Science.gov

Sample records for west coast lng

  1. 77 FR 32962 - Gulf Coast LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Coast LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically Produced Liquefied... application (Application), filed on January 10, 2012, by Gulf Coast LNG Export, LLC (Gulf Coast), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG)...

  2. 77 FR 58930 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of Information Collection... fisheries operating in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off West Coast states. This new part 660 included a... regulatory areas in the commercial ocean salmon fishery off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and...

  3. 78 FR 70509 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Administration 50 CFR Part 660 [Docket No. 130108020-3409-01] RIN 0648-XC964 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12 Through 34... comments. Mail: William W. Stelle, Jr., Regional Administrator, West Coast Region, NMFS, 7600 Sand...

  4. 78 FR 24360 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC631 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1..., by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662-9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to...

  5. 78 FR 50347 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC738 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 6 Through 11 AGENCY..., by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662-9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to...

  6. 75 FR 75638 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY31 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12...-6667 and 800-662- 9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to Mariners broadcasts on Channel 16 VHF-FM...

  7. 75 FR 54791 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY08 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 9..., and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to Mariners broadcasts on Channel 16 VHF-FM and 2182...

  8. 77 FR 25915 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2012 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Administration 50 CFR Part 660 [Docket No. 120424023-1023-01] RIN 0648-XA921 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2012 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...'' fishery management plan entitled the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (Salmon...

  9. 78 FR 30780 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC686 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Action 3 AGENCY: National... number 206-526-6667 and 800-662-9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to Mariners broadcasts on Channel...

  10. 76 FR 25246 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA184 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... managed under a ``framework'' fishery management plan entitled the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery...

  11. 77 FR 65329 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC282 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 22... effective, by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662-9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice...

  12. 78 FR 25865 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2013 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC438 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2013 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... ``framework'' fishery management plan entitled the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (Salmon...

  13. 75 FR 24482 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-AY60 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... managed under a ``framework'' fishery management plan entitled the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery...

  14. 75 FR 75639 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY83 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 14..., by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662- 9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice...

  15. West Coast Tsunami: Cascadia's Fault?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.

    2013-12-01

    The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011

  16. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  17. 76 FR 32876 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA184 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures; Correction AGENCY: National...

  18. 77 FR 61728 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC223 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 15... the action was effective, by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662-9825, and by U.S....

  19. 76 FR 79122 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... management measures in the commercial and recreational Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended...

  20. 75 FR 8820 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... management measures in the commercial, recreational and tribal Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are...

  1. 78 FR 35153 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC705 Fisheries Off West Coast...: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce.... Kara Meckley, Acting Deputy Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine...

  2. 78 FR 579 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2013-2014 Biennial...; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2013-2014 Biennial Specifications and... specifications and management measures for groundfish taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone off the coasts...

  3. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

    2004-01-01

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct

  4. 78 FR 72 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BC01 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl Rationalization Program; Reconsideration... proposes revisions to several portions of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl...

  5. 75 FR 51684 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to Fishery... coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the...

  6. 76 FR 65673 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BA55 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...: NMFS proposes regulations to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management...

  7. 77 FR 55426 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4...; request for comments. SUMMARY: NOAA Fisheries announces 11 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries... INFORMATION: Background In the 2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May...

  8. 77 FR 10466 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Tribal Fishery for... rule for the 2012 Pacific whiting fishery under the authority of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery... rights in the area ] covered by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) request...

  9. 75 FR 11829 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2010 Tribal Fishery for... coastal treaty Indian tribes' rights to harvest Pacific Coast groundfish. Washington coastal treaty Indian... rights in the area covered by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) can request...

  10. 76 FR 38313 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery... rule announces inseason changes to management measures in the commercial Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan...

  11. 75 FR 61102 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to...) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended to allow fisheries to access...

  12. 75 FR 39178 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516), including, among other species, darkblotched.... Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California, and revised...

  13. 75 FR 23620 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ...-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial... economic zone (EEZ) and state waters off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California, as authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). These specifications include the level...

  14. 75 FR 75449 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Comment Period Extension...; Amendment 16-5; and Amendment 23 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (PCGFMP). The... specifications and management measures for groundfish taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone off the coasts...

  15. 75 FR 75417 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to Fishery Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric...; request for comments. SUMMARY: This final rule makes inseason adjustments to commercial and tribal...

  16. Roots and Branches: Contemporary Essays by West Coast Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junker, Howard, Ed.

    Celebrating the vitality and diversity of West Coast writing, this book is a collection of 35 essays by writers based in California, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska. Loosely organized around the ideas that West Coast writers often look to their roots elsewhere and that they pursue new directions as varied as their roots, the collection presents a…

  17. Marine West Coast Forests, Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Geiser, Linda H.; Lilleskov, Erik A.; Pardo, Linda H.; Robin-Abbott, Molly J.; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities have greatly increased nitrogen emissions and deposition across large areas of Earth. Although nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, too much nitrogen in excess of critical loads leads to losses of biodiversity, soil and stream acidification, nutrient imbalances, and other deleterious effects. In a new report quantifying critical loads of nitrogen deposition across the United States, USGS scientist Steve Perakis and co-authors provided a chapter about responses of marine west coast forests. Much of this region is understudied with respect to nitrogen deposition, and in this chapter the authors identify known adverse effects and estimate critical loads of nitrogen deposition for western Oregon and Washington and southeast Alaska forests. Perakis also contributed to the synthesis chapter, which includes background, objectives, advantages and uncertainties of critical loads, an overview of critical loads across U.S. ecoregions, and other topics.

  18. Phytoplankton off the West Coast of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Just off the coast of West Africa, persistent northeasterly trade winds often churn up deep ocean water. When the nutrients in these deep waters reach the ocean's surface, they often give rise to large blooms of phytoplankton. This image of the Mauritanian coast shows swirls of phytoplankton fed by the upwelling of nutrient-rich water. The scene was acquired by the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) aboard the European Space Agency's ENVISAT. MERIS will monitor changes in phytoplankton across Earth's oceans and seas, both for the purpose of managing fisheries and conducting global change research. NASA scientists will use data from this European instrument in the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) program. The mission of SIMBIOS is to construct a consistent long-term dataset of ocean color (phytoplankton abundance) measurements made by multiple satellite instruments, including the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For more information about MERIS and ENVISAT, visit the ENVISAT home page. Image copyright European Space Agency

  19. 1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING ALL MAJOR BUILDINGS. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, February 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 75 FR 4684 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Data Collection for the Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Data Collection for the Trawl Rationalization... future trawl rationalization program under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP... participants in the Pacific Coast groundfish trawl rationalization program and announcing the databases...

  1. 76 FR 59634 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BB27 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and Management Measures and Secretarial... the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California...

  2. 76 FR 77415 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BB27 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and Management Measures and Secretarial... (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California consistent with the Magnuson-Stevens...

  3. 75 FR 67032 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-AY68 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl Rationalization... ``Initial Issuance Final Rule''). In addition, that rule restructured the entire Pacific Coast...

  4. INTERIOR LIBRARY HALL, LOOKING WEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR LIBRARY HALL, LOOKING WEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  5. INTERIOR INNKEEPER FAMILY ROOM, LOOKING WEST. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR INNKEEPER FAMILY ROOM, LOOKING WEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  6. INTERIOR BUNK ROOM B, LOOKING WEST. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR BUNK ROOM B, LOOKING WEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  7. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source

  8. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National... Conservation and Management Act (MSA) to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management... available on the Pacific Fishery Management Council's Web site ( http://www.pcouncil.org/ ). FOR...

  9. 75 FR 13081 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XRO1 Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... trawl rationalization program that would affect the limited entry trawl fishery of the Pacific...

  10. Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmett, Robert; Llansó, Roberto; Newton, Jan; Thom, Ron; Hornberger, Michelle; Morgan, Cheryl; Levings, Colin; Copping, Andrea; Fishman, Paul

    2000-01-01

    West Coast estuaries are geologically young and composed of a variety of geomorphological types. These estuaries range from large fjords to shallow lagoons; from large to low freshwater flows. Natural hazards include E1 Niños, strong Pacific storms, and active tectonic activity. West Coast estuaries support a wide range of living resources: five salmon species, harvestable shellfish, waterfowl and marine birds, marine mammals, and a variety of algae and plants. Although populations of many of these living resources have declined (salmonids), others have increased (marine mammals). West Coast estuaries are also centers of commerce and increasingly large shipping traffic. The West Coast human population is rising faster than most other areas of the U.S. and Canada, and is distributed heavily in southern California, the San Francisco Bay area, around Puget Sound, and the Fraser River estuary. While water pollution is a problem in many of the urbanized estuaries, most estuaries do not suffer from poor water quality. Primary estuarine problems include habitat alterations, degradation, and loss; diverted freshwater flows; marine sediment contamination; and exotic species introductions. The growing West Coast economy and population are in part related to the quality of life, which is dependent on the use and enjoyment of abundant coastal natural resources.

  11. CAUSE Resiliency (West Coast) Experiment Final Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    context for the emergency response in all locations was a major Cascadian subduction zone earthquake off the coast of Oregon of magnitude 9.0. A...was developed around a large Cascadian subduction zone earthquake of Magnitude 9.0. This provided context for the time slices chosen for the vignettes...and incidents in their jurisdiction. An earthquake in the Cascadian subduction zone is an example of one such potential eventuality that is revisited

  12. North-South Migration of West Coast Low Pressure Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, C. Barron

    1974-01-01

    Monthly maps of low pressure centers are presented here to attempt a concrete representation that may help students to understand the seasonal change from dry months to wet months along the mid-latitude west coast as a seasonal north-south migration of factors controlling rain and drought. (Author/JH)

  13. 77 FR 65639 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off the West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off the West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Pacific Whiting and Non... October 4, 2012. This action is authorized by regulations implementing the Pacific Coast Groundfish... available for harvest to other sectors of the trawl fishery. For 2012 the Washington Coast treaty...

  14. LNG Observer: Second Qatargas train goes onstream

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The January-February, 1997 issue of the LNG Observer is presented. The following topics are discussed: second Qatargas train goes onstream; financing for the eighth Indonesian liquefaction train; Koreans take stakes in Oman LNG; US imports and exports of LNG in 1996; A 60% increase in proved reserves on the North West Shelf; proposals for Indian LNG terminal CEDIGAZ forecasts world LNG trade by 2010; growth for North African gas production and exports; and new forecast sees strong growth for Asian gas.

  15. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  16. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  17. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  18. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  19. US west coast revisited: An aeromagnetic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Zietz, I.; Johnson, P.R. ); Bond, K.R. )

    1990-04-01

    A new compilation of magnetic data for the western conterminous United States and offshore areas provides significant information about crustal units and structures in the region. Features shown on the compilation include a magnetic quiet zone along the coast and two lineaments inland. The magnetic quiet zone correlates with the accretionary prism at the western edge of the North American plate and overlies subducted ocean crust; abrupt termination of ocean-floor magnetic anomalies at, or a short distance east of, the toe of the accretionary prism is an inferred effect subduction-induced low-temperature metamorphism of the ocean crust. The Puget Lowlands-San Joaquin lineament is an alignment of high-intensity magnetic anomalies that in the south, and possibly also in the north, are cause by bodies of mafic-ultramafic rocks accreted to North America during the Mesozoic and Tertiary. The lineup of the highs and the inferred lineup of the causative bodies may reflect fundamental structures that control Mesozoic and Tertiary evolution of the continental margin. The Mojave Desert lineament, a distinctive chain of short-wavelength magnetic anomalies in southern California, coincides partly with a zone of Mesozoic intrusions and the Cenozoic San Andreas fault system, but is likely to be older than both in origin and may reflect a Mesozoic or older crustal discontinuity.

  20. On the summer coast parallel winds off the west coast of Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijo, Nádia; Lima, Daniela C. A.; Semedo, Alvaro; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Miranda, Pedro M. A.

    2016-04-01

    During summer the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula is under the effect of persistent coast parallel northerly winds, called Nortada (northerly wind in Portuguese). The synoptic forcing behind the Nortada is caused by the semi-permanent Azores High and the thermal low pressure system in-land central Iberia. The associated pressure gradient gives rise to coastal parallel winds as the result of the geostrophically adjusted response to this synoptic pattern. In turn the persistence of the Nortada induces the development of upwelling systems from the Galicia to Algarve, off the west coast of Iberia, bringing deep cold nutrient-rich water to the shelf and to the surface. This cold water sharpens the temperature and pressure gradients at the coast, leading to a further increase of the wind speed at the coast. The summer regional climate of the coastal western Iberian area is modulated by the Nortada. The structure and climatology characterization of the summer Nortada is investigated through analyses of close to surface wind data produced by a regional 9km horizontal resolution atmospheric hindcast. This regional data was produced using the WRF model, forced by the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-Interim reanalysis, and covers the period 1989-2007. The link between the Nortada and the Iberian coastal low level jet is also studied.

  1. Paleogeographic Study of the West Florida Panhandle Coast and Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J. L.; Donoghue, J. F.; Niedoroda, A. W.; Hatchett, L.; Clark, R. R.

    2001-12-01

    The dominant factors in the evolution of a passive margin shelf and coast are sea-level change and fluvial-marine sediment transport processes. On many U.S. coasts, beach nourishment sand has become an increasingly scarce and expensive resource. A regional sand search has recently been undertaken to identify offshore targets for beach nourishment sand along the western Florida Panhandle coast. A major task of the project has been the development of a conceptual model for finding potential nourishment sand. The modeling work has involved the collection of existing data, including published literature, sediment samples, sub-bottom seismic data, and paleogeographic analyses. Paleogeography was recognized as a potentially powerful tool for use in identifying shelf sand bodies, because they are products of sea-level change and shelf evolution. As part of the project, a more detailed study has been undertaken to acquire and assemble all available paleogeographic and paleoshoreline data for the western Florida shelf. These data include studies of the Quaternary paleogeography of the Panhandle coast, still-stand paleoshorelines, high-resolution bathymetry, global and eustatic sea-level curves, beach ridge systems, coastal river and inlet retreat paths, and barrier island evolution. The data have been compiled into a Geographic Information System (GIS) database from which maps of the shelf paleogeography can be created, representing selected periods in the Quaternary evolution of the West Florida Panhandle coast and margin.

  2. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  3. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  7. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  9. 46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG)...

  10. 46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG)...

  11. 46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG)...

  12. 46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG)...

  13. Tsunami Preparedness Along the U.S. West Coast (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness along the West coast distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focuses on the specific needs of each region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA), Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI), Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD), Marin Office of Emergency Services, and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E).

  14. Decadal Variability of West Coast Marine Stratus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacobellis, S.; Schwartz, R. E.; Gershunov, A.; Cayan, D. R.; Williams, P.

    2013-12-01

    Low frequency variability of West Coast summertime marine stratus clouds are investigated using six decades of observations at several coastal airport locations. The magnitude and direction of long-term trends in summertime marine stratus occurrence along the California coast depends strongly on the cloud base height threshold used to distinguish low clouds from higher clouds. In this study, marine stratus clouds are defined as having cloud base at or below 1000 meters. Using this threshold, a decreasing trend in marine stratus cloud frequency was found for Southern California during the 1950-2012 period. No significant trends were found in Northern California. When averaged over the summer season, the cloud data reveal that coastal stratus has substantial variation on multi-year time scales with typical changes of 10-15% from year to year and 5-7% from decade to decade. Low stratus cloud cover varies over long distances with coherent anomalies that extend from southern California to Oregon. The most important correlated modes of SST with cloud cover anomalies, via a canonical correlation analysis contains both local and remote SST linkages. The first mode is correlated with the PDO and also to Pacific atmospheric circulation patterns and coastal upwelling. There is also a linkage to sea surface temperature anomalies in the low latitude Pacific, suggesting that tropical-extratropical interactions may be involved in driving West Coast cloud cover.

  15. Gaining more access is focus on West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1988-03-14

    A Beaufort Sea wildcat off the tantalizing Arctic National Wildlife Refuge highlights U.S. West Coast exploration/development action this year. Targeting the same structure tapped by the only wildcat drilled on ANWR's coastal Plain, the Tenneco Oil Exploration and Production offshore well may give more clues as to the potential of North America's most prospective and most controversial untapped petroleum province. Elsewhere in Alaska, firming oil prices have spurred a modest revival in wildcatting. But a steep decline in Alaskan oil production will likely begin in the early 1990s. Burgeoning production from new platforms and expanded steamflood projects will boost California output in the next few years. Longer term prospects for Offshore California, however, remain clouded by environmental opposition to development and leasing. Elsewhere in the Far West, Shell Oil Co. has returned to Washington, ARCO is stepping up action in Oregon and independents' discovery of new pay in the Railroad Valley area is spurring renewed interest in Nevada.

  16. 77 FR 47322 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule; inseason adjustments to biennial groundfish management measures. SUMMARY: This final rule announces inseason changes to management measures in the Pacific Coast...

  17. Computing Risk to West Coast Intertidal Rocky Habitat due to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Compared to marshes, little information is available on the potential for rocky intertidal habitats to migrate upward in response to sea level rise (SLR). To address this gap, we utilized topobathy LiDAR digital elevation models (DEMs) downloaded from NOAA’s Digital Coast GIS data repository to estimate percent change in the area of rocky intertidal habitat in 10 cm increments with eustatic sea level rise. The analysis was conducted at the scale of the four Marine Ecoregions of the World (MEOW) ecoregions located along the continental west coast of the United States (CONUS). Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) map data were used to identify rocky shoreline. Such stretches of shoreline were extracted for each of the four ecoregions and buffered by 100 m to include the intertidal and evaluate the potential area for upland habitat migration. All available LiDAR topobathy DEMs from Digital Coast were extracted using the resulting polygons and two rasters were synthesized from the results, a 10 cm increment zone raster and a non-planimetric surface area raster for zonal summation. Current rocky intertidal non-planimetric surface areas for each ecoregion were computed between Mean Higher High Water (MHHW) and Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) levels established from published datum sheets for tidal stations central to each MEOW ecoregion. Percent change in non-planimetric surface area for the same relative ranges were calculated in 10 cm incremental steps of eustatic S

  18. Winter extreme precipitation along the North American west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Michael D.

    Most extreme precipitation events that occur along the North American west coast are associated with winter atmospheric river (AR) events, causing flooding, landslides, extensive property damage, and loss of life. The studies contained within this dissertation use a combination of NCDC precipitation observations, NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, a 10-model ensemble of historical and future CMIP5 climate model simulations, and an NCEP-NCAR reanalysis driven regionally downscaled WRF model simulation to characterize the synoptic evolution of AR events along the North American west coast, the spatial variability of precipitation along the coast and inland, and changes in AR intensity and frequency that are expected by the end of the 21st century. Most regional flooding events are associated with precipitation periods of 24 hours or less, and two-day precipitation totals identify nearly all major events. Precipitation areas of major events are generally narrow, roughly 200 km in width, and most are associated with ARs. Composite evolutions indicate negative anomalies in sea-level pressure and upper-level height in the central Pacific, high-pressure anomalies over the southwest U.S., large positive 850-hPa temperature anomalies along the coast and offshore, and enhanced precipitable water and integrated water vapor fluxes in southwest- to northeast-oriented swaths. A small subset of extreme precipitation events over the southern portion of the domain is associated with a very different synoptic evolution: a sharp trough in northwesterly flow and post-cold-frontal convection. High precipitable water values are more frequent during the summer but are not associated with heavy precipitation because of upper-level ridging over the eastern Pacific and weak onshore flow that limits upward vertical velocities. Global climate models have sufficient resolution to simulate synoptic features associated with AR events, such as high values of vertically integrated vapor transport (IVT

  19. 75 FR 12729 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU95 Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit...

  20. 78 FR 54547 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Fisheries; California Drift Gillnet Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ...; Issuance of Permit; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Fisheries; California Drift Gillnet Fishery; Sperm Whale Interaction Restriction; Final Rule and Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BD57 Fisheries Off West Coast...

  1. 77 FR 39571 - Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc.,

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board \\1\\ Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc., \\1\\ A request for... company; TMS West Coast, Inc., a noncarrier holding company; Evergreen Trails, Inc. d/b/a Horizon...

  2. Holocene Glacial Retreat at Walgreen Coast, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindow, J.; Johnson, J.; Castex, M.; Wittmann, H.; Smith, J.; Lisker, F.; Gohl, K.; Spiegel, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Walgreen Coast of West Antarctica represents one of the most rapidly changing sectors of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). With the fastest ice streams in the whole Antarctic, the WAIS is characterised by rapid thinning and grounding line retreat. Airborne and satellite-based short-term observations show a doubling of the negative net mass balance between 1996-2006 (Rignot et al., 2008). Furthermore, because the WAIS is largely grounded below sea level, continued inland thinning and grounding line retreat could result in rapid ice sheet collapse, which would raise global sea level by between 3-5 m. However, due to remoteness and challenging accessibility, onshore data is limited to a few isolated nunataks making it difficult to assess the long-term evolution of the glacial dynamics along Walgreen Coast. To address this we present new data from two key areas of the Walgreen Coast; the Kohler Range and the Pine Island Bay. Our 10Be surface exposure ages from erratic boulders in the Kohler Range are the first and reveal that this area became ice-free between 8.3 and 12.3 ka. This implies a long-term thinning rate of 3.3 cm/yr and agrees with similar data published from glaciers eastward. Our ages are also consistent with recent deglaciation models which suggest strong thinning after 15 ka and off-shore sediments shows a concurrent lateral ice-shelf front retreat. Our results suggest an ice-cover at least 300 m thicker in the Kohler Range during the early Holocene and that subsequent average thinning occurred on rates one order of magnitude slower than recent satellite measurements show. This implies that the recent trend in ice-sheet thinning results from a recent dynamic changes rather than a response to long-term thinning. To further constrain the lateral deglaciation history along the eastern Walgreen Coast, namely the Pine Island Glacier, we collected additional samples from a chain of islands, located flow-parallel and downstream of the ice-shelf front. We

  3. History of petroleum exploration in California and the West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkenny, J.E.

    1991-03-01

    California's main oil and gas basins consist of the inland Sacramento and San Joaquin and the Los Angeles, Ventura, and Santa Maria basins adjacent to the coast and extending offshore. The state's total oil production to 1991 is approximately 22.8 billion bbls. Producing formations range in age from basement Jurassic to Pleistocene, but production is mainly from thick multiple sand zones of Miocene and Pliocene age. The first oil discovery was in the eastern Ventura basin in 1875. By the turn of the century, 22 fields, including several giants in the San Joaquin Valley, had been discovered by drilling near oil seepages. The most important event of the 1920s was the discovery of several giant oil fields in the Los Angeles basin, drilled on topographic highs suggestive of underlying anticlines. State production rapidly increased to 850,000 BOPD, or 40% of all US production. The 1930s saw the advent of the reflection seismograph, responsible for the state's largest oil field (Wilmington) in the Lost Angeles basin and the state's largest gas field (Rio Vista) in the Sacramento basin. A number of important fields were found under the San Joaquin Valley floor. Geological thinking in the late 1930s and 1940s resulted in the discovery of large stratigraphic traps in the San Joaquin Valley (e.g., East Coalinga) and at Santa Maria from fractured shale, plus two new small producing basins, the Cuyama and the Salinas. Offshore exploration, consisting of seismic work, ocean-bottom sampling, and coreholing, revealed the presence of a number of anticlines in the Ventura basin, paralleling the Santa Barbara coast. The first offshore discovery was made in 1959 on state lands followed by several major fields on federal lands in the late 1960s. Elsewhere along the West Coast, exploration in Oregon and Washington has yielded only minor gas.

  4. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. C, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C—Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits Vessel length Capacity rating 400 311.80...

  5. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. C, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C—Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits Vessel length Capacity rating 400 311.80...

  6. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. C, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C—Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits Vessel length Capacity rating 400 311.80...

  7. "Speaking a Secret Language:" West Coast Swing as a Community of Practice of Informal and Incidental Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Jamie L.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a qualitative study of competitive West Coast Swing dancers that incorporated both ethnographic and phenomenological techniques. A modern variation of the original Lindy Hop, West Coast Swing is typically learned in dance studios and non-profit clubs. The West Coast Swing community can be considered a community…

  8. Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Myer

    2005-09-29

    Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have

  9. Dynamic stability of coral reefs on the west Australian coast.

    PubMed

    Speed, Conrad W; Babcock, Russ C; Bancroft, Kevin P; Beckley, Lynnath E; Bellchambers, Lynda M; Depczynski, Martial; Field, Stuart N; Friedman, Kim J; Gilmour, James P; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Kobryn, Halina T; Moore, James A Y; Nutt, Christopher D; Shedrawi, George; Thomson, Damian P; Wilson, Shaun K

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring changes in coral cover and composition through space and time can provide insights to reef health and assist the focus of management and conservation efforts. We used a meta-analytical approach to assess coral cover data across latitudes 10-35°S along the west Australian coast, including 25 years of data from the Ningaloo region. Current estimates of coral cover ranged between 3 and 44% in coral habitats. Coral communities in the northern regions were dominated by corals from the families Acroporidae and Poritidae, which became less common at higher latitudes. At Ningaloo Reef coral cover has remained relatively stable through time (∼28%), although north-eastern and southern areas have experienced significant declines in overall cover. These declines are likely related to periodic disturbances such as cyclones and thermal anomalies, which were particularly noticeable around 1998/1999 and 2010/2011. Linear mixed effects models (LME) suggest latitude explains 10% of the deviance in coral cover through time at Ningaloo. Acroporidae has decreased in abundance relative to other common families at Ningaloo in the south, which might be related to persistence of more thermally and mechanically tolerant families. We identify regions where quantitative time-series data on coral cover and composition are lacking, particularly in north-western Australia. Standardising routine monitoring methods used by management and research agencies at these, and other locations, would allow a more robust assessment of coral condition and a better basis for conservation of coral reefs.

  10. Review of the twelfth West Coast Retrovirus Meeting.

    PubMed

    Barry, Sheila M; Melar, Marta; Gallay, Philippe; Hope, Thomas J

    2005-11-17

    Every year the Cancer Research Institute from University of California at Irvine organizes the West Coast Retrovirus Meeting where participants have a chance to discuss the latest progress in understanding the pathology of retroviruses. The 12th meeting was held at the Hyatt Regency Suites in Palm Springs, California from October 6th to October 9th 2005, with the major focus on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis. Philippe Gallay from The Scripps Research Institute and Thomas J. Hope from Northwestern University organized the meeting, which covered all the steps involved in the lifecycle of retroviruses with an emphasis on virus:host interactions. The trend in research appeared to be on the restriction of viral infection, both by the endogenous, cellular restriction factors, as well as by the potential antimicrobial compounds of known or unknown mechanisms. Additionally, new stories on the inevitable feedback from the host immune system were presented as well. HIV still represents a challenge that an army of motivated people has been working on for over 20 years. And yet, the field has not reached the plateau in knowledge nor enthusiasm, which was proven again in October 2005 in Palm Springs.

  11. Dynamic Stability of Coral Reefs on the West Australian Coast

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ C.; Bancroft, Kevin P.; Beckley, Lynnath E.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Depczynski, Martial; Field, Stuart N.; Friedman, Kim J.; Gilmour, James P.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Moore, James A. Y.; Nutt, Christopher D.; Shedrawi, George; Thomson, Damian P.; Wilson, Shaun K.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring changes in coral cover and composition through space and time can provide insights to reef health and assist the focus of management and conservation efforts. We used a meta-analytical approach to assess coral cover data across latitudes 10–35°S along the west Australian coast, including 25 years of data from the Ningaloo region. Current estimates of coral cover ranged between 3 and 44% in coral habitats. Coral communities in the northern regions were dominated by corals from the families Acroporidae and Poritidae, which became less common at higher latitudes. At Ningaloo Reef coral cover has remained relatively stable through time (∼28%), although north-eastern and southern areas have experienced significant declines in overall cover. These declines are likely related to periodic disturbances such as cyclones and thermal anomalies, which were particularly noticeable around 1998/1999 and 2010/2011. Linear mixed effects models (LME) suggest latitude explains 10% of the deviance in coral cover through time at Ningaloo. Acroporidae has decreased in abundance relative to other common families at Ningaloo in the south, which might be related to persistence of more thermally and mechanically tolerant families. We identify regions where quantitative time-series data on coral cover and composition are lacking, particularly in north-western Australia. Standardising routine monitoring methods used by management and research agencies at these, and other locations, would allow a more robust assessment of coral condition and a better basis for conservation of coral reefs. PMID:23922829

  12. 75 FR 33733 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION... as part of the live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of...

  13. 77 FR 22679 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended to allow fisheries to access more abundant groundfish stocks... Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule; inseason adjustments to biennial groundfish management...

  14. 77 FR 24634 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Fishery Management Plan (FMP), is intended to allow fisheries to access more abundant groundfish stocks... Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule; inseason adjustments to biennial groundfish management...

  15. 75 FR 11000 - Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX AGENCY... in the Freeport LNG Basin. This security zone is needed to protect vessels, waterfront facilities... notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX in...

  16. Neogene molluscan stages of the West Coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L.

    1984-01-01

    Neogene marine sediments of the West Coast of North America were deposited in a series of widely spaced basins that extended geographically from the western and northern Gulf of Alaska (60??N) to southern California (33??N). Rich molluscan faunas occur extensively throughout these deposits and form the basis for biostratigraphic schemes that are useful for correlating within and between individual basins. Early biostratigraphic work was concerned with faunas from particular horizons and with the stratigraphic range of diverse taxa, such as Pecten and Turritella, without reference to other fossil groups. Succeeding work increasingly dealt with the relationships of molluscan zones to benthic and, later, planktonic foraminiferal stages. In recent years the age limits of Neogene molluscan stages have become better documented by reference to planktonic microfossils from dated DSDP cores and onshore faunas. Neogene molluscan faunas from California, the Pacific Northwest states (Oregon and Washington), and southern Alaska have been treated separately due to differences in faunal composition and geographic isolation. As a result, a different biostratigraphic sequence has been described for each region. Pacific Northwest stages have been formally named and defined, and their names are also used informally for Alaskan faunas. California Neogene stages were proposed early in this century, are in need of redescription, and their usage is informal. Precise correlations between the three regional sequences have not yet been achieved, due to the low number of co-occurring species and the general lack of planktonic microfossils in these largely shallow-water faunas. The objectives of ongoing research include: fuller documentation of the faunas of California and Pacific Northwest stages; formal description of California stages; improved correlation between regional stage sequences; refinement of age estimates for stage boundaries; and, establishment of Neogene stages for Alaskan

  17. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux from a fire over the impounding spaces does not cause structural damage to an LNG vessel moored...

  18. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux from a fire over the impounding spaces does not cause structural damage to an LNG vessel moored...

  19. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux from a fire over the impounding spaces does not cause structural damage to an LNG vessel moored...

  20. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux from a fire over the impounding spaces does not cause structural damage to an LNG vessel moored...

  1. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux from a fire over the impounding spaces does not cause structural damage to an LNG vessel moored...

  2. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  3. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  4. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  5. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  6. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  7. 75 FR 67391 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the West Coast Recycling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Recycling Group Project in West Sacramento, Yolo County, CA AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for... Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the development of the West Coast Recycling Group... West Coast Recycling Group (WCRG) proposes to develop approximately 15 acres at the Port of...

  8. A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF SEDIMENT TOXICITY IN WEST COAST ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A probabalistic survey of coastal condition assessment was conducted in 1999 by participants in US EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). The survey targeted estuaries along the outer coasts of Washington, Oregon and California, including the lower Columbi...

  9. Shelfbreak circulation, fronts and physical oceanography: east and west coast perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrafesa, L.J.

    1983-06-01

    A survey of fundamental physical oceanographic processes that may affect sediment distribution along shelfbreak regions is presented, emphasizing the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the USA. These shelfbreak strips couple the bounded coastal oceans to the open seas, but there is no systematic pattern to this coupling. Pacific coast shelfbreak processes tend to be less energetic than those on the Atlantic coast since the Pacific coast is missing a Western Boundary Current and because the shelf is narrow and deep. Subinertial frequency shelfbreak motions on the west coast are typically manifested across the entire shelf, while those on the east coast tend to be confined to a loosely defined band, which brackets the break. Principal Pacific coast circulation elements include forms of continental shelf waves and thermohaline driven and mechanically wind forced currents, as well as the California Current System. While high frequency edge waves and inertial current are indigenous in similar fashion to all coasts, east and west coast tides are shown to be quite disparate, given tradeoffs between dominance of diurnal and semidiurnal constituents as a function of topographic constraint and strength of density stratification. All of the shelfbreak zones are graced by thermohaline fronts. The fronts are progradational on the west and southeastern coasts and retrogradational on the northeastern shelf. These fronts are an integral ingredient of all aspects of physical processes at the shelfbreak strip. The interplay of bottom topography with the physics of the outer continental margin is significant. Bottom features such as shoals, bumps, ridges and canyons are shown to be regions of sediment erosion, deposition and draping. Moreover, these features are shown to be casually related to upwelling and downwelling phenomena and to the deflection and scattering of waves and currents.

  10. Pollutant Transport During the Spring Months to the West Coast of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, P. G.; Lamarque, J.

    2002-12-01

    During the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) 2K2 field campaign, April 22 to May 19 2002, a wide range of chemical species were measured over the west coast of the U.S. and adjacent Pacific Ocean. Both aircraft and ground-based measurements were made. The MOZART chemical transport model driven by forecast meteorological fields was used to provide forecasts of chemical species (ozone, CO, NOx and PAN) and inert diagnostic species during the ITCT campaign. The diagnostic species provided tracers of rapid transport to the west coast of the U.S. from emission regions located in North America (over both the U.S. and Mexico), eastern Asia (including emissions from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources), the eastern Pacific maritime boundary layer and Europe. Recirculation of pollution from North America had very little effect on free-tropospheric concentrations off the west coast of the U.S. The eastern Pacific maritime boundary layer also had little impact in the free troposphere. The west coast was most directly affected by biomass burning sources and anthropogenic emission sources over Eastern Asia with occasional evidence of rapid transport from European sources. Deep and strong tropopause folds were also forecast to influence the west coast of the U.S. during ITCT, and in at least one instance were verified by the measurements. During this talk we further explore the long-range transport of pollutants to the west coast of the U.S. during spring 2002, as well as in other years over the last decade.

  11. 76 FR 74725 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ...This action implements revisions to the Pacific coast groundfish trawl rationalization program (program), a catch share program, and includes regulations that affect all commercial sectors (limited entry trawl, limited entry fixed gear, and open access) managed under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). This action includes regulatory amendments to further implement......

  12. 75 FR 60867 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...NMFS is implementing Amendments 20 and 21 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), which were partially approved by the Secretary on August 9, 2010. Amendment 20 establishes a trawl rationalization program for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery. Amendment 20's trawl rationalization program consists of: an individual fishing quota (IFQ) program for the shorebased trawl......

  13. 75 FR 67809 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...This proposed action would establish the 2011-2012 harvest specifications and management measures for groundfish taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California consistent with the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act and the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (PCGFMP). This action revises the collection of......

  14. Learning about geological events in Vendée (west coast of France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretaudeau, Florence; Lavigne, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Our 70 pupils, aged from 17 to 18 had discovered an area of the west coast of France : Vendée. We studied rocks in order to tell the geological story of this area. Several characteristics were looked at : sedimentary and metamorphics rocks, minerals, fault, folding, unconformability... We took advantage of this geological journey to look at biodiversity in different ecosystems : rocky coast, dune, wood.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Coastal Trapped Disturbances Along the U.S. West Coast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    variability along the west coast of North America influences the evolution, propagation, and decay of Coastal Trapped Disturbances (CTD). Emphasis is placed ...A secondary objective is to determine whether a reduced gravity model (applied to these events in previous work ) is a good approximation of the...Coast 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7

  16. Assessing surface sediment dynamics along the north-west coast of Marsa Dhouiba (Tunisia, southern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiari, Nouha; Atoui, Abdelfattah; Brahim, Mouldi; Sammari, Chérif; Charef, Abdelkrim; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-04-01

    An investigation was conducted from summer 2012 to winter 2013 at 25 stations along the Tunisian coast near Kef Abbed at Marsa Dhouiba (north-east Mediterranean Sea) to analyse grain size, sediment mineralogy and currents. Particle-size analysis shows that sand deposits at shallow depths are characterised by S-shaped curves, indicating a degree of agitation and possible transport by rip currents near the bottom. At greater depths (between 10 and 30 m), the bottom is covered by coarse sand and gravel. A current was observed transporting sediment eastward along the coast; another seaward current was also noted. Generated by wind, swell and especially waves from west to north-west, the two currents transport clay and silt-sized sediment seaward. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler showed Marsa Dhouiba's coastal current to follow a direction 175° East, with its main axis running north/north-west parallel to the coast and its minor axis also running north/north-west. Analysis of current components indicates that the velocities u and v are oriented north to south. Sediment evolution in shallow waters is dependent on detrital inputs from streams and winds. The coarse fraction of surface sediments in Marsa Dhouiba presents 87% of total sediments and is located at depths of 10-30 m. Sediment dynamics in the Marsa Dhouiba region are closely related to the west/north-west swell.

  17. 78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... trollers, and 438-495 charter boats. Based on Pacific Coast Fisheries Information Network (PacFIN) data, a... biological opinions that address the impacts of the Council managed salmon fisheries on listed salmonids as... fisheries were not likely to jeopardize SRKW (biological opinion dated May 5, 2009). Pursuant to...

  18. 76 FR 40836 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA554 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  19. 75 FR 59156 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY79 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited...

  20. 76 FR 58720 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA709 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited...

  1. 75 FR 42610 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XX54 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  2. 78 FR 51097 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC783 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  3. 77 FR 50952 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC166 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  4. A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF FISH TISSUE CONTAMINATION FROM THE CONTINENTAL SHELF OF THE US WEST COAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    A probabilistic survey of environmental condition of the continental shelf of the US West Coast was conducted in 2003 by the US EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA), with collaboration by the NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service. Metals and organic contaminants were analyzed ...

  5. New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

  6. 78 FR 16828 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Status Review of the West Coast Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Status Review... and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of initiation of status review. SUMMARY: We, the U.S... segment (DPS) in the United States. The status review will include analysis of whether the West Coast...

  7. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

    2011-02-23

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources.

  8. 76 FR 55865 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Notice of Availability for Secretarial Amendment 1 to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BB27 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Notice of Availability for Secretarial Amendment 1 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS has prepared Secretarial Amendment 1 to the Pacific Coast...

  9. Reproductive toxicity of seafood contaminants: Prospective comparisons of Swedish east and west coast fishermen's families

    PubMed Central

    Axmon, Anna; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Cohorts comprising fishermen's families on the east coast of Sweden have been found to have a high consumption of contaminated fish as well as high body burdens of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs). Their west coast correspondents are socio-economically similar, but with considerably lower POP exposure since the fish caught on the west coast is far less contaminated. The rationale for this was that the cohorts residing on the east coast of Sweden have been found to have a high consumption of contaminated fish as well as high body burdens of POPs, whereas their west coast correspondents are socio-economically similar, but with considerably lower POP exposure since the fish caught on the west coast is far less contaminated. Among the reproductive outcomes investigated are included both male and female parameters, as well as couple fertility and effects on the fetus. A range of exposure measures, including both questionnaire assessments of fish consumption and biomarkers, have been used. The most consistent findings of the studies are those related to the fetus, where a decreased birth weight was found across all measures of exposure, which is in agreement with studies from other populations. Some markers for male reproduction function, i.e. sperm motility, sperm chromatin integrity, and Y:X chromosome ratio, were associated with POP exposure, whereas others, such as sperm concentration and semen volume, were not. With respect to couple fertility and female reproductive parameters, no support was given for associations with POP exposure. Although some associations may have been affected by beneficial effects of essential nutrients in seafood, the overall findings are meaningful in the context of reproductive toxicity and support the usefulness of the epidemiological design. PMID:18507855

  10. 75 FR 33196 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Suspension of the Primary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Suspension of the Primary Pacific Whiting Season for the Shore... announces the suspension of the Pacific whiting (whiting) fishery primary season for the shore-based sector... reinstated until 0001 hours June 15, 2010, at which time the primary season for the shore-based sector...

  11. 75 FR 26702 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... amendments to a fishery management plan; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) has submitted Amendments 20 and 21 to the Pacific Coast...

  12. 78 FR 18879 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ...This action revises several portions of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl Rationalization Program (program) regulations in response to a court order requiring the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to reconsider the initial allocation of Pacific whiting (whiting) to the shorebased individual fishing quota (IFQ) fishery and the at-sea mothership fishery. Additionally, NMFS......

  13. 78 FR 56641 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Measures; Rockfish Conservation Area Boundaries for Vessels Using Bottom Trawl Gear AGENCY: National Marine... rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: This proposed action would implement revisions to the boundaries... Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) by liberalizing RCA boundaries in order to...

  14. [Intestinal parasitoses in the Mahajanga region, west coast of Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Buchy, P

    2003-03-01

    A study on human intestinal parasites was carried out from November 1996 until January 1997, in Mahajanga's hospital, on the western coast of Madagascar. We collected the faeces from 401 patients and the sera from 112 of them. Faecal examination using direct examination and MIF method revealed that 67.6% of the stools contained at least one parasite. The frequency of the protozoa was high (47.7%). The prevalence of the nematodosis reached 23.4%. Hymenolepis nana, Taenia saginata or solium and Schistosoma mansoni were less frequent (respectively 2.5%, 0.75% and 3.7%). More than 50% of the sera contained antibodies anti-Ascaris lumbricoides and anti-Strongyloides stercoralis. Serology by IFI using Schistosoma antigen was positive in 15.2% of the cases. The serological and microscopical exams showed that Entamoeba histolytica was present in this region and that amoebiasis should be considered as one of the etiologies of diarrhoea. The study pointed out also the frequency of the transmitted fecal infections. Preventive measures as water distribution, sanitary installations, hygiene education should be implemented.

  15. Atmospheric nutrient deposition to the west coast of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyaga, Justine M.; Cramer, Michael D.; Neff, Jason C.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition is an important source of nutrients to many ecosystems, but is of particular importance to plant nutrition in areas where nutrients are scarce. Nutrient containing aerosols enter the atmosphere through industrial and agricultural activities, wildfires, and the production of terrigenous and marine aerosols. In this study, we collected bulk rain precipitation along the Atlantic coast of South Africa in a coastal “strandveld” vegetation region. This region is relatively remote from significant anthropogenic influences and is downwind of a highly productive and stormy portion of the Atlantic. Samples were collected over 12 months at sites along a 17 km downwind transect from the shoreline and analyzed for N, P, Na, Ca, Mg and K. Annual total N and total P fluxes of 4.8 kg ha-1 yr-1 and 0.16 kg ha-1 yr-1 are low compared to global averages. In contrast, fluxes of Na were 88.7 kg ha-1 yr-1, 16.2 kg ha-1 yr-1 for Ca, 12.1 kg ha-1 yr-1 for Mg and 5.2 kg ha-1 yr-1 for K; rates that are higher than most other measurements elsewhere in the world. Dissolved organic N represented ca. 71% of the N flux while 43% of the P flux was in the form of soluble reactive P (SRP). These results combined with the high fluxes of Na and Mg strongly suggest that marine aerosols are important contributors to nutrient deposition at this site.

  16. Remote sensing of wetland conditions in West Coast salt marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustin, Susan L.; Lay, Mui C.; Li, Lin

    2004-11-01

    The objective of the PEEIR (Pacific Estuarine Ecosystem Indicator Research Consortium) program is to develop new indicators for assessing wetland health or condition. As part of PEEIR program we are investigating the use of imaging spectrometry to map and characterize marsh vegetation of several estuarine systems in California. We obtained airborne Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, an instrument which measures a detailed reflectance spectrum (400-2500nm) for each pixel, over paired tidal marshes, having either a history of exposure to pollution or no known exposure. AVIRIS image data was analyzed based on comparison to field measurements and reflectance changes measured in hydroponic experiments. We report leaf and canopy reflectance measurements of several common plant species of Pacific coast salt marshes exposed to different concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, V) and crude oil contaminants. Species exhibited differential sensitivities to specific contaminants, however in general, Salicornia virginica, the most salt tolerant species and the dominant species in these wetlands (70-90% cover) was most sensitive to metal and petroleum contaminants. Field measurements of canopy reflectance, biomass and vegetation structure were acquired across GPS-located transects at each field site. The AVIRIS data were calibrated to surface reflectance using the FLAASH radiative transfer code and geometrically registered to coordinates using the 1m USGS digital orthophoto quads. AVIRIS results show spatial patterns of plant stress indicators (e.g., reduced chlorophyll and water contents) are consistent with known patterns of contamination in these tidal wetlands.

  17. Integrated coastal zone management plan and coastal zone information system for Mangalore Coast, west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwarakish, G. S.; Shetty, Dinakar; Rao, Rajarama; Pai, Jagadeesh; Natesan, Usha

    2006-12-01

    In the present study, Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMP) has been developed for Mangalore Coast in Karnataka, along the West Coast of India, by analyzing the remotely sensed data and conventional data. The various data products used in the present study includes, IRS-1C LISS-III+PAN and IRS-P6 LISS IV remotely sensed data, Naval Hydrographic Chart and Survey of India (SOI) toposheets. Different thematic maps prepared in the present study includes, land use/ land cover map, bathymetry map, shoreline configuration map, transportation and drainage network maps, GPS survey map, CRZ map, contour map, DEM, inundation map and coastal erosion vulnerability map. The results of the present study are encouraging. Some of the specific conclusions of the study are; eight coastal vulnerability sites have been identified, significant increase in the built-up area and decrease in the agricultural land, no large scale erosion or deposition in the vicinity of coastal structures such as seawalls, breakwaters and entrance channel of New Mangalore Port Trust and the beaches along the Mangalore Coast are maintaining dynamic equilibrium. To get the online information about all these, Coastal Zone Information System (CZIS) has been developed through V. B. 6. 0. using results of various data analyses.

  18. Cenozoic history of the west coast margin, Jamaica

    SciTech Connect

    Hendry, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Cycles of emergence and submergence caused by tectonic movements and glacio-eustatic sea-level changes have left a strong signature on the geologic record of Jamaica's west coat margin. The fault-bounded Hanover Block controlled sites of Early Eocene to late Middle Miocene bank, slope and deep water carbonate sedimentation. Uplift in the Late Middle Miocene resulted in subaerial exposure of the limestones, with the formation of distinctive karst topograpy. Downfaulting of an extensive coastal block occurred in the Plio-Pleistocene, with glacio-eustatic sea-level changes becoming superimposed on tectonic events. Lower than present sea-levels are recorded by submerged terraces, a downed river valley, cliff and sea-level notch. The latter may correspond with late-Pleistocene interstadial sea-level positions of c.-18m. below present. Higher-than-present sea levels created a series of terraces, some underlain by Pleistocene reef, though levels have been affected by tectonic movements. The downfaulted block is veneered by thick terrestrial clays and gravels of Pleistocene age, succeeded by Holocene peat, and at the beach margin, carbonate sands. Radiometric dating of buried peat indicates that upward growth of the wetland surface was accompanied by landward migration of the beach across the wetland during the last 4000 years of the Holocene transgression.

  19. Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordecai, Gideon; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Douglas G.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2011-12-01

    Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setúbal, Cascais and Nazaré Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was most abundant at sites closest to the coastline and population centres, suggesting the majority of the litter was land sourced. Plastic was the dominant type of debris, followed by fishing gear. Standardised mean abundance was 1100 litter items km -2, but was as high as 6600 litter items km -2 in canyons close to Lisbon. Although all anthropogenic material may be harmful to biota, debris was also used as a habitat by some macro-invertebrates. Litter composition and abundance observed in the canyons of the Portuguese margin were comparable to those seen in other deep sea areas around the world. Accumulation of litter in the deep sea is a consequence of human activities both on land and at sea. This needs to be taken into account in future policy decisions regarding marine pollution.

  20. Plummeting crude prices hurt West Coast work, but several projects start up

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1987-06-08

    The U.S. West Coast this year will see the nation's first commercial offshore arctic production and the start-up of oil flow from the controversial Santa Maria basin off California. An even bigger controversy involves the best remaining U.S. petroleum prospect-the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The collapse in oil prices in 1986 has crippled drilling on the West Coast. The region always has had to contend with lower prices for lesser quality crudes and some of the highest operating costs in the U.S. But as oil prices continue to show stability, action will rebound in the two states that furnish more than one third of U.S. oil production.

