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Sample records for west siberia russia

  1. Bazhen Fm matured reservoir evaluation (West Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnachev, S.; Skripkin, A.; Baranov, V.; Zakharov, S.

    2015-02-01

    The depletion of the traditional sources of hydrocarbons leads to the situation when the biggest players of the oil and gas production market turn to unconventional reserves. Commercial shale oil and gas production levels in the USA have largely determined world prospects for oil and gas industry development. Russia takes one of the leading place in the world in terms of shale oil resources. The main source rock of the West Siberia, the biggest oil and gas basin in Russia under development, the Bazhen Fm and its stratigraphic and lithologic analogs, is located in the territory of over 1,000,000 square kilometers. Provided it has similar key properties (organic carbon content, porosity, permeability) with the deposits of the Bakken Fm and Green River Fm, USA, it is still extremely poorly described with laboratory methods. We have performed the laboratory analysis of core samples from a well drilled in Bazhen Fm deposits with matured organic matter (Tmax>435 °C). It was demonstrated the applicability of the improved steady-state gas flow method to evaluate the permeability of nanopermeable rocks. The role of natural fracturing in forming voids was determided that allows regarding potential Bazhen Fm reservoirs as systems with dual porosity and dual permeability.

  2. Oil field experiments of microbial improved oil recovery in Vyngapour, West Siberia, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.; Arinbasarov, M.U.; Salamov, Z.Z.; Cherkasov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) have been performed in the Vyngapour oil field in West Siberia for two years. Now, the product of some producing wells of the Vyngapour oil field is 98-99% water cut. The operation of such wells approaches an economic limit. The nutritious composition containing local industry wastes and sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was pumped into an injection well on the pilot area. This method is called {open_quotes}nutritional flooding.{close_quotes} The mechanism of nutritional flooding is based on intensification of biosynthesis of oil-displacing metabolites by indigenous bacteria and bacteria from food industry wastes in the stratum. 272.5 m{sup 3} of nutritious composition was introduced into the reservoir during the summer of 1993, and 450 m3 of nutritious composition-in 1994. The positive effect of the injections in 1993 showed up in 2-2.5 months and reached its maximum in 7 months after the injections were stopped. By July 1, 1994, 2,268.6 tons of oil was produced over the base variant, and the simultaneous water extraction reduced by 33,902 m{sup 3} as compared with the base variant. The injections in 1994 were carried out on the same pilot area.

  3. Petroleum habitat of east Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    East Siberia comprises three petroleum provinces - Lena-Tunguska, Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar - that occupy the area of the Siberian craton. Petroleum has been generated and has accumulated in Precambrian rifts beneath the sedimentary basins and, more importantly, within the section of the basin itself. The platformal deposits of the basins extend beneath overthrusts on the east and south and are covered by sedimentary rocks of the West Siberian province on the west. Permafrost and gas hydrate deposits are present throughout most of East Siberia. The hydrocarbon habitat of the three provinces is described. -from Author

  4. The peculiarities of water acidification in European Russia and Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseenko, T. I.; Gashkina, N. A.; Dinu, M. I.; Kremleva, T. A.

    2015-06-01

    Studies have proven the anthropogenic acidification of waters developing over the spacious territories of European Russia and West Siberia. The acidification is exhibited by the waters of small lakes characterized by bedrock consisting of granite and quartz formations. The acidified lakes of high water transparency, pH values below 6, and the prevalence of strong acids in the anion composition account for 4.4% of 201 lakes of European Russia and 8.2% of 166 explored lakes in the taiga and tundra regions of western Siberia. The main factor causing the development of acidification over the European Russia is the emission of technogenic sulfur by metallurgical smelteries. As for western Siberia, this is the combustion of associated gas at oil-producing enterprises. These processes combined with natural factors determine the complicated mechanism of anthropogenic acidification of waters.

  5. East Siberia and Bering Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On June 5, 2001 MODIS captured this true-color image of Eastern Siberia and the Bering Strait. To the right of the image is the western tip of Alaska's St. Lawrence Island. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  6. Teaching Soil Science and Ecology in West Siberia: 17 Years of Field Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siewert, Christian; Barsukov, Pavel; Demyan, Scott; Babenko, Andrey; Lashchinsky, Nikolay; Smolentseva, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Since 1995, soil-ecological field courses across climatic zones in West Siberia have been organized by scientists from Russia and Germany to meet growing demands for better land use practices. They are focused on virgin landscapes and soils undisturbed by anthropogenic influences to facilitate the learning processes by excluding concealing changes…

  7. A "Mesosiderite" Rock from Northern Siberia, Russia: Not a Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Lindstrom, David J.; Schwandt, Craig S.; Franchi, Ian A.; Morgan, Matthew L.

    2002-01-01

    A possible mesosiderite meteorite was found in the area of the Putorana Plateau, Noril'sk district, Siberia, Russia. Although this rock resembles a mesosiderite in its hand-sample aspect and in having Ni-bearing iron metal, it is not a meteorite. This inference is based on the lack of a fusion crust, the lack of cosmogenic nuclides, oxygen with terrestrial isotope ratios, and several mineral chemical criteria. Most likely, the rock is from the iron-metal-bearing basalts of the Siberian Trap basalt sequence, which are mined for their base and platinum-group metals. Mesosiderite imposters like this may be recognized by: (1) the presence of Cu metal in hand sample or as microscopic blebs in the low-Ni metal (kamacite), (2) the absence of high-Ni metal (taenite), and (3) the presence of iron carbide (cohenite) enclosing the kamacite. Even if these macroscopic tests are inconclusive, isotopic and mineral chemical tests will also distinguish rocks like this from mesosiderites.

  8. Tectonosedimentary history of the sedimentary basins in northern west Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Kunin, N.Ya.; Segalovich, I.E. )

    1993-09-01

    Sedimentary basins of northern west Siberia belong to the Arctic tectonosedimentary province. This basin evolved dissimilarly compared to those in the Urengoy and more southern areas, which resulted in substantial differences in the geologic characteristics. Seismic surveys indicate that the basement surface in northern west Siberia occurs at great depths, in places exceeding 15 km. The depressions of the basement surfaces are filled with the thick Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences. The paper discussed the results of seismostratigraphic analysis of more than 13,000 km of regional common-depth-point profiles. These profiles identified systems of east-west-trending and isometric structures in the region. Some of the structures are buried; others are mapped in the upper horizons of the sedimentary cover and decrease in magnitude with depth. Cretaceous marine sediments that were deposited under deep-water conditions and did not compensate for the tectonic subsidence are widely present in the region. Noncompensated sedimentation was the longest from the Late Jurassic to the Hauterivian-Barremian on the Gydan peninsula and in adjacent areas. The Jurassic section is dominate by ingressive marine sediments. Sediments that did not compensate for tectonic subsidence widely occurred in the Early Jurassic and resulted in deposition of petroleum source rocks. Triassic and Jurassic strata occur conformable in most of northern west Siberia. Significant deformation of the Triassic sediments are identified in the periphery of the Triassic marine basin. This indicates that surrounding structures were thrust against northern west Siberia at the Triassic and Jurassic time boundary. Isometric structures of high magnitude were formed during the Paleozoic structure stage and these structures continued to grow through the Triassic and Jurassic. These and other results of seismostratigraphic analysis suggest the high oil potential of the region.

  9. Three new species of myrmecophilous scutacarid mites (Acari: Scutacaridae) from Western Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-09-08

    Three new species of myrmecophilous mites of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acariformes: Pygmephoroidea: Scutacaridae), S. lasiophilus sp. nov., S. myrmicinus sp. nov., and S. crinitus sp. nov. are described from ants and their nests in Tyumen Province, Western Siberia, Russia.

  10. Three new species of myrmecophilous scutacarid mites (Acari: Scutacaridae) from Western Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of myrmecophilous mites of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acariformes: Pygmephoroidea: Scutacaridae), S. lasiophilus sp. nov., S. myrmicinus sp. nov., and S. crinitus sp. nov. are described from ants and their nests in Tyumen Province, Western Siberia, Russia. PMID:26623897

  11. Giant gas field of northern West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.D.; Hart, G.F.

    1986-06-01

    The 66 fields discovered since the 1960s in the northern West Siberian basin contain at least 22 trillion m/sup 3/ (777 tcf) of proved gas, almost one-third of the world's reserves. Half of these fields are giants (> 85 billion m/sup 3/ or 3000 bcf of reserves). These include the largest and second-largest gas fields in the world-Urengoy (8.099 trillion m/sup 3/ or 286 tcf of gas) and Yamburg (4.81 trillion m/sup 3/ or 170 tcf of gas)-as well as most of the other ten largest gas fields in the world. The West Siberian basin occupies a 3.4-million km/sup 2/ (1.31-million mi/sup 2/) arctic lowland immediately east of the Ural Mountains, extending north under the Kara Sea. It is a composite basin, with Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin fill on top of a Paleozoic basin that overlies a crystalline Archean-Proterozoic framework. The productive zones in the northern basin are principally in the Neocomian section (at an average depth of 2800m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 2800 m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 1100 m or 3600 ft). The former contains reservoirs with gas, condensate, and oil; the latter contains two-thirds of the region's gas. Gas in Cenomanian reservoirs is almost pure methane. Hydrocarbons in Neocomian reservoirs were generated by thermal maturation of sapropelic organic matter contained principally in the Tithonian Bazhenov shale. Methane in the Cenomanian section appears to be a combination of thermogenic gas from the Bazhenov Suite (or deeper) and biogenic gas generated in the Cenomanian section itself, although workers disagree over how much gas came from each source. Continental glaciation during the Pleistocene may have been important in concentrating the methane in Cenomanian reservoirs.

  12. Peatland classification of West Siberia based on Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentieva, I.; Glagolev, M.; Lapshina, E.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing interest in peatlands for prediction of environmental changes requires an understanding of its geographical distribution. West Siberia Plain is the biggest peatland area in Eurasia and is situated in the high latitudes experiencing enhanced rate of climate change. West Siberian taiga mires are important globally, accounting for about 12.5% of the global wetland area. A number of peatland maps of the West Siberia was developed in 1970s, but their accuracy is limited. Here we report the effort in mapping West Siberian peatlands using 30 m resolution Landsat imagery. As a first step, peatland classification scheme oriented on environmental parameter upscaling was developed. The overall workflow involves data pre-processing, training data collection, image classification on a scene-by-scene basis, regrouping of the derived classes into final peatland types and accuracy assessment. To avoid misclassification peatlands were distinguished from other landscapes using threshold method: for each scene, Green-Red Vegetation Indices was used for peatland masking and 5th channel was used for masking water bodies. Peatland image masks were made in Quantum GIS, filtered in MATLAB and then classified in Multispec (Purdue Research Foundation) using maximum likelihood algorithm of supervised classification method. Training sample selection was mostly based on spectral signatures due to limited ancillary and high-resolution image data. As an additional source of information, we applied our field knowledge resulting from more than 10 years of fieldwork in West Siberia summarized in an extensive dataset of botanical relevés, field photos, pH and electrical conductivity data from 40 test sites. After the classification procedure, discriminated spectral classes were generalized into 12 peatland types. Overall accuracy assessment was based on 439 randomly assigned test sites showing final map accuracy was 80%. Total peatland area was estimated at 73.0 Mha. Various ridge

  13. High-latitude regions of Siberia and Northeast Russia in the Paleogene: Stratigraphy, flora, climate, coal accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmetiev, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    The geological structure and development history of superposed depressions on the Arctic coast of East Siberia and Bering Sea region (Chukotka, Koryakiya, northern Kamchatka) in the Early Paleogene are considered with the analysis of their flora and climatic parameters. The paleofloral analysis revealed thermophilic assemblages that reflect phases of maximum warming at the Paleocene-Eocene transition and in the Early Eocene. The appearance of thermophilic plants (Magnoliaceae, Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Araliaceae, Loranthaceae, and others) in the Siberian segment of the Arctic region is explained by the stable atmospheric heat transfer from the Tethys to higher latitudes and absence of the latitudinal orographic barrier (Alpine-Himalayan belt). The plants migrated to high latitudes also along the meridional seaway that connected the Tethys with the Arctic Ocean via marine basins of the Eastern Paratethys, Turgai Strait, and West Siberia. The migration from the American continent was realized along the southern coast of Beringia under influence of a warm current flowing from low latitudes along the western coast of North America. The palm genus Sabal migrated to northern Kamchatka and Koryakiya precisely in this way via southern Alaska. In the Oligocene, shallow-water marine sediments in high-latitude regions were replaced by terrestrial facies. The Late Oligocene was marked by maximum cooling. Coal accumulation in Northeast Russia through the Paleogene is reviewed.

  14. Technical-Environmental Permafrost Observatories (TEPO) of northern West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurchatova, A. N.; Griva, G. I.; Osokin, A. B.; Smolov, G. K.

    2005-12-01

    During the last decade one of the most developed topics in environmental studies was the effect of global climate change. This has been shown to be especially pronounced in northern regions, having an important influence on the subsequent transformation of frozen soil distribution and potential permafrost degradation. In West Siberia such studies are especially important with the prospect of plans for development of oil-gas fields (Yamal, Gydan and Kara Sea shelf). Presently the enterprises independently determine the necessary research for ecological control of the territory. Therefore, the Tyumen State Oil and Gas University (TSOGU) together with one of the leading gas enterprises "Nadymgasprom" started to create an observational network along the meridian transect of northern West Siberia (Yamal-Nenets administrative district). Observational network consists from a number of monitoring sites - Technical-Environmental permafrost Observatories (TEPO). The research complex includes temperature observations in boreholes (depths of 30) equipped with automatic systems for registration and data collection; seasonal field investigations on spatial distribution and temporal variability of the snow cover and vegetation and soil distribution. TSOGU and "Nadymgasprom" plan for the realization of long-term monitoring to obtain representative results on permafrost-climate interaction. At present there are three monitoring observatories located in the main landscape types and gas fields in use since 1972 (Medvezhye), 1992 (Yubileynoe) and in development (Harasavey). The next contribution to International Polar Year (2007-2008) will be renewal of one of the former monitoring sites (established in 1972) with a long-term period of observation and creation of a new site at the Yamal peninsula (Arctic tundra zone). At the last site the installation of an automatic Climate-Soil Station is being planned in the framework of the INTAS Infrastructure Action project with cooperation of

  15. Oil and gas potential of the Triassic in west Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Bochkarev, V.S.; Kulakhmetov, N.KH.; Nesterov, I.I. )

    1993-09-01

    Permian-Triassic rocks are widely spread within the West Siberian basin, and they include volcanics, volcanoclastics, and clastics. Their thickness varies from tens of meters of 3000 m. Recently, three commercial oil pools have been discovered in Triassic effusive-sedimentary rocks. These discoveries, together with other geological and geochemical data, identify the Triassic complex as a major play. Oil-bearing intervals have been found in three different types of sequences; a fourth also may be prospective. The first type is represented by lacustrine-terrigenous sediments, which comprise oil-saturated sandstones interbedded with basalts (the Turin series). Oil influxes were obtained in the Yakhlinskaya and Triyurtin-skaya structures in the Shaim region. The second type is distinguished from the first by the presence of coal-bearing intervals in the upper part. Oil was produced in the Yerofeyev area of the Chelyabinsk garben. The third type differs from the other two by the presence of potassic rhyolites and dacites. Their age is not precisely dated, and supposedly they are of Permian age. The largest oil influxes have been obtained from fractured and eroded rocks of this type in the Rogozhnikovskaya and other places in the Krasnoleninsk region. Rhyodacites often underlie Turin basalts, but locally they occur in the upper part of the series. Triassic and Permian-Trissic rocks of the three types are overlain by Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks with a large break. The fourth type of section is completely terrigenous (Tampei series). It is developed in the northern part of west Siberia. Here Triassic sediments are overlain by the Jurassic complex without a break. According to well-log data, productive horizons occur at Urengoy and Beregovaya (in the Urengoy region).

  16. HLA genes of Aleutian Islanders living between Alaska (USA) and Kamchatka (Russia) suggest a possible southern Siberia origin.

    PubMed

    Moscoso, Juan; Crawford, Michael H; Vicario, Jose L; Zlojutro, Mark; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; Reguera, Raquel; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2008-02-01

    Aleuts HLA profile has been compared with that of neighboring and worldwide populations. Thirteen thousand one hundred and sixty-four chromosomes have been used for this study. Computer programs have obtained HLA allele frequencies, genetic distances between populations, NJ relatedness dendrograms, correspondence analysis and most frequent HLA extended haplotypes. Aleuts have inhabited Aleutian Islands since about 9000 years BP according to fossil and genetic (mtDNA) records. They are genetically different to Eskimo, Amerindian and Na-Dene speakers according to their HLA profile; this correlates with cultural and anthropological Aleut distinctiveness. No typical Amerindian HLA alleles have been found in a significant frequency. Their HLA relatedness to Saami (or Lapps, northern Scandinavians), Finns and Pomors (North-West Russia) indicates an ancient possible origin from the Baikal Lake Area (southern Siberia) around the present day Buryat peopling area; other origins are not discarded. Aleuts characteristic HLA profile may influence future transplantation programs in the region and be useful to study diseases linked to HLA epidemiology.

  17. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    and field delineation activities between the discovery and the first production years. Because of uncertainty in the length of evaluation time and in reported reserves during this initial period, reserve growth based on the first production year is more reliable for model development. However, reserve growth models based both on discovery year and first production year show rapid growth in the first few years and slower growth in the following years. In contrast, the reserve growth patterns for the conterminous United States and offshore Gulf of Mexico show a steady reserve increase throughout the productive lives of the fields. The different reserve booking requirements and the lack of capital investment for improved reservoir management and production technologies in West Siberian fields relative to U.S. fields are the probable causes for the difference in growth patterns. Reserve growth models based on the first production year predict that the reserve growth potential in the 42 largest oil fields of West Siberia over a five-year period (1998-2003) ranges from 270-330 million barrels or 0.34-0.42 percent per year. For a similar five-year period (1996-2001), models for the conterminous United States predict a growth of 0.54-0.75 percent per year. This abstract presents the contents of a poster prepared for the AAPG Hedberg Research Conference on Understanding World Oil Resources, November 12-17, 2006 - Colorado Springs, Colorado. A paper 'Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia' was published in Natural Resources Research, v. 12, no. 2, June, 2003.

  18. Spatial and Temporal Variability of CO2 and CH4 Concentrations in the Atmospheric Surface Layer over West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris D.; Machida, Toshinobu; Sasakawa, Motoki; Davydov, Denis K.; Fofonov, Alexander V.; Krasnov, Oleg A.; Maksyutov, Shamil; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.

    2015-04-01

    The investigation of greenhouse gas behavior in the atmosphere plays a key role in predicting the global changes of Earth's climate. In this connection, of particular importance is the study of the distribution of sources/sinks of trace gases in the atmospheric surface layer over the different regions of the globe. In order to fill a gap in the data on greenhouse gas concentrations in Russia, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES, Japan) and Institute of Atmospheric Optics (IAO SB RAS, Russia) established a network for GHG monitoring (JR-STATION, Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network). Gas analyzers and meteorological sensors were mounted at radio relay towers located in different regions of West Siberia. The checking equipment was placed in containers at the tower base. In the containers, the climatic parameters optimal for gas analyzer operation were maintained. The work on the network development started in 2001. Since at each of the sites the measurement duration could be different, in this paper we present the data of the greenhouse gas monitoring for eight sites which give the primary idea on the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of CO2 and CH4 in the atmospheric surface layer over West Siberia. The analysis of the data showed that the average increase in concentration of carbon dioxide by results of our measurements in this territory increases within 1.95 - 2.53 ppm/year, depending on the area. The analysis of long-term data testifies about existence of growth of concentration of methane within 3.2 - 7.2 ppb / year. The presence of a distributed network of the sites operating in the monitoring regime makes it possible not only to investigate the temporal dynamics of CO2 and CH4 at each site and to determine the spatial differences between the concentrations by comparing the data, but also to plot the distribution charts for different moments of time. This work was supported by the Global Environment Research

  19. Geochemical characteristics of organic compounds in a permafrost sediment core sample from northeast Siberia, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, G. I.; Friedmann, E. I.; Gilichinsky, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    We studied total organic carbon (TOC), hydrocarbons and fatty acids in a permafrost sediment core sample (well 6-90, length 32.0 m, 1.5-2.5 Ma BP) from northeast Siberia (approximately 70 degrees N, 158 degrees E), Russia, to elucidate their geochemical features in relation to source organisms and paleoenvironmental conditions. Long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids (>C19) were most predominant hydrocarbons and fatty acids, respectively, so organic matter in the sediment core was derived mainly from vascular plants and, to a much smaller extent, from bacteria. Low concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids revealed that organic matter in the sediment core was considerably degraded during and/or after sedimentation. The predominance of vascular plant components, the major ionic components of nonmarine sources, and geological data strongly implied that the sediment layers were formed in shallow lacustrine environments, such as swamp with large influences of tundra or forest-tundra vegetation. Also, no drastic changes in paleoenvironmental conditions for biological activity or geological events, such as sea transgressions or ice-sheet influences, occurred at the sampling site approximately 100 km from the coast of the East Siberian Sea during the late Pliocene an early Pleistocene periods.

  20. Distribution of trace gases and aerosols in the troposphere over West Siberia and Kara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris D.; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Nédélec, Philippe; Ancellet, Gérard; Pelon, Jacques; Berchet, Antoine; Arzoumanian, Emmanuel; Belan, Sergey B.; Penner, Johannes E.; Balin, Yurii S.; Kokhanenko, Grigorii; Davydov, Denis K.; Ivlev, Georgii A.; Kozlov, Artem V.; Kozlov, Alexander S.; Chernov, Dmitrii G.; Fofonov, Alexader V.; Simonenkov, Denis V.; Tolmachev, Gennadii

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic is affected by climate change much stronger than other regions of the globe. Permafrost thawing can lead to additional methane release, which enhances the greenhouse effect and warming, as well as changes of Arctic tundra ecosystems. A great part of Siberian Arctic is still unexplored. Ground-based investigations are difficult to be carried out in this area due to it is an out-of-the-way place. So, in spite of the high cost, aircraft-based in-situ measurements can provide a good opportunity to fill up the gap in data on the atmospheric composition over this region. The ninth YAK-AEROSIB campaign was focused on the airborne survey of Arctic regions of West Siberia. It was performed in October 2014. During the campaign, the high-precision in-situ measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, O3, black carbon and aerososls, including aerosol lidar profiles, have been carried out in the Siberian troposphere from Novosibirsk to Kara Sea. Vertical distributions of the above atmospheric constituents will be presented. This work was supported by LIA YAK-AEROSIB, CNRS (France), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CEA (France), the Branch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5); State contracts of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia No. 14.604.21.0100, (RFMTFIBBB210290) and No. 14.613.21.0013 (RFMEFI61314X0013); Interdisciplinary integration projects of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science No. 35, No. 70 and No. 131; and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No. 14-05-00526 and 14-05-00590).

  1. Distribution and diversity of Nosema bombi (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) in the natural populations of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) from West Siberia.

