michael D
The authors describe the factors that led Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q) to establish the Center for Cultural Competence in Health Care from the ground up, and they explore challenges and successes in implementing cultural competence training.Qatar's capital, Doha, is an extremely high-density multicultural setting. When WCMC-Q's first class of medical students began their clinical clerkships at the affiliated teaching hospital Hamad Medical Corporation in 2006, the complicated nature of training in a multicultural and multilingual setting became apparent immediately. In response, initiatives to improve students' cultural competence were undertaken. Initiatives included launching a medical interpretation program in 2007; surveying the patients' spoken languages, examining the effect of an orientation program on interpretation requests, and surveying faculty using the Tool for Assessing Cultural Competence Training in 2008; implementing cultural competence training for students and securing research funding in 2009; and expanding awareness to the Qatar community in 2010. These types of initiatives, which are generally highly valued in U.S. and Canadian settings, are also apropos in the Arabian Gulf region.The authors report on their initial efforts, which can serve as a resource for other programs in the Arabian Gulf region.
Drake, Adryanna A S; Hafen, McArthur; Rush, Bonnie R
Much has been discussed about the high prevalence of psychological distress among veterinary medical students. Studies investigating general samples of veterinary medical students indicate that, on average, depression and anxiety symptoms are present at higher rates than in comparison samples. However, little is known about veterinary medical students who seek counseling. This study intends to expand the literature on veterinary student well-being, as the first to examine a sample of veterinary medical students seeking counseling services. It offers an overview of student distress and help-seeking trends from a decade of counseling services provided in one College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) in the US. The sample includes data from 279 participants. Results indicate a steady increase in students seeking counseling over the last decade. First-year students sought services at higher rates but second-year students experienced the greatest distress when compared to other cohorts. Students seeking counseling services experienced levels of overall distress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and social role concerns that were, on average, above cut-off scores. Physical health was significantly associated with student distress, suggesting opportunities for intervention.
Approximately two million students matriculate into American colleges and universities per year. Almost 20% of these students begin taking a series of courses specified by advisers of health preprofessionals. The single most important influence on health profession advisers and on course selection for this huge population of learners is the…
Advokat, Claire; Lane, Sean M.; Luo, Chunqiao
Objective: To examine the relationship between ADHD medications, study habits, and academic achievement of ADHD-diagnosed undergraduates. Method: A total of 92 students with a self-reported ADHD diagnosis and a current prescription for ADHD medication were compared with 143 control students in a survey of academic performance. Results: Most ADHD…
Shapiro, Johanna; Rucker, Lloyd
The Program in Medical Humanities & Arts at the University of California, Irvine, College of Medicine has been in existence for five years. The program was implemented to enhance aspects of professionalism including empathy, altruism, compassion, and caring toward patients, as well as to hone clinical communication and observational skills. It contains elective or required curriculum across all four years of medical school and required curriculum in two residency programs, organized according to structural principles of horizontal coherence, vertical complexity, and patient care applications. The program emphasizes small-group, interdisciplinary teaching and faculty development, and is notable for learners' use of creative projects to reflect on patients and themselves. Evaluation of the program indicates a positive response among learners. More systematic studies point to increases in empathy and positive attitudes toward the humanities as tools for professional development as a result of exposure to the program curriculum. Future directions include closer collaboration with the University of California, Irvine, Schools of the Arts and Humanities, involvement of local artists and writers, and development of a graduation with distinction in humanities for medical students.
... Hughes Medical Institute, Houston, TX 77030. Instrument: X-Ray Diffraction Image Processor, Model DIP..., 1994. Reasons: The foreign instrument provides: (1) sensitivity of 1 x-ray proton per level,...
Alanazi, Abdullah; Al Enezi, Farhan; Alqahtani, Mohammd Mesfer; Alshammari, Turki Faleh; Ansari, Mumtaz Ahmed; Al-Oraibi, Saleh; Qureshi, Shoeb
Background: Despite the recent campaigns to eliminate smoking, the rates are still increasing world-wide. Exposure to passive smoking (PS) is associated with morbidity and mortality from awful diseases. Although many college students smoke, little is known about their exposure to PS, common places and sources of exposures in Saudi Arabia. Aim: The aim of the following study is to identify prevalence and magnitude of PS among college students, exposure time, locations, sources of exposure, investigate the effects and make recommendations. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed to identify factors associated with PS exposure among students of College of Applied Medical Sciences, Riyadh. Results: Out of 61 students included in the study, 91.8% were found exposed to PS. Exposure in Hospitality venues (Estirah) was the most common followed by other areas. Among the sources of exposure, the highest was among friends and the least were parents and guests. The frequency of highest exposure per month was >15 times and the lowest was 10-15 times. Levels of annoyance varied between 18% and 37.7%, respectively. Since the values obtained for different markers in the pulmonary function test are more than the predicted values, the observed spirometry is normal. The percent oxygen saturation in hemoglobin and blood pressure of PS were in normal range. Conclusion: Since the properties of mainstream smoke and environmental tobacco smoke are quite different, risk extrapolation from active to PS is uncertain, especially during a short period. Nevertheless, it can be deteriorating during a longer duration, hence; the administrators, policy makers and tobacco control advocates may endorse policies to restrict smoking in shared areas, particularly working environment. PMID:25810644
Douglas, Pamela S; Chen, Jersey; Gillam, Linda; Hendel, Robert; Hundley, W Gregory; Masoudi, Frederick; Patel, Manesh R; Peterson, Eric
Despite rapid technologic advances and sustained growth, less attention has been focused on quality in imaging than in other areas of cardiovascular medicine. To address this deficit, representatives from cardiovascular imaging societies, private payers, government agencies, the medical imaging industry, and experts in quality measurement met in the second Quality in Cardiovascular Imaging Think Tank. The participants endorsed the previous consensus definition of quality in imaging and proposed quality measures. Additional areas of needed effort included data standardization and structured reporting, appropriateness criteria, imaging registries, laboratory accreditation, partnership development, and imaging research. The second American College of Cardiology-Duke University Think Tank continued the process of the development, dissemination, and adoption of quality improvement initiatives for all cardiovascular imaging modalities.
Bonnett, T J; Roberts, A L; Farrell, T A
In 2006, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) published a list of undergraduate placement standards in an effort to improve the obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G) undergraduate experience and reverse declining interest in the specialty among UK graduates. We surveyed 3rd-year medical students undertaking O&G placements to investigate how appropriate they felt the RCOG placement standards were. We present the first evaluation of these standards and discuss their potential role in improving the undergraduate O&G experience. We also sought to examine the influence of undergraduate O&G exposure on interest in entering the specialty and the effect of gender on perceived learning experience. Students rated the RCOG standards as highly appropriate, and significant differences in clinical exposure and career intentions were seen between genders. Overall, students demonstrated greater interest in pursuing O&G than has previously been documented, which may represent a wider upturn in interest in the speciality.
Butkus, Renee; Lane, Susan; Steinmann, Alwin F; Caverzagie, Kelly J; Tape, Thomas G; Hingle, Susan T; Moyer, Darilyn V
In this position paper, the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine and the American College of Physicians examine the state of graduate medical education (GME) financing in the United States and recent proposals to reform GME funding. They make a series of recommendations to reform the current funding system to better align GME with the needs of the nation's health care workforce. These recommendations include using Medicare GME funds to meet policy goals and to ensure an adequate supply of physicians, a proper specialty mix, and appropriate training sites; spreading the costs of financing GME across the health care system; evaluating the true cost of training a resident and establishing a single per-resident amount; increasing transparency and innovation; and ensuring that primary care residents receive training in well-functioning ambulatory settings that are financially supported for their training roles.
Arur, Aditi Ashok
This dissertation is an ethnographic case study of a community-based teaching program (CBTP) in public health at a medical college in South India that explored how the CBTP produced particular ways of seeing and understanding rural and urban poor communities. Drawing from critical, feminist, and postcolonial scholars, I suggest that the knowledge produced in the CBTP can be understood as "science/fictions", that is, as cultural texts shaped by transnational development discourses as well as medical teachers' and students' sociospatial imaginations of the rural and urban poor. I explored how these science/fictions mediated medical students' performative actions and interactions with a rural and an urban poor community in the context of the CBTP. At the same time, I also examined how knowledge produced in students' encounters with these communities disrupted their naturalized understandings about these communities, and how it was taken up to renarrativize science/fictions anew. Data collection and analyses procedures were informed by critical ethnographic and critical discourse analysis approaches. Data sources includes field notes constructed from observations of the CBTP, interviews with medical teachers and students, and curricular texts including the standardized national textbook of public health. The findings of this study illustrate how the CBTP staged the government and technology as central actors in the production of healthy bodies, communities, and environments, and implicitly positioned medical teachers and students as productive citizens of a modern nation while rural and urban poor communities were characterized sometimes as empowered, and at other times as not-yet-modern and in need of reform. However, the community also constituted an alternate pedagogical site of engagement in that students' encounters with community members disrupted students' assumptions about these communities to an extent. Nevertheless, institutionalized practices of assessment
Background Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is used to describe physical, cognitive, affective, and behavioral symptoms that occur cyclically during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and resolve quickly at or within a few days of the onset of menstruation. The primary aim of the study was to assess the prevalence, impacts and medical managements of PMS on female medical students of Mekelle University College of Health Sciences. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among systematically selected female students of Mekelle University College of Health Sciences, Mekelle town, northern Ethiopia from March to April 2013. A structured and pretested self-administered questionnaire was employed for data collection. The collected data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL (SPSS version 16). The criteria proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV TR) were used to diagnose PMS. Result From the total population size of 608; a sample size of 258 was drawn. Age of the study participants ranged from 18 to 25 years, with mean age of 20.86 ± 1.913 years. Among the participants, 144(83.2%) have had at least one PM symptoms with their menstrual period. The prevalence of PMS according to DSM-IV was 37.0%. About 49(28.3%) reported frequent class missing, 17(9.8%) exam missing, 14(8.1%) low grade scoring and 3(1.7%) of them reported withdrawal from their learning associated with their PMS. Only 83(48.0%) participants sought medical treatment for their PMS. The treatment modalities used were pain killers, 63(36.4%), hot drinks like coffee and tea, 13(7.5%), and massage therapy and exercise, 7(4.0%). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed average length of one cycle of menstruation (COR = 0.20(0.070-0.569) and academic performance impairment (AOR = 0.345(0.183-0.653) were significantly associated with the diagnosis of PMS and use of PMS
Saxena, Yogesh; Shrivastava, Abha; Singhi, Priyanka
Medical courses in India are very demanding for the students thus making career in medical education very stressful. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of stress levels in 100 first year medical students and to explore the sources of stress & it's relationship across the male and female students. Demographic information and Qualitative data from investigator tailored Medical Student Stress Questionnaire (MSSQ) by self rating under supervision of investigators were subjected to a thematic analysis. Stress perceived was more in males students (82.2%) as compared to females (61.8%) and their MSSQ index score was significantly different (U=985; P=0.02). Moderate to high academic stress was present among 79% of students more so in males with the academic domain score significantly different from that of females (U=883; P=0.007). Females perceived more stress in inter personal domain (12.7%) with the score significantly different from males (U=953.5; P=0.02). Group and Teaching stress was equally present in males and females.
Long, Ting; Qin, Danian
One major challenge of developing problem-based learning (PBL) curricula in medical schools in China is to meet the requirements of sufficient qualified PBL tutors. Since 2011, we have developed a modified group teaching approach where an experienced faculty tutor facilitates several small PBL student groups in a large class. Although our study…
Rosen, Joshua B.; Olson, Mark H.; Kelly, Marianne
Objective: The authors examined the impact of a collegiate-based emergency medical service (CBEMS) on the frequency of emergency department (ED) transports. Participants: Students transported to the ED for acute alcohol intoxication during the Fall 2008 and the Fall 2009 semesters (N = 50). Methods: The frequency of students receiving…
Lowe, Mary Martin; Aparicio, Alejandro; Galbraith, Robert; Dorman, Todd; Dellert, Edwin
To ensure that continuing medical education (CME) continues to evolve so that it offers educational activities that are relevant to physicians in keeping with the definition of CME, CME providers must respond to and prepare for emerging expectations. This article puts into context the impact of the current emphasis on lifelong learning in medicine, particularly the requirement for maintenance of certification and licensure, on CME. Further, the effect of changing needs assessments and the impact of the integration of new technology in CME is included. Finally, a discussion of the emerging unique needs of CME providers and organizations related to these changes are addressed in the following four broad categories: CME as a value center, resources in support of CME, research to further advance the field, and leadership to guide the profession.
Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Alnajjar, Asma
There is a rapidly increasing movement towards integrating scientific research training into undergraduate medical education. The aim of this study was to explore the perceived attitudes of female second-year undergraduate medical students towards research at the College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Saudi Arabia, as well as to explore if any differences exist between students with and without previous research experiences. An online, anonymous, cross-sectional, self-rating survey was administered. A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the mean 5-point Likert scale responses between students with and without previous research experiences. Sixty-one students (61/81) participated in the survey with a 75.3 % response rate. Nineteen participants (31.1 %) had previous research experiences. Overall, all students demonstrated positive attitudes towards undergraduate research. There were significant statistical differences in the means of attitudes towards undergraduate research between students with versus without previous research experiences in regards to the following statements: 'my adequate possession of research knowledge and skills promotes participation in future research activities' (3.4 vs. 2.9; p < 0.02), 'I will participate in scientific research activities throughout my undergraduate medical education' (3.7 vs. 3.1; p < 0.00), and 'I have no interest at all in scientific research' (1.6 vs. 2.4; p < 0.01). Previous exposure to scientific research experiences promotes more positive attitudes towards scientific research.
Elfaki, Omer Abdelgadir; Al-Humayed, Suliman
The aim of this study was to explore the students' acceptance of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) as a method of assessment of clinical competence in internal medicine. This cross sectional study was conducted from June to August 2013, at King Khalid University, Abha, KSA, through a self-administered questionnaire which was completed by fourth year medical students, immediately after the OSCE. Student feedback confirmed their acceptance of OSCE. This was encouraging to the department to consider implementing OSCE for graduating students.
Joseph, N; Kumar, GS; Babu, YPR; Nelliyanil, M; Bhaskaran, U
Background: The adequate knowledge required for handling an emergency without hospital setting at the site of the accident or emergency may not be sufficient as most medical schools do not have formal first aid training in the teaching curriculum. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of medical students in providing first aid care. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during May 2011 among 152 medical students. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Based on the scores obtained in each condition requiring first aid, the overall knowledge was graded as good, moderate and poor. Results: Only 11.2% (17/152) of the total student participants had previous exposure to first aid training. Good knowledge about first aid was observed in 13.8% (21/152), moderate knowledge in 68.4% (104/152) and poor knowledge in 17.8% (27/152) participants. Analysis of knowledge about first aid management in select conditions found that 21% (32/152) had poor knowledge regarding first aid management for shock and for gastro esophageal reflux disease and 20.4% (31/152) for epistaxis and foreign body in eyes. All students felt that first aid skills need to be taught from the school level onwards and all of them were willing to enroll in any formal first aid training sessions. Conclusion: The level of knowledge about first aid was not good among majority of the students. The study also identified the key areas in which first aid knowledge was lacking. There is thus a need for formal first aid training to be introduced in the medical curriculum. PMID:24761231
Standards and Guidelines for the Interpretation of Sequence Variants: A Joint Consensus Recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology
Richards, Sue; Aziz, Nazneen; Bale, Sherri; Bick, David; Das, Soma; Gastier-Foster, Julie; Grody, Wayne W.; Hegde, Madhuri; Lyon, Elaine; Spector, Elaine; Voelkerding, Karl; Rehm, Heidi L.
The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) previously developed guidance for the interpretation of sequence variants.1 In the past decade, sequencing technology has evolved rapidly with the advent of high-throughput next generation sequencing. By adopting and leveraging next generation sequencing, clinical laboratories are now performing an ever increasing catalogue of genetic testing spanning genotyping, single genes, gene panels, exomes, genomes, transcriptomes and epigenetic assays for genetic disorders. By virtue of increased complexity, this paradigm shift in genetic testing has been accompanied by new challenges in sequence interpretation. In this context, the ACMG convened a workgroup in 2013 comprised of representatives from the ACMG, the Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) and the College of American Pathologists (CAP) to revisit and revise the standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants. The group consisted of clinical laboratory directors and clinicians. This report represents expert opinion of the workgroup with input from ACMG, AMP and CAP stakeholders. These recommendations primarily apply to the breadth of genetic tests used in clinical laboratories including genotyping, single genes, panels, exomes and genomes. This report recommends the use of specific standard terminology: ‘pathogenic’, ‘likely pathogenic’, ‘uncertain significance’, ‘likely benign’, and ‘benign’ to describe variants identified in Mendelian disorders. Moreover, this recommendation describes a process for classification of variants into these five categories based on criteria using typical types of variant evidence (e.g. population data, computational data, functional data, segregation data, etc.). Because of the increased complexity of analysis and interpretation of clinical genetic testing described in this report, the ACMG strongly recommends that clinical molecular genetic testing should be performed in a CLIA
Community colleges must assume a proactive leadership role to develop strategies that establish and maintain partnerships with business and other community organizations. San Juan College (SJC) has forged partnerships with a variety of local organizations, including governmental, civic, business, educational, medical, and cultural groups.…
Hochberg, M C; Altman, R D; Brandt, K D; Clark, B M; Dieppe, P A; Griffin, M R; Moskowitz, R W; Schnitzer, T J
Treatment of patients with OA of the hip should be individualized and tailored to the severity of the disease. In individuals with mildly symptomatic disease, treatment may be limited to patient education, physical and occupational therapy, other nonpharmacologic modalities, and drug therapy with a non-opioid oral analgesic. In patients who are unresponsive to this treatment regimen, the use of an NSAID in addition to nonpharmacologic therapy is appropriate unless it is medically contraindicated. Patients with severe symptomatic OA of the hip require an aggressive approach to decreasing pain, increasing mobility, and improving function; such patients may benefit from orthopedic consultation and evaluation for osteotomy or total joint arthroplasty.