  1. Selected results from LLNL-Hughes RAR for West Coast Scotland Experiment 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K; Johnston, B; Twogood, R; Wieting, M; Yorkey, T; Robey, H; Whelan, D; Nagele, R

    1993-01-05

    The joint US -- UK 1991 West Coast Scotland Experiment (WCSEX) was held in two locations. From July 5 to 12, 1991, in Upper Loch Linnhe, and from July 18 to July 26, 1991, in the Sound of Sleat. The LLNL-Hughes team fielded a fully polarimetric X-band hill-side real aperture radar to collect internal wave wake data. We present here a sample data set of the best radar runs.

  2. Improving End-To-End Tsunami Warning for Risk Reduction on Canada’s West Coast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    several disciplines including studied tsunami deposit layers, radiocarbon dating on terestrial plant specimens and tree-ring analysis of Sitka spruce...West Coast (CSSP-2013-TI-1033) i   Record of Amendments Version Number Section Amended Entered By Amendment Date Version 1 Document created...of the Oregon–Washington margin. Tectonics, 9 (1990), pp. 569–583. Atwater, B.F., Stuiver, M.,Yamaguchi, D.K. (1990). Radiocarbon test of earthquake

  3. Analysis of Hanford-based Options for Sustainable DOE Facilities on the West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, William M.

    2012-06-30

    Large-scale conventional energy projects result in lower costs of energy (COE). This is true for most renewable energy projects as well. The Office of Science is interested in its facilities meeting the renewable energy mandates set by Congress and the Administration. Those facilities on the west coast include a cluster in the Bay Area of California and at Hanford in central Washington State. Land constraints at the California facilities do not permit large scale projects. The Hanford Reservation has land and solar insolation available for a large scale solar project as well as access to a regional transmission system that can provide power to facilities in California. The premise of this study is that a large-scale solar project at Hanford may be able to provide renewable energy sufficient to meet the needs of select Office of Science facilities on the west coast at a COE that is competitive with costs in California despite the lower solar insolation values at Hanford. The study concludes that although the cost of solar projects continues to decline, estimated costs for a large-scale project at Hanford are still not competitive with avoided power costs for Office of Science facilities on the west coast. Further, although it is possible to transmit power from a solar project at Hanford to California facilities, the costs of doing so add additional costs. Consequently, development of a large- scale solar project at Hanford to meet the renewable goals of Office of Science facilities on the west coast is currently uneconomic. This may change as solar costs decrease and California-based facilities face increasing costs for conventional and renewable energy produced in the state. PNNL should monitor those cost trends.

  4. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that— (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to— (1) Personnel who work at...

  5. 75 FR 54025 - Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...-27022] RIN 1625-AB13 Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements AGENCY: Coast...) requirements for liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied hazardous gas (LHG) facilities. The amendment... entitled ``Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements'' (75 FR 29420) amending...

  6. 77 FR 70886 - Reconsideration of Letters of Recommendation for Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final... Captain of the Port regarding the suitability of a waterway for liquefied natural gas (LNG) or liquefied... Commission FR Federal Register LHG Liquefied hazardous gas LNG Liquefied natural gas LOI Letter of Intent...

  7. 75 FR 29420 - Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... No. USCG-2007-27022] RIN 1625-AB13 Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements... requirements for waterfront facilities handling liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied hazardous gas (LHG... harmonize the Coast Guard's regulations for LNG with those established by the Federal Energy...

  8. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that— (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to— (1) Personnel who work at...

  9. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that— (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to— (1) Personnel who work at...

  10. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that— (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to— (1) Personnel who work at...

  11. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that— (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to— (1) Personnel who work at...

  12. Atmospheric rivers as drought busters on the U.S. west coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) have, in recent years, been recognized as the cause of the large majority of major floods in rivers all along the U.S. West Coast and as the source of 30%–50% of all precipitation in the same region. The present study surveys the frequency with which ARs have played a critical role as a common cause of the end of droughts on the West Coast. This question was based on the observation that, in most cases, droughts end abruptly as a result of the arrival of an especially wet month or, more exactly, a few very large storms. This observation is documented using both Palmer Drought Severity Index and 6-month Standardized Precipitation Index measures of drought occurrence for climate divisions across the conterminous United States from 1895 to 2010. When the individual storm sequences that contributed most to the wet months that broke historical West Coast droughts from 1950 to 2010 were evaluated, 33%–74% of droughts were broken by the arrival of landfalling AR storms. In the Pacific Northwest, 60%–74% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by the arrival of AR storms. In California, about 33%–40% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by landfalling AR storms, with more localized low pressure systems responsible for many of the remaining drought breaks.

  13. Seasonal and interannual variations of upper ocean heat balance off the west coast of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ming; Biastoch, Arne; BöNing, Claus; Caputi, Nick; Meyers, Gary

    2008-12-01

    The Leeuwin Current, a warm, poleward flowing eastern boundary current, dominates the surface circulation off the west coast of Australia and has profound influence on regional marine ecosystem and fisheries recruitment. In this study, the seasonal and interannual variations of upper ocean heat balance in the Leeuwin Current region are analyzed by using an eddy-resolving numerical model simulation, as a first step to quantify the climate impacts on regional ocean thermodynamics and marine ecosystem. The volume transport and heat advection of the Leeuwin Current are stronger during the austral winter on the seasonal cycle and are stronger during a La Nina event on the interannual scale. On both seasonal and interannual timescales, the mixed layer heat budget off the west coast of Australia is predominantly balanced between the variations of the Leeuwin Current heat advection and heat flux across the air-sea interface. On the interannual timescale, the variation of the Leeuwin Current heat advection tends to lead that of the air-sea (latent) heat flux by two months, which is likely a reflection of advection timescales of the Leeuwin Current and its eddy field. The interannual variation of the average February-April sea surface temperature off the west coast of Australia, which is crucial for the larval settlement of western rock lobster, is mostly influenced by the Leeuwin Current heat advection as well as the ocean memory from the previous austral winter, with the air-sea heat exchange playing a buffering role.

  14. How Gaz de France optimizes LNG regasification

    SciTech Connect

    Colonna, J.L.; Lecomte, B.; Caudron, S.

    1986-05-05

    A regasification optimization program was implemented at Montoir-de-Bretagne in 1984, and rapidly accepted by the operators. It has been an important tool for decision-making in the optimizing operation of this liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage and regasification terminal. The models used are regularly and easily updated on the basis of equipment behavior: aging or fouling. The Montoir-de-Bretagne LNG terminal is in the port area of Nates-Saint Nazaire on the Atlantic coast. It was commissioned in 1982 by Gaz de France. This terminal is used for receiving, storing, and regasifying the Algerian LNG received under a contract between Gaz de France and Sonatrach, as well as the LNG imported by Belgium and temporarily routed through France. It is designed to receive 25,000 to 200,000 cu m LNG carriers and has three 120,000 cm m LNG storage tanks. The daily sendout ranges between 6.7 million cu m and 36 million cu m. Monitor terminal supplies mainly Brittany and the Paris area. Two identifical berths allow the simultaneous reception of two LNG carriers. LNG is carried to the storage tanks in 32-in. lines at a rate of 12,000 cu m/hr. Each storage tank is equipped with three submerged 450 cu m/hr pumps with which the LNG is sent from the tanks to the secondary pumps at 8 bar. The nine high-pressure (HP) secondary pumps, with a capacity of either 450 cu m/hr or 180 cu m/hr, raise the LNG pressure to a level at least equal to pipeline pressure prior to revaporization.

  15. Backtrack modeling to locate the origin of tar balls depositing along the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Ciappa, A; Vethamony, P

    2016-11-01

    Tar ball (TB) deposition along the West Coast of India (WCI) is a common phenomenon during the southwest monsoon season, particularly along the coast of Goa and Gujarat, and it is a major concern to the stake holders. Our earlier studies showed that the source oil for the TBs deposited on the Goa coast in August 2010 is the tanker wash, and the source for subsequent TBs deposited on the Gujarat coast during July 2012 and June 2013 and Goa coast in May 2013 is from Bombay High (BH) oil fields. In the present study, the TBs that were deposited during May 2013 and May 2014 on the Goa coast were backtracked through a trajectory model, primarily to simulate their pathways and identify the reason for the occurrence of TBs only in May, and eventually to identify the origin and the source. The backtracking results re-confirmed that the TBs deposited in 2010 were originated from the tanker routes and that of both 2013 and 2014 TBs from the BH oil fields. The climatology of wind and surface circulation showed that the TBs deposited on the Goa coast during May/June only are from the oil fields and those during August from the tanker route. The results of backtracking simulations showed that the residence time of the oil residues/TBs is approximately 22days for August 2010 TBs, ≈30days for May 2013 TBs and 65days for May 2014 TBs. The residence time (in water) of TBs that deposit (on the coast) in the month of May could be as much as 7months, and could be around one month if deposit in August, primarily because of winds and hydrodynamic conditions of the Arabian Sea.

  16. Recruitment dynamics of two ecosystem engineers could drive shellfish populations in U.S. west coast estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two species of burrowing shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis are important members of intertidal mudflat communities in US West coast estuaries. Both species act as ecosystem engineers and influence the presence of other structured habitats and suspension ...

  17. Chlorinated pesticide residues in sediments from the Arabian Sea along the central west coast of India

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, A.; Gupta, R.S.

    1987-12-01

    The problem of environmental contamination by persistent chlorinated pesticides still evokes major concern due to the presence of their residues in the environment and in human tissues. In developing countries like India organochlorine insecticides, especially DDT are extensively being used in agriculture and vector control programs. Few data are available on their levels of concentration from the seas around India. Persistent pesticides residues can be expected to accumulate in marine sediments. However, very little data on this are available along the Indian coast. An attempt has been made in the present communication to identify and quantify some of the chlorinated pesticides residues in the marine sediments collected from different region along the central west coast of India. This is a part of our ongoing project to monitor and map pollutants within the exclusive economic zone of India.

  18. First report of "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" in west coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Ríos-Muñoz, César A; Espinosa-Martínez, Deborah V; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Becker, Ingeborg

    2016-10-01

    We report the first case of "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" detected in Amblyomma mixtum ticks on humans on the west coast of Mexico. This is the most western record of "Ca. R. amblyommii" in the Western Hemisphere, representing the first record for the western coast of the Americas. Even if the record is far from the previously known locations for the species it does not represent a new record regarding temperature, precipitation and topographic parameters. Since "Ca. R. amblyommii" antibodies have been detected in patients suspected of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and the tick A. mixtum has been associated with humans, it is important to consider "Ca. R. amblyommii" as a potential risk for the human population that has not been considered at risk before.

  19. Effect of soda ash industry effluent on agarophytes, alginophytes and carrageenophyte of west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jadeja, R N; Tewari, A

    2009-02-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on the impact of the effluent released by the soda ash industry on important red and brown macro algal species Gelidiella acerosa, Gracilaria corticata, Soleria robusta, Sargassum tenerrimum, Padina tetrastromatica in the tidal zone around Veraval, on the west coast of India, in the lowest low water tide of December 2003. The study examined the effect of effluent discharge on availability of biomass and percentage of phyco-colloids extraction such as agar, alginic acid and carrageen of these commercial seaweeds.

  20. Ciguatera fish poisoning on the West Africa Coast: An emerging risk in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P; Almeida-González, Maira; Plakas, Steven M; Granade, Hudson R; Abraham, Ann; Jester, Edward L E; Dickey, Robert W

    2010-12-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is endemic in certain tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CFP had not been described on the West Africa Coast until a 2004 outbreak in the Canary Islands. In 2008-2009, two additional outbreaks of ciguatera occurred. Individuals afflicted had consumed lesser amberjack (Seriola rivoliana) captured from nearby waters. Caribbean ciguatoxin-1 (C-CTX-1) was confirmed in fish samples by LC-MS/MS. Ciguatoxic fish in this region may pose a new health risk for the seafood consumer.

  1. ShakeAlert—An earthquake early warning system for the United States west coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkett, Erin R.; Given, Douglas D.; Jones, Lucile M.

    2014-08-29

    Earthquake early warning systems use earthquake science and the technology of monitoring systems to alert devices and people when shaking waves generated by an earthquake are expected to arrive at their location. The seconds to minutes of advance warning can allow people and systems to take actions to protect life and property from destructive shaking. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with several partners, has been working to develop an early warning system for the United States. ShakeAlert, a system currently under development, is designed to cover the West Coast States of California, Oregon, and Washington.

  2. Exploring geophysical processes influencing U.S. West Coast precipitation and water supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralph, F.M.; Prather, K.; Cayan, D.

    2011-01-01

    CalWater Science Workshop; La Jolla, California, 8-10 June 2011 CalWater is a multiyear, multiagency research project with two primary research themes: the effects of changing climate on atmospheric rivers (ARs) and associated extreme events, and the potential role of aerosols in modulating cloud properties and precipitation, especially regarding orographic precipitation and water supply. Advances made in CalWater have implications for both water supply and flood control in California and other West Coast areas, both in the near term and in a changing climate.

  3. Exploring geophysical processes influencing U.S. West Coast precipitation and water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, F. Martin; Prather, Kim; Cayan, Dan

    2011-10-01

    CalWater Science Workshop; La Jolla, California, 8-10 June 2011 CalWater is a multiyear, multiagency research project with two primary research themes: the effects of changing climate on atmospheric rivers (ARs) and associated extreme events, and the potential role of aerosols in modulating cloud properties and precipitation, especially regarding orographic precipitation and water supply. Advances made in CalWater have implications for both water supply and flood control in California and other West Coast areas, both in the near term and in a changing climate.

  4. Alaska dominates exploration and development activity on U. S. West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1991-04-08

    Alaska's accelerating exploration and development activity is setting the pace for the U.S. West Coast. Continued wildcatting in the Chukchi Sea and Beaufort Sea--albeit hamstrung by permitting problems--significant new development projects on the North Slope, and the most ambitious lease sale schedule in years highlight Alaskan action in 1991. California highlights include expansion of massive steamflood projects in San Joaquin Valley giant heavy oil fields and start-up of the long-delayed Point Arguello project. There is little of note in the Pacific Northwest outside extension of the Mist gas complex in Oregon.

  5. Climatology of Long-Range Transport of Asian Dust on the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamean, J.; Spackman, J.

    2013-12-01

    Dust aerosols affect climate by directly absorbing radiation and indirectly by forming cloud particles. Once incorporated into clouds, dust has been shown to enhance precipitation formation from in situ measurements, such as those during the CalWater field campaign (2009-2011) along the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California. Large discrepancies exists between global aerosol models that simulate the dust in the atmosphere and its impact on climate. Further, about 25% of the global dust burden originates from Asia, thus a better understanding of where and how Asian dust is transported in the atmosphere is needed, particularly with projected increases in dust emissions in mind. Asian dust is typically transported to the U.S. in the spring, but not many long-term studies of this phenomenon exist. Our results show Asian dust transport varies significantly from year-to-year and at various locations along the U.S. west coast. Observations from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) LIDAR network in Japan and the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network along the U.S. West Coast were analyzed in the context of HYSPLIT trajectory analyses to investigate trans-Pacific Asian dust transport from 2002-2011. Similar to previous studies, the ratio of iron to calcium from IMPROVE soil was used to estimate Asian dust concentrations at multiple sites in California, Oregon, and Washington. Asian dust estimated from IMPROVE exhibited maximum concentrations in the spring (Apr-May) on the U.S. west coast, while non-Asian dust peaked late summer (Aug-Sep). Because Asian dust is typically transported in the mid-troposphere (2-4 km), the highest concentrations of Asian dust were typically observed at higher elevation sites, such as in the Cascades and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. California experienced larger influences from Asian dust compared to Oregon or Washington, likely due to large-scale synoptic patterns and higher elevation IMPROVE

  6. Changes in erosional and depositional processes with time and management of Goa Coast, central west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Ganapati; D'Souza, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Coastal and estuarine environments, world over are facing immense impact due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. The natural processes include climatic changes, rise in sea level, cyclone, flood, tsunamis, coastal erosion, salinity ingress and siltation. Likewise, anthropogenic pressures include population expansion, ocean traffic, dredging, resource exploitation, pollution, unplanned urbanization and intensive industrialization. Due to these impacts the fragile coastal ecosystem and its entities, like sub ecosystems, resources, morphological units are undergoing unprecedented degradation, rendering these coastal regions vulnerable, impinging risk to human population, livestock, properties, as also, devastation of resourceful lands. This accelerates economic fatalities and irreversible obliteration to the ecosystems. Evidences on the global concern towards this issue have been well established. The countries world over, including India, pledged consensus towards the protection of the fragile coastal ecosystems through UNCED, Agenda-21. India, on 19th February 1991, has designated specified corridors along the landward side of the coastline as "Coastal Regulatory Zones" (CRZ), through appropriate policy and law. In context with the CRZ notification, scientific database at local and site-specific areas, developed. Synergy of ecosystems, landscape and resources with demographic, tourism data, vis-à-vis, economic corridors/sectors aided the paradigms and criterion for local and site specific prescriptions for Goa Coast. The Goa coast is a part of central west coast of India and is characterized by pocket beaches flanked by rocky cliffs, estuaries, bays, and at some places mangroves. Beaches in southern Goa are long and linear in nature with sand dunes. The Mandovi and Zuari estuarine system in Goa is the largest in this part of the coast. Mud flats, swampy marshes and wetlands are found mainly along estuaries and creeks. The beaches of Goa are stable beaches

  7. Factors influencing the long-term dynamics of larval sea lice density at east and west coast locations in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Harte, Anna J; Bowman, Alan S; Salama, Nabeil K G; Pert, Campbell C

    2017-03-21

    Sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) are marine copepods that parasitize finfish, and in cases of high infestation can result in severe epithelial damage and mortality. In Scotland, 2 species of sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus, pose a significant economic burden to the marine Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry and potentially impact wild salmonids. The purpose of this study was to determine how the density of pelagic sea lice is affected by external variables, in order to improve our understanding of sea lice dynamics. Long-term data from 2 sampling sites on the east and west coasts of Scotland were modelled independently in conjunction with environmental and anthropogenic variables. Statistical analysis identified that at the east coast site, the most influential factor affecting lice density was salinity. On the west coast, salinity, rainfall and farmed salmon production year were most influential. Molecular and morphological techniques also showed that the individuals recorded on the east coast were C. elongatus, a generalist copepod parasite, whereas only the salmonid-specific L. salmonis were found on the west. These results reiterate the role of environmental factors in influencing sea lice dynamics, and that salmonids are the primary hosts of sea lice on the west coast, but there could be non-salmonid host species as well as salmonid species influencing east coast sea lice densities.

  8. On the importance of Sri Lanka for sea-level variability along the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J. P., Jr.; Pillathu Moolayil, M.

    2015-12-01

    Earlier studies have illustrated the strong influence of remote forcing from the equator and the Bay of Bengal on the sea-level variability off the west coast of India, especially at the seasonal timescale. More recently, Suresh et al. [2013] demonstrated with a simple, linear, continuously-stratified (LCS) model that the equatorial zonal winds contribute to more than 60% of intraseasonal sea-level variability along the Indian west coast. In the present study, we quantify the contributions from various processes to the sea-level variability along the west coast of India at different timescales with the help of a LCS model through both idealized and realistic sensitivity experiments. We demonstrate that remote forcing dominates the sea-level variability along the west coast of India at intraseasonal to interannual timescales. Sri Lanka and the southern tip of India play an important role on Indian west coast sea-level variability at all timescales for two reasons: First, the geometry of the coast favors a strong alongshore wind-stress forcing of coastal Kelvin waves across timescales there. Second, Sri Lanka interacts with low-order meridional mode equatorial Rossby waves forced by equatorial winds or southern Bay of Bengal wind- stress curl. This interaction of coastal waveguide with equatorial waveguide creates a new pathway for the equatorial signals to arrive at the west coast of India, alternative to the "classical" coastal waveguide around the rim of the Bay of Bengal. Reference: Suresh, I., J. Vialard, M. Lengaigne, W. Han, J. McCreary, F. Durand, and P. M. Muraleedharan (2013), Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 5740-5744, doi:10.1002/2013GL058312.

  9. A report on radioactivity measurements of fish samples from the west coast of Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Cooke, Michael W; Mercier, Jean-Francois; Ahier, Brian; Trudel, Marc; Workman, Greg; Wyeth, Malcolm; Brown, Robin

    2015-02-01

    Even though many studies have shown that radioactive caesium levels in fish caught outside of Japan were below experimental detection limits of a few Bq kg(-1), significant public concern has been expressed about the safety of consuming seafood from the Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident. To address the public concerns, samples of commonly consumed salmon and groundfish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 were analysed for radioactive caesium. None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of (134)Cs and (137)Cs under given experimental setting with the average detection limit of ∼2 Bq kg(-1). Using a conservative worst-case scenario where all fish samples would contain (137)Cs exactly at the detection limit level and (134)Cs at half of the detection limit level (to account for much shorter half-life of (134)Cs), the resulting radiation dose for people from consumption of this fish would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. Therefore, fish, such as salmon and groundfish, from the Canadian west coast are of no radiological health concern.

  10. A report on radioactivity measurements of fish samples from the West Coast of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Cooke, Michael W.; Mercier, Jean-Francois; Ahier, Brian; Trudel, Marc; Workman, Greg; Wyeth, Malcolm; Brown, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Even though many studies have shown that radioactive caesium levels in fish caught outside of Japan were below experimental detection limits of a few Bq kg−1, significant public concern has been expressed about the safety of consuming seafood from the Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident. To address the public concerns, samples of commonly consumed salmon and groundfish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 were analysed for radioactive caesium. None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of 134Cs and 137Cs under given experimental setting with the average detection limit of ∼2 Bq kg−1. Using a conservative worst-case scenario where all fish samples would contain 137Cs exactly at the detection limit level and 134Cs at half of the detection limit level (to account for much shorter half-life of 134Cs), the resulting radiation dose for people from consumption of this fish would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. Therefore, fish, such as salmon and groundfish, from the Canadian west coast are of no radiological health concern. PMID:24795385

  11. Interannual to multidecadal climate forcings on groundwater resources of the U.S. West Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Velasco, Elzie M; Gurdak, Jason J.; Dickinson, Jesse; Ferre, T.P.A; Corona, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Study regionThe U.S. West Coast, including the Pacific Northwest and California Coastal Basins aquifer systems.Study focusGroundwater response to interannual to multidecadal climate variability has important implications for security within the water–energy–food nexus. Here we use Singular Spectrum Analysis to quantify the teleconnections between AMO, PDO, ENSO, and PNA and precipitation and groundwater level fluctuations. The computer program DAMP was used to provide insight on the influence of soil texture, depth to water, and mean and period of a surface infiltration flux on the damping of climate signals in the vadose zone.New hydrological insights for the regionWe find that PDO, ENSO, and PNA have significant influence on precipitation and groundwater fluctuations across a north-south gradient of the West Coast, but the lower frequency climate modes (PDO) have a greater influence on hydrologic patterns than higher frequency climate modes (ENSO and PNA). Low frequency signals tend to be preserved better in groundwater fluctuations than high frequency signals, which is a function of the degree of damping of surface variable fluxes related to soil texture, depth to water, mean and period of the infiltration flux. The teleconnection patterns that exist in surface hydrologic processes are not necessarily the same as those preserved in subsurface processes, which are affected by damping of some climate variability signals within infiltrating water.

  12. Sub-Kilometer Scale Basal Roughness of the Siple Coast Ice Streams, West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Peters, M. E.

    2006-12-01

    The anastomosing series of dynamic, basally lubricated ice streams found on the Siple Coast of West Antarctica play an important role in regulating the mass balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Geological controls on lubrication, elucidated by gravity, magnetics and seismic data, have proven important in understanding the evolution of these features. An additional indicator of basal properties, the basal roughness of ice sheets, may be an indicator of crustal geology and glacial modification, as well as a controlling parameter on ice dynamics and subglacial hydrology. For the Siple Coast ice streams, Fourier analysis of > 5 kilometer morphology (Siegert et al. 2004) revealed a correlation between ice streams and low bed roughness. Coherent high resolution data allows analysis of along track roughness at tens of meters resolution (Peters et al. 2005), however these data are limited in coverage. We extend roughness estimates into to the hundreds-of-meters length scale, using both frequency domain and autocorrelation methods, using incoherent 60 MHz radio echo sounding data collected between 1991 and 1996 on a five kilometer grid. The data cover the Bentley Subglacial Trench, Bindschadler Ice Stream, Siple Dome and the onset region of Kamb Ice Stream. SAR-processed coherent sounding data collected in 2001 are used to confirm these methods. We test for confinement of ice stream rapid basal motion to distinct morphological provinces; assess the hypothesis that marine sediments blanket much of interior of the basal WAIS; and look for correlation between ice flow and textural anisotropy.

  13. A New U.S. West Coast Network of Atmospheric River Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A. B.; Wilczak, J. M.; Ayers, T. E.; King, C. W.; Jordan, J. R.; Shaw, W. J.; Flaherty, J. E.; Morris, V. R.

    2015-12-01

    The West Coast of North America is the gateway to winter storms forming over the Pacific Ocean that deliver most of the precipitation and water supply to the region. Satellites are capable of detecting the concentrated water vapor in these storms (a.k.a. atmospheric rivers) over the oceans, but because of the complex emissivity of land surfaces, fail to do so over land. In addition, these storms often are accompanied by a baroclinically induced low-level jet that drives the moisture up the windward slopes of coastal and inland mountain ranges and produces orographically enhanced precipitation. To date, satellites cannot resolve this important feature. NOAA's Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT; hmt.noaa.gov) has developed the concept of an atmospheric river observatory (ARO); a collection of ground-based instruments capable of detecting and monitoring the water vapor transport in the low-level jet region. With funding provided by the California Department of Water Resources and U.S. Department of Energy, HMT has installed a picket fence of AROs along the U.S. West Coast. In addition, HMT has developed an award-winning water vapor flux tool that takes advantage of the data collected by the AROs to provide situational awareness and decision support for end users. This tool recently has been updated to include operational weather prediction output. The ARO network and water vapor flux tool will be described in this presentation.

  14. A coastal hazards data base for the U.S. West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Gornitz, V.M. |; Beaty, T.W.; Daniels, R.C.

    1997-12-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital data base that may be used to identify coastlines along the US West Coast that are at risk to sea-level rise. This data base integrates point, line, and polygon data for the US West Coast into 0.25{degree} latitude by 0.25{degree} longitude grid cells and into 1:2,000,000 digitized line segments that can be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) as well as by non-GIS data bases. Each coastal grid cell and line segment contains data variables from the following seven data sets: elevation, geology, geomorphology, sea-level trends, shoreline displacement (erosion/accretion), tidal ranges, and wave heights. One variable from each data set was classified according to its susceptibility to sea-level rise and/or erosion to form 7 relative risk variables. These risk variables range in value from 1 to 5 and may be used to calculate a Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI). Algorithms used to calculate several CVIs are listed within this text.

  15. Morphometric and molecular analysis of mackerel (Rastrelliger spp) from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Darlina, M N; Masazurah, A R; Jayasankar, P; Jamsari, A F J; Siti, A M N

    2011-09-16

    Mackerel (Scombridae; Rastrelliger) are small commercially important pelagic fish found in tropical regions. They serve as a cheap source of animal protein and are commonly used as live bait. By using a truss morphometrics protocol and RAPD analysis, we examined morphological and genetic variation among 77 individual mackerel that were caught using long lines and gillnets at 11 locations along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Nineteen morphometric traits were evaluated and genetic information was estimated using five 10-base RAPD random primers. Total DNA was extracted from muscle tissue. Morphometric discriminant function analysis revealed that two morphologically distinct groups of Rastrelliger kanagurta and a single group of R. brachysoma can be found along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. We also found that the head-related characters and those from the anterior part of the body of Rastrelliger spp significantly contribute to stock assessment of this population. RAPD analysis showed a trend similar to that of the morphometric analysis, suggesting a genetic component to the observed phenotypic differentiation. These data will be useful for developing conservation strategies for these species.

  16. The ecology of the seagrass meadows of the west coast of Florida: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Zieman, J.C.; Zieman, R.T. . Dept. of Environmental Sciences)

    1989-09-01

    This report summarizes information on the ecology of seagrass meadows on the west coast of Florida, from south of Tampa Bay to Pensacola. This area contains more than 3500 ha of seagrass beds, dominated by three species, Thalasia testudinum (turtle grass), Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass), and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). Beds occur both on the shallow, zero-energy Continental Shelf and in inshore bays and estuaries. Species ecology, distribution, biomass, and productivity of these dominant seagrass species are discussed. Seagrass beds support a very diverse and abundant algal flora and fauna, and these organisms, and seagrass detritus form the base of a productive food chain. Seagrass beds are important nursery areas providing both cover and food, for a number of commercial and sports fishery species. Along the west Florida coast, estuarine grass beds are noticeably more stressed and impacted by human activities than the more pristine nearshore beds. Urban development and dredging and filling are the major threates to seagrass beds in this region. 500 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Classification of atmospheric river events on the U.S. west coast using a trajectory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoo, J. M.; Waliser, D. E.; Waugh, D. W.; Wong, S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Fung, I. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate transport pathways of water vapor associated with landfalling atmospheric river (AR) events that result in precipitation along the west coast of the U.S. for winter of 1997-2010. The water vapor transport pathways are determined by computing back-trajectories with a trajectory model using the MERRA reanalysis dataset. The majority of AR events (about 86%) over the west coast of the U.S. are associated with three trajectory types. We designate the first type as Ascending near landfall and of Tropical Origin (AT), the second type as Ascending near landfall and of Extratropical Origin (AE), and the third type as Descending or parallel near landfall and of Extratropical Origin (DE). The magnitude and spatial distribution of precipitation of a given AR event are found to be strongly determined by the mixture of its type of trajectories. AR events composed of both AT and AE trajectories have more frequent and intense precipitation over a broad region of the western U.S. (particularly in the northern California) than AR events dominated by a single trajectory type (AT) or other combinations (e.g. AT and DE). In addition, different patterns of trajectory types among AR events are closely linked to the location and the shape of potential vorticity intrusions near the tropopause, which emphasizes that lower tropospheric air is interacting with upper tropospheric air during the developing rainfall system.

  18. Coherence of river and ocean conditions along the US West Coast during storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniskern, Tara A.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Farnsworth, Katherine L.; Wheatcroft, Robert A.; Goñi, Miguel A.

    2011-05-01

    The majority of water and sediment discharge from the small, mountainous watersheds of the US West Coast occurs during and immediately following winter storms. The physical conditions (waves, currents, and winds) within and acting upon the proximal coastal ocean during these winter storms strongly influence dispersal patterns. We examined this river-ocean temporal coherence for four coastal river-shelf systems of the US West Coast (Umpqua, Eel, Salinas, and Santa Clara) to evaluate whether specific ocean conditions occur during floods that may influence coastal dispersal of sediment. Eleven years of corresponding river discharge, wind, and wave data were obtained for each river-shelf system from USGS and NOAA historical records, and each record was evaluated for seasonal and event-based patterns. Because near-bed shear stresses due to waves influence sediment resuspension and transport, we used spectral wave data to compute and evaluate wave-generated bottom-orbital velocities. The highest values of wave energy and discharge for all four systems were consistently observed between October 15 and March 15, and there were strong latitudinal patterns observed in these data with lower discharge and wave energies in the southernmost systems. During floods we observed patterns of river-ocean coherence that differed from the overall seasonal patterns. For example, downwelling winds generally prevailed during floods in the northern two systems (Umpqua and Eel), whereas winds in the southern systems (Salinas and Santa Clara) were generally downwelling before peak discharge and upwelling after peak discharge. Winds not associated with floods were generally upwelling on all four river-shelf systems. Although there are seasonal variations in river-ocean coherence, waves generally led floods in the three northern systems, while they lagged floods in the Santa Clara. Combined, these observations suggest that there are consistent river-ocean coherence patterns along the US West

  19. Coherence of river and ocean conditions along the US West Coast during storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kniskern, T.A.; Warrick, J.A.; Farnsworth, K.L.; Wheatcroft, R.A.; Goni, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of water and sediment discharge from the small, mountainous watersheds of the US West Coast occurs during and immediately following winter storms. The physical conditions (waves, currents, and winds) within and acting upon the proximal coastal ocean during these winter storms strongly influence dispersal patterns. We examined this river-ocean temporal coherence for four coastal river-shelf systems of the US West Coast (Umpqua, Eel, Salinas, and Santa Clara) to evaluate whether specific ocean conditions occur during floods that may influence coastal dispersal of sediment. Eleven years of corresponding river discharge, wind, and wave data were obtained for each river-shelf system from USGS and NOAA historical records, and each record was evaluated for seasonal and event-based patterns. Because near-bed shear stresses due to waves influence sediment resuspension and transport, we used spectral wave data to compute and evaluate wave-generated bottom-orbital velocities. The highest values of wave energy and discharge for all four systems were consistently observed between October 15 and March 15, and there were strong latitudinal patterns observed in these data with lower discharge and wave energies in the southernmost systems. During floods we observed patterns of river-ocean coherence that differed from the overall seasonal patterns. For example, downwelling winds generally prevailed during floods in the northern two systems (Umpqua and Eel), whereas winds in the southern systems (Salinas and Santa Clara) were generally downwelling before peak discharge and upwelling after peak discharge. Winds not associated with floods were generally upwelling on all four river-shelf systems. Although there are seasonal variations in river-ocean coherence, waves generally led floods in the three northern systems, while they lagged floods in the Santa Clara. Combined, these observations suggest that there are consistent river-ocean coherence patterns along the US West

  20. Source location impact on relative tsunami strength along the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, L.; Bromirski, P. D.; Miller, A. J.; Arcas, D.; Flick, R. E.; Hendershott, M. C.

    2015-07-01

    Tsunami propagation simulations are used to identify which tsunami source locations would produce the highest amplitude waves on approach to key population centers along the U.S. West Coast. The reasons for preferential influence of certain remote excitation sites are explored by examining model time sequences of tsunami wave patterns emanating from the source. Distant bathymetric features in the West and Central Pacific can redirect tsunami energy into narrow paths with anomalously large wave height that have disproportionate impact on small areas of coastline. The source region generating the waves can be as little as 100 km along a subduction zone, resulting in distinct source-target pairs with sharply amplified wave energy at the target. Tsunami spectral ratios examined for transects near the source, after crossing the West Pacific, and on approach to the coast illustrate how prominent bathymetric features alter wave spectral distributions, and relate to both the timing and magnitude of waves approaching shore. To contextualize the potential impact of tsunamis from high-amplitude source-target pairs, the source characteristics of major historical earthquakes and tsunamis in 1960, 1964, and 2011 are used to generate comparable events originating at the highest-amplitude source locations for each coastal target. This creates a type of "worst-case scenario," a replicate of each region's historically largest earthquake positioned at the fault segment that would produce the most incoming tsunami energy at each target port. An amplification factor provides a measure of how the incoming wave height from the worst-case source compares to the historical event.

  1. Coastal sea level variability in the US West Coast Ocean Forecast System (WCOFS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurapov, Alexander L.; Erofeeva, Svetlana Y.; Myers, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Sea level variability along the US West Coast is analyzed using multi-year time series records from tide gauges and a high-resolution regional ocean model, the base of the West Coast Ocean Forecast System (WCOFS). One of the metrics utilized is the frequency of occurrences when model prediction is within 0.15 m from the observed sea level, F. A target level of F = 90% is set by an operational agency. A combination of the tidal sea level from a shallow water inverse model, inverted barometer (IB) term computed using surface air pressure from a mesoscale atmospheric model, and low-pass filtered sea level from WCOFS representing the effect of coastal ocean dynamics (DYN) provides the most straightforward approach to reaching levels F>80%. The IB and DYN components each add between 5 and 15% to F. Given the importance of the DYN term bringing F closer to the operational requirement and its role as an indicator of the coastal ocean processes on scales from days to interannual, additional verification of the WCOFS subtidal sea level is provided in terms of the model-data correlation, standard deviation of the band-pass filtered (2-60 days) time series, the annual cycle amplitude, and alongshore sea level coherence in the range of 5-120-day periods. Model-data correlation in sea level increases from south to north along the US coast. The rms amplitude of model sea level variability in the 2-60-day band and its annual amplitude are weaker than observed north of 42 N, in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) coast region. The alongshore coherence amplitude and phase patterns are similar in the model and observations. Availability of the multi-year model solution allows computation and analysis of spatial maps of the coherence amplitude. For a reference location in the Southern California Bight, relatively short-period sea level motions (near 10 days) are incoherent with those north of the Santa Barbara Channel (in part, due to coastal trapped wave scattering and/or dissipation). At a

  2. Caribbean LNG project marks progress; LNG tanker launched

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-20

    World LNG trade continues to expand as construction of a major LNG project in the Caribbean hits full stride this fall and another LNG carrier was launched earlier this year. Engineering is nearly complete and construction is nearing midway on Trinidad`s Atlantic LNG. In Japan, NKK Corp. launched another LNG tanker that employs the membrane-storage system. The 50-mile pipeline to move natural gas to the Atlantic LNG facility is also on track for completion by October 1998.

  3. Population dynamics and reproductive patterns of boltenia echinata (Ascidicea) on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svane, I.; Lundälv, T.

    Two populations of Boltenia echinata on the Swedish west coast were studied over a 10-year period by stereo-photographic recording of subtidal, vertical rock wallsat a depth of 20 m. Supplemental sampling was carried out over a one-year period. On the sheltered population decreased in numbers with an explosive increase in Ciona intestinalis. Another, exposed population displayed a similar response at the increase of annual ascidians ( Ascidiella scabra, A. aspersa and Corella parallelogramma). Variations in recruitment were influenced by interference competition, while adults were affected to a lesser extent. Recruitment and mortality at the exposed locality were twice as high as at the sheltered locality whereas the mean annual mortality pattern was similar. Adult mortality was related to physical factors (mainly temperature), imposing stresses of different magnitudes on the two populations. Settling and recruitment was observed throghout the year. No relation was found between the presence of incubating embryos or larvae in the atrial cavity and settling.

  4. Inventory of non-federally funded marine pollution research, development, and monitoring activities: West Coast region

    SciTech Connect

    Canton, G.M.; Opresko, D.M.; Weaver, R.S.

    1987-12-01

    Knowledge of current marine pollution research and monitoring programs is an important factor in planning and guiding future national efforts to control such pollution. To supplement these reports on Federal activities, NMPPO published a series of reports in 1980 on non-federally funded marine pollution research and monitoring activities in various regions. The following document presents an update of one of these reports. It presents an inventory of the non-federally funded research and monitoring projects for the West Coast region of the United States. It is one in a series of four updates that will collectively provide an updated inventory of non-federally funded projects for all the coastal regions of the United States.

  5. Earthquake studies on Canada’s west coast; Pacific Geoscience Centre

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, G. C.; Riddihough, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    On a global scale, Canada's west coast lies within the zone of a seismicity that stretches around the Pacific Ocean. In plate tectonic terms, it is dominated by the same right-lateral shearing between the Pacific and American plates that is responsible for the seismicity of California. However, in southern British Columbia the interaction is further complicated. Between the San Andreas fault in California and the Queen Charlotte fault off British Columbia, the Pacific and American plates are separated by the small independent Juan de Fuca plate system. This is spreading away from the Pacific plate and converging with the margin of the Pacific Northwest. The resulting Cascade volcanic chain and its extension into southern British Columbia are the topograhic expression of its subduction. 

  6. Non-syndromal oro-facial clefts in the Canterbury/ West Coast region, 1960-2000.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Peter; Esson, Ian

    2005-09-01

    The paper-based clinical assessment notes from Christchurch Hospital Cleft Clinic were transferred to electronic form in 2002. This enabled analysis of the types of non-syndromal orofacial clefts presenting within the Canterbury and West Coast region over a 41 year period. The incidence of oro-facial clefting was similar to that described in previous New Zealand studies, but higher than that found in United Kingdom studies. Orthodontists providing care in the cleft clinics in New Zealand have begun to investigate the use of a standardised electronic national database of patients presenting with oro-facial clefts. It is expected that this could provide the basis for a more detailed, robust and standardised database for future analysis.

  7. Plesionika sanctaecatalinae Wicksten, 1983 (Crustacea Decapoda Caridea Pandalidae) from off the west coast of Pacific Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Michel E

    2016-05-17

    A large series of specimens of Plesionika sanctaecatalinae was obtained during sampling operations off the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula in 2012 and 2014 (TALUD cruises). This material was examined and compared to the original description, the holotype and two paratypes. Although the fresh material fit well with the type material examined, some discrepancies were noted in the illustrations of the original description, particularly regarding scaphocerite and the telson, and new illustrations are provided. The series of sample available from the TALUD cruises allow to increase considerably the number of localities known for this species in the California Current area. A series of unpublished records corresponding to material examined in the original description but not listed in details, allows for further increase of the number of reported localities where P. sanctaecatalinae has been collected. Its vertical distribution in the water column, however, remains unclear due to the fact that no discrete samples are available for this species.

  8. Site specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis at Dubai Creek on the west coast of UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shama, Ayman A.

    2011-03-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was conducted to establish the hazard spectra for a site located at Dubai Creek on the west coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The PSHA considered all the seismogenic sources that affect the site, including plate boundaries such as the Makran subduction zone, the Zagros fold-thrust region and the transition fault system between them; and local crustal faults in UAE. PSHA indicated that local faults dominate the hazard. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the 475-year return period spectrum is 0.17 g and 0.33 g for the 2,475-year return period spectrum. The hazard spectra are then employed to establish rock ground motions using the spectral matching technique.

  9. NOAA/West coast and Alaska Tsunami warning center Atlantic Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Refidaff, C.; Caropolo, M.; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Knight, W.; Sammler, W.; Sandrik, A.

    2009-01-01

    West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakesoccurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake's location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and precomputed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides).The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

  10. New residence times of the Holocene reworked shells on the west coast of Bohai Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhiwen; Wang, Fu; Li, Jianfen; Marshall, William A.; Chen, Yongsheng; Jiang, Xingyu; Tian, Lizhu; Wang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Shelly cheniers and shell-rich beds found intercalated in near-shore marine muds and sandy sediments can be used to indicate the location of ancient shorelines, and help to estimate the height of sea level. However, dating the deposition of material within cheniers and shell-rich beds is not straightforward because much of this material is transported and re-worked, creating an unknown temporal off-set, i.e., the residence time, between the death of a shell and its subsequent entombment. To quantify the residence time during the Holocene on a section of the northern Chinese coastline a total 47 shelly subsamples were taken from 17 discrete layers identified on the west coast of Bohai Bay. This material was AMS 14C dated and the calibrated ages were systematically compared. The subsamples were categorized by type as articulated and disarticulated bivalves, gastropod shells, and undifferentiated shell-hash. It was found that within most individual layers the calibrated ages of the subsamples got younger relative to the amount of apparent post-mortem re-working the material had been subject to. For examples, the 14C ages of the bivalve samples trended younger in this order: shell-hash → split shells → articulated shells. We propose that the younger subsample age determined within an individual layer will be the closest to the actual depositional age of the material dated. Using this approach at four Holocene sites we find residence times which range from 100 to 1260 cal yrs, with two average values of 600 cal yrs for the original 14C dates older than 1 ka cal BP and 100 cal yrs for the original 14C dates younger than 1 ka cal BP, respectively. Using this semi-empirical estimation of the shell residence times we have refined the existing chronology of the Holocene chenier ridges on the west coast of Bohai Bay.

  11. Climatic and Anthropogenic Controls on Correlated Discharge from US West Coast Rivers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, K. L.; Kniskern, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Most river basins along the US West Coast are generally small, less than 15,000 km2, and tend to flood quickly following rain events. The storm systems that deliver rain to the coastal mountain ranges are considerably larger than the river basins such that multiple basins receive precipitation within hours of each other. Subsequently, these proximal rivers often disperse freshwater and sediment to the coastal ocean at relatively the same time. Many conceptual and numerical models of coastal processes may underestimate the delivery, dispersal and burial of sediment on the continental shelves as they often assume point source delivery of water and sediment from a single river. The reality seems to speak to the fact that a collection of smaller river basins may be synchronously delivering sediment all along a stretch of coastline. Hydrologic records from 62 coastal watersheds stretching along the US west coast from the Canadian to the Mexican border were acquired from the USGS river gauging network, this included over 100 gauging stations with records varying in length. This data mining effort allowed for a detailed analysis of the timing of flood peaks to the actual coastlines, rather than just correlation between gauging stations. Distinct coastal groupings were found that have rivers that deliver freshwater and sediment to the continental shelves at the same time, indicating plume mixing and different oceanic hydrodynamic regimes than would be indicated by traditional coastal sediment transport models. Also seen were larger scale climatic controls on the watershed relationships and alteration of the flood signals due to anthropogenic changes within the watershed. Extensive flood control networks, differences in population centers and floodplain modification within these basins all contributed to unexpected deviations from the correlation patterns.

  12. NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Pacific Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Benz, H.; Bolton, M.; Crawford, G.; Dengler, L.; Fryer, G.; Goltz, J.; Hansen, R.; Kryzanowski, K.; Malone, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Petty, E.; Rogers, G.; Wilson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or precomputed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic. This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps). As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  13. Port Eliza cave: North American West Coast interstadial environment and implications for human migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, B. C.; Wilson, M. C.; Nagorsen, D. W.; Nelson, D. E.; Driver, J. C.; Wigen, R. J.

    2003-06-01

    The timing of Late Pleistocene glacial advance, retreat, relative sea level and environmental viability between 25 and 12.5 ka ( 14C yrs BP) remain a key issue in the feasibility of a coastal migration route for the first North Americans. This is discussed on the basis of stratigraphic, radiometric and faunal data for Port Eliza cave, a raised sea cave, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Ice cover is indicated by the occurrence of 2 m of laminated clay, representing deposition in a subglacial lake. From immediately below this clay a diverse vertebrate fauna of marmot, vole, marten, cervid and various species of birds and fish was recovered, yielding ages of 18-16 ka. These dates and others from the region show that ice cover on the outer coast was brief, from ca 15.5-14 ka. The fish species indicate that relative sea level was close to the cave and that salmon runs were likely present. The terrestrial vertebrate fauna is consistent with a cool, open parkland environment with maximum summer temperatures cooler than present; these conditions lasted until at least 16 ka. With a diverse fauna and favorable climate, humans could have survived here on a mixed marine-terrestrial diet, confirming the viability of the coastal migration hypothesis for this portion of the route.

  14. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region. PMID:27893826

  15. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast.

    PubMed

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region.

  16. Macrofauna associated with temporary Sabellaria alveolata reefs on the west coast of Cotentin (France).

    PubMed

    Schlund, Erika; Basuyaux, Olivier; Lecornu, Billie; Pezy, Jean-Philippe; Baffreau, Alexandrine; Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    The polychaete Sabellaria alveolata (Linnaeus, 1767) is an important ecosystem engineer building reef structures which add to the topographic complexity in colonized areas. In Europe, the most extensive reef formation is located in the Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel (France). Since 2006, Sabellaria bio-constructions have developed on hard substrates along the west coast of the Cotentin Peninsula between Champeaux and Saint-Germain-sur-Ay on the northern part of the Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel. In this sector, two distinct types of bio-construction can be distinguished: platforms and reefs. The aim of this study is to analyse the patterns of the associated macrofauna on these platforms and reefs, as well as outside, and test for a correlation between the presence of Sabellaria bio-constructions and the richness of the benthic macrofauna. Univariate analyses are used to compare the macrofauna on four sites (Champeaux, Lingreville, Blainville-sur-Mer and Saint-Germain-sur-Ay). The results show a higher taxonomic richness on the platform-type than on the reef-type structures, and also a higher taxonomic richness outside the bio-construction areas. This suggests that, on the examined sites, the presence of S. alveolata bio-constructions does not contribute to higher levels of benthic macrofaunal richness on hard substrates. Temporary bio-constructions along this coast exhibit reefs of interest at some sites as well as in very small zones which merit special attention.

  17. Modulation of atmospheric rivers near Alaska and the U.S. West Coast by northeast Pacific height anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundhenk, Bryan D.; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Maloney, Eric D.; Nardi, Kyle M.