    PubMed

    Vavilova, Valeriya; Sormacheva, Irina; Woyciechowski, Michal; Eremeeva, Natalia; Fet, Victor; Strachecka, Aneta; Bayborodin, Sergey I; Blinov, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Nosema bombi is an obligate intracellular parasite of bumblebees (Hymenoptera, Bombus spp.), which has significant negative effect on individual bumblebees, colony fitness, and development. Recently, several new genetic variants of N. bombi without a defined taxonomic status were identified in natural bumblebee populations from Russia, China, and several European countries, as well as N. ceranae, originally isolated from honey bees, was described in bumblebee species. Thus, it is required to investigate more Nosema variability in bumblebee populations for identifying new genetic Nosema variants. In our study, we used several methods such as total DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, cloning, sequencing, and comparative and phylogenetic analysis to investigate a prevalence of N. bombi and its diversity in the natural populations of bumblebees across West Siberia. DNA was extracted from intestinal bumblebee tissues. Identification of the parasite was conducted, using PCR with primers specific for the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and methionine aminopeptidase 2 gene of N. bombi followed by sequencing. Seven hundred twenty-seven individual bumblebees belonging to 16 species were tested; 64 specimens revealed presence of the parasite. Prevalence of Nosema bombi infection was different in each region and varied from 4 to 20 %. No infection was found in Bombus agrorum (n = 194) and Bombus equestris (n = 132), both common bumblebees in West Siberia. Three different genetic variants of the same species, N. bombi, were identified. The first variant belonged to N. bombi (AY008373) identified by Fies et al. (J Apicult Res 40:91-96, 2001), second (N. bombi WS2) was identical to the West Siberian variant identified by Szentgyörgyi et al. (Polish Journal of Ecology 59:599-610, 2011), and the last variant, N. bombi WS3, was new. The results led us to suggest that the prevalence of the N. bombi is related to the population structure of bumblebees and

  2. Bryozoans from the Jurginskaya Formation (Famennian, Upper Devonian) of the Tom-Kolyvansk area (Western Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolokonnikova, Zoya

    2010-10-01

    Nine bryozoan species are described from the Jurginskaya Formation (Famennian, Late Devonian) from Western Siberia, Russia, namely: Leptotrypella pojarkovi Orlovski, 1961, Rhombopora subtilis Nekhoroshev, 1977, Klaucena lalolamina Yang, Hu, Xia, 1988, Eofistulotrypa famennensis sp. n., Atactotoechus cellatus sp. n., Nikiforopora jurgensis sp. n., Eridotrypella tyzhnovi sp. n., Mediapora elegans sp. n., and Klaucena gracilis sp. n. The studied assemblage shows palaeogeographical affinity with Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Transcaucasia, China, and the United States of America.

  3. Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Provides an assessment of the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The report was prepared in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is part of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP).

  4. A population-based study of the associations of stroke occurrence with weather parameters in Siberia, Russia (1982-92).

    PubMed

    Feigin, V L; Nikitin, Y P; Bots, M L; Vinogradova, T E; Grobbee, D E

    2000-03-01

    Previous studies have established a seasonal variation in stroke occurrence, but none have assessed the influence of inclement weather conditions on stroke incidence in a general population of Russia. We performed a stroke population-based study in the Oktiabrsky District of Novosibirsk, Siberia, Russia. Included in the analysis were 1929 patients with their first occurrence of ischemic stroke (IS), 215 patients with their first occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and 64 patients with their first occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH): all patients were aged between 25 and 74 years. The cumulative daily occurrence of total strokes and stroke subtypes was evaluated in relation to aggregated daily mean values of ambient temperature, relative humidity and air pressure by means of Poisson regression analysis to estimate the rate ratio (RR) with corresponding confidence interval (CI) and to identify the weather parameters of most importance. In a multivariate analysis, with adjustment for the effects of season, solar and geomagnetic activity, and age of the patients, low ambient temperature (RR 1.32; 95% CI 1.05-1.66) and mean value of air pressure (RR 0.986; 95% CI 0.972-0.999) were important predictors of IS occurrence, while mild ambient temperature (RR 1.52; 95% CI 1. 04-2.22) was an important predictor of ICH occurrence. No relationship between SAH occurrence and any one of the weather parameters studied was revealed. There was no interaction between any meteorological variables that was statistically significant. Inclement weather conditions are associated with the occurrence of IS and ICH in Siberia, Russia. Among the meteorological parameters studied, low ambient temperature and mean air pressure are the most important predictors of IS occurrence, whereas the occurrence of ICH is associated with mild ambient temperature. There is no association between any one of the weather parameters studied and the occurrence of SAH.

  5. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  6. Models of hydrocarbon-bearing sequences of West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Mkrtohyan, O.M.; Gogonenkov, G.N.; Pavlov, N.E. )

    1991-03-01

    The West Siberian province located within a young plate (platform) is one of the largest in the world in size, reserves, number of unique fields, and hydrocarbon production. The southern, central, and western areas of the province are dominantly oil-bearing, the northern portion gas-bearing. All commercial reserves are within the Devonian-Cenomanian stratigraphic interval. Small accumulations in fractured-vuggy Devon-Carboniferous rocks are located in the zone of unconformity between this sequence and the Jurassic. The potential of the pre-plate middle Paleozoic, platform upper Paleozoic, and Triassic sequences recognized by seismic data in the northern, deepest, part of the plate is not known yet. Most hydrocarbon pools are located in the Jurassic-Cretaceous hydrocarbon-bearing sequences (HBS) within the plate cover. Structural-depositional oil accumulations with very changeable flow rates, a large stratigraphic-depositional accumulation in high permeability basal (quartz) reservoirs, and an oil-condensate and a multiple-pool structural gas field are discovered in the Middle Jurassic composed of potential continental coal-bearing and marine deposits. In most HBS, there is still a prospect of discovering new hydrocarbon pools including pools in more complex traps.

  7. Origin of REE-rich ferrocarbonatites in southern Siberia (Russia): implications based on melt and fluid inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopyev, Ilya R.; Borisenko, Alexander S.; Borovikov, Andrey A.; Pavlova, Galina G.

    2016-06-01

    Fe-rich carbonatites with a mineral assemblage of ankerite-calcite or siderite are widespread in southern Siberia, Russia. The siderite carbonatites are associated with F-Ba-Sr-REE mineralization and have a 40Ar/39Ar age of 117.2 ± 1.3 Ma. Melt and fluid inclusions suggest that the carbonatites formed from volatile-rich alkali- and chloride-bearing carbonate melts. Ankerite-calcite carbonatites formed from carbonatite melt at a temperature of more than 790 °C. The ferrocarbonatites (the second phase of carbonatite intrusion) formed from a sulfate-carbonate-chloride fluid phase (brine-melt) at >650 °C and ≥360 MPa. The brine-melt fluid phase had high concentrations of Fe and LREEs. A subsequent hydrothermal overprint contributed to the formation of economically important barite-Sr-fluorite-REE mineralization in polymict siderite breccia.

  8. Problems of phytostratigraphy and the correlation of the Lower Jurassic continental sediments in West Siberia and Kuznetsk and Kansk-Achinsk basins

    SciTech Connect

    Mogutcheva, N.K.

    2009-06-15

    Paleofloral and palynological records of Lower Jurassic sediments in West Siberia, Kuznetsk (Kuzbass), and Kansk-Achinsk basins and their correlation are discussed. In a number of recent papers dedicated to the Jurassic stratigraphy of Siberia this problem is ambiguously treated. The reference palynological scale has been developed for the Jurassic West Siberian sediments and an uninterrupted succession of floral assemblages associated with it and with regional stratigraphic units has been recognized. On this basis the scheme of the correlation between the Lower Jurassic sediments of the Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk basins and West Siberia permitting a better age estimate of coal-bearing deposits, is proposed.

  9. Comparative characteristic of the sphagnum moss and peat of upland bogs in Siberia, Russia and central part of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhibor, Antonina; Podkozlin, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    This research represents the results of the ICP-MS study for the moss and peat samples from two upland bogs of Germany and one bog from Siberia, Russia (Tomsk region). Moss and upland peat are widely used for ecological studies. These substances enable to detect atmospheric pollution because of the peculiar structure of sphagnum moss. According to the obtained results, we can resume that moss and peat in Tomsk region are more enriched in such chemical elements as Cr, Fe, As, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Hg, Th, and U. The samples from Germany are more enriched in Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the specificity of industries that pollute the atmosphere with definite chemical elements. Thus, REE, Th and U in the moss and peat of Tomsk region can originate from nuclear facility near the Tomsk city. Coal combustion in power stations can be the source of Cr, As, Sr and REE as well. Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se possibly can originate from metallurgical facilities in Germany.

  10. First Asian record of Panthera (Leo) fossilis (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) in the Early Pleistocene of Western Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Sotnikova, Marina V; Foronova, Irina V

    2014-08-01

    A lion-like pantherine felid is described as Panthera (Leo) fossilis from the late Early Pleistocene sediments of the Kuznetsk Basin (Western Siberia, Russia). The find of P. fossilis first recorded in Asia considerably extends the current notion of the eastward expansion of the most ancient lions. The Siberian lion is geologically the oldest form and is dimensionally among the largest members of the group of fossil lions on the Eurasian continent. Although known by mandibular remains only, it is readily distinguished from Panthera (Leo) spelaea by a heavy built mandibular corpus with rectangular profile in the cheek teeth area, a deep, well-outlined and narrow anterior section of the masseteric fossa, and a large p4 supported by a big unreduced anterior root. The Siberian lion shares these features with the European Middle Pleistocene P. fossilis and the American Late Pleistocene P. (Leo) atrox, which suggests their close relationship. P. atrox originated from P. fossilis and was isolated in North America south of the Late Pleistocene ice sheets. This explains why the American lion has retained more primitive features than the coeval Eurasian cave lion P. (L.) spelaea.

  11. Collection of radiocarbon dates on the mammoths ( Mammuthus primigenius) and other genera of Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartanyan, Sergey L.; Arslanov, Khikmat A.; Karhu, Juha A.; Possnert, Göran; Sulerzhitsky, Leopold D.

    2008-07-01

    We present and discuss a full list of radiocarbon dates for woolly mammoth and other species of the Mammoth fauna available from Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia. Most of the radiocarbon dates are published here for the first time. Of the124 radiocarbon dates on mammoth bone, 106 fall between 3700 and 9000 yr ago. We believe these dates bracket the period of mammoth isolation on Wrangel Island and their ultimate extinction, which we attribute to natural causes. The absence of dates between 9-12 ka probably indicates a period when mammoths were absent from Wrangel Island. Long bone dimensions of Holocene mammoths from Wrangel Island indicate that these animals were comparable in size to those on the mainland; although they were not large animals, neither can they be classified as dwarfs. Occurrence of mammoth Holocene refugia on the mainland is suggested. Based on other species of the Mammoth fauna that have also been radiocarbon on Wrangel Island, including horse, bison, musk ox and woolly rhinoceros, it appears that the mammoth was the only species of that fauna that inhabited Wrangel Island in the mid-Holocene.

  12. Tree-ring dating of meteorite fall in Sikhote-Alin, Eastern Siberia - Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantucci, R.; Di Martino, Mario; Serra, Romano

    2012-01-01

    This research deals with the fall of the Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite on the morning of 12 February 1947, at about 00:38 h Utrecht, in a remote area in the territory of Primorsky Krai in Eastern Siberia (46°09‧36″N, 134°39‧22″E). The area engulfed by the meteoritic fall was around 48 km2, with an elliptic form and thousands of craters. Around the large craters the trees were torn out by the roots and laid radially to the craters at a distance of 10-20 m; the more distant trees had broken tops. This research investigated through dendrocronology n.6 Scots pine trees (Pinus Sibirica) close to one of the main impact craters. The analysis of growth anomalies has shown a sudden decrease since 1947 for 4-8 years after the meteoritic impact. Tree growth stress, detected in 1947, was analysed in detail through wood microsection that confirmed the winter season (rest vegetative period) of the event. The growth stress is mainly due to the lost crown (needle lost) and it did not seem to be caused due to direct damages on trunk and branches (missing of resin ducts).

  13. Formation of phreatomagmatic pipes in the Tunguska Basin (Siberia, Russia) during the end-Permian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polozov, Alexander; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre

    2010-05-01

    We recently proposed that numerous pipes piercing sedimentary rocks of Tunguska Basin triggered the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (Svensen et al., 2009). Large amounts of greenhouse and poisonous gases were released through the pipes and into P-Tr atmosphere, partly formed by heating of petroleum-bearing evaporites. The sub-volcanic part of the Siberian Traps was emplaced in the Tunguska Basin sedimentary sequences, which includes Pre-Cambrian source rocks, Early Cambrian evaporites, and Paleozoic terrigenous and coal-bearing rocks. Spectacular breccia pipes are numerous in the evaporate-parts of the basin, and are filled with volcaniclastic rocks and commercial magnetite mineralization. Although these pipes have been intensively studied in order to understand the iron ore formation, the origin and formation of the pipes is poorly understood. Many researchers emphasize that magma-sediments interaction as a key reason of pipe formation, whereas phreatomagmatic hypothesis are also proposed. In order to improve the understanding of pipe formation and ore-deposition, we have studied a basalt-rich breccia pipe piercing Cambrian evaporates at the Nepa locality in East Siberia. Textural features of the volcanic fragments in the breccias include lapilli, Pele's hear, glassy basalt and dolerite clasts, blocks of tuffs in addition to sedimentary rocks. Calcite and halite are the most common types of cement. We have studied minerals from the breccia cement and from reaction rims around clasts in order to understand the hydrothermal system that developed after the pipe formed. Calcite and dolomite are the dominating carbonates, and two types of anhydrite is present. Biotite, Cl-Fe-bearing amphibole (hastingsite), and Cl-F-apatite are amongst early hydrothermal minerals covering magmatic clast and lapillies. Our new data confirm (i) the phreatomagmatic nature of breccia filling in the Tunguska Basin pipes and (ii) the key role of sedimentary brine and petroleum involved in

  14. Benthic bioindicators from the lakes of Northern Yakutia (Siberia, Russia) in paleoclimatic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumanov, O. N.; Nazarova, L. B.; Frolova, L. A.; Pestryakova, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    High latitude regions are particularly affected by global climate change. Aquatic ecosystems are known to respond quickly and sensitively to such changes (Carpenter et al., 1992; Findlay et al. 2001; Smol et al., 2005). This effect is especially dramatic in regions with continental climates such as Northern and Eastern Siberia. In 2008, Russian-German expedition investigated 33 lakes of Kolyma river basin, North-Eastern Yakutia. The region of investigation is located in the mouth of Kolyma river between approximately 68°2' and 69°4' N and between 159°8' and 161°9' E. It's a most north-eastern region of Yakutia, so it's suitable for paleolimnological investigations. The investigated lakes are situated along the 200 km transect crossing 3 vegetation zones: polygonal tundra, forest tundra and northern taiga. The main aims were establishing a calibration dataset for paleoenvironmental reconstructions by using aquatic organisms, investigation of limnological variables and the influence of the environmental conditions on distribution of aquatic organisms in Yakutian lakes. The modern benthic fauna of the lakes is represented by 89 taxa from 14 taxonomic groups. The most abundant group was Mollusca. The most taxonomically diverse group was Chironomidae. A unique for this region species were discovered, such as Cincinna kamchatica, Physa jarochnovitschae, Colymbetes dolabratus, Ilybius wasastjernae, Xestochironomus sp., Agrypnia sp. etc. Cluster analysis of taxonomical composition of the benthic fauna of these lakes showed high dependency to vegetation zones. The highest levels of hydrobiological indexes (Shannon, Evenness, species richness) were registered in forest tundra. CCA analysis showed that the most influential factors in species distribution were climate-dependant factors, such as mean Tair of July, pH and water depth. Data from taxonomical analysis of Chironomidae group were used for establishing a calibration dataset for paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

  15. Origin of the gas-condensate deposits and prediction of the phase state of hydrocarbons in northern West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Nemchenko, N.N.; Rovenskaya, A.S.

    1987-05-01

    In northern West Siberia, a zone of petroleum accumulation has been identified, embracing the Nadym-Pur, Pur-Tazovskiy, Gydanovsk, and Yamal' petroliferous regions. A characteristic feature of this zone is the development of a thick (up to 2000 m) Cretaceous complex, with which the bulk of the gas and gas-condensate resources of West Siberia is associated. The origin of the gas-condensate deposits, discovered over a wide range from Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) to Jurassic, with differing hydrocarbon composition and amount of condensate, has been inadequately investigated, but nevertheless it has great significance in predicting the phase state of the hydrocarbons in the deposits and the reliability of estimating the reserves. The paper discusses the origin of these gas condensates from petroleum and coal deposits. 5 references.

  16. Distribution of GHG over West Siberia: airborne and tower network observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, M. Yu.; Machida, T.; Inoue, G.; Belan, B. D.; Maksyutov, Sh.; Sasakawa, M.; Watai, T.; Shimoyama, K.; Sutoh, H.; Davydov, D. K.

    2009-04-01

    In spite of high confidence level in understanding of greenhouse effect on climate change there is a lack of measurement data over significant part of the Northern Hemisphere. Taking into account the importance of the global climate changes and international cooperation in this field, NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) and IAO (Institute of Atmospheric Optics) combined their efforts in the framework of Joint Japanese-Russian Project on GHG monitoring to fill up this gap at least over West Siberia, which occupies a significant part of Northern Eurasia. This monitoring consists of airborne and tower network observations. Airborne study of vertical distribution of greenhouse gases nearby Novosibirsk (between 54°05'N-81°50'E and 54°35'N-82°40'E) has been started on July 1997. Monthly flight observation have been conducted at an altitude from 500 to 7000 km. The 11-year airborne study nearby Novosibirsk has revealed a positive trend in CO2 mixing ratio (>15 ppm) and the absence of a definite trend for CH4. Minimum of CO2 concentration is typically observed at the end of July. Highest annual amplitudes of CO2 mixing ratio (up to 40 ppm) are observed in the atmospheric boundary layer. During recent years a tower network (8 towers) for carbon dioxide and methane monitoring was established in West Siberia. This network covers several climatic zones from steppes in the south to northern taiga in the north (51°N to 63°N and 62°E to 82°E). In this paper we present the first results of the diurnal, seasonal, and annual behavior of these greenhouse gases in the surface atmospheric layer over West Siberia Diurnal behavior of CO2 mixing ratio showed its maximum amplitude in July and its minimum amplitude in January. Concentration gradient between northern and southern regions remains during the whole year. Carbon dioxide mixing ratio has a pronounced annual behavior with a maximum in December and a minimum in July-August. It starts to decrease on March

  17. The Holocene environmental history of the Verkhoyansk Mountains region (northeastern Siberia, Russia) reconstructed from high-resolution pollen data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, S.; Tarasov, P. E.; Andreev, A. A.; Diekmann, B.

    2009-04-01

    The study presented here is part of the IPY project 106 "Lake Records of late Quaternary Climate Variability in northeastern Siberia" and the German Research Foundation project RI 809/17-1,2 "Late Quaternary environmental history of interstadial and interglacial periods in the Arctic reconstructed from bioindicators in permafrost sequences in NE Siberia". Both projects focus on generating high-resolution vegetation and climate proxy records mainly from lacustrine sediments along a north-south transect from Yakutia, Republic of Russia. This region is known for its climate extremes, with the Verkhoyansk Mountain Range being the coldest area in the Northern Hemisphere - "Pole of Cold". Radiocarbon-dated pollen records from Lake Billyakh (65°17'N, 126°47'E; 340 m a.s.l.) located in the central part of the Verkhoyansk Mountains were used to reconstruct vegetation and climate changes. The longest and oldest sediment core from the lake reaches back to >30 kyr BP, thus covering the last two Late Pleistocene Interstadials in Siberia. The pollen record and pollen-based biome reconstruction of the core PG 1756, which covers the last 15 kyr BP, suggest that open cool steppe and grass and sedge tundra communities with Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Selaginella rupestris dominated the area from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. On the other hand, the constant presence of Larix pollen in quantities comparable to today's values points to the constant presence of boreal deciduous conifer trees in the regional vegetation during the last glaciation. A major spread of shrub tundra communities, including birch (Betula sect. Nanae), alder (Duschekia fruticosa) and willow (Salix) species, is dated to 13.5-12.7 kyr BP, indicating a noticeable increase in precipitation toward the end of the last glaciation, particularly during the Allerød Interstadial. Between 12.7 and 11.4 kyr BP pollen percentages of herbaceous taxa rapidly increased, whereas shrub taxa

  18. Changes in CO_{2} trends observed in the lower troposphere over West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris D.; Machida, Toshinobu; Sasakawa, Motoki; Maksyutov, Shamil; Davydov, Denis; Fofonov, Alexandr; Arshinov, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Long-term airborne observations of greenhouse gases carried out in the troposphere over south-western area of West Siberia since 1997 allowed some specific features in CO2 trends to be revealed at different heights. At an altitude of 7 km above ground level (AGL), the average annual rate of CO2 increase was 1.72 ppm yr‑1. The main distinctive features in the tendencies of CO2 mixing ratio have been found in the lower troposphere. Thus, for the period from 1997 to 2004, July concentrations of CO2 at an altitude of 500 m AGL increased slightly with a rate of 0.17 ppm yr‑1, while since 2005 they began to rise dramatically with a rate of 3.64 ppm yr‑1. Analysis of the possible causes of such long-term behavior showed that it was resulted from neither reduction of forest area, nor wildfires, nor forest diseases. Also it is impossible to state that reducing CO2 sink has been caused by the impact of climate changes on ecosystems. Possibly, anthropogenic CO2 accumulation resulted in that Siberian forests cannot assimilate such additional amount of carbon dioxide. A decrease in the sink for atmospheric CO2 is also observed in the Amazon (Brienen et al. 2015). Brienen et al. (2015) assume that it may be caused by a sustained long-term increase in tree mortality. There is also a supposition that it can be a result of a vegetation replacement by other types of plants or young trees, which absorb less amount of CO2 (Kunstler et al., 2015; Crowther T. W., 2015). However, it seems highly unlikely to test these hyposeses in the near future due to a huge area of West Siberia, most regions of which are difficult to access. This work was funded by the Global Environment Research Account for National Institutes of the Ministry of the Environment (Japan) and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 14-05-00590). Brienen R.J.W. et al. 2015. Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink. Nature. 519 (7543), 344-348. Kunstler G. et al. 2015. Plant functional traits have