Hochberg, M C; Altman, R D; Brandt, K D; Clark, B M; Dieppe, P A; Griffin, M R; Moskowitz, R W; Schnitzer, T J
Treatment of patients with OA of the knee should be individualized and tailored to the severity of the symptoms. In individuals with mild symptomatic OA, treatment may be limited to patient education, physical and occupational therapy and other nonpharmacologic modalities, and pharmacologic therapy including non-opioid oral and topical analgesics. In patients who are unresponsive to this treatment regimen, the use of NSAIDs in addition to nonpharmacologic therapy is appropriate unless medically contraindicated. Judicious use of intraarticular steroid injections has a role either as monotherapy or an adjunct to systemic therapy in patients with knee OA who have symptomatic effusions. The role of joint lavage and arthroscopic debridement in patients with OA of the knee who are unresponsive to conservative medical therapy needs further study, and these procedures cannot be routinely recommended for all patients at this time. Patients with severe symptomatic OA of the knee require an aggressive approach to decreasing pain, increasing mobility, and decreasing functional impairment; such patients may benefit from orthopedic consultation and evaluation for osteotomy or total joint arthroplasty.
Boycott, Kym; Hartley, Taila; Adam, Shelin; Bernier, Francois; Chong, Karen; Fernandez, Bridget A; Friedman, Jan M; Geraghty, Michael T; Hume, Stacey; Knoppers, Bartha M; Laberge, Anne-Marie; Majewski, Jacek; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Meyn, M Stephen; Michaud, Jacques L; Nelson, Tanya N; Richer, Julie; Sadikovic, Bekim; Skidmore, David L; Stockley, Tracy; Taylor, Sherry; van Karnebeek, Clara; Zawati, Ma'n H; Lauzon, Julie; Armour, Christine M
Purpose and scope The aim of this Position Statement is to provide recommendations for Canadian medical geneticists, clinical laboratory geneticists, genetic counsellors and other physicians regarding the use of genome-wide sequencing of germline DNA in the context of clinical genetic diagnosis. This statement has been developed to facilitate the clinical translation and development of best practices for clinical genome-wide sequencing for genetic diagnosis of monogenic diseases in Canada; it does not address the clinical application of this technology in other fields such as molecular investigation of cancer or for population screening of healthy individuals. Methods of statement development Two multidisciplinary groups consisting of medical geneticists, clinical laboratory geneticists, genetic counsellors, ethicists, lawyers and genetic researchers were assembled to review existing literature and guidelines on genome-wide sequencing for clinical genetic diagnosis in the context of monogenic diseases, and to make recommendations relevant to the Canadian context. The statement was circulated for comment to the Canadian College of Medical Geneticists (CCMG) membership-at-large and, following incorporation of feedback, approved by the CCMG Board of Directors. The CCMG is a Canadian organisation responsible for certifying medical geneticists and clinical laboratory geneticists, and for establishing professional and ethical standards for clinical genetics services in Canada. Results and conclusions Recommendations include (1) clinical genome-wide sequencing is an appropriate approach in the diagnostic assessment of a patient for whom there is suspicion of a significant monogenic disease that is associated with a high degree of genetic heterogeneity, or where specific genetic tests have failed to provide a diagnosis; (2) until the benefits of reporting incidental findings are established, we do not endorse the intentional clinical analysis of disease-associated genes
Enhancing the Voice of Faculty in the Association of American Medical Colleges: The Evolution of Faculty in U.S. Medical Schools and the Transformation of the Council of Academic Societies Into the Council of Faculty and Academic Societies.
Nelson, Kathleen G; Crawford, James M; Fisher, Rosemarie L L
Since its inception in 1966, the Council of Academic Societies (CAS) represented academic faculty in the governance structure of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). As the role of faculty in the academic health center of the 21st century has evolved (e.g., the number of faculty members has increased, contact hours with trainees per individual faculty member have decreased, the faculty has aged), new models for representation have become necessary. Because of the structure and requirements for organizational membership, CAS was not representing faculty as broadly as possible, so a redesign was necessary. In November 2012, the AAMC Assembly adopted changes to its bylaws creating the new Council of Faculty and Academic Societies. The new design increases the opportunity for all schools to be represented by both junior and senior faculty members while retaining society membership and, therefore, representation of the breadth of specialties in academic medicine. The new council's structure better facilitates meeting its charge: to identify critical issues facing academic medicine faculty members; to provide faculty with a voice as the AAMC addresses those issues through the creation and implementation of AAMC programs, services, and policies; and to serve as a communications conduit between the AAMC and faculty regarding matters related to the core missions of academic medicine.
Zhang, Leyi; Li, Yi; Wang, Xin; Shangguan, Zhihui; Zhou, Haijian; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Lianghuai; Ren, Hongyu; Hu, Yun; Lin, Meifen; Qin, Tian
Natural and engineered water systems are the main sources of Legionnaires’ disease. It is essential from a public health perspective to survey water environments for the existence of Legionella. To analyze the main serogroups, genotypes and pathogenicity of the pathogen, a stratified sampling method was adopted to collect water samples randomly from shower water, cooling tower water, and local public hot springs in Wenzhou, China. Suspected strains were isolated from concentrated water samples. Serum agglutination assay and real-time PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) were used to identify L. pneumophila. Sequence-based typing (SBT) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used to elucidate the genetic polymorphisms in the collected isolates. The intracellular growth ability of the isolates was determined through their interaction with J774 cells and plating them onto BCYE (Buffered Charcoal Yeast Extract) agar plates. Overall, 25.56% (46/180) of water samples were Legionella-positive; fifty-two strains were isolated and two kinds of serogroups were co-detected from six water samples from 2015 to 2016. Bacterial concentrations ranged from 20 CFU/100 mL to 10,720 CFU/100 mL. In detail, the Legionella-positive rates of shower water, cooling tower water and hot springs water were 15.45%, 13.33%, and 62.5%, respectively. The main serogroups were LP1 (30.69%) and LP3 (28.85%) and all strains carried the dot gene. Among them, 52 isolates and another 10 former isolates were analyzed by PFGE. Nineteen distinct patterns were observed in 52 strains isolated from 2015 to 2016 with three patterns being observed in 10 strains isolated from 2009 to 2014. Seventy-three strains containing 52 from this study and 21 former isolates were selected for SBT analysis and divided into 25 different sequence types in 4 main clonal groups belonging to 4 homomorphic types. Ten strains were chosen to show their abilities to grow and multiply in J744 cells. Taken together, our results
Kahler, Carol, Ed.; And Others
Prepared by the American Association of Junior Colleges and the National Council on Medical Technology Education, this guide discusses programs for career-entry supportive medical laboratory personnel which have been cooperatively planned by junior college personnel and the medical community, particularly pathologists and medical technologists.…
Saleh, Meriam N; Gilley, Alexandra D; Byrnes, Meghan K; Zajac, Anne M
OBJECTIVE To develop and evaluate a protocol for control of Giardia duodenalis in naturally infected group-housed dogs at a veterinary medical college. DESIGN Prospective evaluation study. ANIMALS 34 dogs. PROCEDURES All dogs were tested for evidence of G duodenalis infection. Dogs were treated with fenbendazole on study days 1 through 10. On day 5, dogs were bathed and moved into clean, disinfected kennels in a different room to allow for disinfection and drying of their assigned kennels at 26.7°C (80°F) for 24 hours on day 6. After treatment, dogs were returned to their original housing; fecal samples were collected weekly from days 8 through 41 and then every 3 weeks until day 209. Samples were fixed in formalin and examined by direct immunofluorescence assay. Additionally, 1 pretreatment sample underwent PCR assay and DNA sequencing to determine the assemblage (genotype) of the organism. Normal handling routines for the dogs and their use in teaching activities were not changed. RESULTS Initially, all dogs in the colony shed G duodenalis cysts. During and immediately after treatment (days 8 and 13), no cysts were detected in any dogs. On day 20, 1 cyst was observed in the fecal sample from 1 dog; results for all subsequent fecal analyses were negative. The G duodenalis cysts collected from the pretreatment sample had an assemblage C genotype. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The integrated protocol was successful in controlling G duodenalis infection in this dog colony, despite exposure of dogs to a variety of environments and frequent handling by multiple individuals. Sequence analysis identified an assemblage typically found in dogs but not in people, indicating that zoonotic transmission would be unlikely.
Akber, E B; Alam, M T; Rahman, K M; Jahan, I; Musa, S A
Annually, homicide contributes to a greater number of the total head injury cases. This retrospective study was conducted from 1(st) January 2009 to 31(st)December 2011 at Dhaka Medical College Mortuary. During this study period of three years a total of 15300 autopsies were done of which 5649 cases (36.84%) were of head injuries. Of them 747(13.22%) were of homicidal, 4080(72.22%) road-traffic accidents, 502(8.88%) accidental and 320(5.66%) cases of fall from heights. Three hundred ninety eight (398) urban cases (53.27%) out numbered 307 rural cases (41.09%) followed by 42 unknown cases (5.62%). Most cases belong to the younger age group i.e. 21-40 years (43.34%) with male preponderance 470(63.10%). Defense wounds were present in 281 cases (37.82%) out of the total 747 homicidal head injuries. There were 206(27.57%) upper limb, 176(23.56%) spinal, 139(18.60%) abdominal, 135(18.07%) thoracic, 58(7.76%) lower limb and 33(4.41%) pelvic injuries found as associated injury. There were 258(34.53%) fractures of occipital followed by 209(28.29%) parietal, 113(15.01%) frontal, 104(13.75%) temporal, 24(3.21%) ant. Cranial fossa, 23(3.07%) post. Cranial fossa and 16(2.08%) of middle cranial fossa fractures. Extradural haemorrhage was more i.e. 434 cases (58.43%) followed by subdural, combination of all, subarachnoid and intra-cerebral haemorrhages. Cases of concussion were more common i.e. 445(59.75%) than lacerated and combination of them. Blunt weapon tops the list of causative weapons i.e. 669(89.22%) than firearms 59(8.07%) and sharp pointed weapons 19(2.68%).
Alsubaie, Nouf; Aldhofaian, Hadeel s; Alhuwaimel, Lamya; Ruxshan, Noorah; Alghamdi, Fatimah; Shamia, Ahmad
Aim: To explore the specialty preferences and the factors influencing them among pre-clerkship (second-year and third-year) medical students at Alfaisal University-College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: An online, anonymous, cross-sectional, self-rating survey was administered. The survey explored socio-demographical data, specialty preferences and the factors influencing such preferences. A gender-wise statistical analysis was performed. Results: Two hundred fifty-two students participated in the survey (n=252/308; response rate: 81.8%). The three main specialties chosen by males were general surgery (33.1%), pediatrics (7.9%), and neurology-ophthalmology (5.5%). Females also opted for general surgery (20.8%) followed by dermatology (11.2%) and pediatrics (8.8%). Gender-wise specialty preferences were noted: general surgery (p<0.028) and anesthesiology (p<0.045) by males, whereas obstetrics & gynecology (p<0.017) and dermatology (p<0.005) by females. Overall, the three major influences in choosing a specialty were "specialty interest" (86.5%), "specialty flexibility" (64.3%), and "anticipated income" (61.9%). Statistically significant differences were noticed between genders regarding the following factors: "specialty prestige" (p<0.005) by males and "culture―no opposite gender patients" by females (p<0.009). Conclusion: The overall two preferred specialties were general surgery (27%) and pediatrics (8.3%). Career counseling should be offered to students about each specialty’s challenges/opportunities with an ultimate goal to match the country-specific demand and supply of physicians. PMID:28018764
Pokharel, Yashashwi; Wei, Jessica; Hira, Ravi S; Kalra, Ankur; Shore, Supriya; Kerkar, Prafulla G; Kumar, Ganesh; Risch, Samantha; Vicera, Veronique; Oetgen, William J; Deswal, Anita; Turakhia, Mintu P; Glusenkamp, Nathan; Virani, Salim S
Little is known about the use of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) in outpatients with heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF; ≤40%) in India. Our objective was to understand the use of GDMT in outpatients with HFrEF in India. The Practice Innovation And Clinical Excellence (PINNACLE) India Quality Improvement Program (PIQIP) is a registry for cardiovascular quality improvement in India supported by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Between January 2008 and September 2014, we evaluated documentation of use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and β-blockers, or both, among outpatients with HFrEF seeking care in 10 centers enrolled in the PIQIP registry. Among 75 639 patients in the PIQIP registry, 34 995 had EF reported, and 15 870 had an EF ≤40%. The mean age was 56 years; 23% were female. Hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and myocardial infarction were present in 37%, 23%, 27%, and 17%, respectively. Use of ACEIs/ARBs, β-blockers, and both were documented in 33.5%, 34.9%, and 29.6% of patients, respectively. The documentation of GDMT was higher in men, in patients age ≥65 years, and in those with presence of hypertension, diabetes, or coronary artery disease. Documentation of GDMT gradually increased over the study period. Among patients enrolled in the PIQIP registry, about two-thirds of patients with EF ≤40% did not have documented receipt of GDMT. This study is an initial step toward improving adherence to GDMT in India and highlights the feasibility of examining quality of care in HFrEF in a resource-limited setting.
Echocardiographic reporting system is very poor in Nepal. No long-term feasibility and efficacy data about the echocardiography database with video clips has been studied. Snazzi Movie Studio S4 was used to convert analog video signals into MPEG2 and color photographs were converted into JPEG format for storage and use for the database. All together 2272 patients' echocardiography were performed by one individual prospectively at the Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from 10th January 2007 to 9th January 2012. Echocardiographic findings of these patients were evaluated. Mean age +/- SD were 44.4 +/- 28.7 years. Male female ratio was 0.8:1. Brahman/Chhetri were the usual ethnic group to undergo echocardiography (943, 41.5%), followed byjanajati (631, 27.8%) and newar (496, 21.8%). Age group of 60-69 years was the most common echo users (519, 22.8%). Total time for echocardiography/report writing with database compared to non database was 13.9 +/- 2.4 minutes vs. 12.3 +/- 0.8 minutes, p = 0.51. Out of all lesions, valvular lesions were the most common lesions detected (4885, 215%). Mild tricuspid regurgitation (1213, 53.4%) was the most common valvular lesion followed by mild mitral regurgitation (742, 32.7%). Patent foramen ovale was the most common congenital heart disease (32, 45.7%) followed by atrial septal defect (12, 17.1%). About one seventh of the total patients (318, 13.9%) had systolic dysfunction. Out of total chronic cor pulmonale (383, 16.9%), severe Pulmonary arterial dysfulction (PAH) was noted in more than one third of the patients (169, 44.1%).
Yu, Lin-Sheng; Ye, Guang-Hua; Fan, Yan-Yan; Li, Xing-Biao; Feng, Xiang-Ping; Han, Jun-Ge; Lin, Ke-Zhi; Deng, Miao-Wu; Li, Feng
Despite advances in medical science, the causes of death can sometimes only be determined by pathologists after a complete autopsy. Few studies have investigated the importance of forensic autopsy in medically disputed cases among different levels of institutional settings. Our study aimed to analyze forensic autopsy in 120 cases of medical disputes among five levels of institutional settings between 2001 and 2012 in Wenzhou, China. The results showed an overall concordance rate of 55%. Of the 39% of clinically missed diagnosis, cardiovascular pathology comprises 55.32%, while respiratory pathology accounts for the remaining 44. 68%. Factors that increase the likelihood of missed diagnoses were private clinics, community settings, and county hospitals. These results support that autopsy remains an important tool in establishing causes of death in medically disputed case, which may directly determine or exclude the fault of medical care and therefore in helping in resolving these cases.
Williams, Lee Burdette
In this article, the author, director of Watauga College and residential learning communities at Appalachian State University in Boone, North Carolina, shares her experience dealing with first year college students who are taking medication to manage depression, anxiety, or attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders. She stresses that this is a…
Califano, Joseph A., Jr.