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) can cause wide-ranging impacts upon landfall at high northern latitudes, but comparatively little is known about the dynamics supporting these ARs in contrast to their midlatitude counterparts. Here ARs near the U.S. West Coast and the Gulf of Alaska during 1979-2015 are compared. ARs are found to occur in both regions with similar frequency, but with different seasonality. Composited atmospheric conditions from the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications data set reveal that a broad height anomaly over the northeast Pacific is influential to AR activity in both regions. When a positive height anomaly exists over the northeast Pacific, AR activity is often deflected poleward toward Alaska, while the U.S. West Coast experiences a decrease in AR activity. The opposing relationship also applies; that is, AR activity is decreased near Alaska and increased along the U.S. West Coast in the presence of a negative height anomaly. Quantitatively, nearly 79% of Gulf of Alaska ARs are associated with a positive northeast Pacific height anomaly and 86% of U.S. West Coast ARs are associated with a negative anomaly. Results suggest that this relationship applies across a range of time scales, to include subseasonal and interannual, not just with respect to individual transient waves. Both ARs and height anomalies are found to be associated with Rossby wave breaking, thereby dynamically linking AR activity with broader North Pacific dynamics.

  18. Eight years of regional scale, benthic assessments of the U.S. West Coast: Lessons learned and future directions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA) conducted regional scale assessments of benthic condition for the US West Coast from Washington to California, several regions of Alaska, Hawaii, and the Trust Territories of Guam and American Samoa. Over an 8-year period, studies focuse...

  19. 50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600.525 Section 600.525 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  20. 50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600.525 Section 600.525 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  1. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits 3 Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  2. Beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Case studies in the west coast of Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, Jorge; Ramos-Pereira, Ana

    2010-05-01

    Hydrodynamic forces over the beach sediments are the main driving factors affecting the frequency and magnitude of morphological changes in beach systems. In most of the time, this driving factors act in a foreseeable way and don't represent any danger to the coastal systems nor to its populations. However, hydrodynamic forces are also capable of induce high morphodynamic behavior on the beach profiles and very often in a short period of time which endangers people and property and leads to system retreat. The most common consequences of the occurrence of this type of phenomena over the coastal landforms are costal inundation and erosion. Still, many coastal systems, and specially beach systems, have recovery mechanisms and resilience levels have a very important role in the beach morphodynamic state and exposure to potential damaging events assessments. The wave dominated Portuguese West coast is an high energetic environment during winter, with 2.5m mean offshore significant wave height. Waves with 5 year recurrence period can reach 9.2m and storms are frequent. Beach systems are frequently associated with rocky coasts. In these cases, the subsystems present are beach-dune, beach-cliff and beach-estuary subsystems exposed to NW Atlantic wave climate. This research aim is to access beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Three beach systems were selected and monitored applying sequential profiling methodology over a three year period (2004-2007). Sta. Rita, Azul and Foz do Lizandro beaches are representative systems of the coastal stretch between Peniche and Cascais, which is a cliff dominate coast. Results from the monitoring campaigns are presented, including volume budgets, beach face slope changes, berm occurrence and heights and planimetric coastline dynamics. A hazard and susceptibility assessment schema and zonation are proposed, including the parameterization of local flood (i.e. mean sea, maximum spring tide, and storm surge and run

  3. Chemical and Biological Impacts of Ocean Acidification Along the West Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feely, R. A.; Alin, S. R.; Carter, B.; Bednarsek, N.

    2015-12-01

    The continental shelf region off the Washington-Oregon-California coast is seasonally exposed to water with a low aragonite saturation state by coastal upwelling of CO2-rich waters. To date, the spatial and temporal distribution of anthropogenic CO2 (Canth) contribution to the CO2-rich waters is largely unknown. Here we use an adaptation of the linear regression approach described in Feely et al. (2008) to utilize the GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography data set from the northeast Pacific to establish an annually updated relationship between Canth and potential density. This relationship was then used with the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program West Coast cruise data sets from 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013 to determine the spatial variations of Canth in the upwelled water. Our results show large spatial differences in Canth in surface waters along the coast with the lowest values (40-45 μmol kg-1) in strong upwelling regions of off northern California and southern Oregon and higher values (50-70 μmol kg-1) to the north and south of this region. Canth contributes an average of about 70 % of the increased amount of dissolved inorganic carbon in the upwelled waters at the surface relative to what would be expected from physical circulation and exchange with a preindustrial atmosphere alone. In contrast, Canth contributes an average of about 31%, and 16% of the increased amount of dissolved inorganic carbon at 50 m depth, and at 100 m depth respectively. The remaining contributions are either due to respiration processes in the water that was upwelled and transported to coastal regions or respiration processes that occurs locally during the course of the upwelling season. The uptake of Canth has caused the aragonite saturation horizon to shoal by approximately 30-50 m since preindustrial period so that the undersaturated waters are well within the regions of the continental shelf that affect the biological communities.

  4. Exhumation history along the eastern Amundsen Sea coast, West Antarctica, revealed by low-temperature thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindow, Julia; Kamp, Peter J. J.; Mukasa, Samuel B.; Kleber, Michel; Lisker, Frank; Gohl, Karsten; Kuhn, Gerhard; Spiegel, Cornelia

    2016-10-01

    West Antarctica experienced a complex tectonic history, which is still poorly documented, in part due to extensive ice cover. Here we reconstruct the Cretaceous to present thermotectonic history of Pine Island Bay area and its adjacent coasts, based on a combination of apatite and zircon fission track and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronology. In addition, we report petrographic information for the catchments of Pine Island, Thurston Island, and Thwaites glaciers. Our data suggest that the underlying bedrock of the Pine Island and Thwaites Glacier catchments are very different and vary from granitoids to (Cenozoic?) volcanogenic sequences and low-grade metamorphics. Our thermochronology data show that the upper crustal rocks of Pine Island Bay experienced very rapid cooling during the late Cretaceous. We attribute this rapid cooling of basement rocks and associated reduction in mean elevation to tectonic denudation driven by gravitational collapse of the Cretaceous orogen along the proto-Pacific Gondwana margin. Rapid Cretaceous crustal cooling was followed by very slow cooling during the Cenozoic, with no erosional response—within the limits of thermochronological methods—to the onset of glaciation and subsequent climatic changes. Cenozoic rifting within the West Antarctic Rift appears to have had little effect on erosion processes around Pine Island Bay; instead, our data suggest Cenozoic crustal tilting toward Pine Island Trough, a major geomorphic feature previously suggested to be a branch of the rift system.

  5. Progress on physical circulation and ecosystem modeling in the COAST and WEST programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. S.

    2002-12-01

    High resolution physical circulation and ecosystem models have been applied to study the mesoscale shelf flow field and ecosystem response off Oregon and northern California in the regions of the COAST and WEST field experiments. Localized, regional domains that extend approximately 400-600 km alongshore and 200-300 km offshore are utilized to allow high horizontal grid resolutions of 1-2 km. The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) is used for Oregon while the ROMS model is used for northern California. The Oregon ecosystem model is a five component nitrogen-based NNPZD model. In the most basic, workhorse configuration, periodicity conditions are used at the alongshore boundaries, allowing the specification of well-posed problems. For these shelf flows, where the mesoscale behavior is dominated by the interaction of wind-driven currents with variable shelf topography, that approximation leads to model results that generally show good agreement with observations. Open boundary conditions have also been developed to allow the application of spatially-variable forcing obtained from a high resolution mesoscale atmospheric model. In addition, off Oregon a data assimilation system utilizing HF-radar surface current measurements and a sequential optimal interpolation scheme is being utilized to improve estimates of the circulation. These models have been applied to the spring and summer 2001 time periods of the COAST and WEST field experiments. The modeled mesoscale shelf flow field off Oregon is strongly influenced by interactions with Heceta Bank while the flow off northern California is affected in a major way by Point Reyes. The structure of model sea surface temperature fields reflects the shelf flow interaction with these topographic features and is in good qualitative agreement with comparable satellite-measured fields. New information on the three-dimensional time-dependent nature of the velocity, temperature, and turbulent kinetic energy fields, tested with model

  6. New LNG process scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Foglietta, J.H.

    1999-07-01

    A new LNG cycle has been developed for base load liquefaction facilities. This new design offers a different technical and economical solution comparing in efficiency with the classical technologies. The new LNG scheme could offer attractive business opportunities to oil and gas companies that are trying to find paths to monetize gas sources more effectively; particularly for remote or offshore locations where smaller scale LNG facilities might be applicable. This design offers also an alternative route to classic LNG projects, as well as alternative fuel sources. Conceived to offer simplicity and access to industry standard equipment, This design is a hybrid result of combining a standard refrigeration system and turboexpander technology.

  7. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  8. Five centuries of U.S. West Coast drought: Occurrence, spatial distribution, and associated atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Erika K.

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. West Coast drought commencing in 2012 developed in association with a large, persistent high-pressure ridge linked to internal atmospheric variability. This study places the occurrence, spatial patterns, and associated circulation features of West Coast drought into a paleoclimate context through a synoptic dendroclimatology approach linking atmospheric circulation to surface hydroclimate patterns. Spatial reconstructions of upper atmosphere pressure patterns and cool-season drought show that West Coast-wide drought, although relatively rare compared to north-south dipole drought, has occurred periodically since 1500 Common Era and is consistently associated with a strong ridge centered along the Pacific Northwest coast. Atmospheric blocking is also linked to north-dry dipole droughts, while south-dry and wider Western droughts indicate La Niña-type patterns. The transition latitude between the northern and southern sides of the western precipitation dipole, important for California hydroclimate patterns, has had frequent year-to-year fluctuations but remained centered on 40°N over the past five centuries.

  9. Seasonality of the plankton community at an east and west coast monitoring site in Scottish waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresnan, Eileen; Cook, Kathryn B.; Hughes, Sarah L.; Hay, Steve J.; Smith, Kerry; Walsham, Pamela; Webster, Lynda

    2015-11-01

    This study presents the first comparative description of the physics, nutrients and plankton communities at two Scottish monitoring sites between 2003 and 2012; Stonehaven on the east coast of Scotland and Loch Ewe on the west coast. This description provides baseline information about the diversity of the plankton community in Scottish waters to support assessment of the plankton community for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Spring time temperatures at Loch Ewe were approximately 2 °C higher and the median secchi depth was almost 1 m greater than at Stonehaven during this period. Freshwater inflow from the river Ewe may promote water column stability at Loch Ewe. These factors may account for the earlier spring bloom observed at the Loch Ewe monitoring site. The seasonality of chlorophyll 'a' at Loch Ewe was typical of stratified waters in temperate regions with a strong spring/autumn peak attributed to increased numbers of diatoms whilst dinoflagellates dominated during the summer. At Stonehaven highest concentrations of chlorophyll were recorded between May and June and the autumn diatom bloom was considerably less than in Loch Ewe. A higher biomass of zooplankton grazers was found at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven. Pseudocalanus was the dominant copepod at both sites, particularly during the spring period. Zooplankton carnivores were also more abundant at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven and were dominated by cnidarians. Considerable interannual variability was observed in cnidarian abundance and diversity at both sites. Variation in the abundance of Ceratium, Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus at both sites followed similar trends in other time series suggesting that the plankton communities at Stonehaven and Loch Ewe are responding to large scale environmental influences.

  10. The morphology and migration of transverse bars off the west-central Florida coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelfenbaum, G.; Brooks, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    A series of migrating shore-normal sandbars with wavelengths of 75-120 m and heights up to 2 m have been identified off the northern tip of Anna Maria Island, a barrier island on the west-central Florida coast. Similar features have been described elsewhere since the 1930s and termed 'transverse bars'. The transverse bars identified off Anna Maria Island are found for about 3 km along the coast and extend 4 km offshore, well outside the normal surf-zone width. No cusps or any other associated beach expression is evident despite the fact that the bars come to within about 75 m of the beach. Sediments on the crests of the bars are a well-sorted fine quartz sand, whereas sediments in the troughs are a poorly sorted coarse carbonate shell hash. Historical aerial photographs and repeated high-resolution bathymetric surveys provide a means of quantifying the migration of the transverse bars. Analyses of orthorectified aerial photographs from the early 1940s through the mid 1990s clearly show movement or migration taking place in the bar field. In the 40-yr period from 1951 to 1991, the southern edge of the bar field moved 200-350 m to the south, with an average long-term migration rate of 8 m/yr. Repeated bathymetric surveys over an 8-month period give an average short-term migration rate of 21 m/yr to the south. Wave and current measurements suggest that southerly winds associated with the passage of cold fronts drive near-bed currents to the south that are strong enough to initiate sediment transport and cause the southerly migration of the transverse bars.

  11. Relative and Geocentric Sea Level Rise Along the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgette, R. J.; Watson, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    The rate of sea level change relative to the land along the West Coast of the U.S. varies over a range of +5 to -2 mm/yr, as observed across the set of long-running tide gauges. We analyze tide gauge data in a network approach that accounts for temporal and spatial correlations in the time series of water levels observed at the stations. This analysis yields a set of rate estimates and realistic uncertainties that are minimally affected by varying durations of observations. The analysis has the greatest impact for tide gauges with short records, as the adjusted rate uncertainties for 2 to 3 decade duration tide gauges approach those estimated from unadjusted century-scale time series. We explore the sources of the wide range of observed relative sea level rates through comparison with: 1) estimated vertical deformation rates derived from repeated leveling and GPS, 2) relative sea level change predicted from models of glacial isostatic adjustment, and 3) geocentric sea level rates estimated from satellite altimetry and century-scale reconstructions. Tectonic deformation is the dominant signal in the relative sea level rates along the Cascadia portion of the coast, and is consistent with along-strike variation in locking behavior on the plate interface. Rates of vertical motion are lower along the transform portion of the plate boundary and include anthropogenic effects, but there are significant tectonic signals, particularly in the western Transverse Ranges of California where the crust is shortening across reverse faults. Preliminary analysis of different strategies of estimating the magnitude of geocentric sea level rise suggest significant discrepancies between approaches. We will examine the implications of these discrepancies for understanding the process of regional geocentric sea level rise in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, and associated projected impacts.

  12. The puzzle of high heads beneath the West Cumbrian coast, UK: a possible solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, John H.; Barker, John A.

    2016-03-01

    A region of high heads within the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (BVG; a fractured crystalline rock) beneath the coastal plain of West Cumbria, England (UK), is identified as a possible relic left over by the Late Devensian ice sheet. It was found during investigations in the 1990s. Contemporary modelling work failed to produce a satisfactory explanation of the high heads compatible with the `cold recharge' isotopic signature of the groundwater. This study has reassessed the original hydraulic testing results. By plotting density-adjusted heads versus their depth below the water table in the immediate vicinity of the borehole in which they were measured, a depth profile resembling a `wave' was revealed with a peak value located at 1,100 m depth. The possibility that this wave represents relic heads from the last major ice sheet has been assessed using one-dimensional mathematical analysis based on a poroelastic approach. It is found that a wet-based ice sheet above the West Cumbrian coast was probably thick enough and sufficiently long-lasting to leave such relic heads providing that the hydraulic diffusivity of the BVG is in the order of 10-6 m s-1. Initial assessment 20 years ago of the long-interval slug tests suggested that such low values are not likely. More recent interpretation argues for such low values of hydraulic diffusivity. It is concluded that ice sheet recharge is the most likely cause of the raised heads, that the BVG contains significant patches of very low conductivity rock, and that long-interval single-hole tests should be avoided in fractured crystalline rock.

  13. Rain- vapour isotopic interaction over the south-west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palliyil Ravisankar, Lekshmy; Madhavan, Midhun; Rengaswamy, Ramesh

    2015-04-01

    Boundary layer water vapor isotopic composition (δv) is an important factor that controls the isotopic composition of evaporation flux and modulating the δ18O of tree ring cellulose through plant physiological cycle. But due to the difficult sampling procedure for water vapor, δv has rarely been quantified. Since many simple isotopic models require δvas an input, mostly we assume that the water vapor is in isotopic equilibrium with δof monthly rain (δr). Here we present simultaneous observations of water vapour (~ 300 samples) and rainfall (~200 samples) isotopic ratios from two stations in the south-west coast of India (both the stations are located in the west of Western Ghats), sampled during April- October, 2012. Daily rain water and water vapour (cryogenic trapping method) were collected according to the IAEA protocol and the isotopic analyses (D and 18O) were done using a Thermo Fisher Delta V+ Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer. We observe that, water vapour and rain are close to the equilibrium values during pre monsoon (April-May, ɛ = δr - δv= 8.9 ± 1.4 ), summer monsoon (June-September, ɛ = 9.0 ± 1.8 ) and North- East (NE) monsoon (October, ɛ = 7.9 ± 2.9 ) seasons. However, some individual rain events show more deviations from the equilibrium values. NE monsoon rainfall and water vapour are isotopically more depleted in 18O compared to the pre monsoon and summer monsoon seasons, in which the depletion is more in rain (~4 ) compared to water vapour (~2 ). This is because of the 18O enrichment of ground level vapour due to local evapo- transpiration (stations are at the leeward side of the Ghats), while rainfall is directly formed from the NE monsoon clouds which is more depleted in 18O. These results will be useful for the interpretation of δ18O of tree rings from south west.

  14. Giant fossil mass wasting off the coast of West India: The Nataraja submarine slide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvès, Gérôme; Huuse, Mads; Clift, Peter D.; Brusset, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    We use two-dimensional pre-stack depth migrated seismic reflection profiles and seafloor bathymetry to describe the continental margin structure and a massive mass-transport deposit off the west coast of India. This giant slide runs from the Gujurat-Saurashtra margin to the Laxmi Basin. It is over 330 km long, a maximum of 190 km wide and its run-out basal gradient is 1.2°. We name this giant mass wasting deposit the Nataraja Submarine Slide. This slide covers 49 ± 16 ×103 km2 and represents a volume of 19 ×103 ± 4 ×103 km3, making it the second by volume of any passive margin landslide/mass-transport deposit. Seismic facies analysis allows the internal structure of the mass-transport deposit to be described as far as the toe. This slide has been able to circumvent massive seamounts, thus highlighting the capacity of the flow and its potential energy during emplacement in a funnel between the slope of the Western Indian passive margin and the Laxmi Ridge. Stratigraphically, the emplacement of the Nataraja Slide predates the main pulse of sedimentation during the late Miocene-Recent associated with the Indus Fan but follows rapid sedimentation across S and SE Asia during the Early-Middle Miocene. The margin architecture at the head of this slide is associated with a gravity-controlled fold and thrust belt that may have caused slope steepening and triggering of the slide.

  15. Food intake of young cod and flounder in a shallow bay on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihl, L.

    The importance of shallow soft bottom areas as nursery grounds for I-ground cod, Gadus morhua, and I- to IV-group flounder, Platichthys flesus, was investigated in a 20 000 m 2 bay, 0 to 1 m deep, on the Swedish west coast. To estimate the amount of visiting fish and their food intake the bay was enclosed with a net once a month from July to November 1979 and from April to November 1980. At each occasion about 60 cods and 8 to 50 flounders were caught. The total biomass of the cod and flounder was 1 to 14 kg and 2 to 13 kg wet weight, respectively. The cod preyed on mobile epifauna such as Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon and Pomatoschistus spp., whereas the flounder was eating infauna mainly Mya arenaria, Cardium spp. and Nereis spp. The food intake within the area was calculated to approximate 35 and 10 kg wet weight from April to November for cod and flounder, respectively.

  16. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Commercially Important Oysters from Goa, Central-West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Shenai-Tirodkar, Prachi S; Gauns, Mangesh U; Ansari, Zakir A

    2016-12-01

    The major beds of oyster along the central-west coast of India are exposed to different anthropogenic activities and are severely exploited for human consumption. In this viewpoint, tissues of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis, C. gryphoides and Saccostrea cucullata were analyzed for Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb concentrations (dry weight) from Chicalim Bay, Nerul Creek and Chapora Bay in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. A higher concentration of Cu (134.4-2167.9 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (7.1-88.5 mg kg(-1)) was found, which is greater than the recommended limits in all the three species (and sites). Moreover, significant (p < 0.05) variations were observed for all the metals concentrations among the species, seasons and sites. The high concentrations of Cd and Cu in tissues of edible oyster pose a threat to human health. Therefore, continuous monitoring, people awareness and a stringent government policy should be implemented to mitigate the metal pollution along the studied sites.

  17. Bioaccumulation characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in coastal organisms from the west coast of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Wang, Tieyu; Naile, Jonathan E; Park, Jinsoon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Song, Sung Joon; Ryu, Jongseong; Codling, Garry; Jones, Paul D; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P

    2015-06-01

    Year-round monitoring for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) along the west coast of South Korea targeting long-term changes in water and coastal organisms has been conducted since 2008. In this study, we present the most recent 5-years of accumulated data and scrutinize the relationship between concentrations in water and biota highlighting bioaccumulation characteristics. Twelve individual PFAAs in samples of water (n=43) and biota (n=59) were quantified by use of HPLC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction. In recent years, concentrations of PFAAs in water have been generally decreasing, but profiles of relative concentrations of individual PFAAs vary among location and year. Bioaccumulation of PFAAs in various organisms including fishes, bivalves, crabs, gastropods, shrimps, starfish, and polychaetes varied among species. However, overall bioaccumulation of PFAAs was dependent on corresponding concentrations of PFAAs in water within an area. In organ-specific distributions of PFAAs, greater concentrations of PFAAs were found in intestine of fish (green eel goby). This result suggests that PFAAs are mainly accumulated via dietary exposure, while greater concentrations were found in gill and intestine of bivalve (oyster) which suggests both waterborne and dietary exposures to these organisms. Concentrations of PFAAs in biota did not decrease over time (2008-2010), indicating that continuing bioaccumulation followed by slow degradation or excretion of PFAAs accumulated in biota. Overall, spatio-temporal distributions of PFAAs in water and bioaccumulation characteristics seemed to be associated with recent restrictions of PFOS-based products and uses of PFBS-based substitutes.

  18. Food and habitat resource partitioning between three estuarine fish species on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorman, Staffan

    1983-12-01

    In 1978 the food and habitat resource partitioning of three small and common fish species, viz. Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer), Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.) and Pungitius pungitius (L.) were studied in river Broälven estuary on the Swedish west coast (58°22'N, 11°29'E). The area was divided into three habitats, based on environmental features. In July, September, and October stomach contents and size distribution of each species present were analysed. In July there was high food and habitat overlap between the species. Interference interactions probably occurred between some size classes of P. microps and the other two species. P. pungitius was exposed to both intra- and interspecific interactions. In September the food and habitat overlaps between G. aculeatus and P. pungitius were high, while both had low food and habitat overlaps in relation to P. microps. Interactions between G. aculeatus and P. pungitius were probably influenced by more severe abiotic conditions in one habitat, which caused lower abundances there, and higher abundances in the other two habitats. In October no interactions were observed. These results indicate that competition for food at least temporarily determines the species distribution in a temperate estuary, and that estuarine fish populations are sometimes food limited.

  19. Brevetoxicosis in seabirds naturally exposed to Karenia brevis blooms along the central west coast of Florida.

    PubMed

    Fauquier, Deborah A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Maucher, Jennifer M; Keller, Martha; Kinsel, Michael J; Johnson, Christine K; Henry, Michael; Gannon, Janet G; Ramsdell, John S; Landsberg, Jan H

    2013-04-01

    Harmful algal bloom events caused by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis occurred along the central west Florida, USA, coast from February 2005 through December 2005 and from August 2006 through December 2006. During these events, from 4 February 2005 through 28 November 2006, live, debilitated seabirds admitted for rehabilitation showed clinical signs that included disorientation, inability to stand, ataxia, and seizures. Testing of blood, biologic fluids, and tissues for brevetoxin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay found toxin present in 69% (n=95) of rehabilitating seabirds. Twelve of the 19 species of birds had evidence of brevetoxin exposure. Commonly affected species included Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias), and Common Loons (Gavia immer). Serial blood and fecal samples taken from several live seabirds during rehabilitation showed that brevetoxin was cleared within 5-10 days after being admitted to the rehabilitation facility, depending on the species tested. Among seabirds that died or were euthanized, the highest brevetoxin concentrations were found in bile, stomach contents, and liver. Most dead birds had no significant pathologic findings at necropsy, thereby supporting brevetoxin-related mortality.

  20. Airborne mercury pollution from a large oil spill accident on the west coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yim, Un-Hyuk; Jung, Myung-Chae; Kang, Chang-Hee

    2009-05-15

    Atmospheric mercury pollution was recognized after a large oil spill on the west coast of Korea on 7 December 2007. In this study, the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM: Hg(0)) in air were measured both shortly after the oil spill ( approximately 100h) and 1month after the accident near the accident site. When the Hg concentration levels were compared between two seashore sites and two parallel sites offshore, the values tend to decrease further offshore. The unusual rise in Hg concentration levels observed on the seashore area shortly after the accident (mean of 16.4+/-9.85ngm(-3)) dropped dramatically after 1month with active cleanup activities (2.99+/-1.40ngm(-3)). Because of the connection between crude oil and Hg (one of the major impurities), the unusual rise in the atmospheric Hg after the oil spill can be explained by the active evasion of Hg from the spilled crude oil. Although Hg levels determined a few days after the accident did not exceed the reference exposure limits (REL) proposed by several agencies, the early build-up of elemental mercury level due to the oil spill might have exerted certain impacts on the surrounding environments.

  1. Velocities of Thwaites Glacier and smaller glaciers along the Marie Byrd Land coast, West Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosanova, C.E.; Lucchitta, B.K.; Ferrigno, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    Average velocities for time intervals ranging from <1 to 15 years were measured by tracking ice-surface patterns on sequential Landsat and European Remote-sensing Satellite synthetic aperture radar images. Velocities of Thwaites Glacier range from 2.2 km a-1 above the grounding line to 3.4 km a-1 at the limit of measurements on Thwaites Glacier ice tongue. The glacier increases in velocity by about 1 km a-1 where it crosses the grounding line. Over the period 1984-93, Thwaites Glacier ice tongue accelerated by about 0.6 km a-1. Velocities of the floating part of several minor glaciers and some ice shelves are also determined: Land Glacier, 1.7-1.9 km a-1; DeVicq Glacier, 0.7-1.1 km a-1; Dotson Ice Shelf, 0.2-0.5 km a-1; Getz Ice Shelf, 0.2-0.8 km a-1; and Sulzberger Ice Shelf, 0.01-0.02 km a-1. The high velocities along the Marie Byrd Land coast are consistent with the high precipitation rates over West Antarctica and, for some of the glaciers, the lack of buttressing ice shelves.

  2. Hydrocarbons in seawater and sediment from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, A.R.; Tahir, N.M.; Wei, L.K. )

    1994-10-01

    The Straits of Malacca, along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, is one of the busiest waterways in the world with about 2000 vessels passing through it per month, of which about 25 percent are oil tankers of varying sizes. In the course of their passage, the practices of tanker ballasting and pumping of bilges by non-tanker vessels result in considerable pollution in these waters. Collisions and groundings also cause oil spills in Malaysian waters. Oil contaminants not only pollute the high seas but also affects the near-coastal waters. Marine oil pollution, in particular that of near-coastal waters, may also be attributed to land-based activities such as the utilisation of petroleum related products, the direct discharge of untreated municipal and industrial wastes containing refined and partly weathered oils to sewers and rivers, and the discharge of effluents from refineries and other similar sources. There is, at present, little information available on the total hydrocarbon concentrations (THCs) in water and sediments in these waters. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of hydrocarbons in water and sediments along the near-coastal areas of the Straits of Malacca. 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Seasonal biomass and energy content in seagrass communities on the west coast of Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, C.J.; Hall, M.O.; Riechert, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal collections were made over a 16 month period in seven seagrass communities on the west coast of Florida. The seagrass component accounted for at least 45% of the total biomass and Thalassia testudinum was the dominant species. The 15 month mean of total biomass at six sites that were dominated year around by T. testudinum from Tampa Bay to Cedar Key, Florida was 385 g dry weight m/sup 2/ or 1.42 tons dry weight/acre. The drift and attached seaweed components showed seasonal fluctuations in terms of species and biomass. Of the six open water sites, only one site, characterized by depressed salinity, showed significant differences in seasonal biomass for T. testudinum using a nested ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keul's test for variance. Available kilocalories ranged from a 16 month low of 344 to a high of 1837 kcal/m/sup 2/ with the highest biomass and caloric values occurring in the late spring and summer.

  4. Diversity of endophytic fungi in the roots of mangrove species on the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Ananda, K; Sridhar, K R

    2002-10-01

    Because mangrove plant species are a valuable source of useful metabolites, their endophytes have gained more importance. Randomly sampled surface-sterilized whole root segments of four mangrove plant species, Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia officinalis, Rhizophora mucronata, and Sonneratia caseolaris from the mangroves of Udyavara (Karnataka) on the west coast of India, were characterized for fungal communities by direct plating, damp chamber, and bubbling chamber incubation methods. The richness of endophytic fungal species from whole root segments after direct plating and damp chamber incubation was greatest for R. mucronata than for other plants (18 vs. 8-13). Incubation of whole root segments in bubbling chambers yielded conidia of two freshwater hyphomycetes: Mycocentrospora acerina (in Avicennia officinalis) and Triscelophorus acuminatus (in R. mucronata and in S. caseolaris). Surface-sterilized whole root and root bark segments of R. mucronata sampled from the mid-tide level on direct plating yielded more fungi than that of the root segments sampled from low-tide and high-tide levels. The greatest number of isolates, species richness, and diversity of fungi were shown by the whole root segments of R. mucronata from the mid-tide level. Rarefaction indices also revealed the highest expected number of species out of 150 random isolations from the mid-tide level samples of whole root and root bark segments of R. mucronata. The present study showed that fungi in mangrove roots are composed of a consortium of soil, marine, and freshwater fungi.

  5. Spreading patterns of the invasive Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea represents the northernmost and thus the coldest biogeographic sector of the Mediterranean Sea. In 2004, the invasive green alga Caulerpa cylindracea was recorded for the first time in the northern Adriatic at a site of the west Istrian Coast. Until 2010, additional C. cylindracea mats have only formed up to 7 km northward from the first colonisation site. Subsequently, the alga was also recorded at sites widespread along the entire coast. Both the first 2004 colonisation event and the 2011-2014 colonisation of distant sites occurred during periods of winter seawater temperatures higher than 9 °C. In general, algal spreading was markedly slow. Approximately 10 years after the first record, C. cylindracea has affected less than 1% of the entire west Istrian coastline. The colonisation predominantly occurred in ports and urbanised bays (seaside resorts) suggesting that anthropogenic activities might enhance algal diffusion.

  6. Distribution and abundance of anthropogenic marine debris along the shelf and slope of the US West Coast.

    PubMed

    Keller, Aimee A; Fruh, Erica L; Johnson, Melanie M; Simon, Victor; McGourty, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    As marine debris levels continue to grow worldwide, defining sources, composition, and distribution of debris, as well as potential effects, becomes increasingly important. We investigated composition and abundance of man-made, benthic marine debris at 1347 randomly selected stations along the US West Coast during Groundfish Bottom Trawl Surveys in 2007 and 2008. Anthropogenic debris was observed in 469 tows at depths of 55-1280 m. Plastic and metallic debris occurred in the greatest number of hauls followed by fabric and glass. Mean density was 67.1 items km(-2) throughout the study area but was significantly higher south of 36 degrees 00'N latitude. Mean density significantly increased with depth, ranging from 30 items km(-2) in shallow (55-183 m) water to 128 items km(-2) in the deepest depth stratum (550-1280 m). Debris densities observed along the US West Coast were comparable to those seen elsewhere and provide a valuable backdrop for future comparisons.

  7. 76 FR 78188 - Reconsideration of Letters of Recommendation for Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... natural gas (LNG) or liquefied hazardous gas (LHG) marine traffic. It also proposes a separate process for... the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register LHG Liquefied hazardous gas...

  8. 78 FR 2254 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... EFPs and other applicable laws. DATES: Comments must be received no later than 5 p.m., local time on... INFORMATION: This action is authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) and the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act provisions at 50 CFR 600.745, which states...

  9. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, A.J.; Marelli, D.C.; Frischer, M.E.; Danforth, J.M.; Williams, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

  10. Preliminary assessment of habitat protection needs for West Indian manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The report assesses information on the status of endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) on the east coast of Florida and Georgia in the southeastern United States and recommends actions to improve protection of the species and its habitat in that area. Manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia appear to constitute a discrete population numbering perhaps 700 to 900 animals. Based on carcass-salvage data, recent annual mortality rates of between 8% and 10% are indicated. Perhaps 3% to 4% of the population was killed as a result of collisions with boats during 1987, and this threat appears to be increasing. Collisions with boats and destruction of essential habitat are the principal threats to the population. Recommendations include: quadruple the size of the boat-speed regulatory system on the east coast of Florida; limit development in essential manatee habitats; acquire additional manatee habitat as additions to Federal and State refuges and preserves.

  11. 76 FR 5144 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for U.S. Navy F-35C West Coast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Environment) or designee. Resource areas to be addressed in the U.S. Navy F-35C West Coast Homebasing EIS will include, but not be limited to: Air quality, noise environment, land use, socioeconomics,...

  12. 77 FR 16048 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2012 West Coast Trade Symposium: “Harmonizing Trade for a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... Symposium: ``Harmonizing Trade for a Stronger Economy'' AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... Economy.'' This document announces that the West Coast trade symposium will be held in Long...

  13. Siple Coast ice streams reorganization following the reactivation of Kamb Ice Stream tributaries, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersen, P.; Bougamont, M. H.; Price, S. F.; Fricker, H. A.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Carter, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    Ice streams in Antarctica account for most of the ice volume discharged to the ocean, and their flow variability greatly influences the mass balance of the ice sheet. Today, the Siple Coast region is the only one in West Antarctica to experience a positive mass balance of 36 Gt/yr, as a consequence of the stagnation of Kamb Ice Stream 170 years ago as well as the ongoing slowdown of Whillans Ice Stream. However, this positive trend could be temporary, as reconstructions of past flow show that the Siple Coast ice streams have experienced significant flow variability over the past millennia, with episodes of stagnation typically followed by reactivation on a centennial timescale. The impact that this internally induced variability may have on the future mass balance remains unknown. Here, we use the three-dimensional ice sheet model CISM to study the flow variability of the Ross ice streams over a 250 year period, during which the basal properties controlling ice flow evolve according to the distribution of meltwater in a dynamic, regional hydrological system, coupled to a subglacial till layer. To obtain realistic initial flow conditions, we assimilate the 1997 velocity data available for this region. During the forward simulation, all ice streams undergo dynamic changes, traced to persistently weak bed conditions beneath the tributaries of the currently dormant Kamb Ice Stream. This source of regional instability propagates into the catchments of Whillans as well as Bindschadler ice streams within decades, and re-organizes the flow of all the Ross ice streams within two centuries. Ice piracy from Kamb Ice Stream prolongs the fast flow on Whillans Ice Stream, maintaining its trunk active during the first modeled century. At the same time, ice piracy into the catchment of Bindschadler ice stream reactivates the relict Siple Ice Stream, which significantly reduces the mass balance for this region. The trunk of Kamb Ice Stream reactivates last (during the second half

  14. Compiling Multibeam Sonar data for the U.S. Pacific West Coast Extended Continental Shelf Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, E.; Gardner, J. V.; Henderson, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The United States Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) Project is a multi-agency collaboration whose goals are to determine and define a potential extension of the U.S. continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles (nmi). Under international law as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), every coastal state is entitled to a continental shelf out to 200 nmi (the Exclusive Economic Zone) from its coastal baseline or out to a maritime boundary with another coastal country. The extended continental shelf (ECS) is the area that lies beyond this 200 nm limit where a country could gain sovereign rights to the resources of the seafloor and sub-seafloor. In 2007, the U.S. ECS Task Force designated NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) as the Data Management lead for the U.S. ECS Project and the data stewards and archival location for all data related to this project. The process to determine the outer limits of the ECS requires the collection and analysis of data that describe the depth, shape, and geophysical characteristics of the seafloor and sub-seafloor, as well as the thickness of the underlying sediments. The specific types of data that need to be collected include bathymetric data, seismic profiles, magnetic and gravity data, and other geophysical data. NGDC maintains several global geophysical databases, including bathymetric, seismic and geological data, all critical for supporting ECS analysis. Multibeam bathymetry is a primary dataset used for ECS analysis. Since 2003, the U.S. has collected more than 1.65 million square kilometers of multibeam bathymetric data from 18 cruises. One area where new data has been collected and where the U.S. may have an extended continental shelf is off the U.S. Pacific West Coast. New and old multibeam bathymetry archived at and delivered by NGDC were individually gridded by survey for an area within 48-30 degrees north latitude and -140 and -115 west longitude at a resolution of 210

  15. VOC Composition of Air Masses Transported from Asia to the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouw, J.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, B.; Parrish, D.; Holloway, J.; Huebler, G.; Fehsenfeld, F.

    2002-12-01

    Airborne measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were performed using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) operated onboard a NOAA WP-3 aircraft during the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) experiment in 2002. Enhancements of acetone (CH3COCH3), methanol (CH3OH), acetonitrile (CH3CN) and in some cases benzene were observed in air masses that were impacted by outflow from Asia. The enhancement ratios with respect to carbon monoxide are compared to emission factors for fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, which gives some insight into the sources responsible for the pollution. The observed mixing ratios for acetone, methanol and in particular acetonitrile were generally reduced in the marine boundary layer, suggesting the presence of an ocean uptake sink. The ocean uptake of acetonitrile was found to be particularly efficient in a zone with upwelling water off of the U.S. west coast. Reduced mixing ratios of acetone and methanol were observed in a stratospheric intrusion. This observation gives some information about the lifetime of these VOCs in the stratosphere. Enhanced concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons were observed in air masses that were impacted by urban sources in California. The ratio between the concentrations of benzene, toluene and higher aromatics indicated the degree of photochemical oxidation. PTR-MS only gives information about the mass of the ions produced by proton-transfer reactions between H3O+ and VOCs in the instrument. The identification of VOCs was confirmed by coupling a gas-chromatographic (GC) column to the instrument and post-flight GC-PTR-MS analyses of canister samples collected during the flights.

  16. Predicted Deep-Sea Coral Habitat Suitability for the U.S. West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Guinotte, John M.; Davies, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Regional scale habitat suitability models provide finer scale resolution and more focused predictions of where organisms may occur. Previous modelling approaches have focused primarily on local and/or global scales, while regional scale models have been relatively few. In this study, regional scale predictive habitat models are presented for deep-sea corals for the U.S. West Coast (California, Oregon and Washington). Model results are intended to aid in future research or mapping efforts and to assess potential coral habitat suitability both within and outside existing bottom trawl closures (i.e. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH)) and identify suitable habitat within U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS). Deep-sea coral habitat suitability was modelled at 500 m×500 m spatial resolution using a range of physical, chemical and environmental variables known or thought to influence the distribution of deep-sea corals. Using a spatial partitioning cross-validation approach, maximum entropy models identified slope, temperature, salinity and depth as important predictors for most deep-sea coral taxa. Large areas of highly suitable deep-sea coral habitat were predicted both within and outside of existing bottom trawl closures and NMS boundaries. Predicted habitat suitability over regional scales are not currently able to identify coral areas with pin point accuracy and probably overpredict actual coral distribution due to model limitations and unincorporated variables (i.e. data on distribution of hard substrate) that are known to limit their distribution. Predicted habitat results should be used in conjunction with multibeam bathymetry, geological mapping and other tools to guide future research efforts to areas with the highest probability of harboring deep-sea corals. Field validation of predicted habitat is needed to quantify model accuracy, particularly in areas that have not been sampled. PMID:24759613

  17. The contribution of occult precipitation to nutrient deposition on the west coast of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nyaga, Justine M; Neff, Jason C; Cramer, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    The Strandveld mediterranean-ecosystem of the west coast of South Africa supports floristically diverse vegetation growing on mostly nutrient-poor aeolian sands and extending from the Atlantic Ocean tens of kilometers inland. The cold Benguela current upwelling interacts with warm onshore southerly winds in summer causing coastal fogs in this region. We hypothesized that fog and other forms of occult precipitation contribute moisture and nutrients to the vegetation. We measured occult precipitation over one year along a transect running inland in the direction of the prevailing wind and compared the nutrient concentrations with those in rainwater. Occult deposition rates of P, N, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Al and Fe all decreased with distance from the ocean. Furthermore, ratios of cations to Na were similar to those of seawater, suggesting a marine origin for these. In contrast, N and P ratios in occult precipitation were higher than in seawater. We speculate that this is due to marine foam contributing to occult precipitation. Nutrient loss in leaf litter from dominant shrub species was measured to indicate nutrient demand. We estimated that occult precipitation could meet the demand of the dominant shrubby species for annual N, P, K and Ca. Of these species, those with small leaves intercepted more moisture and nutrients than those with larger leaves and could take up foliar deposits of glycine, NO3(-), NH4(+) and Li (as tracer for K) through leaf surfaces. We conclude that occult deposition together with rainfall deposition are potentially important nutrient and moisture sources for the Strandveld vegetation that contribute to this vegetation being floristically distinct from neighbouring nutrient-poor Fynbos vegetation.

  18. The Contribution of Occult Precipitation to Nutrient Deposition on the West Coast of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Strandveld mediterranean-ecosystem of the west coast of South Africa supports floristically diverse vegetation growing on mostly nutrient-poor aeolian sands and extending from the Atlantic Ocean tens of kilometers inland. The cold Benguela current upwelling interacts with warm onshore southerly winds in summer causing coastal fogs in this region. We hypothesized that fog and other forms of occult precipitation contribute moisture and nutrients to the vegetation. We measured occult precipitation over one year along a transect running inland in the direction of the prevailing wind and compared the nutrient concentrations with those in rainwater. Occult deposition rates of P, N, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Al and Fe all decreased with distance from the ocean. Furthermore, ratios of cations to Na were similar to those of seawater, suggesting a marine origin for these. In contrast, N and P ratios in occult precipitation were higher than in seawater. We speculate that this is due to marine foam contributing to occult precipitation. Nutrient loss in leaf litter from dominant shrub species was measured to indicate nutrient demand. We estimated that occult precipitation could meet the demand of the dominant shrubby species for annual N, P, K and Ca. Of these species, those with small leaves intercepted more moisture and nutrients than those with larger leaves and could take up foliar deposits of glycine, NO3-, NH4+ and Li (as tracer for K) through leaf surfaces. We conclude that occult deposition together with rainfall deposition are potentially important nutrient and moisture sources for the Strandveld vegetation that contribute to this vegetation being floristically distinct from neighbouring nutrient-poor Fynbos vegetation. PMID:26017747

  19. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety)

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita; Mitra, Souvik; Poddar-Sarkar, Mousumi

    2014-01-01

    Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60–80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08 ± 0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73 ± 0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL), total phenol (0.96 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra), reducing power (40.49 ± 1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra), and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77 ± 0.06 mg/mL) were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp.). PMID:26904626

  20. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita; Mitra, Souvik; Poddar-Sarkar, Mousumi

    2014-01-01

    Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60-80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08 ± 0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73 ± 0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL), total phenol (0.96 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra), reducing power (40.49 ± 1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra), and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77 ± 0.06 mg/mL) were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp.).

  1. Mechanism of high rainfall over the Indian west coast region during the monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheskumar, R. S.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Morwal, S. B.; Padmakumari, B.; Kothawale, D. R.; Joshi, R. R.; Deshpande, C. G.; Bhalwankar, R. V.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism responsible for high rainfall over the Indian west coast region has been investigated by studying dynamical, thermodynamical and microphysical processes over the region for the monsoon season of 2009. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts wind and NCEP flux data have been used to study the large scale dynamical parameters. The moist adiabatic and multi-level inversion stratifications are found to exist during the high and low rainfall spells, respectively. In the moist adiabatic stratification regime, shallow and deep convective clouds are found coexisting. The Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement EXperiment aircraft data showed cloud updraft spectrum ranging from 1 to 10 m s-1 having modal speed 1-2.5 m s-1. The low updrafts rates provide sufficient time required for warm rain processes to produce rainfall from shallow clouds. The low cloud liquid water is observed above the freezing level indicating efficient warm rain process. The updrafts at the high spectrum end go above freezing level to generate ice particles produced due to mixed-phase rainfall process from deep convective clouds. With aging, deep convection gets transformed into stratiform type, which has been inferred through the vertical distribution of the large scale omega and heating fields. The stratiform heating, high latent heat flux, strong wind shear in the lower and middle tropospheric levels and low level convergence support the sustenance of convection for longer time to produce high rainfall spell. The advection of warm dry air in the middle tropospheric regions inhibits the convection and produce low rainfall spell. The mechanisms producing these spells have been summarized with the block diagram.

  2. Predicted deep-sea coral habitat suitability for the U.S. West coast.

    PubMed

    Guinotte, John M; Davies, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Regional scale habitat suitability models provide finer scale resolution and more focused predictions of where organisms may occur. Previous modelling approaches have focused primarily on local and/or global scales, while regional scale models have been relatively few. In this study, regional scale predictive habitat models are presented for deep-sea corals for the U.S. West Coast (California, Oregon and Washington). Model results are intended to aid in future research or mapping efforts and to assess potential coral habitat suitability both within and outside existing bottom trawl closures (i.e. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH)) and identify suitable habitat within U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS). Deep-sea coral habitat suitability was modelled at 500 m×500 m spatial resolution using a range of physical, chemical and environmental variables known or thought to influence the distribution of deep-sea corals. Using a spatial partitioning cross-validation approach, maximum entropy models identified slope, temperature, salinity and depth as important predictors for most deep-sea coral taxa. Large areas of highly suitable deep-sea coral habitat were predicted both within and outside of existing bottom trawl closures and NMS boundaries. Predicted habitat suitability over regional scales are not currently able to identify coral areas with pin point accuracy and probably overpredict actual coral distribution due to model limitations and unincorporated variables (i.e. data on distribution of hard substrate) that are known to limit their distribution. Predicted habitat results should be used in conjunction with multibeam bathymetry, geological mapping and other tools to guide future research efforts to areas with the highest probability of harboring deep-sea corals. Field validation of predicted habitat is needed to quantify model accuracy, particularly in areas that have not been sampled.

  3. Climate change alters plant biogeography in Mediterranean prairies along the West Coast, USA.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Bridgham, Scott D; Reynolds, Lorien L; Goklany, Maya E; Wilson, Hannah E; Little, Chelsea J; Ferguson, Aryana; Johnson, Bart R

    2016-02-01

    Projected changes in climate are expected to have widespread effects on plant community composition and diversity in coming decades. However, multisite, multifactor climate manipulation studies that have examined whether observed responses are regionally consistent and whether multiple climate perturbations are interdependent are rare. Using such an experiment, we quantified how warming and increased precipitation intensity affect the relative dominance of plant functional groups and diversity across a broad climate gradient of Mediterranean prairies. We implemented a fully factorial climate manipulation of warming (+2.5-3.0 °C) and increased wet-season precipitation (+20%) at three sites across a 520-km latitudinal gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA. After seeding with a nearly identical mix of native species at all sites, we measured plant community composition (i.e., cover, richness, and diversity), temperature, and soil moisture for 3 years. Warming and the resultant drying of soils altered plant community composition, decreased native diversity, and increased total cover, with warmed northern communities becoming more similar to communities further south. In particular, after two full years of warming, annual cover increased and forb cover decreased at all sites mirroring the natural biogeographic pattern. This suggests that the extant climate gradient of increasing heat and drought severity is responsible for a large part of the observed biogeographic pattern of increasing annual invasion in US West Coast prairies as one moves further south. Additional precipitation during the rainy season did little to relieve drought stress and had minimal effects on plant community composition. Our results suggest that the projected increase in drought severity (i.e., hotter, drier summers) in Pacific Northwest prairies may lead to increased invasion by annuals and a loss of forbs, similar to what has been observed in central and southern California, resulting in

  4. GLORIA mosaic of West Coast US Exclusive Economic Zone, northern sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, M.A.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Karl, N.H.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

    1986-05-01

    The GLORIA (Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic) side-scanning sonar system was used to compile an image-enhanced acoustic mosaic, similar to an aerial photograph, of the sea floor of the West Coast US Exclusive Economic Zone. The mosaic clearly shows the spreading centers, fracture zones, submarine fans and channels, and transform to convergent continental margins north of latitude 39/sup 0/N. The linear basement ridges originally generated at the Gorda and Juan de Fuca spreading centers are abruptly truncated by the Mendocino and Blanco fracture zones, and their subtle to distinct divergence, bending, and offset attests to past changes in spreading rate and propagation of spreading centers. The major Delgada, Astoria, and Nitinat fans are traversed by lengthy channel-levee complexes extending from major canyons on the adjacent continental slope; areally extensive sediment-wave fields occur adjacent to the right side (facing down-channel) of these complexes. Other drainage features appear on the mosaic, and the range of channel sinuosity and continuity indicates fluvial-like processes at work on the sea floor. Submarine canyons on the continental slope are irregularly distributed; their range of maturity and relation to substrate type and geologic structure are manifest as variations in length, width, and relief, by changes in trend, and by the degree of sidewall gullying. Compressional and diapiric ridges characterize the continental slope in areas of plate convergence, whereas along the transform margin south of the Mendocino fracture zone, the slope is relatively smooth and featureless, except where incised by large canyon systems.