  19. Changes in CO_{2} trends observed in the lower troposphere over West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris D.; Machida, Toshinobu; Sasakawa, Motoki; Maksyutov, Shamil; Davydov, Denis; Fofonov, Alexandr; Arshinov, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Long-term airborne observations of greenhouse gases carried out in the troposphere over south-western area of West Siberia since 1997 allowed some specific features in CO2 trends to be revealed at different heights. At an altitude of 7 km above ground level (AGL), the average annual rate of CO2 increase was 1.72 ppm yr-1. The main distinctive features in the tendencies of CO2 mixing ratio have been found in the lower troposphere. Thus, for the period from 1997 to 2004, July concentrations of CO2 at an altitude of 500 m AGL increased slightly with a rate of 0.17 ppm yr-1, while since 2005 they began to rise dramatically with a rate of 3.64 ppm yr-1. Analysis of the possible causes of such long-term behavior showed that it was resulted from neither reduction of forest area, nor wildfires, nor forest diseases. Also it is impossible to state that reducing CO2 sink has been caused by the impact of climate changes on ecosystems. Possibly, anthropogenic CO2 accumulation resulted in that Siberian forests cannot assimilate such additional amount of carbon dioxide. A decrease in the sink for atmospheric CO2 is also observed in the Amazon (Brienen et al. 2015). Brienen et al. (2015) assume that it may be caused by a sustained long-term increase in tree mortality. There is also a supposition that it can be a result of a vegetation replacement by other types of plants or young trees, which absorb less amount of CO2 (Kunstler et al., 2015; Crowther T. W., 2015). However, it seems highly unlikely to test these hyposeses in the near future due to a huge area of West Siberia, most regions of which are difficult to access. This work was funded by the Global Environment Research Account for National Institutes of the Ministry of the Environment (Japan) and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 14-05-00590). Brienen R.J.W. et al. 2015. Long-term decline of the Amazon carbon sink. Nature. 519 (7543), 344-348. Kunstler G. et al. 2015. Plant functional traits have globally

  20. Genetic integrity of four species of Leptidea (Pieridae, Lepidoptera) as sampled in sympatry in West Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Solovyev, Vladimir I.; Ilinsky, Yury; Kosterin, Oleg E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In southern West Siberia, as many as four Leptidea Billberg, 1820 species are present sympatrically: Leptidea amurensis (Ménétriés, 1859), Leptidea morsei (Ménétriés, 1859), Leptidea sinapis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Leptidea juvernica Williams, 1946. The two latter were recently recognised as nearly sibling species on morphological and molecular characters. Specimens intermediate as to their subtle diagnostic characters occurring in West Siberia and elsewhere were interpreted as resulted from limited introgression. This supposition was tested via populational morphological and molecular analysis of spring brood specimens of all the four species taken from a limited (4.5 × 0.2 km) area in the suburbs of Novosibirsk. The samples were analysed with respect to the genitalic morphology, external characters, three nuclear (CAD, H1 gene and ITS2) and one mitochondrial (COI) molecular markers, infection of the intracellular maternally inherited bacterial symbiont Wolbachia Hertig, 1836 and its wsp gene coding for a hypervariable surface protein. Interspecific variation of the nuclear CAD and ITS2 sequences and the mitochondrial COI gene in Leptidea sinapis and Leptidea juvernica turned out concordant. The absence of molecular evidence of introgression suggests genetic integrity of these two species and allows their reliable identification by molecular characters. The genitalic (lengths of the saccus and valva) and external characters (wing pattern) of males overlap in Leptidea sinapis and Leptidea juvernica, as identified by molecular markers and thus are not so helpful in actual species identification. Only the ductus bursae length showed no overlap and can be used for identification of females. The histone H1 gene appeared five times less variable over the four studied species than COI, and found to be identical in species Leptidea sinapis and Leptidea juvernica. Wolbachia infection was found in all studied species. We identified three wsp variants of

  1. Phytoplankton community structure in the Lena Delta (Siberia, Russia) in relation to hydrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraberg, A. C.; Druzhkova, E.; Heim, B.; Loeder, M. J. G.; Wiltshire, K. H.

    2013-02-01

    The Lena Delta in Northern Siberia is one of the largest river deltas in the world. During peak discharge, after the ice melt in spring, it delivers between 60-8000 m3s-1 of water and sediment into the Arctic Ocean. The Lena Delta and the Laptev Sea coast also constitute a~continuous permafrost region. Ongoing climate change, which is particularly pronounced in the Arctic, is leading to increased rates of permafrost thaw. This is likely to profoundly change the discharge rates of the Lena River and the chemistry of the river waters which are discharged into the coastal Laptev Sea, e.g. by increasing concentrations of inorganic nutrients, DOC and importantly methane. These physical and chemical changes will also affect the composition of and interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton communities, forming the basis of the food web. However, before potential consequences of climate change for coastal arctic plankton communities can be judged, the inherent status of the diversity and linked foodweb interactions within the delta need to be established. As part of the AWI Lena Delta Programme in 2010 the phyto- and microzooplankton community in three river channels as well as four coastal transects were investigated to capture the typical river phytoplankton communities and the transitional zone of brackish/marine conditions. Most CTD profiles from 23 coastal stations showed very strong stratification. The only exception to this was a small a shallow and mixed area running from the outflow of Bykovskaya channel in a northerly direction parallel to the shore (transect 3). Of the five stations in this area three had a salinity of close to zero. Two further stations had salinities of around 2 and 5 throughout the water column. In the remaining transects on the other hand salinities varied between 5-30 with depth. Phytoplankton counts from the outflow from the Lena were dominated by diatoms (Aulacoseira species) cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon, Pseudanabaena) and

  2. Phytoplankton community structure in the Lena Delta (Siberia, Russia) in relation to hydrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraberg, A. C.; Druzhkova, E.; Heim, B.; Loeder, M. J. G.; Wiltshire, K. H.

    2013-11-01

    The Lena Delta in Northern Siberia is one of the largest river deltas in the world. During peak discharge, after the ice melt in spring, it delivers between 60-8000 m3 s-1 of water and sediment into the Arctic Ocean. The Lena Delta and the Laptev Sea coast also constitute a continuous permafrost region. Ongoing climate change, which is particularly pronounced in the Arctic, is leading to increased rates of permafrost thaw. This has already profoundly altered the discharge rates of the Lena River. But the chemistry of the river waters which are discharged into the coastal Laptev Sea have also been hypothesized to undergo considerable compositional changes, e.g. by increasing concentrations of inorganic nutrients such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and methane. These physical and chemical changes will also affect the composition of the phytoplankton communities. However, before potential consequences of climate change for coastal arctic phytoplankton communities can be judged, the inherent status of the diversity and food web interactions within the delta have to be established. In 2010, as part of the AWI Lena Delta programme, the phyto- and microzooplankton community in three river channels of the delta (Trofimov, Bykov and Olenek) as well as four coastal transects were investigated to capture the typical river phytoplankton communities and the transitional zone of brackish/marine conditions. Most CTD profiles from 23 coastal stations showed very strong stratification. The only exception to this was a small, shallow and mixed area running from the outflow of Bykov channel in a northerly direction parallel to the shore. Of the five stations in this area, three had a salinity of close to zero. Two further stations had salinities of around 2 and 5 throughout the water column. In the remaining transects, on the other hand, salinities varied between 5 and 30 with depth. Phytoplankton counts from the outflow from the Lena were dominated by diatoms (Aulacoseira species

  3. Content and distribution of trace metals in pristine permafrost environments of Northeastern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antcibor, I.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Arctic regions are one of the most sensitive areas with respect to climatic changes and human impacts. Research is required to discover how the function of permafrost soils as a buffering system for metal pollutants could change in response to the predicted changes. The goal of this work is to determine the background levels of trace metals in the pristine arctic ecosystems of the Lena River Delta in Northeastern Siberia and to evaluate the possible effect of human impacts on this arctic region. The Lena River Delta represents areas with different dominating geomorphologic processes that can generally be divided between accumulation and erosion sites. Frequent changes of the river water level create different periods of sedimentation and result in the formation of stratified soils and sediment layers which are dominated either by mineral substrates with allochthonous organic matter or pure autochthonous peat. The deposited sediments that have formed the delta islands are mostly composed of sand fractions; therefore the buffering effects of clay materials can be neglected. Samoylov Island is representative of the south-central and eastern modern delta surfaces of the Lena River Delta and is selected as a pilot study site. We determined total element contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, As, Pb, Co and Hg in soil horizons from different polygonal elevated rims, polygonal depressed centers and the middle floodplain. High gravimetric concentrations (related to dry mass of soil material) of Mn and Fe are found within all soil profiles and vary from 0.14 to 1.39 g kg-1 and from 10.7 to 41.2 g kg-1, respectively. While the trace element concentrations do not exceed typical crustal abundances, the maximum values of most of the metals are observed within the soil profile situated at the middle floodplain. This finding suggests that apart from the parent material the second potential source of trace metals is due to allochthonous substance input during annual flooding of the

  4. Chemostratigraphy of early Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of Yenisei ridge (Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnevskaya, Irina; Pisareva, Natalia; Kanygina, Nadejda; Proshenkin, Artem

    2014-05-01

    One of the biggest Proterozoic sedimentary basins in Russia is around the Siberian platform. This study about little part of them - Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of Yenisei ridge (Southwestern margin of Siberian Platform). Thise geological structure is ancient and very difficult for reaserch. It is a collage of different blocks: volcanic arcks, ophiolite complexes and sedimentary rocks of various ages and degrees of metamorphism. Sedimentary complexes of Siberian platform are outcropping along Angara River and its tributary. Neoproterozoic ones are presented by terrigenous-carbonate rocks of Tungusik and Oslyan groups. Despite the long study history of the area is still controversial question of time of formation of these rocks. As determination of the age of Precambrian sedimentary rocks is very difficult, Sr isotopic chemostratigraphy appears to be the only approach to establish the age of carbonate sequences. All Rb-Sr author's data was investigated by the method of selective dissolution with the preliminary removal of epigenetic carbonate phases. The isotope dilution method with mixed 87Rb + 84Sr spike was used to determine Rb and Sr concentrations in both fractions on the MI 1201AT mass spectrometer. Sr isotope ratios were measured on the Finnigan MAT-262 (BAC CU, Irkutsk, Russia) and Triton Plus (IGG UB RAS, Ekaterinburg, Russia). The C-O isotopic composition in carbon samples was measured on the Finnigan MAT-253 equipment. The main criteria for integrity were correlations of impurity-elements (Mn, Fe, Sr) and stable isotopes (C, O) with each other. The less altered rocks of the Tungusik Group are characterized by 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7055-0.7058, and wide variations in the δ13CPDB values from 0 to +5o [1]. The primary 87Sr/86Sr of Dashka Formation (Oslyan Group) is 0.7057 - 0.7060 and δ13CPDB value varies in interval 3.7-4.3o like in upper part of Tungusik Group. High positive values of δ13CPDB indicate that carbonates had accumulated in warm sea

  5. Investigations of adaptation mechanisms of different halophytes types in different soil salinity conditions (Southern Central Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slyusar, Natalia; Pechurkin, Nickolay

    High salt concentration in the soil is one of the limiting factors affecting plant growth and development. However, there are plants that are physiologically adapted to high salts concen-trations -halophytes. Studies of halophytes reveals mechanisms of adaptation to this factor. Investigations were conducted in the steppe zone of Southern Central Siberia (Russia, Khaka-sia), nearest coastal zone of the Lake Kurinka. The work was carried on route and stationary methods. As a results was conducted about 100 geobotanical descriptions, was defined species composition, covering, vertical and horizontal structure of plant communities, the productivity of above ground dry phytomass. As a result of field work was identified various types of plant communities, that are located on soils with a salinity degree are 0,2 -7,16 g / l. Type of saline -sulfate-sodium. Suaeda plant communities was located in the meadow-saline soil (soil salinity degree 5 -7 g / l). The dominant is euhalophyte Suaeda linifolia Pall. and subdominant is glycohalophyte Puccinellia tenuissima. A plant community has two layers. Total covering is 50 -55During the study period (2004 -2009), the change was observed in the soil salinity degree in the range of 2.27 -7.16 g / l. The plan community productivity varied from 99 to 201 g/m2 by years of research. Also was noted that the salt amount in the plants biomass varies depending on the type of halophyte. In the cells of euhalophyte Suaeda linifolia the salt amount was 10-35The investigation noted that relations between the main photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) have changes depending on the type of halophyte. Thus, in typical glycohalophyte Puccinellia tenuissima, Elytrigia repens and Phragmites australis chlorophyll content remained relatively high during the summer period and were 0,74, 0,61 and 0,53

  6. Mid-late Holocene environmental history of Kulunda, southern West Siberia: vegetation, climate and humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Nourgaliev, Danis; Palagushkina, Olga; Papin, Dmitry; Frolova, Larisa

    2012-08-01

    An environmental reconstruction of mid-late Holocene vegetation, climate and lake dynamics was inferred from pollen and diatom records of Lake Big Yarovoe in Kulunda, southern West Siberia. The reconstruction suggests a general prevalence of steppe during the last 4.4 ka. Under a relatively warm and dry climate, open semi-desert and dry steppes with patchy birch forest spread between 4.4 and 3.75 ka BP. The largest development of conifer forest started in Kulunda after 3.75 ka BP. The onset of the Late Holocene is characterised by the dominance of steppe with birch and pine forests in the lowlands and river valleys. After AD 1860, open steppe and semi-desert vegetation with fragmentary birch forest have been dominant in Kulunda, along with a sharp reduction of conifers. These results are in agreement with the general pattern of the Holocene environmental history of the surrounding areas, including the Baraba forest-steppe, Kazakh Upland and Altai Mountains. The penetration of coniferous forest into the Kulunda steppe after 3.75 ka BP was related to its geographical location northwest of the Altai Mountains. The economic activities of the ancient population of Kulunda depended on the environmental changes during the Holocene.

  7. Indications of decreasing human PTS concentrations in North West Russia

    PubMed Central

    Rylander, Charlotta; Sandanger, Torkjel M.; Petrenya, Natalya; Konoplev, Alexei; Bojko, Evgeny; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2011-01-01

    Background The Russian Arctic covers an enormous landmass with diverse environments. It inhabits more than 20 different ethnic groups, all of them with various living conditions and food traditions. Indigenous populations with a traditional way of living are exposed to a large number of anthropogenic pollutants, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and toxic metals, mainly through the diet. Human monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals in the Russian Arctic has only been performed on irregular intervals over the past 15 years, thus, there is still a lack of baseline data from many ethnic groups and geographical regions. The aim of the current study was to investigate concentrations of POPs and toxic metals in three groups of indigenous people from the Russian Arctic. Plasma concentrations of POPs were measured in one of the locations (Nelmin-Nos) in 2001–2003 which gave the unique opportunity to compare concentrations over time in a small Russian arctic community. Methods During 2009 and early 2010, 209 blood samples were collected from three different study sites in North West Russia; Nelmin-Nos, Izhma and Usinsk. The three study sites are geographically separated and the inhabitants are expected to have different dietary habits and living conditions. All blood samples were analyzed for POPs and toxic metals. Results PCB 153 was present in highest concentrations of the 18 PCBs analyzed. p,p′-DDE and HCB were the two most dominating OC pesticides. Males had higher concentrations of PCB 138, 153 and 180 than women and age was a significant predictor of PCB 153, 180, HCB and p,p′-DDD. Males from Izhma had significantly higher concentrations of HCB than males from the other study sites and women from Usinsk had higher concentrations of p,p′-DDE. Parity was a significant predictor of p,p′-DDE. Hg and Pb concentrations increased with increasing age and males had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than women. The study

  8. Petroleum geology and resources of the Baykit High province, East Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    The Baykit High province consists of two principal structural units?the Baykit regional high in the west, which occupies most of the province, and the Katanga structural saddle in the east. The province is on the western margin of the Siberian craton east of theYenisey Ridge foldbelt. The province is an exploration frontier and only a few prospects have been drilled. The oldest sedimentary rocks of the province, Riphean carbonate and clastic strata of Late Proterozoic age (1,650?650 million years old) that were deposited on the passive margin, cover the Archean?Lower Proterozoic basement. Basal Vendian (uppermost Proterozoic, 650?570 million years old) clastic rocks unconformably overlie various units of the Riphean and locally lie directly on the basement. Younger Vendian and lowermost Cambrian rocks are primarily dolomites. The Vendian/Cambrian boundary is con-formable, and its exact stratigraphic position has not been identified with certainty. The Lower Cambrian section is thick, and it consists of alternating beds of dolomite and evaporites (mostly salt). Middle and Upper Cambrian strata are composed of shale and dolomite. Ordovician-Silurian and upper Paleozoic rocks are thin, and they are present only in the northern areas of the province. Structural pattern of Riphean rocks differs substantially from that of Vendian-Cambrian rocks. A single total petroleum system (TPS) was identified in the Baykit High province. Discovered oil of the system is chiefly concentrated in Riphean carbonate reservoirs of the Yurubchen-Tokhom zone that is currently being explored and that has the Abstract 1 potential to become a giant field (or group of fields). The TPS also contains about 5 trillion cubic feet of discovered recover-able gas in clastic reservoir rocks at the base of the Vendian section. Petroleum source rocks are absent in the stratigraphic succession over most of the TPS area. Riphean organic-rich shales and carbonates that crop out in the Yenisey Ridge foldbelt

  9. Chineysky Layered Intrusion with unique V and PGE-Cu ores (Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gongalskiy, Bronislav; Krivolutskaya, Nadezda

    2010-05-01

    system in Late Proterozoic. There are two types of commercial mineralization in the Chiney massif: Fe-Ti-V and Cu with precious metals. Nowadays the Chiney massif comprises the largest V recourses in Russia. The iron ores are concentrated in the central part of the intrusion and are represented by two varieties: disseminated and massive (the early-magmatic type); veins and irregular bodies (the late-magmatic type). Sulfide minerals occur as accessory disseminations in all rocks of the massif, but their higher concentrations are distributed locally. The copper commercial mineralization is confined to the contact zone of gabbroids with the host rocks, so endo-and exocontact ores are determined. The disseminated mineralization predominates sharply. Vein bodies are distributed in the limited region and localized at a small distance from the bottom of the intrusion. The main ore mineral is chalcopyrite, that is very unusual for Cu-Ni deposits (Cu/Ni=10-100, Pd/Pt=3 in ores). The major minerals are pyrrhotite and pentlandite. Many rare minerals of noble metals (Ag, Au, PGE) were found too. In general, the minerals consist of compounds of Pd with Bi, Te, Sb, Sn, As, and Ni; compounds of Pt with As, S, and Fe; a compound of Rh with As-S, as well hessite (Ag2Te) and Au-Ag-(Hg) alloys. It was found froodite; sobolevskite; kotulskite; sudburyite; stibiopalladinite; mertieite II; isomertieite; paolovite; michenerite; arsenopalladinite; merenskiite; majakite et ctr. References 1. Gongalskiy B.I., N.A. Krivolutskaya, A.A. Ariskin, G.S. Nikolaev.// Geochemistry International. 2008. Vol. 46. No. 7. P. 637-665. 2. Gongalskiy B. I., Yu. G. Safonov, N. A. Krivolutskaya, V. Yu. Prokof'ev, and A. A. Yushin. A // Doklady Earth Sciences. 2007.Vol. 415, No. 5. P. 671-674.

  10. Trace element speciation and origin of colloids in surface waters of subarctic zone (NW of Russia and Central Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Viers, J.; Prokushkin, A. S.; Vasukova, E. V.; Shirokova, L. S.; Dupre, B.

    2008-12-01

    Geochemistry of trace elements (TE) in boreal regions attracts large attention of researchers in view of on- going environmental changes that can affect both the fluxes of these elements to the ocean, their speciation and thus their bioavailability. Most of trace elements in waters of boreal zone are transported via organic and organo-mineral colloids. In order to better understand the processes of colloids formation in surface waters draining watersheds of various lithology and permafrost abundance, comparative study of TE speciation in various geographic zones is necessary. In this work we attempted to generalize the typical features of trace element speciation in boreal arctic and subarctic zones assessed via in-situ dialysis and ultrafiltration. Surface waters of three circumpolar regions in Arkhangelsk region, NW Russia and Central Siberia were studied using unique and rigorous procedure via combination of in-situ dialysis and ultrafiltration (1 kDa, 3.5 kDa, 10 kDa, 100 kDa, 0.22 µm, 0.45 µm, 1 μm, 5 µm). In both filtrates and dialysates, all major and trace elements and dissolved organic carbon were analyzed. In all studied regions, three typical features of colloid speciation have been revealed: i) high proportion of large-size colloids (10 kDa - 0.22 μm and 0.22 μm - 5 µm), mostly composed of Fe oxy(hydr)oxides stabilized by organic matter; ii) presence of organic-rich, small size colloids and conventionally "dissolved" substances (< 1 kDa and 1 - 10 kDa), presumably, fulvic acids, and iii) strong association of all trivalent and tetravalent elements with large-size mineral colloids. Results of the present work allow distinguishing between two possible pathways of colloids formation: 1) Groundwater-borne Fe(II) oxidation and TE coprecipitation in the presence of organic matter originated from plant litter and peat layers of surface horizons at the surface redox front between anoxic groundwaters and surficial OM-rich waters of the riparian zone, and

  11. Global Lessons from Siberia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jan L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a visit by two U.S. social studies educators to schools in Krasnoyarsk, a city in Siberia, Russia. Discusses economic and social changes brought about by the end of the Cold War. Recommends more international and global education for both Russia and the United States. (CFR)

  12. Food and water security issues in Russia III: food- and waterborne diseases in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengard, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background The food- and waterborne disease situation in Russia requires special attention. Poor quality of centralized water supplies and sewage systems, biological and chemical contamination of drinking water, as well as contamination of food products, promote widespread infectious diseases, significantly exceeding nationwide rates in the population living in the two-thirds of Russian northern territories. Objectives The general aim was to assess the levels of food- and waterborne diseases in selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (for the period 2000–2011), and to compare disease levels among regions and with national levels in Russia. Study design and methods This study is the first comparative assessment of the morbidity in these fields of the population of 18 selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, using official statistical sources. The incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases among the general population (including indigenous peoples) have been analyzed in selected regions (per 100,000 of population, averaged for 2000–2011). Results Among compulsory registered infectious and parasitic diseases, there were high rates and widespread incidences in selected regions of shigellosis, yersiniosis, hepatitis A, tularaemia, giardiasis, enterobiasis, ascariasis, diphyllobothriasis, opistorchiasis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis. Conclusion Incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases in the general population of selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (2000–2011) are alarmingly high. Parallel solutions must be on the agenda, including improvement of sanitary conditions of cities and settlements in the regions, modernization of the water supply and of the sewage system. Provision and monitoring of the quality of the drinking water, a reform of the general healthcare system and the epidemiological surveillance (including gender

  13. Trends in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) associated with urban development in northern West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esau, Igor; Miles, Victoria V.; Davy, Richard; Miles, Martin W.; Kurchatova, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Exploration and exploitation of oil and gas reserves of northern West Siberia has promoted rapid industrialization and urban development in the region. This development leaves significant footprints on the sensitive northern environment, which is already stressed by the global warming. This study reports the region-wide changes in the vegetation cover as well as the corresponding changes in and around 28 selected urbanized areas. The study utilizes the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from high-resolution (250 m) MODIS data acquired for summer months (June through August) over 15 years (2000-2014). The results reveal the increase of NDVI (or "greening") over the northern (tundra and tundra-forest) part of the region. Simultaneously, the southern, forested part shows the widespread decrease of NDVI (or "browning"). These region-wide patterns are, however, highly fragmented. The statistically significant NDVI trends occupy only a small fraction of the region. Urbanization destroys the vegetation cover within the developed areas and at about 5-10 km distance around them. The studied urbanized areas have the NDVI values by 15 to 45 % lower than the corresponding areas at 20-40 km distance. The largest NDVI reduction is typical for the newly developed areas, whereas the older areas show recovery of the vegetation cover. The study reveals a robust indication of the accelerated greening near the older urban areas. Many Siberian cities become greener even against the wider browning trends at their background. Literature discussion suggests that the observed urban greening could be associated not only with special tending of the within-city green areas but also with the urban heat islands and succession of more productive shrub and tree species growing on warmer sandy soils.