Issues addressed in this speech to the Association of American Medical Colleges include: oversupply of doctors, geographic maldistribution, demographic changes needed by medical schools, federal strategies, medical ethics, preventive medicine, and the economics of health care.
... Training Research Webinar Other Enduring Education PEHSU National Classroom Chemical Agents of Opportunity Webinars Podcasts Public Health ... 2015 PEHSU Case Conference December 2015 PEHSU National Classroom Chemical Agents of Opportunity Webinars Module 1: Making ...
Background Human cutaneous anthrax results from skin exposure to B. anthracis, primarily due to occupational exposure. Bangladesh has experienced a number of outbreaks of cutaneous anthrax in recent years. The last episode occurred from April to August, 2011 and created mass havoc due to its dreadful clinical outcome and socio-cultural consequences. We report here the clinico-demographic profile and treatment outcome of 15 cutaneous anthrax cases attended at the Dermatology Outpatient Department of Rajshahi Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh between April and August, 2011 with an aim to create awareness for early case detection and management. Findings Anthrax was suspected primarily based on cutaneous manifestations of typical non-tender ulcer with black eschar, with or without oedema, and a history of butchering, or dressing/washing of cattle/goat or their meat. Diagnosis was established by demonstration of large gram-positive rods, typically resembling B. anthracis under light microscope where possible and also by ascertaining therapeutic success. The mean age of cases was 21.4 years (ranging from 3 to 46 years), 7 (46.7%) being males and 8 (53.3%) females. The majority of cases were from lower middle socioeconomic status. Types of exposures included butchering (20%), contact with raw meat (46.7%), and live animals (33.3%). Malignant pustule was present in upper extremity, both extremities, face, and trunk at frequencies of 11 (73.3%), 2 (13.3%), 1 (6.7%) and 1 (6.7%) respectively. Eight (53.3%) patients presented with fever, 7 (46.7%) had localized oedema and 5 (33.3%) had regional lymphadenopathy. Anthrax was confirmed in 13 (86.7%) cases by demonstration of gram-positive rods. All cases were cured with 2 months oral ciprofloxacin combined with flucoxacillin for 2 weeks. Conclusions We present the findings from this series of cases to reinforce the criteria for clinical diagnosis and to urge prompt therapeutic measures to treat cutaneous anthrax
Expanded carrier screening in reproductive medicine-points to consider: a joint statement of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, National Society of Genetic Counselors, Perinatal Quality Foundation, and Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine.
Edwards, Janice G; Feldman, Gerald; Goldberg, James; Gregg, Anthony R; Norton, Mary E; Rose, Nancy C; Schneider, Adele; Stoll, Katie; Wapner, Ronald; Watson, Michael S
The Perinatal Quality Foundation and the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, in association with the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and the National Society of Genetic Counselors, have collaborated to provide education for clinicians and laboratories regarding the use of expanded genetic carrier screening in reproductive medicine. This statement does not replace current screening guidelines, which are published by individual organizations to direct the practice of their constituents. As organizations develop practice guidelines for expanded carrier screening, further direction is likely. The current statement demonstrates an approach for health care providers and laboratories who wish to or who are currently offering expanded carrier screening to their patients.
Mower, Herbert W.
In the United States, two professional organizations provide support and educational activities for the medical physicist: the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the American College of Medical Physics. The questions to be answered are: (1) what services are provided by each group; (2) how do they differ; and what are the benefits of membership?
Ethics education in undergraduate pre-health programs. The contribution of undergraduate colleges and universities to the ethical and moral development of future doctors in the medical and dental professions.
Erratt, Tamie D
There are many barriers to ethics education of students attending medical and dental schools. The question is asked, "Should more attention be given to addressing students' ethics education during their undergraduate years of preparation for professional healthcare programs?" This qualitative study utilizes digitally recorded personal interviews with two undergraduate pre-healthcare students, one medical student, one recently matriculated dental student, one undergraduate pre-healthcare faculty member, three dental school faculty members, and three medical school faculty members. Interview participants discuss areas of personal knowledge and experience concerning: the admissions process and screening of potential medical/dental students for ethical traits and behaviors, influences on student ethical development, undergraduate pre-healthcare ethics training, and preferred college major for pre-healthcare students. The study concludes that undergraduate pre-healthcare programs should take the initiative to be proactive and deliberate in strengthening the positive influences on students. Strategies include: 1) humanities curricula to broaden perspectives and increase non-prejudice; 2) mentoring and modeling by older students, faculty, and community and professional volunteers; 3) ethical case study discussions in class or extracurricular activities; and 4) volunteer/service learning activities. Additionally, curriculum learning is enhanced by the use of reflection and writing, discussions, and media.
Bistreich, Alan M.
The validity of seven criteria utilized in conjunction with personal interviews and School and College Ability Test scores in the selection of applicants for admission to four Allied Health programs was investigated. The independent predictor variables studied were high school grade point average (GPA), the number of high school natural science…
Mack, Yvette E.
This study evaluated and analyzed medical school executives' perceptions of the low level of advancement of women into the healthcare c-suite. As well, medical school executives' recommendations for increasing the number of women entering and experiencing sustained success in executive positions were assessed. Related to these observations were…
Kalia, Sarah S; Adelman, Kathy; Bale, Sherri J; Chung, Wendy K; Eng, Christine; Evans, James P; Herman, Gail E; Hufnagel, Sophia B; Klein, Teri E; Korf, Bruce R; McKelvey, Kent D; Ormond, Kelly E; Richards, C Sue; Vlangos, Christopher N; Watson, Michael; Martin, Christa L; Miller, David T
Disclaimer: These recommendations are designed primarily as an educational resource for medical geneticists and other healthcare providers to help them provide quality medical services. Adherence to these recommendations is completely voluntary and does not necessarily assure a successful medical outcome. These recommendations should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed toward obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, the clinician should apply his or her own professional judgment to the specific clinical circumstances presented by the individual patient or specimen. Clinicians are encouraged to document the reasons for the use of a particular procedure or test, whether or not it is in conformance with this statement. Clinicians also are advised to take notice of the date this statement was adopted and to consider other medical and scientific information that becomes available after that date. It also would be prudent to consider whether intellectual property interests may restrict the performance of certain tests and other procedures.To promote standardized reporting of actionable information from clinical genomic sequencing, in 2013, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) published a minimum list of genes to be reported as incidental or secondary findings. The goal was to identify and manage risks for selected highly penetrant genetic disorders through established interventions aimed at preventing or significantly reducing morbidity and mortality. The ACMG subsequently established the Secondary Findings Maintenance Working Group to develop a process for curating and updating the list over time. We describe here the new process for accepting and evaluating nominations for updates to the secondary findings list. We also report outcomes from six nominations received in the initial 15 months after
Is age an independent risk factor for medical complications following minimally invasive radical prostatectomy? An evaluation of contemporary American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement (ACS-NSQIP) data.
Dagrosa, Lawrence M; Ingimarsson, Johann P; Gorlov, Ivan P; Higgins, John H; Hyams, Elias S
While robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) is an effective treatment for localized prostate cancer, the risk of complications in older patients can be a deterrent to surgery. We evaluated the rate of medical complications following RALRP in a national dataset of safety events, and assessed whether age is an independent risk factor for these complications. Retrospective analysis of patients undergoing RALRP between 2009 and 2012 in the prospectively maintained American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement (ACS-NSQIP) database was performed. Demographic and comorbid data were collated, medical complications occurring during the 30-day post-operative period were identified. We identified age-related comorbidities, and complications associated with these comorbidities. A binary logistic regression model with age and age-related comorbidities as predictors and specific complication as outcome, was used to evaluate whether age is an independent risk factor for these complications. 12,123 patients underwent RALRP between 2009 and 2012, with a mean age of 62 (22-92). Post-operative medical complications included urinary tract infection (UTI) (1.77 %), deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (0.67 %), pulmonary embolism (PE) (0.45 %), pneumonia (PNA) (0.27 %), myocardial infarction (MI) (0.12 %), and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) (0.01 %). Nine comorbidities were positively correlated with age (p < 0.05). Four medical complications were associated with these age-related comorbidities: MI, CVA, PNA, and UTI. On multivariate analysis, age was an independent risk factor for post-operative PNA (p < 0.05), but not for MI (p = 0.09), UTI (p = 0.3) or CVA (p = 0.2). Patient age was independently associated with post-operative pneumonia only. These data suggest that RALRP can be considered as a treatment option in selected older patients with minimal increased risk for post-operative complications.
... Information for the Public / Hearing and Balance Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects) By Barbara Cone, Patricia Dorn, Dawn Konrad- ... Audiology Information Series [PDF]. What Is Ototoxicity? Certain medications can damage the ear, resulting in hearing loss, ...
Nault, Andre J.
Veterinary medical libraries and librarians are unique. There are now 33 veterinary colleges in North America, and in accordance with American Veterinary Medical Association accreditation, each has a library managed by an accredited librarian. Colleges with veterinary programs often maintain specialized branch libraries to support the degree,…
Chapa, Marisa; Galvan-De Leon, Vanessa; Solis, Judith; Mundy, Marie-Anne
During the 79th Texas Legislature, the bill "Advancement of College Readiness in Curriculum" was passed (THECB). As a response to this, high schools and colleges have combined forming an early college high school. The result of this union was a program that condensed the time it took to complete both the high school diploma and up to two…
Jones, Robert F.
This report presents information about the academic medical centers belonging to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and profiles American medical education generally. Following a brief introduction, a section on institutions and resources offers information on medical schools' financial support, faculties, and faculty practice…
Chen, Qin; Li, Hang; Zeng, Fancai; Zeng, Xiaorong; Zheng, Lige; Li, Xiang
The instructional pattern of Problem-based Learning, which requires teachers to be "organizers, guides and cooperators" of their students' learning, is now becoming a trend in the development of medical education around the world. In order to be competent in all the above mentioned roles, teachers need to be equipped with corresponding…
Agaga, Luther Agbonyegbeni; John, Theresa Adebola
In Nigeria, medical students are trained in more didactic environments than their counterparts in researchintensive academic medical centers. Their conception of pharmacology was thus sought. Students who are taking/have takenthe medical pharmacology course completed an 18-question survey within 10min by marking one/more choices fromalternatives. Instructions were: "Dear Participant, Please treat as confidential, give your true view, avoid influences, avoidcrosstalk, return survey promptly." Out of 301 students, 188 (62.46%) participated. Simple statistics showed: 61.3%respondents associated pharmacology with medicine, 24.9% with science, 16.8 % with industry, and 11.1% with government;32.8% want to know clinical pharmacology, 7.1% basic pharmacology, 6.7% pharmacotherapy, and 34.2% want a blend ofall three; 57.8% want to know clinical uses of drugs, 44.8% mechanisms of action, 44.4% side effects, and 31.1% differentdrugs in a group; 45.8% prefer to study lecturers' notes, 26.7% textbooks, 9.8% the Internet, and 2.7% journals; 46.7% usestandard textbooks, 11.5% revision texts, 2.66% advanced texts, and 8.4% no textbook; 40.4% study pharmacology to beable to treat patients, 39.1% to complete the requirements for MBBS degree, 8.9% to know this interesting subject, and 3.1%to make money. Respondents preferring aspects of pharmacology were: 42.7, 16, 16, and 10 (%) respectively for mechanismsof action, pharmacokinetics, side effects, and drug lists. Medical students' conception and need for pharmacology werebased on MBBS degree requirements; they lacked knowledge/interest in pharmacology as a science and may not be thepotential trusts for Africa's future pharmacology.
Simmons, Guy H., Ed.
This 1-day colloquium, attended by 23 participants representing societies, government agencies, colleges and universities, and other training programs, was conducted for the purpose of reporting on and discussing the curriculums developed at the University of Cincinnati for training nuclear medical technologists. Pilot programs at both the…
Smith, D Emslie
After an annual introduction of new Fellows one of them viewed the neckties on display and, referring to their sagittary motif, was heard to say, 'I suppose it is the College crest.' Of course, it is precisely not that. The only crest the College has is that of its arms, which is completely different. However, one can sympathise with the new Fellow, for in the College he was surrounded by confusing reminders of the medical mythology of ancient Greece. This account is offered as a refresher course on the dramatis personae of the pantheon and some of their activities and attributes.
Medical Library Association, Chicago, IL.
A medical library technician is a semiprofessional library employee whose duties require knowledge and skill based on a minimum of two years' general college education that includes library instruction beyond the clerical level. The medical library technician must have a practical knowledge of library functions and services, an understanding of…
Unwin, Brian K; Goodie, Jeffrey; Reamy, Brian V; Quinlan, Jeffrey
There are approximately 20 million students in U.S. colleges and universities. Although this population is characterized as having good health, 600,000 students report some form of disability or some type of medical problem, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, psychiatric disorders, and chronic illnesses, among others. Physicians can enhance youth transition to an adult model of health care; the use of self-care skills checklists is one recommended method to assist with the transition. Stimulant medications are effective for treating adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but physicians should use caution when prescribing stimulants to college students because of the high rates of medication diversion in this population. Depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, sleep problems, and eating disorders are common in college students and can significantly impact performance. Emphasis on immunization of students for influenza, meningococcus, and pertussis is necessary because of the low rates of compliance. Screening and interventions for obesity, tobacco use, and substance abuse are important because of the high prevalence of these problems in college students. Screening for alcohol abuse facilitates identification of students with problem drinking behaviors. Students who are war veterans should be monitored for suicidal ideation and posttraumatic stress disorder. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning students are at risk of harassment and discrimination. Caution should be exercised when prescribing medications to college athletes to avoid violation of National Collegiate Athletic Association eligibility rules.
Joseph, Nitin; Rai, Sharada; Madi, Deepak; Bhat, Kamalakshi; Kotian, Shashidhar M; Kantharaju, Supriya
Background: Knowledge of community medicine is essential for health care professionals to function as efficient primary health care physicians. Medical students learning Community Medicine as a subject are expected to be competent in critical thinking and generic skills so as to analyze community health problems better. However, current teaching by didactic lectures fails to develop these essential skills. Problem-based learning (PBL) could be an effective strategy in this respect. This study was hence done to compare the academic performance of students who were taught Community Medicine by the PBL method with that of students taught by traditional methods, to assess the generic skills of students taught in a PBL environment and to assess the perception of students toward PBL methodology. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among seventh-semester final-year medical students between June and November 2014. PBL was introduced to a randomly chosen group of students, and their performance in an assessment exam at the end of postings was compared with that of the remaining students. Generic skills and perception toward PBL were also assessed using standardized questionnaires. Results: A total of 77 students took part in the brainstorming session of PBL. The correlation between self-assigned scores of the participants and those assigned by the tutor in the brainstorming session of PBL was significant (r = 0.266, P = 0.05). Out of 54 students who took part in the presentation session, almost all 53 (98.1%) had good perception toward PBL. Demotivational scores were found to be significantly higher among males (P = 0.024). The academic performance of students (P < 0.001) and success rates (P = 0.05) in the examination were higher among students who took part in PBL compared to controls. Conclusion: PBL helped improve knowledge of students in comparison to those exposed only to didactic lectures. As PBL enabled students to identify the gaps in their knowledge
Sauls, Samuel J.
As with commercial stations, the underlying premise of the college radio station is to serve the community, whether it be the campus community or the community at large, but in unique ways often geared to underserved niches of the population. Much of college radio's charm lies in its unpredictable nature and constant mutations. The stations give…
Goldstein, Joel K.
Examines one of the least understood institutions of U.S. politics, the Electoral College. Discusses the historical circumstances resulting in its creation as well as the current structure and membership. Provides arguments for and against continuation of the Electoral College. (MJP)
Students moving from high school to college in the United States typically confront a bewildering set of largely unstructured options. In the absence of clear signals about how to get the most out of college, they often choose pathways that involve limited academic rigor and engagement. In this article, Richard Arum describes a study that followed…
British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.
This handbook is intended both as a text for use in medical office assistant (MOA) training programs in colleges and as a handbook for people working in medical offices. Addressed in the individual sections of the manual are the following topics: responsibilities of the medical office assistant, office organization, appointments and the waiting…
Porter, Kenneth; And Others
An experiment at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine with a short-term medical student couples' workshop designed to foster increased sensitivity between medical students and their partners resulted in recommendation that such workshops be offered to medical students. (JT)
Kirsch, Daniel J.; Doerfler, Leonard A.; Truong, Debbie
Objective: To describe diagnostic and psychotropic medication prescription characteristics among college students referred by college counseling centers for psychopharmacologic evaluation. Participants: Participants were 540 college students referred by 6 college counseling centers in Massachusetts between November 2005 and May 2011. Methods:…
Jensh, Ronald P.; Veloski, J. Jon
A summer fellowship program is described that was initiated at Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University to provide an opportunity for interested faculty to interact with selected students who had used computers before entering medical school. (MLW)
A description of Hamilton College's campus computing environment looks at the planning and management of information technology, computing services, the telephone network, faculty and student computing, and computer applications in the library. (MSE)
Academic Medicine, 1989
Association of American Medical Colleges' reports concerning Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome include "Policy Guidelines for Addressing HIV [human immunodeficiency virus] Infection in the Academic Medical Community" and "The HIV Epidemic and Medical Education." (MSE)
Young, Derrick P.