  5. A modeling system for predicting the impact of severe storms on the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P. L.; Ormondt, M. V.; O'Reilly, B.; Hoover, D.; Hapke, C. J.; Eshleman, J.; Ruggiero, P.; Elias, E.; Erikson, L. H.; Collins, B. D.; Guza, R. T.; Adams, P. N.; Thomas, J.

    2009-12-01

    Storm hazards on the U.S. West Coast are generally thought of as being less severe than the more dramatic hurricane impacts that affect the Gulf of Mexico and East Coasts. However, the magnitude, duration and economic and societal impacts of West Coast storms can still be substantial. Storms during the 1982-83 El Niño winter resulted in 36 casualties and over $1.2 billion in damage to the State of California, and current research suggests that increasing storm intensity, frequency, and wave heights will increase coastal-hazards risks on the West Coast for the foreseeable future. To begin to address the increased risk, the U.S. Geological Survey is leading the development of a modeling system for forecasting the impact of winter storms along the U.S. West Coast. A prototype has been developed for Southern California and is being tested with a hypothetical extreme winter storm scenario designed by atmospheric scientists. The modeling system has been designed to be run operationally or with prescribed scenarios, and utilizes atmospheric forcing information with a suite of state-of-the-art physical process models to provide detailed prediction of ocean currents, deep-water and near-shore wave heights, coastal wave runup, and the resulting total water levels on beaches and cliffed coastlines. Research-grade predictions of coastal flooding, inundation, erosion, and cliff failure are also provided. The modeling system utilizes an integrated, nested structure whereby regional wave and water level models are driven by boundary conditions derived from a global wave model, regional seas and swell data from an extensive wave buoy network, a global tide model from satellite altimetry, and atmospheric pressure and wind forecasts. Wave parameters and water levels from the regional models drive local, high resolution cross-shore profile models and 2D-morphological models. Data from these models, in turn, provide boundary conditions for a Bayesian cliff failure model. This paper

  6. Seasonal variations of aerosol over Dona Paula, a coastal site on the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, Elgar

    We report here the observations of the aerosol studies carried-out for three years (2000-2002) at Dona-Paula, Goa (15.456°N, 73.801°E), a coastal site on the west coast of India. Aerosol optical depths were measured using a five channel sunphotometer with wavelengths at 440, 500, 675, 870 and 936 nm. The site enjoys a tropical climate and is under the influence of the strong southwest or summer monsoon and weak northeast or winter monsoon. Being a coastal station land-sea breeze play an important role in the variations of the aerosol loading over the site and their transport to the Arabian Sea. The mean aerosol optical thicknesses (AOT) at 500 and 870 nm are 0.46 (±0.15) and 0.23 (±0.097), respectively, while the Angstrom exponent is 1.31 (±0.347). The aerosol properties over the site showed a distinct seasonal variations, with high values of AOT observed during summer, with mean values of 0.48 (±0.15) and 0.26 (±0.09) at 500 and 870 nm, respectively, while during the winter relatively low values were observed, with mean value of 0.41 (±0.14) and 0.19 (±0.09) at 500 and 870 nm, respectively. The values of Angstrom exponents observed at the site suggest that the aerosol comprise mostly of the small size particles, with relatively larger particles being observed during summer than winter. An anti-correlation is observed between the inter-annual variations in the aerosol loading and the rainfall over Goa. Aerosol properties show diurnal variations, with comparatively lower values of AOT being observed in the evening. These diurnal variations are within a limit of 10% of the average values observed for the day. Seasonal patterns in the diurnal variations of aerosol optical depths have been observed. Considering the effect of the meteorological parameters over the aerosol, it is observed that the AOT is positively correlated with water vapor column, however the wind is found to aid in the reduction of aerosol load over Goa. It can be inferred from the weak

  7. 78 FR 18249 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... the Pacific coast. (The EEZ off the Pacific Coast encompasses ocean waters seaward of the outer..., NMFS is publishing this final rule, which includes the content of the proposed rule without change... information on current climate and oceanographic conditions such as El Ni o and the Pacific...

  8. Morphological variation in the hydromedusa genus Polyorchis on the west coast of North America

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, John T.; Larson, R. J.

    1980-11-01

    Morphological variation in the hydromedusan genus Polyorchis on the west coast of North American is analyzed in relation to gonad number, tentacle number, and radial canal diverticula number relative to the height of the bell. In specimens of Polyorchis examined, it is concluded that P. penicillatus (Eschscholtz, 1829) is highly variable morphologically over its known geographic range from Alaska to Baja California. P. montereyensis Skogsberg, 1948 is considered a synonym of P. penicillatus, while P. haplus Skogsberg. 1948, is retained as a valid species.

  9. 78 FR 18970 - Trunkline LNG Company, LLC; Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Trunkline Gas Company, LLC; Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Trunkline LNG Company, LLC; Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Trunkline Gas Company... Trunkline LNG Company, LLC; Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; and Trunkline Gas Company, LLC (collectively referred... natural gas (LNG) terminal in Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana to liquefy natural gas and export the LNG....

  10. Migration patterns of the emerging plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum on the West Coast of the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Prospero, S; Grünwald, N J; Winton, L M; Hansen, E M

    2009-06-01

    Phytophthora ramorum (oomycetes) is the causal agent of sudden oak death and ramorum blight on trees, shrubs, and woody ornamentals in the forests of coastal California and southwestern Oregon and in nurseries of California, Oregon, and Washington. In this study, we investigated the genetic structure of P. ramorum on the West Coast of the United States, focusing particularly on population differentiation potentially indicative of gene flow. In total, 576 isolates recovered from 2001 to 2005 were genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. Our analyses of genetic diversity and inferences of reproductive mode confirm previous results for the Oregon and California populations, with the strong majority of the genotypes belonging to the NA1 clonal lineage and showing no evidence for sexual reproduction. The high incidence of genotypes shared among populations and the lack of genetic structure among populations show that important large-scale, interpopulation genetic exchanges have occurred. This emphasizes the importance of human activity in shaping the current structure of the P. ramorum population on the West Coast of the United States.

  11. LNG risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martino, P.

    1980-12-01

    A general methodology is presented for conducting an analysis of the various aspects of the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) which should be considered during the planning stages of a typical LNG ship terminal. The procedure includes the performance of a hazards and system analysis of the proposed site, a probability analysis of accident scenarios and safety impacts, an analysis of the consequences of credible accidents such as tanker accidents, spills and fires, the assessment of risks and the design and evaluation of risk mitigation measures.

  12. Equilibrium Beach Profiles on the East and West U.S. Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludka, B. C.; Guza, R. T.; McNinch, J. E.; O'Reilly, W.

    2012-12-01

    Beach elevation change observations from the United States west and east coasts are used to identify statistically the dominant cross-shore patterns in sand level fluctuations, and these changes are related to equilibrium beach profile concepts. Three to seven years of observations at four beaches in Southern California include monthly surveys of the subaerial (near MSL) beach, and quarterly surveys from the backbeach to about 8m depth. At Duck, North Carolina, observations include 31 years of monthly surveys from the dunes to about 8m depth. On the Southern California beaches, the dominant seasonal pattern is subaerial erosion in winter and accretion in summer. Seasonal fluctuations of 3m in shoreline vertical sand levels, and 50m in subaerial beach width, are not uncommon. The sand eroded from the shoreline in winter is stored in an offshore sand bar and returns to the beach face in summer. Wave conditions in Southern California also vary seasonally, with energetic waves arriving from the north in winter, and lower energy, longer period southerly swell arriving in summer. A spectral refraction model, initialized with a regional network of directional wave buoys, is used to estimate hourly wave conditions, in 10m water depth. Using an equilibrium hypothesis, that the shoreline (defined as the cross-shore location of the MSL contour) change rate depends on the wave energy and the wave energy disequilibrium, Yates (2009) modeled the time-varying shoreline location at several Southern California beaches with significant skill. The four free model parameters were calibrated to fit observations. Following Yates (2009), we extend the equilibrium shoreline model to include the horizontal displacement of other elevation contours. At the Southern California sites, the modeled contour translation depends on the incident wave energy, the present contour configuration, and observation-based estimates of the contour behavior (based on EOF spatial amplitudes). At Duck, seasonal

  13. Upwelling of Acidified Water: Not Just an Issue for Shellfish Hatcheries on the West Coast of the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poach, M.; Munroe, D.; Abrahamsen, I.

    2014-12-01

    Periodic upwelling events are known to occur off the coast of New Jersey during the summer. As with upwelling off the US West Coast, these events can transport acidified water to the surface and shoreward. To determine if upwelling events have the potential to impact shellfish hatcheries in New Jersey, a monitoring study was conducted at the Aquaculture Innovation Center (AIC) of Rutgers University. The AIC is an important hatchery supporting the New Jersey oyster aquaculture industry through the production of disease resistant seed oysters. Starting in June of 2014, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were continuously monitored at the AIC's intake pipe. Periodic grab samples were also collected at the intake and at locations within the facility. Grab samples were preserved and analyzed for pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). DIC and pH were used to calculate the aragonite saturation state of the sampled water. During an upwelling event in early July a drop in pH was measured at the intake. Grab samples showed that water of lower pH and aragonite saturation was entering the facility. These results show that hatcheries along the NJ coast need to be aware that upwelling events may bring conditions detrimental for shellfish production.

  14. Coastal hazards projections on the U.S. West Coast using a dynamic water level modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P.; Erikson, L. H.; Foxgrover, A. C.; O'Neill, A.

    2014-12-01

    Many studies of future coastal flooding vulnerability consider sea level rise and tides only, typically applying a bath-tub type approach that omits key physical-forcing factors that elevate flood levels during storm events such as waves, surge and fluvial discharge. Here we present a new modeling approach that considers all the relevant factors that contribute to elevated water levels for open coast and embayment settings along the U.S. West Coast during projected 21stcentury storms. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) is a numerical modeling system developed to predict coastal flooding due to both SLR and plausible 21st century storms for active-margin settings like the U.S. West Coast. CoSMoS applies a predominantly deterministic framework that encompasses large geographic scales (100s to 1000s of kilometers) yet models flood extents to a local resolution (2 m) so that storm related changes in water levels at the shore can be resolved. In the latest iteration of CoSMoS applied to San Francisco Bay, efforts were made to incorporate water level fluctuations in response to trapped coastal waves, low pressure systems, ocean swell energy penetrating through the Golden Gate, locally wind-generated waves, and backflow induced by river discharge. The end product is a web-based tool (www.prbo.org/ocof) where users can assess variations in flood extent, maximum flood depth, maximum current velocities and wave heights in response to a number of potential SLR and storm combinations, providing direct support for adaptation and management decisions. Future efforts in Southern California will feature a dynamic coastal DEM that evolves over decadal time scales to provide updated boundary conditions for future storm simulations.

  15. The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullard, S.G.; Lambert, G.; Carman, M.R.; Byrnes, J.; Whitlatch, R.B.; Ruiz, G.; Miller, R.J.; Harris, L.; Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Pederson, J.; McNaught, D.C.; Cohen, A.N.; Asch, R.G.; Dijkstra, J.; Heinonen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Didemnum sp. A is a colonial ascidian with rapidly expanding populations on the east and west coasts of North America. The origin of Didemum sp. A is unknown. Populations were first observed on the northeast coast of the U.S. in the late 1980s and on the west coast during the 1990s. It is currently undergoing a massive population explosion and is now a dominant member of many subtidal communities on both coasts. To determine Didemnum sp. A's current distribution, we conducted surveys from Maine to Virginia on the east coast and from British Columbia to southern California on the west coast of the U.S. between 1998 and 2005. In nearshore locations Didemnum sp. A currently ranges from Eastport, Maine to Shinnecock Bay, New York on the east coast. On the west coast it has been recorded from Humboldt Bay to Port San Luis in California, several sites in Puget Sound, Washington, including a heavily fouled mussel culture facility, and several sites in southwestern British Columbia on and adjacent to oyster and mussel farms. The species also occurs at deeper subtidal sites (up to 81 m) off New England, including Georges, Stellwagen and Tillies Banks. On Georges Bank numerous sites within a 230 km2 area are 50–90% covered by Didemnum sp. A; large colonies cement the pebble gravel into nearly solid mats that may smother infaunal organisms. These observations suggest that Didemnum sp. A has the potential to alter marine communities and affect economically important activities such as fishing and aquaculture.

  16. LNG annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Bomelburg, H.J.; Counts, C.A.; Cowan, C.E.; Davis, W.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Pelto, P.J.

    1982-09-01

    This document updates the bibliography published in Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: third status report (PNL-4172) and is a complete listing of literature reviewed and reported under the LNG Technical Surveillance Task. The bibliography is organized alphabetically by author.

  17. Review of "the Twelfth West Coast Retrovirus Meeting" and "the Twenty-third Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS".

    PubMed

    Cairns, J Scott

    2006-01-11

    Two recent meetings held on the west coast of the USA highlighted current work being done in the field of retrovirology and AIDS. The meetings, "The Twelfth West Coast Retrovirus Meeting" (Palm Springs CA; October 6-8, 2005), and the "Twenty-third Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS" (Portland OR; September 21-24) covered a broad range of topics. The highlights covered here are not meant to be inclusive but reflect presentations of interest in the identification and development of new HIV therapies and the role played by animal models in their development.

  18. 77 FR 36192 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Pelagic Species (CPS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for Pacific mackerel off the Pacific coast. The ACL...-aside for incidental landings in other CPS fisheries. This final rule is intended to conserve and manage... the estimated biomass for Pacific mackerel to the Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council)...

  19. 77 FR 19991 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... according to the Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The proposed 2012 maximum HG... Management Council's (Council) Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Management Team (Team), the Council's CPS... sardine in the U.S. EEZ off the Pacific coast. The CPS FMP and its implementing regulations require...

  20. 78 FR 26277 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... http://www.pcouncil.org/ . Background The Pacific Coast Groundfish FMP and its implementing regulations at title 50 in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 660, subparts C through G, regulate... retention regulations at 50 CFR 660.231(b)(3)(iv) to read as follows: ``75 lb (34 kg) dressed weight...

  1. Vegetation phenology gradients along the west and east coasts of Greenland from 2001 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Karami, Mojtaba; Hansen, Birger Ulf; Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas; Abermann, Jakob; Lund, Magnus; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Elberling, Bo

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to characterize the spatiotemporal variations of vegetation phenology along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Greenland, and to examine local and regional climatic drivers. Time-series from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were analyzed to obtain various phenological metrics for the period 2001-2015. MODIS-derived land surface temperatures were corrected for the sampling biases caused by cloud cover. Results indicate significant differences between West and East Greenland, in terms of both observed phenology during the study period, as well as the climatic response. The date of the start of season (SOS) was significantly earlier (24 days), length of season longer (25 days), and time-integrated NDVI higher in West Greenland. The sea ice concentration during May was found to have a significant effect on the date of the SOS only in West Greenland, with the strongest linkage detected in mid-western parts of Greenland.

  2. LNG to the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, S.T.

    1984-04-01

    By 2000, about 190 MM metric-tpy of LNG will be moving in world trade, with Asia-Pacific as the dominant producer By the year 2000, approximately 190 million metric tons per year of LNG will be moving in worldwide trade. Production of LNG will be spread throughout most of the world, with Asia-Pacific as the dominant producer. LNG will be delivered only to the heavily industrialized areas of North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific. The success of any LNG project will be dependent on its individual economics, market needs, financial planning, and governmental permit processes. We hope industry will be able to put together the LNG projects required to meet the quanitities of production forecast here for the year 2000.

  3. Patterns of species diversity in estuarine benthic communities along teh US west coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries in the Pacific North West (PNW) were recently classified by whether the estuary is river- or ocean-dominated, the extent of intertidal to subtidal environments, and spatial salinity patterns. We examine whether these characteristics predict patterns of soft-sediment, m...

  4. Biological observations on the bristly catshark Bythaelurus hispidus from deep waters off the south-west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Akhilesh, K V; White, W T; Bineesh, K K; Ganga, U; Pillai, N G K

    2013-05-01

    Biological data are presented for the poorly known bristly catshark Bythaelurus hispidus based on specimens collected from the by-catch of the commercial deep-sea shrimp trawl fishery operating in the Arabian Sea at depths of 200-500 m off the south-west coast of India. One hundred and sixty-two individuals, which ranged from 120 to 366 mm total length (L(T)), were collected for this study. Size-at-maturity (L₅₀) for females and males was estimated at 252 and 235 mm L(T), respectively. The reproductive mode of B. hispidus was aplacental viviparity, which is the rarest reproductive mode within the Scyliorhinidae and is considered to be the most advanced of the three reproductive modes occurring within this family. Dietary analysis of stomach contents revealed B. hispidus feeds on a variety of prey, primarily fishes.

  5. Baseline of organotin pollution in fishes, clams, shrimps, squids and crabs collected from the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Sangeeta; Bhosale, Darshana; Bhosle, Narayan

    2011-10-01

    Organotins, especially tributyltins (TBT) are highly toxic to many marine organisms. These compounds are introduced in marine waters by ship trafficking, ship scrapping activities, as antifouling compounds and sewage disposal. Marine fishes, crustaceans and molluscans are easily prone to organotins contamination. In view of this, a baseline monitoring study was conducted in order to establish the levels of organotins in edible marine fishes, bivalves, shrimps, squids and crabs collected from Mumbai, Goa and Karwar on the west coast of India. At these locations average organotin concentration found in fishes, clams, shrimps, squids and crabs was 108, 852, 179, 70 and 89 ng Sn g(-1)dw, respectively. In all the samples butyltins dominated over phenyltins. The levels of organotins suggest that all the organisms were contaminated with organotins and their consumption may pose health problems to humans.

  6. Microdistribution within a population of Acrocnida brachiata (Montagu), (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in Little Killary, west coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makra, A.; Keegan, B. F.

    1998-03-01

    Acrocnida brachiata (Montagu), like many other infaunal ophiuroids, has a penchant for gregariousness. In Little Killary, a small embayment on the west coast of Ireland, it colonises an extensive tract of sandy inshore ground (ca 7 m depth), at densities of 150-200 individuals/m2. In the course of a two-year study, variation in regular suction-sampling returns prompted a detailed study of the species distribution pattern. Towards this end, 256 contiguous and stratified core samples were taken along a line of transect, in May 1995. These showed randomness with respect to the population at large, but exposed an aggregated distribution for juveniles and adults separately, at different levels within the sediment. Juveniles formed wide, ‘loose’ patches in the surficial deposit, while adults formed smaller, denseer patches deeper within the sediment. It remains to be seen what this approach may expose, when applied in different seasons, or during different phases of the species life cycle.

  7. Dominant role of winds near Sri Lanka in driving seasonal sea level variations along the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J.; Muraleedharan, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    The strong seasonal cycle of sea level along the west coast of India (WCI) has important consequences for ecosystem and fisheries, and the Lakshadweep high/low in the southeast Arabian Sea is important for fisheries and the Indian summer monsoon. Previous studies suggested that WCI sea level variability is primarily driven by remote wind forcing from the Bay of Bengal and equatorial Indian Ocean through coastal Kelvin wave propagation. Using a linear ocean model, we demonstrate that wind forcing in a relatively small region around the southern tip of India and east of Sri Lanka contribute to ~60% of this variability. Wind variations from the rest of the Bay and the equator only account respectively for ~20% and ~10%. Sea level signals forced by the "southern tip" winds extend westward into the eastern Arabian Sea through Rossby wave propagation, with more than 50% contribution in the Lakshadweep high/low region.

  8. Interannual variability in phytoplankton pigment distribution during the spring transition along the west coast of North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, A. C.; Strub, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    A 5-year time series of coastal zone color scanner imagery (1980-1983, 1986) is used to examine changes in the large-scale pattern of chlorophyll pigment concentration coincident with the spring transition in winds and currents along the west coast of North America. The data show strong interannual variability in the timing and spatial patterns of pigment concentration at the time of the transition event. Interannual variability in the response of pigment concentration to the spring transition appears to be a function of spatial and temporal variability in vertical nutrient flux induced by wind mixing and/or the upwelling initiated at the time of the transition. Interannual differences in the mixing regime are illustrated with a one-dimensional mixing model.

  9. Variation of Ca, Sr, Ba and Mg in the otolith of mudskipper in west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sarimin, A S; Ghaffar, M A; Mohamed, C A R

    2009-02-01

    A study on elemental composition in the otolith of giant mudskipper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri, was done from June to October 2003. Specimens were obtained from the mangrove areas of Kuala Selangor, Sepang and Melaka in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 70 sagitta otoliths were analyzed to detect variation of Sr, Ba and Mg, replacing the natural chemical composition of the otolith, which is the calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The average ratio of Sr:Ca was 0.11 x 10(-4), Ba:Ca was 5.7 x 10(-3) and Mg:Ca was 0.2 x 10(-3). Strong correlation (R > 0.8) between fish body size and otolith weight ofmudskipper (p < 0.01) also found during this study.

  10. Ground-water quality of coastal aquifer systems in the West Coast Basin, Los Angeles County, California, 1999-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Michael; Reichard, Eric G.; Crawford, Steven M.; Everett, Rhett; Newhouse, Mark W.; Williams, Colin F.

    2004-01-01

    The extensive use of ground water throughout the Central and West Coast Basins of Los Angeles County during the first half of the 20th century resulted in declining water levels, widespread seawater intrusion, and deterioration of water quality along most reaches of the coast. In order to control seawater intrusion in the West Coast Basin, freshwater is injected into a series of wells at two seawater barrier projects. In order to better understand the processes of seawater intrusion and the efficiency of current barrier operation, data were collected from multiple-well monitoring sites installed by the U.S. Geological Survey, from local observation wells, and from production wells. The occurrence and areal extent of native, saline, and recently injected ground water near the coast were defined through the collection and analysis of inorganic and isotopic water-quality data and geophysical logs. Most water in the West Coast Basin with a dissolved-solids concentration less than 500 milligrams per liter generally has a sodium-bicarbonate to sodium/calcium-bicarbonate character. Water with a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter also contains variable amounts of calcium and sodium, but chloride is predominant. Most of these high-dissolved-solids wells are perforated in the Upper aquifer systems; several have dissolved-chloride values near that of seawater. Elevated chloride concentrations were measured at many wells in both the Upper and Lower aquifer systems inland from the barrier projects. Although water levels have increased in many wells over the last 30 years, some of the wells do not show a corresponding decrease in dissolved chloride. A detailed assessment of saline ground water was provided by examining the ratios of chloride to bromide, iodide, and boron. Seawater-freshwater mixing lines were constructed using all three ratios. These ion ratios also identify water affected by mixing with injected imported water and oil

  11. Metamorphic waters from the pacific tectonic belt of the west coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, I.

    1970-01-01

    Waters unusually rich in ammonia, boron, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrocarbons are found in more than 100 localities along the Pacific coast of the United States. The waters are believed to be products of low-grade metamorphism of marine sediments. The marine sedimentary rocks would have to be tectonically emplaced below crystalline rocks in many places. Mercury are deposits are probably also products of the low-grade metamorphism.

  12. Spatial and temporal occurrence of blue whales off the U.S. West Coast, with implications for management.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Ladd M; Mate, Bruce R; Winsor, Martha H; Palacios, Daniel M; Bograd, Steven J; Costa, Daniel P; Bailey, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the 'home range' (HR) and 'core areas' (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels.

  13. The impact of the 2009-10 El Niño Modoki on U.S. West Coast beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Allan, Jonathan; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kaminsky, George M.; Ruggiero, Peter; Doria, André

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution beach morphology data collected along much of the U.S. West Coast are synthesized to evaluate the coastal impacts of the 2009-10 El Nio. Coastal change observations were collected as part of five beach monitoring programs that span between 5 and 13 years in duration. In California, regional wave and water level data show that the environmental forcing during the 2009-10 winter was similar to the last significant El Nio of 1997-98, producing the largest seasonal shoreline retreat and/or most landward shoreline position since monitoring began. In contrast, the 2009-10 El Nio did not produce anomalously high mean winter-wave energy in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon and Washington), although the highest 5% of the winter wave-energy measurements were comparable to 1997-98 and two significant non-El Nio winters. The increase in extreme waves in the 2009-10 winter was coupled with elevated water levels and a more southerly wave approach than the long-term mean, resulting in greater shoreline retreat than during 1997-98, including anomalously high shoreline retreat immediately north of jetties, tidal inlets, and rocky headlands. The morphodynamic response observed throughout the U.S. West Coast during the 2009-10 El Nio is principally linked to the El Nio Modoki phenomena, where the warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is focused in the central equatorial Pacific (as opposed to the eastern Pacific during a classic El Nio), featuring a more temporally persistent SST anomaly that results in longer periods of elevated wave energy but lower coastal water levels. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Brominated flame retardants and halogenated phenolic compounds in North American west coast bald eaglet (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) plasma.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Melissa A; Cesh, Lillian S; Elliott, John E; Williams, Tony D; Garcelon, David K; Letcher, Robert J

    2006-10-15

    We report on the identity, characterization, and spatial trends of several brominated flame retardants and hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) organohalogen contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestling plasma collected from sites along the west coast of North America. Samples were from four southwestern British Columbia (BC) locations, a reference site in northern BC (Fort St. James; FSJ), and from Santa Catalina Island, CA (SCI), an area of high DDT and PCB contamination. Mean concentrations of sigma polybrominated diphenyl ether (sigma PBDE (8 congeners monitored); 1.78-8.49 ng/g), sigma OH-polychlorinated biphenyl (sigma OH-PCB (30 congeners monitored); 0.44-0.87 ng/g), and sigma OH-PBDE (14 congeners monitored; 0.31-0.92 ng/g) were similar in eaglets from southwestern BC yet lower than for SCl and significantly higher than for FSJ. Dominant PBDE congeners were BDE47, BDE99, and BDE100, but SCl eaglets also contained low levels of higher brominated congeners. 4-OH-CB187 and 4'-OH-CB202 accounted for 65-100% of sigma OH-PCB in all BC eaglets, with 4'-OH-CB202 as well as 3'-OH-CB138 and 4-OH-CB146 dominating in SCl eaglets. Ostensibly of biogenic origin, 6'-OH-BDE49 and 6-OH-BDE47 were found in BC nestlings. Only 4'-OH-BDE49 (2.10 ng/g) was found in SCl eaglets. MeO-PBDEs and total hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were not found in any birds, but the polybrominated biphenyl BB101 was detected in southwestern BC samples. This study demonstrates that west coast North American bald eagles contain previously unreported organohalogens, which have the potential to impact the health and survival of these raptors.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Occurrence of Blue Whales off the U.S. West Coast, with Implications for Management

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Ladd M.; Mate, Bruce R.; Winsor, Martha H.; Palacios, Daniel M.; Bograd, Steven J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Bailey, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the ‘home range’ (HR) and ‘core areas’ (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels. PMID:25054829

  16. The impact of the 2009-10 El Niño Modoki on U.S. West Coast beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Allan, Jonathan; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kaminsky, George M.; Ruggiero, Peter; Doria, André

    2011-07-01

    High-resolution beach morphology data collected along much of the U.S. West Coast are synthesized to evaluate the coastal impacts of the 2009-10 El Niño. Coastal change observations were collected as part of five beach monitoring programs that span between 5 and 13 years in duration. In California, regional wave and water level data show that the environmental forcing during the 2009-10 winter was similar to the last significant El Niño of 1997-98, producing the largest seasonal shoreline retreat and/or most landward shoreline position since monitoring began. In contrast, the 2009-10 El Niño did not produce anomalously high mean winter-wave energy in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon and Washington), although the highest 5% of the winter wave-energy measurements were comparable to 1997-98 and two significant non-El Niño winters. The increase in extreme waves in the 2009-10 winter was coupled with elevated water levels and a more southerly wave approach than the long-term mean, resulting in greater shoreline retreat than during 1997-98, including anomalously high shoreline retreat immediately north of jetties, tidal inlets, and rocky headlands. The morphodynamic response observed throughout the U.S. West Coast during the 2009-10 El Niño is principally linked to the El Niño Modoki phenomena, where the warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is focused in the central equatorial Pacific (as opposed to the eastern Pacific during a classic El Niño), featuring a more temporally persistent SST anomaly that results in longer periods of elevated wave energy but lower coastal water levels.

  17. The impact of the 2009-10 El Niño Modoki on U.S. West Coast beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Allan, Jonathan; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kaminsky, George M.; Ruggiero, Peter; Doria, André

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution beach morphology data collected along much of the U.S. West Coast are synthesized to evaluate the coastal impacts of the 2009–10 El Niño. Coastal change observations were collected as part of five beach monitoring programs that span between 5 and 13 years in duration. In California, regional wave and water level data show that the environmental forcing during the 2009–10 winter was similar to the last significant El Niño of 1997–98, producing the largest seasonal shoreline retreat and/or most landward shoreline position since monitoring began. In contrast, the 2009–10 El Niño did not produce anomalously high mean winter-wave energy in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon and Washington), although the highest 5% of the winter wave-energy measurements were comparable to 1997–98 and two significant non-El Niño winters. The increase in extreme waves in the 2009–10 winter was coupled with elevated water levels and a more southerly wave approach than the long-term mean, resulting in greater shoreline retreat than during 1997–98, including anomalously high shoreline retreat immediately north of jetties, tidal inlets, and rocky headlands. The morphodynamic response observed throughout the U.S. West Coast during the 2009–10 El Niño is principally linked to the El Niño Modoki phenomena, where the warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is focused in the central equatorial Pacific (as opposed to the eastern Pacific during a classic El Niño), featuring a more temporally persistent SST anomaly that results in longer periods of elevated wave energy but lower coastal water levels.

  18. Environmental Relationship of Benthic Fauna in the Near Shore Waters off Gulf of Kutch, North West Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Bhat, U. G.

    2014-12-01

    The present study was undertaken for a period of two years from December 2010 to May 2012.Studying the benthos of Gulf of Kutch near shore waters is also useful in understanding changes in biological diversity of Gujarat coast. The use of benthos in aquatic ecological research is especially effective in assessing long term changes and detecting input from diffuse sources. The benthos reflects the effects organic enrichment by responding through detectable changes in population dynamics on a time scale of months to years. This is in contrast to plankton which shows a more immediate change to point sources with no long term consequences to the populations (Gray et al 1992). Benthoses were collected from 6 stations on regular basis and were identified. Altogether 60 species belonging to 39 families were identified and placed taxonomically during the course of investigation with sediment samples. Benthic environmental relationship species were observed and recorded. Our studies of monthly comparisons have become an interesting and popular approach in ecology and environmental relationships in the past a number of studies have been conducted on the ecology of macro benthic populations of Gulf of Kutch near shore. My research helps in Gulf of Kutch of the west coast of India has become an important economic asset of the country serving commercial navigation and the fishing sector with environmental relation of benthos in the Gulf of Kutch Gujarat. India.

  19. Distribution of Benthesicymus tanneri Faxon, 1893 (Dendrobranchiata, Benthesicymidae) off the west coast of Mexico and notes on its morphology

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickx, Michel E.; Papiol, Vanesa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A large series of specimens of Benthesicymus tanneri Faxon, 1893 (Dendrobranchiata; Benthesicymidae) was collected during an extensive survey of deep-water invertebrate fauna off western Mexico. In total, 61 males and 122 females (M:F ratio = 1:2) from 44 sampling stations were examined, considerably increasing the number of known specimens and sampling localities for this species which is widely distributed along the Pacific coast of Mexico. The collection is the largest available for this species to date and presents first records from off the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula and a slight increase of the northernmost record within the Gulf of California. On the whole, females grew larger than males. The petasma of males of different sizes and the female thelycum of Benthesicymus tanneri are illustrated. The petasma of Benthesicymus tanneri presents a ventrolateral crescent-shape process otherwide found only in Benthesicymus tirmiziae Crosnier, 1978 and in Benthesicymus bartletti S.I. Smith, 1882. A key to the four species of Benthesicymus presently known from the eastern Pacific is presented. PMID:25632254

  20. PROCEEDINGS OF THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN (SAN FRANCISCO, MARCH 8-10, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLARK, LESLIE L.; AND OTHERS

    THESE PROCEEDINGS WERE PREPARED FROM THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN HELD MARCH 8-10, 1965. SURVEY RESULTS WERE PRESENTED WHICH INDICATED THE NUMBER OF BLIND, SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED, AND MULTIPLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA AND THE INCIDENCE OF BLINDNESS IN CHILDREN…

  1. Persistent marine debris in the North Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the West Coast of Baja California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heneman, B.

    1988-07-01

    Information on persistent marine debris (including plastics, glass, metal, and tar) in four study areas (North Sea, northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the west coast of Baja California) was obtained through literature searches, a mailed survey, correspondence, interviews, and personal observations. All of the study areas except Baja California were found to have severe marine debris problems.

  2. Game Times and Higher Winning Percentages of West Coast Teams of the National Football League Correspond With Reduced Prevalence of Regular Season Injury.

    PubMed

    Brager, Allison J; Mistovich, Ronald J

    2017-02-01

    Brager, AJ and Mistovich, RJ. Game times and higher winning percentages of west coast teams of the National Football League correspond with reduced prevalence of regular season injury. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 462-467, 2017-West coast teams of the National Football League are more statistically likely to win home night games against east coast opponents. The alignment of game times with daily rhythms of alertness is thought to contribute to this advantage. This study aims to determine whether rates of turnovers and injuries during the regular season, putative measures of mental and physical fatigue, impact winning percentages. Regular season schedules and rates of turnovers for each of the 32 teams were obtained from Pro-Football-Reference. We developed our own metric of injury risk for each position obtained from depth charts and regular season schedules. This metric compared cumulative weeks on injury reserve with cumulative time zone travel. West coast teams traveled 4 times as often as east coast teams. However, teams traveling eastward won twice as many games. There was no relationship between the extent and direction of travel and number of turnovers. Losing teams had more turnovers. The offensive and defensive lines in Central Time (CT) were placed on injury reserve 4 times as often as offensive and defensive lines in Pacific Time (PT). Injury prevalence in CT vs. PT was most prominent midseason. Plotting midseason game time relative to biological time revealed that PT teams play games closer to endogenous peaks in alertness, whereas CT teams play games closer to endogenous troughs in alertness. Overall, closer alignment of game time with the endogenous "alerting" signal may protect west coast teams from fatigue-related injuries and suggests for modified strength and conditioning programs.

  3. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false LNG transfer. 127.319 Section 127... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be met: (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall...

  4. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false LNG transfer. 127.319 Section 127... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be met: (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall...

  5. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false LNG transfer. 127.319 Section 127... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be met: (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall...

  6. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false LNG transfer. 127.319 Section 127... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be met: (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall...

  7. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false LNG transfer. 127.319 Section 127... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be met: (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall...

  8. Assessment of contamination, distribution and chemical speciation of trace metals in water column in the Dakar coast and the Saint Louis estuary from Senegal, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Diop, Cheikh; Dewaelé, Dorothée; Diop, Mamadou; Touré, Aminata; Cabral, Mathilde; Cazier, Fabrice; Fall, Mamadou; Diouf, Amadou; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2014-09-15

    The water column from Dakar coast and Saint Louis estuary in Senegal, West Africa, was sampled in order to measure the contamination level by trace metals. The speciation of metals in water allowed performing a distribution between dissolved and particulate trace metals. For the dissolved metals, the metallic concentration and repartition between the organic fraction and the inorganic fraction were performed. The results show that the pollution of the estuary was more serious than in Dakar coast for Co, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn; while, Cd and Cu were higher in Dakar coast. A strong affinity between metals and suspended particles has been revealed. Dissolved metals that have a tendency to form organic metal complexes are in decreasing order: Cd, Zn, Pb, Co=Cr=Mn, Cu and Ni. The results showed that the mobility of trace metals in estuary is controlled by dissolved organic carbon, while in coast it depends on chlorides.

  9. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

    2013-01-01

    The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

  10. Chemical contaminants in gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) stranded along the west coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Varanasi, U; Stein, J E; Tilbury, K L; Meador, J P; Sloan, C A; Clark, R C; Chan, S L

    1994-05-02

    The concentrations of selected chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g. PCBs, DDTs, DDEs, chlordanes) and essential (e.g. zinc, selenium, copper) and toxic (e.g. mercury, lead, arsenic) elements were measured in tissues and stomach contents from 22 gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) stranded between 1988 and 1991 at sites from the relatively pristine areas of Kodiak Island, AK, to more urbanized areas in Puget Sound, WA, and San Francisco Bay, CA. The majority of animals were stranded at sites on the Washington outer coast and in Puget Sound. The gray whale has the unique feeding strategy among Mysticeti of filtering sediments to feed on benthic (bottom dwelling) invertebrates. Thus, the wide geographical distribution of the stranded whales allowed (1) an initial assessment of whether concentrations of chemical contaminants in these whales exhibited region specific differences and (2) whether toxic chemicals that accumulate in sediments may have contributed to the mortality and stranding of gray whales near the more polluted urban areas. Analyses for chlorinated hydrocarbons in blubber from 22 animals showed no apparent significant differences among stranding sites. The concentrations of sigma PCBs and sigma DDEs in blubber, for example, ranged from 120 to 10,000 and 9 to 2100 p.p.b. (ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Additionally, analyses of chlorinated hydrocarbons and selected elements in liver (n = 10) also showed no apparent significant differences between whales stranded in Puget Sound and whales stranded at more pristine sites (Alaska, Washington outer coast and Strait of Juan de Fuca and Strait of Georgia). For example, the concentrations of sigma PCBs and sigma DDEs in liver ranged from 79 to 1600 and 7 to 280 p.p.b., respectively, and the concentrations of the toxic elements, mercury and lead ranged from 9 to 120 and 20 to 270 p.p.b., respectively. Analyses of stomach contents revealed low concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons, but high concentrations (wet

  11. The impact of the 2009-10 El Niño on West Coast beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P.; Kaminsky, G. M.; Hansen, J. E.; Allan, J. C.; Ruggiero, P.; Hoover, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term monitoring programs at a series of beaches in California, Oregon and Washington were used to evaluate beach evolution associated with the El Niño winter of 2009-10, and to relate the observed coastal change to past winters, including the last major El Niño in 1997-98. At the California study sites, analysis of Lidar (1997-98) and semi-annual or greater high-resolution beach and nearshore surveys (2004-10) shows that coastal change during the winter of 2009-10 broadly rivals that in 1997-98, and that the 2009-10 winter storms collectively forced the most beach erosion since high-resolution monitoring began in 2004. Along the Oregon and Washington coasts, many beaches exhibited classic El Niño shoreline responses, with significant shoreline retreat occurring immediately north of jetties and tidal inlets as well as the southern ends of pocket beaches and littoral cells. In Washington in particular, these areas eroded rapidly during the winter of 2009-10, comparable to the response seen in the El Niño winter of 1997-98. Wave buoy data from buoys in California and Washington that captured both the 1997-98 and 2009-10 El Niño show that the two events were comparable in wave energy as measured by the mean wave year (1 July- 30 June) energy flux (Fig. 1). The increased wave energy in 2009-10 had significant impacts on coastal infrastructure throughout the region; for example, in San Francisco the Great Highway was severely undercut by wave action, resulting in a $5 million emergency remediation project. In Washington, approximately 195 m of road was eroded along the entrance to Willapa Bay and southern Grayland Plains. While the impacts of the 2009-10 winter were substantial, impacts on the coast were moderated by an unusually mild wave climate in 2008-9 (Fig. 1), which left beaches more accreted prior to the severe wave season of 2009-10. As climate change accelerates sea level rise and potentially increases the magnitude and frequency of storms in mid

  12. Stratigraphic evidence for earthquakes and tsunamis on the west coast of South Andaman Island, India during the past 1000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Javed N.; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Khan, Afzal; Johnson, Frango C.; Shishikura, Masanobu.; Satake, Kenji.; Singhvi, Ashok K.

    2015-10-01

    Stratigraphic records from west coast of South Andaman Island revealed evidence of three historical earthquakes and associated transoceanic tsunamis during past 1000 yrs, in addition to the Mw 9.3 tsunamigenic earthquake of 26 December, 2004. Our finding suggests that along with Sumatran arc segment the Andaman-Arakan segment is also capable of generating mega-subduction zone earthquakes and transoceanic tsunamis. To study the near sub-surface stratigraphic succession we excavated shallow trenches and obtained geoslices from two sites around Collinpur (sites 1 and 2). The exposed succession comprised 11 lithounits (Unit a - youngest and k - oldest) of alternating sequence of coarser units overlain by peaty soils and some of these are indicative of deposition during paleo-tsunami events. Event I that predated AD 800, and is marked by a 35-40 cm thick deposit of fine gravel to coarse sands along with broken shell fragments (Unit k). Event II dated around AD 660-800, is represented by 20-25 cm thick coarse sand and broken shell fragments (Unit i). Based on stratigraphic evidences of land-level changes, this event is attributed to a near source rupture along Andaman-Arakan segment, accompanied by a transoceanic tsunami. Event III, occurred around AD 1120-1300, is marked by a 50 cm thick sand deposit (Unit g). The 2004 tsunami resulted in deposition of 15 cm thick medium to coarse sand at the same location. We infer that the 2004 tsunami and Event III resulted in different styles of sedimentation at the same site. Four events at Collinpur along with the record of a subsidence event of AD 1679 from the east coast of Andaman, close-to, Port Blair (Malik et al., 2011), suggest that mega-subduction zone earthquakes and associated tsunamis recur at an interval of 300-500 years at variable locations along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone.

  13. Sedimentology of latero-frontal moraines and fans on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.; Shulmeister, James; Hyatt, Olivia

    2010-12-01

    Exposures through the LGM latero-frontal moraine loops at sites along the west coast of South Island, New Zealand reveal a depositional environment that was dominated by the progradation of steep fronted, debris flow-fed fans, manifest in crudely stratified to massive diamictons, arranged in sub-horizontal to steeply dipping clinoforms and containing discontinuous bodies of variably sorted, stratified sediment (LFA 1). The fans were constructed by debris-covered glaciers advancing over outwash plains, as recorded by well stratified and horizontally bedded gravels, sands and diamicts (LFA 0). The ice-contact slopes of the fans are offlapped by retreat phase deposits in the form of glacilacustrine depo-centres (LFA 2), which record the existence of moraine-dammed lakes. Interdigitation of lake rhythmites and subaerial to subaqueous sediment gravity flow deposits documents intense debris-flow activity on unstable moraine/fan surfaces. Glacier readvances in all catchments are documented by glacitectonic disturbance and localized hydrofracturing of LFA 2, followed by the emplacement of schist-dominated debris flow-fed fans (LFA 3) inside and over the top of the earlier latero-frontal moraine/fan loops. Contorted and disturbed bedding in LFA 3 reflects its partial deposition in supraglacial positions. Clast lithologies in LFAs 1 and 3 reveal that two distinct transport pathways operated during moraine construction, with an early period of latero-frontal fan construction involving mixed lithologies and a later period of ice-contact/supraglacial fan construction dominated by schist lithologies from the mountains. These two periods of deposition were separated by a period of moraine abandonment and paraglacial reworking of ice-contact slopes to produce LFA 2. The occurrence of LFA 3 at all sites indicates that the glacier readvance phase responsible for its deposition was not localized or glacier-specific, and involved the transfer of large volumes of schist, possibly due

  14. Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Carl Johan

    2012-07-01

    The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable

  15. What is the variability in US west coast winter precipitation during strong El Niño events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arun; Chen, Mingyue

    2016-12-01

    Motivated by the fact that the spatial pattern of the observed precipitation anomalies during 2015/16 winter (a year of strong El Niño) over the west coast of the US and that of the El Niño composite precipitation pattern had considerable differences, the variability in the winter precipitation during strong El Niño events is assessed. The analysis is based on a set of hindcasts (1982-2011) and real-time forecasts (2012-2015) from NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2), and the following aspects for seasonal mean precipitation variability were examined: (1) the mean signal during strong El Niño based on the composite analysis, and further, the variability from the composite on an event-to-event basis; (2) probability of occurrence for precipitation anomalies to be opposite to the signal (inferred as the composite mean); (3) the probability to have precipitation anomaly in different categories varying from wet to dry; and (4) variations in the characteristics of precipitation from OND, NDJ, to DJF (early to late boreal winter). The results show that the model forecasted seasonal mean precipitation composite for strong El Niño was similar to the linear regression signal with the Niño 3.4 index in observations, with negative anomalies over the Pacific Northwest and positive anomalies over California. However, although in response to an El Niño event, the California precipitation PDF was shifted towards positive values relative to the climatological PDF, the overlap between climatological PDF and the PDF for El Niño events was considerable. This is because of the large variability in seasonal mean outcomes of precipitation from one forecast to another, and therefore, chances to have precipitation anomalies with their sign opposite to the composite El Niño signal remain appreciable. In this paradigm, although the seasonal mean precipitation during 2015/16 winter over the west coast of the US differed from the mean signal for a strong El Niño event, the

  16. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Naik, B G; Krishna, M S; Jadhav, Lakshmikant

    2015-09-15

    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ≈ 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system.

  17. Distribution and character of upper mesozoic subduction complexes along the west coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, D.L.; Blake, M.C.; Bailey, E.H.; McLaughlin, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Structurally complex sequences of sedimentary, volcanic, and intrusive igneous rocks characterize a nearly continuous narrow band along the Pacific coast of North America from Baja California, Mexico to southern Alaska. They occur in two modes: (1) as complexly folded but coherent sequences of graywacke and argillite that locally exhibit blueschist-grade metamorphism, and (2) as melanges containing large blocks of graywacke, chert, volcanic and plutonic rocks, high-grade schist, and limestone in a highly sheared pelitic, cherty, or sandstone matrix. Fossils from the coherent graywacke sequences range in age from late Jurassic to Eocene; fossils from limestone blocks in the melanges range in age from mid-Paleozoic to middle Cretaceous. Fossils from the matrix surrounding the blocks, however, are of Jurassic, Cretaceous, and rarely, Tertiary age, indicating that fossils from the blocks cannot be used to date the time of formation of the melanges. Both the deformation of the graywacke, with accompanying blueschist metamorphism, as well as the formation of the melanges, are believed to be the result of late Mesozoic and early Tertiary subduction. The origin of the melanges, particularly the emplacement of exotic tectonic blocks, is not understood. ?? 1978.

  18. Blended sea level anomaly fields with enhanced coastal coverage along the U.S. West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Risien, C.M.; Strub, P.T.

    2016-01-01

    We form a new ‘blended’ data set of sea level anomaly (SLA) fields by combining gridded daily fields derived from altimeter data with coastal tide gauge data. Within approximately 55–70 km of the coast, the altimeter data are discarded and replaced by a linear interpolation between the tide gauge and remaining offshore altimeter data. To create a common reference height for altimeter and tide gauge data, a 20-year mean is subtracted from each time series (from each tide gauge and altimeter grid point) before combining the data sets to form a blended mean sea level anomaly (SLA) data set. Daily mean fields are produced for the 22-year period 1 January 1993–31 December 2014. The primary validation compares geostrophic velocities calculated from the height fields and velocities measured at four moorings covering the north-south range of the new data set. The blended data set improves the alongshore (meridional) component of the currents, indicating an improvement in the cross-shelf gradient of the mean SLA data set. PMID:26927667

  19. Biomarker pigment signatures in Cochin back water system - A tropical estuary south west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneeshkumar, N.; Sujatha, C. H.