  14. Deciduous shrub growth and the greening of the Arctic in West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, B. C.; Macias Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Kumpula, T.

    2010-12-01

    Salix lanata and Alnus fruticosa are common and widespread shrub species in the low arctic tundra zone of West Siberia. They often occur in similar local habitats with the live portions of genets up to 100 years old. We have recently established that growth rings of S. lanata provide an excellent proxy for summer temperature. In that study our data were derived from shrubs growing on organic soils near the arctic coast of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO), west of the Ural Mountains. East of the Urals, in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (YNAO), climate is more continental and sandy soils provide a relatively nutrient-poor substrate for plant growth. By sampling two different species side by side on the Yamal Peninsula, we shed light on the relationship between deciduous shrubs and growing season temperatures in the last half century or so, a period of pronounced regional warming. We discern differences in the climate signal within a single species (S. lanata) as well as between it and a neighboring species with a strongly overlapping ecological amplitude (A. fruticosa). July is the main month for temperature correlation in Alnus, whereas Salix responds to June-July-August temperatures in both regions. The high correlations of shrub growth with summer temperature (r > 0.7 over the period 1956-2004) strongly suggest a link between increased shrub growth and recent decadal warming in both regions (~2°C). Both species showed significant correlation with the regional Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), although it was somewhat lower in YNAO compared to NAO, probably due to the relative land cover (10% vs. 20%, respectively) of erect shrubs in both areas, which affects their overall contribution to the NDVI. In both regions Salix lanata biomass peaks in the second half of July. Hand-held leaf area index data from Yamal indicate a significant difference between loamy/clayey and sandy sites. We hypothesized that this same variation would be evident at the

  15. Soil microbiological composition and its evolution along with forest succession in West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naplekova, Nadezhda N.; Malakhova, Nataliya A.; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2015-04-01

    Natural forest succession process in West Siberia is mostly initiated by fire disturbance and involves changing tree species composition from pioneer species to late succession trees. Along with forest aging, litter and forest biomass accumulate. Changes of the soil nitrogen cycle between succession stages, important for plant functioning, have been reported in a number of studies. To help understanding the mechanism of the changes in the soil nitrogen cycle we analyzed soil microbiological composition for soil profiles (0-160 cm) taken at sites corresponding to three forest succession stages: (1) young pine, age 18-20 years, (2) mid age, dark coniferous, age 50-70 years, (3) mature, fir-spruce, age 170-180 years. Soil samples were taken from each soil horizon and analyzed in the laboratory for quantity and species composition of algae and other microorganisms. Algae community at all stages of succession is dominated by species typical for forest (pp. Chlorhormidium, Chlamydomonas, Chloroccocum, Pleurochloris, Stichococcus). Algae species composition is summarized by formulas: young forest C14X10Ch9H2P4Cf1B2amph4, mid age X16C15Ch10H4P4Cf1B2amph4, mature X24C22Ch17H10P2amph5Cf1, with designations C -- Cyanophyta, X -- Xantophyta, Ch -- Chlorophyta, B -- Bacillariophyta. Diversity is highest in upper two horizons and declines with depth. Microorganism composition on upper 20 cm was analyzed in three types of forests separately for consumers of protein (ammonifiers) and mineral nitrogen, fungi, azotobacter, Clostridium pasteurianum, oligonitrophylic (eg diazotrophs), nitrifiers and denitrifiers. Nitrogen biologic fixation in the mature forest soils is done mostly by oligonitrophyls and microorganisms of the genus Clostridium as well as сyanobacteria of sp. Nostoc, but the production rate appears low. Concentrations (count in gram soil) of nitrogen consumers (eg ammonifiers), oligonitrophyls, Clostridium and denitrifiers increase several fold from young forest to mid

  16. Isolation of two strains of West Nile virus during an outbreak in southern Russia, 1999.

    PubMed Central

    Lvov, D. K.; Butenko, A. M.; Gromashevsky, V. L.; Larichev, V. P.; Gaidamovich, S. Y.; Vyshemirsky, O. I.; Zhukov, A. N.; Lazorenko, V. V.; Salko, V. N.; Kovtunov, A. I.; Galimzyanov, K. M.; Platonov, A. E.; Morozova, T. N.; Khutoretskaya, N. V.; Shishkina, E. O.; Skvortsova, T. M.

    2000-01-01

    From July to September 1999, a widespread outbreak of meningoencephalitis associated with West Nile virus (Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) occurred in southern Russia, with hundreds of cases and dozens of deaths. Two strains of West Nile virus isolated from patient serum and brain-tissue samples reacted in hemagglutination-inhibition and neutralization tests with patients' convalescent-phase sera and immune ascites fluid from other strains of West Nile virus. PMID:10905970

  17. Fracture system influence on the reservoirs rock formation of Ordovician-Devonian carbonates in West Siberia tectonic depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koveshnikov, A. E.; Nesterova, A. C.; Dolgaya, T. F.

    2016-09-01

    During the Paleozoic period from the beginning of the Cambrian to the end of the Carboniferous in the boundaries of the West Siberia tectonic depression there occurred the sea, where the carbonate platforms were formed by the limestones accumulation. All the area at the end of the Carboniferous period was turned to land. Resulting from Gertsynskaya folding in the times of Permian - Triassic the formed deposits were folded and denudated to a considerable extent. Besides, the reservoir rocks of the crust of weathering including redeposited one, were formed as a result of hypergenesis, during the continental stand of the area in the near-surface zone. A new geological prospecting unit has been suggested which underlies these crusts of weathering and formed during fracture tectonic processes with hydrothermal-metasomatic limestones reworking and the processes of hydrothermal leaching and dolomitization. So, in the carbonate platforms the system of fissure zones related to tectonic disturbance was formed. This has a dendrite profile where the series of tangential, more thinned fractures deviate from the stem and finish in pores and caverns. The carbonate platforms formation in the West Siberia tectonic depression has been analyzed, their dynamics and gradual increasing from the minimal in Ordovician and Silurian to maximal at the end of the Late Devonian has been shown.

  18. First record of Mylagaulid rodents (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Miocene of Eastern Siberia (Olkhon Island, Baikal Lake, Irkutsk Region, Russia).

    PubMed

    Tesakov, A S; Lopatin, A V

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of rodent, Lamugaulus olkhonensis, belonging to the subfamily Promylagaulinae of the family Mylagaulidae, is described on the basis of isolated teeth from the Khalagay Formation of the Lower Miocene Tagay locality (Olkhon island, Lake Baikal, Irkutsk Region). This is the first record of mylagaulids in Eastern Siberia, significantly expanding the data on the distribution of this mainly North American group of rodents in Asia and showing its presence outside the Central Asian arid zone.

  19. Influence of fire events on permafrost, Yubileynoe Gas Field, West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenets, V.; Kurchatova, A. N.; Shmelev, D.; Streletskiy, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The study area is located in the Subarctic region of Western Siberia at Nadym and Pur Rivers interfluve. The mean monthly air temperature of the coldest month is -25…-27oC and of the warmest month is 8…10oC. The mean annual air temperature is increasing at 0.03…0.06oC per year. The mean annual precipitation is 550…600 mm. The continuous permafrost up to 50-70 m thick have temperature of -1..-3oC. The study site is located 40 km west of Noviy Urengoy City. The study site is dominated by typical forest-tundra, where the cup-mossy larch-birch light forests neighbors with typical tundra, and the boreal fir-larch forest spread across minor river valleys. Ecosystems of the study area experience strong technogenic stress from the large gas-producing enterprise "Yubileinoe" which is situated nearby. A polygonal peatland with 2-2.5 m peat at the southern bank of Nashe-to Lake was disturbed by fire in July, 2005. The fire event lasted for 2 days have burned vegetation dominated by semifrutex, sedges, mosses, and underlaying peat. Following years the succession rates were rather slow. The peatland surface is elevated relative to the surrounding drained lake basin (hasyrey) and free of snow in winter. After the disturbance of the thermo-insulating layers (peat, moss and vegetation cover) the activation of frost-cracking was observed, especially strong at completely burnt areas on sandy loam. The second site of the hasyrey has experienced the fire in the middle of July, 2007. It is located within the plain watershed with drainage hollows. The Arctic birch, semifrutex and cup-mosses were dominating in the vegetation cover of hillocky tundra. The vegetation cover has experienced slow succession after the fire. In August, 2008, we found the semifrutex, sedges and cotton-grass growing sparsely between the burnt bare hillocks. The wetness of the territory increased. As a result of vegetation cover and mosses disturbance, the thermoinsulation have decreased and the frost

  20. Gas-emission crater in Central Yamal, West Siberia, Russia, a new permafrost feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibman, Marina; Kizyakov, Alexandr; Khomutov, Artem; Dvornikov, Yury; Streletskaya, Irina; Gubarkov, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    The Yamal crater is a hole funnel-shaped on top and cylinder-shaped down to the bottom, surrounded by a parapet. Field study of the crater included size measurements, photo- video-documentation of the feature and the surrounding environment, and geochemical sampling. The upper part of the geological section within the crater consisted of stratified icy sediments, underlain by almost pure stratified ice of nearly vertical orientation of the layers. The volume of discharged material (volume of the void of the crater) was 6 times larger than the volume of material in the parapet. The difference was due to a significant amount of ice exposed in the walls of the crater, emitted to the surface and melted there. Remote sensing data was processes and validated by field observations to reveal the date of crater formation, previous state of the surface, evolution of the crater and environmental conditions of the surrounding area. Crater formed between 9 October and 1 November 2013. The initial size derived from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) had diameter of the vegetated rim 25-29 m. It turned through a sharp bend into a cylinder with close to vertical sides and diameter 15-16 m. Depth of the hole was impossible to estimate from DEM because of no light reaching walls in the narrow hole. By the time of initial observation in July 2014, water was found at the depth exceeding 50 m below the rim. In November 2014 this depth was 26 m. By September 2015 almost all the crater was flooded, with water surface about 5 m below the rim. The plan dimensions of the crater increased dramatically from initial 25-29 to 47-54 m in 2015. Thus, it took two warm seasons to almost entirely fill in the crater. We suppose that during the next 1-2 years parapet will be entirely destroyed, and as a result the crater will look like an ordinary tundra lake. Excluding impossible and improbable versions of the crater's development, the authors conclude that the origin of this crater can be attributed to the air temperature warming trend along with the extreme of 2012. The increased ground temperature and amount of unfrozen water in the permafrost, expanding of cryopegs, formation of a pingo-like mound and its outburst due to high pressure produced by gas hydrate decomposition within permafrost are the main controls. Similar temperature anomalies may increase in number in the future decades, presenting risks for human activities in the region. This conclusion is supported by recent studies of gas-hydrate behavior in the upper permafrost as well as by subsea processes in gas-bearing provinces where analogue mechanism is known to produce pockmarks - subsea depressions. As the crater is surrounded by the parapet, thus is resulting from expulsion of ice and rocks from beneath to the surface and should not be treated as a "sinkhole", "thermokarst" or "collapse".

  1. Chromosomal Q-heterochromatin regions in the indigenous population of the northern part of West Siberia and in new migrants.

    PubMed

    Ibraimov, A I; Aksenrod, E I; Kurmanova, G U; Turapov, O A

    1991-01-01

    The variability of Q-heterochromatin regions (Q-HR) was studied in native residents of the northern part of West Siberia, viz Yakuts (n = 127), Selkups (n = 90) and Khants (n = 54), as well as in newcomers including oil-borers (n = 43) and children (n = 113) living permanently in this part of the USSR. The major quantitative characteristics of chromosomal Q-HR variability were shown to be very similar in oil-borers and natives, and this is considered to be the result of specific selection of individuals according to the amount of Q-HRs in their genome. The hypothesis on the possible selective value of chromosomal Q-HRs in human adaptation to extreme environmental conditions of the extreme north is discussed.

  2. Food and water security issues in Russia II: Water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Evengard, Birgitta; Nilsson, Lena M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Study design and methods Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000–2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized – underground and surface, and non-centralized) and of drinking water. Results Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources) are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40–80%) and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions), mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically) in 32–90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51%) were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5–12%) everywhere except Evenki AO (27%), and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly). The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages – 0.2–2

  3. Using a Whole-stream Approach to Quantify Headwater Yedoma DOC Processing Rates in NE Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heslop, J.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Davydova, A.; Davydov, S. P.; Zimov, N.

    2015-12-01

    Climate warming triggers the release of permafrost organic carbon (OC) via permafrost thaw and erosion, exporting large amounts of terrestrial C to aquatic environments and making previously frozen OC from a range of soil depths available for microbial processing. It is estimated 210-476 Pg C is stored in deep, ice-rich loess-dominated soils referred to as yedoma. Yedoma is extensive in NE Siberia and Alaska, where it underlies an area of over 1,000,000 km2 and averages 25 m in thickness. Recent research suggests ancient (Pleistocene-aged) permafrost OC, such as yedoma OC, is rapidly and preferentially utilized by microbial communities in Arctic headwater streams. We utilized a combination of short-term laboratory incubations and a whole-stream approach to examine permafrost-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) uptake, processing, and transport rates in a small stream which drains yedoma uplands in Cherskii, NE Siberia. Short-term incubations were conducted on permafrost leachates mixed with stream water to quantify microbial processing rates of permafrost-derived DOC from leachates made with surface (0-15 cm), shallow (70-100 cm), and deep (<2 m) yedoma sediments. In addition, we conducted whole-stream DOC release experiments to quantify permafrost DOC uptake length, rate, and velocity. DOC composition from samples collected during both the incubations and the nutrient-release experiments was characterized using absorbance measurements (SUVA254 and SR) and florescence spectrometry (EEMs) to quantify how DOC composition correlates to and changes with permafrost DOC bioavailability and processing parameters. Preliminary results suggest DOC processing rates may be highest in leachates made from surface sediments, which receive fresh OC input from modern ecosystems, and from deep sediments, which contain ancient, previously immobile OC. Shallow permafrost OC, which experiences degradation from annual freeze-thaw cycles without receiving fresh OC input, may have the

  4. Lifelong Learning and Adult Education: Russia Meets the West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajda, Joseph

    2003-03-01

    This article examines the impact of social change and economic transformation on adult education and lifelong learning in post-Soviet Russia. The article begins with a brief economic and historical background to lifelong learning and adult education in terms of its significance as a feature of the Russian cultural heritage. An analysis of Ministerial education policy and curriculum changes reveals that these policies reflect neo-liberal and neo-conservative paradigms in the post-Soviet economy and education. Current issues and trends in adult education are also discussed, with particular attention to the Adult Education Centres, which operate as a vast umbrella framework for a variety of adult education and lifelong learning initiatives. The Centres are designed to promote social justice by means of compensatory education and social rehabilitation for individuals dislocated by economic restructuring. The article comments on their role in helping to develop popular consciousness of democratic rights and active citizenship in a participatory and pluralistic democracy.

  5. Distribution and color variation of gyrfalcons in Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Ellis, C.H.; Pendleton, G.W.; Panteleyev, A.V.; Rebrova, I.V.; Markin, Y.M.

    1992-01-01

    Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) museum specimens in Moscow (73) and St. Petersburg (132) were divided into four color classes (gray, light gray, white gray, and white) and four longitudinal belts representing major physiographic regions of northern Russia. Gray variants predominated in the west and central regions. White birds were most common in extreme eastern Siberia, but were occasionally found even west of the Ural Mountains. Frequencies were as follows: European Russia 4% white, 50% gray (the remainder were intermediates); western Siberia 0% white, 58% gray; central Siberia 15% white, 42% gray; and eastern Siberia 47% white, 33% gray. Remarkably, in the easternmost subregion, white birds predominated even near the southernmost extension. Because the northernmost portions of the species' range in continental Russia are in central Siberia where white variants were rare, we propose that a better predictor of the white variant is longitude, not latitude. White birds were most frequent at the eastern reaches of both the Palearctic and Nearctic. The best environmental correlates of this distribution pattern may be the southward bending thermal isoclines proceeding eastward toward Greenland or Kamchatka, where both land masses are bathed by cold oceanic currents of Arctic origin. By contrast, the western reaches of both land masses are bathed by warm currents. In these western reaches, Gyrfalcon summer distribution is displaced northward and dark variants predominate. The breeding range of the Gyrfalcon, determined by mapping the locations of the specimens we examined, differs little from the range proposed in 1951.

  6. Carbon balances of freshwater ecosystems in summer and fall 2008 on Samoylov Island, Lena Delta, Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abnizova, A.; Siemens, J.; Langer, M.; Boike, J.

    2010-12-01

    A large number of freshwater ecosystems, such as lakes and ponds, exist in the northern areas of Canada, Alaska and Siberia and have been recently recognized as highly sensitive to changing climate. While numerous studies reported northern lakes as heterotrophic and supersaturated in carbon dioxide gas (CO2) environments, seasonal variability and differences in estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from various aquatic systems to the atmosphere is currently not well-known. We explored variability in freshwater carbon dynamics on Samoylov Island in the Lena Delta, Northern Siberia (72.2°N, 126.3°E). The landscape of the island represents polygonized tundra dominated by wet depressed polygonal centres (31%) and dry rims (53%) with thermokarst lakes and polygonized ponds occupying 10 and 6 %, respectively. We measured aquatic carbon components, physical and chemical characteristics and water budget components from 2 lakes, 2 ponds and 2 island outflows in the summer and early fall of 2008. Aquatic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pools were significantly smaller in the ponds compared to the lakes suggesting different carbon sources fuelling different CO2 production. The carbon budget showed that the lakes and ponds were either neutral or large sinks of aquatic DOC and DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon), representing less than 1 % of the hydrologically incoming DIC loads and close to 40 % of available DOC load in the system. Concentrations of DIC increased 4 times during freezeback (end of September) highlighting the role of ponds as transient carbon stores decoupling times of production and emission of CO2. The observed systems had low concentrations of CH4 and N2O during the study season. However, aerial survey of 42 ponds during the time of freezeback revealed that 6 of them were sources of CH4 and 10 ponds were sources of N2O. Overall, the export of terrestrially fixed carbon to the Arctic Ocean from the island via outflow channels was 354 kg of DOC per active

  7. Distribution of late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic permafrost of the Yedoma Suite in east and central Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosse, Guido; Robinson, Joel E.; Bryant, Robin; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Harper, William; DeMasi, Amy; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Harden, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This digital database is the product of collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; the Los Altos Hills Foothill College GeoSpatial Technology Certificate Program; the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany; and the Institute of Physical Chemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The primary goal for creating this digital database is to enhance current estimates of soil organic carbon stored in deep permafrost, in particular the late Pleistocene syngenetic ice-rich permafrost deposits of the Yedoma Suite. Previous studies estimated that Yedoma deposits cover about 1 million square kilometers of a large region in central and eastern Siberia, but these estimates generally are based on maps with scales smaller than 1:10,000,000. Taking into account this large area, it was estimated that Yedoma may store as much as 500 petagrams of soil organic carbon, a large part of which is vulnerable to thaw and mobilization from thermokarst and erosion. To refine assessments of the spatial distribution of Yedoma deposits, we digitized 11 Russian Quaternary geologic maps. Our study focused on extracting geologic units interpreted by us as late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic Yedoma deposits based on lithology, ground ice conditions, stratigraphy, and geomorphological and spatial association. These Yedoma units then were merged into a single data layer across map tiles. The spatial database provides a useful update of the spatial distribution of this deposit for an approximately 2.32 million square kilometers land area in Siberia that will (1) serve as a core database for future refinements of Yedoma distribution in additional regions, and (2) provide a starting point to revise the size of deep but thaw-vulnerable permafrost carbon pools in the Arctic based on surface geology and the distribution of cryolithofacies types at high spatial

  8. Tree Line Structure and Dynamics at the Northern Limit of the Larch Forest: Anabar Plateau, Siberia, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Im, Sergey T.; Oskorbin, Pavel A.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Ovchinnikov, Dmitriy V.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study was to provide an analysis of climate impact before, during, and after the Little Ice Age (LIA) on the larch (Larix gmelinii) tree line at the northern extreme of Siberian forests. Recent decadal climate change impacts on the tree line, regeneration abundance, and age structure were analyzed. The location of the study area was within the forest-tundra ecotone (elevation range 170-450 m) in the Anabar Plateau, northern Siberia. Field studies were conducted along elevational transects. Tree natality/mortality and radial increment were determined based on dendrochronology analyses. Tree morphology, number of living and subfossil trees, regeneration abundance, and age structure were studied. Locations of pre-LIA, LIA, and post-LIA tree lines and refugia boundaries were established. Long-term climate variables and drought index were included in the analysis. It was found that tree mortality from the 16th century through the beginning of the 19th century caused a downward tree line recession. Sparse larch stands experienced deforestation, transforming into tundra with isolated relict trees. The maximum tree mortality and radial growth decrease were observed to have occurred at the beginning of 18th century. Now larch, at its northern boundary in Siberia, is migrating into tundra areas. Upward tree migration was induced by warming in the middle of the 19th century. Refugia played an important role in repopulation of the forest-tundra ecotone by providing a seed source and shelter for recruitment of larch regeneration. Currently this ecotone is being repopulated mainly by tree cohorts that were established after the 1930s. The last two decades of warming did not result in an acceleration of regeneration recruitment because of increased drought conditions. The regeneration line reached (but did not exceed) the pre-LIA tree line location, although contemporary tree heights and stand densities are comparatively lower than in the pre-LIA period. The mean

  9. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 8 billion barrels of crude oil, 670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 21 billion barrels of natural gas liquids for the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  10. Petroleum geology and resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2003-01-01

    The West Siberian basin is the largest petroleum basin in the world covering an area of about 2.2 million km2. The basin occupies a swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River. On the north, the basin extends offshore into the southern Kara Sea. On the west, north, and east, the basin is surrounded by the Ural, Yenisey Ridge, and Turukhan-Igarka foldbelts that experienced major deformations during the Hercynian tectonic event and the Novaya Zemlya foldbelt that was deformed in early Cimmerian (Triassic) time. On the south, the folded Caledonian structures of the Central Kazakhstan and Altay-Sayan regions dip northward beneath the basin?s sedimentary cover. The basin is a relatively undeformed Mesozoic sag that overlies the Hercynian accreted terrane and the Early Triassic rift system. The basement is composed of foldbelts that were deformed in Late Carboniferous?Permian time during collision of the Siberian and Kazakhstan continents with the Russian craton. The basement also includes several microcontinental blocks with a relatively undeformed Paleozoic sedimentary sequence. The sedimentary succession of the basin is composed of Middle Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. The lower part of this succession is present only in the northern part of the basin; southward, progressively younger strata onlap the basement, so that in the southern areas the basement is overlain by Toarcian and younger rocks. The important stage in tectono-stratigraphic development of the basin was formation of a deep-water sea in Volgian?early Berriasian time. The sea covered more than one million km2 in the central basin area. Highly organic-rich siliceous shales of the Bazhenov Formation were deposited during this time in anoxic conditions on the sea bottom. Rocks of this formation have generated more than 80 percent of West Siberian oil reserves and probably a substantial part of its gas reserves. The deep-water basin was filled by prograding clastic clinoforms

  11. Trace metal distribution in pristine permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River delta and its hinterland, northern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antcibor, I.; Eschenbach, A.; Zubrzycki, S.; Kutzbach, L.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2014-01-01

    Soils are an important compartment of ecosystems and have the ability to buffer and immobilize substances of natural and anthropogenic origin to prevent their movement to other environment compartments. Predicted climatic changes together with other anthropogenic influences on Arctic terrestrial environments may affect biogeochemical processes enhancing leaching and migration of trace elements in permafrost-affected soils. This is especially important since Arctic ecosystems are considered to be highly sensitive to climatic changes as well as to chemical contamination. This study characterises background levels of trace metals in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River delta and its hinterland in northern Siberia (73.5-69.5° N), representing a remote region far from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. Investigations on the element content of iron (Fe), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), and mercury (Hg) in different soil types developed in different geological parent materials have been carried out. The highest median concentrations of Fe and Mn were observed in soils belonging to ice-rich permafrost sediments formed during the Pleistocene (ice-complex) while the highest median values of Ni, Pb and Zn were found in soils of both the ice-complex and the Holocene estuarine terrace of the Lena River delta region, as well as in the southernmost study unit of the hinterland area. Detailed observations of trace metal distribution on the micro scale showed that organic matter content, soil texture and iron-oxide contents influenced by cryogenic processes, temperature, and hydrological regimes are the most important factors determining the metal abundance in permafrost-affected soils. The observed range of trace element background concentrations was similar to trace metal levels reported for other pristine northern areas.