Designed for use with interested students at high schools, community colleges, and four-year colleges, this lesson plan was developed to provide an introduction to the pre-hospital phase of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and to serve as a recruitment tool for the EMS Program at Kapiolani Community College (KCC) in Hawaii. The objectives of the…
Khatun, M; Ali, M I; Pathan, F H
Medical education in Bangladesh is poorly assessed and there is a general lack of documented knowledge about the challenges facing this field and the needs for its development. It was Cross-sectional descriptive type of study carried out among the teachers of two public (Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka and Sher-E-Bangla Medical College, Barisal) and two non-government Medical Colleges (Northern Medical College, Dhaka and IBN Sina Medical College, Dhaka) during the period of July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012 to explore their views regarding the training or course in medical education. The sample size was 204 who were selected purposively. The data were collected by a semi-structured and self-administered questionnaire. From the study it was revealed that majority 201(98.5%) of respondents showed their interest for training or course on medical education. Among them 123(61.2%) preferred a regular course, 58(28.8%) desired for training program and 20(9.9%) for refresher training on medical education. Most 83(67.4%) of the respondents agreed that there are barriers to participate in a training or course on medical education. Thirty four (43.6%) expressed their opinion that the duration of the training should be at least three months.
This guide compiles information reported by medical schools on their efforts to help students develop a sound code of professional ethics. The introduction opens with background information on an Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) 1992 survey of medical schools and on why it is imperative that schools assist medical students' ethical…
Criswell, David R.
Space Grant Colleges and Universities must build the space curriculum of the future on the firm basis of deep knowledge of an involvement with the present operating programs of the nation and an on-going and extensive program of leading edge research in the aerospace sciences and engineering, management, law, finance, and the other arts that are integral to our planetary society. The Space Grant College and Fellowship Program must create new academic fields of enquiry, which is a long and difficult process that will require deeper and broader interaction between NASA and academia than has previously existed.
Stenerson, Heather J.; Davis, Penny M.; Labash, Andrea M.; Procyshyn, Mavis M.
The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Saskatchewan tracked a cohort of 39 international medical graduates (IMGs) in rural Saskatchewan and discovered that 51% left the province within five years (personal communication). A study by Basky, Mathew, Edwards, and Rourke (2007) found that half a cohort of IMGs in rural Newfoundland and Labrador…
Discusses the efforts of tribally controlled colleges to integrate traditional American Indian healing techniques with Western medical practices, indicating that the colleges often find themselves acting as liaisons between the two approaches. Describes approaches of the colleges' medical programs to promote understanding of Indian patients and…
Using the data published by "Boston" magazine and the New England Board of Higher Education's "2016 Guide to New England Colleges & Universities," Marc Rubin examined higher education institutions (HEIs) prices, defined as tuition and plus fees, as a function of several independent factors including: (1) Percentage of…
Nist, Sherrie L.; Simpson, Michele
Notes that many students enter postsecondary institutions unprepared to meet the studying demands placed on them. Examines models and taxonomies that have guided researchers as they have investigated studying. Reviews research factors related to studying at the college level: course characteristics, learner characteristics, and learning…
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Antony, James Soto
Medical-career aspirations prior to college are examined in longitudinal data (N=27,065; 59.1% female). Men and women aspire to medical careers at roughly the same rate and for mostly the same reasons, but the strength of influence varies significantly for certain factors. Fewer women maintain medical-career aspirations during college. (Author/EMK)
Roberts, William L.; Pugliano, Gina; Langenau, Erik; Boulet, John R.
Medical schools employ a variety of preadmission measures to select students most likely to succeed in the program. The Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) and the undergraduate college grade point average (uGPA) are two academic measures typically used to select students in medical school. The assumption that presently used preadmission…
Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.
The Association of American Medical Colleges presents the results of their Annual Salary Questionnaire for medical school faculties for the fiscal year 1971-72. Ninety-five schools submitted returns and salaries of 4,930 basic scientists and 11,941 clinical scientists are reported in the survey. The areas covered include strict full-time faculty…
Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.
The Association of American Medical Colleges presents the results of their Annual Salary Questionnaire for medical school faculties for the fiscal year 1972-73. One hundred five schools submitted returns and salaries of 4,925 basic scientists and 11,567 clinical scientists are reported in the survey. The areas covered include strict full-time…
Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.
The Association of American Medical Colleges conducted a survey by means of a questionnaire in 1970-71 to determine the salaries of medical school faculties. Ninety-three schools submitted returns; salaries for 4,366 basic scientists and 12,701 clinical scientists are reported. The areas covered include strict full-time faculty by department, and…
Rosenbaum, James E.; Ahearn, Caitlin; Rosenbaum, Janet
Efforts to promote college for all for all has opened college doors to a broad range of students. But college--and career success after college--doesn't have to mean a bachelor's degree. Community college credentials, such as associate's degrees and one-year certificates, can lead to further degrees or jobs that offer more benefits than students…
Lee, David E.
Explores why continuing veterinary medical education (CVME) programs can play a vital role in supporting the overall strategy of a veterinary college. Discusses the current and future market for CVME programs and strategies for sustainability and synergy. (EV)
Steinbach, Sheldon Elliot
Legal information concerning Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) that college presidents may find helpful in establishing policies and procedures is provided in a paper by the general counsel of the American Council on Education. Sources of medical information, including the American College Health Association, hotlines, and federal…
Caley, Charles F.; Webber, Donna; Kurland, Michael; Holmes, Paula
Published evidence indicates there is a growing prevalence of psychiatric illnesses on college campuses, and that approximately one quarter of students may be taking psychotropic medications. But attracting and retaining experienced mental health care professionals to college health settings is a challenging task. The psychiatric pharmacist is one…
Ketcham, Clay A., Ed.
The proceedings of the fifth annual meeting of the College Reading Association, held in 1962, consisted of the following papers: (1) "President's Report to the College Reading Association" (Albert J. Mazurkiewicz); (2) "Medical Aspects of Written Language Disability" (James J. Smith); (3) "Research and Secondary…
Journal of Medical Education, 1981
A proposal by the National Board of Medical Examiners and the Federation of State Medical Boards to require all medical graduates to pass a qualifying examination for participation eligibility in patient care in accredited graduate medical education programs is examined by the Association of American Medical Colleges. (MLW)
The National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the Air Medical Physician Association (AMPA), the Association of Air Medical Services (AAMS), and the National Association of State EMS Officials (NASEMSO) believe that patient care and outcomes are optimized by using air medical transport services that are licensed air ambulance providers with robust physician medical director oversight and ongoing quality assessment and review. Only air ambulance medical transport services with these credentials should advertise/market themselves as air ambulance services.
Ahmad, Iftikhar; Mahsud, Muhammad Amin Jan; Hussain, Javed; Khan, Muhammad Hussain; Khan, Habibullah; Noman, Nargis; Rabi, Fazle, Din, Siraj ud
Background: Health care workers including medical students are vulnerable to hepatitis B & C virus infections. The objective of this study was to determine the level of willingness for screening among medical students. Methodology: This cross-sectional survey was carried out at Gomal Medical College, Dera Ismail Khan from 1st April 2010 to 15…
Jolly, Paul, Ed.; Hudley, Dorothea M., Ed.
This 1994 version of an annual data book on United States medical education offers extensive data on 12 topics which are fundamental or most frequently requested. Data sources include the Association of American Medical Colleges, the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates, the National Institutes of Health, Health Care Financing…
Rothenberg, Julia Johnson; Holland, Errol
This paper describes a 2-month project developed by the Sage Colleges (New York) and the University of Capetown Medical School in South Africa to help the medical faculty at the Capetown Medical School teach its newly diverse student body. The program is intended to improve student retention and it emphasizes the need for faculty to assure…
Academic Medicine, 1999
The report of the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical School Objectives Program presents the work of two expert panels. One, on medical informatics, identified five important physician roles: lifelong learner, clinician, educator, researcher, and manager. Another panel established a definition for "population health…
Holla, Sunil Jonathan; Ramachandran, Kalpana; Isaac, Bina; Koshy, Shajan
Authors report here a survey of medical student feedback on the effectiveness of two different anatomy curricula at Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. Undergraduate medical students seeking the Bachelor in Medicine and Bachelor in Surgery (M.B.B.S.) degrees were divided into two groups by the duration of their respective anatomy…
... have an understanding of medical terminology, anatomy and physiology, grammar, and word-processing software. Pay The median ... must become familiar with medical terminology, anatomy and physiology, diagnostic procedures, pharmacology, and treatment assessments. Their ability ...
Markose, Aji; Krishnan, Ramesh; Ramesh, Maya
Mutual trust and relationship between doctors and patients is an important factor of treatment plan. Changing trends in medical field does affect this relationship. This article reviews the basic code of conduct for every medical practitioner. PMID:27829735
... ADHD medications work by increasing the levels of brain chemicals called neurotransmitters . Neurotransmitters help send messages between nerve cells in the brain. There are two main kinds of ADHD medications: ...
... an undesired pregnancy. The medicine helps remove the fetus and placenta from the mother's womb (uterus). There are different types of medical abortions: Therapeutic medical abortion is done because the woman ...
SUCHMAN, EDWARD A.
THE SOCIAL AND MEDICAL PROBLEM TODAY HAS SHIFTED FROM PROVIDING FOR THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL NEEDS OF THE INDIGENT SICK TO RAISING THE LEVEL OF LOWER CLASS PARTICIPATION IN THE BENEFITS OF MODERN MEDICINE. GREATER ATTENTION IS BEING FOCUSED ON MEDICAL DEPRIVATION SUFFERED BY LARGE SEGMENTS OF THE POPULATION WHO DO NOT SHARE EQUALLY IN MEDICAL…
... medical assistants often fill out insurance forms or code patientsâ€™ medical information. They often answer telephones and ... charts and diagnoses. They may be required to code a patientâ€™s medical records for billing purposes. Detail ...
Albretsen, Jay C
Many medications are available today by prescription or in over-the-counter preparations. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, toxicity, clinical signs, and management procedures necessary for some oral medications. The medications reviewed include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, amphetamines or amphetamine like drugs, carprofen, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, pseudoephedrine, calcium channel blockers, and baclofen.
College majors of 13,871 medical school graduates were assigned Holland occupational codes. The resulting analysis showed that the majority of medical specialties and subspecialties attracted students from all personality types. (SK)
This article discusses some of the dramatic changes seen in college mental health issues over the past 2 decades. These modifications are a consequence of many factors: changes in our health care system (managed care), new effective biological treatments (medications), the focus of psychiatric training (biologic focus), technology advances…
This study of the origin and history of the University of Vermont College of Medicine begins with the appointment of John Pomeroy to the faculty in 1804, and traces the years that followed. Chiefly concerned with the individuals who were involved, it is a case study of the responses of one small medical school to reform movements, and its ability…
What is the relationship between ACT scores and success in college? For decades, admissions policies in colleges and universities across the country have required applicants to submit scores from a college entrance exam, most typically the ACT (American College Testing) or SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test). This requirement suggests that high school…
Boston Coll., Chestnut Hill, MA.
This conference report examines various problems facing university administrators and discusses the future role of the executive in American colleges and universities. Conference papers concern the future college executive; efficiency, accountability and the college executive; administrative concerns; and the rights of college administrators. (MJM)
Conley, David T.
Many students who are "eligible" for college are not "ready" for college. Readiness is much more complex and multidimensional than eligibility. Most high schools are organized to make students eligible for college admission, not make them ready to succeed in entry-level college courses. Over the past 15 years, the author has conducted research on…
Story, Ronald, Ed.
This book presents essays on the histories of five Massachusetts schools of higher education (Amherst College, Mount Holyoke College, the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Smith College, Hampshire College) who together have had a successful consortia lasting for 25 years. The first essay, by Theodore P. Greene, depicts the temper of Amherst…
In addition to higher education programs, tribal colleges offer welfare-to-work programs, adult education, vocational and agricultural training, and childcare, which makes their costs higher than those of conventional colleges. Most tribal colleges are small, resulting in higher than average per student costs. Tribal colleges charge an average of…
Taub, Deborah J.; Thompson, Jalonda
Suicide is the second-leading cause of death among college students, and it is estimated that 1,088 college students die by suicide each year (National Mental Health Association and the Jed Foundation, 2002). This chapter presents the context of college student mental health within which the problem of college student suicide is situated. Because…
Gold, Ben K.
This report presents the results of a community survey which attempted to determine the demand for another college in the Los Angeles Community College District. The function of this "community campus" or "external college" would be to serve members of the community who are not already served by the eight existing colleges. Questionnaires received…
Haney, L. Richard; McClellan, Debralee
Frederick Community College (FCC) is a comprehensive open-door community college that serves the citizens of Frederick County, Maryland, the state's largest county by size and seventh in population (230,000). It is located in central Maryland, equidistant from Baltimore and Washington, D.C. The college's character as a learning college is…
Barnett, Lynn, Ed.
The American Association of Community Colleges' Beacon College Project (BCP) uses funds from the Kellogg Foundation to award two-year grants to "Beacon" community colleges to form consortia with at least five associate colleges, designed to improve a specific aspect of institutional life. A total of 26 projects, many involving community…
McKinsey & Co., Inc., Washington, DC.
Twelve colleges participated in a cost quality study. These colleges were: Allegheny College, Bryn Mawr College, Buchnell University, Carnegie-Mellon University, Chatham College, Dickinson College, Franklin and Marshall College, Gettysburg College, Haverford College, Lafayette College, Lehigh University, and Swarthmore College. The study is an…
Maryland State Board for Community Colleges, Annapolis.
These statistical profiles of 17 Maryland community colleges were prepared for use by the executive and legislative branches of the Maryland state government. The 17 colleges profiled are Allegany Community College, Anne Arundel Community College, Community College of Baltimore, Catonsville Community College, Cecil Community College, Charles…
Croen, Lila G.; And Others
A study at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (NY) found that performance on examinations during the third month of medical school was highly predictive of performance during the first two years of medical school. This predictor was more powerful than Medical College Admission Test scores and/or undergraduate grade point averages in…
Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W
Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.
Illness should continue to be treated by health professionals employing scientific evidence. This is responsible policy. It is not appropriate or medically justified for family physicians to refer patients to medical marijuana clinics; instead, they should inform their patients that medical treatment must be based on scientific evidence.
Abstract On 27 September 2013, the Centre for the Humanities and Health (CHH) at King's College London hosted a 1‐day workshop on ‘Medical knowledge, Medical Duties’. This workshop was the fifth in a series of five workshops whose aim is to provide a new model for high‐quality, open interdisciplinary engagement between medical professionals and philosophers. This report identifies the key points of discussion raised throughout the day and the methodology employed. PMID:25470528
Bullock, Emma; Kingma, Elselijn
On 27 September 2013, the Centre for the Humanities and Health (CHH) at King's College London hosted a 1-day workshop on 'Medical knowledge, Medical Duties'. This workshop was the fifth in a series of five workshops whose aim is to provide a new model for high-quality, open interdisciplinary engagement between medical professionals and philosophers. This report identifies the key points of discussion raised throughout the day and the methodology employed.
Varela, Alberto; Pritchard, Mary E.
Objective: Risk-taking behavior (eg, alcohol abuse, tobacco usage, misuse of prescription medications) among college students is a widespread problem. This study focused not only on the frequency of risky health behaviors in college students, but also the companions with whom they engaged in such behaviors. Methods: Three hundred and twelve…
Blake, Lindsay; Mears, Kim; Davies, Kathy; Ballance, Darra; Shipman, Peter; Connolly-Brown, Maryska; Gaines, Julie K
Librarians are increasingly moving out of the library and into the wider university setting as patrons spend more time seeking information online and less time visiting the library. The move to embed librarians in colleges, departments, or customer groups has been going on for some time but has recently received more attention as libraries work to find new ways to reach patrons that no longer need to come to the physical library. Few universities have attempted to embed all their librarians. This case study describes how one group of health sciences librarians dispersed its professional staff throughout its campuses and medical centers.
Goodman, Barbara E.; Koster, Karen L.; Swanson, David L.
In response to the Howard Hughes Medical Institute/Association of American Medical Colleges Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians (SFFP) report and a concern for better preparing undergraduates for future doctoral programs in the health professions, the deans of the College of Arts and Sciences and Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences of…
...) Contracts with schools and colleges of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and nursing... function dental auxiliaries, technicians, and other medical support personnel); and (c) When a...
...) Contracts with schools and colleges of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and nursing... function dental auxiliaries, technicians, and other medical support personnel); and (c) When a...
...) Contracts with schools and colleges of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and nursing... function dental auxiliaries, technicians, and other medical support personnel); and (c) When a...