    2012-03-01

    Sedimentary biomarker pigments around Cochin estuary situated in the southwest coast of India were determined by HPLC. Fucoxanthin, an indicator of diatom was observed to be the most abundant carotenoid pigment in the estuary. Dinoflagellate derived carotenoid pigment peridinin was confined in the southern part of estuary and zeaxanthin pigment indicative of cyanobacteria were more found in sites influenced by anthropogenic activities. One compound having close similarity to fucoxanthin was also detected. Alloxanthin (cryptophyceae), chl b (green algae), canthaxanthin, neoxanthin, lutein and peridinin isomer were also detected by spectra and corresponding algal class were identified. The highest concentration of chl a (11.01 μg g-1) found near to the anthropogenic affected area while the lowest chl a (0.65 μg g-1) was recorded in industrial area. Degradation products of chl a, such as pheophorbide and pheophytin were observed and principal mode of mechanism of degradation were derived. Higher pheopigments content than chl a, reflects a density trapping of dead cells and early degradation of phytopigments from grazing activities.

  20. Recent deformation along the offshore Malibu Coast, Dume, and related faults west of Point Dume, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; Sorlien, C.C.; Dartnell, P.; Sliter, R.W.; Cochrane, G.R.; Wong, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Offshore faults west of Point Dume, southern California, are part of an important regional fault system that extends for about 206 km, from near the city of Los Angeles westward along the south flank of the Santa Monica Mountains and through the northern Channel Islands. This boundary fault system separates the western Transverse Ranges, on the north, from the California Continental Borderland, on the south. Previous research showed that the fault system includes many active fault strands; consequently, the entire system is considered a serious potential earthquake hazard to nearby Los Angeles. We present an integrated analysis of multichannel seismic- and high-resolution seismic-reflection data and multibeam-bathymetric information to focus on the central part of the fault system that lies west of Point Dume. We show that some of the main offshore faults have cumulative displacements of 3-5 km, and many faults are currently active because they deform the seafloor or very shallow sediment layers. The main offshore fault is the Dume fault, a large north-dipping reverse fault. In the eastern part of the study area, this fault offsets the seafloor, showing Holocene displacement. Onshore, the Malibu Coast fault dips steeply north, is active, and shows left-oblique slip. The probable offshore extension of this fault is a large fault that dips steeply in its upper part but flattens at depth. High-resolution seismic data show that this fault deforms shallow sediment making up the Hueneme fan complex, indicating Holocene activity. A structure near Sycamore knoll strikes transversely to the main faults and could be important to the analysis of the regional earthquake hazard because the structure might form a boundary between earthquake-rupture segments.

  1. LNG -- Technology on the edge

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.B.

    1995-10-01

    With immense promise and many supporters, LNG as a vehicular fuel is still, a nascent industry. In about two years, an array of LNG engines should be commercially available, and infrastructure greatly expanded. These developments should reduce the present premium of LNG equipment, greatly improving industry economics. The most propitious sign for LNG-market developed lies in the natural gas industry`s recently refined strategy for natural gas vehicles. The new strategy targets the right competitor--diesel, not gasoline. It also targets the right market for an emerging fuel--high-fuel-usage fleets made up of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, often driven long distances. But problems persist in critical areas of development. These problems are related to the materials handling of LNG and the refueling of vehicles. The paper discusses the studies on LNG handling procedures, its performance benefits to high-fuel use vehicles, economic incentives for its use, tax disadvantages that are being fought, and LNG competition with ``clean`` diesel fuels.

  2. Persistent landfalling atmospheric rivers over the west coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Ashley E.; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2016-11-01

    Landfalling atmospheric rivers (ARs) are linked to heavy precipitation and extreme flooding, and are well known along the western coast of North America. The hydrological impacts of ARs upon landfall are correlated with their duration and magnitude. In order to improve the forecast of these hydrologically significant landfalling events, a better understanding of how they differ from other landfalling events must be established through an investigation of the mechanisms leading to their development prior to landfall. A subset of persistent landfalling AR events between 30°N and 50°N is identified in 3-hourly Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis and validated against existing data sets. These events are identified as features in the low troposphere with high moisture transport and extended geometry that persist over a limited region of the coastline for longer than 63 h (85th percentile of AR duration). A composite analysis shows that persistent events have distinct thermodynamical and dynamical characteristics compared to all AR events. They are characterized by greater moisture content, suggestive of Pineapple Express-type events, a perturbed upper level jet and anticyclonic overturning of potential vorticity contours associated with anticyclonic Rossby wave breaking. Moreover, the location of the Rossby wave breaking is shifted inland compared to all AR events. Analogue analysis of the 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies is used to find nonpersistent events with similar dynamical characteristics to persistent events. Despite their similarity to persistent events, nonpersistent analogues show very little shift toward longer duration. A comparison of the development of persistent and nonpersistent analogues shows that persistent events have much greater moisture content.

  3. Phylogeography of Ostreopsis along West Pacific Coast, with Special Reference to a Novel Clade from Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shinya; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Uehara, Keita; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Tawong, Wittaya; Hariganeya, Naohito; Smith, Kirsty; Rhodes, Lesley; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Taira, Yosuke; Suda, Shoichiro; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Background A dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis is known as a potential producer of Palytoxin derivatives. Palytoxin is the most potent non-proteinaceous compound reported so far. There has been a growing number of reports on palytoxin-like poisonings in southern areas of Japan; however, the distribution of Ostreopsis has not been investigated so far. Morphological plasticity of Ostreopsis makes reliable microscopic identification difficult so the employment of molecular tools was desirable. Methods/Principal Finding In total 223 clones were examined from samples mainly collected from southern areas of Japan. The D8–D10 region of the nuclear large subunit rDNA (D8–D10) was selected as a genetic marker and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. Although most of the clones were unable to be identified, there potentially 8 putative species established during this study. Among them, Ostreopsis sp. 1–5 did not belong to any known clade, and each of them formed its own clade. The dominant species was Ostreopsis sp. 1, which accounted for more than half of the clones and which was highly toxic and only distributed along the Japanese coast. Comparisons between the D8–D10 and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear rDNA, which has widely been used for phylogenetic/phylogeographic studies in Ostreopsis, revealed that the D8–D10 was less variable than the ITS, making consistent and reliable phylogenetic reconstruction possible. Conclusions/Significance This study unveiled a surprisingly diverse and widespread distribution of Japanese Ostreopsis. Further study will be required to better understand the phylogeography of the genus. Our results posed the urgent need for the development of the early detection/warning systems for Ostreopsis, particularly for the widely distributed and strongly toxic Ostreopsis sp. 1. The D8–D10 marker will be suitable for these purposes. PMID:22164222

  4. Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Josefine; Lönn, Mikael; Lind, Emma E; Świeżak, Justyna; Smolarz, Katarzyna; Grahn, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites.

  5. Chemical composition of red, brown and green macroalgae from Buarcos bay in Central West Coast of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dina; Freitas, Ana C; Pereira, Leonel; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Vasconcelos, Marta W; Roriz, Mariana; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Gomes, Ana M P; Duarte, Armando C

    2015-09-15

    Six representative edible seaweeds from the Central West Portuguese Coast, including the less studied Osmundea pinnatifida, were harvested from Buarcos bay, Portugal and their chemical characterization determined. Protein content, total sugar and fat contents ranged between 14.4% and 23.8%, 32.4% and 49.3% and 0.6-3.6%. Highest total phenolic content was observed in Codium tomentosum followed by Sargassum muticum and O. pinnatifida. Fatty acid (FA) composition covered the branched chain C13ai to C22:5 n3 with variable content in n6 and n3 FA; low n6:n3 ratios were observed in O. pinnatifida, Grateloupia turuturu and C. tomentosum. Some seaweed species may be seen as good sources of Ca, K, Mg and Fe, corroborating their good nutritional value. According to FTIR-ATR spectra, G. turuturu was associated with carrageenan seaweed producers whereas Gracilaria gracilis and O. pinnatifida were mostly agar producers. In the brown algae, S. muticum and Saccorhiza polyschides, alginates and fucoidans were the main polysaccharides found.

  6. Biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. Part 1: Introduction to the effects of upwelling along the west coast of North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, John T.

    1986-01-01

    Coastal upwelling is examined as it relates to the cycling of chemical species in coastal waters along the west coast of North America. The temporal and spatial features of upwelling phenomena in the Eastern boundary regions of the North Pacific Ocean are presented and discussed in terms of upwelling episodes. Climate conditions affecting upwelling include: thermal effects, wind-induced shear stress which moves surface layers, and the curl of the wind stress vector which is thought to affect the extent and nature of upwelling and the formation of offshore convergent downwelling fronts. These effects and the interaction of sunlight and upwelled nutrients which result in a biological bloom in surface waters is modeled analytically. The roles of biological and chemical species, including the effects of predation, are discussed in that context, and relevant remote sensing and in situ observations are presented. Climatological, oceanographic, biological, physical, chemical events, and processes that pertain to biogeochemical cycling are presented and described by a set of partial differential equations. Simple preliminary results are obtained and are compared with data. Thus a fairly general framework has been laid where the many facets of biogeochemical cycling in coastal upwelled waters can be examined in their relationship to one another, and to the whole, to whatever level of detail or approximation is warranted or desired.

  7. Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast

    PubMed Central

    Lönn, Mikael; Lind, Emma E.; Świeżak, Justyna; Smolarz, Katarzyna; Grahn, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites. PMID:27812424

  8. Health of Chinese illegal immigrants who arrived by boat on the West Coast of Canada in 1999.

    PubMed

    Allan, G Michael; Szafran, Olga

    2005-10-01

    This was a retrospective review and descriptive analysis of the findings from the medical screening examinations conducted on the illegal migrants from Fujian Province of China (n = 589) who arrived on four boats on the West Coast of Canada between June 14 and September 9, 1999. The Canadian Navy conducted a screening medical exam of the illegal migrants, with Health Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada providing suggestions on the format of the exam. The illegal Chinese migrants were predominantly young, male adults. The most prevalent medical conditions detected were dermatological (55.2%), dental problems (25%), trauma (9.2%), urogenital (7.6%), and head/neck (6.6%). Recently induced trauma was more prevalent among females (20.5%) than males (6.5%). One case of community-acquired pneumonia was identified and later diagnosed as active pulmonary tuberculosis. Physicians dealing with illegal migrants should look for unusual physical findings and have a higher clinical suspicion regarding infectious diseases (tuberculosis, scabies) and abuse. Future encounters with illegal migrants should include standardized immigration screening exams, with adequate history taking and follow-up.

  9. Habitat characteristics promoting high density and condition of juvenile flatfish at nursery grounds on the west coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Raedemaecker, F.; Brophy, D.; O'Connor, I.; Comerford, S.

    2012-10-01

    Coastal zones are essential nursery habitats for most juvenile flatfish species. Understanding the habitat requirements promoting high abundance and growth of juvenile flatfish is important for evaluating nursery habitat quality. The present study aimed to assess nursery ground quality for the most common flatfish species: dab (Limanda limanda) and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), in Galway Bay, on the west coast of Ireland. Monthly surveys were carried out in the period after peak settlement over two years. Variability in flatfish density and Fulton's K condition was explained in relation to biotic and abiotic habitat characteristics, differing within and between distinct nursery grounds. Dab were concentrated in deeper waters, were negatively associated with shrimp densities and salinity and their abundance showed a decrease from June to September combined with interannual variation. Plaice densities were highly associated with shallower depths and high polychaete and shrimp densities and were negatively related with increased macroalgal cover and organic content. Most of the variability in Fulton's condition was explained by the same set of variables for both species; year and densities of crab and malacostracans. This analysis revealed important ecological mechanisms allowing the co-existence of two flatfish species in nursery grounds. However, high quality nursery grounds for dab and plaice differed and anthropogenic and climatic impacts on flatfish nurseries are likely to have a different impact on plaice and dab populations. Knowledge gained about the quality of nursery habitat for commercially important fish species provides a basis for mapping essential flatfish habitats to inform management plans for coastal areas.

  10. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropia lanceolata species complex updated

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, Sandra C.; Hughey, Jeffery R.; Rosas, Luis E. Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropia lanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropia montereyensis sp. nov., Pyropia columbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropia protolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropia montereyensis and Pyropia columbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Pyropia lanceolata or Pyropia pseudolanceolata. Pyropia protolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropia bajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Pyropia nereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyra mumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Pyropia lanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California. PMID:26312033

  11. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropialanceolata species complex updated.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Sandra C; Hughey, Jeffery R; Rosas, Luis E Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropialanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropiamontereyensis sp. nov., Pyropiacolumbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropiaprotolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropiamontereyensis and Pyropiacolumbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Pyropialanceolata or Pyropiapseudolanceolata. Pyropiaprotolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropiabajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Pyropianereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyramumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Pyropialanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California.

  12. A possible transoceanic tsunami directed toward the U.S. west coast from the Semidi segment, Alaska convergent margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Huene, Roland; Miller, John J.; Dartnell, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The Semidi segment of the Alaska convergent margin appears capable of generating a giant tsunami like the one produced along the nearby Unimak segment in 1946. Reprocessed legacy seismic reflection data and a compilation of multibeam bathymetric surveys reveal structures that could generate such a tsunami. A 200 km long ridge or escarpment with crests >1 km high is the surface expression of an active out-of-sequence fault zone, recently referred to as a splay fault. Such faults are potentially tsunamigenic. This type of fault zone separates the relatively rigid rock of the margin framework from the anelastic accreted sediment prism. Seafloor relief of the ridge exceeds that of similar age accretionary prism ridges indicating preferential slip along the splay fault zone. The greater slip may derive from Quaternary subduction of the Patton Murray hot spot ridge that extends 200 km toward the east across the north Pacific. Estimates of tsunami repeat times from paleotsunami studies indicate that the Semidi segment could be near the end of its current inter-seismic cycle. GPS records from Chirikof Island at the shelf edge indicate 90% locking of plate interface faults. An earthquake in the shallow Semidi subduction zone could generate a tsunami that will inundate the US west coast more than the 1946 and 1964 earthquakes because the Semidi continental slope azimuth directs a tsunami southeastward.

  13. Forensic investigation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the sediments from selected mangrove ecosystems in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Vaezzadeh, Vahab; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Ibrahim, Zelina Zaiton; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abootalebi-Jahromi, Fatemeh; Masood, Najat; Magam, Sami Mohsen; Alkhadher, Sadeq Abdullah Abdo

    2015-11-15

    Peninsular Malaysia has gone through fast development during recent decades resulting in the release of large amounts of petroleum and its products into the environment. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are one of the major components of petroleum. Surface sediment samples were collected from five rivers along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons. The total concentrations of C10 to C36 n-alkanes ranged from 27,945 to 254,463ng·g(-1)dry weight (dw). Evaluation of various n-alkane indices such as carbon preference index (CPI; 0.35 to 3.10) and average chain length (ACL; 26.74 to 29.23) of C25 to C33 n-alkanes indicated a predominance of petrogenic source n-alkanes in the lower parts of the Rivers, while biogenic origin n-alkanes from vascular plants are more predominant in the upper parts, especially in less polluted areas. Petrogenic sources of n-alkanes are predominantly heavy and degraded oil versus fresh oil inputs.

  14. Tsunami vulnerability assessment mapping for the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia using a geographical information system (GIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najihah, R.; Effendi, D. M.; Hairunnisa, M. A.; Masiri, K.

    2014-02-01

    The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 raised a number of questions for scientist and politicians on how to deal with the tsunami risk and assessment in coastal regions. This paper discusses the challenges in tsunami vulnerability assessment and presents the result of tsunami disaster mapping and vulnerability assessment study for West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The spatial analysis was carried out using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to demarcate spatially the tsunami affected village's boundary and suitable disaster management program can be quickly and easily developed. In combination with other thematic maps such as road maps, rail maps, school maps, and topographic map sheets it was possible to plan the accessibility and shelter to the affected people. The tsunami vulnerability map was used to identify the vulnerability of villages/village population to tsunami. In the tsunami vulnerability map, the intensity of the tsunami was classified as hazard zones based on the inundation level in meter (contour). The approach produced a tsunami vulnerability assessment map consists of considering scenarios of plausible extreme, tsunami-generating events, computing the tsunami inundation levels caused by different events and scenarios and estimating the possible range of casualties for computing inundation levels. The study provides an interactive means to identify the tsunami affected areas after the disaster and mapping the tsunami vulnerable village before for planning purpose were the essential exercises for managing future disasters.

  15. Variability in nitrogen uptake and fixation in the oligotrophic waters off the south west coast of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twomey, L. J.; Waite, A. M.; Pez, V.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.

    2007-04-01

    The results presented in this study provide the first broad-scale regional characterisation of the phytoplankton-nitrogen dynamics across the continental shelf between the Abrolhos Islands and Cape Leeuwin, Western Australia. We demonstrate key features of N-uptake, including nitrate and ammonium uptake and N fixation, across the dominant current systems of the west coast of Australia during a 2-week period in spring-summer. The surface waters of the region were N impoverished with low phytoplankton biomass. Nitrate and ammonium uptake rates were among the lowest on record, and f-ratios were high compared to other oligotrophic systems ( f-ratio ˜0.5 throughout), indicating an equal preference for nitrate and ammonium uptake. Areas of high phytoplankton biomass were most likely fuelled by nitrate transported into the euphotic zone during temporally short bursts of upwelling on ˜weekly, rather than monthly time scales. When upwelling had relaxed, phytoplankton productivity was largely maintained by microbial regeneration in the euphotic zone. A large proportion (20-60%) of the phytoplankton biomass was comprised of picoplankton and nanoplankton cyanobacteria. However, rates of N 2 fixation were 2 orders of magnitude lower than dissolved inorganic N uptake, indicating that N 2-fixation did not significantly contribute to phytoplankton productivity during the study.

  16. Spatial and temporal variations of wave energy in the nearshore waters of the central west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrutha, M. M.; Sanil Kumar, V.

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of wave power potential at different water depths and time is required for identifying a wave power plant location. This study examines the variation in wave power off the central west coast of India at water depths of 30, 9 and 5 m based on waverider buoy measured wave data. The study shows a significant reduction ( ˜ 10 to 27 %) in wave power at 9 m water depth compared to 30 m and the wave power available at 5 m water depth is 20 to 23 % less than that at 9 m. At 9 m depth, the seasonal mean value of the wave power varied from 1.6 kW m-1 in the post-monsoon period (ONDJ) to 15.2 kW m-1 in the Indian summer monsoon (JJAS) period. During the Indian summer monsoon period, the variation of wave power in a day is up to 32 kW m-1. At 9 m water depth, the mean annual wave power is 6 kW m-1 and interannual variations up to 19.3 % are observed during 2009-2014. High wave energy ( > 20 kW m-1) at the study area is essentially from the directional sector 245-270° and also 75 % of the total annual wave energy is from this narrow directional sector, which is advantageous while aligning the wave energy converter.

  17. Monitoring of impact of anthropogenic inputs on water quality of mangrove ecosystem of Uran, Navi Mumbai, west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Prabhakar R

    2013-10-15

    Surface water samples were collected from substations along Sheva creek and Dharamtar creek mangrove ecosystems of Uran (Raigad), Navi Mumbai, west coast of India. Water samples were collected fortnightly from April 2009 to March 2011 during spring low and high tides and were analyzed for pH, Temperature, Turbidity, Total solids (TS), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Salinity, Orthophosphate (O-PO4), Nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N), Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and Silicates. Variables like pH, turbidity, TDS, salinity, DO, and BOD show seasonal variations. Higher content of O-PO4, NO3-N, and silicates is recorded due to discharge of domestic wastes and sewage, effluents from industries, oil tanking depots and also from maritime activities of Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT), hectic activities of Container Freight Stations (CFS), and other port wastes. This study reveals that water quality from mangrove ecosystems of Uran is deteriorating due to industrial pollution and that mangrove from Uran is facing the threat due to anthropogenic stress.

  18. Atmospheric pollutants and their influence on acidification of rain water at an industrial location on the West Coast OF India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khemani, L. T.; Momin, G. A.; Rao, P. S. P.; Pillai, A. G.; Safai, P. D.; Mohan, K.; Rao, M. G.

    The chemical analysis of rain water samples at 11 locations along with measurements of atmospheric aerosols and their size distributions were made to study the influence of pollutants on acidification of rain water during the monsoon season of 1990 at Chembur-Trombay area, a highly industrialized belt in Bombay region located on the west coast of India. The concentrations of acid precursor gases, namely, SO 2 and NO, emanating from industries were low and their influence on acidification was limited to a few kilometer radius of their sources. Whereas, the deposition of ionic components (Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and CI -) whose sources are natural (sea and soil) were uniformly distributed throughout the region as compared to those released from man-made sources. The high concentration of alkaline components, especially Ca 2+ from natural sources and NH 3 released from a fertilizer plant, were responsible for neutralising H + ion concentration generated from the acidic components (SO 42- and N0 3-). The variation from acidic (1970s) to alkaline (1990s) nature of rainwater in the area maybe due to the change in the use of fuel from coal to natural gas, which contains less sulphur and also, the pollution control measures taken by the industries.

  19. Food web of the intertidal rocky shore of the west Portuguese coast - Determined by stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, Catarina; Mendonça, Vanessa; Narciso, Luís; Madeira, Carolina

    2015-09-01

    The characterization of food web structure, energy pathways and trophic linkages is essential for the understanding of ecosystem functioning. Isotopic analysis was performed on food web components of the rocky intertidal ecosystem in four sites along the Portuguese west coast. The aim was to 1) determine the general food web structure, 2) estimate the trophic level of the dominant organisms and 3) track the incorporation of organic carbon of different origins in the diet of the top consumers. In this food web, fish are top consumers, followed by shrimp. Anemones and gastropods are intermediate consumers, while bivalves and zooplankton are primary consumers. Macroalgae Bifurcaria bifurcata, Ulva lactuca, Fucus vesiculosus, Codium sp. and phytoplankton are the dominant producers. Two energy pathways were identified, pelagic and benthic. Reliance on the benthic energy pathway was high for many of the consumers but not as high as previously observed in subtidal coastal food webs. The maximum TL was 3.3, which is indicative of a relatively short food web. It is argued that the diet of top consumers relies directly on low levels of the food web to a considerable extent, instead of on intermediate levels, which shortens the trophic length of the food web.

  20. Long-time trends in ship traffic noise for four sites off the North American West Coast.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rex K; Howe, Bruce M; Mercer, James A

    2011-02-01

    Measurements (1994-2007) from four cabled-to-shore hydrophone systems located off the North American west coast permit extensive comparisons between "contemporary" low frequency ship traffic noise (25-50 Hz) collected in the past decade to measurements made over 1963-1965 with the same in-water equipment at the same sites. An increase of roughly 10 dB over the band 25-40 Hz at one site has already been reported [Andrew et al., Acoust. Res. Lett. Online 3(2), 65-70 (2002)]. Newly corrected data from the remaining three systems generally corroborate this increase. Simple linear trend lines of the contemporary traffic noise (duration 6 to 12+ years) show that recent levels are slightly increasing, holding steady, or decreasing. These results confirm the prediction by Ross that the rate of increase in traffic noise would be far less at the end of the 20th century compared to that observed in the 1950s and 1960s.

  1. A possible transoceanic tsunami directed toward the U.S. west coast from the Semidi segment, Alaska convergent margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Huene, Roland; Miller, John J.; Dartnell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Semidi segment of the Alaska convergent margin appears capable of generating a giant tsunami like the one produced along the nearby Unimak segment in 1946. Reprocessed legacy seismic reflection data and a compilation of multibeam bathymetric surveys reveal structures that could generate such a tsunami. A 200 km long ridge or escarpment with crests >1 km high is the surface expression of an active out-of-sequence fault zone, recently referred to as a splay fault. Such faults are potentially tsunamigenic. This type of fault zone separates the relatively rigid rock of the margin framework from the anelastic accreted sediment prism. Seafloor relief of the ridge exceeds that of similar age accretionary prism ridges indicating preferential slip along the splay fault zone. The greater slip may derive from Quaternary subduction of the Patton Murray hot spot ridge that extends 200 km toward the east across the north Pacific. Estimates of tsunami repeat times from paleotsunami studies indicate that the Semidi segment could be near the end of its current inter-seismic cycle. GPS records from Chirikof Island at the shelf edge indicate 90% locking of plate interface faults. An earthquake in the shallow Semidi subduction zone could generate a tsunami that will inundate the US west coast more than the 1946 and 1964 earthquakes because the Semidi continental slope azimuth directs a tsunami southeastward.

  2. Potential Sedimentary Evidence of Two Closely Spaced Tsunamis on the West Coast of Aceh, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monecke, Katrin; Meilianda, Ella; Rushdy, Ibnu; Moena, Abudzar; Yolanda, Irvan P.

    2016-04-01

    Recent research in the coastal regions of Aceh, Indonesia, an area that was largely affected by the 2004 Sumatra Andaman earthquake and ensuing Indian Ocean tsunami, suggests the possibility that two closely spaced tsunamis occurred at the turn of the 14th to 15th century (Meltzner et al., 2010; Sieh et al., 2015). Here, we present evidence of two buried sand layers in the coastal marshes of West Aceh, possibly representing these penultimate predecessors of the 2004 tsunami. We discovered the sand layers in an until recently inaccessible area of a previously studied beach ridge plain about 15 km North of Meulaboh, West Aceh. Here, the 2004 tsunami left a continuous, typically a few cm thick sand sheet in the coastal hinterland in low-lying swales that accumulate organic-rich deposits and separate the sandy beach ridges. In keeping with the long-term progradation of the coastline, older deposits have to be sought after further inland. Using a hand auger, the buried sand layers were discovered in 3 cores in a flooded and highly vegetated swale in about 1 km distance to the shoreline. The pair of sand layers occurs in 70-100 cm depth and overlies 40-60 cm of dark-brown peat that rests on the basal sand of the beach ridge plain. The lower sand layer is only 1-6 cm thick, whereas the upper layer is consistently thicker, measuring 11-17 cm, with 8-14 cm of peat in between sand sheets. Both layers consist of massive, grey, medium sand and include plant fragments. They show very sharp upper and lower boundaries clearly distinguishing them from the surrounding peat and indicating an abrupt depositional event. A previously developed age model for sediments of this beach ridge plain suggest that this pair of layers could indeed correlate to a nearby buried sand sheet interpreted as tsunamigenic and deposited soon after 1290-1400AD (Monecke et al., 2008). The superb preservation at this new site allows the clear distinction of two depositional events, which, based on a first

  3. GLORIA mosaic of west coast U. S. Exclusive Economic Zone, southern sector

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.V.; Edwards, B.D.; Field, M.E.; McCulloch, D.S.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

    1986-05-01

    The long-range side-scan sonar system GLORIA was used to produce digitally enhanced mosaics of the sea floor of the entire US Exclusive Economic Zone. The data resolution, about 50 x 50 m, provides a mesoscale reconnaissance that reveals the continuity and extent of bottom features, some of which were previously unrecognized. The transform continental margin from the Mendocino Escarpment to the US-Mexican border is cut by numerous submarine canyons and gullies of varied size and complexity. The number, size, and extent of gullies appear directly related to the underlying bed-rock geology. Surprisingly, relatively few slumps and slump scarps are apparent. Submarine fans characterize the basins adjacent to the margin in this sector. The fans vary in size and complexity: relatively small, immature fans of the borderland basins, such as Redondo and Hueneme; fans intermediate in size and age, such as Arguello and Farallon; and large, relatively mature fans, such as Monterey and Delgada. Most fans have well-defined depositional lobes at the distal reach of a single channel. Distributary channels are not apparent on all fans, and on some (e.g., Monterey Fan), the single channel can be seen in seismic reflection profiles to have originated on or close to the basement, directly below its present position. The older depositional lobes that have been identified on the fan systems are adjacent to the present main channel, which implies that channel avulsion is not always a process that accompanies fan growth. Seamounts are prominent features in the region, ranging in number from hundreds in the Baja Seamount province to tens in the region west of San Francisco. The gradient of increasing numbers of exposed seamounts and volcanic ridges from north to south is a direct result of decreasing sediment supply from the continent to the south.

  4. Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler D.; Everett, Rhett; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with

  5. Green house emissions, inventories and evaluation of marine environment visa vis offshore oil field development activities Bombay high (west coast) upstream petroleum sector, India

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, J.S.; Ahmed, S.; Negi, C.V.S.; Nainwal, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Wide use of petroleum products contributes significant amount of emission to the global environment and hence maintaining emission inventories are of great importance while assessing the global green house emissions. The present paper describes a brief account of green house emission and inventories for CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, HC particulate and SO{sub 2} emissions generated due to upstream petroleum sector activities viz. discharges of gaseous emission, combustion of Natural Gas anti HSD from production and drilling facilities of Bombay offshore area located in Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) west coast of India. Besides, authors have also given an account on west coast marine base line status including impact of oil field activities on marine ecosystem.

  6. LNG plants in the US and abroad

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Biederman, R.T.

    1992-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology recently conducted a comprehensive survey of LNG production and storage facilities in North America. This survey was performed as part of IGT`s LNG Observer newsletter which covers both domestic and international LNG news, reports on LNG related economics and statistics, and routinely conducts interviews with key industry leaders. In addition to providing consulting services to the LNG industry, IGT has cosponsored the International Conference on Liquefied Natural Gas for the part 20 years. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of our recent survey results as well as provide an overview of world LNG trade. This information is important in assessing the potential near term availability of LNG for transportation applications. The IGT LNG Survey appraised the capacity and current market activity of LNG peak shaving, satellite storage, and import receiving facilities in the United States and Canada. Information was requested from facilities on three main topics: liquefaction, storage, and regasification. Additional questions were posed regarding the year of operation, designer/contractor for liquefaction cycle and storage, source of LNG (for storage-only facilities), plans for expansion, and level of interest in providing LNG as a vehicle fuel. The IGT LNG Survey has to date received information on 56 LNG peak shaving facilities, 28 satellite storage facilities, and 4 LNG import receiving terminals.

  7. Sclerochronology of Holocene oyster shells (Crassostrea gigas) from the West Coast of Bohai Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, C.; Koeniger, P.; Wang, H.; Frechen, M.

    2009-04-01

    Sclerochronology, the study of periodic increments in skeletal organisms, can decipher the life history and environmental records preserved in fossil shells. Although there have been a number of studies that apply isotopic analyses to shells in open ocean and fresh water, investigations for brackish environments are rare. One of the common inhabitants in estuaries is the Crassostrea oyster. Kirby et al. (1998) demonstrated a close correspondence between the ligamental increments of convex and concave bands and yearly ^18O cycles; Andrus and Crowe (2000) found a close correspondence between translucent growth bands on the cross-section of the hinge and yearly ^18O cycles. They conclude that the morphological features on hinge and growth bands on the cross-section are formed annually and can be used to determine accurately age and growth rate in this species. However, Surge et al. (2001) could not find that these morphologic features have seasonal significance in the C. virginica shells. Therefore, these concave ridges are not reliable independent proxies of seasonality. These studies were carried out with C. virginica shells; none was studied with nature C. gigas, which was widely distributed along the Pacific coastal area. C. gigas has been introduced from its native home to all over the world, ranging from North America to Australia and Europe; it has become an important commercial harvest in many of these places. Buried Holocene oyster shells of C. gigas were sampled from a huge buried oyster reef on the West of Bohai Sea, China. One of these shells was selected for high resolution micro-sampling and stable isotope analyses testing the assumption that C. gigas ligamental increments are annual in nature. We analyzed 236 consecutive samples from the shell to show that morphologic features both on hinge and cross-section are annual by comparing them to the ^18O profiles. We tested the assumption that the morphologic features of C.gigas are delineated by convex tops

  8. Possible magmatic underplating beneath the west coast of India and adjoining Dharwar craton: Imprint from Archean crustal evolution to breakup of India and Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Utpal; Das, Ritima; Rai, S. S.

    2017-03-01

    The shear wave velocity of the crust along a ∼660 km profile from the west to the east coast of South India is mapped through the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocity. The profile, consisting of 38 broadband seismic stations, covers the Archean Dharwar craton, Proterozoic Cuddapah basin, and rifted margin and escarpment. The Moho is mapped at a depth of ∼40 km beneath the mid-Archean Western Dharwar Craton (WDC), Cuddapah Basin (CB), and the west and east coasts formed through the rifting process. This is in contrast with a thin (∼35 km) crust beneath the late-Archean Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC). Along the profile, the average thickness of the upper, middle and lower crust is ∼4 km, 12 ± 4 km and 24 ± 4 km respectively. Above the Moho, we observe a high-velocity layer (HVL, Vs > 4 km/s) of variable thickness increasing from 3 ± 1 km beneath the EDC to 11 ± 3 km beneath the WDC and the CB, and 18 ± 2 km beneath the west coast of India. The seismic wave velocity in this layer is greater than typical oceanic lower crust. We interpret the high-velocity layer as a signature of magmatic underplating due to past tectonic processes. Its significant thinning beneath the EDC may be attributed to crustal delamination or relamination at 2.5 Ga. These results demonstrate the dual signature of the Archean Dharwar crust. The change in the geochemical character of the crust possibly occurred at the end of Archean when Komatiite volcanism ceased. The unusually thick HVL beneath the west coast of India and the adjoining region may represent underplated material formed due to India-Madagascar rifting, which is supported by the presence of seaward dipping reflectors and a 85-90 Ma mafic dyke in the adjoining island.

  9. 75 FR 78229 - Record of Decision for the U.S. Marine Corps West Coast Basing of the F-35B Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... legacy F/A-18A/B/C/D Hornet and 56 AV-8B Harrier aircraft in the Third Marine Air Wing (3D MAW) and 4th... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for the U.S. Marine Corps West Coast Basing of the F-35B...

  10. Observations of organic trace gases during ITCT: Characterization of sources, background, and long-range transport to the US West coast and eastern Pacific atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, E.; Donnelly, S.; Stroud, V.; Schauffler, S.; Johnson, K.; Schwaller, N.; Hubler, G.; Parrish, D.; Holloway, J.; Trainer, M.

    2002-12-01

    The NOAA ITCT (Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation) mission examined the processes that impact the chemical composition of the atmosphere in the eastern North Pacific Ocean and along the West Coast of the United States. The mission took place during April - May, 2002, when long-range transport to the US West Coast from downwind sources in Asia and beyond is most favorable. As part of the atmospheric chemistry payload on the NOAA P3 aircraft, whole air samples were collected for analysis of a variety of organic trace gases, including methane, NMHC, halocarbons, organic nitrates, and selected sulfur species. Mission flight tracks were designed to examine regions characteristic of the background atmosphere, and regions impacted by specific point sources, larger urban sources, and long-range transport. In this presentation we summarize the organic trace gas measurements and relationships from the whole air samples, characterize signatures of emissions from the west coast urban areas, and identify signatures of long-range trans-Pacific transport.

  11. Combined use of PAH levels and EROD activities in the determination of PAH pollution in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Sapmaz, Canan; Kaleli, Gizem; Turna, Sema; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution by measuring PAH levels and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) samples caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The fish samples were caught in August 2008-2011. The levels of 13 PAHs were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the liver of fish. Most of the measured PAHs had three rings (low molecular weight). The frequencies of detection of PAHs were higher in fish samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream Mouth than those from Sakarya River Mouth, Amasra and Kefken. EROD activities and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein level were also measured in the fish liver microsomes. Highly elevated EROD activities and CYP1A levels were measured in the mullet samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream than those from Amasra and Kefken. The detection of PAHs in the liver of fish samples shows recent exposure to PAHs. The chemical analyses of PAHs and EROD activity results together reflected the extent of PAH pollution in the livers of fish caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The results indicate that Zonguldak Harbour is the most polluted site in the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  12. Satellite sea surface temperatures along the West Coast of the United States during the 2014-2016 northeast Pacific marine heat wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentemann, Chelle L.; Fewings, Melanie R.; García-Reyes, Marisol

    2017-01-01

    From January 2014 to August 2016, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) along the Washington, Oregon, and California coasts were significantly warmer than usual, reaching a maximum SST anomaly of 6.2°C off Southern California. This marine heat wave occurred alongside the Gulf of Alaska marine heat wave and resulted in major disturbances in the California Current ecosystem and massive economic impacts. Here we use satellite and blended reanalysis products to report the magnitude, extent, duration, and evolution of SSTs and wind stress anomalies along the West Coast of the continental United States during this event. Nearshore SST anomalies along the entire coast were persistent during the marine heat wave, and only abated seasonally, during spring upwelling-favorable wind stress. The coastal marine heat wave weakened in July 2016 and disappeared by September 2016.

  13. North American LNG Project Sourcebook

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-15

    The report provides a status of the development of LNG Import Terminal projects in North America, and includes 1-2 page profiles of 63 LNG projects in North America which are either in operation, under construction, or under development. For each project, the sourcebook provides information on the following elements: project description, project ownership, project status, projected operation date, storage capacity, sendout capacity, and pipeline interconnection.

  14. Environmental magnetism and excursion record of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in marine cores, West Coast South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, F. E.; Wilson, G. S.; Party, Shipboard

    2009-04-01

    Homologous ARM susceptibility (κARM) and magnetic susceptibility (κ) records from u-channel samples of five short cores (TAN0712 cores 14, 15, 17, 23, 27) record the Pleistocene - Holocene transition off the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand. Cores were collected in water depths ranging from 880-2817 m. Cores 14, 15 and 17 are situated along the north levee of Moeraki Canyon. Cores 15 and 17 are kasten cores that record a relatively homogeneous concentration of single domain (SD) grains. Core 14 is a piston core slightly closer to the edge of Moeraki Canyon. From end of core (EOC) at 3.2 m to 0.75 m, the dominance of κ indicates coarse, multi-domain (MD) magnetic grains; however, low κ units (10-20 cms thick) occur at a mean interval of 0.71 m (n=3). Cores 23 and 27 are situated on the north-west margin of Milford Basin. Variations in magnetic mineral concentration in core 23 occur approximately every 26 cm. Fast Fourier Transform analysis confirms the 26 cm cycle, although it has relatively low spectral power. Core 27 also has a short interval of variable concentration. This variation in 'magnetisability' is inferred to result from fluctuating carbonate concentrations during the glacial period leading up to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). All three longer piston cores (27, 23, 14) contain a coarse MD interval ranging from 0.35-1 m in thickness, which we infer to represent influx of outwash at the termination of the LGM. Overlying this interval, all five cores display a consistent SD signal inferred to represent hemipelagic sedimentation during the Holocene. Possible geomagnetic excursions are recorded in four of the cores. An inclination transition to 34.2∘ combined with a 180∘ declination transition and NRM intensity low at 0.35-0.39 m in core 17 suggests a true geomagnetic excursion. Core 15 also has inclination shallowing and an intensity low at 0.45 m. An older excursion in core 27 at 2.54-2.69 m and in core 14 at ~2.8 m may correlate. The

  15. Quantification of Coastal Macro Algae Iodine Emissions and its Spatial Variability at the West Coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhler, Denis; Horbanski, Martin; Schmitt, Stefan; Platt, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Reactive iodine species are emitted by macro algae in the intertidal zone of coastal sites during low tide. Due to the oxidation to iodine oxide (IO) and thus reduction of ozone, they may have a significant influence on the local atmosphere. Further high iodine oxide levels may act as precursors for particle formation and therefore have a potential impact on climate. A correlation between iodine oxide and particle formation could be observed in previous field studies. However, previous measurements of iodine and iodine oxide have been performed only at very few sites, mainly at the atmospheric research station Mace Head located at the west coast of Ireland. An observation of the dominant sources, the spatial distribution and the impact on larger scales was not possible so far. To investigate these questions we performed intensive measurements at eight different sites along the west coast of Ireland in 2011 and 2012. Therefore, we applied a mobile Long Path (LP)-DOAS for path averaged IO measurements and a mobile Cavity Enhanced (CE)- DOAS instrument for in-situ IO measurements at different locations. Additionally, a static Long Path-DOAS system for IO, OIO and I2 measurements located at Mace Head was applied. This allows comparing directly different locations with the reference station Mace Head without the influence of locally varying meteorology and comparing results also to former observations. We could confirm previous results that the macro algae species Laminaria digitata is the strongest iodine emitting algae. However, we observed significant differences to former investigations and conclusions. First, iodine oxide concentrations were much higher (typically factor of 10 and more) on every measuring site compared to Mace Head. IO reaching levels up to 40ppt observed with the LP-DOAS and 70ppt @ 1.2m height with the CE-DOAS. Second, we found out that Laminaria digitata is not a dominant iodine source to the atmosphere, while Ascophyllum nodosum due to its high

  16. Late Pleistocene glacial stratigraphy of the Kumara-Moana region, West Coast of South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Timothy T.; Almond, Peter; Rose, Robert; Keith Fifield, L.; Mills, Stephanie C.; Tims, Stephen G.

    2013-08-01

    On the South Island of New Zealand, large piedmont glaciers descended from an ice cap on the Southern Alps onto the coastal plain of the West Coast during the late Pleistocene. The series of moraine belts and outwash plains left by the Taramakau glacier are used as a type section for interpreting the glacial geology and timing of major climatic events of New Zealand and also as a benchmark for comparison with the wider Southern Hemisphere. In this paper we review the chronology of advances by the Taramakau glacier during the last or Otira Glaciation using a combination of exposure dating using the cosmogenic nuclides 10Be and 36Cl, and tephrochronology. We document three distinct glacial maxima, represented by the Loopline, Larrikins and Moana Formations, separated by brief interstadials. We find that the Loopline Formation, originally attributed to Oxygen Isotope Chronozone 4, is much younger than previously thought, with an advance culminating around 24,900 ± 800 yr. The widespread late Pleistocene Kawakawa/Oruanui tephra stratigraphically lies immediately above it. This Formation has the same age previously attributed to the older part of the Larrikins Formation. Dating of the Larrikins Formation demonstrates there is no longer a basis for subdividing it into older and younger phases with an advance lasting about 1000 years between 20,800 ± 500 to 20,000 ± 400 yr. The Moana Formation represents the deposits of the last major advance of ice at 17,300 ± 500 yr and is younger than expected based on limited previous dating. The timing of major piedmont glaciation is restricted to between ˜25,000 and 17,000 yr and this interval corresponds to a time of regionally cold sea surface temperatures, expansion of grasslands at the expense of forest on South Island, and hemisphere wide glaciation.

  17. Interaction Of Mesoscale Convective Systems With The Land - Sea Breezes Along The Guinea Coast Of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulibaly, A.; Omotosho, B. J.; Sylla, M. B.; Fink, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    1-3 hourly METARS/SYNOP observation data of wind (speed and direction), air temperature over land, covering the period 1983-2012, were used in order to characterize land-sea breezes (LSB) over five coastline stations (Abidjan, Accra, Lomé, Cotonou and Ikeja-Lagos) in the Guinean Coast, West Africa. In additional to this, 8 years (2003-2010) sea surface temperature (SST) data from adjacent Atlantic Ocean and monthly METARS/SYNOP observation data of precipitation (1983-2012) were also used. Based on wind speed and direction, the wind roses of all months over all stations have been plotted. These wind roses reveal that, globally, the northerly winds occurred rarely for the months of February, March, and April at Cotonou (Benin Republic).This is seen for other stations (Lomé and Accra). The night/morning time northerly winds appear at all stations, except Accra where there is no northerly wind or is very weak. According to the stations basis, the period of that night/morning northerly winds varies, except in summer period (July - September), where the normal s/w monsoon winds can weaken override at all stations. Set criteria based on the diurnal reversal of wind direction, and the thermal gradient necessary to drive the wind circulation, was used to identify land-sea breeze days. On station-wide basis, sea-breezes occur, at least all period of year, but less frequent in the summer months, where the minimum value of monthly mean temperature gradient is observed for selected stations.

  18. Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna of the Sundarbans mangrove forest, south west coast of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Kawser; Mehedi, Yousuf; Haque, Rezaul; Mondol, Pulakesh

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna have been reported for the first time from the Sundarbans mangrove forest, south west coast of Bangladesh, in the northern part of Bay of Bengal. The concentration of Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in macrobenthos ranged from 235 ± 10.11 to 1,051 ± 38.42, 3.66 ± 0.89 to 7.55 ± 1.29, 76.8 ± 8.55 to 98.5 ± 6.49, 0.46 ± 0.11 to 0.859 ± 0.2 and 4.66 ± 1.17 to 6.77 ± 2.1 μg/g, respectively. Significant variations (p ≤ 0.05) in heavy metal concentrations have been observed among the mud crab, mudskipper and gastropod. However, heavy metal burdens did not vary significantly among the hermit and horseshoe crabs. In mud crab, horseshoe crab and gastropod, heavy metal concentrations were recorded in the sequence: Fe > Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd. Hermit crab and mudskipper contained heavy metals in the order of Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. Fe and Zn concentrations were found significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in macrobenthos. The lead (Pb) concentration found in the edible portion of macrobenthos exceeded the international permissible limits certified by the WHO. Bioconcentration factors >1.00 obtained for Fe (17.05 in mudskipper) and Cd (1.87 in gastropod) indicated that these metals were highly bioaccumulated and biomagnified in benthic fauna of Sundarbans. The findings of this study refer to the potential impact of heavy metals in the mangrove ecosystem of Bangladesh.

  19. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides was introduced and is expanding its range on the west coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Anne; Adams, Rachel I; Cross, Hugh B; Bruns, Thomas D

    2009-03-01

    The deadly poisonous Amanita phalloides is common along the west coast of North America. Death cap mushrooms are especially abundant in habitats around the San Francisco Bay, California, but the species grows as far south as Los Angeles County and north to Vancouver Island, Canada. At different times, various authors have considered the species as either native or introduced, and the question of whether A. phalloides is an invasive species remains unanswered. We developed four novel loci and used these in combination with the EF1α and IGS loci to explore the phylogeography of the species. The data provide strong evidence for a European origin of North American populations. Genetic diversity is generally greater in European vs. North American populations, suggestive of a genetic bottleneck; polymorphic sites of at least two loci are only polymorphic within Europe although the number of individuals sampled from Europe was half the number sampled from North America. Endemic alleles are not a feature of North American populations, although alleles unique to different parts of Europe were common and were discovered in Scandinavian, mainland French, and Corsican individuals. Many of these endemic European haplotypes were found together at single sites in California. Early collections of A. phalloides dated prior to 1963 and annotated using sequences of the ITS locus proved to be different species of Amanita. The first Californian collections that we confirmed as A. phalloides were made from the Del Monte Hotel (now the Naval Postgraduate School) in Monterey, and on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley, in 1938 and in 1945. These historical data are used in combination with data on A. phalloides' current distribution to estimate a rate of spread for A. phalloides in California. Many species of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi have been introduced across and among continents, but with this evidence, the death cap becomes the only known invasive EM fungus in

  20. Shifts in condition and distribution of eastern North Pacific flatfish along the U.S. west coast (2003-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Aimee A.; Bradburn, Mark J.; Simon, Victor H.

    2013-07-01

    Flatfish condition indices and distribution were examined along the U.S. west coast (55-1280 m) in relation to environmental variability and biomass using data from ten frequently occurring species collected in annual groundfish surveys from 2003 to 2010. The study was conducted during a period characterized by a cooling trend in the northern California Current system and by declining biomass for flatfish in general. Annual condition indices for six species (arrowtooth flounder, Dover sole, English sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and rex sole) were significantly related either to large-scale climatic indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation) and/or annual biomass levels. Condition was most closely related to environmental effects rather than either biomass alone or both variables, with condition typically higher during cool climatic conditions. A similar analysis revealed that changes in distribution (measured as variation in annual catch-weighted mean latitude, longitude, depth and temperature) tended to be best described by models incorporating environmental effects and biomass rather than either variable alone. Linear trends in the center of distribution along a southeast-northwest axis were significant for seven species (arrowtooth flounder, deepsea sole, Dover sole, flathead sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and slender sole) with a tendency for flatfish to be displaced towards the southeast as environmental conditions shifted from warm to cooler conditions and biomass declined. A spatial distribution analysis indicated that for the majority of species (80%) the greatest magnitude of displacement (km) occurred when the centers of biomass were compared between environmental phases (average annual displacement 34 km) rather than changing biomass levels (average displacement 24 km). Taken together both approaches revealed that environmental changes and variation in biomass play

  1. A comparative study of US EPA 1996 and 1999 emission inventories in the west Gulf of Mexico coast region, USA.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Jen; Ho, Thomas C; Chu, Hsing-wei; Yang, Heng; Mojica, Martha J; Krishnarajanagar, Nagesh; Chiou, Paul; Hopper, Jack R

    2005-06-01

    Emission inventory is one of the required inputs to air quality models. To assist in the urban and regional modeling efforts, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has compiled a National Emission Inventory (NEI) for criterion pollutants, and the precursors of ozone and particulate matter (PM). In December 2002, EPA released the 1999 NEI estimates (NEI99), which represent the most recent national emission data. However, the data sets are not in model-ready format for air quality simulations. This present work converts the NEI99 Final Version 2 data sets into Inventory Data Analyzer (IDA) format and processes the data using the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) modeling system to generate a gridded emission inventory in a domain covering the west Gulf Coast Region, USA. The spatial and diurnal emission characteristics of the gridded emission inventories are then assessed and compared with those of the National Emission Trend 1996 (NET96). The NEI99 database contains more complete emission records in both area and point sources. It is also found that NEI99 data exhibit greater emissions with respect to point and mobile sources but smaller emissions with respect to area sources when compared to the corresponding gridded NET96 data in the same study domain. The most distinct differences between the NEI99 and NET96 databases are CO emission of mobile sources, SO2 emissions of point sources, and VOC/PM/NH3/NOx emissions of area and non-road sources. The gridded NEI99 data show low VOC/NOx ratios (<2-5) in the urban areas of the study domain.