  12. Trace metal distribution in pristine permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its Hinterland, Northern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antcibor, I.; Zubrzycki, S.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bol'shiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2013-02-01

    Soils are an important compartment of ecosystems and have the ability to immobilize chemicals preventing their movement to other environment compartments. Predicted climatic changes together with other anthropogenic influences on Arctic terrestrial environments may affect biogeochemical processes enhancing leaching and migration of trace elements in permafrost-affected soils. This is especially important since the Arctic ecosystems are considered to be very sensitive to climatic changes as well as to chemical contamination. This study characterizes background levels of trace metals in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its hinterland in northern Siberia (73.5° N-69.5° N) representing a remote region far from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. Investigations on total element contents of iron (Fe), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co) and mercury (Hg) in different soil types developed in different geological parent materials have been carried out. The highest concentrations of the majority of the measured elements were observed in soils belonging to ice-rich permafrost sediments formed during the Pleistocene (ice-complex) in the Lena River Delta region. Correlation analyses of trace metal concentrations and soil chemical and physical properties at a Holocene estuarine terrace and two modern floodplain levels in the southern-central Lena River Delta (Samoylov Island) showed that the main factors controlling the trace metal distribution in these soils are organic matter content, soil texture and contents of iron and manganese-oxides. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that soil oxides play a significant role in trace metal distribution in both top and bottom horizons. Occurrence of organic matter contributes to Cd binding in top soils and Cu binding in bottom horizons. Observed ranges of the background concentrations of the majority of trace elements were similar to

  13. Agricultural landscapes dynamic at the North-West of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzel, N.

    2012-04-01

    The process of reduction of agrolandscapes has taken place some decades in the North-Western European Russia. During 100 last years the area of agricultural lands have reduced in 1,4 times on the Karelian Isthmus. The most part of it had been abandoned after change of State border after of the Second World War. The processes of overgrowing of the former agricultural lands are studied on the landscapes base. The types of landscapes are distinguished on the based of the morphological relief symptoms, characteristics of the structure rock and the humid regime. Agricultural lands occupy landscapes such as kames, sandy, sandy-loam, clayey plains, sometimes with excess moistening, sandy fluvioglacial plains, loamy morainic plains, mesotrophic and evtrophic peat-bogs. Four stages can be revealed. I - (period to 20 years after termination of agricultural use) - grass-herb meadow with unclosed brush II - (20 - 40) - shrub layer with closed or low-closed canopy and unclosed or low closed small-leaved regrowth III - (40 - 80) - closed small-leaved forest, sometime including the coniferous trees IY - predomination of the coniferous on small-leaved trees Reestablish vegetation successions can be realised by different ways, with different rate, including various trees and ecological groups of species in different landscapes. In the different sites many traits in common are discovered during this processes. The processes taking place in soil of abandoned agricultural lands are expressed more poorly than in vegetation as soil is more "conservative" element of landscape. Now most area occupies former agricultural lands, inhering on III stage and presenting itself small-leaved forest. Over the last decade because of a change in the socio-political situation there has emerged a tendency towards an increase in the area of the cultivated land in the Karelian Isthmus including the secondary development of previously abandoned lands. However, this process is going on spontaneously; there

  14. MDBT estimation ratio for transformation organic matter ratio in Bazhenov Formation of Western Siberia (Tomsk Oblast, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, I.; Samoilenko, V.; Oblasov, N.; Fadeeva, S.

    2015-02-01

    The Bazhenov Formation is the main source rock in the West Siberian Basin, because of high organic-rich Bazhenov black shales, with a total organic carbon (TOC) content of 10-15wt.% generally. Based on Rock-Eval pyrolysis data, the initial generative potential for a significant part of West Siberian Bazhenov Formation organic matter (OM) is from 10 to 60% expended. Most West Siberian oils are in the Bazhenov Formation due to very high oil potential (initial hydrogen index = 710mgHC/gTOC) and widespread regional distribution). Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) does not correctly indicate the transformation ratio (TR) of the OM in Bazhenov black shales. However, GC-MS analysis of extracts indicated a good correlation between some molecular maturity and Rock-Eval maturity parameters. Molecular maturity parameters based on naphthalenes and phenanthrenes are not applicable for Bazhenov Formation OM. While the parameters based on 4-methyldibenzothiophene and 1- methyldibenzothiophene ratio (4MDBT/1MDBT) is applicable in estimating the hydrocarbon potential of Bazhenov Formation black shales and, consequently, provides more reliable information about marine OM TR than does Ro. The 4MDBT/1MDBT ratio is more consistent and precise than pyrolysis data. Therefore, it is more applicable in the case of scarcity of core samples throughout the whole formation.

  15. Norilsk, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Norilsk is a major city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, and the northernmost city in Siberia. The city was founded in the 1930s as a settlement for the Norilsk mining-metallurgic complex, sitting near the largest nickel-copper-palladium deposits on Earth. Mining and smelting of nickel, copper, cobalt, platinum, palladium are the major industries. The nickel ore is smelted on site at Norilsk. The smelting is directly responsible for severe pollution, generally acid rain and smog. By some estimates, 1 percent of the entire global emissions of sulfur dioxide comes from this one city. Heavy metal pollution near Norilsk is so severe that it is now economically feasible to mine the soil, which has been polluted so severely that it has economic grades of platinum and palladium.

    The image was acquired July 21, 2000, covers an area of 36.9 x 37.6 km, and is located at 69.3 degrees north latitude, 88.2 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. First findings of dinocysts in the upper Oligocene Turtas formation in Southern Tyumen oblast (West Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmina, O. B.; Shurygin, B. N.

    2016-04-01

    A new occurrence of dinocysts Pseudokomewuia in continental Cenosoic (Oligocene-Miocene) rocks of the West Siberian plain is identified. A complex of palynomorphs with dominant microphytoplankton (dinocysts) was found for the first time in the lacustrine-marsh sediments of the south of Tyumen oblast. The variable composition of the complex with Pseudokomewuia aff. laevigata He and Pseudokomewuia aff. granulata He species is traced upward through the section. The layers that correspond to the maximum abundance of Pseudokomewuia (akme) are distinguished and correlated with sections studied previously, which are located in the Barabinsk lithofacial region. Sediments with dinocysts are compared with sediments of the same age from North America, Northern Europe, and Southern China.

  17. WETCHIMP-WSL: intercomparison of wetland methane emissions models over West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, T. J.; Melton, J. R.; Ito, A.; Kleinen, T.; Spahni, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, X.; Schroeder, R.; Glagolev, M. V.; Maksyutov, S.; Brovkin, V.; Chen, G.; Denisov, S. N.; Eliseev, A. V.; Gallego-Sala, A.; McDonald, K. C.; Rawlins, M. A.; Riley, W. J.; Subin, Z. M.; Tian, H.; Zhuang, Q.; Kaplan, J. O.

    2015-06-01

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of methane emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This risk is particularly relevant at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over the next 100 years. However, global models disagree as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in wetland area and emissions per unit area and a scarcity of in situ observations. Recent intensive field campaigns across the West Siberian Lowland (WSL) make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Intercomparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 21 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux data set, several wetland maps, and two satellite surface water products. We found that (a) despite the large scatter of individual estimates, 12-year mean estimates of annual total emissions over the WSL from forward models (5.34 ± 0.54 Tg CH4 yr-1), inversions (6.06 ± 1.22 Tg CH4 yr-1), and in situ observations (3.91 ± 1.29 Tg CH4 yr-1) largely agreed; (b) forward models using surface water products alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions; (c) the interannual time series of models that lacked either soil thermal physics appropriate to the high latitudes or realistic emissions from unsaturated peatlands tended to be dominated by a single environmental driver (inundation or air

  18. WETCHIMP-WSL: Intercomparison of wetland methane emissions models over West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, Joe; Bohn, Theodore

    2015-04-01

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of methane emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This risk is particularly relevant at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over the next 100 years. However, global models disagree as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in wetland area and emissions per unit area and a scarcity of in situ observations. Recent intensive field campaigns across the West Siberian Lowland (WSL) make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Intercomparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 21 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux dataset, several wetland maps, and two satellite inundation products. We found that: a) despite the large scatter of individual estimates, 12-year mean estimates of annual total emissions over the WSL from forward models (5.34 ±0.54 Tg CH4 y-1), inversions (6.06 ±1.22 Tg CH4 y-1), and in situ observations (3.91 ±1.29 Tg CH4 y-1) largely agreed; b) forward models using inundation products alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions; c) the interannual timeseries of models that lacked either soil thermal physics appropriate to the high latitudes or realistic emissions from unsaturated peatlands tended to be dominated by a single environmental driver (inundation or air temperature), unlike

  19. WETCHIMP-WSL: intercomparison of wetland methane emissions models over West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, T. J.; Melton, J. R.; Ito, A.; Kleinen, T.; Spahni, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, X.; Schroeder, R.; Glagolev, M. V.; Maksyutov, S.; Brovkin, V.; Chen, G.; Denisov, S. N.; Eliseev, A. V.; Gallego-Sala, A.; McDonald, K. C.; Rawlins, M. A.; Riley, W. J.; Subin, Z. M.; Tian, H.; Zhuang, Q.; Kaplan, J. O.

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of methane emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This risk is particularly relevant at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over the next 100 years. However, global models disagree as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in wetland area and emissions per unit area and a scarcity of in situ observations. Recent intensive field campaigns across the West Siberian Lowland (WSL) make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Intercomparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 21 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux dataset, several wetland maps, and two satellite inundation products. We found that: (a) despite the large scatter of individual estimates, 12 year mean estimates of annual total emissions over the WSL from forward models (5.34 ± 0.54 Tg CH4 y-1), inversions (6.06 ± 1.22 Tg CH4 y-1), and in situ observations (3.91 ± 1.29 Tg CH4 y-1) largely agreed, (b) forward models using inundation products alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions, (c) the interannual timeseries of models that lacked either soil thermal physics appropriate to the high latitudes or realistic emissions from unsaturated peatlands tended to be dominated by a single environmental driver (inundation or air temperature

  20. WETCHIMP-WSL: Intercomparison of wetland methane emissions models over West Siberia

    DOE PAGES

    Bohn, T. J.; Melton, J. R.; Ito, A.; Kleinen, T.; Spahni, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, X.; Schroeder, R.; Glagolev, M. V.; et al

    2015-06-03

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of methane emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This risk is particularly relevant at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over the next 100 years. However, global models disagree as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in wetland area and emissions per unit area and a scarcity of in situ observations.more » Recent intensive field campaigns across the West Siberian Lowland (WSL) make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Intercomparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 21 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux data set, several wetland maps, and two satellite surface water products. We found that (a) despite the large scatter of individual estimates, 12-year mean estimates of annual total emissions over the WSL from forward models (5.34 ± 0.54 Tg CH4 yr⁻¹), inversions (6.06 ± 1.22 Tg CH4 yr⁻¹), and in situ observations (3.91 ± 1.29 Tg CH4 yr⁻¹) largely agreed; (b) forward models using surface water products alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions; (c) the interannual time series of models that lacked either soil thermal physics appropriate to the high latitudes or realistic emissions from unsaturated peatlands tended to be dominated by a single environmental driver

  1. WETCHIMP-WSL: Intercomparison of wetland methane emissions models over West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, T. J.; Melton, J. R.; Ito, A.; Kleinen, T.; Spahni, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, X.; Schroeder, R.; Glagolev, M. V.; Maksyutov, S.; Brovkin, V.; Chen, G.; Denisov, S. N.; Eliseev, A. V.; Gallego-Sala, A.; McDonald, K. C.; Rawlins, M. A.; Riley, W. J.; Subin, Z. M.; Tian, H.; Zhuang, Q.; Kaplan, J. O.

    2015-06-03

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of methane emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This risk is particularly relevant at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over the next 100 years. However, global models disagree as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in wetland area and emissions per unit area and a scarcity of in situ observations. Recent intensive field campaigns across the West Siberian Lowland (WSL) make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Intercomparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 21 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux data set, several wetland maps, and two satellite surface water products. We found that (a) despite the large scatter of individual estimates, 12-year mean estimates of annual total emissions over the WSL from forward models (5.34 ± 0.54 Tg CH4 yr⁻¹), inversions (6.06 ± 1.22 Tg CH4 yr⁻¹), and in situ observations (3.91 ± 1.29 Tg CH4 yr⁻¹) largely agreed; (b) forward models using surface water products alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions; (c) the interannual time series of models that lacked either soil thermal physics appropriate to the high latitudes or realistic emissions from

  2. Sub-fossil cladoceran remains from the sediment of the lakes in Arctic Siberia, Russia: relationship to physical and chemical variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, Larisa; Nazarova, Larisa; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2010-05-01

    The lakes examined in this study are located on the catchment area of Anabar river in the north-west part of Yakutia (Russia), just west of the Lena River. All presented samples and data were obtained in frame of a joint Russian-German expedition to Yakutia in summer 2007. The study sites included 35 lakes that were distributed along a broad north-south transect across northwest Yakutia, Russia, ranging from latitude 71° 50' to 73° 39'. This transects captures considerable changes in geology, vegetation, and climate. The studied lakes are shallow thermokarst lakes with maximal depths of about 10 m (mean 4.27±0.76). The waters were dominated by Ca-Mg, Fe and HCO3, but the ion concentration was generally low in all studied waters. From the initial 35 localities, only 31 contained a sufficient number of cladoceran remains for reasonable quantification. From these, a total of 28 cladoceran taxa representing 14 genera were identified, comprising predominantly littoral chydorid species. Species richness (i.e. the total number of taxa per lake) ranged between 5 (07-SA-05, 07-SA-14, 07-SA-18) and 20 (07-SA-24), with a mean of 9, and was not significantly correlated with any of the measured environmental variables. With forward selection and Monte Carlo permutation tests (999 permutations), RDA identified a minimal subset of four environmental variables that explained a significant (p ≤ 0.05) amount of the variation in the species data. These variables are TJuly, water depth, SO42-, Si4+. RDA axis 1 (λ = 0.174) and axis 2 (λ = 0.157) were both significant and explained almost all of the relationships between the cladoceran taxa and measured environmental variables (85.8%). Distributions of the cladoceran taxa, however, revealed major shifts in abundance in relation to the temperature along our transect. Constrained cluster analysis (CONISS), based on the structure of cladoceran community, disclosed three groups of lakes in the tundra and forest-tundra zones of the

  3. The Incidence of West Nile Disease in Russia in Relation to Climatic and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Platonov, Alexander E.; Tolpin, Vladimir A.; Gridneva, Kristina A.; Titkov, Anton V.; Platonova, Olga V.; Kolyasnikova, Nadezhda M.; Busani, Luca; Rezza, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Since 1999, human cases of West Nile fever/neuroinvasive disease (WND) have been reported annually in Russia. The highest incidence has been recorded in three provinces of southern European Russia (Volgograd, Astrakhan and Rostov Provinces), yet in 2010–2012 the distribution of human cases expanded northwards considerably. From year to year, the number of WND cases varied widely, with major WND outbreaks in 1999, 2007, 2010, and 2012. The present study was aimed at identifying the most important climatic and environmental factors potentially affecting WND incidence in the three above-mentioned provinces and at building simple prognostic models, using those factors, by the decision trees method. The effects of 96 variables, including mean monthly temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, etc. were taken into account. The findings of this analysis show that an increase of human WND incidence, compared to the previous year, was mostly driven by higher temperatures in May and/or in June, as well as (to a lesser extent) by high August-September temperatures. Declining incidence was associated with cold winters (December and/or January, depending on the region and type of model). WND incidence also tended to decrease during year following major WND outbreaks. Combining this information, the future trend of WND may be, to some extent, predicted, in accordance with the climatic conditions observed before the summer peak of WND incidence. PMID:24464233

  4. Seasonal cycle and interannual variability of the total CH4 mixing ratios in West Siberia: Results from AIRS/AMSU and chemistry transport models for 2003-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagutin, Anatoly; Mordvin, Egor

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas. It has much higher global warming potential comparing to carbon dioxide on per mass emitted basis. Atmospheric methane also plays an important role in atmospheric ozone chemistry and is the main source of water vapor in the stratosphere. The recent increase of CH4 in 2007-2008, after a nearly stable period of about one decade, is attributed to the increased emissions from tropical and Arctic wetlands. However, many uncertainties regarding natural and anthropogenic methane emissions still exist. For example, the total CH4 emissions from wetlands in West Siberia are estimated to be in the range from 1.6 to 20 Tg/year. The main causes leading to such large uncertainties are significant spatial and temporal variation of CH4 emissions and the sparseness of ground observational networks. The purpose of this study is to investigate the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of the total CH4 mixing ratios (CH4-Tot) in West Siberia for 2003-2013 using the AIRS/AMSU-Aqua measurements and the results from chemistry transport models MOZART4 and ACTM-CCSR/NIES/FRCGC. The key feature of the proposed approach is chemistry transport model-based regression equation linking CH4-Tot with mid-upper tropospheric CH4 (in the layer from 50 to 250 hPa below the tropopause), the tropopause height and the surface temperature. The observational information in our approach comes from the AIRS/AMSU measurements. Comparison of the retrieved CH4-Tot with the measurements of CH4 from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) have shown that the model captures observed seasonal cycles and interannual variability at mid-latitude sites. The spatial and temporal distributions of CH4-Tot in West Siberia for 2003-2013 are presented. Analysis of deseasonalized time-series indicates that the total CH4 mixing ratios increases about 4 ppbv/yr from 2007. This work was supported in part by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No 13

  5. [Density-dependent regulation in populations of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) in optimal and suboptimal habitats of south-west Siberia].

    PubMed

    Novikov, E A; Panov, V V; Moshkin, M P

    2012-01-01

    In a population of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) that live in optimal habitats (mountain taiga of North-Eastern Altai) in the years of peak density we have observed total suppression of sexual maturation of young animals which is known to be the main mechanism of density regulation. Increase of voles' local density is accompanied by the increase of glucocorticoids in blood of mature and immature individuals of both sexes that argues for the important role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in density dependent regulation. Another population of red-backed voles from south-west Siberia that live in suboptimal habitats (Novosibirsk city vicinity), had significantly lower density. Here, the dynamics of demographic traits and endocrine status of the individuals did not correlate with interannual fluctuations of abundance and density. Even though, the possibility that in suboptimal conditions local density occasionally reaches the values sufficient for the induction of self-regulation cannot be excluded.

  6. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. This province is the largest petroleum basin in the world and has an areal extent of about 2.2 million square kilometers. It is a large rift-sag feature bounded to the west by the Ural fold belt, to the north by the Novaya Zemlya fold belt and North Siberian Sill, to the south by the Turgay Depression and Altay-Sayan fold belt, and to the east by the Yenisey Ridge, Turukhan-Igarka uplift, Yenisey-Khatanga Basin, and Taimyr High. The West Siberian Basin Province has a total discovered oil and gas volume of more than 360 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Ulmishek, 2000). Exploration has led to the discovery of tens of giant oil and gas fields, including the Urengoy gas field with more than 3500 trillion cubic feet of gas reserves and Samotlar oil field with reserves of nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (Ulmishek, 2003). This report summarizes the results of a reassessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of that part of the province north of the Arctic Circle; a previous assessment that included the entire province was completed in 2000 (Ulmishek, 2000). The total petroleum system (TPS) and assessment units (AU) defined by the USGS for the assessments in 2000 were adopted for this assessment. However, only those parts of the Aus lying wholly or partially north of the Arctic Circle were assessed for this study.

  7. Food and water security issues in Russia I: food security in the general population of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Kolesnikova, Tatijana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengård, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination) have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Objectives Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories. Study design and methods In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 2000–2011. Results Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 23–43% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil) are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries) is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high. Conclusion Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the

  8. Lymphocytes with multiple chromosomal damages in a large cohort of West Siberia residents: Results of long-term monitoring.

    PubMed

    Druzhinin, Vladimir; Bakanova, Maria; Fucic, Aleksandra; Golovina, Tatiana; Savchenko, Yana; Sinitsky, Maxim; Volobaev, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    Cells with specific multiple chromosome aberrations, defined as rogue cells (RC) have been described in different populations, predominantly those exposed to radiation. The frequency, etiology and related health risks have still not been elucidated due to their low frequency of occurrences and rarely performed studies. This study reports RC frequency using chromosome aberration (CA) assay in peripheral lymphocytes in the group of 3242 subjects, during a 30-year long follow-up study in a general rural and urban population, children environmentally exposed to radon, occupationally exposed population and lung cancer patients from the Kemerovo region (Siberia, Russian Federation). Results show that the highest RC frequency was present in children environmentally exposed to radon and the lowest in the general urban population. Total frequency of CA did not correlate with frequency of RC. Genotoxic analysis of air and water samples excluded anthropogenic pollution as a possible cause of genome damage and RC frequency. In 85% of RCs, double minutes, observed in a large number of human tumors, were present. Results of CA analysis suggested that radon and its decay products (alpha-emitters) were the leading factors causing RC in subjects exposed to high LET radiation. Thus, RC may be a candidate biomarker for exposure to this type of radiation.