Appel, Marilyn H.; And Others
A course in oncology for freshman medical students at the Medical College of Pennsylvania is discussed. It is thought that appropriate training of medical students appears to lead to more positive attitudes toward cancer, but many of these efforts have been directed to groups at later stages of medical education. (MLW)
Gohara, Sabry; Shapiro, Joseph I.; Jacob, Adam N.; Khuder, Sadik A.; Gandy, Robyn A.; Metting, Patricia J.; Gold, Jeffrey; Kleshinski, James; and James Kleshinski
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether models based on pre-admission testing, including performance on the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), performance on required courses in the medical school curriculum, or a combination of both could accurately predict performance of medical students on the United States Medical Licensing…
The Belgian law relative to euthanasia has been published in 2002. A physician is allowed to help a patient with intractable suffering (physical or psychological). Legal conditions are clear. However, nothing is said about medical procedures or medications to be used. The present paper will present specific clinical situations at the end of life, practical procedures and medications. A special focus is made on psychological impact of euthanasia.
A recent study from researchers at Ghent University in Belgium, involving 503 community-based adults aged 80 and over, found that 58% were taking five or more long-term medications daily, but few were taking them appropriately. The underuse of prescribed medication occurred in 67% of those studied and misuse occurred in 56%, with some overlap.
Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.
General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.
... depression and other mental health issues? Reference Share Depression and College Students Download PDF Download ePub Order ... Answers to college students’ frequently asked questions about depression Feeling moody, sad, or grouchy? Who doesn’t ...
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Impact of Nutrition on Health and Disease in Blacks and Other Minorities. Proceedings of the Meharry Medical College Annual Nutrition Workshop (1st, Nashville, Tennessee, October 28-30, 1987). Annual Nutrition Workshop Series, Volume 1.
Enwonwu, Cyril O., Ed.
Participants in this workshop were scientists from various disciplines, including public health, oncology, nutrition, epidemiology, biochemistry, immunology, pharmacology, pediatrics, geriatric medicine, and the behavioral sciences. The workshop featured deliberations by medical experts on the dimensions and demographics of hunger in America. The…
Nutrition and Hypertension in Blacks and Other Minorities. Proceedings of the Meharry Medical College Annual Nutrition Workshop (2nd, Nashville, Tennessee, October 26-28, 1988). Annual Nutrition Workshop Series, Volume II.
Enwonwu, Cyril O., Ed.
During this 3-day workshop with 138 registered participants, invited medical experts deliberated extensively on the physiological regulation of blood pressure, the unique biological characteristics and dietary patterns of Blacks and other minorities, the prevalence of hypertension in U.S. Blacks and Native Americans, the roles of specific macro-…
Haugen, Douglas E.
Over the past four decades the number of students enrolling in colleges and universities requiring at least one pre-college level course has been about one-third of all students. Underprepared students are as likely to complete their academic goals as their prepared counterparts if they are able to complete their remedial course work. This study…
Greater attention to the college and career readiness problem by state leaders and policymakers could drastically boost the numbers and percentages of students who graduate from high school ready for college and career study. This chapter traces the author's work in developing California State University's Early Assessment Program, an initiative…
Perna, Laura W.; Li, Chunyan
By examining trends in college affordability, this article explores the extent to which the public perception that college is not affordable is justified. First, the article describes trends in national indicators that contribute to ability to pay, including income growth, health care costs, debt burden, and personal savings rates. Trends in…
NIKITAS, CHRISTUS M.; AND OTHERS
TO MEET THE STATE'S HIGHER EDUCATION NEEDS, THE NEW HAMPSHIRE JUNIOR COLLEGE COMMISSION DEVELOPED A PLAN OF (1) GRADUAL AND SELECTIVE CONVERSION OF THE STATE'S TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS TO COMPREHENSIVE JUNIOR COLLEGES, (2) SELECTIVE ADDITION OF 2-YEAR PROGRAMS AT THE STATE COLLEGES AND INSTITUTES, AND (3) ESTABLISHMENT OF A STATE…
Responses of chief housing officers of 118 4-year colleges and universities to a survey focusing on costs, security, policies, and preferences provide a picture of college housing. More than 67% of respondents say that their colleges are planning to build more residential space. (SLD)
What is college for? There are basically three prevailing answers to this question. The most common answer is an economic one, though it is really two linked answers: first, that providing more people with a college education is good for the economic health of the nation; and second, that going to college is good for the economic competitiveness…
Scott, Richard M.
A survey of college administrators responsible for supervising college stores found that three factors are strongly considered in deciding whether to lease the college store: available management skills, service orientation, and financial resources. It also found that private and public institutions and large and small institutions rank the…
College Board, New York, NY.
This directory is intended to provide students and their advisors with authoritative information on 3,171 colleges and universities in the United States as well as supplementary information. The information was gathered in the winter and spring of 1992 through the College Board's Annual Survey of Colleges with descriptions subsequently verified…
College fees and tuition are rising--430 percent since 1982. Student borrowing for college has more than doubled since 1998, and about 50 percent of lower-income students head to college following high school, compared to 80 percent of high-income students, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. Various public school districts…
Austell, David B., Jr.
Reports on interviews conducted to assess the status of humanities instruction in North Carolina's community colleges. Includes Dallas Herring's reflections on the establishment and growth of the state's community college system. Summarizes interviews with central office representatives and two-year college managers concerning the mission and…
For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…
One Feather, Gerald
With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…
Crawford, Corinne; Persaud, Colin
Presently, community colleges are bursting at the seams. In 2011, community colleges turned away more than 400,000 prospective students. In the next six years, 63 percent of all U.S. jobs will require postsecondary education. Twenty two million new workers with postsecondary degrees will be needed by 2018. Community colleges are turning…
Tremblay, Christopher W.
College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…
Pederson, Eldor O.
Drawing from an examination of community college periodicals, their availability and characteristics, the academic affiliations of contributing authors, and the topics of their articles, this paper discusses the minor role which community college periodicals appear to play. A list of 35 periodicals dealing primary with community college education…
Rissing, Steven W.
Most American colleges and universities offer gateway biology courses to meet the needs of three undergraduate audiences: biology and related science majors, many of whom will become biomedical researchers; premedical students meeting medical school requirements and preparing for the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT); and students completing…
Black, Leslie S.; Turnwald, Grant H.; Meldrum, James B.
Describes the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine's use of outcomes assessment (OA) as part of the accreditation review process for the American Veterinary Medical Association. Discusses its nine OA survey instruments and use of resulting data during accreditation. (EV)
And Others; Kushins, Lawrence G.
In order to teach applied respiratory physiology to medical students, the anesthesiology faculty at the University of Florida College of Medicine has designed and implemented a course that includes a laboratory workshop in mechanical ventilation of an animal model that allows students to apply and expand their knowledge. (JMD)
A proposal is presented for a Community College of Philadelphia course, entitled "Medical Office Laboratory Procedures," which provides a laboratory introduction to microscopic and chemical analysis of blood and urine as performed in the physician's office. Following a standard cover form, a statement of the purpose of the course discusses course…
Oster-Aaland, Laura; Eighmy, Myron A.
This article explores the issues surrounding medical amnesty policies in higher education beginning with the background of such policies, a summary of the current debate regarding the policies, and a discussion of research related to helping behaviors among college students. Due to the negative consequences of alcohol misuse, many student affairs…
The current efforts of the Association of American Medical Colleges to test the feasibility of broadening the application, utility, and scope of the cost-finding studies conducted by many academic health centers and individual schools of the health professions are examined. The current effort is an outgrowth of the existing foundations of cost…
... scientists typically have a Ph.D., usually in biology or a related life science. Some medical scientists ... specialize in this field seek to understand the biology of aging and investigate ways to improve the ...
... under a psychiatrist's or other doctor's care. ADHD medications have helped teens with ADHD in all sorts of areas, even helping reduce things like substance abuse, injuries, and automobile accidents. ADHD medicines also can ...
... more than one type of medication. Alpha Agonist Company Brand Name Generic Name Alcon, Inc. Iopidine® Apraclonidine ... drowsiness, dry mouth and dry nose. Beta Blockers Company Brand Name Generic Name Akorn Ophthalmics Timolol Maleate ...
The use of medicinal marijuana is increasing. Marijuana has been shown to have therapeutic effects in certain patients, but further research is needed regarding the safety and efficacy of marijuana as a medical treatment for various conditions. A growing body of research validates the use of marijuana for a variety of healthcare problems, but there are many issues surrounding the use of this substance. This article discusses the use of medical marijuana and provides implications for home care clinicians.
Beach, Kirk W.; Dunmire, Barbrina
Medical acoustics can be subdivided into diagnostics and therapy. Diagnostics are further separated into auditory and ultrasonic methods, and both employ low amplitudes. Therapy (excluding medical advice) uses ultrasound for heating, cooking, permeablizing, activating and fracturing tissues and structures within the body, usually at much higher amplitudes than in diagnostics. Because ultrasound is a wave, linear wave physics are generally applicable, but recently nonlinear effects have become more important, even in low-intensity diagnostic applications.
Telmesani, A; Zaini, R G; Ghazi, H O
Medical education has been changing rapidly in Saudi Arabia. Within a decade, the number of medical colleges increased from 5 medical schools with traditional disciplined-based curricula to 21 medical colleges with varied curricula ranging from the traditional to more innovative, problem-based, community-oriented programmes. The private sector has started investing in higher education generally and medical education in particular. Also other government sectors that provide advanced health services have started established new medical colleges. The expansion of quantity in medical education has been associated with a drive for greater quality assurance. Accreditation of higher education institutes began with the establishment of the National Commission for Academic Assessment and Accreditation in 2005. This review focuses on documenting developments in Saudi medical education up to 2008 and discussing the future potential and challenges facing the sector.
Steggles, Allen W.
Discusses the teaching of biotechnology to medical students, undergraduate students and high school seniors. Suggests changes in how the basic sciences are taught in medical schools. Reviews the effects of teaching biotechnology at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine (NEOUCOM). (CW)
Zebala, John A.; And Others
This revised and updated handbook written by recent medical school graduates offers a firsthand account of successful strategies for the medical school admissions process. Six chapters discuss the following topics: (1) premedical preparation (planning undergraduate study and picking the right college); (2) power techniques for higher grades…
Heath, John M.; Dyer, Carmel B.; Kerzner, Lawrence J.; Mosqueda, Laura; Murphy, Carole
Describe four models of incorporating elder-mistreatment curriculum and collaboration with adult protective services into geriatrics medical education. Draws on efforts at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey--Robert Wood Johnson Medical School; the University of California, Irvine College of Medicine; Hennepin County Medical…
Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.
Results of the most recent Administrative Salary Survey of the Association of American Medical Colleges are analyzed. The data represent 94 U.S. medical schools, with the number of applicable staff positions ranging from two to 52 per institution. The positions considered included those in which at least 20 percent of the time was spent in…
And Others; Crandall, Lee A.
Medical students, nursing students, and residents from the University of Florida College of Medicine live and work for several weeks in a rural county health center, providing a wide range of primary care and emergency medical services. Retrospective evaluations by participants are reported. (LBH)
WILLIAMS, K J; OSBALDESTON, J B
Before a hospital medical staff can realistically accept responsibility for the professional practices of its members, a principle initially fostered by the American College of Surgeons and adopted by both the Canadian and American accreditation programs, it must have an effectively functioning medical staff organization. The medical advisory committee is the most important committee of the medical staff organization. A representative composition, adherence to sound administrative principles, and recognition of its prime functions of co-ordination, supervision and jurisdiction will permit this committee-and the total medical staff organization-to discharge adequately the very important responsibilities delegated to them by the governing board of the hospital. Properly structured medical staff bylaws with clearly defined terms of reference assist the smooth functioning of the "cabinet" of the medical staff and safeguard the prerogatives of the individual members of the staff.
Lott, Joe L., II.; Hernandez, Jose; King, Joe P.; Brown, Tiffany; Fajardo, Ismael
Using data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93/03) of College Graduates, we use structural equation modeling to model the relationships between college major, values held in college, collegiate community service participation, and the post-college political participation of college graduates by public versus private…
Thomas, Sheila L
The purpose of this study was to assess the websites of American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC)-member medical schools for the presence of library links. Sixty-one percent (n = 92) of home pages of the 150 member schools of the AAMC contain library links. For the 58 home pages not offering such links, 50 provided a pathway of two or three clicks to a library link. The absence of library links on 39% of AAMC medical school home pages indicates that the designers of those pages did not consider the library to be a primary destination for their visitors.
Sahni, Anil K.
During ÑMedical Council Of India?, Platinum Jubilee Year (1933-2008) Celebrations, In Year 2008, Several Scientific Meeting/Seminar/Symposium, On Various Topics Of Contemporary Importance And Relevance In The Field Of ÑMedical Education And Ethics?, Were Organized, By Different Medical Colleges At Various Local, State, National Levels. The Present Discussion, Is An Comprehensive Summary Of Various Different Aspects of ìMedical Information Communication Technologyî, Especially UseFul For The Audience Stratum Group Of Those Amateur Medical & Paramedical Staff, With No Previous Work Experience Knowledge Of Computronics Applications. Outlining The, i.Administration Applications: Medical Records Etc, ii. Clinical Applications: Pros pective Scope Of TeleMedicine Applicabilities Etc iii. Other Applications: Efforts To Augment Improvement Of Medical Education, Medical Presentations, Medical Education And Research Etc. ÑMedical Trancription? & Related Recent Study Fields e.g ÑModern Pharmaceuticals?,ÑBio-Engineering?, ÑBio-Mechanics?, ÑBio-Technology? Etc., Along With Important Aspects Of Computers-General Considerations, Computer Ergonomics Assembled To Summarize, The AwareNess Regarding Basic Fundamentals Of Medical Computronics & Its Practically SuccessFul Utilities.
Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H
The Medical Renaissance started as the regular Renaissance did in the early 1400s and ended in the late 1600s. During this time great medical personalities and scholar humanists made unique advances to medicine and surgery. Linacre, Erasmus, Leonicello and Sylvius will be considered first, because they fit the early classic Renaissance period. Andreas Vesalius and Ambroise Paré followed thereafter, making outstanding anatomical contributions with the publication of the "Human Factory" (1543) by Vesalius, and describing unique surgical developments with the publication of the "The Apologie and Treatise of Ambroise Paré." At the end of the Renaissance and beginning of the New Science, William Harvey, noted British medical doctor and cardiovascular researcher, discovered the general circulation. He published his findings in "The Motu Cordis" in 1628 (Figure 1). The Medical Renaissance, in summary, included a great number of accomplished physicians and surgeons who made especial contributions to human anatomy; Vesalius assembled detailed anatomical information; Paré advanced surgical techniques; and Harvey, a medical genius, detailed the circulatory anatomy and physiology.
Saleem, Shemaila; Saleem, Tamkeen
Religion has been generally considered as a protective factor for the psychological health of the people. As many studies have publicized a high prevalence of psychological morbidities among the medical students during their academic stages of medical schools, it is significant to investigate whether religiosity functions as a protective factor, to explore religiosity as a predictor of psychological well-being in a sample of medical students, and to compare the results of medical students as well as non-medical students with respect to religiosity and psychological well-being. The study is carried out in Federal Medical and Dental College and International Islamic University, Islamabad. The present study examined a sample of 120 medical students from Federal Medical and Dental College and 120 non-medical students from International Islamic University, Islamabad. Purposive sampling was used. The respondents completed religious orientation scale and scale of psychological well-being scale along with a demographic data sheet. In order to measure the study variables, linear regression and t test were used. The findings revealed that religiosity is a strong predictor of psychological well-being. Extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity predicts psychological well-being among the students. The results indicated a significant difference in psychological well-being between medical and non-medical students. No significant difference was found in religiosity of medical and non-medical students. The gender differences in religiosity and psychological well-being were found to be insignificant. The results emphasize that psychological well-being is prophesied by religiosity. The present research suggests further investigations and also endows with trends for psychological evaluation, development of religious beliefs, and interventions for augmenting psychological well-being among the medical students.
Approach to outcome measurement in the prevention of thrombosis in surgical and medical patients: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines.
Guyatt, Gordon H; Eikelboom, John W; Gould, Michael K; Garcia, David A; Crowther, Mark; Murad, M Hassan; Kahn, Susan R; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Francis, Charles W; Lansberg, Maarten G; Akl, Elie A; Hirsh, Jack
This article provides the rationale for the approach to making recommendations primarily used in four articles of the Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines: orthopedic surgery, nonorthopedic surgery, nonsurgical patients, and stroke. Some of the early clinical trials of antithrombotic prophylaxis with a placebo or no treatment group used symptomatic VTE and fatal PE to measure efficacy of the treatment. These trials suggest a benefit of thromboprophylaxis in reducing fatal PE. In contrast, most of the recent clinical trials comparing the efficacy of alternative anticoagulants used a surrogate outcome, asymptomatic DVT detected at mandatory venography. This outcome is fundamentally unsatisfactory because it does not allow a trade-off with serious bleeding; that trade-off requires knowledge of the number of symptomatic events that thromboprophylaxis prevents. In this article, we review the merits and limitations of four approaches to estimating reduction in symptomatic thrombosis: (1) direct measurement of symptomatic thrombosis, (2) use of asymptomatic events for relative risks and symptomatic events from randomized controlled trials for baseline risk, (3) use of baseline risk estimates from studies that did not perform surveillance and relative effect from asymptomatic events in randomized controlled trials, and (4) use of available data to estimate the proportion of asymptomatic events that will become symptomatic. All approaches have their limitations. The optimal choice of approach depends on the nature of the evidence available.