  2. Bacterial production, glucosidase activity and particle-associated carbohydrates in Dona Paula bay, west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, P. V.; Bhosle, N. B.

    2008-11-01

    Size-fractionated bacterial production, abundance and α- and β- glucosidase enzyme activities were studied with respect to changes in hydrography, total suspended matter (TSM), chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen ratio (POC:PON), 1.5 M NaCl-soluble and 10 mM EDTA-soluble carbohydrates (Sal-PCHO and CPCHO) and transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) in the surface waters from July 1999-2000 at a shallow coastal station in Dona Paula Bay, west coast of India. The bulk of the total bacterial production and glucosidase activity were associated with particles (75% and >80%, respectively). Total bacterial production was linearly correlated to chlorophyll a ( r = 0.513; p < 0.05) whereas enzyme activity was significantly correlated to TSM (α-glucosidase: r = 0.721 ( p < 0.001); β-glucosidase: r = 0.596 ( p < 0.01)). Both α-glucosidase ( r = 0.514; p < 0.05) and β-glucosidase enzymes ( r = 0.598; p < 0.01) appeared to be involved in the degradation of CPCHO and Sal-PCHO, respectively. Changes in α-glucosidase/β-glucosidase ratios highlighted the varying composition of particulate organic matter. The bacterial uptake of 14C-labeled bacterial extracellular carbohydrate measured over 11 days showed a strong linear correlation between 14C-uptake and bacterial production using tritiated thymidine. The turnover rate of 14C-labeled carbohydrate-C was 0.52 d -1, higher than the estimated annual mean potential carbohydrate carbon turnover rate of 0.33 ± 0.2 d -1. Our study suggests that carbohydrates derived from sediments may serve as an important alternative carbon source sustaining the bacterial carbon demand in the surface waters of Dona Paula Bay.

  3. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the U.S. West Coast EEZ

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, K. Alexandra; Moore, Jeffrey E.; Benson, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Biological limit reference points (LRPs) for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ) using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years), limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years), or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years). These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the “jeopardy” standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide

  4. A statistical description on the wind-coherent responses of sea surface heights off the US West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Yong

    2014-01-01

    Local and remote wind-coherent responses of sea surface heights (SSHs) off the US West Coast (USWC) are described with statistical and analytical models. The wind transfer functions are statistically derived from surface wind stress at National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys, located within 50 km from the shoreline, and detided SSHs (SSH anomalies; SSHAs) at shoreline tide gauges for 15 years (1995 to 2009) using linear regression in the frequency domain. A two-dimensional analytical model constrained by the coastal boundary provides a dynamical framework to interpret the data-derived statistical model. Although both transfer functions agree well at low frequency [ σ ≤ 0.4 cycles per day (cpd)], they appear to be inconsistent at high frequency ( σ ≥ 0.8 cpd; e.g., diurnal and its harmonic frequencies) because of incoherent signals between wind stress and SSHAs as well as their low signal-to-noise ratios. A multivariate regression analysis using wind stress at multiple wind buoys is implemented with a modified expectation maximization. The cross-validated skill increases and becomes saturated as the number of regression basis functions increases, demonstrating the influence of local and remote winds. The skill computed from all available winds off the USWC has a maximum as 0.1 in southern California, 0.2 to 0.3 in central California, and 0.3 to 0.5 in northern California, Oregon, and Washington. The residual SSHAs, incoherent components with all available coastal wind stress off the USWC, still contain poleward propagating signals, considered as components forced by remote winds outside of the domain.

  5. 46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG)...

  6. Offshore Deepwater Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Ports ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    EPA received three National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit applications for wastewater discharges related to the construction and operation of deepwater LNG ports in state and federal waters of Massachusetts Bay. One was for construction-related discharges associated with the Northeast Gateway LNG deepwater port, one was for operations-related discharges associated with the Northeast Gateway LNG deepwater port, and the other was for both construction-related and operations-related discharges for the Neptune LNG deepwater port.

  7. Contrasting sedimentation patterns in two semi-enclosed mesotidal bays along the west and south coasts of Korea controlled by their orientation to the regional monsoon climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seok Hwi; Chun, Seung Soo; Chang, Tae Soo; Jang, Dae Geon

    2016-11-01

    Sedimentation patterns of tidal flats along the Korean west coast have long been known to be largely controlled by the monsoon climate. On the other hand, much less is known about the effect of the monsoon on sedimentation in coastal embayments with mouths of different geographic orientations. Good examples are Hampyeong and Yeoja bays along the west and south coasts, respectively. Both have narrow entrances, but their mouths open toward the northwest and the south, respectively. With mean tidal ranges of 3.46 and 3.2 m, respectively, the two bays experience similar tidal regimes and are hence excellent candidates to compare the effect of different exposure to the same regional monsoon climate on their respective sediment distribution patterns. The winter monsoon, in particular, is characterized by strong northwesterly winds that directly impact the west coast, but blow offshore along the south coast. For the purpose of this study, surficial sediment samples were collected from intertidal and subtidal flats of the two bays, both in summer and winter. Grain-size analyses were carried out by sieving (sand fraction) and Sedigraph (mud fraction). In the case of Yeoja Bay, the sediments consist mostly of mud (mean grain sizes of 5.4 to 8.8 phi). Seasonal changes are very subtle, the sediments being slightly coarser in summer when silt-dominated sediments are supplied by two streams to the northern parts of the bay in response to heavy rainfall. With the exception of the deeper tidal channels, Yeoja Bay is characterized by a thick mud blanket the year round, which is modulated by processes associated with the summer monsoon that predominantly blows from the east. Textural parameters suggest severely restricted sediment mixing on the subtidal and intertidal flats, the overall low energy situation preventing sands from reaching the tidal flats. The sediments of Hampyeong Bay, by contrast, are characterized by a distinct shoreward fining trend. Mean grain sizes average

  8. Late Pleistocene coastal loess deposits of the central west coast of North America: Terrestrial facies indicators for marine low-stand intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Curt D.; Grathoff, Georg H.; Reckendorf, Frank; Percy, David; Price, David M.

    2014-03-01

    Coastal loess deposits measured in sea cliffs, bay cliffs, road cuts and boreholes (62 sites) are compiled for the states of Washington, Oregon, and California in the central west coast of North America (1700 km in length). The loess-enriched deposits are recognized by (1) substantial abundances of silt (30-90% by weight) and (2) depositional settings in uplifted marine terraces or dune fields that are situated well above alluvial floodplains at the coast. Total loess thickness above the MIS5a marine terrace, or 80 ± 20 ka basal TL age, ranges from 0.1 to 8.0 m in 46 dated sites. Loess deposits reach maximum thickness (5-8 m) in the vicinities of glacial outwash plains in the highest latitudes. Loess thickness in the middle and lower latitudes increases with proximity to 1) large river mouths (>3 × 106 mt yr-1 modern suspended sediment discharge) and 2) broad shelf widths (>10 km distance from 0 to -100 m depth). Coastal loess deposits dated by TL or radiocarbon (37 samples) range from ˜250 to 11 ka in age, but generally fall into the MIS4-2 marine low-stand intervals (32 dates between 77-15 ka). The coastal loess facies represent marine low-stand intervals in coastal Quaternary sequences from the central west coast of North America.

  9. Evaluation of consumer acceptance of west coast versus east coast-produced broccoli through sensory analysis of quality rating factors and nutritionally important metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production trials and germplasm evaluation of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) developed for eastern U.S. production conditions have identified lines and cultivars that are better adapted to more stressful, variable East Coast environments. As a part of this work sponsored by the USDA SCIR...

  10. Recommended research on LNG safety

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, H.J.; Gilmore, F.R.

    1981-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the safety and other environmental aspects of liquefied energy gases including liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effort reported here was conducted as part of the planning for further research into the safety aspects of transporting and storing LNG, with primary emphasis on public safety. Although the modern LNG industry has enjoyed excellent success in providing for safe operations, significant questions remain on the part of many, the expressions of which were intensified with the addition of marine-based LNG import terminals. Public safety with regard to large-scale importation of this fuel has received widespread attention in the US Congress, state legislatures, county and city governments, and from various individuals and public groups, with coverage in all the news media, including books published on the subject. The safety concerns have centered around the consequences to the public of a large spill of the cryogenic liquid from an ocean tanker or a larger storage tank, either of which might hold as much as 125,000 m/sup 3/ of LNG.

  11. Seasonal Patterns of Flood, Wind, and Wave Coherence Along the US West Coast: Implications for Sediment Dispersal and Deposition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniskern, T. A.; Warrick, J. A.; Farnsworth, K. L.

    2008-12-01

    Small rivers with mountainous catchments account for over half of the terrigenous material delivered to the coastal ocean. Dispersal, deposition, and cycling of sediments and associated nutrients ultimately influence shelf carbon budgets. Recent work on collision margins revealed that these small rivers flood during energetic ocean conditions, creating conditions conducive to dispersal of sediments via multiple sediment transport mechanisms. Furthermore, the relative timing of the peak flood and peak wave conditions influences dispersal and depositional patterns. Our study sought to identify patterns of fluvial and oceanic coherence along the US west coast by analyzing 10 years (1996-2006) of NOAA buoy, Climate Prediction Center storm track, and USGS gauge data. Discharge, buoy data, and storm tracks for the Umpqua, Eel, Salinas, and Santa Clara rivers and their adjacent shelves revealed temporal and spatial coherence patterns of wave event and flood magnitude, frequency, and timing. The seasonal period of energetic waves for each river-shelf system began 1-2 months earlier than the flood season (November) and extended 1 month beyond the end of flood season (May). There was also a seasonal disconnect in the timing of peak wave energy (December) and peak floods (January to February). Peak flood activity occurred in January on the Umpqua and Eel Rivers, and in February for the Salinas and Santa Clara Rivers. Flooding and wave events were more frequent and greater in magnitude on the Eel and Umpqua river shelves. The Salinas and Santa Clara rivers displayed lower fluvial inputs, but Salinas River shelf wave events were greater in magnitude. The magnitude and timing of peak waves and peak discharges during floods varied characteristically for each river-shelf system. Peak discharge and peak wave magnitude during floods generally decreased from December to May, indicating that dispersal and depositional patterns vary over the season. Additionally, the timing between

  12. Constraining regional scale carbon budgets at the US West Coast using a high-resolution atmospheric inverse modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goeckede, M.; Michalak, A. M.; Vickers, D.; Turner, D.; Law, B.

    2009-04-01

    The study presented is embedded within the NACP (North American Carbon Program) West Coast project ORCA2, which aims at determining the regional carbon balance of the US states Oregon, California and Washington. Our work specifically focuses on the effect of disturbance history and climate variability, aiming at improving our understanding of e.g. drought stress and stand age on carbon sources and sinks in complex terrain with fine-scale variability in land cover types. The ORCA2 atmospheric inverse modeling approach has been set up to capture flux variability on the regional scale at high temporal and spatial resolution. Atmospheric transport is simulated coupling the mesoscale model WRF (Weather Research and Forecast) with the STILT (Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport) footprint model. This setup allows identifying sources and sinks that influence atmospheric observations with highly resolved mass transport fields and realistic turbulent mixing. Terrestrial biosphere carbon fluxes are simulated at spatial resolutions of up to 1km and subdaily timesteps, considering effects of ecoregion, land cover type and disturbance regime on the carbon budgets. Our approach assimilates high-precision atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements and eddy-covariance data from several sites throughout the model domain, as well as high-resolution remote sensing products (e.g. LandSat, MODIS) and interpolated surface meteorology (DayMet, SOGS, PRISM). We present top-down modeling results that have been optimized using Bayesian inversion, reflecting the information on regional scale carbon processes provided by the network of high-precision CO2 observations. We address the level of detail (e.g. spatial and temporal resolution) that can be resolved by top-down modeling on the regional scale, given the uncertainties introduced by various sources for model-data mismatch. Our results demonstrate the importance of accurate modeling of carbon-water coupling, with the

  13. Atmospheric Stability Impacts on Power Curves of Tall Wind Turbines - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Wind Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K

    2010-02-22

    Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow and turbulence at these heights in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, neutral, or convective, the mean wind speed, direction, and turbulence properties may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 to 120 m AGL). This variability can cause tall turbines to produce difference amounts of power during time periods with identical hub height wind speeds. Using meteorological and power generation data from a West Coast North American wind farm over a one-year period, our study synthesizes standard wind park observations, such as wind speed from turbine nacelles and sparse meteorological tower observations, with high-resolution profiles of wind speed and turbulence from a remote sensing platform, to quantify the impact of atmospheric stability on power output. We first compare approaches to defining atmospheric stability. The standard, limited, wind farm operations enable the calculation only of a wind shear exponent ({alpha}) or turbulence intensity (I{sub U}) from cup anemometers, while the presence at this wind farm of a SODAR enables the direct observation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the turbine rotor disk. Additionally, a nearby research meteorological station provided observations of the Obukhov length, L, a direct measure of atmospheric stability. In general, the stability parameters {alpha}, I{sub U}, and TKE are in high agreement with the more physically-robust L, with TKE exhibiting the best agreement with L. Using these metrics, data periods are segregated by stability class to investigate power performance dependencies. Power output at this wind farm is highly correlated with atmospheric stability during the spring and summer months, while atmospheric stability exerts

  14. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  15. LNG plants in the US and abroad. [Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Biederman, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology recently conducted a comprehensive survey of LNG production and storage facilities in North America. This survey was performed as part of IGT's LNG Observer newsletter which covers both domestic and international LNG news, reports on LNG related economics and statistics, and routinely conducts interviews with key industry leaders. In addition to providing consulting services to the LNG industry, IGT has cosponsored the International Conference on Liquefied Natural Gas for the part 20 years. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of our recent survey results as well as provide an overview of world LNG trade. This information is important in assessing the potential near term availability of LNG for transportation applications. The IGT LNG Survey appraised the capacity and current market activity of LNG peak shaving, satellite storage, and import receiving facilities in the United States and Canada. Information was requested from facilities on three main topics: liquefaction, storage, and regasification. Additional questions were posed regarding the year of operation, designer/contractor for liquefaction cycle and storage, source of LNG (for storage-only facilities), plans for expansion, and level of interest in providing LNG as a vehicle fuel. The IGT LNG Survey has to date received information on 56 LNG peak shaving facilities, 28 satellite storage facilities, and 4 LNG import receiving terminals.

  16. Assessment of WSSV prevalence and distribution of disease-resistant shrimp among the wild population of Penaeus monodon along the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Usri; Mallik, Ajoy; Mondal, Debabrata; Dutta, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2014-06-01

    Shrimp aquaculture is threatened by many diseases, among which white spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the leading one. Information related to the geographical distribution and seasonal prevalence of WSD is necessary to obtain a clear understanding of the disease biology in shrimp. Identification of WSD-resistant individual shrimp with DNA markers is also an important technique to develop better WSD-free shrimp health management. The present study aim is to estimate the occurrence of WSSV in Penaeus monodon qualitatively and quantitatively during three different seasons during the years 2011 to 2013 along the west coast of India. Additionally, the disease resistance prevalence using previously developed 71 bp microsatellite and 457 bp RAPD-SCAR DNA markers is also investigated. Samples were collected throughout the year from four locations along the west coast of India: Kochi, Kerala; Mangalore, Karnataka; Vasco-da-Gama, Goa; and Veraval, Gujarat. The results depicted that the average WSSV prevalence, as determined by the nested PCR method and taken cumulatively over the four locations, was the lowest (0%) during the post-monsoon season and the highest (31.6%) during the monsoon season. The WSD prevalence was observed to increase when the latitude was decreased along the west coast of India (from Veraval to Kochi). Out of the three different seasons, the average WSSV copy number was the highest (approximately 10(3) copies μg(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) during the monsoon season. The disease-resistant prevalence, as determined using the developed DNA markers, was found to be the highest in Vasco-da-Gama (59.5%) and the lowest in Kochi (40.9%). The present study suggests better options for the efficient collection of disease-free and disease-resistant brood stocks, which would be a more cost-effective and safer approach toward disease prevention over conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild brood stock.

  17. Assessment of potential biological activities and distributions of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in sediments of the west coast of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seungyeon; Hong, Seongjin; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Park, Jinsoon; Song, Sung Joon; Giesy, John P; Khim, Jong Seong

    2017-02-01

    The west coast of Korea has experienced environmental deterioration for more than half a century. In the present study, we specifically aimed to: i) evaluate potential toxicities of contaminants in sediments that cause effects mediated through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen receptor (ER); ii) determine spatio-temporal distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylphenols (APs); and iii) identify causes of greater potencies of samples. From 2010 to 2014, sediments were collected from 12 major estuarine and coastal regions along the west coast of South Korea. In vitro cell bioassays were performed to determine AhR- and ER-mediated potencies using H4IIE-luc and MVLN cells, respectively. Fifteen PAHs and six APs in sediments were identified by GC/MSD. Results of bioassays generally showed a low-to-moderate degree of contamination, however, greater AhR- and ER-mediated potencies were measured at some locations. Concentrations of PAHs and APs varied among locations, which indicated that sources were independently affected by the surrounding environment (e.g., industrial complex and cities). Results of bioassays were generally well correlated with concentrations of putative causative chemicals. Benzo[k]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene were the major AhR agonists, explaining approximately 30% of the bioassay-derived benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (BaP-EQ). Unknown AhR and ER agonists and potential mixture effects remain in question. Overall, the present study provides baseline information on chemical contaminations and potential toxicity of sediments in a fairly wide geographical region of the west coast of South Korea.

  18. Meteorological characteristics and overland precipitation impacts of atmospheric rivers affecting the West coast of North America based on eight years of SSM/I satellite observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neiman, P.J.; Ralph, F.M.; Wick, G.A.; Lundquist, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    The pre-cold-frontal low-level jet within oceanic extratropical cyclones represents the lower-tropospheric component of a deeper corridor of concentrated water vapor transport in the cyclone warm sector. These corridors are referred to as atmospheric rivers (ARs) because they are narrow relative to their length scale and are responsible for most of the poleward water vapor transport at midlatitudes. This paper investigates landfalling ARs along adjacent north- and south-coast regions of western North America. Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/ I) satellite observations of long, narrow plumes of enhanced integrated water vapor (IWV) were used to detect ARs just offshore over the eastern Pacific from 1997 to 2005. The north coast experienced 301 AR days, while the south coast had only 115. Most ARs occurred during the warm season in the north and cool season in the south, despite the fact that the cool season is climatologically wettest for both regions. Composite SSM/I IWV analyses showed landfalling wintertime ARs extending northeastward from the tropical eastern Pacific, whereas the summertime composites were zonally oriented and, thus, did not originate from this region of the tropics. Companion SSM/I composites of daily rainfall showed significant orographic enhancement during the landfall of winter (but not summer) ARs. The NCEP-NCAR global reanalysis dataset and regional precipitation networks were used to assess composite synoptic characteristics and overland impacts of landfalling ARs. The ARs possess strong vertically integrated horizontal water vapor fluxes that, on average, impinge on the West Coast in the pre-cold-frontal environment in winter and post-cold-frontal environment in summer. Even though the IWV in the ARs is greater in summer, the vapor flux is stronger in winter due to much stronger flows associated with more intense storms. The landfall of ARs in winter and north-coast summer coincides with anomalous warmth, a trough offshore, and

  19. Aspects of the biology of the pygmy ribbontail catshark Eridacnis radcliffei (Proscylliidae: Carcharhiniformes) from the south-west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Akhilesh, K V; Bineesh, K K; White, W T; Pillai, N G K

    2012-08-01

    Biological data are presented for the pygmy ribbontail catshark Eridacnis radcliffei based on specimens collected from the by-catch of the commercial deep-sea shrimp trawl fishery operating in the Arabian Sea off the south-west coast of India. A total of 549 individuals, from 101 to 257 mm total length (L(T)) and 2·2 to 56 g, were collected. The L(T) at first maturity (L(T50)) of females and males was estimated at 183 and 170 mm, respectively, and analysis of stomach contents revealed that E. radcliffei feeds primarily on crustaceans.

  20. Long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (Croatia) related to eutrophication patterns in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2016-05-15

    An exploration of historical data suggested that eutrophication patterns might drive long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia). The regimes of northern Italian rivers, which flow approximately 100km west of the study area, mainly modulate the eutrophication levels of the northern Adriatic Sea. A regression of Cystoseira populations from the 1970s through the 1990s corresponded to increased levels of eutrophication in the study area. During the late 1990s, the density of sea urchins, which are efficacious macroalgal predators, decreased, likely due to an intense formation of pelagic mucilage aggregates that resulted in mass mortality episodes of macrozoobenthic species. During the 2000-2013 period, an oligotrophication of the northern Adriatic formed the basis for the recovery of Cystoseira taxa, whose abundances from 2009 to 2013 were similar to those characterising the most flourishing Mediterranean Cystoseira assemblages.

  1. Seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of West Indian manatees along the Atlantic coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, C.J.; Reid, J.P.; Bonde, R.K.; Easton, Dean E.; Kochman, H.I.; O'Shea, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is endangered by human activities throughout its range, including the U.S. Atlantic coast where habitat degradation from coastal development and manatee deaths from watercraft collisions have been particularly severe. We radio-tagged and tracked 78 manatees along the east coast of Florida and Georgia over a 12-year period (1986-1998). Our goals were to characterize the seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of manatees in this region in order to provide information for the development of effective conservation strategies. Most study animals were tracked remotely with the Argos satellite system, which yielded a mean (SD) of 3.7 (1.6) locations per day; all were regularly tracked in the field using conventional radiotelemetry methods. The combined data collection effort yielded >93,000 locations over nearly 32,000 tag-days. The median duration of tracking was 8.3 months per individual, but numerous manatees were tracked over multiple years (max = 6.8 years). Most manatees migrated seasonally over large distances between a northerly warm-season range and a southerly winter range (median one-way distance = 280 km, max = 830 km), but 12% of individuals were resident in a relatively small area (2,300 km of coastline between southeastern Florida and Rhode Island. No study animals journeyed to the Gulf coast of Florida. Regions heavily utilized by tagged manatees included: Fernandina Beach, FL to Brunswick, GA in the warm season; northern Biscayne Bay to Port Everglades, FL in the winter; and central coastal Florida, especially the Banana River and northern Indian River lagoons, in all seasons. Daily travel rate, defined as the distance between successive mean daily locations, averaged 2.5 km (SD = 1.7), but this varied with season, migratory pattern, and sex. Adult males traveled a significantly greater distance per day than did adult females for most of the warm season, which corresponded closely with the

  2. Potential for long-term LNG supplies to the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lihn, M.L.

    1992-02-01

    Topics discussed here include: (1) terminal capacity; (2) potential sources for US LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports; (3) LNG liquefaction and transportation capacity; (4) historical US LNG imports; (5) LNG supply costs; (6)delivered cost of future LNG imports.

  3. 77 FR 58373 - Trunkline LNG Company, LLC; Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Trunkline Gas Company, LLC; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Trunkline LNG Company, LLC; Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Trunkline Gas Company... Project involving construction and operation of facilities by Trunkline LNG Company, LLC/Trunkline LNG... Trunkline plans to expand its existing liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal in Calcasieu Parish,...

  4. 78 FR 38703 - LNG Development Company (d/b/a Oregon LNG); Oregon Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission LNG Development Company (d/b/a Oregon LNG); Oregon Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 7, 2013, LNG Development Company, LLC (d/ b/a Oregon LNG) (Oregon LNG), 8100 NE Parkway Drive, Suite 165, Vancouver, WA 98662, filed in Docket No. CP9-6-001...

  5. 76 FR 53440 - Freeport LNG Development, LP; Freeport LNG Expansion, LP; FLNG Liquefaction LLC; Notice of Intent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freeport LNG Development, LP; Freeport LNG Expansion, LP; FLNG Liquefaction... construction and operation of facilities proposed by Freeport LNG Development, LP, Freeport LNG Expansion, LP... liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal on Quintana Island in Brazoria County, Texas. The Project...

  6. 77 FR 38790 - Noble Americas Gas & Power Corp., LNG Development Company, LLC, LNG Development Company, LLC (d/b...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Americas Gas & Power Corp., LNG Development Company, LLC, LNG Development Company, LLC (d/b/a Oregon LNG... Corp. authority to import/ export natural gas from/ to Canada/Mexico, and to import LNG from various international sources by vessel. 3099 05/31/12 12-43-NG LNG Development Order granting blanket Company,...

  7. 77 FR 43589 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P., Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction LLC; Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freeport LNG Development, L.P., Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG... proposed by Freeport LNG Development, L.P., Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P, and FLNG Liquefaction LLC... existing liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal on Quintana Island in Brazoria County, Texas....

  8. The relative contribution of waves, tides, and nontidal residuals to extreme total water levels on U.S. West Coast sandy beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serafin, Katherine A.; Ruggiero, Peter; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand how individual processes combine to cause flooding and erosion events, we investigate the relative contribution of tides, waves, and nontidal residuals to extreme total water levels (TWLs) at the shoreline of U.S. West Coast sandy beaches. Extreme TWLs, defined as the observed annual maximum event and the simulated 100 year return level event, peak in Washington, and are on average larger in Washington and Oregon than in California. The relative contribution of wave-induced and still water levels (SWL) to the 100 year TWL event is similar to that of the annual maximum event; however, the contribution of storm surge to the SWL doubles across events. Understanding the regional variability of TWLs will lead to a better understanding of how sea level rise, changes in storminess, and possible changes in the frequency of major El Niños may impact future coastal flooding and erosion along the U.S. West Coast and elsewhere.

  9. Paleo-tsunami and land-level change evidence from the west coast of South Andaman, Andman Nicobar Island, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Javed; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Shishikura, M.

    2010-05-01

    The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004, Mw 9.3 provided an ideal opportunity to understand the pattern of paleoseismic event and paleo-tsunami deposition in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The present investigation carried out along the west coast of Andaman Island around Collinpur village (N11°39´56.9´´ and E92°44´31.3´´) revealed excellent evidences pointing towards land-level change and tsunami deposition during recent historic past. Sedimentary records studied from the geo-slicer and trench sections collected along transect across stable beach ridges and swales between the ridges (N11°41'38″, E92°35'52″) revealed distinct change in depositional environments which have been attributed to tectonic activity. In total we excavated 4 trenches and collected 9 geo-slicer sections. We present here our preliminary results and interpretations. Based on sedimentary structures, grain size and nature of contact and colour, sedimentary units from the trenches and geoslicers were classified into seven units (a, b, c, d, e, f, g and h) from bottom to top. The bottom most unit a is marked by poor laminations of fine silty-sand and peaty material suggestive of inter-tidal to marshy environment. This is overlain by 30 cm thick unit b - comprising coarse sand with gravel fragments (corals, shells, rock clasts etc.) in the swale and coarse sandy deposits along with broken shells, peaty material and rip-up clasts of underlying soil on the back-limb of the beach ridge. The sharp-erosive contact with the underlying and overlying sedimentary unit, distinct variation in grain marked assorted fragments, broken shell; peaty material suggests deposition by tsunami wave during recent geological past. Overlying unit c marked by partially developed peaty layer suggests marshy environment at or above mean sea level indicative of a probable uplift (?) which occurred during Event I accompanied with tsunami waves. Unit d with finer deposits comprised of silty-clay suggests

  10. Effectiveness of loess in rejuvenating soil and ecosystem properties in a high leaching environment, West Coast, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eger, A.; Almond, P. C.; Condron, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    In the absence of major disturbances, humid terrestrial ecosystems tend over long time scales towards deficiency of biogeochemically accessible nutrients. This phenomenon has been implicated in ecosystem retrogression. Aeolian deposition has been shown to be an important mitigating effect on nutrient depletion in soils and ecosystems of old landsurfaces (e.g. Hawaii, Amazon Basin). Significant nutrient loss has been demonstrated on surfaces as young as Holocene age in very high leaching environments (>2,000 mm/a) and ecosystem retrogression has been reported for landsurfaces formed ca. 100 ka. The aim of this study is to quantify the capacity of actively accumulating loess to replenish nutrient pools in soils and ecosystems in a super-humid, temperate environment on the west coast of the South Island, New Zealand. The study area, a sequence of Holocene dune ridges under a conifer (podocarp) rainforest, combines a loess flux gradient downwind of a braided riverbed on a 6,500 y old dune ridge and, distal from the loess source, an adjacent chronosequence of dune ridges (170-6,500 y BP age range). Pedogenesis is very rapid with Spodosols developing after 1,000 y under a thick organic root mat. Our approach is based on the principle that if loess deposition has rejuvenating effects on soils or ecosystems, then it will result in soils or ecosystems of a given age having properties consistent with those on a younger, less leached landsurface. How much younger determines the strength of the rejuvenating effect. We sampled and analysed soils, to a depth of 1 m by standard methods to determine total profile masses of important macro nutrients, conducted a vegetation survey and sampled tree foliage of fully expanded, fresh leaves of sunlit branches. Along the loess gradient, foliar nutrient P concentrations in two main canopy species increased according to a power law towards the river, corresponding to an inverse logarithmic increase in loess flux rate from 0 at 1,000 m

  11. Seasonal and regional variability in dissolved and particulate iron fluxes via glacial runoff along the West Greenland coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquette, K.; Hagedorn, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Harrold, Z.; Liu, L.; Dieser, M.; Cameron, K. A.; Christner, B. C.; Junge, K.

    2012-12-01

    Subglacial weathering, due to biogeochemical and physical weathering processes, can affect the chemical evolution of subglacial waters and release dissolved and particulate iron via glacial runoff. Iron is a growth limiting nutrient and plays a critical role in the biogeochemical cycles of coastal and marine waters. More recently, dissolved and colloidal iron derived from subglacial sources have been considered an important contributor of Fe fluxes to the ocean; however, their dependency on lithology, grain size, and microbial activity is not well understood. This study characterizes the solute chemistry, in particular iron mineralogy and dissolved iron concentrations, released from beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), from two locations along the West Greenland coast, Thule (76°N, 68°W) and Kangerlussuaq (67°N, 50°W). We hypothesize that the subglacial lithology has a control on Fe fluxes from the GrIS to coastal and marine systems. The underlying bedrock in Thule is the Precambrian Dundas and Narssarssuk sedimentary formations which include sandstone, siltstone, and shale. The bedrock in Kangerlussuaq is dominated by Archean granodioritic gneiss and amphibolite within the Nagssugtoqidian Orogen. Supra and subglacial meltwater samples were collected directly in front of the Ice Sheet over an entire melt season in 2011 (North River, Thule) and 2012 (Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua River, Kangerlussuaq). In situ parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductivity were recorded in order to interpret meltwater chemistry. Dissolved Fe(II) and Fe(III) species were fixed immediately and analyzed within 24 hours after sampling in the field laboratory using a spectrophotometer and 10 cm cell. Total dissolved iron (FeT) of different size fractions (<0.22 and <0.05 μm) of iron were determined back in the home laboratory using reaction cell ICP MS. Preliminary results demonstrate that subglacial meltwater of North River has average Fe

  12. 75 FR 26744 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...-000] Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application May 5, 2010. On April 22, 2010, Cameron LNG, LLC filed... directed to William D. Rapp, Senior Regulatory Counsel at Cameron LNG, LLC, 101 Ash Street, HQ-12,...

  13. LNG projects make progress in Oman and Yemen

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-24

    Two LNG projects in the Middle East, one in Oman and the other in Yemen, are due on stream at the turn of the century--each the largest single project ever put together in its country. Officials described their projects at a yearend 1996 conference in Paris by Institut Francais du Petrole and Petrostrategies. The Oman project develops gas reserves, does gas processing, and transports the gas 360 km to a liquefaction plant to be built on the coast. The Yemen project involves a liquefaction plant and an export terminal.

  14. Analyzing the 1604 Quanzhou Tsunami Event by using Impact Intensity Analysis and Discovering the Potential Tsunami Threat along the West Coast of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Wu, T. R.; Tsai, Y. L.; Li, P. Y.; Lee, C. J.; Ko, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    The event of 1604 Quanzhou earthquake induced a moderate tsunami with no significant damage report. However, the tsunami propagated over the Taiwan Strait and arrived in Hsinchu, Taiwan. Considering that half of the tsunami source region was in the inland area and the earthquake magnitude (Mw=7.5~8.0) was moderate, the tsunami signal was relatively large. This phenomenon also indicated that the tsunami was able to reach Taiwan with a small energy decaying rate. In this paper, we reconstructed the scenario which matched the historical records of the 1604 Quanzhou event, and further analyzed the sensitivity of location and magnitude to the wave height in Taiwan. We discovered that moving the source region offshore, the tsunami wave height increased on the north-western coast of Taiwan with dense population nowadays. In order to have thorough understanding of the potential threat tsunami can pose to the west coast of Taiwan, we performed impact intensity analysis (IIA). The IIA covered the region of Taiwan Strait and entire part of the South China Sea. The results showed that the potential tsunami threat of the northern part of the coast came mainly from the Quanzhou area, and the southern part would face the threat from the north segment of Manila Trench and the submarine landslide originating from the southwestern continental slope.

  15. LNG satellites in a distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, C.T.

    1980-04-01

    An LNG satellite system using two LNG sources has been developed by Bay State Gas Co. for Massachusetts incorporating small, portable ambient vaporizers and a large peak-shaving facility. The primary facilities at Ludlow, MA, consist of a 1 billion cu ft storage tank, equipment capable of liquefying 7.5 million cu ft/day of gas, vaporization equipment with a capacity of 55 million cu ft/day, and LNG transport trailer loading-unloading facilities. Secondary facilities are located at a similar terminal at Everett, MA. The largest satellite station has an 8 billion cu ft storage tank, equipment capable of vaporizing 35 million cu ft/day, and LNG transport trailer loading-unloading facilities. Mobile units consisting of a trailer-mounted vaporizer and an LNG trailer also are in use. Factors in safe and dependable operation of the satellite LNG system are reviewed, including local transportation restrictions.

  16. Morphologic and hydrodynamic controls on the occurrence of tidal bundles in an open-coast macrotidal environment, northern Gyeonggi Bay, west coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyungsik; Kim, Do Hyeong

    2016-06-01

    Tidal dunes with well-defined rhythmic tidal bundles are documented from the lower intertidal zone of an open-coast macrotidal environment in Gyeonggi Bay, Korea. Based on combined morphologic, sedimentologic and hydrodynamic datasets, this study aims to characterize the factors that govern the temporal and spatial variability of tidal bundles in a non-barred, unconfined macrotidal environment. The tidal dunes are flood-asymmetric and of longer wavelength (10-20 m) with small ebb caps on the upper bank, and symmetric to slightly ebb-asymmetric and of shorter wavelength (5-10 m) with larger ebb caps on the lower bank. The upper-bank dunes are characterized by more steeply dipping flood-directed planar cross-beds and thinner mud drapes than the lower-bank dunes. Each tidal bundle consists of a single mud drape that is stratified to cross-stratified, rich in silt and very fine sand. It overlies ebb-directed ripples and represents dynamic mud deposition during the ebb tidal phase. The presence of strong rotary currents (up to 0.25 m/s) and low suspended-sediment concentration of flood currents prevent deposition of mud drapes during the high-tide slack-water period. The distinct asymmetry in the water elevation at which the velocity peaks during the ebb and flood phases results in the preferential preservation of flood-directed cross-beds in the lower intertidal zone, where the ebb current - although stronger than the flood currents - is of shorter duration and hence unable to reverse the dune profile. The pronounced time-velocity asymmetry at the higher elevation combined with the distinct velocity peak asymmetry leads to a better preservation of hierarchical tidal cycles in the upper-bank dunes. The present study suggests that the persistent occurrence of single, stratified to cross-stratified mud drapes, which reflect dynamic mud deposition during the ebb phase, and the dominance of flood-directed cross-beds are diagnostic features of tidal bundles in the intertidal

  17. Computing Risk to West Coast Intertidal Rocky Habitat due to Sea Level Rise using LiDAR Topobathy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Compared to marshes, little information is available on the potential for rocky intertidal habitats to migrate upward in response to sea level rise (SLR). To address this gap, we utilized topobathy LiDAR digital elevation models (DEMs) downloaded from NOAA’s Digital Coast G...

  18. CALWATER-2 An Experiment Exploring the Roles of Atmospheric Rivers and Aerosols in Modulating U.S. West Coast Precipitation in a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.; Cayan, D. R.; Dettinger, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; Leung, L.; Rosenfeld, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Spackman, J.; Waliser, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    Two phenomena that play key roles in the variability of the water supply and the incidence of extreme precipitation events along the West Coast of the United States are: 1) Atmospheric rivers (ARs), which deliver much of the precipitation associated with major storms along the U.S. West Coast, and 2) Aerosols--from local sources as well as those transported from remote continents--which can modulate western U.S. precipitation. A better understanding of these processes is needed to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of extreme precipitation and its effects, including the provision of beneficial water supply. This presentation summarizes science gaps associated with (1) the evolution and structure of ARs including cloud and precipitation processes and air-sea interaction, and (2) aerosol interaction with ARs and the impact on precipitation, including locally-generated aerosol effects on orographic precipitation along the U.S. West Coast. A set of science investigations, called CalWater 2, have been proposed over the next several years to fill these gaps including a targeted set of aircraft and ship-based measurements and associated evaluation of data over regions offshore of California and in the eastern Pacific for an intensive observing period between December 2014 and March 2015. DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and NOAA are coordinating on deployment of airborne and ship-borne facilities for this period, including a DOE-sponsored study called ACAPEX (ARM Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Experiment) that was proposed in the context of CalWater 2. A broad 5-year vision of an interagency effort to address these science gaps will be presented, and informal input into this planning is being solicited through this presentation, including consideration of potential synergistic connections to other relevant activities. The CalWater 2 white paper was prepared by a team of meteorologists, hydrologists, climate scientists

  19. The effects of marine vessel fuel sulfur regulations on ambient PM2.5 along the west coast of the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchenruther, Robert A.

    2015-02-01

    This work uses PM2.5 data and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) modeling to explore the effects of two marine vessel fuel sulfur regulations along the west coast of the United States (US); California's (CA) Ocean-Going Vessel Clean Fuel Regulation (CA-CFR) implemented in July 2009 and the North American Emissions Control Area (NA-ECA) implemented in August 2012. Data from 31 chemically speciated PM2.5 monitors along the US west coast were analyzed and 9 sites with strong linear correlations between vanadium and nickel were selected for PMF modeling. The 9 sites were modeled independently and for 8 sites, 3 in CA and 5 in Washington State (WA), a well-defined factor linked to marine vessel residual fuel oil (RFO) combustion was identified. For these 8 sites, model results were subdivided into three time periods; a three year period prior to implementation of the CA-CFR, a three year period after the CA-CFR but prior to the NA-ECA, and a one year period after implementation of the NA-ECA. Marine vessel PM2.5 distributions were compared between the three time periods to determine if statistically significant reductions had occurred. Comparing marine vessel PM2.5 for the three years before and after CA-CFR implementation, all CA sites indicated statistically significant reductions, with reductions in annualized average marine vessel PM2.5 from 30 to 52% (0.09-0.78 μg/m3). Comparing marine vessel PM2.5 for the three years before NA-ECA implementation and the 1 year after, 2 of 5 WA sites indicated statistically significant reductions in annualized average impacts (45-50%, 0.12-0.23 μg/m3) and 1 of 3 sites in CA (46%, 0.04 μg/m3). These results demonstrate that marine vessel fuel sulfur regulations on the west coast of the US have been effective at reducing PM2.5 impacts from marine vessel RFO combustion at some locations, with the implementation of the CA-CFR showing more success than the NA-ECA. The greater observed success of the CA-CFR is, to some extent

  20. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Muna, Alice Baca; LaFleur, Angela Christine

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  1. Depositional record of trace metals and degree of contamination in core sediments from the Mandovi estuarine mangrove ecosystem, west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Veerasingam, S; Vethamony, P; Mani Murali, R; Fernandes, B

    2015-02-15

    The concentrations of seven trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co, Pb and Zn) in three sediment cores were analysed to assess the depositional trends of metals and their contamination level in the Mandovi estuary, west coast of India. All sediment cores showed enrichment of trace metals in the upper part of core sediments and decrease in concentration with depth, suggesting excess of anthropogenic loading (including mining activities) occurred during the recent past. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images distinguished the shape, size and structure of particles derived from lithogenic and anthropogenic sources in core sediments. The geo-accumulation index (I(geo)) values indicate that Mandovi estuary is 'moderately polluted' with Pb, whereas 'unpolluted to moderately polluted' with Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co and Zn. The comparative analysis of trace metals revealed that Fe and Mn were highly enriched in the Mandovi estuary compared to all other Indian estuaries.

  2. On some sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from off the south and west coasts of South Africa collected by the South African Environmental and Observation Network (SAEON).

    PubMed

    Thandar, Ahmed S; Rambaran, Ryan

    2015-08-07

    Twenty four specimens of holothuroids recently received from the South African Environmental and Observation Network (SAEON), collected from off the south and west coasts of South Africa, are herein recorded and/or described. The specimens comprise eight nominal and one indeterminate species and represent both shallow-water and deep-sea forms, distributed from Plettenberg Bay to just north of Lambert's Bay in the Western Cape Province. There are no new species but two new records for the South African region and extensions of horizontal and bathymetric distributions of the other species. Additions to the South African fauna are Zygothuria lactea (Théel, 1886) and Synallactes cf. challengeri (Théel, 1886). The paper also contains the first definite record of Thyone venusta Selenka, 1868, originally described from the Red Sea. Distribution ranges of the following species have been altered Synallactes viridilimus Cherbonnier, 1952; S. mollis Cherbonnier, 1952 and Psuedostichopus langeae Thandar, 2009.

  3. Linkage between speciation of Cd in mangrove sediment and its bioaccumulation in total soft tissue of oyster from the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Ramteke, Darwin; Gadi, Subhadra Devi; Bardhan, Pratirupa

    2016-05-15

    This study established a mechanistic linkage between Cd speciation and bioavailability in mangrove system from the west coast of India. High bioaccumulation of Cd was found in the oyster (Crassostrea sp.) even at low Cd loading in the bottom sediment. Bioaccumulation of Cd in the oyster gradually increased with the increasing concentrations of water soluble, exchangeable and carbonate/bicarbonate forms of Cd in the sediments. Fe/Mn oxyhydroxide phase was found to control Cd bioavailability in the sediment system. Cd-associated with sedimentary organic matter was bioavailable and organic ligands in the sediments were poor chelating agents for Cd. This study suggests that bioaccumulation of Cd in oyster (Crassostrea sp.) depends not on the total Cd concentration but on the speciation of Cd in the system.

  4. Artificial Recharge Of Urban Wastewater, The Key Component In The Development Of An Industrial Town On The Arid West Coast Of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A.; du Toit, I.

    1996-01-01

    Atlantis, an industrial town on the somewhat bleak and undeveloped west coast of South Africa, is entirely dependent on groundwater resources for its water supply. With a population of more than 67,000 people and about 140 factories, Atlantis requires a reliable supply of potable water of about 1.5×106m3/a. The demand is met through artificial recharge of a local, shallow, sandy aquifer that supplies the town's water. A well designed stormwater drainage system and scientifically based water-quality management strategy allow for the recharge of all urban stormwater runoff and treated domestic sewage effluent. Extensive research and sound planning have meant that no water is wasted, for even the water that is unacceptable for recharge in the main aquifer is recharged in strategic localities to counter saline intrusion. The Atlantis Water Resource Management Scheme serves as a good example of what can be achieved when hydrogeologists, engineers, and urban managers integrate their skills.

  5. The December 26, 2004, off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, M W=9.0, earthquake and the critical-point-like model of earthquake preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Wu, Zhong-Liang

    2005-05-01

    Long-term seismic activity prior to the December 26, 2004, off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, M W=9.0 earthquake was investigated using the Harvard CMT catalogue. It is observed that before this great earthquake, there exists an accelerating moment release (AMR) process with the temporal scale of a quarter century and the spatial scale of 1 500 km. Within this spatial range, the M W=9.0 event falls into the piece-wise power-law-like frequency-magnitude distribution. Therefore, in the perspective of the critical-point-like model of earthquake preparation, the failure to forecast/predict the approaching and/or the size of this earthquake is not due to the physically intrinsic unpredictability of earthquakes.

  6. Substantial changes in hemocyte parameters of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill off the west coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyun-Ki; Donaghy, Ludovic; Kang, Chang-Keun; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Lee, Hee-Jung; Park, Heung-Sik; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2016-07-15

    Two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill occurred off the west coast of Korea, we determined sub-lethal effects of the spilled oil on hemocyte parameters of Ruditapes philippinarum in the damaged areas. Clams in the spilled sites displayed unusually high proportion of granulocytes, which may result in higher phagocytosis capacity and reactive oxygen species production. Hemocytes in clams from the polluted sites also displayed less DNA damage and mortality than in the control site, possibly due to a faster phagocytosis of the impaired cells. Glycogen, the major energetic reserve, was depleted in clams from the spilled sites, potentially due to energetic consumption for maintenance of a large pool of granulocytes, detoxification processes and oxidative stress. Modified hemocyte parameters in clams in the spilled area, may reflect sub-lethal physiological stresses caused by the residual oils in the sediment, in conjunction with environmental modifications such as food availability and pathogens pattern.

  7. Determination of in situ biomass and energetics in seagrass beds on the west coast of Florida. Topical report, May 1982-January 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Gulf Coastal region of Florida supports extensive grass beds that almost continuously cover the shallow (1-5m) depths from Apalachicola Bay to Anclote Bay and in Tampa Bay. Attached and drift benthic seaweeds occur as well and may have higher energetic yields than the seagrasses. The shallow and continuous beds offer a possible source for plant biomass use in methane production, if sufficient material is available throughout the year and the energetics are high enough. Triweekly samplings at three sites around Tampa Bay and bimonthly samplings at four sites along the west coast of Florida showed highest biomass occurring during the spring through fall months. The available biomass of combined attached and drift seagrasses and seaweeds was lower than that predicted when compared with terrestrial crops. Naturally occurring seagrass and seaweed beds do not have sufficient biomass to justify harvesting for biogass production, although energetics levels are high.

  8. CalWater Field Studies Designed to Quantify the Roles of Atmospheric Rivers and Aerosols in Modulating U.S. West Coast Precipitation in a Changing Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.; Cayan, D.; Spackman, J. R.; DeMott, P.; Dettinger, M.; Fairall, C.; Leung, R.; Rosenfeld, D.; Rutledge, S.; Waliser, D.; White, A. B.; Cordeira, J.; Martin, A.; Helly, J.; Intrieri, J.