  9. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the "mammoth fauna" in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia.

    PubMed

    Zinovyev, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called "mammoth fauna" with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a "mixed" type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called "mammoth savannas".

  10. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the “mammoth fauna” in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Zinovyev, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called “mammoth fauna” with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a “mixed” type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called “mammoth savannas”. PMID:21738409

  11. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the "mammoth fauna" in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia.

    PubMed

    Zinovyev, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called "mammoth fauna" with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a "mixed" type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called "mammoth savannas". PMID:21738409

  12. Intercomparison of the Wetchimp-Wsl Wetland Methane Models over West Siberia: How Well Can We Simulate High-Latitude Wetland Methane Emissions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, T. J.; Melton, J. R.; Brovkin, V.; Chen, G.; Denisov, S. N.; Eliseev, A. V.; Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Glagolev, M.; Ito, A.; Kaplan, J. O.; Kleinen, T.; Maksyutov, S. S.; McDonald, K. C.; Rawlins, M. A.; Riley, W. J.; Schroeder, R.; Spahni, R.; Stocker, B.; Subin, Z. M.; Tian, H.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, X.; Zhuang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of these emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This is particularly true at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over this century. Despite the importance of wetland methane emissions to the global carbon cycle and climate dynamics, global models exhibit little agreement as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in both wetland area and emissions per unit area driven by a scarcity of in situ observations. Recent intensive field campaigns across West Siberia make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Model Intercomparison Project focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 17 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux dataset, several wetland maps, and two satellite inundation products. Findings include: a) estimates of total CH4 emissions from both models and inversions spanned almost an order of magnitude; b) forward models using inundation alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions; and c) aside from these area-driven biases, disagreement in flux per unit wetland area was the main driver of forward model uncertainty. We examine which forward model approaches are best suited towards simulating high-latitude wetlands and make recommendations for future modeling, remote sensing, and field campaigns to reduce model uncertainty.

  13. Detecting Anthropogenic and Climate Change Induced Land Cover and Land Use Change in the Vicinity of an Oil/gas Facility in Northwestern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Q.; Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Engstrom, R.; Epstein, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic ecosystems are changing dramatically due to changes in climate, vegetation and human activities. Northwestern Siberia is one of the regions which has been undergoing various land cover and land use changes associated primarily with animal husbandry and oil/gas development. These changes have been exacerbated by warming climatic conditions over the last fifty years. In this study, we investigated land cover and land use changes associated with oil and gas development southeast of the city of Nadym within the context of climate change based on multi-source and multi-temporal remote sensing imagery. The impacts of land use on surface vegetation, radiation, and hydrological properties were evaluated using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), albedo and the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The results from a comparison between high spatial resolution imagery acquired in1968 and 2006 indicate that the vegetation cover was reduced in areas disturbed by oil and gas development. Vegetation cover increased in natural landscapes over the same period,. Water logging was found along the linear structures near the oil/gas development, while in natural landscapes the drying of thermokarst lakes is evident due to permafrost degradation. Derived indices suggest that the direct impacts associated with infrastructure development are mostly within 100 m distance from the disturbance source. While these impacts are rather localized they persist for decades despite partial recovery of vegetation after the initial disturbance.

  14. Enriched Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic signatures in the Dovyren layered intrusion ( eastern Siberia, Russia): Evidence for source contamination by ancient upper-crustal material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amelin, Yu. V.; Neymark, L.A.; Ritsk, E. Yu; Nemchin, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Major- and trace-element concentrations and Nd-, Sr- and Pb-isotopic ratios are reported for the Dovyren layered mafic-ultramafic intrusion in the northern Baikal region, eastern Siberia. Sm-Nd internal isochrons for an olivine gabbro from the layered series and a gabbronorite from a sill at the bottom of the Dovyren intrusion yield ages of 673 ?? 22 and 707 ?? 40 Ma, respectively. Initial isotopic ratios: 87Sr/86Sr (673) from 0.7101 to 0.7135, ??Nd(673 Ma) from - 16.3 to - 14.1, 206Pb/204Pb from 16.80 to 17.14, 207Pb/204Pb from 15.477 to 15.501 and 208Pb/204Pb from 37.17 to 37.59, are similar to those of late Archean-early Proterozoic upper continental crust, but do not appear to be a result of wallrock assimilation in the magma chamber. These isotopic features, as well as high K, Rb and LREE and low Ti concentrations in the calculated composition of the Dovyren parental magma, may be explained by subduction of sediments derived from upper continental crust into depleted mantle and subsequent melting of the metasomatized peridotite.

  15. Investigating the potential impacts of chlorophenols on the lake baikal (Siberia, russia) food web by employing daphnia grazing bioassays and a chlorella growth bioassay

    PubMed

    Gokcen

    1998-04-01

    A grazing bioassay was employed to assess the impacts of chlorophenols on Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex. The effects of two chlorophenols, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 4-chlorophenol, were investigated at concentrations of 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mg . L-1 over a 96-h period. All tests were conducted in water from the southern basin of Lake Baikal (Siberia). For D. magna, grazing rates were significantly depressed after exposure to 0.001 mg . L-1 of PCP for 48 h or to 0.01 mg . L-1 of 4-chlorophenol for 96 h. However, neither chemical continued to depress filtering rates as either dose or time increased, thus effective concentrations (EC50s) could not be determined. This prevents the use of this bioassay as a tool for assessing exposure to chlorophenols, but it is still useful in that it provides insight into potential ecological effects. In the case of D. pulex, depressed rates were also found at 0.001 mg . L-1 of PCP after 48 h; due to problems with the control, no conclusions were drawn for the effect of 4-chlorophenol on this species. The growth rates of Daphnia's prey, Chlorella vulgaris, were also investigated in the presence of these chemicals; no observable effects were found at any concentration during the 96-h period, implying that ecosystem effects may be limited to higher trophic levels.

  16. Granitoid magmatism of Alarmaut granite-metamorphic dome, West Chukotka, NE Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Katkov, S. M.

    2009-04-01

    financial support of RFBR (projects № 07-05-00255, 08-05-00547), leading scientific school NSh-3172.2008.5, Programs of basic researches ONZ RAS 6. References 1. Parfenov L.M. Continental margins and island arcs of Mesozoides of North-East Asia. Novosibirsk, 1984. 192 p. (in Russian) 2. Zonenshain L.P., Kuz'min M.I., Natapov L.M. Tectonics of lithospheric plates of USSR territory // М.: Nauka, 1990. V. 2. 327 p. (in Russian) 3. Sokolov S.D. Classification and hierarchy of fold constructions. М. GEOS. 2008. P.71-100. (in Russian) 4. Seslavinsky K.B. South-Anyui suture zone (West Chukotka) // Dokl. AN USSR. 1979. V. 249. P. 1181-1185 (in Russian) 5. Natal'in B.A. Early Mesozoic eugeosynclinal systems in the northern part of Circum-Pacifica. М.: Nauka. 1984. 136 p. (in Russian) 6. Sokolov S.D., Bondarenko G.Ye., Morozov O.L.,. Shekhovtsov V.A., Glotov S.P.,. Ganelin A.V., Kravchenko-Berezhnoy I.R. The South Anyui Suture, NE Arctic Russia: facts and problems to solve. Tectonic Evolution of the Bering Shelf-Chukchi Sea-Arctic Margin and Adjacent Landmasses. Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Paper, 2002, 360. P. 209-224 7. Sokolov S.D., Bondarenko G.E., Morozov O.L., Luchitskaya M.V. Tectonics of junction zone between Verkhoyan-Chukotka and Koryak-Kamchatka fold // Byul. MOIP. Otd. Geol. 2001. V. 76. Is.6. P.24-37. (in Russian) 8. Bondarenko G.E. Tectonics and geodynamic evolution of Mesozoides of north framework of Pacific Ocean. М.: MGU, 2004. 46 p. (in Russian) 9. Til'man S.M. Comparative tectonics of Mesozoides of northern part of Pacific rim. Novosibirsk: Nauka. 1973. 325 p. (in Russian) 10. Grantz A., Moore T. E., Roeske S.M. Gulf of Alaska to Arctic Ocean: Geological Society of America Continental-Ocean Transect A-3, scale 1:500,000. Menlo Park, California, 1991, 72 р. 11. Sadovsky A.I. Geologic map of USSR, scale 1:200000. Anyui-Chauna series. Paper R-58-XXVII, XXVIII. (Ed: Gel'man M.L.) Explanatory report. Leningrad: VSEGEI, 1970, 84 p. (in Russian) 12. Gel'man M

  17. Species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in shrews from Alaska, U.S.A., and northeastern Siberia, Russia, with description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Lynch, A J; Duszynski, D W

    2008-08-01

    Fecal samples (n = 636) from 10 species of shrews collected in Alaska (n = 540) and northeastern Siberia (n = 96) were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Five distinct oocyst morphotypes were observed. Three types were consistent with oocysts of previously recognized coccidia species from other shrew hosts. These were Eimeria inyoni, E. vagrantis, and Isospora brevicauda, originally described from the inyo shrew (Sorex tenellus), dusky shrew (S. monticolus), and northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), respectively. We found 5 new host records for E. inyoni, 3 for E. vagrantis, and 3 for I. brevicauda. The 2 additional oocyst morphotypes, both from the tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis), are putative new species. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria beringiacea n. sp. are subspheroidal, 17.7 x 15.6 microm (14-24 x 13-20 microm) with a length (L)/width (W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.4); these lack a micropyle (M), an oocyst residuum (OR), and a polar granule (PG). Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.3 x 6.1 microm (7-14 x 4-8 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.7 (1.3-2.3) and have a Stieda body (SB), Substieda body (SSB), and sporocyst residuum (SR). Oocysts of Eimeria tundraensis n. sp. are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 24.8 x 23.5 microm (23-26 x 22-25 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); these lack a M and OR, but a single PG is present. Sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal, 15.4 x 8.3 microm (13-17 x 7-9 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.9 (1.4-2.1) and have a SB, SSB, and SR. PMID:18576829

  18. Genetic variability of Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes persulcatus/Ixodes trianguliceps sympatric areas from Western Siberia, Russia: Identification of a new Candidatus Rickettsia species.

    PubMed

    Igolkina, Yana P; Rar, Vera A; Yakimenko, Valeriy V; Malkova, Marina G; Tancev, Aleksey K; Tikunov, Artem Yu; Epikhina, Tamara I; Tikunova, Nina V

    2015-08-01

    Rickettsia spp. are the causative agents of a number of diseases in humans. These bacteria are transmitted by arthropods, including ixodid ticks. DNA of several Rickettsia spp. was identified in Ixodes persulcatus ticks, however, the association of Ixodes trianguliceps ticks with Rickettsia spp. is unknown. In our study, blood samples of small mammals (n=108), unfed adult I. persulcatus ticks (n=136), and I. persulcatus (n=12) and I. trianguliceps (n=34) ticks feeding on voles were collected in two I. persulcatus/I. trianguliceps sympatric areas in Western Siberia. Using nested PCR, ticks and blood samples were studied for the presence of Rickettsia spp. Three distinct Rickettsia species were found in ticks, but no Rickettsia species were found in the blood of examined voles. Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae DNA was detected in 89.7% of unfed I. persulcatus, 91.7% of engorged I. persulcatus and 14.7% of I. trianguliceps ticks. Rickettsia helvetica DNA was detected in 5.9% of I. trianguliceps ticks. In addition, a new Rickettsia genetic variant was found in 32.4% of I. trianguliceps ticks. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, gltA, ompA, оmpB and sca4 genes was performed and, in accordance with genetic criteria, a new Rickettsia genetic variant was classified as a new Candidatus Rickettsia species. We propose to name this species Candidatus Rickettsia uralica, according to the territory where this species was initially identified. Candidatus Rickettsia uralica was found to belong to the spotted fever group. The data obtained in this study leads us to propose that Candidatus Rickettsia uralica is associated with I. trianguliceps ticks.

  19. Hypolactasia in the indigenous populations of northern Russia.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, A I

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of hypolactasia (PH) in the indigenous populations of the polar and related territories of the Russian Federation was investigated by an oral lactose tolerance. The frequency of hypolactasia in Kildin Saami population is 48%, Komi-Izhem-63%, Northern Mansi-71%, Northern Khanty-72%, West Siberia Nenets-78%. Generally hypolactasia frequencies in indigenous groups of Arctic and Sub-Arctic territories of Russia are higher than in the "reference" samples of Slav (Russian, 40-49%) and Permian Finn (Komi-Permiak and Udmurtian, 50-59%) groups.

  20. Detecting crop yield reduction due to irrigation-induced soil salinization in South-West Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argaman, E.; Beets, W.; Croes, J.; Keesstra, S.; Verzandvoort, S.; Zeiliguer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The South-European part of the Russian Federation has experienced serious land degradation in the form of soil salinization since the 1960s. This land degradation was caused by intensive, large-scale irrigation on reclaimed land in combination with the salt-rich nature of the substrate. Alkaline soil salinity is believed to be an important factor decreasing crop yield in this area. A large research effort has been directed to the effects of soil salinity on crops, there is a need for simple, easily determinable indicators of crop health and soil salinity in irrigated systems, that can help to detect crop water stress in an early stage. The objectives of this research were to study the effects of soil salinity and vegetation water stress on the performance of alfalfa crop yield and physiological crop properties, and to study the possibility to measure soil salinity and alkalinity and the crop water stress index at plot level using a thermal gun and a regular digital camera. The study area was located in Saratov District, in the South-West part of Russia. Variables on the surface energy balance, crop properties, soil properties and visible reflectance were measured on plots with alfalfa cultures in two fields with and without signs of alkaline soil salinity, and with and without irrigation in July 2009. The research showed no clear adverse effects of soil salinity and soil alkalinity on crop yield and physiological crop properties. Soil salinity, as reflected by the electric conductivity, positively affected the root biomass of alfalfa in the range of 0.15 to 1.52 dS/m . This was a result of EC levels being below the documented threshold to negatively affect Alfalfa, as would be the case in truly saline soils. The soil pH also showed a positive correlation with root biomass within the range of pH 6.2 and 8.5 . From the literature these pH values are generally believed to be too high to exhibit a positive relationship with root biomass. No relationship was found

  1. The East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection in the North Atlantic: Climate Impact and Relation to Rossby Wave Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale winter teleconnection of the East Atlantic - West Russia (EA-WR) over the Atlantic and surrounding regions is examined in order to quantify its impacts on temperature and precipitation and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for its existence. A rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis of the upper-tropospheric monthly height field captures successfully the EA-WR pattern and its interannual variation, with the North Atlantic Oscillation as the first mode. EA-WRs climate impact extends from eastern North America to Eurasia. The positive (negative) EA-WR produces positive (negative) temperature anomalies over the eastern US, western Europe and Russia east of Caspian Sea, with negative (positive) anomalies over eastern Canada, eastern Europe including Ural Mountains and the Middle East. These anomalies are largely explained by lower-tropospheric temperature advections. Positive (negative) precipitation anomalies are found over the mid-latitude Atlantic and central Russia around 60E, where lower-level cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation anomaly is dominant. The eastern Canada and the western Europe are characterized by negative (positive) precipitation anomalies.The EA-WR is found to be closely associated with Rossby wave propagation. Wave activity fluxes show that it is strongly tied to large-scale stationary waves. Furthermore, a stationary wave model (SWM) forced with vorticity transients in the mid-latitude Atlantic (approximately 40N) or diabatic heat source over the subtropical Atlantic near the Caribbean Sea produces well-organized EA-WR-like wave patterns, respectively. Sensitivity tests with the SWM indicate improvement in the simulation of the EA-WR when the mean state is modified to have a positive NAO component that enhances upper-level westerlies between 40-60N.

  2. Vertical distribution of trace gas species in the troposphere over the south of West Siberia: comparison of airborne in situ measurements and satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris D.; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belov, Vladimir V.; Gridnev, Yurii V.; Davydov, Denis K.; Machida, Toshinobu; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Nédélec, Philippe; Fofonov, Alexander V.

    2014-05-01

    A comparison of the vertical distributions of O3, CO, CO2 and CH4 derived from the airborne in situ measurements and satellite observations over the southern part of West Siberia is presented. In this study we used data of monthly research flights of 'Optik' TU-134 aircraft laboratory carried out from 2012 to 2013 and data retrieved from measurements of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument on-board the MetOp satellite. It was found that differences in ozone mixing ratios between the airborne and satellite data can vary from +3 to +18 ppb at 0.5 km AGL and form -8 to -37 ppb at 7 km AGL, and relative ones ranged from +8 to +30 % and from -12 to -88 %, respectively. Differences in CO concentrations varied from +32 to +103 ppb at 0.5 km height and from -18 to +23 ppb at 3 km. Relative differences were in the range from -4 to +48 % at 0.5 km and from -8 to +20 % at 7 km. The maximal difference in all CH4 profiles reached 150 ppb in the atmospheric boundary layer, and the minimal one was -10 ppb. The average relative difference varied between +2.8 and -0.5 %. The average difference in CO2 concentration lies within ±1.5 ppm, while individual profiles are incommensurable. Maximal and minimal differences during the all flights were observed in the atmospheric boundary layer (+10 and -12 ppm or +2.3 and -3.3%, respectively). In the free troposphere, relative difference decreased down to ±1.0%. This work was funded by Research funds for Global Environmental Monitoring in NIES (Japan), CNRS (France), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CEA (France), Presidium of RAS (Program No. 4), Brunch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5), Interdisciplinary integration projects of Siberian Branch of RAS (No. 35, No. 70, No. 131), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No 14-05-00526, 14-05-00590).

  3. Changes in Alcohol Behaviour among Adolescents in North-West Russia between 1995 and 2004

    PubMed Central

    Verho, Anastasiya; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Background. Among Russian adults, alcohol consumption with binge drinking was high and increased during past decades. Little is known regarding adolescents' drinking. The present study investigates changes in alcohol-related behaviour among Russian youth between 1995 and 2004. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the 15-year-old youths from all schools in Pitkäranta, Republic of Karelia, Russia. In 1995, 385 students participated (response 95%), in 2004—395 (response 85%). Results. The proportion of abstainers decreased: boys from 26% to 13% (P = 0.002), girls from 23% to 12% (P = 0.007). The age of first alcohol consumption decreased among both genders. First alcohol drinking with friends increased among boys from 65% to 79% (P = 0.031), among girls from 49% to 70% (P = 0.001). Weekly drinking increased: boys from 13% to 28% (P < 0.001), girls from 6% to 15% (P = 0.001). The prevalence on inebriation increased among girls from 45% to 60% (P = 0.012), beer consumption from 8% to 21% (P = 0.006) by 2004. Gender differences were less prominent in 2004. Conclusion. Negative changes: early drinking initiation and more frequent alcohol consumption were observed among Russian youth by 2004. Regular monitoring, effective policy measures, and health education are necessary to prevent further increase in alcohol consumption and subsequent burden of alcohol-related diseases in Russia. PMID:23056064

  4. Multilingual Education in South Siberia: National Schools in the Republics of Altai and Tyva

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Joan F.

    2012-01-01

    Subtractive bilingualism is widespread throughout Siberia, with indigenous youth often more proficient in Russian than in their non-Russian local languages. Siberia's national schools, which are secondary schools offering instruction in local languages of Russia, provide critical institutional support for minority languages. The goal of this…

  5. High prevalence of lactase non-persistence among indigenous nomadic Nenets, north-west Russia

    PubMed Central

    Khabarova, Yulia; Grigoryeva, Valentina; Tuomisto, Sari; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Mattila, Kari; Isokoski, Mauri

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The frequency of adult-type hypolactasia (lactase non-persistence) varies widely among different ethnic groups. The cultural historical hypothesis assumes a link between the occurrence of hypolactasia and the distribution of dairy farming. The nomadic Nenets have been reindeer herders for generations and have therefore not consumed any dairy products. The hypotheses here was that the prevalence of lactase non-persistence (−13910 C/C genotype) among Nenets people having four Nenets grandparents is high, while the prevalence among Nenets originating from ethnically mixed families is lower. Study design The material was collected in four typical Nenets settlements in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Russia. One-third of the adult Nenets population were invited to answer a questionnaire and to donate buccal samples for genotyping by a doctor from the team of medical professionals who make rounds in this area. The total number of available participants was 177. Methods Genotyping was performed with the AbiPrism system. We used the method of concordance of grandparents’ national origin to ascribe ethnicity. Results The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia (−13910 C/C) among Nenets who had four Nenets grandparents was found to be 90%. The figures among others reporting three, two and one grandparent of Nenets origin were 72, 60 and 28%, respectively. Conclusion The findings are in accord with the cultural historical hypothesis. PMID:22564469

  6. Life cycle of the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the North-West of Russia.

    PubMed

    Grigoryeva, L A; Stanyukovich, M K

    2016-07-01

    The life cycle of Ixodes persulcatus lasts 3 years in the conditions of the Leningrad province (North-West Russia), the development of each phase taking a year. The normal age of the taiga tick is 3 years. The calendar age of larvae and nymphs reaches 11-12 months under favorable abiotic and biotic factors, while the calendar age of adults does not exceed 11 months. At the preimaginal phases of development the ticks that breed in August can feed before or after winter. However, their metamorphosis begins and reaches completion within the same timeframes (from late June to early August) and lasts for about 30-50 (60) days. The survival rate of hungry and engorged larvae and nymphs after wintering is quite high (88.6-100 %). We explain the low activity of larvae and nymphs in late summer and autumn by incomplete development. Morphogenetic diapause of engorged larvae and nymphs interrupts digestion but not metamorphosis which starts only in late June and July after the complete absorption of blood from the gut cavity.