Lewis, A. Lee; Klintworth, Erin M.; Hinton, Jessica O.; Gray, Kevin M.
Objectives To survey a diverse high school population on current prescription and over-the-counter medication misuse behaviors and attitudes. Methods We administered the MUSC Inventory of Medication Experiences (MIME), a newly developed self-report instrument, in demographically diverse high schools in Charleston, SC, to assess the feasibility of its administration and determine characteristics associated with medication misuse among high school students. Results A total of 3182 students completed the MIME (93% completion rate). Nearly one-third (31%) reported misuse of a medication more than once a month. Analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between misuse and age (<15=33%, 15=32%, 16=33%, 17=30%, 18=26%, >18=34%; p=.35), grade (9=29%, 10=32%, 11=33%, 12=30%; p=.22), race (White 34%, African-American 26%, others 30%; p<.001), gender (M=32%, F=28%; p=.01), parent/guardian level of education (
Kiguli-Malwadde, Elsie; Olapade-Olaopa, E Oluwabunmi; Kiguli, Sarah; Chen, Candice; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Ogunniyi, Adesola O; Mukwaya, Solome; Omaswa, Francis
Background Relatively little has been written on Medical Education in Sub-Saharan Africa, although there are over 170 medical schools in the region. A number of initiatives have been started to support medical education in the region to improve quality and quantity of medical graduates. These initiatives have led to curricular changes in the region, one of which is the introduction of Competency-Based Medical Education (CBME). Institutional reviews This paper presents two medical schools, Makerere University College of Health Sciences and College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, which successfully implemented CBME. The processes of curriculum revision are described and common themes are highlighted. Both schools used similar processes in developing their CBME curricula, with early and significant stakeholder involvement. Competencies were determined taking into consideration each country’s health and education systems. Final competency domains were similar between the two schools. Both schools established medical education departments to support their new curricula. New teaching methodologies and assessment methods were needed to support CBME, requiring investments in faculty training. Both schools received external funding to support CBME development and implementation. Conclusion CBME has emerged as an important change in medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa with schools adopting it as an approach to transformative medical education. Makerere University and the University of Ibadan have successfully adopted CBME and show that CBME can be implemented even for the low-resourced countries in Africa, supported by external investments to address the human resources gap. PMID:25525404
For more than two decades, Biotechnology and Bioengineering has documented research focused on natural and engineered microbial biofilms within aquatic and subterranean ecosystems, wastewater and waste-gas treatment systems, marine vessels and structures, and industrial bioprocesses. Compared to suspended culture systems, intentionally engineered biofilms are heterogeneous reaction systems that can increase reactor productivity, system stability, and provide inherent cell: product separation. Unwanted biofilms can create enormous increases in fluid frictional resistances, unacceptable reductions in heat transfer efficiency, product contamination, enhanced material deterioration, and accelerated corrosion. Missing from B&B has been an equivalent research dialogue regarding the basic molecular microbiology, immunology, and biotechnological aspects of medical biofilms. Presented here are the current problems related to medical biofilms; current concepts of biofilm formation, persistence, and interactions with the host immune system; and emerging technologies for controlling medical biofilms. PMID:18366134
Hoffman, Joseph A.
The Cooperative Education Program conducted by the New Jersey Department of Labor and Industry and Thomas A. Edison College enables State labor department employees to work toward college degrees by attending free classes, taking college-level examinations for college credit, and converting work and life experiences into college credits.…
Holden, Elizabeth A
Leases for medical space can have far-reaching (and sometimes unintentional) consequences for the future of the practice and the costs of the business. In order to prevent hardship and expense down the line, it is especially important to review the lease to make sure that it reflects the practice's goals, needs, and structure. This article provides a number of provisions that are especially crucial to review and negotiate when leasing medical space, including use restrictions, assignment and subleasing clauses, build-out terms, and legal compliance requirements.
Jorde, L.B.; Carey, J.C.; White, R.L.
This book on the subject of medical genetics is a textbook aimed at a very broad audience: principally, medical students, nursing students, graduate, and undergraduate students. The book is actually a primer of general genetics as applied to humans and provides a well-balanced introduction to the scientific and clinical basis of human genetics. The twelve chapters include: Introduction, Basic Cell Biology, Genetic Variation, Autosomal Dominant and Recessive Inheritance, Sex-linked and Mitochondrial Inheritance, Clinical Cytogenetics, Gene Mapping, Immunogenetics, Cancer Genetics, Multifactorial Inheritance and Common Disease, Genetic Screening, Genetic Diagnosis and Gene Therapy, and Clinical Genetics and Genetic Counseling.
Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University, 2014
The College Readiness Indicator Systems (CRIS) initiative was developed in response to a troubling pattern: More students than ever are enrolling in college after high school, but many of them are not college ready, as evidenced by persistently low rates of college completion. The sense of urgency to close the gap between college eligibility and…
Nora, J.J.; Fraser, F.C.
This book presents a discussion of medical genetics for the practitioner treating or counseling patients with genetic disease. It includes a discussion of the relationship of heredity and diseases, the chromosomal basis for heredity, gene frequencies, and genetics of development and maldevelopment. The authors also focus on teratology, somatic cell genetics, genetics and cancer, genetics of behavior.
Schieck, Hans Paetz Gen.
The recent progress in medical imaging techniques such as magnetic-resonance imaging (nmr or mri), computer tomography (CT with X-rays), and positron-emission tomography (PET scanning using short-lived radioactive nuclei) has been impressive. Two areas where diagnostic tools lacked behind have been tomography of the blood vessels of the brain and of the bronchi.
Medic Bleep is a secure instant messaging app that enables clinicians to discuss patient care quickly, securely and legally. It looks and feels like WhatsApp, but has been designed for the healthcare market to enable staff to communicate with each other, and to help speed up conversations between clinicians to increase efficiency.
... common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow ... Practices National Patient Safety Foundation To Err is Human: ... Errors: Quality Chasm Series National Coordinating Council for Medication Error ...
Chae, Bora; Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay; Desai, Manishi
Glaucoma is a common eye condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide, making it the second-leading cause of blindness. Because glaucoma is associated with increased IOP level, the primary goal in treatment of glaucoma includes lowering IOP to prevent further progression of the disease. While various surgical interventions exist, medical therapy is currently the first line of treatment. Medical treatment of glaucoma includes topical beta-blockers, alpha-2 agonists, prostaglandins, parasympathomimetics and CAIs. Anti-glaucoma agents help reduce IOP by affecting the production of aqueous humor or increasing the outflow of aqueous through the trabecular or uveoscleral pathway. Choosing an appropriate medical regimen can be challenging and various factors such as efficacy, safety, cost and patient compliance must be considered. First-line treatment is often topical beta-blockers or prostaglandin analogs. However, beta-blocking agents can be associated with systemic side effects and need to be used cautiously in patients with serious concomitant cardiopulmonary disease. Alpha-2 agonists and parasympathomimetics are often considered second- or third-line treatment options but good adjunctive agents. Oral CAIs are often indicated for patients with elevated IOP in an acute setting or for patients resistant to other glaucoma medications and patients who are not good surgical candidates.
Hippocrates already noted that geographical factors such as climate, relief, geology but also settlement patterns had influenced the distribution of diseases. The task of medical geography is to investigate the associations between geographical factors and diseases. Thereby, geographic techniques and concepts are applied on health problems. Of particular importance is the mapping of diseases whose causes are environmental-related. In addition, epidemiological, ecological but also social scientific studies play an important part in the investigation of the associations between geographical factors and diseases. In order to understand the associations between the spatial distribution of diseases and environmental exposures, geographic information systems as well as statistical analyses have recently become more important. Some authors regard medical geography merely as supporting discipline of medicine. Nevertheless, as men and environment future and as they play an important part in the diffusion of diseases being regarded as defeated, medical geography will play an important part concerning medical questions. Especially travel medicine will rely on geographic knowledge, if a patient has to be consulted who plans to travel to an unknown country of which knowledge on the geographical distribution and ecology of diseases will be necessary.
Tompkins, Olga S
Medical tourism is becoming popular as an alternative to the high cost of health care in the United States and as an inexpensive resource for cosmetic surgery. The occupational health nurse is an excellent resource to assist in the pre-decision due diligence and post-decision travel health counseling.
While most professions have national level bodies governing the pay structure of their teachers, there is no functional body to govern the pay of medical teachers. The result is that the net pay of teachers in the central institutions (such as AIIMS, and the medical colleges of Chandigarh University etc) is higher than that of their counterparts in the medical colleges run by state governments. There is a central body, the Medical Council of India (MCI), which maintains standards of medical education all over the country.
Al-Dabal, Badria K; Koura, Manal R; Rasheed, Parveen; Al-Sowielem, Latifa; Makki, Suhair M
Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate any differences between female undergraduate medical and non-medical students for: 1) prevalence and causes of perceived academic stress, and 2) changes in physical, mental, psychological and emotional health as well as life-style since starting college studies. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Dammam University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, in January 2008. All 319 pre-clinical female medical students were included in the study and 297 non-medical students from the College of Applied Studies and Community Services (CASCS) were selected by stratified random sampling. The study instrument was a questionnaire on the “Influence of Studying on Students’ Health”. Results More medical students (48.6%) reported being frequently stressed due to studies than CASCS students (38.7%, P <0.01). Unsuitable teaching methods, an unsatisfactory study environment, and fear of failure in examinations were more frequently mentioned by medical than non-medical students (P <0.05). While underlying social problems were significantly more common in medical students, economic problems were more prevalent among CASCS students (P <0.05, P <0.05). More medical than non-medical students reported a worse status of physical and mental health, anxiety and depression and negative life-style changes since initiation of the college programme. Conclusion Medical students were at higher risk of physical and mental health problems than non-medical students due to academic stress. Since a substantial proportion of CASCS students also experienced academic stress, we recommend that a student support committee be established for both colleges to provide counselling and guidance in healthy ways to cope with stress. PMID:21509235
Bauer, Elizabeth K.
Traces the development, since its founding in 1863, of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) influence over the standards of training required in the veterinary profession. Attention is focused on the roles of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the military, and the land-grant colleges in that development. (JT)
Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.
This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the medical assisting technology program. Presented in the introductory section are a description of the program and suggested course sequence. Section I lists baseline competencies, and…
Fuchs, Steven J.; Cannella, Lee grace; Pisano, Susan
In fall 2010, St. Joseph's College initiated a partnership between the college, Northport VA Medical Center, and Long Island State Veterans Home that provides a therapeutic platform for the integration of the three communities through sustainable and mutually beneficial curricular and co-curricular service and experiential learning programs. In…
Taylor, Daniel J; Bramoweth, Adam D
We examined college sleep patterns and consequences using a cross-sectional design. We found that students get insufficient sleep and frequently use medication and alcohol as sleep aids, use stimulants as alertness aids, and fall asleep at the wheel, or have motor vehicle accidents due to sleepiness. Future studies should focus on effective interventions for sleep in college students.
Blavos, Alexis A.; Glassman, Tavis; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Diehr, Aaron; Deakins, Bethany
This investigation used the Health Belief Model (HBM) to examine perceived barriers and benefits college students hold concerning medical amnesty. Researchers employed a cross-sectional research design with 369 students completing the survey (97% response rate). A path analysis revealed that college students are more likely to seek help during an…
Price, James H.; Kirchofer, Gregg M.; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kleinfelder, JoAnn; Bryant, Michele
Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a College Student's Mistrust of Health Care Organizations (CSMHCO) scale and determine the relationship between medical mistrust with the use of a variety of health care services. Methods: A convenience sample of college students (n = 545) at 2 universities in the United States was recruited in…
THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO AND CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COOPERATED WITH THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE HEALTH CAREERS PROJECT BY ESTABLISHING PROGRAMS TO PREPARE PRACTITIONERS TO TEACH IN COMMUNITY COLLEGE PROGRAMS IN (1) OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY ASSISTING, (2) DENTAL ASSISTING, (3) OPHTHALMIC DISPENSING, AND (4) MEDICAL RECORD,…
This EPA's Green Power Partnership Challenge tracks and recognizes U.S. colleges and universities recognizes the largest single green power users within each participating collegiate athletic conferences.
... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...
Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M
Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.
... Home Medical Devices Medical Device Safety Medical Device Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... 17 More Medical Device Recalls Recent Medical Device Safety Communications FDA analyses and recommendations for patients and ...
Scanlon, Kevin J; Lieberman, Mark A
As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880's, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930's-1970's) because the German scientists fled Hitler's government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980's. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain, Singapore
Lieberman, Mark A.
As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880’s, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930’s–1970’s) because the German scientists fled Hitler’s government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980’s. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain
Fleming, Amy; Cutrer, William; Moutsios, Sandi; Heavrin, Benjamin; Pilla, Michael; Eichbaum, Quentin; Rodgers, Scott
Learning communities, which are an emerging trend in medical education, create a foundation for professional and academic development through the establishment of longitudinal relationships between students and faculty. In this article, the authors describe the robust learning community system at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, which encompasses wellness, career planning, professional development, and academics.The Vanderbilt Advisory Colleges Program introduced in 2006 initially focused on two goals: promoting wellness and providing career advising. In the 2011-2012 academic year, the focus of the colleges expanded to incorporate an enhanced level of personal career advising and an academic component. In the four-year College Colloquium course, faculty selected as college mentors teach the medical humanities and lead sessions dedicated to student professional development in the areas of leadership, research, and service-learning. This academic and professional development program builds on the existing strengths of the colleges and has transformed the colleges into learning communities.The authors reflect on lessons learned and discuss future plans. They report that internal data and data from the Association of American Medical Colleges Medical School Graduation Questionnaire support consistently high and increasing satisfaction among Vanderbilt medical students, across the metrics of personal counseling, faculty mentoring, and career planning.
Johnson, Candace A.
Developmental education for the academically underprepared college student has been aimed at helping students succeed in college. However, developmental education courses have traditionally focused on reading, writing and math. This quantitative study examined the relationship between a developmental science course for underprepared health science students on grades achieved in college level medical terminology courses. The effect was measured by analyzing student grades retrieved from a college database of official school records through the use of correlation research methodology during a previous 2-year academic period at a selected independent 4-year right-to-try college. The results yielded a weakly positive correlation, but not statistically significant coefficient of 0.325 between grades for students who successfully completed the developmental science course and their subsequent success in a college-level science course. The study added to the gap in knowledge in terms of the effect a developmental science course has on grades in college-level science courses.
DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.; Rossi, Joseph S.; Vilardo, Brigid A.; O'Dell, Sean M.; Carson, Kristen M.; Verdi, Genevieve; Swentosky, Anthony
Objective: To evaluate stimulant medication on symptoms and functioning for college students with ADHD using double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Method: Participants included 24 college students with ADHD and 26 college students without psychopathology. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) was examined for ADHD participants over five…
Seven examples of adaptation and new developments are described: Graceland College, Manchester College, Plymouth State College, U.S. Coast Guard Academy, Colorado State College, North Carolina State University, and Brookdale Community College. (Editors/JA)
Ales, Kathy L.; And Others
This report describes the development and implementation of a required course in medical ethics for second-year medical students at Cornell University Medical College (New York). The planning model stressed achieving faculty consensus. Evaluation indicated that faculty felt the planning sessions added greatly to their teaching and students were…
William Rainey Harper Coll., Palatine, IL. Office of Planning and Research.
In November 1985, a survey was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC), in Illinois, to test the feasibility of establishing programs for medical record technicians, medical coders, and utilization analysts. The survey instrument was mailed to 1,232 hospitals, medical care facilities, nursing homes, physicians' and dentists' offices, and…
Ellis, John R.
In this 1975 Oration of the Society for Health and Human Values, the author, an international medical educator, reviews the changing attitudes to human values in medical education as experienced at the London Hospital Medical College. Proposed is a broad, general approach to the whole patient, socially and behaviorally as well as biologically and…
Tuttle, Jeffrey P.; Scheurich, Neil E.; Ranseen, John
Objective: The authors aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD diagnosis and the prevalence of nonmedical prescription stimulant use among a sample of medical students. Methods: An anonymous survey was administered to 388 medical students (84.0% return rate) across all 4 years of education at a public medical college. Results: Eighteen medical…
Reed, Christie M
Searches of the literature or Internet using the term "medical tourism" produce two sets of articles: travel for the purpose of delivering health care or travel for the purpose of seeking health care. The first usage primarily appears in the medical literature and is beyond the scope of this article, which focuses on travel to seek health care. Still, there are some aspects these two topics have in common: both are affected by ease and speed of international travel and communication associated with globalization, and both raise questions about continuity of care as well as issues related to cultural, language, and legal differences; both also raise questions about ethics. This article describes some of the motivating factors, contributing elements, and challenges in elucidating trends, as well as implications for clinicians who provide pretravel advice and those who care for ill returning travelers.