    2016-07-01

    The variability of precipitation and water supply along the U.S. West Coast creates major challenges to the region’s economy and environment, as evidenced by the recent California drought. This variability is strongly influenced by atmospheric rivers (AR), which deliver much of the precipitation along the U.S. West Coast and can cause flooding, and by aerosols (from local sources and transported from remote continents and oceans) that modulate clouds and precipitation. A better understanding of these processes is needed to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of droughts and floods, both now and under changing climate conditions.To address these gaps a group of meteorologists, hydrologists, climate scientists, atmospheric chemists, and oceanographers have created an interdisciplinary research effort, with support from multiple agencies. From 2009-2011 a series of field campaigns (CalWater 1) collected atmospheric chemistry, cloud microphysics and meteorological measurements in California and associated modeling and diagnostic studies were carried out. Based on remaining gaps, a vision was developed to extend these studies offshore over the Eastern North Pacific and to enhance land based measurements from 2014-2018 (CalWater 2). The data set and selected results from CalWater 1 are summarized here. The goals of CalWater-2, and measurements to date, are then described. CalWater is producing new findings and exploring new technologies to evaluate and improve global climate models and their regional performance and to develop tools supporting water and hydropower management. These advances also have potential to enhance hazard mitigation by improving near-term weather prediction and subseasonal and seasonal outlooks.

  9. Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system: an Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Given, Douglas D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Heaton, Thomas; Hauksson, Egill; Allen, Richard; Hellweg, Peggy; Vidale, John; Bodin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing such an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the West Coast of the United States. This document describes the technical implementation of that system, which leverages existing stations and infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks to achieve this new capability. While significant progress has been made in developing the ShakeAlert early warning system, improved robustness of each component of the system and additional testing and certification are needed for the system to be reliable enough to issue public alerts. Major components of the system include dense networks of ground motion sensors, telecommunications from those sensors to central processing systems, algorithms for event detection and alert creation, and distribution systems to alert users. Capital investment costs for a West Coast EEW system are projected to be $38.3M, with additional annual maintenance and operations totaling $16.1M—in addition to current ANSS expenditures for earthquake monitoring. An EEW system is complementary to, but does not replace, other strategies to mitigate earthquake losses. The system has limitations: false and missed alerts are possible, and the area very near to an earthquake epicenter may receive little or no warning. However, such an EEW system would save lives, reduce injuries and damage, and improve community resilience by reducing longer-term economic losses for both public and private entities.

  10. Chemical composition of air masses transported from Asia to the U.S. West Coast during ITCT 2K2: Fossil fuel combustion versus biomass-burning signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouw, J. A.; Cooper, O. R.; Warneke, C.; Hudson, P. K.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Holloway, J. S.; Hübler, G.; Nicks, D. K., Jr.; Nowak, J. B.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Atlas, E. L.; Donnelly, S. G.; Schauffler, S. M.; Stroud, V.; Johnson, K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Streets, D. G.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation experiment in 2002 (ITCT 2K2), a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D research aircraft was used to study the long-range transport of Asian air masses toward the west coast of North America. During research flights on 5 and 17 May, strong enhancements of carbon monoxide (CO) and other species were observed in air masses that had been transported from Asia. The hydrocarbon composition of the air masses indicated that the highest CO levels were related to fossil fuel use. During the flights on 5 and 17 May and other days, the levels of several biomass-burning indicators increased with altitude. This was true for acetonitrile (CH3CN), methyl chloride (CH3Cl), the ratio of acetylene (C2H2) to propane (C3H8), and, on May 5, the percentage of particles measured by the particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry (PALMS) instrument that were attributed to biomass burning based on their carbon and potassium content. An ensemble of back-trajectories, calculated from the U.S. west coast over a range of latitudes and altitudes for the entire ITCT 2K2 period, showed that air masses from Southeast Asia and China were generally observed at higher altitudes than air from Japan and Korea. Emission inventories estimate the contribution of biomass burning to the total emissions to be low for Japan and Korea, higher for China, and the highest for Southeast Asia. Combined with the origin of the air masses versus altitude, this qualitatively explains the increase with altitude, averaged over the whole ITCT 2K2 period, of the different biomass-burning indicators.

  11. Interaction of the Marine Atmosphere, Coastal Topography and Sea Surface Temperature on Marine Fog Distribution Along the West Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, C. E.; Mejia, J.; Koracin, D. R.; McEvoy, D.

    2014-12-01

    ICOADS ship observations for 1950-2007 were used to examine the distribution of marine fog along the West Coast of North America between 20°N and 50°N. Quarterly (June-August, JJA; Sept-Nov, SON; Dec-Feb, DJF; March-May, MAM) long-term means were obtained and gridded using a 1°x 1° degree-arc mesh. The ship observation includes a subjective assessment of the weather that is codified into 100 categories. The most important and relevant are deep fog at the time of observation with the visibility less than or equal to 1 km. The most frequent deep fog is during JJA, with the highest values in the grid points closest to shore. There is a general fog frequency maximum along the coast between 34°N - 44°N that decreases offshore. More frequent occurrences tend to occur at major capes. The maximum JJA occurrences are at Cape Blanco and Pt Arena. In contrast, deep fog is infrequent along Baja California. In SON, deep fog occurrences are lowest with a narrower coastal maximum. In DJF, there is a broad, uneven fog maximum along the coast between 35°N-39°N. The frequency of deep fog occurrence is intermediate in MAM, with a weak, broad area north of 35°N. The distribution of the occurrence of deep fog in JJA is determined by a three way interaction between the atmosphere, the land and the ocean. The southbound marine layer is channeled by the coastal mountains and interacts with land topography via hydraulic dynamics. The marine layer flow accelerates on the downwind side of major capes, forces greater wind driven upwelling and colder sea surface temperatures along the coast of Southern Oregon and Northern California. However, the fast southbound winds are largely free of marine fog. Marine fog tends to occur along the inner coast when the southbound winds decay or reverse direction for 1-3 days, with the densest fog downwind of a major cape where the sea surface temperatures are lowest.

  12. Variations in chemical composition and particle size of dune sediments along the west coast of Jutland, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saye, Samantha E.; Pye, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Geochemical and textural variations in frontal dune sediments along the western coast of Jutland, Denmark, have been investigated in order to identify possible sediment 'provinces' and transport pathways. An understanding of sediment sources and sinks is important for both for an understanding of the nature of sedimentary environments and for applied coastal engineering and management purposes. Four coastal sectors were identified on the basis of geochemical composition. One sector is compositionally different from the other three units, having higher concentrations of the trace elements Ni, Cr, V, Sc, Zn, Pb, Ba, Zr and many rare earth elements. Dune sediments on this section of coast also have higher Al 2O 3 to K 2O ratios and lower Al 2O 3 to Fe 2O 3 ratios, reflecting a lower content of feldspar and higher content of heavy minerals. It is inferred that different, or additional, sediment source(s) have supplied sediment to this section of coast. Beach nourishment has contributed to the observed compositional differences, but previous data obtained from the Lodbjerg area indicate that aeolian sands on this section of coast naturally have a relatively high Si, Fe and Ti content, reflecting high quartz / feldspar ratio and relatively high content of heavy minerals, compared with those on other sections of the coast. Frontal dunes along the most northern section show high abundances of K 2O, Rb and Ba, reflecting a relatively high K-feldspar content derived from local sources. Alongshore trends were also identified in the mean particle size and sorting of the frontal dunes, although there is no direct correspondence with the observed geochemical differences. Three coastal units can be identified on the basis of particle size. Frontal dune sediments in the middle section are relatively coarser and less well-sorted than those to the north and south, probably reflecting both the addition of beach nourishment material and greater exposure to strong westerly winds, which

  13. Strategic evaluation central to LNG project formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, D.; DiNapoli, R.N.; Yost, C.C.

    1995-07-03

    An efficient-scale, grassroots LNG facility of about 6 million metric tons/year capacity requires a prestart-up outlay of $5 billion or more for the supply facilities--production, feedgas pipeline, liquefaction, and shipping. The demand side of the LNG chain requires a similar outlay, counting the import-regasification terminal and a combination of 5 gigawatts or more of electric power generation or the equivalent in city gas and industrial gas-using facilities. There exist no well-developed commodity markets for free-on-board (fob) or delivered LNG. A new LNG supply project is dedicated to its buyers. Indeed, the buyers` revenue commitment is the project`s only bankable asset. For the buyer to make this commitment, the supply venture`s capability and commitment must be credible: to complete the project and to deliver the LNG reliably over the 20+ years required to recover capital committed on both sides. This requirement has technical, economic, and business dimensions. In this article the authors describe a LNG project evaluation system and show its application to typical tasks: project cost of service and participant shares; LNG project competition; alternative project structures; and market competition for LNG-supplied electric power generation.

  14. 77 FR 73627 - 2012 LNG Export Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Development Company, LLC [FE Docket No. 12-77-LNG] (d/b/a Oregon LNG). Cheniere Marketing, LLC...... [FE... National Energy Modeling System does not account for the impact of energy price changes on the global... natural gas used in the EIA analysis, as well as a range of additional global scenarios for natural...

  15. Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Norton, P.; Clark, N.

    2001-01-25

    Waste Management, Inc., began operating a fleet of heavy-duty LNG refuse trucks at its Washington, Pennsylvania, facility. The objective of the project was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  16. LNG links remote supplies and markets

    SciTech Connect

    Avidan, A.A.; Gardner, R.E.; Nelson, D.; Borrelli, E.N.; Rethore, T.J.

    1997-06-02

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has established a niche for itself by matching remote gas supplies to markets that both lacked indigenous gas reserves and felt threatened in the aftermath of the energy crises of the 1970s and 1980s. It has provided a cost-effective energy source for these markets, while also offering an environmentally friendly fuel long before that was fashionable. The introduction of natural-gas use via LNG in the early years (mostly into France and Japan) has also allowed LNG to play a major role in developing gas infrastructure. Today, natural gas, often supplied as LNG, is particularly well-suited for use in the combined cycle technology used in independent power generation projects (IPPs). Today, LNG players cannot simply focus on monetizing gas resources. Instead, they must adapt their projects to meet the needs of changing markets. The impact of these changes on the LNG industry has been felt throughout the value chain from finding and producing gas, gas treatment, liquefaction, transport as a liquid, receiving terminals and regasification, and finally, to consumption by power producers, industrial users, and households. These factors have influenced the evolution of the LNG industry and have implications for the future of LNG, particularly in the context of worldwide natural gas.

  17. Wisconsin natural gas makes successful LNG turnaround

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.H.

    1981-11-01

    Wisconsin Natural Gas Co. successfully purged a 250-MMcf capacity LNG tank out of service, entered the tank, made necessary inspections, and performed planned modifications. The experience gained during this operation made it evident that an LNG tank need not be inspected at regular intervals for there was no deterioration or corrosion associated with the service.

  18. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  19. 78 FR 41047 - UGI LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission UGI LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application On June 17, 2013, UGI LNG, Inc. (UGI LNG) filed a request pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act, and Part 157 of the Rules and Regulations of the Commission. UGI LNG seeks authorization to construct additional refrigeration capacity...

  20. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  1. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  2. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  3. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  5. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  6. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  7. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  8. Glacial isostatic adjustment in response to changing Late Holocene behaviour of ice streams on the Siple Coast, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nield, Grace A.; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; King, Matt A.; Clarke, Peter J.

    2016-04-01

    The Siple Coast region of Antarctica contains a number of fast-flowing ice streams, which control the dynamics and mass balance of the region. These ice streams are known to undergo stagnation and reactivation cycles, which lead to ice thickness changes that may be sufficient to excite a viscous solid Earth response (glacial isostatic adjustment; GIA). This study aims to quantify Siple Coast ice thickness changes during the last 2000 yr in order to determine the degree to which they might contribute to GIA and associated present-day bedrock uplift rates. This is important because accurate modelling of GIA is necessary to determine the rate of present-day ice-mass change from satellite gravimetry. Recently-published reconstructions of ice-stream variability were used to create a suite of kinematic models for the stagnation-related thickening of Kamb Ice Stream since ˜1850 AD, and a GIA model was used to predict present-day deformation rates in response to this thickening. A number of longer-term loading scenarios, which include the stagnation and reactivation of ice streams across the Siple Coast over the past 2000 yr, were also constructed, and used to investigate the longer term GIA signal in the region. Uplift rates for each of the ice loading histories, based on a range of earth models, were compared with regional GPS-observed uplift rates and an empirical GIA estimate. We estimate Kamb Ice Stream to have thickened by 70-130 m since stagnation ˜165 years ago. Modelled present-day vertical motion in response to this load increase peaks at -17 mm yr-1 (i.e. 17 mm yr-1 subsidence) for the weakest earth models tested here. Comparison of the solid Earth response to ice load changes throughout the last glacial cycle, including ice stream stagnation and reactivation across the Siple Coast during the last 2000 yr, with an empirical GIA estimate suggests that the upper mantle viscosity of the region is greater than 1 × 1020 Pa s. When upper mantle viscosity values of

  9. A test of the hypothesis on the Guyana and the West-African Shield assembly: New Paleoproterozoic paleomagnetic results from French Guyana and Ivory-Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastien, N.; Sebastien, N.; yan, C.; Gilbert, F.; Andre, P.; Andre, P.; Max, V.; yao, D.

    2001-12-01

    In the last 3 decades the hypotheis of a Paleoproterozoic supercontinent has been debated. It is generally accepted that the supercontinent assembly was initiated with the groupment of Guyana and West-African shields. However, the existing paleomagnetic database is neither quantitatively nor qualitatively sufficient to precise when this assembly began. In order to better understand the paleogeographic evolution of the Guyana and West African shields, a total of 59 sites of granitoids and metavolcanic rocks were sampled (33 from French Guyana and 26 from Ivory-Coast). Rock magnetic, petrographic and paleomagnetic measurements were carried out on this collection Both automorphous magnetite and hematite are identified as the main magnetic remanent carriers and characteristic magnetic components were isolated. These paleomagnetic directions are distinct from both the present Earth field and the local Early Jurassic ones. Positive reversal tests are also observed for the two age-groups from French Guyana. Based on above arguments, the magnetic remanence can be consiered as the primary Paleoproterozoic magnetization. Four mean poles are therefore calculated, named A, B for French Guyana and C1, C2 for Ivory-Coast: A: lambdaA = -62oN, phiA = 61oE, k=18, A95 =10o, N =15; B: lambdaB = -5oN, phiB = 50oE, k= 26, A95 = 18o, N = 5 ; C1: lambdaC1 = -82oN, phiC1 = 292oN, k = 28, A95 = 13o, N = 6 ; C2: lambdaC2 = -25oN, phiC2 = 83oE, k= 11, A95 = 16o, N = 9. 40Ar/39Ar data suggest a magnetization age ranging from 2.04 to 1.97 Ga and 2.10 to 2.00 Ga for the poles from for the French Guyana and Ivory-Coast, respectively. Two Paleoproterozoic APWPs are proposed for these two shields. The comparison of these two paths confirms that the two cratons were intergrated to a same block at about 2.00 Ga and, however, separated before 2.02 Ga. This hypothesis is supported by field geological and tectonic observations. Nevertheless, more paleomagnetic and geochronological constaints are needed

  10. Stratigraphic And Lithofacies Study Of Distal Rain-Triggered Lahars: The Case Of West Coast Of Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulas, M.; Chunga, K.; Peña Carpio, E.; Falquez Torres, D. A.; Alcivar, R., Sr.; Lopez Coronel, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The central zone of the coast of Ecuador at the north of Manabí Province, on the area comprised between Salango and Jama communities, is characterized by the presence of whitish to grey, centimeters to meters thick, consolidated to loose distal ash deposits. Recent archeological studies on Valdivia (3500 BC) and Manteña (800-1500 AC - Harris et al. 2004) civilizations remains link this deposits with the intense eruptive phases that afflicted Ecuador 700-900 years ago (Usselman, 2006). Stratigraphic evidences and bibliographic datations of paleosols (Estrada, 1962; Mothes and Hall, 2008), allowed to estimate that these deposits are linked with the 800 BP eruption of Quilotoa and the following eruptions of Cotopaxi. According to the Smith and Lowe classification (1991), the deposits outcropping on the coast (located at a distance greater than 160 km from the volcanic vents), varied from whitish to grey, loose to weakly consolidated, massive to weakly stratified, centimeters to meters thick, coarse to fine ash matrix layers (diluite streamflow facies) to massive, large angular to sub-rounded siltitic blocks-rich and coarse to medium ash matrix deposits (debris flow facies). These types of lithofacies are associated to a rain-triggered lahar (De Belizal et al., 2013). The presence in some stratigraphic sections of sharp contacts, laminated layers of very fine ash, and also cm-thick sand and silt layers between the ash beds of the same deposits permit to understand that the different pulses were generated in short periods and after a long period. Structures like water pipes imply that the lahar went into the sea (Schneider, 2004), and allow the reconstruction of the paleotopographic condition during the emplacement of these deposits. This study focuses on the characterization of these types of deposits, permit to understand the kind of risk that may affect the towns located on the coast of Ecuador after VEI 4 to 6 eruptions on short time and within years.

  11. Tracing the sources of water using stable isotopes: first results along the Mangalore-Udupi region, south-west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Lambs, L; Gurumurthy, G P; Balakrishna, K

    2011-10-15

    The Mangalore and Udupi region on the south-west coast of India is characterized by small west-flowing rivers (150-250 km in length) originating in the Western Ghats (up to 1940 meters above sea level (m asl)) and joining the Arabian Sea. The area experiences a humid tropical climate with frequent, high-intensity rainfall (4000 mm annual average). Nevertheless, there is a shortage of water during the peak dry season immediately before the onset of monsoon because of a rapid fall in the groundwater level. From the humid high-altitude forests to the intense agriculture in the coastal area, there is an urgent need to understand the movement of water between evapotranspiration, rainfall, river systems and the groundwater compartments in order to achieve better water resource management. Demographic pressure on the area with over half a million inhabitants and industrial activity strongly influence this fragile ecosystem. The coastal area is characterized by shallow open wells, which are particularly sensitive to pollution and eutrophication. Stable water isotopes ((18)O and deuterium) were used for the first time in this region to determine the isotopic characteristics of the different waters. There is a clear seasonal difference in the isotopic ratios and d-excess values between the summer and winter monsoon periods, with a predominance of lighter isotopes in the latter period. No significant variations in isotopic ratios were observed in relation to altitude because of the possible role of mist formation at high altitude. Greater d-excess values were observed in the west-flowing streams than in rivers flowing east on account of the moist westerly oceanic winds and water vapour recycling.

  12. 76 FR 2677 - Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading Project January 7, 2011. On February 2, 2011, the Office of Energy Projects staff... Southern LNG Company, LLC's (Southern) LNG Truck Loading Project. We scheduled this meeting to...

  13. Twentieth-century atmospheric river activity along the west coasts of Europe and North America: algorithm formulation, reanalysis uncertainty and links to atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brands, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; San-Martín, D.

    2016-04-01

    A new atmospheric-river detection and tracking scheme based on the magnitude and direction of integrated water vapour transport is presented and applied separately over 13 regions located along the west coasts of Europe (including North Africa) and North America. Four distinct reanalyses are considered, two of which cover the entire twentieth-century: NOAA-CIRES Twentieth Century Reanalysis v2 (NOAA-20C) and ECMWF ERA-20C. Calculations are done separately for the OND and JFM-season and, for comparison with previous studies, for the ONDJFM-season as a whole. Comparing the AR-counts from NOAA-20C and ERA-20C with a running 31-year window looping through 1900-2010 reveals differences in the climatological mean and inter-annual variability which, at the start of the twentieth-century, are much more pronounced in western North America than in Europe. Correlating European AR-counts with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) reveals a pattern reminiscent of the well-know precipitation dipole which is stable throughout the entire century. A similar analysis linking western North American AR-counts to the North Pacific index (NPI) is hampered by the aforementioned poor reanalysis agreement at the start of the century. During the second half of the twentieth-century, the strength of the NPI-link considerably varies with time in British Columbia and the Gulf of Alaska. Considering the period 1950-2010, AR-counts are then associated with other relevant large-scale circulation indices such as the East Atlantic, Scandinavian, Pacific-North American and West Pacific patterns (EA, SCAND, PNA and WP). Along the Atlantic coastline of the Iberian Peninsula and France, the EA-link is stronger than the NAO-link if the OND season is considered and the SCAND-link found in northern Europe is significant during both seasons. Along the west coast of North America, teleconnections are generally stronger during JFM in which case the NPI-link is significant in any of the five considered

  14. Hybridising Medicine: Illness, Healing and the Dynamics of Reciprocal Exchange on the Upper Guinea Coast (West Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Havik, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    The present article seeks to fill a number of lacunae with regard to the study of the circulation and assimilation of different bodies of medical knowledge in an important cultural contact zone, that is the Upper Guinea Coast. Building upon ongoing research on trade and cultural brokerage in the area, it focuses upon shifting attitudes and practices with regard to health and healing as a result of cultural interaction and hybridisation against the background of growing intra-African and Afro-Atlantic interaction from the fifteenth to the late seventeenth century. Largely based upon travel accounts, missionary reports and documents produced by the Portuguese Inquisition, it shows how forms of medical knowledge shifted and circulated between littoral areas and their hinterland, as well as between the coast, the Atlantic and beyond. It shows that the changing patterns of trade, migration and settlement associated with Mandé influence and Afro-Atlantic exchange had a decisive impact on changing notions of illness and therapeutic trajectories. Over the centuries, cross-cultural, reciprocal borrowing contributed to the development of healing kits employed by Africans and non-African outsiders alike, which were used and brokered by local communities in different locations in the region. PMID:26971596

  15. Hybridising Medicine: Illness, Healing and the Dynamics of Reciprocal Exchange on the Upper Guinea Coast (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Havik, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    The present article seeks to fill a number of lacunae with regard to the study of the circulation and assimilation of different bodies of medical knowledge in an important cultural contact zone, that is the Upper Guinea Coast. Building upon ongoing research on trade and cultural brokerage in the area, it focuses upon shifting attitudes and practices with regard to health and healing as a result of cultural interaction and hybridisation against the background of growing intra-African and Afro-Atlantic interaction from the fifteenth to the late seventeenth century. Largely based upon travel accounts, missionary reports and documents produced by the Portuguese Inquisition, it shows how forms of medical knowledge shifted and circulated between littoral areas and their hinterland, as well as between the coast, the Atlantic and beyond. It shows that the changing patterns of trade, migration and settlement associated with Mandé influence and Afro-Atlantic exchange had a decisive impact on changing notions of illness and therapeutic trajectories. Over the centuries, cross-cultural, reciprocal borrowing contributed to the development of healing kits employed by Africans and non-African outsiders alike, which were used and brokered by local communities in different locations in the region.

  16. Explosive east coast cyclogenesis over the west-central North Atlantic Ocean - A composite study derived from ECMWF operational analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the observational aspects of explosive east-coast cyclogenesis using composites constructed from the daily global analyses generated and archived by ECMWF. An explosively deepening storm or bomb is defined as an extratropical cyclone whose mean sea-level pressure falls at least 1 mb/h for 24 h. The ECMWF data sets are used to examine the three-dimensional kinematic and thermodynamic structure of bombs over the entire depth of the troposphere. The evolution and structure of the composite bomb is diagnosed using a moving coordinate system consisting of a box with dimensions of 35 x 35 deg of latitude-longitude. The results reveal that explosive cyclogenesis is a baroclinic phenomenon in which the rapid development in the presence of strong upper tropospheric forcing is most likely enhanced by a highly destabilized lower troposphere.

  17. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  18. Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals

    SciTech Connect

    Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

    1999-07-01

    LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

  19. LNG -- A paradox of propulsion potential

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been demonstrating its viability as a clean-burning alternative fuel for buses and medium- and heavy-duty trucks for the past 30 years. The first known LNG vehicle project began in San Diego in 1965, When San Diego Gas and Electric converted 22 utility trucks and three passenger vehicles to dedicated LNG. A surge in LNG vehicle project activity over the past five years has led to a fairly robust variety of vehicles testing the fuel, from Class 8 tractors, refuse haulers and transit buses to railroad locomotives and ferry boats. Recent technology improvements in engine design, cryogenic tanks, fuel nozzles and other related equipment have made LNG more practical to use than in the 1960s. LNG delivers more than twice the driving range from the same-sized fuel tank as a vehicle powered by compressed natural gas (CNG). Although technical and economic hurdles must be overcome before this fuel can achieve widespread use, various ongoing demonstration projects are showing LNG`s practicality, while serving the vital role of pinpointing those areas of performance that are the prime candidates for improvement.

  20. Study of gelled LNG. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnicki, M I; Cabeal, J A; Hoffman, L C; Newton, R A; Schaplowsky, R K; Vander Wall, E M

    1980-01-01

    Research involved the characterization of gelled LNG (GELNG) with respect to process, flow, and use properties and an examination of the degree of safety enhancement attainable by gelation. The investigation included (1) an experimental examination of gel properties and gel safety characteristics as well as (2) an analytical study involving the economics and preliminary design of an industrial scale gelation system. The safety-related criterion for successful application of gelled LNG is the substantial reduction of the Maximum Distance to the Lower Flammability Limit, MDLFL. This will be achieved by first, gel-inhibition of the hydrodynamic pooling and spreading of the spill, and second, the suppressed thermal transport properties of the GELNG relative to those of LNG. The industrial scale gelation study evaluated a design capable of producing 11,000 gallons (LNG tank truck) of gel in two hours. The increased cost of gelation using this equipment was estimated at $0.23/10/sup 6/ Btu for plants with liquefaction facilities. The technical results of this study are supportive of the conclusion that gelation of LNG will reduce, relative to ungelled LNG, the hazard associated with a given size spill. Parameters of interest to the LNG facility operator (such as pumpability) are not significantly affected by gelation, and the impact on LNG delivery cost appears to be small, about 5%. Thus, the initial assumption that gelation would provide a practical means to enhance safety is supported by the results of this study. Larger scale, comparative spill tests of LNG and GELNG are now required to confirm the safety aspects of use of the gelled material.

  1. Dispersion and retrievability of water quality indicators during tidal cycles in coastal Salaya, Gulf of Kachchh (West coast of India).

    PubMed

    Mohandass, Chellandi; Kumar, S Jaya; Ramaiah, N; Vethamony, P

    2010-10-01

    Bacterial indicators in relation to tidal variations were studied at five locations for over 2 days covering three tidal cycles in the southwestern region of Gulf of Kachchh, India. Tidal flow here is predominantly in the east west direction and can transport particles up to 32 km. Tidal amplitude appears to play a prominent role in abundance, distribution, and dispersal of coliform bacteria examined during this study. Shallow depths, clayey sediments, strong currents, and higher tidal amplitudes appear to rise by an order of magnitude in total bacterial abundance up to 2.4 x 10(4) ml(-1) due to their resuspension from the churned up sediments. Dispersal of allochthonous microflora far into coastal marine regions appears to be governed by the strong tidal amplitude in this region.

  2. Reactivation of Kamb Ice Stream tributaries triggers century-scale reorganization of Siple Coast ice flow in West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougamont, M.; Christoffersen, P.; Price, S. F.; Fricker, H. A.; Tulaczyk, S.; Carter, S. P.

    2015-10-01

    Ongoing, centennial-scale flow variability within the Ross ice streams of West Antarctica suggests that the present-day positive mass balance in this region may reverse in the future. Here we use a three-dimensional ice sheet model to simulate ice flow in this region over 250 years. The flow responds to changing basal properties, as a subglacial till layer interacts with water transported in an active subglacial hydrological system. We show that a persistent weak bed beneath the tributaries of the dormant Kamb Ice Stream is a source of internal ice flow instability, which reorganizes all ice streams in this region, leading to a reduced (positive) mass balance within decades and a net loss of ice within two centuries. This hitherto unaccounted for flow variability could raise sea level by 5 mm this century. Better constraints on future sea level change from this region will require improved estimates of geothermal heat flux and subglacial water transport.

  3. Reactivation of Kamb Ice Stream tributaries triggers century-scale reorganization of Siple Coast ice flow in West Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Bougamont, M.; Christoffersen, P.; Price, S. F.; Fricker, H. A.; Tulaczyk, S.; Carter, S. P.

    2015-10-21

    Ongoing, centennial-scale flow variability within the Ross ice streams of West Antarctica suggests that the present-day positive mass balance in this region may reverse in the future. Here we use a three-dimensional ice sheet model to simulate ice flow in this region over 250 years. The flow responds to changing basal properties, as a subglacial till layer interacts with water transported in an active subglacial hydrological system. We show that a persistent weak bed beneath the tributaries of the dormant Kamb Ice Stream is a source of internal ice flow instability, which reorganizes all ice streams in this region, leading to a reduced (positive) mass balance within decades and a net loss of ice within two centuries. This hitherto unaccounted for flow variability could raise sea level by 5 mm this century. Furthermore, better constraints on future sea level change from this region will require improved estimates of geothermal heat flux and subglacial water transport.

  4. GFS water vapor forecast error evaluated over the 2009-2010 West Coast cool season using the MET/MODE object analyses package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, W. L.; Sukovich, E.; Tollerud, E. I.; Jensen, T.; Yuan, H.; Wick, G. A.; Bullock, R.; Hmt-Dtc Collaboration Project

    2010-12-01

    Research over the last decade and a half confirms that the vast majority of West Coast cool-season extreme precipitation events are due to the landfall of intense wind-driven streams of concentrated water vapor associated with extratropical cyclones called atmospheric rivers (ARs). Accurate prediction of the effects of ARs as they come ashore depends on accurate numeric modeling of integrated water vapor (IWV) over the Northeast Pacific (NEP). Quantifying the uncertainty in this forecast field is an important step toward understanding the causes of uncertainty in West Coast extreme event forecasts. To this end GFS (Global Forecast System) model output obtained in real time of the fields needed to calculate IWV were archived and analyzed. GFS was used because it is well known, it covers our area of interest, and the output is readily available to the community. To estimate forecast uncertainties we used an object-based method that allows quantitative comparisons of object location, size, shape, and intensity. In particular, we used MODE, the Method for Object-based Diagnostic Evaluation. MODE is an object-based verification tool from the MET (Model Evaluation Tools) package developed and supported by the Developmental Testbed Center (DTC). This package of verification tools is readily available and intended to provide the community with a common software package incorporating the latest advances in forecast verification. We describe results from two studies conducted as part of the Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT)—DTC collaboration project. The studies are based upon Northeast Pacific (NEP) data collected during the 2009-2010 cool season. In the first study we focus on verifying GFS-analysis IWV against satellite-observed IWV throughout the NEP. Specifically, IWV GFS analysis objects are compared with 12-hour composite, satellite-derived Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) observational objects. Then we incorporate MODE object attributes related to object

  5. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  6. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  7. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  8. 50 CFR 660.324 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.324 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  9. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  10. Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report

    SciTech Connect

    Battelle

    1999-07-01

    Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines) since April 1997. This report describes the results of data collection and evaluation of the eight heavy-duty LNG trucks compared to similar heavy-duty diesel trucks operating at Raley's. The data collection and evaluation are a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project.

  11. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-01

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  12. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-03

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  13. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Ha, Mun-Keun; Kim, Soo-Young; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2014-06-01

    With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO). The global Floating LNG (FLNG) market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU) will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  14. Installation and Initial Operation of DOE's 449-MHz Wind Profiling Radars on the U.S. West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, Julia E.; Shaw, William J.; Morris, Victor R.; Wilczak, J. M.; White, A. B.; Ayers, Tom; Jordan, Jim; King, Clark W.

    2015-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has recently completed the installation of three new wind profiling radars on the Washington and Oregon coasts. These systems operate at a frequency of 449 MHz and provide mean wind profiles to a height of roughly 8 km, with the maximum measurement height depending on time-varying atmospheric conditions. This is roughly half the depth of the troposphere at these latitudes. Each system is also equipped with a radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), which provides a measure of the temperature profile to heights of approximately 2 km. Other equipment deployed alongside the radar includes a surface meteorological station and GPS for column water vapor. This project began in fiscal year 2014, starting with equipment procurements and site selection. In addition, environmental reviews, equipment assembly and testing, site access agreements, and infrastructure preparations have been performed. Finally, with equipment deployment with data collection and dissemination, the primary tasks of this project have been completed. The three new wind profiling radars have been deployed at airports near Coos Bay, OR, and Astoria, OR, and at an industrial park near Forks, WA. Data are available through the NOAA Earth Systems Research Laboratory Data Display website, and will soon be made available through the DOE Atmosphere to Electrons data archive and portal as well.

  15. A new climate index controlling winter wave activity along the Atlantic coast of Europe: The West Europe Pressure Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelle, Bruno; Dodet, Guillaume; Masselink, Gerd; Scott, Tim

    2017-02-01

    A pioneering and replicable method based on a 66-year numerical weather and wave hindcast is developed to optimize a climate index based on the sea level pressure (SLP) that best explains winter wave height variability along the coast of western Europe, from Portugal to UK (36-52°N). The resulting so-called Western Europe Pressure Anomaly (WEPA) is based on the sea level pressure gradient between the stations Valentia (Ireland) and Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands). The WEPA positive phase reflects an intensified and southward shifted SLP difference between the Icelandic low and the Azores high, driving severe storms that funnel high-energy waves toward western Europe southward of 52°N. WEPA outscores by 25-150% the other leading atmospheric modes in explaining winter-averaged significant wave height, and even by a largest amount the winter-averaged extreme wave heights. WEPA is also the only index capturing the 2013/2014 extreme winter that caused widespread coastal erosion and flooding in western Europe.

  16. The distribution of the invasive non-native gastropod Crepidula fornicata in the Milford Haven Waterway, its northernmost population along the west coast of Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Katrin; Richardson, Christopher A.; Jenkins, Stuart R.

    2015-12-01

    The invasive non-native gastropod Crepidula fornicata is well established in the Milford Haven Waterway (MHW) in south-west Wales, UK, since its first introduction to this ria in 1953. Whilst it reaches high densities within the MHW and has extended its range to the south of this ria, there has been very little northward expansion. Here, we report findings of a series of intertidal and subtidal surveys in 2009 and 2010 where we monitored the population density and the vertical distribution of C. fornicata at its northern range limit in Wales (the MHW). We also characterised the composition of the surface substrata of the seabed in the MHW to provide some insight into how the availability of certain settlement substrata may limit its distribution along the west coast of Britain. We found locally very dense aggregations (maximum 2748 ± 3859 individuals m-2, mean ± SD) in the shallow subtidal and low intertidal of the MHW. Subtidally, highest densities were found in areas of high gravel content (grain sizes ~16-256 mm), suggesting that the availability of this substrata type is beneficial for its establishment at a site. In the intertidal, on the other hand, high gravel content was indicative of low C. fornicata abundance, possibly because gravelly shores are an indicator of very exposed conditions that, at least in the intertidal, may result in high levels of early post-settlement mortality and low recruitment. C. fornicata was absent from the entrance of the MHW, possibly due to the lack of suitable settlement substrata. The presence of substantial populations in the MHW suggests that C. fornicata's population growth and potential expansion in Welsh coastal waters is not fully limited by prevailing environmental conditions in the region, but that other processes may affect its local distribution.

  17. The impact of different hydrographic conditions and zooplankton communities on provisioning Little Auks along the West coast of Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwasniewski, Slawomir; Gluchowska, Marta; Jakubas, Dariusz; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Walkusz, Wojciech; Karnovsky, Nina; Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna; Cisek, Malgorzata; Stempniewicz, Lech

    2010-10-01

    Composition and abundance of zooplankton were studied simultaneously with feeding ecology of planktivorous Little Auks ( Alle alle) in two different sea shelf areas of West Spitsbergen, Norway, in summer 2007. Zooplankton was collected adjacent to bird colonies in Magdalenefjorden (influenced by Atlantic West Spitsbergen Current) and Hornsund (dominated by the Arctic Sørkapp Current). In spite of different hydrological situations, the abundance of prey preferred by Little Auks, Arctic Calanus glacialis copepodids stage V, among zooplankton was similar in both localities. However, there was much more of Atlantic Calanus finmarchicus on the shelf outside Magdalenefjorden compared to Hornsund, resulting in different abundance ratios of Arctic to Atlantic copepods in the two areas (1:14 and 1:1, respectively). Even greater differences between the two areas occurred in the ratio of C. glacialis CV to other zooplankters, amounting to 1:40 in Magdalenefjorden and 1:6 in Hornsund. In both Little Auk colonies food brought by parents to their chicks contained mainly C. glacialis CV, albeit the proportion of this copepod in meals was significantly higher in Hornsund. Meals delivered to Little Auk chicks in Hornsund had also higher zooplankton numbers, biomass and energy content. In Magdalenefjorden, on the other hand, a higher number of feedings and longer duration of foraging trips were recorded. These differences became more apparent with increasing energy requirements of the fast growing nestlings. This was probably a consequence of lower relative abundance of the Little Auks’ preferred prey in the sea adjacent to Magdalenefjorden colony. It seems that searching for the preferred food items, such as C. glacialis, among abundant but less favored C. finmarchicus, may require more time and energy demanding foraging behavior. As a consequence, foraging effort of the Little Auk parents from Magdalenefjorden was higher, and feeding efficiency lower, than those of birds from

  18. Reactivation of Kamb Ice Stream tributaries triggers century-scale reorganization of Siple Coast ice flow in West Antarctica

    DOE PAGES

    Bougamont, M.; Christoffersen, P.; Price, S. F.; ...

    2015-10-21

    Ongoing, centennial-scale flow variability within the Ross ice streams of West Antarctica suggests that the present-day positive mass balance in this region may reverse in the future. Here we use a three-dimensional ice sheet model to simulate ice flow in this region over 250 years. The flow responds to changing basal properties, as a subglacial till layer interacts with water transported in an active subglacial hydrological system. We show that a persistent weak bed beneath the tributaries of the dormant Kamb Ice Stream is a source of internal ice flow instability, which reorganizes all ice streams in this region, leadingmore » to a reduced (positive) mass balance within decades and a net loss of ice within two centuries. This hitherto unaccounted for flow variability could raise sea level by 5 mm this century. Furthermore, better constraints on future sea level change from this region will require improved estimates of geothermal heat flux and subglacial water transport.« less

  19. Variability of fresh- and salt-water marshes characteristics on the west coast of France: a spatio-temporal assessment.

    PubMed

    Tortajada, Sébastien; David, Valérie; Brahmia, Amel; Dupuy, Christine; Laniesse, Thomas; Parinet, Bernard; Pouget, Frederic; Rousseau, Frederic; Simon-Bouhet, Benoit; Robin, François-Xavier

    2011-08-01

    The degradation of water quality and the multiple conflicts of interest between users make marsh restoration very important. A Water Quality Evaluation System (WQES) was developed for river systems by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Some form of biologically-based, habitat-specific reference standard seems absolutely essential for wise management and stewardship of marsh ecosystems. The goal of this study was to develop a statistical method to define and to characterize a water body typology for drained marshes of the Charente-Maritime wetlands on the French Atlantic coast, placing particular emphasis on environmental factors as hydraulic functioning, human activities and pedological substratum. The Charente-Maritime marshes represent a good field study because of his high diversity of types of marshes and of anthropogenic activities in a restrictive area thus erasing spatial climatic effect (latitude effect). The statistical method developed here had permitted to define and characterize 12 different water bodies, 7 in freshwater (F1 to F7) and 5 in salt water marshes for the Charente-Maritime area. This typology demonstrated an important link between the size catchment area, nitrate concentrations, and leaching of precipitation from cultured soils. Even though the Charente-Maritime marshes are strongly impacted by humans, they may still retain the ability to remove nitrate. The increasing gradient of water renewal in the freshwater marshes from F1 to F7 explained the decreasing gradient of eutrophication. A better management of the hydrodynamic of the marshes can avoid eutrophication risk on the coastal sea area. Reliance on the WFD parameter set necessarily placed limits on the kinds of interpretations that could be made and on the study's potential contribution to the basic science of marshes. Ecologically-based insights regarding both external flows (links between ecosystems, meta-ecosystem theory) and internal flows (structure of the planktonic

  20. Damage-detection system for LNG carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastandrea, J. R.; Scherb, M. V.

    1978-01-01

    System utilizes array of acoustical transducers to detect cracks and leaks in liquefied natural gas (LNG) containers onboard ships. In addition to detecting leaks, device indicates location and leak rate.

  1. Gas treating alternatives for LNG plants

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.S.; Sibal, P.W.

    1998-12-31

    This paper covers the various gas treating processes available for treating sour natural gas to specifications required for LNG production. The LNG product specification requires that the total sulfur level be less than 30--40 ppmv, the CO{sub 2} level be less than 50 ppmv and the water level be less than 100 ppmv to prevent freezing problems in the LNG cryogenic column. A wide variety of natural gas compositions are encountered in the various fields and the gas treating process selection is dependent on the type of impurities present in the gas, namely, levels of H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, mercaptans and other organic sulfur compounds. This paper discusses the implications various components in the feed to the LNG plant can have on process selection, and the various treating processes that are available to condition the gas. Process selection criteria, design and operating philosophies are discussed. An economic comparison for two treating schemes is provided.

  2. LNG production for peak shaving operations

    SciTech Connect

    Price, B.C.

    1999-07-01

    LNG production facilities are being developed as an alternative or in addition to underground storage throughout the US to provide gas supply during peak gas demand periods. These facilities typically involved a small liquefaction unit with a large LNG storage tank and gas sendout facilities capable of responding to peak loads during the winter. Black and Veatch is active in the development of LNG peak shaving projects for clients using a patented mixed refrigerant technology for efficient production of LNG at a low installed cost. The mixed refrigerant technology has been applied in a range of project sizes both with gas turbine and electric motor driven compression systems. This paper will cover peak shaving concepts as well as specific designs and projects which have been completed to meet this market need.

  3. Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final evaluation results.

  4. LNG carrier using membrane tank system delivered

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-06

    The world's first LNG carrier that incorporates the Technigaz Mark 3 membrane tank system was delivered in October to its owner, Asia LNG Transport Sdn. Bhd., a joint venture between Nippon Yusen K.K. and Perbadanan Nasional Shipping Line Berhad of Malaysia. NKK built the 18,800 cu m, fully double-hull carrier Aman Bintulu at its Tsu works. Construction was completed in September with more than 2 months of sea trials and gas tests using [minus]190 C. Liquid nitrogen and final gas trails with LNG. The orthogonally corrugated stainless membrane primary barrier and the triplex (aluminum foil/fiber glass cloth) composite-material secondary barrier prevent LNG from leaking in the event of an accident.

  5. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Allen

    unless a significant station capital subsidy, upwards of 50 percent and even then it might not be enough. However, a doubling of LNG truck demand will initialize network commercialization in the modeling base year, 2012 (the same year Clean Energy Corp. launched their national LNG network) in California and then gradually establish in other hotspot regions in Mid-West and Mid-Atlantic throughout the time horizon. The model shows that trucking routes in California are highly commercial due to high traffic volume and regional advantages. The model can be used by industry to inform necessary policies and to plan future infrastructure deployment along trucking routes that are likely to provide the highest returns.

  6. LNG ventures raise economic, technical, partnership issues

    SciTech Connect

    Acord, H.K.

    1995-07-03

    The author feels that natural gas will remain a competitive energy alternative and the preferred fuel for many residential and industrial customers around the globe. The article attempts to explain where liquefied natural gas will fit into the global picture. The paper discusses the growth in the Asia-Pacific region; the complex interactions in a LNG project involving buyers, sellers, governments, financial institutions, and shipping companies; the cost of development of such projects; and the elements of a LNG venture.

  7. Geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data from multiple-well monitoring sites in the Central and West Coast basins, Los Angeles County, California, 1995-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Michael; Everett, R.R.; Crawford, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the HYPERLINK 'http://wrd.org' Water Replenishment District of Southern California (WRDSC), began a study to examine ground-water resources in the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California. The study characterizes the geohydrology and geochemistry of the regional ground-water flow system and provides extensive data for evaluating ground-water management issues. This report is a compilation of geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data collected from 24 recently constructed multiple-well monitoring sites for the period 1995?2000. Descriptions of the collected drill cuttings were compiled into lithologic logs, which are summarized along with geophysical logs?including gamma-ray, spontaneous potential, resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and temperature tool logs?for each monitoring site. At selected sites, cores were analyzed for magnetic orientation, physical and thermal properties, and mineralogy. Field and laboratory estimates of hydraulic conductivity are presented for most multiple-well monitoring sites. Periodic water-level measurements are also reported. Water-quality information for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, deuterium and oxygen-18, and tritium is presented for the multiple-well monitoring locations, and for selected existing production and observation wells. In addition, boron-11, carbon-13, carbon-14, sulfur-34, and strontium-87/86 data are presented for selected wells.

  8. Assessment of oxidative stress indices in a marine macro brown alga Padina tetrastromatica (Hauck) from comparable polluted coastal regions of the Arabian Sea, west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Maharana, Dusmant; Jena, Karmabeer; Pise, Navnath M; Jagtap, Tanaji G

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress and antioxidant defence systems were assessed in a marine brown alga Padina tetrastromatica, commonly occurring from the tropics. Lipid peroxidation (LPX) and H2O2 were measured as oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant defences were measured as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and ascorbic acid (AsA), in order to understand their dissimilarity with respect to pollution levels from selective locations along the central west coast of India. A significant increased levels of LPX, H2O2, CAT and GST were observed in samples from relatively polluted localities (Colaba and Karwar) when compared to less polluted locality (Anjuna), while AsA concentration was higher in algal samples from worst polluted region of Colaba. Heavy metals such as Cd and Pb were also higher in the vicinity of polluted areas compared to reference area. Variation of oxidative stress indices in response to accumulation of heavy metals within P. tetrastromatica could be used as molecular biomarkers in assessment and monitoring environmental quality of ecologically sensitive marine habitats.

  9. Bathymetric preference of four major genera of rectilinear benthic foraminifera within oxygen minimum zone in Arabian Sea off central west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Abhijit; Nigam, Rajiv

    2014-04-01

    Fifty two surface sediment samples collected from the region off Goa, central west coast of India from water depths of 15-3300 m were analyzed with special emphasis on foraminiferal content. Rectilinear benthic foraminiferal morphogroup shows a high relative abundance within Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), both shallow marine (50-60 m water depth) and intermediate to deep water (150-1500 m water depth). We gave special emphasis on four rectilinear foraminiferal genera, namely Fursenkoina, Bolivina, Bulimina and Uvigerina to observe their individual distribution among OMZ. We found genus Fursenkoina predominates at the shallow water OMZ, within the water depth zone of 50-60 m. Within 150-1500 m water depth, which is considered as intermediate to deep water OMZ in this region, genus Uvigerina shows its highest abundance above 1000 m water depth, whereas genus Bulimina shows its affinity with deeper water environment (>1000 m water depth). Genus Bolivina does not show any such depth preference, except its higher abundance in only intermediate to deep water OMZ. This depth differentiation among four rectilinear benthic foraminiferal genera presents the basic data for palaeoclimatic study based on the extent and intensity of OMZ along with the palaeobathymetry study.

  10. Proteomic, toxicological and immunogenic characterization of Mexican west-coast rattlesnake (Crotalus basiliscus) venom and its immunological relatedness with the venom of Central American rattlesnake (Crotalus simus).

    PubMed

    Segura, Álvaro; Herrera, María; Reta Mares, Francisco; Jaime, Claudia; Sánchez, Andrés; Vargas, Mariángela; Villalta, Mauren; Gómez, Aarón; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo

    2017-03-31

    The venom of the Mexican west-coast rattlesnake (Crotalus basiliscus) was characterized for its protein composition, toxicological profile and immunogenic properties. This venom is composed of 68% Zn(2+)-dependent metalloproteinases (SVMPs), 14% phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), 11% serine proteinases, 4% SVMPs-inhibitor tripeptides (SVMP-ITs), 2% bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs), 0.6% cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), and 0.2% l-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs). SVMPs present in the venom are responsible for azocasein hydrolysis and hemorrhagic activity, but their contribution to the lethal activity of the venom in mice is masked by the neurotoxic activity of PLA2s, which in addition are also responsible for myotoxic activity. Despite its relatively high content of serine proteinases, the venom of C. basiliscus did not exert in vitro coagulant or in vivo defibrinogenating activities. The ability of antivenoms raised against the venoms of C. basiliscus and C. simus (from Costa Rica) to neutralize homologous and heterologous venoms revealed antigenic similarities between toxins of both venoms. Preclinical evaluation of an antivenom produced by using the venom of C. basiliscus as immunogen demonstrated that it is able to neutralize not only the most relevant toxic activities of C. basiliscus venom, but also those exerted by Costa Rican C. simus venom, including coagulant and defibrinogenating activities.