  7. Life cycle of the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the North-West of Russia.

    PubMed

    Grigoryeva, L A; Stanyukovich, M K

    2016-07-01

    The life cycle of Ixodes persulcatus lasts 3 years in the conditions of the Leningrad province (North-West Russia), the development of each phase taking a year. The normal age of the taiga tick is 3 years. The calendar age of larvae and nymphs reaches 11-12 months under favorable abiotic and biotic factors, while the calendar age of adults does not exceed 11 months. At the preimaginal phases of development the ticks that breed in August can feed before or after winter. However, their metamorphosis begins and reaches completion within the same timeframes (from late June to early August) and lasts for about 30-50 (60) days. The survival rate of hungry and engorged larvae and nymphs after wintering is quite high (88.6-100 %). We explain the low activity of larvae and nymphs in late summer and autumn by incomplete development. Morphogenetic diapause of engorged larvae and nymphs interrupts digestion but not metamorphosis which starts only in late June and July after the complete absorption of blood from the gut cavity. PMID:26979586

  8. Soil-geographical and ecological tour in West-Russia: 20 years anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2013-04-01

    Soil-geographical and agro-ecological tour in Russia celebrated in this summer its 20 years anniversary! More than 800 students, PhD students and researcher from Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden and France participated at the tour since 1993. The majority of the participants were students studying soil science, geoecology, geography, agriculture and ecology. The tour is based on a classical Russian zonal approach: a cross-section of climatic zones starting from south taiga, through deciduous forest, forest steppe, steppe, dry steppe, to semi dessert and transition to the desert zone. In each zone the specifics of climate, vegetation, nutrient cycling, and of course soil genesis as well as soil use by forestry and agriculture are described. Half of the soil group units of WRB classification (2006) are presented on about 35 soil profile pits and are described with focus on pedogenic processes and soil forming factors. The following soil groups are described in details by horizons according to WRB soil classification (2006): Arenosols, Podzols, Albeluvisols Histosols, Gleysols, Luvisols, Phaeozems, Chernozems, Kastanozems, Calcisols, Vertisols, Leptosols, Fluvisols, Solonetzes, Solonchaks. In addition to natural conditions, large-scale experiments designing agricultural landscapes (stone steppe), biosphere reserves and conservation areas (Tula-Schneisen, Divnogor'je, Baskunchak), as well as collective agricultural farms (previously kolkhoz) are visited to evaluate the anthropogenic effects on ecosystems and especially on soils. The 2.5 weeks bus journey through many villages and small towns, visits of museums and historical monuments, introduction in the settlement development of different regions provide a broad presentation of Russian history, traditions, life style, and contemporary state. So, combination of very diverse educational part focused on soil and environmental conditions with anthropogenic impacts and local history as well as recent socioeconomic

  9. Experiential Perestroika: The Russia Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proudman, Bill; Pavlova, Alona

    1994-01-01

    In 1993, an educational exchange program sponsored by the Association for Experiential Education (AEE) sent six educators from North America to Russia to conduct workshops for students and teachers on concepts of experiential learning. As a result of this cooperative exchange, Altai Regional Educational Center (Siberia) was created to coordinate…

  10. Preparation for the Recovery of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) at Andreeva Bay, North West Russia - 13309

    SciTech Connect

    Field, D.; McAtamney, N.

    2013-07-01

    Andreeva Bay is located near Murmansk in the Russian Federation close to the Norwegian border. The ex-naval site was used to de-fuel nuclear-powered submarines and icebreakers during the Cold War. Approximately 22,000 fuel assemblies remain in three Dry Storage Units (DSUs) which means that Andreeva Bay has one of the largest stockpiles of highly enriched spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the world. The high contamination and deteriorating condition of the SNF canisters has made improvements to the management of the SNF a high priority for the international community for safety, security and environmental reasons. International Donors have, since 2002, provided support to projects at Andreeva concerned with improving the management of the SNF. This long-term programme of work has been coordinated between the International Donors and responsible bodies within the Russian Federation. Options for the safe and secure management of SNF at Andreeva Bay were considered in 2004 and developed by a number of Russian Institutes with international participation. This consisted of site investigations, surveys and studies to understand the technical challenges. A principal agreement was reached that the SNF would be removed from the site altogether and transported to Russia's reprocessing facility at Mayak in the Urals. The analytical studies provided the information necessary to develop the construction plan for the site. Following design and regulatory processes, stakeholders endorsed the technical solution in April 2007. This detailed the processes, facilities and equipment required to safely remove the SNF and identified other site services and support facilities required on the site. Implementation of this strategy is now well underway with the facilities in various states of construction. Physical works have been performed to address the most urgent tasks including weather protection over one of the DSUs, installation of shielding over the cells, provision of radiation

  11. Myrmecophilous pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea) associated with Lasius flavus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Russia.

    PubMed

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-11-19

    Twenty four species of pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea: Neopygmephoridae, Scutacaridae, Microdispidae) are recorded from the ant Lasius flavus (Fabricius) or from its nests from Western Siberia and Crimea. Four of them of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acari: Scutacaridae), S. insolitus sp. nov., S. heterotrichus sp. nov., S. moseri sp. nov. and S. sibiriensis sp. nov. are described as new for science. Four species of scutacarid mites are recorded for the first time in Russia. The comparison of pygmephoroid mite communities associated with Lasius flavus from Crimean and West Siberian populations and notes on phoresy of pygmephoroid mites on ants are provided.

  12. Myrmecophilous pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea) associated with Lasius flavus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Russia.

    PubMed

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    Twenty four species of pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea: Neopygmephoridae, Scutacaridae, Microdispidae) are recorded from the ant Lasius flavus (Fabricius) or from its nests from Western Siberia and Crimea. Four of them of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acari: Scutacaridae), S. insolitus sp. nov., S. heterotrichus sp. nov., S. moseri sp. nov. and S. sibiriensis sp. nov. are described as new for science. Four species of scutacarid mites are recorded for the first time in Russia. The comparison of pygmephoroid mite communities associated with Lasius flavus from Crimean and West Siberian populations and notes on phoresy of pygmephoroid mites on ants are provided. PMID:26624715

  13. Return to Siberia: The 2008 Kotuykan River Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, Jon; Kharuk, Slava; Howl, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    In the September-October 2007 issue of'The Earth Observer [volume 19, Number 4, pp. 13-21] we presented an article entitled "Expedition to Siberia: A Firsthand Account." In that article we shared excerpts from a blog that chronicled the adventures of a team of scientists from NASA and Russia's Academy of Science as they embarked on a three-week adventure in the wilds of Siberia in hopes of collecting measurements to validate data from satellites flying 700 km overhead. The same team, plus a couple new participants, headed back to Siberia this past sumner and we are now pleased to present the continuation of their story. For more background details on the expedition to Siberia or if you missed the first part of the story, please refer to the previous article.

  14. High resilience in the Yamal-Nenets social–ecological system, West Siberian Arctic, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Bruce C.; Stammler, Florian; Kumpula, Timo; Meschtyb, Nina; Pajunen, Anu; Kaarlejärvi, Elina

    2009-01-01

    Tundra ecosystems are vulnerable to hydrocarbon development, in part because small-scale, low-intensity disturbances can affect vegetation, permafrost soils, and wildlife out of proportion to their spatial extent. Scaling up to include human residents, tightly integrated arctic social-ecological systems (SESs) are believed similarly susceptible to industrial impacts and climate change. In contrast to northern Alaska and Canada, most terrestrial and aquatic components of West Siberian oil and gas fields are seasonally exploited by migratory herders, hunters, fishers, and domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.). Despite anthropogenic fragmentation and transformation of a large proportion of the environment, recent socioeconomic upheaval, and pronounced climate warming, we find the Yamal-Nenets SES highly resilient according to a few key measures. We detail the remarkable extent to which the system has successfully reorganized in response to recent shocks and evaluate the limits of the system's capacity to respond. Our analytical approach combines quantitative methods with participant observation to understand the overall effects of rapid land use and climate change at the level of the entire Yamal system, detect thresholds crossed using surrogates, and identify potential traps. Institutional constraints and drivers were as important as the documented ecological changes. Particularly crucial to success is the unfettered movement of people and animals in space and time, which allows them to alternately avoid or exploit a wide range of natural and anthropogenic habitats. However, expansion of infrastructure, concomitant terrestrial and freshwater ecosystem degradation, climate change, and a massive influx of workers underway present a looming threat to future resilience. PMID:20007776

  15. High resilience in the Yamal-Nenets social-ecological system, West Siberian Arctic, Russia.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Bruce C; Stammler, Florian; Kumpula, Timo; Meschtyb, Nina; Pajunen, Anu; Kaarlejärvi, Elina

    2009-12-29

    Tundra ecosystems are vulnerable to hydrocarbon development, in part because small-scale, low-intensity disturbances can affect vegetation, permafrost soils, and wildlife out of proportion to their spatial extent. Scaling up to include human residents, tightly integrated arctic social-ecological systems (SESs) are believed similarly susceptible to industrial impacts and climate change. In contrast to northern Alaska and Canada, most terrestrial and aquatic components of West Siberian oil and gas fields are seasonally exploited by migratory herders, hunters, fishers, and domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.). Despite anthropogenic fragmentation and transformation of a large proportion of the environment, recent socioeconomic upheaval, and pronounced climate warming, we find the Yamal-Nenets SES highly resilient according to a few key measures. We detail the remarkable extent to which the system has successfully reorganized in response to recent shocks and evaluate the limits of the system's capacity to respond. Our analytical approach combines quantitative methods with participant observation to understand the overall effects of rapid land use and climate change at the level of the entire Yamal system, detect thresholds crossed using surrogates, and identify potential traps. Institutional constraints and drivers were as important as the documented ecological changes. Particularly crucial to success is the unfettered movement of people and animals in space and time, which allows them to alternately avoid or exploit a wide range of natural and anthropogenic habitats. However, expansion of infrastructure, concomitant terrestrial and freshwater ecosystem degradation, climate change, and a massive influx of workers underway present a looming threat to future resilience.

  16. Expedition to Siberia: A Firsthand Account

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, Jon; Kharuk, Slava; Howl, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Nowhere on Earth is warming faster than the Arctic. In northern Siberia, average temperatures have risen 3-5 deg F over the past 30 years, whereas the worldwide average increase in that time is 1 deg F. Betweeen July 28 and August 12, 2007, a small international team of remote sensing and forest ecosystem scientists from NASA and Russia's Academy of Science set off on a three-week scientific expedition through the heart of the remote, wild forests of Siberia. They traveled southward down the Kochechum River observing the gradual transition from tundra to taiga, taking inventory of plant species along the way, and making ground-truth measurements to validate data being collected by several NASA satellites flying 700 kilometers overhead.

  17. Biological characteristics of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulating in West Siberia during pandemic and post-pandemic periods.

    PubMed

    Prokop'eva, E A; Kurskaya, O G; Saifutdinova, S G; Glushchenko, A V; Shestopalova, L V; Shestopalov, A M; Shkurupii, V A

    2014-03-01

    We studied biological characteristics of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus circulating in Siberia during the 2009 pandemic and the post-pandemic period of 2011. BALB/c mice were chosen as the experimental model. Virus titers in the lungs were evaluated on days 1, 3, 6 and blood serum titers on day 15 after infection with different strains. Blood sera of convalescents after influenza of 2010-2011 epidemic season were analyzed. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strains isolated during the post-pandemic period of 2011 were characterized by low epidemic activity and virulence in comparison with the strains isolated during 2009 pandemic period, which indicates completion of the pandemic cycle.

  18. Land-use Changes on Peatlands in Russia and Green House Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirin, A.; Minaeva, T.; Chistotin, M.; Glagolev, M.; Suvorov, G.

    2009-04-01

    Russia possesses vast areas of peatlands and associated paludified shallow peat lands, over 8 and 20% respectively. The country is the largest World peatland nation, and thus could be responsible for the large part of GHG exchange between peatlands and the atmosphere. Russian peatlands present a high variety of natural conditions from permafrost mires to bogs, fens and swamps within boreal, temperate, steppe and semi-arid zones, which have quite different rates of GHG flux, emitting or absorbing carbon dioxide and methane. Many regions of Russia still contain vast areas of virgin mires but in the central European part of Russia, West Siberia and Far East the appreciable part of peatlands was already modified. Peatlands were used in a broad spectrum of human activities connected with direct water level draw-down: peat extraction for different purposes (up to 1.5 million ha), drainage for agriculture, and drainage for forestry (each over 3 million ha). Many peatlands all the over the country were affected by infrastructure development (by road, pipe line construction etc.) with related changes of their hydrology and GHG fluxes. These land uses are under consideration of LULUFC issues of UNFCCC, and peat excavation is directly included in IPCC 2006 Guidelines as a main wetland/peatland land use activity related to climate change mitigation. General estimates and geographical distribution of peatlands drained for agriculture and forestry as well as peatlands under excavation, extracted or abandoned are given based on existing statistical and sectoral information. GHG fluxes from disturbed peatlands are analyzed using available Russian data and the results of specially organized observations in 2004-2008 in the pilot regions in Central European Russia and West Siberia which included a variety of modified and virgin control sites.

  19. International Permafrost Field Courses in Siberia: the Synthesis of Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablyazina, D.; Boitsov, A.; Grebenets, V.; Kaverin, D.; Klene, A.; Kurchatova, A.; Pfeiffer, E. M.; Zschocke, A.; Shiklomanov, N.; Streletskiy, D.

    2009-04-01

    During summers of 2007 and 2008 a series of International University Courses on Permafrost (IUCP) were conducted in West Siberia, Russia. Courses were organized as part of the International Permafrost Association (IPA) International Polar Year activities. The North of West Siberia region was selected to represent diverse permafrost, climatic and landscape conditions. The courses were jointly organized by the Moscow State University (MSU) and the Tumen' Oil and Gas University (TOGU) with the help from German and U.S. institutions. The program attracted undergraduate and graduate students with diverse interests and backgrounds from Germany, Russia and the U.S. and involved instructors specializing in different aspects of permafrost research. Courses were designed to address three major topics of permafrost-related research: a) permafrost environments characteristic of the discontinuous and continuous zones; b) field instrumentation and techniques; c) permafrost engineering and problems of development in permafrost regions. Methodologically, courses consisted of systematic permafrost investigations at long-term monitoring sites and survey-type expeditions. Systematic, process-based investigations were conducted at a network of sites which constitute the TEPO established by TOGU in collaboration with the gas company NadymGasProm. The observation complex includes an array of 30-m deep boreholes equipped with automatic data collection systems and representing characteristic permafrost landscapes of West Siberia. Boreholes are complemented by sites for snow cover, vegetation, soil, ground ice, and geomorphologic investigations. As part of student research activities, four new Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) sites were established in proximity to boreholes for monitoring spatial distribution and long-term dynamic of the active layer. New sites represent diverse landscapes characteristic of the West Siberian previously underrepresented in the CALM network

  20. On-Going Temperature Extremes in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgina, T. M.; Gordov, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    Ongoing global climate changes accompanied by the restructuring of global processes in the atmosphere and biosphere are strongly pronounced in the Northern Eurasia regions, especially in Siberia. Temperature trends (grows up to 0.5 °C per decade), more frequent occurrence of temperature extremes provoked serious natural disasters (2010 heat waves in Russia, 2013 flood in Russia's Far East) led to socio-economical impact (crop damages, infrastructure failures, respectively). To get reliable knowledge on location, frequency and magnitude of observed extremes we have studied daily max/min temperature trends based on ECMWF ERA Interim Reanalysis data (0,25°×0,25°). This dataset is most accurately reproduces observed temperature behavior in the region. Statistical analysis of daily temperature time series (1979-2012) indicates the asymmetric changes in distribution tails of such extreme indices as warm/cold days/nights. Namely, the warming during winter cold nights is stronger than during warm nights, especially over the north of Siberia. Increases in minimum temperatures are more significant than in maximum temperatures. Warming determined at the high latitudes of the region is achieved mostly due to winter temperature changes. South area of Siberia has slightly cooling during winter and summer. Results obtained provide regional decision-makers with detailed high spatial and temporal resolution climatic information required for adaptation and mitigation measures development. Calculations presented have been realized using information-computational web-GIS system "Climate" (http://climate.scert.ru/) which automatically generates the archive of calculated fields ready for multidisciplinary studies of regional climate change impacts. The authors acknowledge partial financial support for this research from the RFBR (13-05-12034, 14-05-00502), SB RAS 131 and VIII.80.2.1.) and grant of the President of RF (№ 181).

  1. Pangeghtellghet (Visits to Siberia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneshiro, Vera, Ed.

    This reader contains eight stories in St. Lawrence Island Yupik about visits by St. Lawrence Island people to their relatives and friends in Siberia over a quarter of a century ago. The book, which is intended for use in advanced levels of reading instruction, is part of a series of Siberian Yupik reading materials. (AMH)

  2. Current state of forest mapping with Landsat data in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, Shamil; Sedykh, Vladimir; Kuzmenko, Ekaterina; Farber, Sergey; Kalinicheva, Svetlana; Fedorov, Alexander; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    We review a current state of a forest type mapping with Landsat data in Siberia. Target algorithm should be based on dynamic vegetation approach to be applicable to the analysis of the forest type distribution for Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping Siberian forest landscapes for applications such as predicting response of forest composition to climate change. We present data for several areas in West Siberian middle taiga, Central Siberia and East Siberia near Yakutsk. Analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data was made to produce forest type classification accounting for several stages for forest succession and variations in habitats and landforms. Supervised classification was applied to the areas were the ground truth and inventory data are available, including several limited area maps and vegetation survey transects. In Laryegan basin in West Siberia the upland forest areas are dominated by mix of Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Abundance of Scots pine decreases to the west due to change in soils. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is generally difficult. Similar problem exist for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Image classification can be improved by applying landform type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills. Additional layers of information can be a promising way to complement Landsat data.

  3. Glacier Evolution in the Altai Mountains, South-West Siberia, for the Last Half Century (with use of Geo-Informational Catalogue)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surazakov, A. B.; Narojniy, Y. K.; Nikitin, S. A.; Aizen, V. B.

    2003-12-01

    To systemize and analyze the information for the period from 1835 to present on altitudinal distributions of glaciers, exposition, their numbers and surface areas in basins, volumes, genetic classification, location of lower and upper level of glaciers, average firn line position and main morphometric characteristics, DataBase on glacier dynamics in the Altai Mountains (AGDB) has been developed in ArcGIS Format [Tomsk State University, Russia]. Data from Glacier Catalogue [1962], topographic maps with the scale of 1:25000 and 1:50000 and air photos, which fixed glaciers' state on 1952, were digitized. Instrumental observational data on glacier tongue retreat from twenty glaciers since 1835, and radio-echo sounding measurements of 120 glacier volumes were also digitized in the AGDB. Modern state of Altai glaciers and their changes since 1952 were assessed from Resurs space images and partially from instrumental observations. Based on estimation from Resurs for the period from 1952 to 1998, the value of Altai glacier retreating was about 56.9 km2, i.e. 7.1 % of total area, varied from 4 % for valley glaciers to 16 % for glaciers of flat mountain tops. Retreat of 2-8 m per year was accompanied by their 10% mass loss. The slightest degradation occurred in inner (central) part of the glacier system, in the heads of river basins with large-scale glaciation, e.g., in the Katunski, Nothern-Chuiski and Southern-Chuiski ranges, amounting to 6.3%. These are the highest regions, reaching up to 4506 m., and 80% of Altai's glaciers are located there. In the river basins with relatively small-glacierized areas, at the peripheral regions, e.g., Kurai, Chihacheva ranges, the degradation reached its maximum values up to 22%.

  4. A review of myrmecophilous mites of the family Microdispidae (Acari, Heterostigmatina) of Western Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Khaustov, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Five species of myrmecophilous microdispid mites (Acari: Microdispidae) are recorded from Western Siberia, Russia. Unguidispus lasii Kurosa, 1979, Unguidispus japonicus Kurosa, 1979, Caesarodispus minutus (Sevastianov, 1981), and Caesarodispus samsinaki (Mahunka, 1967), comb. n. are reported from Russia for the first time. Unguidispus polyctenus (Sevastianov, 1969) and Caesarodispus samsinaki are redescribed. The keys to species of the genera Unguidispus Mahunka, 1970 and Caesarodispus Mahunka, 1977 are provided. PMID:25493064

  5. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Malformations among Newborns in Monchegorsk (North-West Russia): a Register-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Postoev, Vitaly A.; Talykova, Ljudmila V.; Vaktskjold, Arild

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular malformations (CVM) are one of the most prevalent groups of birth defects. Knowledge about the prevalence, distribution and survival in Russia has been limited. The aim of our study was to assess the perinatal prevalence, structure and risk factors for CVM among newborns in Monchegorsk (Murmansk Oblast, Russia) and the mortality among the affected newborns in the period 1973-2008. Design and methods A register-based study on data from the Kola and Murmansk County Birth Registers. The study included 28,511 births. Results The registered perinatal prevalence was 3.0 per 1000 new-borns, with septal defects as the most prevalent. CVM was twenty times more prevalent among stillborn than live born, and one-third of the live born with a CVM died during the first week of life. The perinatal mortality rate with CVM was 442 per 1000 newborns. This indicator decreased over time. The mothers of newborns with a CVM were ten times more likely to have stillbirth in their anamnesis. The adjusted odds ratio between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CVM was 4.09 [95% confidence interval: 1.75-9.53]. Conclusions The diagnosed perinatal prevalence was relatively low. A previous stillbirth by the mother was highly associated with being born with a CVM. An adjusted elevated risk was also observed among smoking mothers. Perinatal survival increased over time, but varied to a large extent between the different types of CVM. Significance for public health Cardiovascular malformation is one of the most common groups of birth defects. It is considered an important public health issue, as these malformations are the main cause of infant deaths in developed countries. Precise estimates about the prevalence and perinatal survival are needed to organise and plan health care for such newborns. Our study is the first report from the Russian Federation based on data from population-based birth registers. PMID:25343136

  6. Flooding in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. Aluminium phosphate and phosphate-sulphate minerals in kyanite schists of the Ichetuyskoye area, West Transbaikalia, Russia: crystal chemistry and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izbrodin, Ivan A.; Ripp, German S.; Doroshkevich, Anna G.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminium phosphate and aluminium phosphate-sulphate (APS) minerals occur as disseminated crystals and fine-grained aggregates in kyanite schists near Ichetuyskoye, in the Dzhida basin (West Transbaikal region, Russia). Petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical data suggest a metamorphic evolution through prograde and retrograde stages. Lazulite-scorzalite and trolleite in association with kyanite, quartz, muscovite, paragonite, topaz, rutile, magnetite and hematite formed during the prograde stage. More than 25 minerals identified in schists are genetically related to the retrograde stage. Some phosphates and all of the APS minerals belong to the alunite, beudantite and plumbogummite groups. Electron-microprobe data reveal the presence of wide compositional variations and complex solid-solution series among the members. The main crystal-chemical variations of the APS solid-solution series in the alunite supergroup concern the relative proportions of svanbergite, woodhouseite, goyazite, crandallite, florencite-(Ce) and natroalunite. Chemical analyses of APS minerals indicate extremely high amounts of LREE, Sr, Ba, Ca and Na. In some cases, APS minerals have compositions of Ba and Ca,Ba phosphates- sulphates.