Diagnostic medical imaging is a fundamental part of the practice of modern medicine and is responsible for the expenditure of considerable amounts of capital and revenue monies in healthcare systems around the world. Much research and development work is carried out, both by commercial companies and the academic community. This paper reviews briefly each of the major diagnostic medical imaging techniques—X-ray (planar and CT), ultrasound, nuclear medicine (planar, SPECT and PET) and magnetic resonance. The technical challenges facing each are highlighted, with some of the most recent developments. In terms of the future, interventional/peri-operative imaging, the advancement of molecular medicine and gene therapy are identified as potential areas of expansion.
Jacobson, Elliott; Heard, Darryl; Isaza, Ramiro
Reptile medicine has emerged as a specialty area within the broader field of zoological medicine. It encompasses the medical needs of approximately 7,500 vertebrate species. This vertebrate class is highly diversified, having biological and medical peculiarities that differ both between and within major groups. Historically, veterinarians who have become recognized specialists with reptiles have had limited formal training in their medical management. The pet reptile trade is a multi-million-dollar business, and the popularity of reptiles as pets has resulted in a need for more veterinarians with training in their medical management. While few private practices have high volumes of reptile cases, many small-animal practices will have the opportunity to see a significant number of reptiles on an annual basis. Most practitioners with reptile medical expertise have merged their experiences as reptile pet owners with the principles of veterinary medicine taught in veterinary college. Several North American veterinary colleges have reptile medicine courses, and most have didactic and clinical courses in exotic and zoo animal medicine that include lectures and practical experience. Most accredited zoological medicine residency training programs include training in reptile medicine. The case load and interest in reptile medicine will probably never be sufficient to lead the average veterinary college to develop much more than what is currently offered. Consequently, those few colleges having more extensive course offerings, both didactic and clinical, will serve as educational centers for this discipline. Future Web-based teaching programs in reptile medicine will allow students nationally and internationally to have access to instructional material that can be continually updated.
Abdel-Halim, Rabie E; Alkattan, Khaled M
In a marked shift from the modern positivist materialist philosophy that influenced medical education for more than a century, Western medical educators are now beginning to realize the significance of the spiritual element of human nature. Consensus is currently building up in Europe and North America on the need to give more emphasis to the study of humanities disciplines such as history of medicine, ethics, religion, philosophy, medically related poetry, literature, arts and medical sociology in medical colleges with the aim of allowing graduates to reach to the heart of human learning about meaning of life and death and to become kinder, more reflective practitioners. The medicine taught and practiced during the Islamic civilization era was a vivid example of the unity of the two components of medical knowledge: natural sciences and humanities. It was also a brilliant illustration of medical ethics driven by a divine moral code. This historical fact formed the foundation for the three medical humanities courses presented in this article reporting a pedagogical experiment in preparation for starting a humanities program in Alfaisal University Medical College in Riyadh. In a series of lectures alternating with interactive sessions, active learning strategies were employed in teaching a course on history of medicine during the Islamic era and another on Islamic medical ethics. Furthermore, a third course on medically relevant Arabic poetry was designed and prepared in a similar way. The end-of-the-course feedback comments reflected effectiveness of the courses and highlighted the importance of employing student-centered learning techniques in order to motivate medical students to become critical thinkers, problem solvers, life-long learners and self-learners.
Abdel-Halim, Rabie E.; AlKattan, Khaled M.
In a marked shift from the modern positivist materialist philosophy that influenced medical education for more than a century, Western medical educators are now beginning to realize the significance of the spiritual element of human nature. Consensus is currently building up in Europe and North America on the need to give more emphasis to the study of humanities disciplines such as history of medicine, ethics, religion, philosophy, medically related poetry, literature, arts and medical sociology in medical colleges with the aim of allowing graduates to reach to the heart of human learning about meaning of life and death and to become kinder, more reflective practitioners. The medicine taught and practiced during the Islamic civilization era was a vivid example of the unity of the two components of medical knowledge: natural sciences and humanities. It was also a brilliant illustration of medical ethics driven by a divine moral code. This historical fact formed the foundation for the three medical humanities courses presented in this article reporting a pedagogical experiment in preparation for starting a humanities program in Alfaisal University Medical College in Riyadh. In a series of lectures alternating with interactive sessions, active learning strategies were employed in teaching a course on history of medicine during the Islamic era and another on Islamic medical ethics. Furthermore, a third course on medically relevant Arabic poetry was designed and prepared in a similar way. The end-of-the-course feedback comments reflected effectiveness of the courses and highlighted the importance of employing student-centered learning techniques in order to motivate medical students to become critical thinkers, problem solvers, life-long learners and self-learners. PMID:22629000
Boccara, A. Claude; Mordon, Serge
In re-listening to the lectures of Charles Townes shortly after the invention of the laser (e.g., in the Boston Science Museum), one can already have a realistic vision of the potentialities of this new tool in the field of medical therapy, as evidenced by the use of the laser in ophthalmology to cure retinal detachment in the 1960's. Since then, applications have flourished in the domain of therapy. We will thus illustrate here only some of the main fields of application of medical lasers. On the opposite, the use of lasers in medical imaging is, with one exception in ophthalmology, still at the development level. It is becoming a diagnostic tool in addition to high performance imaging facilities that are often very expensive (such as CT scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging). Even if progress is sometimes slow, one can now image with light inside the human body, in spite of the strong scattering of light by tissues, in the same way as a pathologist sees surgical specimens.
Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012
In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…
Epstein, Donald B.
Following a brief history of literacy from the dawn of civilization in Egypt to the founding of the community college movement in the United States in 1945-55, this paper describes the Guided Studies Program at Clackamas Community College. The aim of the program is to increase literacy, which is viewed as a means to help students' self improvement…
Hess, Frederick M.
In recent years, American education has enthusiastically adopted the mantra of "college readiness for all." What's not to like about that? Frederick Hess says that although he considers college readiness an admirable goal, he has serious reservations about advocates, funders, and policymakers imposing this norm across all schools. His…
Vaughan, George B.
Drawing from interviews and survey data related to career and lifestyles, leadership, and spouses, this book explores the community college presidency. Chapter 1 provides a brief overview of the characteristics and roles of those currently occupying the position. The socioeconomic and family backgrounds of today's community college presidents are…
ICF International (NJ1), 2012
Graduating high school students must be adequately prepared to enter post-secondary training or employment, without the need for remediation, in order to take their places as independent adults and informed citizens. College and career readiness has taken the forefront of national and state education policy. ICF's information brief on college and…
Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2013
Why go to college? A higher education introduces students to new people and new experiences, and usually leads to a higher salary and lower chance of unemployment. This checklist will tell you how to get ready for college--and how the government will help you pay for it.
Crawford, Corinne; Jervis, Angela
Dr. Jill Biden, Vice President Joe Biden's wife, has been teaching in community colleges for the past 18 years. Dr. Biden believes that community colleges are "…uniquely American institutions where anyone who walks through the door is one step closer to realizing the American dream." This is an inspiring sentiment. However, of all the…
Alexander, Ann; Karvonen, Meagan; Ulrich, Jana; Davis, Tanya; Wade, Anne
Much has been written about the characteristics of effective college teachers. However, skill sets have not yet been defined with any level of specificity. Also, instructors at community colleges have unique working conditions and challenges that influence how they teach. This paper illustrates the use of three studies conducted to build and…
Meiklejohn, Alexander; Powell, John Walker, Ed.
In the early twentieth century, Alexander Meiklejohn believed the undergraduate college must teach students how to think. He aspired to make students into thinking, caring, active citizens with the intellectual skills to participate in a democratic society. In 1927, with the founding of the Experimental College at the University of Wisconsin, he…
"The Experimental College" tells the story of a 4-year academic experiment at the University of Wisconsin established by Alexander Meiklejohn. Aimed at finding a method of teaching that would help students develop "intelligence in the conduct of their own lives," the Experimental College discarded major requirements,…
Seeks to determine if differences exist in learning styles between developmental "at-risk" college students and college peer-tutors. Finds that through the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), differences existed on the Judging-Perceiving scale. Discusses academic skills related to this scale along with suggestions peer-tutors can use…
Campbell, Dale F.; Peek, Roger C.
Examines current educational trends in the community colleges, based on critical issues addressed at the 2002 Community College Futures Assembly (CCFA) in Orlando, Florida. Describes the CCFA as an independent policy forum, sponsored by the University of Florida, that convenes annually. Discusses the top three critical issues presented: the needs…
This report provides results of the survey and other sources of information which have been used to develop a transportation management plan at Cabrillo College (California). In 2000, Cabrillo College organized a Transportation Management Committee to review the existing transportation situation and develop and implement a plan with the goal of…
The references provided here give an overview of recent scholarship concerning students, faculty, and curriculum at urban community colleges. Organizational and institutional studies of urban community colleges are also included in this bibliography. The research in this article addresses important issues of student retention, faculty turnover,…
Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012
In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…
The Columbus (Ohio) Public Schools, in cooperation with the Columbus Foundation and the Columbus Chamber of Commerce, developed a nonprofit, independently administered program (I Know I Can) to (1) encourage all students, especially the disadvantaged, to attend college; and (2) help them apply for college admission and financial aid. President…
Johnson, Dennis L.
In the 1990s, community colleges will be faced with a real challenge and an opportunity: to become marketing-oriented institutions. Marketing is crucial to reinventing the colleges as institutions that are capable of contributing to the education of an underskilled workforce and a significant underclass--an endeavor vital to the nation's…
... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Getting Exercise in College KidsHealth > For Teens > Getting Exercise in College A A A What's in this ... energy, both your body and mind need physical exercise to function at their peak. But with high ...
Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012
In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…
Community colleges have long been the destination of choice for immigrants seeking English-language skills, older nontraditional students seeking flexible class schedules, and students needing remediation to fill the gaps left by substandard K-12 schools. Nevertheless, many community colleges have expanded transfer-focused offerings in recent…
This report explores the demographics of community college students and how they compare to those in other sectors of higher education. Next, it reviews the common reasons undergraduate students stop their studies or drop out. The report then examines technology-enhanced education in community colleges and presents several case studies showing how…
Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012
Elsner, Paul A.
Community colleges have encountered many factors that may reshape their future. Environmental imperatives weigh heavily on community colleges, as does the new integration of the sciences, such as breakthroughs in the biochemical sciences, such as the human genome project. It is also important to pay attention to the forms in which knowledge is…
Herrscher, Barton R.; Hatfield, Thomas M.
Several aspects of college-community relations were discussed in this review. In the avocational realm, as well as the vocational, the 2-year college can serve the special needs and interests of the community. Short courses, lecture series, concerts, leisure activities and services, and community use of campus facilities help the community college…
Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012
Pines, Ayala; Kafry, Ditsa
Stress is a major sphere of influence on students that acts as the "invisible curriculum," and affects their reaction and adjustment to the whole college experience. There is a need to obtain systematic data about college students' experience of tedium, a particular form of stress, defined as the experience of physical, emotional, and…
With its park-like campus location overlooking the Hudson River and Catskills Mountains in New York's Hudson Valley, it's no wonder that Bard College is committed to being green. At the liberal arts college in Annandale-on-Hudson, students learn and live in 25 geothermal buildings on campus that don't burn fossil fuels on site. Instead of driving…
Roueche, John E., Ed.; Jones, Barbara R., Ed.
Environmental factors currently affecting today's community colleges either will cause irreparable damage to their fiscal health and organizational structure or contribute to their rebirth--transforming systems and processes to meet current and future challenges successfully. Community colleges are facing challenges on many levels: (1) In 2003,…
Duncheon, Julia C.; Tierney, William G.
Increasing postsecondary access depends in large part on enhancing underrepresented students' writing ability, or college writing readiness. However, what exactly constitutes college-level writing is not clear-cut, complicating efforts to improve secondary preparation. This article examines recent efforts to define postsecondary writing,…
Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012
Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Sorensen, Kia
Noting that access to higher education has expanded dramatically in the past several decades, Sara Goldrick-Rab and Kia Sorensen focus on how unmarried parents fare once they enter college. Contrary to the expectation that access to college consistently promotes family stability and economic security, the authors argue that deficiencies in current…
Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012
Olivas, Michael A., Ed.
The condition of higher education for Hispanic Americans and Latin Americans is addressed in 12 papers from the 1983 Conference on Latino College Students. Attention is directed to the transition from high school to college, Hispanic student achievement, and economics and stratification. In addition to forewords by Gregory R. Anrig and Arturo…
Kintzer, Frederick C.
Created in 1969 as a 3-college system coordinated by the Regional College section of the Ministry of Education, the current 6 institutions represent Norway's attempt to extend equal opportunity and employment-oriented education to rural and remote areas. (Editor)
This report offers a commentary on the recent development of community colleges in Shanghai (China). The seven institutions were established in the early 1990s to provide community education to local residents in hopes of facilitating mass higher education in China. The report describes important characteristics the colleges seek to impart…
Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012
Smith, Kenneth M.; And Others
Planning for College Success (PCS) is a six-hour workshop which is required for all applicants to Des Moines Area Community College's (DMACC's) career education programs. The Career Life Planning counselors who conduct the workshop help participants: (1) assess their basic academic strengths and weaknesses through self-scored diagnostic tests; (2)…
Deming, David; Goldin, Claudia; Katz, Lawrence
For-profit, or proprietary, colleges are the fastest-growing postsecondary schools in the nation, enrolling a disproportionately high share of disadvantaged and minority students and those ill-prepared for college. Because these schools, many of them big national chains, derive most of their revenue from taxpayer-funded student financial aid, they…
What can you expect from a school in an area of high crime where 50 percent of the pupils take free school meals and which operates on a site that cannot be accessed from its main catchment area? In this article, the author shares his experience when he visited Challenge College. A low wall separates Challenge College from the area where most of…
Wise, Phyllis M.; Martin, Carolyn A.; Kinbrough, Walter M.; Hitt, John C.; Urgo, Joseph R.; Lief, Charles G.; Drake, Michael V.; Hellyer, Brenda; Pepicello, William
Lately there has been a great deal of discussion about the importance of measuring a college's "return on investment." Is the point of a college education quantifiable results or personal and intellectual growth? In pursuit of answers, "The Chronicle" asked a selection of higher-education leaders. Phyllis M. Wise, Chancellor of…
Skelly, Kevin A.; Laurence, Scott T.
Twice a year, leaders from seven school districts from around the nation meet to discuss college life. They address the common problem of college readiness in their collective work to better prepare students for a productive future. While consortium members oversee school districts that are leaders in their respective states in terms of test…
Romero, Amanda R.
The purposes of this qualitative narrative study were to explore the potential areas of conflict Latina college students experience between their educational goals and traditional cultural gender roles and expectations. Participants were selected utilizing purposeful sampling methods. All participants were first-generation college students.…
Willie, Charles V.; Reddick, Richard J.; Brown, Ronald
This study compares the culture of black colleges and universities a generation ago with those that exist today, and makes projections into the future, based on a comprehensive review of professional literature and an analysis of the management skills of contemporary black college leaders. The book considers the assets and liabilities of…
The Pew Research Center asked an important question earlier this year when it embarked on an ambitious project called Is College Worth It?: College Presidents, Public Assess Value, Quality and Mission of Higher Education. While most today believe that getting a good education is key to success in the society, this report revealed surprising issues…
Morfee, Pat; Morfee, Tom
Parents describe how the Disabled Students' Program at the University of California-Berkeley supported their daughter with cerebral palsy in pursuing an independent college career. Two vignettes describing college students' (with muscular dystrophy and physical disabilities) adjustment at Boston University are presented. (CB)
Schwartz, Lisa J.; Friedman, Howard A.
This article reviews the topic of college student suicide. Empirical and theoretical studies are reviewed. The research is presented in distinct sections. First, we present background information on college student suicide emphasized in a select number of cited literature reviews, followed by a review of a select number of key quantitative studies…
Rabow, Jerome; Duncan-Schill, Marilyn
Reports the results of a study on the ways in which alcohol is built into the social role and social life of college students. Provides direct support for the idea that the patterns of drinking alcoholic beverages are integral to social and structural aspects of college. (LKS)
This document is one of three texts which comprise the written components of The Responsive College Programme dissemination materials. The program is designed to help colleges in the United Kingdom market themselves and their courses effectively, and this volume, which is freestanding and directed at both the general reader and the specialist,…
Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012
Richman, Erica Lynn; Rademacher, Kristen N.; Maitland, Theresa Laurie
Students with learning disabilities (LD) and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) represent the largest segment of college students with documented disabilities. Despite enhanced access to accommodations under the Americans with Disabilities Amendments Act, this growing population continues to take longer to complete a college education…
Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012
Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012
Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012
Rosenfeld, Stuart A.