  11. Strong Endemism of bloom-forming tubular Ulva in Indian West Coast, with description of Ulva paschima Sp. Nov. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Bast, Felix; John, Aijaz Ahmad; Bhushan, Satej

    2014-01-01

    Ulva intestinalis and Ulva compressa are two bloom-forming morphologically-cryptic species of green seaweeds widely accepted as cosmopolitan in distribution. Previous studies have shown that these are two distinct species that exhibit great morphological plasticity with changing seawater salinity. Here we present a phylogeographic assessment of tubular Ulva that we considered belonging to this complex collected from various marine and estuarine green-tide occurrences in a ca. 600 km stretch of the Indian west coast. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic reconstructions using ITS nrDNA revealed strong endemism of Indian tubular Ulva, with none of the Indian isolates forming part of the already described phylogenetic clades of either U. compressa or U. intestinalis. Due to the straightforward conclusion that Indian isolates form a robust and distinct phylogenetic clade, a description of a new bloom-forming species, Ulva paschima Bast, is formally proposed. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using Neighbor-Joining method revealed evolutionary affinity of this new species with Ulva flexuosa. This is the first molecular assessment of Ulva from the Indian Subcontinent.

  12. Evidence that the Migration of the Northern Subpopulation of Pacific Sardine (Sardinops sagax) off the West Coast of the United States Is Age-Based

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of fish movements has been an important area of study for fisheries ecology and population dynamics for decades. Pacific sardine, Sardinops sagax, along the west coast of the United States exhibit a well-defined large-scale seasonal migration. Larger and older fish are found in the northern reaches of their range during summer and contract to southerly offshore areas for spawning during spring. Because of the close correlation between fish size and age it has not yet been determined if movements are size- or age-based. Measuring spatial changes in the age structure conditioned on individual lengths was used to determine the roles of age versus length in the seasonal migration. S. sagax have a pattern of increasing age-at-length with seasonal northward movements and offshore movements for spawning. The pattern of increasing age-at-length with distance from the origin eliminates a solely length-based process of movement and supports age-based movement. Patterns in the size and age when fish first show migratory behaviors, coupled with the patterns observed during the spawning season, support a hypothesis that migratory behaviors are linked to age-based ontogenetic changes associated with maturation. PMID:27851805

  13. Intercomparison between Individual Particles Scavenged as CCN and Those Collected at Ground-based Site on West Coast of Japan During Asian Dust Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C. J.; Tohno, S.; Kasahara, M.; Hayakawa, S.

    2002-12-01

    Asian dust storm particles can affect precipitation composition because they are either incorporated into cloud via condensation of water vapour (nucleation) or due to the uptake of particles by existing droplets. And subsequently they affect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In order to study the intercorrelation between the chemical natures of both the particles collected at ground-based site and those scavenged as CCN, the intensive field measurement was carried out on west coast of Japan (Yasaka, Tango Peninsula, 35.62°N; 135.07°E) during dense Asian dust storm event on March 22, 2002. Due to the size dependence of the chemical composition of aerosol particle, size-segregated aerosol particles were collect using Low pressure Andersen impactor sampler. Also, to collect cloud droplets individually, a particular method for the cloud droplet replication was newly applied using collodion (nitrocellulose) film. Sampling of cloud droplets was performed at summit of a mountain (680 m) in Yasaka. To analyze the ambient individual aerosol particles and individual retained particles in cloud droplet, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analytical method set at SPring-8 on BL39XU was applied. Analytical result enables us not only to compare the characteristics of individual particles scavenged as CCN and those collected at ground-based site, but also to estimate the influence of long-range transport.

  14. Doppler sounder observations of trade winds and sea breezes along the African west coast near 34 ° S, 19 ° E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, Mark; Spencer-Smith, Garth

    1988-09-01

    Summer weather conditions along the west coast of Africa near 34 ° S, 18 ° E are investigated using doppler acoustic sounder profiles. Case studies were selected from a two-year record to form composite analyses over the diurnal cycle. The SE trade wind exhibited a low level jet at the level of the temperature inversion due to a sharp reversal in the thermal wind vector aloft. Mean wind speeds reached 14 m s-1 just before midnight as the surface and upper inversions strengthened. Seabreezes were categorised by the supporting gradient wind and found to have mean depths of 400 m, speeds of over 6 m s-1 at the 200 m level, and advance/retreat times of 09 hr and 16 20 hr. During seabreezes and weak on-shore gradient flow conditions, the thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) was monitored with sounder transects in the first 12 km of the coastal zone. The growth height was observed to be 1:20 in the first 5 km and 1:50 farther inland. The sounder climatology, together with surface network and aerial survey results, illustrate the four-dimensional characteristics of trade winds and seabreezes near Cape Town.

  15. Pollutant Concentrations and Toxic Effects on the Red Alga Ceramium tenuicorne of Sediments from Natural Harbors and Small Boat Harbors on the West Coast of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Britta; Hansson, Tomas; Bengtsson, Henrik; Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin

    2016-04-01

    This investigation set out to analyze the toxicity of surface sediments in a number of natural harbors and small boat harbors on the west coast of Sweden. This was done with the growth inhibition method with Ceramium tenuicorne. Also, concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), irgarol, organotin compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments were analyzed. The small boat harbors were heavily polluted by Cu, Zn, butyltins, and PAHs, and to a lesser extent by Pb. The Cu, Pb, Zn, and butyltins probably originated from their past and/or present use in antifouling paints, whereas the PAHs probably had multiple sources, including boat motor exhausts. The measured toxicity of the sediment was generally related to their Cu, Zn, and butyltin content, although other toxic substances than those analyzed here probably contributed to the toxicity in some of the harbors. The natural harbor sediments contained less pollutants and were less toxic than the small boat harbor sediments. Nevertheless, our data indicate that the boating pressure today may be high enough to produce toxic effects even in natural harbors in pristine areas. The strongest relationship between toxicity and the major pollutants was obtained when the sediment toxicity was expressed as gram wet weight per liter compared with gram dry weight per liter and gram total organic carbon per liter. Hence, for pollutants that can be elutriated with natural sea water, sediment toxicity expressed as gram wet weight per liter appears preferable.

  16. Bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to short-neck clam (Paphia undulata) from sediment matrices in mudflat ecosystem of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Hwai, Tan Shau

    2016-05-23

    The bioaccumulation and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were characterized in sediment and Paphia undulata (short-neck clam) from six mudflat areas in the west coasts of Peninsular Malaysia. The concentrations of total PAHs varied from 357.1 to 6257.1 and 179.9 ± 7.6 to 1657.5 ± 53.9 ng g (-1) dry weight in sediment and short-neck clam samples, respectively. PAHs can be classified as moderate to very high level of pollution in sediments and moderate to high level of pollution in short-neck clams. The diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs and principal component analysis indicate both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources with significant dominance of pyrogenic source. The first PAHs biota-sediment accumulation factors and relative biota-sediment accumulation factors data for short-neck clam were obtained in this study, indicating a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. Evaluation of PAH levels in sediments and short-neck clams indicates that short-neck clam could be introduced as a good biomonitor in mudflats. The results also demonstrated that under environmental conditions, the sedimentary load of hydrocarbons appears to be one of the factors controlling their bioavailability to biota.

  17. Evolution of the 2014-2015 sea surface temperature warming in the central west coast of Baja California, Mexico, recorded by remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Carlos J.

    2016-07-01

    Extraordinarily warm sea surface temperatures were present in the California Current System during 2014-2015. In several locations surface waters temperature registered new record high in the recent time series. This study focuses in the evolution of the warming in the southern part of the California Current System (CCS), off the west coast of Baja California, Mexico. Analysis of monthly sea surface temperature (SST), sea level pressure, and wind speed as measured by satellite from January 1988 to December 2015 show that recent warming occurred during two distinct periods. From May 2014 to April 2015, SST warming was related to weak coastal winds not associated to El Niño. During this period occurred the longest sustained record of 15 months of negative wind anomalies in the series. A reduction of wind stress suggests a weakened coastal upwelling, and consequently, cold water not transported into the surface. The second process of warming occurred from September to December 2015, during a strong El Niño condition.

  18. Phylogenetic study and barcoding of the blood cockle, Tegillarca granosa, found on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia using the COI gene.

    PubMed

    Chee, S Y; Devakie, M N; Siti Azizah, M N

    2011-06-28

    Blood cockles are among the most economically important brackish water invertebrates found in Malaysia. However, our knowledge of blood cockle phylogeny and systematics is rudimentary, especially for the species Tegillarca granosa. It is unclear, for instance, whether the cockles occurring on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia constitute a single species, or multiple, phylogenetically distinct species. We performed the first DNA molecular phylogenetic analysis of T. granosa to distinguish it from other related species found in other parts of the world and to create a DNA database for the species. An approximately 585-nucleotide fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome oxidase I, COI) was sequenced for 150 individual cockles, representing 10 populations: three from the north, four from the central part and three from the southern part of peninsular Malaysia. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting dataset yielded tree topologies that not only showed the relationship between T. granosa and its closest relatives but its position in the evolutionary tree. Three mitochondrial clades were evident, each containing an individual genus. Using the mutation rate of the COI gene, the divergence time between T. granosa and its closest related species was estimated to be 460 thousand years ago. This study provides a phylogenetic framework for this ecologically prominent and commercially important cockle species.

  19. Assessing the Health of the U.S. West Coast with a Regional-Scale Application of the Ocean Health Index

    PubMed Central

    Best, Benjamin D.; Doney, Scott C.; Katona, Steven K.; McLeod, Karen L.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Samhouri, Jameal F.

    2014-01-01

    Management of marine ecosystems increasingly demands comprehensive and quantitative assessments of ocean health, but lacks a tool to do so. We applied the recently developed Ocean Health Index to assess ocean health in the relatively data-rich US west coast region. The overall region scored 71 out of 100, with sub-regions scoring from 65 (Washington) to 74 (Oregon). Highest scoring goals included tourism and recreation (99) and clean waters (87), while the lowest scoring goals were sense of place (48) and artisanal fishing opportunities (57). Surprisingly, even in this well-studied area data limitations precluded robust assessments of past trends in overall ocean health. Nonetheless, retrospective calculation of current status showed that many goals have declined, by up to 20%. In contrast, near-term future scores were on average 6% greater than current status across all goals and sub-regions. Application of hypothetical but realistic management scenarios illustrate how the Index can be used to predict and understand the tradeoffs among goals and consequences for overall ocean health. We illustrate and discuss how this index can be used to vet underlying assumptions and decisions with local stakeholders and decision-makers so that scores reflect regional knowledge, priorities and values. We also highlight the importance of ongoing and future monitoring that will provide robust data relevant to ocean health assessment. PMID:24941007

  20. Hemocyte parameters of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas a year after the Hebei Spirit oil spill off the west coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaghy, Ludovic; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Lee, Hee-Jung; Jun, Je-Cheon; Park, Young-Je; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2010-12-01

    In marine bivalves, hemocytes support various physiological functions, including immune defense, nutrient transport, shell repair, and homeostatic maintenance. Although the effects of marine contaminants on the immunological functions of bivalves have been extensively investigated, the impacts of oil spills are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas 13 months after the Hebei Spirit oil spill (December 2007) off the west coast of Korea. The parameters studied included hemocyte concentration and mortality, relative proportion of hemocyte populations, and immunological functions such as phagocytosis and oxidative activity using flow cytometry. These immune-related parameters in oysters damaged by the oil spill were also compared to control oysters that were collected from an area unaffected by the spill. The flow cytometry study indicated that granulocyte population, phagocytic capacity, and reactive oxygen species production in oysters exposed to crude oil 13 months prior were depressed compared to the unexposed control oysters. Our data suggest that immunocompetence in oysters affected by the oil spill had not fully recovered 1 year after the accident, although more detailed studies on the physiology and disease resistance should be performed.

  1. Revision of the Cretaceous fossil plant-assemblage from Gardeshwar (Gujarat, India): A conifer dominated floral association from an Upper Gondwana sequence on the West Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Brajendra Nath; King, Sarah C.; Hilton, Jason

    2013-09-01

    A small but diverse fossil plant assemblage from Gardeshwar in Gujarat Province of western India is reinvestigated, based on analysis of recently collected specimens that represent previously unrecognised taxa in combination with a critical review of previously reported taxa from the site. The assemblage is dominated by conifers including Brachyphyllum Brongniart, Elatocladus Halle, Pagiophyllum Heer, the cone Conites Sternberg, and ovulate scales of an araucarian conifer. Other plant groups are rare but include notable occurrences of the pteridophytes Lycopodites Lindley and Hutton and Gleichenia Smith, and the seed fern Sphenopteris (Brongniart) Sternberg. This assemblage is important as it represents the only datable fossils available from the Gardeshwar Formation and from the information presented we conclude it belongs to the Lower Cretaceous Allocladus-Brachyphyllum-Pagiophyllum floral biozone. The Gardeshwar assemblage association is unusual as it lacks the distinctive genus Allocladus but includes other taxa more typical of the Lower Cretaceous fern-dominated Weichselia-Onychiopsis-Gleichenia floral biozone, and may represent a transitional assemblage with characters of both biozones. However, this investigation highlights the lack of detailed stratigraphic analyses on the Lower Cretaceous sedimentary sequences of the west coast of India from which it remains uncertain if these two ‘biozones' are of different ages or whether they represent stratigraphically contemporaneous but ecologically distinct environments.

  2. Evidence from acoustic imaging for submarine volcanic activity in 2012 off the west coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; Hernández, Pedro A.; de Vallejo, Luis González; León, Ricardo; Sagiya, Takeshi; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús; Sumino, Hirochika; Nogami, Kenji; Romero, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    We report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine volcanic activity observed off the western coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands. Submarine manifestation of this activity has been revealed through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes detected on the 20-kHz chirp parasound subbottom profiler (TOPAS PS18) mounted aboard the Spanish RV Hespérides on June 28, 2012. Five distinct "filament-shaped" acoustic plumes emanating from the flanks of mounds have been recognized at water depth between 64 and 88 m on a submarine platform located NW El Hierro. These plumes were well imaged on TOPAS profiles as "flares" of high acoustic contrast of impedance within the water column. Moreover, visible plumes composed of white rafts floating on the sea surface and sourcing from the location of the submarine plumes were reported by aerial photographs on July 3, 2012, 5 days after acoustic plumes were recorded. In addition, several geophysical and geochemical data support the fact that these submarine vents were preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) observed positive peak in the air-corrected value of 3He/4He ratio monitored in ground waters (8.5 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)) at the northwestern El Hierro on June 16, 2012. Combining these submarine and subaerial information, we suggest these plumes are the consequence of submarine vents exhaling volcanic gas mixed with fine ash as consequence of an event of rapid rise of volatile-rich magma beneath the NW submarine ridge

  3. Propagation and forcing of high-frequency sea level variability along the west coast of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Pilar Cornejo-Rodriguez, Maria; Enfield, David B.

    1987-12-01

    Tide and wind data from coastal and island stations from Buenaventura, Colombia (4°N), to Callao, Peru (12°S), have been analyzed for the 1979-1984 time period to determine the propagation and forcing characteristics of coastal sea level variability at periods of days to weeks, as well as how they vary either with season or between the 1982-1983 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) period and non-ENSO years. During four non-ENSO years, the ensemble averaged cross spectra between coastal sea level height (SLH) and local winds show weak evidence of local forcing during the whole year without significant differences between the austral summer and winter seasons, other than a greater energy in the wind fluctuations at Talara during summer. Cross spectra between SLH series from neighboring stations show evidence of poleward phase propagation during winter seasons at speeds of about 2.0 m s-1 between La Libertad and Talara at periods of a week or more, and about 2.7 m s-1 between Talara and Callao at periods of 5-11 days, but no propagation is found during summers. During the 1982-1983 ENSO there is a large increase in SLH energy at most frequencies at all coastal stations, but especially in the 8-to-11-day band, where energies are enhanced by as much as an order of magnitude above non-ENSO levels. The cross spectra between adjacent SLH stations indicate a nondispersive poleward propagation of events during the 1982-1983 ENSO with phase speeds of 2.2-3.5 m s-1 from La Libertad to Talara (periods of a week or more) and 3.4-3.6 m s-1 from Talara to Callao (3.5 days or more). As with the SLH energy, the coherence and phase propagation were much stronger along the Peru coast in 1982-1983 than during non-ENSO periods, especially in the 8-to-11-day band. The one-third increase in phase speeds during the ENSO over the non-ENSO speeds is found to be consistent with the anomalous depressions of the density structure during El Niño. Comparisons between coastal SLH and the local

  4. Propagation and forcing of high-frequency sea level variability along the west coast of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornejo-Rodriguez, Maria Del Pilar; Enfield, David B.

    1987-12-01

    Tide and wind data from coastal and island stations from Buenaventura, Colombia (4°N), to Callao, Peru (12°S), have been analyzed for the 1979-1984 time period to determine the propagation and forcing characteristics of coastal sea level variability at periods of days to weeks, as well as how they vary either with season or between the 1982-1983 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) period and non-ENSO years. During four non-ENSO years, the ensemble averaged cross spectra between coastal sea level height (SLH) and local winds show weak evidence of local forcing during the whole year without significant differences between the austral summer and winter seasons, other than a greater energy in the wind fluctuations at Talara during summer. Cross spectra between SLH series from neighboring stations show evidence of poleward phase propagation during winter seasons at speeds of about 2.0 m s-1.between La Libertad and Talara at periods of a week or more, and about 2.7 m s-1 between Talara and Callao at periods of 5-11 days, but no propagation is found during summers. During the 1982-1983 ENSO there is a large increase in SLH energy at most frequencies at all coastal stations, but especially in the 8-to-11-day band, where energies are enhanced by as much as an order of magnitude above non-ENSO levels. The cross spectra between adjacent SLH stations indicate a nondispersive poleward propagation of events during the 1982-1983 ENSO with phase speeds of 2.2-3.5 m s-1 from La Libertad to Talara (periods of a week or more) and 3.4-3.6 m s-1 from Talara to Callao (3.5 days or more). As with the SLH energy, the coherence and phase propagation were much stronger along the Peru coast in 1982-1983 than during non-ENSO periods, especially in the 8-to-11-day band. The one-third increase in phase speeds during the ENSO over the non-ENSO speeds is found to be consistent with the anomalous depression of the density structure during El Niño. Comparisons between coastal SLH and the local

  5. New Measurements and Modeling Capability to Improve Real-time Forecast of Cascadia Tsunamis along U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Titov, V. V.; Bernard, E. N.; Spillane, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis, especially in the near field. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Existing observational instruments along the Cascadia Subduction Zone are capable of providing tsunami data within minutes of tsunami generation. However, this strategy requires separation of the tsunami signals from the overwhelming high-frequency seismic waves produced during a strong earthquake- a real technical challenge for existing operational tsunami observational network. A new-generation of nano-resolution pressure sensors can provide high temporal resolution of the earthquake and tsunami signals without loosing precision. The nano-resolution pressure sensor offers a state-of the-science ability to separate earthquake vibrations and other oceanic noise from tsunami waveforms, paving the way for accurate, early warnings of local tsunamis. This breakthrough underwater technology has been tested and verified for a couple of micro-tsunami events (Paros et al., 2011). Real-time forecast of Cascadia tsunamis is becoming a possibility with the development of nano-tsunameter technology. The present study provides an investigation on optimizing the placement of these new sensors so that the forecast time can be shortened.. The presentation will cover the optimization of an observational array to quickly detect and forecast a tsunami generated by a strong Cascadia earthquake, including short and long rupture scenarios. Lessons learned from the 2011 Tohoku tsunami will be examined to demonstrate how we can improve the local forecast using the new technology We expect this study to provide useful guideline for

  6. A Coastal Niño/Niña Phenomenon Off the Coast of Senegal (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oettli, P.; Morioka, Y.; Doi, T.; Yamagata, T.

    2014-12-01

    A recent discovery, the Dakar Niño/Niña, is introduced, involving a local air-sea interaction in the southern region of the Canary Current, an eastern boundary current in the North Atlantic Ocean. In the region (20°-15°W, 9°-15°N) located south of the Cap-Vert peninsula (Senegal, Western Africa), Sea Surface Temperature (SST) undergoes a strong seasonal cycle with a minimum variability during boreal late summer/early fall and with a peak in boreal winter when the surface trade-winds are at their peak strength. The present study identifies that this area is subject to anomalous warming/cooling of the SST in boreal winter, during the period 1982-2011. A close examination of the relationships between the SST and the dynamics of the lower atmosphere reveals the important role played by the surface wind, particularly the meridional component and its angle to the coast. At the interannual time-scale, less (more) intense trade winds in February lead to warmer (cooler) SST in March. The interannual variability in trade winds (speed and direction) also has an influence on the intensity of the coastal upwelling. These results have implications for a potential impact on the fish abundance and also on the local fishery and economy. Similar regional warming phenomena have been described in other oceanic basins, such as in the South Atlantic Ocean (Benguela Niño), the southern Indian Ocean (Ningaloo Niño) and the North Pacific Ocean (California Niño). A comparison between the Dakar Niño and the well documented Ningaloo Niño suggests that an important difference arises to be the distinct feedback mechanisms from the ocean into the atmosphere. The Ningaloo Niño (Niña) has significant impacts on regional precipitation in Australia, through changes in SLP anomalies. While the Dakar Niño (Niña) appears to favor the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback, at a local- to regional-scale. The connection between coastal Niño and ENSO is also analyzed.

  7. Significance of zircon U-Pb ages from the Pescadero felsite, west-central California coast ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moore, Diane E.; ,; Martens, UWE C.; Clark, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian–Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ∼185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ± prehnite ± laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe–reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefly Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86–90 Ma. Reflecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ∼100 km to the east in the Diablo Range–San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper

  8. Department of the Air Force Environmental Statement. Construction and Operation of the West Coast OTH-B Radar System, Lake and Klamath Counties, Oregon; Modoc and Sacramento Counties, California; Pierce County, Washington; Elmore County, Idaho

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    reversible, noncumulative behavioral or physiologi- cal effects for average power densities exceeding 2 mW/cm2 . In the few cases in which irreversible...of the West Coast OTH-B radar system would not result in any significant long-term biophysical impacts. In all cases , carefully planned and executed...its contractor responded to questions posed at the hearings. In cases where clarification or further information was judged necessary, additional

  9. Effects of lng Mutations on LngA Expression, Processing, and CS21 Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli E9034A.

    PubMed

    Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Rodea, Gerardo E; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Viridiana; Espinosa-Mazariego, Karina; González-Montalvo, Martín A; Ochoa, Sara A; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Eslava-Campos, Carlos A; López-Villegas, Edgar O; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Arellano-Galindo, José; Patiño-López, Genaro; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries and a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea worldwide. The ability of ETEC to colonize the intestinal epithelium is mediated by fimbrial adhesins, such as CS21 (Longus). This adhesin is a type IVb pilus involved in adherence to intestinal cells in vitro and bacterial self-aggregation. Fourteen open reading frames have been proposed to be involved in CS21 assembly, hitherto only the lngA and lngB genes, coding for the major (LngA) and minor (LngB) structural subunit, have been characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins in the assembly of CS21 in ETEC strain E9034A. The deletion of the lngA, lngB, lngC, lngD, lngH, or lngP genes, abolished CS21 assembly in ETEC strain E9034A and the adherence to HT-29 cells was reduced 90%, compared to wild-type strain. Subcellular localization prediction of CS21 proteins was similar to other well-known type IV pili homologs. We showed that LngP is the prepilin peptidase of LngA, and that ETEC strain E9034A has another peptidase capable of processing LngA, although with less efficiency. Additionally, we present immuno-electron microscopy images to show that the LngB protein could be localized at the tip of CS21. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins are essential for CS21 assembly, as well as for bacterial aggregation and adherence to HT-29 cells.

  10. Effects of lng Mutations on LngA Expression, Processing, and CS21 Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli E9034A

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Rodea, Gerardo E.; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Viridiana; Espinosa-Mazariego, Karina; González-Montalvo, Martín A.; Ochoa, Sara A.; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Eslava-Campos, Carlos A.; López-Villegas, Edgar O.; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Arellano-Galindo, José; Patiño-López, Genaro; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries and a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea worldwide. The ability of ETEC to colonize the intestinal epithelium is mediated by fimbrial adhesins, such as CS21 (Longus). This adhesin is a type IVb pilus involved in adherence to intestinal cells in vitro and bacterial self-aggregation. Fourteen open reading frames have been proposed to be involved in CS21 assembly, hitherto only the lngA and lngB genes, coding for the major (LngA) and minor (LngB) structural subunit, have been characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins in the assembly of CS21 in ETEC strain E9034A. The deletion of the lngA, lngB, lngC, lngD, lngH, or lngP genes, abolished CS21 assembly in ETEC strain E9034A and the adherence to HT-29 cells was reduced 90%, compared to wild-type strain. Subcellular localization prediction of CS21 proteins was similar to other well-known type IV pili homologs. We showed that LngP is the prepilin peptidase of LngA, and that ETEC strain E9034A has another peptidase capable of processing LngA, although with less efficiency. Additionally, we present immuno-electron microscopy images to show that the LngB protein could be localized at the tip of CS21. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins are essential for CS21 assembly, as well as for bacterial aggregation and adherence to HT-29 cells. PMID:27536289

  11. Aerosol patterns and aerosol-cloud-interactions off the West African Coast based on the A-train formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Jörg; Cermak, Jan

    2013-04-01

    In this study, spatial and temporal aerosol patterns off the Western African coast are characterized and related to cloud properties, based on satellite data Atmospheric aerosols play a key role in atmospheric processes and influence our environmental system in a complex way. Their identification, characterization, transport patterns as well as their interactions with clouds pose major challenges. Especially the last aspect reveals major uncertainties in terms of the Earth's radiation budget as reported in the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2007). Western and Southern Africa are dominated by two well-known source types of atmospheric aerosols. First, the Saharan Desert is the world's largest aeolian dust emitting source region. Second, biomass burning aerosol is commonly transported off-shore further south (Kaufman et al., 2005). Both aerosol types influence Earth's climate in different manners and can be detected by the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor onboard the EOS platforms as they propagate to the Central and Southern Atlantic. The motivation of this study was to reveal the seasonal pattern of the Saharan dust transport based on an observation period of 11 years and trying to explain the meteorological mechanisms. North African dust plumes are transported along a latitude of 19°N in July and 6°N in January. The seasonally fluctuating intensities adapt to the annual cycle of wind and precipitation regimes. A strong relationship is found between the spatial shift of the Azores High and the Saharan dust load over the middle Atlantic Ocean. Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness products of Terra MODIS and NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Predictions) Reanalysis II data are used for this purpose. The relationship between aerosol and cloud droplet parameters is blurred by high sensitivities to aerosol size and composition (Feingold, 2003; McFiggans et al., 2006) as well as meteorological context (Ackerman et al., 2004

  12. Exergy of LNG regasification - possible utilization method. Case study of LNG - ANG coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszak, E. A.; Chorowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview on new exergy recovery methods for LNG. The concept is based on coupling the LNG regasification unit with the filling process of Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) tanks. The latent heat of the LNG vaporization is directly used for precooling the ANG adsorption bed. This reduces the back pressure from filling ANG tanks due to strong adsorption temperature dependency. This improves the economic attractiveness of ANG storage (no need for compressors, longer lifetime cycle of adsorbent). This case study presents the concept of LNG - ANG coupling. Presented results are based on experimental adsorption data. A brief exergy analysis of the process shows an advantage of this method over others. This LNG-ANG method is worth consideration as a cost optimizing solution, especially for periodically working regasification stations.

  13. Keys to modeling LNG spills on water.

    PubMed

    Hissong, D W

    2007-02-20

    Although no LNG ship has experienced a loss of containment in over 40 years of shipping, it is important for risk management planning to understand the predicted consequences of a spill. A key parameter in assessing the impact of an LNG spill is the pool size. LNG spills onto water generally result in larger pools than land spills because they are unconfined. Modeling of LNG spills onto water is much more difficult than for land spills because the phenomena are more complex and the experimental basis is more limited. The most prevalent practice in predicting pool sizes is to treat the release as instantaneous or constant-rate, and to calculate the pool size using an empirical evaporation or burn rate. The evaporation or burn rate is particularly difficult to estimate for LNG spills on water, because the available data are so limited, scattered, and difficult to extrapolate to the large releases of interest. A more effective modeling of possible spills of LNG onto water calculates, rather than estimating, the evaporation or burn rate. The keys to this approach are to: * Use rigorous multicomponent physical properties. * Use a time-varying analysis of spill and evaporation. * Use a material and energy balance approach. * Estimate the heat transfer from water to LNG in a way that reflects the turbulence. These keys are explained and demonstrated by predictions of a model that incorporates these features. The major challenges are describing the effects of the LNG-water turbulence and the heat transfer from the pool fire to the underlying LNG pool. The model includes a fundamentally based framework for these terms, and the current formulation is based on some of the largest tests to-date. The heat transfer coefficient between the water and LNG is obtained by applying a "turbulence factor" to the value from correlations for quiescent film and transition boiling. The turbulence factor is based on two of the largest unignited tests on water to-date. The heat transfer from

  14. Potential for BLEVE associated with marine LNG vessel fires.

    PubMed

    Pitblado, Robin

    2007-02-20

    Recent LNG marine shipping hazard studies have discounted BLEVE hazards associated with LNG vessels. This exclusion of a potential major hazard event has been queried, particularly since a recent LNG truck BLEVE-like event in Spain. This paper reviews the physical factors associated with the Spanish LNG truck event and accepts that this had features of a classical BLEVE event and that there is no inherent property of LNG excluding BLEVE-like events, although US LNG trucks would be safer due to design features. Marine LNG vessels have differently designed tanks and it is demonstrated that the combination of physical barriers makes direct thermal input to the LNG inner tank more limited than hypothesized by some, but if it occurs these tanks cannot rise to a pressure sufficient to cause a large flash of liquid and consequent BLEVE event of a scale hypothesized in the literature.

  15. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

    2011-07-01

    The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

  16. Annual and spatial variation in the abundance length and condition of juvenile turbot ( Psetta maxima L.) on nursery grounds on the west coast of Ireland: 2000-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Paula S.; Brophy, Deirdre; McGrath, David; O'Callaghan, Roisin; Comerford, Stephen; Casburn, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Turbot ( Psetta maxima Linnaeus) is a high value commercially exploited marine flatfish which occurs in European waters, from the Northeast Atlantic to the Arctic Circle, the Baltic and Mediterranean Sea. In Ireland, turbot are the most valuable commercial non-quota species. Very little is known about their population dynamics in the wild, in particular during the sandy beach nursery phase of the life history. In 2000, a survey was established to assess flatfish species on nursery grounds on the west coast of Ireland. Eleven sandy beaches were assessed for 0+ turbot by beach seining, over an eight year period (2000-2007) during the months of August and September. The objective of the study was to estimate juvenile turbot abundance and size structure to determine if any spatial and annual trends existed. Large scale variability in the recruitment of fish to nursery grounds may be indicative of fluctuations in the adult stock. Turbot were found to recruit to five beaches consistently over the eight year period. Temporal and spatial variability in the relative abundance and length of turbot was discerned, with no apparent overall trend. However, certain nursery grounds were shown in most of the years examined to support higher abundances of turbot in comparison to other areas over the eight year period. Turbot abundances on nursery grounds were significantly correlated with mean spring sea temperatures during the pelagic stage. The condition of turbot did not significantly differ on an annual or spatial scale. Mean densities of 0+ turbot along the Irish coast were found to be similar and at times higher than other areas in Europe, ranging from 0.1 (± 0.3) individuals 1000 m - 2 to 18.5 (± 6.9) individuals 1000 m - 2 . Mean turbot total length on beaches ranged from 3.8 cm (± 0.6) to 6.6 cm (± 4.3). The observed spatial and temporal variability in abundance and length highlights the need for long-term studies when assessing juvenile flatfish populations. Results

  17. [Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].

    PubMed

    Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low

  18. Mapping of coastal aquifer vulnerable zone in the south west coast of Kanyakumari, South India, using GIS-based DRASTIC model.

    PubMed

    Kaliraj, S; Chandrasekar, N; Peter, T Simon; Selvakumar, S; Magesh, N S

    2015-01-01

    The south west coast of Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu, India, is significantly affected by seawater intrusion and diffusion of pollutants into the aquifers due to unregulated beach placer mining and other anthropogenic activities. The present study investigates the vulnerability of the coastal aquifers using Geographic Information System (GIS)-based DRASTIC model. The seven DRASTIC parameters have been analyzed using the statistical equation of this model to demarcate the vulnerable zones for aquifer contamination. The vulnerability index map is prepared from the weighted spatial parameters, and an accounting of total index value ranged from 85 to 213. Based on the categorization of vulnerability classes, the high vulnerable zones are found near the beach placer mining areas between Manavalakurichi and Kodimanal coastal stretches. The aquifers associated with settlements and agricultural lands in the middle-eastern part have experienced high vulnerability due to contaminated water bodies. Similarly, the coastal areas of Thengapattinam and Manakudi estuary and around the South Tamaraikulam have also been falling under high vulnerability condition due to backwater and saltpan. In general, the nearshore region except the placer mining zone and the backwater has a moderately vulnerable condition, and the vulnerability index values range from 149 to180. Significantly, the northern and northeastern uplands and some parts of deposition zones in the middle-south coast have been identified as low to no vulnerable conditions. They are structurally controlled by various geological features such as charnockite, garnet biotite gneiss and granites, and sand dunes, respectively. The aquifer vulnerability assessment has been cross-verified by geochemical indicators such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Cl(-), HCO₃(-), and Cl(-)/HCO₃(-) ratio. The high ranges of TDS (1,842--3,736 mg/l) and Cl(-) (1,412--2,112 mg/l) values are well correlated with the observed high

  19. Long-term evaluation of three satellite ocean color algorithms for identifying harmful algal blooms (Karenia brevis) along the west coast of Florida: A matchup assessment

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Gustavo A.; Minnett, Peter J.; Banzon, Viva F.; Baringer, Warner; Heil, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple algorithm to identify Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico along the west coast of Florida in satellite imagery. It is based on an empirical analysis of collocated matchups of satellite and in situ measurements. The results of this Empirical Approach is compared to those of a Bio-optical Technique – taken from the published literature – and the Operational Method currently implemented by the NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System for K. brevis blooms. These three algorithms are evaluated using a multi-year MODIS data set (from July, 2002 to October, 2006) and a long-term in situ database. Matchup pairs, consisting of remotely-sensed ocean color parameters and near-coincident field measurements of K. brevis concentration, are used to assess the accuracy of the algorithms. Fair evaluation of the algorithms was only possible in the central west Florida shelf (i.e. between 25.75°N and 28.25°N) during the boreal Summer and Fall months (i.e. July to December) due to the availability of valid cloud-free matchups. Even though the predictive values of the three algorithms are similar, the statistical measure of success in red tide identification (defined as cell counts in excess of 1.5 × 104 cells L−1) varied considerably (sensitivity—Empirical: 86%; Bio-optical: 77%; Operational: 26%), as did their effectiveness in identifying non-bloom cases (specificity—Empirical: 53%; Bio-optical: 65%; Operational: 84%). As the Operational Method had an elevated frequency of false-negative cases (i.e. presented low accuracy in detecting known red tides), and because of the considerable overlap between the optical characteristics of the red tide and non-bloom population, only the other two algorithms underwent a procedure for further inspecting possible detection improvements. Both optimized versions of the Empirical and Bio-optical algorithms performed similarly, being equally specific and sensitive (~70% for both) and showing low levels of

  20. Long-term evaluation of three satellite ocean color algorithms for identifying harmful algal blooms (Karenia brevis) along the west coast of Florida: A matchup assessment.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo A; Minnett, Peter J; Banzon, Viva F; Baringer, Warner; Heil, Cynthia A

    2011-01-17

    We present a simple algorithm to identify Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico along the west coast of Florida in satellite imagery. It is based on an empirical analysis of collocated matchups of satellite and in situ measurements. The results of this Empirical Approach is compared to those of a Bio-optical Technique - taken from the published literature - and the Operational Method currently implemented by the NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System for K. brevis blooms. These three algorithms are evaluated using a multi-year MODIS data set (from July, 2002 to October, 2006) and a long-term in situ database. Matchup pairs, consisting of remotely-sensed ocean color parameters and near-coincident field measurements of K. brevis concentration, are used to assess the accuracy of the algorithms. Fair evaluation of the algorithms was only possible in the central west Florida shelf (i.e. between 25.75°N and 28.25°N) during the boreal Summer and Fall months (i.e. July to December) due to the availability of valid cloud-free matchups. Even though the predictive values of the three algorithms are similar, the statistical measure of success in red tide identification (defined as cell counts in excess of 1.5 × 10(4) cells L(-1)) varied considerably (sensitivity-Empirical: 86%; Bio-optical: 77%; Operational: 26%), as did their effectiveness in identifying non-bloom cases (specificity-Empirical: 53%; Bio-optical: 65%; Operational: 84%). As the Operational Method had an elevated frequency of false-negative cases (i.e. presented low accuracy in detecting known red tides), and because of the considerable overlap between the optical characteristics of the red tide and non-bloom population, only the other two algorithms underwent a procedure for further inspecting possible detection improvements. Both optimized versions of the Empirical and Bio-optical algorithms performed similarly, being equally specific and sensitive (~70% for both) and showing low levels of

  1. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel, the... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel, the... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel, the... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel,...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel,...

  7. 76 FR 73609 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 4, 2010, Cameron LNG, LLC (Cameron), 101 Ash Street, San Diego, California 92101, filed in Docket No. CP12- 15-000... operate a boil-off gas (BOG) liquefaction system at its LNG import terminal in Cameron Parish,...

  8. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  12. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section...

  14. MENTOR-BASED EFFORT TO ADVANCE IMPLEMENTATION OF PREFERRED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (PMPS) FOR OIL PRODUCERS IN SOUTH MIDCONTINENT (OKLAHOMA/ARKANSAS) AND WEST COAST (CALIFORNIA) REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2004-12-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) and cooperating Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) in its South Midcontinent (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, Oklahoma) and West Coast (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California) regions conducted a ''Mentor-Based Effort to Advance Implementation of Preferred Management Practices (PMPs) For Oil Producers'' (DE-FC26-01BC15272) under an award in Phase I of Department of Energy's (DOE's) PUMP (Preferred Upstream Management Practices) program. The project's objective was to enable producers in California, Oklahoma and Arkansas to increase oil production, moderating or potentially reversing production declines and extending the life of marginal wells in the near term. PTTC identified the primary constraints inhibiting oil production through surveys and PUMPer direct contacts in both regions. The leading common constraint was excess produced water and associated factors. Approaches for addressing this common constraint were tailored for each region. For Oklahoma and Arkansas, the South Midcontinent Region developed a concise manual titled ''Produced Water And Associated Issues'' that led to multiple workshops across the region, plus workshops in several other regions. In California, the West Coast Region leveraged PUMP funding to receive an award from the California Energy Commission for $300,000 to systematically evaluate water control solutions for the California geological environment. Products include still-developing remedial action templates to help producers identify underlying causes of excess water production and screen appropriate solutions. Limited field demonstrations are being implemented to build producer confidence in water control technologies. Minor leverage was also gained by providing technology transfer support to a Global Energy Partners project that demonstrated affordable approaches for reducing power consumption. PTTC leveraged PUMP project results nationally through expanding

  15. Northern Adriatic LNG receiving terminal: Pre-feasibility study. Part 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-19

    The study evaluated 2 potential sites as the location for a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) receiving terminal. The study assumed that the LNG will be obtained in Algeria and transported, via liquefied gas carriers, to either Koper or Omisalj, located on the Northern Adriatic coast of Yugoslavia. The proposed terminal will provide natural gas, via pipeline, to Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Yugoslavia. The goal of the study was to determine specific transportation and processing costs, per cubic meter of gas, at each delivery station in Yugoslavia and at the respective custody transfer points. Consideration has been given to the overall costs for construction, maintenance and operation, as well as marine transport for the gas and capital equipment of the system.

  16. Numerical study of sea fogs off the west coast of the Korean Peninsula using a Single Column Model coupled with WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C.; Yum, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    Sea fog is a weather phenomenon that usually occurs below a marine boundary layer. Over the past several decades, efforts have been made to understand clearly the physical mechanisms of formation, evolution and dissipation of sea fogs using numerical modeling. Recently, 3D numerical simulations with a very high horizontal and vertical resolution have been carried out using mesoscale models to identify the influences of the turbulent mixing within PBL, radiative cooling at the fog top, even aerosols, on the formation of sea fogs. However, expensive computation cost is a big concern for these 3D model simulations with high resolution. Alternatively approach is to use a 1D model, i.e., single column model. However, a typical 1D model does not resolve the horizontal advection and pressure gradient force and therefore it is limited to radiation fog studies. More recent approach is to couple a 1D model with a 3D model to compensate for the limitation of a 1D model. In this study, WRFV3.1.1 is used as a 3D model and Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB) is employed as a 1D model. For the 3D simulation, three nested domains of 18 km, 6 km, 2 km are used along with 64 layers in the vertical. Horizontal advections of heat and moisture, geostrophic winds and vertical motion produced every hour from WRFV3.1.1 are provided as an external forcing into the 1D model, CLUBB. CLUBB is designed for studying stable boundary layer as well as convective boundary layer and also supports sophisticated double moment microphysics (e.g., Khairoutdinov and Kogan scheme, and Morrison scheme). Several sea fog events observed in the eastern part of the Yellow Sea near the west coast of Korea are simulated and the effects of radiative cooling and turbulence are examined and a sensitivity tests of microphysics are done using CLUBB. Detailed results will be presented in the conference.

  17. Integrating Remote Sensing, Field Observations, and Models to Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of the West Coast U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    B.E. Law; D. Turner; M. Goeckede

    2010-06-01

    GOAL: To develop and apply an approach to quantify and understand the regional carbon balance of the west coast states for the North American Carbon Program. OBJECTIVE: As an element of NACP research, the proposed investigation is a two pronged approach that derives and evaluates a regional carbon (C) budget for Oregon, Washington, and California. Objectives are (1) Use multiple data sources, including AmeriFlux data, inventories, and multispectral remote sensing data to investigate trends in carbon storage and exchanges of CO2 and water with variation in climate and disturbance history; (2) Develop and apply regional modeling that relies on these multiple data sources to reduce uncertainty in spatial estimates of carbon storage and NEP, and relative contributions of terrestrial ecosystems and anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric CO2 in the region; (3) Model terrestrial carbon processes across the region, using the Biome-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model, and an atmospheric inverse modeling approach to estimate variation in rate and timing of terrestrial uptake and feedbacks to the atmosphere in response to climate and disturbance. APPROACH: In performing the regional analysis, the research plan for the bottom-up approach uses a nested hierarchy of observations that include AmeriFlux data (i.e., net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from eddy covariance and associated biometric data), intermediate intensity inventories from an extended plot array partially developed from the PI's previous research, Forest Service FIA and CVS inventory data, time since disturbance, disturbance type, and cover type from Landsat developed in this study, and productivity estimates from MODIS algorithms. The BIOME-BGC model is used to integrate information from these sources and quantify C balance across the region. The inverse modeling approach assimilates flux data from AmeriFlux sites, high precision CO2 concentration data from AmeriFlux towers and four new calibrated CO2 sites, reanalysis

  18. Recent environmental changes and filamentous algal mats in shallow bays on the Swedish west coast — A result of climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossellu, Michele; Nordberg, Kjell

    2010-04-01

    Over the last thirty years, many shallow estuarine bays, located in Scandinavian sheltered coastal environments, have been subject to the increased dominance of opportunistic species of filamentous green algae, oxygen deficiency in bottom waters and the alteration of flora and fauna. Human-induced eutrophication has been held responsible for these recent changes, but from this study the importance of climatic factors emerges. This research is based on the analysis of sediment cores from 8 shallow areas ( d < 50 cm) along the Bohuslän archipelago, Swedish west coast, and focuses on their recent (< 100 years) sedimentary evolution. Evidence of hydrodynamic change was observed in the sediments, where modern fining-upward sequences contrast with the expected coarsening upward model due to ongoing land uplift. Heavy metal concentrations from modern pollution and 14C dating of mollusk shells and eelgrass roots provided the age control, and allowed to place these changes within the last three decades. Data were compared with historical meteorological records (seasonal warming, modification of dominant winds and upwelling and reduction of sea-ice), and a clear connection emerged between the environmental changes and variations in the North Atlantic Ocean weather pattern. The increase of winter temperature and reduction of reworking winter sea-ice in these sheltered bays increased the storing of nutrients in the sediments and the turnover of organic matter, favoring the early growth stage of opportunistic algae in the most sheltered areas of the archipelago. This, together with human-induced modifications (overfishing and eutrophication), increased the possibility of opportunistic explosions, which in turn determined a reduced water exchange, the increased deposition of fine sediments and organic matter and evolving hypoxic conditions.

  19. Summer monsoon onset-induced changes of autotrophic pico- and nanoplankton in the largest monsoonal estuary along the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Arya P; Jyothibabu, R; Jagadeesan, L; Lallu, K R; Karnan, C

    2016-02-01

    This study presents the response of autotrophic pico- and nanoplankton to southwest monsoon-associated hydrographical transformations in the Cochin backwaters (CBW), the largest monsoonal estuary along the west coast of India. By the onset of the southwest monsoon, the euhaline/mesohaline conditions in the downstream/upstream of CBW usually transform into oligohaline/limnohaline. The flow cytometer analysis revealed the dominance of picoeukaryotes > Synechococcus > nanoautotrophs, with Prochlorococcus either very low or entirely absent. Synechococcus abundance was high during the pre-southwest monsoon (10(6) L(-1)), which dwindled with heavy fresh water influx during the southwest monsoon (10(5) L(-1)). The drastic drop in salinity and faster flushing of the CBW during the southwest monsoon replaced the euhaline/mesohaline strain of Synechococcus with an oligohaline/limnohaline strain. Epifluorescence microscopy analyses showed that, among the two strains of Synechococcus, the phycoerythrin-rich (PE-rich) one was dominant in the mesohaline/euhaline conditions, whereas the phycocyanin-rich (PC-rich) strain dominated in oligohaline/limnohaline conditions. Although Synechococcus abundance diminished during the southwest monsoon, the total abundance of picoplankton community remained virtually unchanged in the upstream due to an increase in the abundance of picoeukaryotes. On the other hand, the autotrophic nanoplankton abundance increased from pre-monsoon levels of av. 3.8 × 10(6)-av. 9.5 × 10(6) L(-1) at the onset of the southwest monsoon. Utilizing suitable multivariate analyses, the study illustrated the differential response and niche preference of various smaller communities of autotrophs to the southwest monsoon-associated hydrographical ramifications in a large monsoonal estuary, which may be applicable to similar such estuaries situated along the Indian coastline.

  20. Assessment of topographic and drainage network controls on debris-flow travel distance along the west coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, Jeffrey A.; Reid, Mark E.; Brien, Dainne L.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    To better understand controls on debris-flow entrainment and travel distance, we examined topographic and drainage network characteristics of initiation locations in two separate debris-flow prone areas located 700 km apart along the west coast of the U.S. One area was located in northern California, the other in southern Oregon. In both areas, debris flows mobilized from slides during large storms, but, when stratified by number of contributing initiation locations, median debris-flow travel distances in Oregon were 5 to 8 times longer than median distances in California. Debris flows in Oregon readily entrained channel material; entrainment in California was minimal. To elucidate this difference, we registered initiation locations to high-resolution airborne LiDAR, and then examined travel distances with respect to values of slope, upslope contributing area, planform curvature, distance from initiation locations to the drainage network, and number of initiation areas that contributed to flows. Results show distinct differences in the topographic and drainage network characteristics of debris-flow initiation locations between the two study areas. Slope and planform curvature of initiation locations (landslide headscarps), commonly used to predict landslide-prone areas, were not useful for predicting debris-flow travel distances. However, a positive, power-law relation exists between median debris-flow travel distance and the number of contributing debris-flow initiation locations. Moreover, contributing area and the proximity of the initiation locations to the drainage network both influenced travel distances, but proximity to the drainage network was the better predictor of travel distance. In both study areas, flows that interacted with the drainage network flowed significantly farther than those that did not. In California, initiation sites within 60 m of the network were likely to reach the network and generate longtraveled flows; in Oregon, the threshold was