Community colleges have become many things to many people over their century-long transformation from junior colleges into comprehensive learning environments. They have been able and willing to take on missions and serve people that other sectors of education could not or would not. Today they have become well known for their efforts in…
Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Hartley, Andrew
College students regularly report increased sleep disturbances as well as concomitant reductions in performance (e.g., academic grades) upon entering college. Sleep hygiene refers to healthy sleep practices that are commonly used as first interventions in sleep disturbances. One widely used practice of this sort involves arranging the sleep environment to minimize disturbances from excessive noise and light at bedtime. Communal sleep situations such as those in college residence halls do not easily support this intervention. Following several focus groups, a questionnaire was designed to gather self-reported information on sleep disturbances in a college population. The present study used The Young Adult Sleep Environment Inventory (YASEI) and sleep logs to investigate the sleep environment of college students living in residential halls. A summary of responses indicated that noise and light are significant sleep disturbances in these environments. Recommendations are presented related to these findings.
Kusche, Kristopher P
The academic medical center is faced with the unique challenge of meeting the multi-faceted needs of both a modern healthcare organization and an academic institution, The need for security to protect patient information must be balanced by the academic freedoms expected in the college setting. The Albany Medical Center, consisting of the Albany Medical College and the Albany Medical Center Hospital, was challenged with implementing a solution that would preserve the availability, integrity and confidentiality of business, patient and research data stored on mobile devices. To solve this problem, Albany Medical Center implemented a mobile encryption suite across the enterprise. Such an implementation comes with complexities, from performance across multiple generations of computers and operating systems, to diversity of application use mode and end user adoption, all of which requires thoughtful policy and standards creation, understanding of regulations, and a willingness and ability to work through such diverse needs.
Background The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to increase among certain populations including young men who have sex with men (MSM). College campuses represent a potential setting to engage young adults and institute prevention interventions including HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate testing practices for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on college campuses. Methods Medical directors at four-year residential baccalaureate college health centers in New England were surveyed from June, 2011 to September, 2011. Thirty-one interviews were completed regarding experiences with HIV testing, acute HIV infection, other STI testing, and outreach efforts targeting specific at-risk groups such as MSM. Results Among schools that responded to the survey, less than five percent of students were tested for HIV at their local college health center in the past academic year (2010–2011). Significant barriers to HIV testing included cost and availability of rapid antibody testing. One-third of college health medical directors reported that their practitioners may not feel comfortable recognizing acute HIV infection. Conclusions Improved HIV testing practices are needed on college campuses. Programs should focus on outreach efforts targeting MSM and other at-risk populations. PMID:23496891
Ballarin, V L; Isoardi, R A
The paper discusses the major Argentineans contributors, medical physicists and scientists, in medical imaging and the development of medical imaging in Argentina. The following are presented: history of medical imaging in Argentina: the pioneers; medical imaging and medical revolution; nuclear medicine imaging; ultrasound imaging; and mathematics, physics, and electronics in medical image research: a multidisciplinary endeavor.
Teranishi, Robert T; Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo
Immigrant youth and children of immigrants make up a large and increasing share of the nation's population, and over the next few decades they will constitute a significant portion of the U.S. workforce. Robert Teranishi, Carola Suárez-Orozco, and Marcelo Suárez-Orozco argue that increasing their educational attainment, economic productivity, and civic engagement should thus be a national priority. Community colleges offer one particularly important venue for achieving this objective. Because they are conveniently located, cost much less than four-year colleges, feature open admissions, and accommodate students who work or have family responsibilities, community colleges are well suited to meet the educational needs of immigrants who want to obtain an affordable postsecondary education, learn English-language skills, and prepare for the labor market. The authors explore how community colleges can serve immigrant students more effectively. Already, more immigrant students attend community colleges than any other type of post-secondary institution. But community colleges could attract even more immigrant students through outreach programs that help them to apply and to navigate the financial aid system. Federal reforms should also allow financial aid to cover tuition for English as a Second Language courses. Community colleges themselves could raise funds to provide scholarships for immigrants and undocumented students. Although there are many good ideas for interventions that can boost enrollment and improve the performance of immigrant students in community colleges, rigorous research on effective programs is scant. The research community and community colleges need to work together closely to evaluate these programs with a view toward what works and why. Without such research, policy makers will find it difficult to improve the role of community colleges in increasing the educational achievement of immigrant students.
First generation college students are accessing colleges and universities at an increased rate. However, first generation college students, which include a disproportionate number of minorities and low income populations, continue to lag behind their counterparts in graduating from college. More prevalent in the research are factors that cause…
This case study examines the features of Georgia College Early College, including its partnership with Georgia College & State University. The school deliberately recruits students from the community who are performing below grade level and gives them the support they need to excel academically. The college-going culture, small class sizes,…
Murray, Christine E.; Kardatzke, Kerrie N.
The authors present a review of literature examining dating violence among college students. They describe 6 key issues related to dating violence among college students that affect college counselors' work. These key issues relate to the incidence and prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological violence in college students' dating…
Floyd, Deborah L.; Falconetti, Angela M. Garcia; Hrabak, Michael R.
In 2008 Florida's Senate Bill No. 1716 was enacted, which replaced the Florida Community College System with the Florida College System and presented 9 out of the 28 community colleges with the option to transition to state colleges. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of Senate Bill No. 1716 and, in doing so, discuss the…
Beyer, David; Feller, Rich
Discusses parental influence in college choice process, particularly in terms of considering community colleges as alternative. Argues that there is too little importance given to college choice making, that parents are more significant in the process than assumed, and that community colleges deserve and will receive increasingly more attention…
Rosenbaum, James E.; Becker, Kelly Iwanaga
Successful early college high schools (ECHSs) are formed through partnerships between high schools and colleges (usually community colleges). Think of it as preparation through acceleration. ECHSs enroll disadvantaged students who have not excelled with ordinary grade-level academic content and have them take college courses while still in high…
... family medical history, sometimes called a medical family tree, is a record of illnesses and medical conditions ... to consult family documents, such as existing family trees, baby books, old letters, obituaries or records from ...
Higgins, Niall S; Taraporewalla, Kersi; Steyn, Michael; Brijball, Rajesh; Watson, Marcus
International medical graduate (IMG) specialists in anaesthesia need education to be part of the assessment process for pre-registration college fellowship. Fellowship of the anaesthetic college is required in Australia for registration as a specialist in this field. Marked differences exist between local trainees and IMG specialists in terms of training, stakes of the exam and isolation of practice. We have examined the reasons for the low pass rate for IMG specialists compared to the local trainees in the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) final fellowship examinations. We also offer an IMG specialists' view of this perceived problem. It highlights their difficulties in obtaining adequate supervision and education.
Osipov, Y. M.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Osipov, O. Y.
The first part of the article presentsdevices of rehabilitation electromechatronics.As a research work, the author's team has performed sketch and technical developments on this subject, which are protected by patents of the Russian Federation. The second part providesan overview of medical robotic surgery, which is ideal for imperfections removing.It also describes capabilities of the author's team in development of active driveline based "iron" hands.Scalpels never tremble in the iron hands, which are not afraid of the aftershocks and never get tired.They can perform operations during not less than 48 consecutive hours.
Baucom, R. M. (Inventor)
An X-ray transparent and biological inert medical clip for treating aneurisms and the like is described. A graphite reinforced composite film is molded into a unitary structure having a pair of hourglass-like cavities hinged together with a pair of jaws for grasping the aneurism extending from the wall of one cavity. A silicone rubber pellet is disposed in the other cavity to exert a spring force through the hinge area to normally bias the jaws into contact with each other.
Knodel, Arthur J.; And Others
Seven courses or programs at different colleges emphasizing specific career applications of languages are described. They include: Technical French; Spanish for Law Enforcement and Correctional Personnel; Executive German; Proyecto Desarrollo Economico; Spanish for Medical Professions; Elements of Foreign Language, and Business French and Business…
Cleaver, T. G.; And Others
Discusses the objectives, curricula, and accomplishments of an interdisciplinary summer institute designed to prepare college teachers qualified in both the life sciences and engineering. Indicates that joint educational programs between engineering, science, and medical faculties are completely feasible if each group is interested in the other…
Kuhns, Eileen P.; Deyo, Donald E.
A survey of technical and semiprofessional occupational needs in the Washington, D.C. area was conducted by Montgomery Junior College in an effort to devise suitable curriculums in such areas as medical auxiliary technologies, applied science technologies, and public service at the institution's proposed second campus in Rockville, Maryland.…
Pritchard, Mary E.; Wilson, Gregory S.; Yamnitz, Ben
Objective: Researchers have previously reported that law students and medical students experience significant distress during their first year. The authors suspected that freshmen undergraduates might experience similar distress in their transition to college. Participants: They surveyed 242 undergraduate freshmen at the beginning and end of their…
Willis, Jean H.
Meridian Community College and Rush Health Systems are partners in delivering training focused on Rush's mission statement of hospital-wide commitment to "excellence in service management." Rush and MCC have delivered customized classes in the following areas: medical billing, leadership management, computer training, admissions clerk,…
McComb, Jennifer L.; Hanson, William E.
The vast majority of college students gamble, with some doing so problematically. This article discusses gambling and problem gambling among college students, framing it as an emerging health issue on college campuses nationwide. Given that 4 out of 5 college students admit to gambling, and that approximately 8% gamble problematically, it is…
Snider, Patricia A.; Valente, Patricia L.
This handbook was designed as a resource on career alternatives for counselors and students and to identify the Illinois colleges and universities to which the community college student may transfer to complete his/her education. The handbook is classified by college majors offered at Morton College (MC), and is based on information obtained from…
Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.
Each year since 1994, the 52 community colleges in Illinois prepare priority statements detailing specific college objectives for the current fiscal year (FY). This report provides the third update of the colleges' statements, covering FY 1998. Brief statements, from one to four pages, are provided for the following colleges: Belleville Area…
While the largest growth in the college-age population (i.e., 18 to 24 year olds) is among minority group members, the largest decline in college-going rates is among minorities. Because of poor academic preparation, rising tuition rates, and declining financial aid resources, the community college has become the college of necessity, rather than…
Mattson, Betty J.
This document describes a college-level curriculum for airplane pilots that is expected to be available at Muskegon (Michigan) College of Business and Technology in fall 1990. The curriculum offers associate or bachelor degree, college credit for earned flight ratings, private license, transfer credit for other aviation college programs, the…
College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.
This report presents data on college costs from the College Board's Annual Survey of Colleges for the 2001-2002 academic year, as well as trends in costs for the past 30 years and analyses of college prices in relation to family income and available financial aid. Data include: (1) average fixed charges for undergraduates (tuition and fees and…
Woltz, Mary G.
This case study applies principles derived from the Center for Regenerative Studies (CRS) to a community college in North Carolina. CRS, on the campus of California State Polytechnic Institute (California), is dedicated to the education, demonstration, and research of degenerative systems in the areas of shelter, food production, energy, water and…
The premise of using technology as a means for enhancing learning, research, and managerial decision making has guided Boston College's technological ventures and will continue to shape its strategies for the future. Information technology policy, direction and organization, user computing support, and library services are discussed. (MLW)
Bradford College, located 35 miles north of Boston in Haverhill, Massachusetts, was exactly the type of institution in greatest jeopardy of closing. It was too small, with an enrollment that never exceeded five hundred students. Such institutions tend to have high attrition rates because they have limited numbers of courses, majors, facilities,…
Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra
Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management.
Oliver, Jack W.; Sims, Michael H.
An interdisciplinary physiology and pharmacology course presented by the Medical Interaction Laboratory at the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine provides interaction among faculty, conserves faculty time and animal expense, and presents a coordinated laboratory experience. (BH)
Evans, Doris A.; And Others
A study of the relationship between the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT), grade point average (GPA), the quality of undergraduate college attended (Austin index) and the preclinical performance of underrepresented minority students at Case Western Reserve University of Medicine showed all three to have predictive value, the Austin index…
Kazley, Abby Swanson; Annan, Dustin L.; Carson, Nancy E.; Freeland, Melissa; Hodge, Ashley B.; Seif, Gretchen A.; Zoller, James S.
A college of health professions at a medical university located in the southeastern United States is striving to increase the use of educational technology among faculty, staff, and students. A strategic planning group was formed and charged with enhancing the use of educational technology within the college. In order to understand the current…
McCrindle, Jeffrey J.
Medical Simulation Centers are an essential component of our learning infrastructure to prepare doctors and nurses for their careers. Unlike the military and aerospace simulation industry, very little has been published regarding the best practices currently in use within medical simulation centers. This survey attempts to provide insight into the current simulation practices at medical schools, hospitals, university nursing programs and community college nursing programs. Students within the MBA program at Saint Joseph's University conducted a survey of medical simulation practices during the summer 2010 semester. A total of 115 institutions responded to the survey. The survey resus discuss overall effectiveness of current simulation centers as well as the tools and techniques used to conduct the simulation activity
By judiciously selecting topics and reading materials, one can teach a full semester course on medical physics appropriate for college students not majoring in the natural sciences. This interdisciplinary field offers an opportunity to teach a great deal of basic physics at the freshman level in the context of explaining modern medical technologies such as ultrasound imaging, laser surgery, and positron emission tomography. This article describes one such course which combines lectures, outside visitors, varied readings, and laboratories to convey a select subset of physical principles and quantitative problem-solving skills. These resources are also valuable for enriching the standard freshman physics sequence for premedical students.
By judiciously selecting topics and reading materials, one can teach a full semester course on medical physics appropriate for college students not majoring in the natural sciences. This interdisciplinary field offers an opportunity to teach a great deal of basic physics at the freshman level in the context of explaining modern medical technologies such as ultrasound imaging, laser surgery, and positron emission tomography. This article describes one such course which combines lectures, outside visitors, varied readings, and laboratories to convey a select subset of physical principles and quantitative problem-solving skills. These resources are also valuable for enriching the standard freshman physics sequence for premedical students. PMID:8075355
People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will ... People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will ...
McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Cranford, James A.; Ross-Durow, Paula; Young, Amy; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.
Objectives To determine the past-year medical misuse prevalence for 4 controlled medication classes (pain, stimulant, sleeping, and antianxiety) among adolescents, and to assess substance use outcomes among adolescents who report medical misuse. Design A Web-based survey was self-administered by 2744 secondary school students in 2009-2010. Setting Two southeastern Michigan school districts. Participants The sample had a mean age of 14.8 years and was 51.1% female. The racial/ethnic distribution was 65.0% white, 29.5% African American, 3.7% Asian, 1.3% Hispanic, and 0.5% other. Main Outcome Measures Past-year medical use and misuse of 4 controlled medication classes. Results Eighteen percent of the sample reported past-year medical use of at least 1 prescribed controlled medication. Among past-year medical users, 22.0% reported misuse of their controlled medications, including taking too much, intentionally getting high, or using to increase alcohol or other drug effects. Medical misusers were more likely than nonmisusers to divert their controlled medications and to abuse other substances. The odds of a positive screening result for drug abuse were substantially higher among medical misusers (adjusted odds ratio, 7.8; 95% confidence interval, 4.3-14.2) compared with medical users who used their controlled medications appropriately. The odds of drug abuse did not differ between medical users who used their controlled medications appropriately and nonusers. Conclusions Most adolescents who used controlled medications took their medications appropriately. Substance use and diversion of controlled medications were more prevalent among adolescents who misused their controlled medications. Careful therapeutic monitoring could reduce medical misuse and diversion of controlled medications among adolescents. PMID:21810634
Preparing students for transfer to four-year colleges remains a significant part of the mission of most community college mathematicians. For some 30 years, calculus has been synonymous with entry-level college mathematics. Recent educational and technological changes, however, demand that the definition of college-level work in mathematics be…
Grant, David J; Marriage, Stephen C
As the time available for medical education is shortened by reductions in training hours and the demands of modern healthcare delivery, educators are increasingly looking towards simulation as a means of providing safe and reproducible situations for clinical skills teaching, decision-making and team training. The tools available for simulation-based training have developed rapidly over the past 15 years. There is an increasing range of manikins and part-task trainers - devices that permit selected elements of a skill or task to be practised independently of a whole-body manikin. Those interested in simulation have also focused significantly on adult learning theory to ensure that the training offered through simulation is appropriate, effective and complementary to other educational approaches. By mapping simulated scenarios to the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health Curriculum for General Paediatric Training at Level 1, the authors have developed two complementary courses aimed at preparing the general paediatric trainee for progression to the middle grade role. It is hoped that such approaches will become integral to paediatric training in the future.
The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation. Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and:pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment.
Campus Free College (CFC) is a nontraditional, nonresidential educational experience that employs program advisors to work with students to utilize all learning resources available for an individually-designed curricula. (Author/PG)
Ohio Board of Regents, 2009
This paper provides information on student characteristics, success and progress rates, cost of attendance, degrees awarded, class size, faculty characteristics, and employment outcomes at each of Ohio's twenty-three community college.
Caraway, James E.
The author discusses other writings on effective college teaching and then presents his list of necessary characteristics for the effective teacher, stressing the interpersonal dimension of the teaching-learning situation. (MF)