  8. Increased Pathogenicity of West Nile Virus (WNV) by Glycosylation of Envelope Protein and Seroprevalence of WNV in Wild Birds in Far Eastern Russia

    PubMed Central

    Kariwa, Hiroaki; Murata, Ryo; Totani, Masashi; Yoshii, Kentaro; Takashima, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the possibility that the glycosylation of West Nile (WN) virus E-protein may be associated with enhanced pathogenicity and higher replication of WN virus. The results indicate that E-protein glycosylation allows the virus to multiply in a heat-stable manner and therefore, has a critical role in enhanced viremic levels and virulence of WN virus in young-chick infection model. The effect of the glycosylation of the E protein on the pathogenicity of WN virus in young chicks was further investigated. The results indicate that glycosylation of the WN virus E protein is important for viral multiplication in peripheral organs and that it is associated with the strong pathogenicity of WN virus in birds. The micro-focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT) in which a large number of serum samples can be handled at once with a small volume (15 μL) of serum was useful for differential diagnosis between Japanese encephalitis and WN virus infections in infected chicks. Serological investigation was performed among wild birds in the Far Eastern region of Russia using the FRNT. Antibodies specific to WN virus were detected in 21 samples of resident and migratory birds out of 145 wild bird samples in the region. PMID:24351738

  9. Reserves of valuable components of natural gas in Russia and their complex development

    SciTech Connect

    Staroselsky, V.I.

    1995-11-01

    Natural gas reserves are distributed over a wide stratigraphic section (from Riphean to Neogene) and different geotectonic conditions in Russia. Some gases of these reserves contain high quantity of homologues of methane, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, helium and other valuable components which can be separated and considered as separate useful products. Reserves of ethane (not less than 3%), propane, butane, hydrogen sulfide, gaseous sulfur, helium and nitrogen are estimated on the National base. The reserves of ethane-rich gases account for 41.9% of the proved gas reserves. The structure of the proved gas reserves is as follows: methane-rich gases -- 57.8%; methane-rich sour gases -- 0.8%; ethane-rich gases -- 33.4%; and ethane-rich sour gases -- 8.8%. Ethane-rich gases of West Siberia are the most promising for the complex development of potential gas resources.

  10. From Siberia to Mars

    PubMed

    McKay, C P; Friedmann, E I; Meyer, M A

    1991-01-01

    Because Mars is so similar to Earth, planetary scientists looking for answers to questions like these often use analogous environments on Earth to help them design future Mars missions. Such terrestrial sites, however remote, are still much more accessible than Mars. Field studies in such places give us a chance to test and refine instruments and procedures, develop overall concepts and collect baseline data to compare with actual results from Mars. Perhaps the best terrestrial analogue to the martian permafrost lies in northeastern Siberia. Freezing conditions have persisted here for over 3 million years. Although young by martian standards, these are among the oldest continuously frozen localities on Earth. They also hold something remarkable: not only organic residues, but also large numbers of viable bacteria (up to 100 million per gram of frozen soil), preserved for 3 million years in ice.

  11. Comparison of the Impact of the Arctic Oscillation and East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection on Interannual Variation in East Asian Winter Temperatures and Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale impacts of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR) teleconnection on the East Asian winter climate anomalies are compared for the past 34 winters focusing on 1) interannual monthly to seasonal temperature variability, 2) East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), and 3) the Siberian high (SH) and cold surge. Regression analysis reveals warming by AO and EA/WR over mid-latitude East Asia during their positive phase and vice versa. The EA/WR impact is found to be comparable to the AO impact in affecting the East Asian temperature and monsoon. For example, warm (cold) months over mid-latitude East Asia during the positive (negative) AO are clearly seen when the AO and EA/WR are in the same phase. Near zero correlation is found between temperature and the AO phase when both teleconnections are in an opposite phase. The well-known negative relationship between SH and the AO phase is observed significantly more often when the AO is in the same phase with the EA/WR. Also, the indices of EAWM, cold surge, and SH are found to be more highly negative-correlated with the EA/WR rather than with the AO. The advective temperature change and associated circulation demonstrate that the anomalous large-scale field including the SH over the mid-latitude Asian inland is better represented by the EA/WR, influencing the East Asian winter climates. These results suggest that the impact of EA/WR should be considered more important than previously thought for a better understanding of East Asian winter temperature and monsoon variability.

  12. Peculiarities of strength and deformability properties of clay soils in districts of Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimenko, Sergey; Efimenko, Vladimir; Sukhorukov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The article demonstrates the methodology of the substantiation of the calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability characteristics of clay subgrade soils for the design of pavements by strength conditions in II, III, and IV road-climatic zones in West Siberia. The main purpose of the work is to ensure the quality of the design of roads in newly developed regions of Russia. To achieve this goal the following problems have been solved: the dislocation of boundary lines of road-climatic zones has been specified, zoning of the investigated territory for the design of roads has been detailed; regularities of changes in strength and deformability characteristics of clay subgrade soils of their moisture have been established; the territorial normalization of the calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability of clay subgrade soils in relation to the allocated road districts has been carried out. Specification of boundary lines of road-climatic zones has been implemented on the basis of the taxonomic system "zone-subzone-road district". The calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability characteristics of clay soils, established and differentiated according to road-climatic zones, will ensure the required level of the reliability of transport infrastructure facilities during the life cycle of roads.

  13. Moscow, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Moscow, the political and economic heart of Russia, sits on the far eastern end of Europe, roughly 1300 kilometers (815 miles) west of the Ural Mountains and the Asian continent. The city boasts a population of nine million and encompasses an area of 1035 square kilometers (405 square miles). The Moscow River runs through the center of the city, and the Kremlin, the seat of the Russian government, lies in the direct center. Moscow is thought to have been founded in the 12th Century by Yury Dolgoruky, Prince of Suzdal, who hosted a big feast on the site. The city was shortly after established as a trading route along the Moscow River. Ivan III, who is largely credited with uniting all of Russia, built the Kremlin's cathedrals and declared Moscow the capital of his new kingdom in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Ivan the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg, where it remained until the Bolsheviks brought the seat of government back to Moscow in 1918. Over the years the city has been sacked and burnt to the ground by the Tartars, the Poles, and the French. Thanks to the resilient spirit of the Russian people, the city remains as vital as ever. Now it is as capitalist in nature as London or New York, and everything from Big Macs to BMWs can be found on its streets. The blue-gray pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The light green areas surrounding the city are farms and the brown regions are more sparsely vegetated areas. This image of Moscow was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  14. Vegetation and climate in the Western Sayan Mts according to pollen data from Lugovoe Mire as a background for prehistoric cultural change in southern Middle Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyakharchuk, Tatiana A.; Chernova, Natalia A.

    2013-09-01

    On the basis of pollen and spore analyses and radiocarbon dating of peat deposits of Lugovoe Mire in southern Middle Siberia, changes of vegetation and climate of the Western Sayan Mts and the Khakasia Republic (Russia) since 6000 yr 14C BP (5000 cal yr BC) are found to correspond with the development of archaeological cultures and with the pollen-based palaeoclimatic reconstruction of Levina and Orlova (1993) constructed for the forest-steppe zone of the south of West Siberia. Three phases in the development of the regional vegetation (Abies, Betula, and Pinus) are distinguished in the pollen diagram of Lugovoe Mire, which form the environmental background for the archaeological cultures developed in this region. The first penetration of ancient hunting-fishing tribes into this area occurred during the ‘Abies stage' of the vegetation. Bronze Age cultures practiced agriculture and animal husbandry mostly during the ‘Betula stage'. Beginning in the Iron Age, archaeological cultures bloomed in the study area on the background of expanding Pinus sylvestris forests. The origin of all these cultures was connected with migrations of people from the southwest or southeast. An important reason for these migrations was dry climatic phases at millennial intervals, which influenced especially strongly the more southerly homelands of the migrating ancient tribes.

  15. THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE STRATEGY OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES OF RUSSIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motomura, Masumi

    The Russian oil and gas industry earns more than half of the Russian tax revenue and foreign currency, and has been playing the role of the backbone of the state economy through the eras of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. With the elongation of distance to the European market from the oil producing regions, starting from Baku in the era of Imperial Russia to the Second Baku (Volga-Ural) and the third Baku (West Siberia) in turn, the role of the oil pipeline system as the transportation infrastructure became more and more important and the deployment of pipelines has become one of the indispensable pillars of oil strategy. Now, the oil pipeline network is to reach the Pacific Ocean, which will enable Northeast Asia to be added as a destination for Russian oil, with a result of expanding influence for Russia in these regions. On the other hand, gas exports from the Soviet Union to Eastern Europe started in 1967 by constructing a trunk pipeline from Ukraine, which was extended to West Germany in 1973, overcoming the confrontation between the East and the West and becoming a regional stabilizer. The United States considered this pipeline as an energy weapon and criticized this deal by saying that when Soviet gas flows to Western Europe, its political influence must flow like the gas itself. However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, while gas transportation continued without any disruption. This is evidence that the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union was purely for a business purpose and was not politicized. Recently, Russia is aiming to export gas to northeastern Asia, which is expected to be a new stabilizer in this region, although different types of diffi culties (especially about the method of determination of the gas price) still need to be resolved.

  16. Eastern Siberia terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1942-01-01

    The following folio of terrain intelligence maps, charts and explanatory tables represent an attempt to bring together available data on natural physical conditions such as will affect military operations in Eastern Siberia. The area covered is the easternmost section of the U.S.S.R.; that is the area east of the Yenisei River. Each map and accompanying table is devoted· to a specialized set of problems; together they cover such subjects as geology, construction materials, mineral fuels, terrain, water supply, rivers and climate. The data is somewhat generalized due to the scale of treatment as well as to the scarcity of basic data. Each of the maps are rated as to reliability according to the reliability scale on the following page. Considerable of the data shown is of an interpretative nature, although precise data from literature was used wherever possible. The maps and tables were compiled  by a special group from the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Intelligence Branch of the Office, Chief of Engineers, War Department.

  17. Artemia cyst production in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Liudmila I.; Litvinenko, Aleksandr I.; Boiko, Elena G.; Kutsanov, Kirill

    2015-11-01

    In Western Siberia (Russia) there are about 100 Artemia lakes with total area over 1 600 km2. Geographically these lakes are located between 51°-56°N and 61°-82°E. In general these lakes are shallow (depth less than 1.5 m), small or medium size (0.1 to 10 km2); they are chloride; their total salinity is from 40 to 250 g/L. The harvesting of cysts per year is only in 20-40 lakes. In Russia 550 tons of dry Artemia cysts (14%-18% of the world production) were harvested annually. This includes about 350 tons in the Altai region and 200 tons in other regions. During our regular 20-year study period the cyst harvest was: 95 tons in Kurgan; 65 tons in Omsk, 20 tons in Novosibirsk, 20 tons in Tyumen. Ways of increasing cyst harvest in Russia are considered in this article. During the last 30 years the harvest of cysts in Russia has increased from 7-20 to 500-600 tons. A significant influence of dryness of the year was found on productivity in selected lakes, but taken for all the lakes together, the relationship was not significant. The optimal salinity for productivity of cysts in the lakes was determined. Analysis of productivity of the lakes and the harvesting results showed that the stocks of cysts are underutilized by approximately 1.7 times.

  18. Circulation patterns governing October snowfalls in southern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednorz, Ewa; Wibig, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    This study is focused on early fall season in southern Siberia (50-60 N) and is purposed as a contribution to the discussion on the climatic relevance of October Eurasian snow cover. Analysis is based on the daily snow depth data from 43 stations from years 1980-2012, available in the database of All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information—World Data Centre. The snow cover season in southern Siberia starts in early autumn and the number of days with snowfall varies from less than 5 days in the southernmost zone along the parallel 50 N to more than 25 days in the northeastern part of the analyzed area. October snowfall in southern Siberia is associated with occurrence of negative anomalies of sea level pressure (SLP), usually spreading right over the place of recorded intense snowfall or extending eastward from it. Negative anomalies of air temperature at the 850 hPa geopotential level (T850) occurring with increased cyclonic activity are also observed. Negative T850 anomalies are located west or northwest of the SLP depressions. Counterclockwise circulation around low-pressure systems transports cold Arctic air from the north or even colder Siberian polar air from the east, to the west, and northwest parts of cyclones, and induces negative anomalies of temperature. The pattern of T850 anomalies during heavy snowfalls in the eastern part of the southern Siberia is shifted counterclockwise in regard to SLP anomalies: the strongest negative T850 anomalies are located west or northwest of the SLP depressions.

  19. Genetic variability of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes persulcatus ticks and small mammals in the Asian part of Russia.

    PubMed

    Rar, Vera A; Epikhina, Tamara I; Livanova, Natalya N; Panov, Victor V; Doroschenko, Elena K; Pukhovskaya, Natalya M; Vysochina, Nelya P; Ivanov, Leonid I

    2011-08-01

    The specimens of 3552 questing adult Ixodes persulcatus and 1698 blood/tissue samples of small mammals collected in Ural, Siberia, and Far East of Russia were assayed for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum by nested PCR based on the 16S rRNA gene. Totally, A. phagocytophilum was detected in 112 tick and 88 mammalian samples. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and groESL operon (1244-1295 bp) were determined for A. phagocytophilum samples from 65 ticks and 25 small mammals. Six different 16S rRNA gene variants differing by 1-5 nucleotide substitutions were detected, and only one variant matched the sequences deposited in GenBank. Analysis of groESL sequences allowed the A. phagocytophilum samples to be divided into three groups; moreover, the samples from different groups also differed in the 16S rRNA gene sequences. The A. phagocytophilum sequences from group I were detected in 11 Myodes spp. samples from West Siberia and Far East and in 19 I. persulcatus samples from all examined regions; from group II, in 10 samples of Myodes spp. and common shrews (Sorex araneus) from Ural; and from group III, in four samples of Asian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) from West Siberia and Far East; and in 46 I. persulcatus samples from all examined regions. The nucleotide sequences of A. phagocytophilum groESL operon from groups I and II were strictly conserved and formed with A. phagocytophilum groESL sequence from a Swiss bank vole (Myodes glareolus) (GenBank accession no. AF192796), a separate cluster on the phylogenetic tree with a strong bootstrap support. The A. phagocytophilum groESL operon sequences from group III differed from one another by 1-4 nucleotides and formed a separate branch in the cluster generated by European A. phagocytophilum strains from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Ixodes ricinus ticks. PMID:21612528

  20. Reanalysis Data Evaluation to Study Temperature Extremes in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgina, T. M.; Gordov, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    Ongoing global climate changes are strongly pronounced in Siberia by significant warming in the 2nd half of 20th century and recent extreme events such as 2010 heat wave and 2013 flood in Russia's Far East. To improve our understanding of observed climate extremes and to provide to regional decision makers the reliable scientifically based information with high special and temporal resolution on climate state, we need to operate with accurate meteorological data in our study. However, from available 231 stations across Siberia only 130 of them present the homogeneous daily temperature time series. Sparse, station network, especially in high latitudes, force us to use simulated reanalysis data. However those might differ from observations. To obtain reliable information on temperature extreme "hot spots" in Siberia we have compared daily temperatures form ERA-40, ERA Interim, JRA-25, JRA-55, NCEP/DOE, MERRA Reanalysis, HadEX2 and GHCNDEX gridded datasets with observations from RIHMI-WDC/CDIAC dataset for overlap period 1981-2000. Data agreement was estimated at station coordinates to which reanalysis data were interpolated using modified Shepard method. Comparison of averaged over 20 year annual mean temperatures shows general agreement for Siberia excepting Baikal region, where reanalyses significantly underestimate observed temperature behavior. The annual temperatures closest to observed one were obtained from ERA-40 and ERA Interim. Furthermore, t-test results show homogeneity of these datasets, which allows one to combine them for long term time series analysis. In particular, we compared the combined data with observations for percentile-based extreme indices. In Western Siberia reanalysis and gridded data accurately reproduce observed daily max/min temperatures. For East Siberia, Lake Baikal area, ERA Interim data slightly underestimates TN90p and TX90p values. Results obtained allows regional decision-makers to get required high spatial resolution (0,25°×0

  1. Biogeochemical phosphorus mass balance for Lake Baikal, southeastern Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callender, E.; Granina, L.

    1997-01-01

    Extensive data for Lake Baikal have been synthesized into a geochemical mass balance for phosphorus (P). Some of the P budget and internal cycling terms for Baikal have been compared to similar terms for oligotrophic Lake Superior, mesotrophic Lake Michigan and the Baltic Sea, and the Ocean. Lake Baikal has a large external source of fluvial P compared to the Laurentian upper Great Lakes and the Ocean. The major tributary to Lake Baikal has experienced substantial increases in organic P loading during the past 25 years. This, coupled with potential P inputs from possible phosphorite mining, may threaten Baikal's oligotrophic status in the future. Water-column remineralization of particulate organic P is substantially greater in Lake Baikal than in the Laurentian Great Lakes. This is probably due to the great water depths of Lake Baikal. There is a gradient in P burial efficiency, with very high values (80%) for Lake Baikal and Lake Superior, lower values (50%) for Lake Michigan and the Baltic Sea, and a low value (13%) for the Ocean. The accumulation rate of P in Lake Baikal sediments is somewhat greater than that in the Laurentian upper Great Lakes and the Baltic Sea, and much greater than in the Ocean. Benthic regeneration rates are surprisingly similar for large lacustrine and marine environments and supply less than 10% of the P utilized for primary production in these aquatic environments.

  2. Kondyor Massif, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is neither an impact crater nor a volcano. It is a perfect circular intrusion, about 10 km in diameter with a topographic ridge up to 600 m high. The Kondyor Massif is located in Eastern Siberia, Russia, north of the city of Khabarovsk. It is a rare form of igneous intrusion called alkaline-ultrabasic massif and it is full of rare minerals. The river flowing out of it forms placer mineral deposits. Last year 4 tons of platinum were mined there. A remarkable and very unusual mineralogical feature of the deposit is the presence of coarse crystals of Pt-Fe alloy, coated with gold. This 3-D perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER composite over an ASTER-derived digital elevation model.

    The image was acquired on June 10, 2006, and is located at 57.6 degrees north latitude, 134.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Mapping wetland and forest landscapes in Siberia with Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, Shamil; Kleptsova, Irina; Glagolev, Mikhail; Sedykh, Vladimir; Kuzmenko, Ekaterina; Silaev, Anton; Frolov, Alexander; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Fedorov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Landsat data availability provides opportunity for improving the knowledge of the Siberian ecosystems necessary for quantifying the response of the regional carbon cycle to the climate change. We developed a new wetland map based on Landsat data for whole West Siberia aiming at scaling up the methane emission observations. Mid-summer Landsat scenes were used in supervised classification method, based on ground truth data obtained during multiple field surveys. The method allows distinguishing following wetland types: pine-dwarf shrubs-sphagnum bogs or ryams, ridge-hollows complexes, shallow-water complexes, sedge-sphagnum poor fens, herbaceous-sphagnum poor fens, sedge-(moss) poor fens and fens, wooded swamps or sogra, palsa complexes. In our estimates wetlands cover 36% of the taiga area. Total methane emission from WS taiga mires is estimated as 3.6 TgC/yr,which is 77% larger as compared to the earlier estimate based on partial Landsat mapping combined with low resolution map due to higher fraction of fen area. We make an attempt to develop a forest typology system useful for a dynamic vegetation modeling and apply it to the analysis of the forest type distribution for several test areas in West and East Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping whole Siberian forests based on Landsat data. Test region locations are: two in West Siberian middle taiga (Laryegan and Nyagan), and one in East Siberia near Yakutsk. The ground truth data are based on analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data from the point of view of the successional forest type classification. Supervised classification was applied to the areas where ample ground truth and inventory data are available, using several limited area maps and vegetation survey. In Laryegan basin the upland forest areas are dominated (as climax forest species) by Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data alone. In

  4. Bees of the genus Sphecodes Latreille 1804 of Siberia, with a key to species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae).

    PubMed

    Astafurova, Yulia V; Proshchalykin, Maxim Yu

    2015-12-01

    Twenty-one species of the bee genus Sphecodes Latreille are recorded from Siberia. Sphecodes schwarzi Astafurova & Proshchalykin, sp. nov. is described from Tyva Republic and Mongolia (Dornod Aimag). Five species: Sphecodes alternatus Smith, 1853, S. reticulatus Thomson, 1870, S. rufiventris (Panzer, 1798), S. pinguiculus Pérez, 1903, and S. spinulosus Hagens, 1875 are newly recorded from the Asian part of Russia and seven species: S. ferruginatus Hagens, 1882, S. hyalinatus Hagens,1882, S. longulus Hagens, 1882, S. miniatus Hagens, 1882, S. nippon Meyer, 1922, S. puncticeps Thomson, 1870, and S. scabricollis Wesmael, 1835 are recorded for the first time from Siberia. Sphecodes angarensis Cockerell, 1937 is newly synonymized under S. gibbus (Linnaeus, 1758). Illustrated keys for males and females of all species from Siberia and neighbouring Mongolia are provided.

  5. Flooding on Russia's Lena River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nearly every year in the late spring, ice blocks the flow of water at the mouth of the Lena River in northeastern Russia and gives rise to floods across the Siberian plains. This year's floods can be seen in this image taken on June 2, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. The river runs down the left side of the image, and its delta is shrouded in ice (red) at the top of the image. Normally, the river would resemble a thin black line in MODIS imagery. The river, which is Russia's longest, flows 2,641 miles (4,250 kilometers) south to north through Siberia and into the Laptev Sea. In the winter, the river becomes nearly frozen. In the spring, however, water upstream thaws earlier than water at the mouth of the river. As the southern end of the river begins to melt, blocks of ice travel downstream to the still frozen delta, pile up, and often obstruct the flow of water. Flooding doesn't always occur on the same parts of the river. The floods hit further south last year. If the flooding grows severe enough, explosive charges are typically used to break up the ice jams. In these false-color images land areas are a dull, light green or tan, and water is black. Clouds appear pink, and ice comes across as bright red. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  6. Enterprise systems in Russia: 1992-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataev, Michael Yu; Bulysheva, Larisa A.; Emelyanenko, Alexander A.; Emelyanenko, Vladimir A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper introduces the enterprise systems (ES) development and implementation in Russia in the past three decades. Historic analysis shows that, in terms of time frame, the development of ACS (Automated Control Systems) in the former Soviet Union and the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) in the West was almost parallel. In this paper, the current status and the major trend of ES in Russia is discussed.

  7. Conditions of contaminant distribution in the wetland water of Western Siberia (the Russian Federation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savichev, O. G.; Matveenko, I. A.; Ivanova, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    The models of pollutants’ distribution in the wetland waters of Western Siberia (Tomsk Oblast, Russia) have been considered. The models’ application allows describing the observed changes in the chemical composition of active layer of wetland waters with satisfactory accuracy. With these models, the most significant impact of sewage discharge on the local wetland water composition is observed in wetland edge area of up to 150–300 m in width. Even in this area it is possible to minimize the impact of sewage discharge on the wetlands provided the concentration in sewage water is 1.14-1.3 time more than the background concentration.

  8. Drought displaced movement of North American pintails into Siberia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.

    1973-01-01

    During the years 1954-70, 230 pintails (Anas acuta) banded in North America were reported from eastern Asia, primarily Siberia. Most of the birds were shot on the breeding grounds in May. The movement into eastern Asia of pintails banded in the interior of North America was directly correlated with the overflight of the southern portion of the breeding range in North America (r = +0.73**); this overflight resulted from drought conditions (Smith 1970). Thus, the magnitude of the pintail movement into eastern Asia is believed to be dependent upon water conditions some 3,000 miles away. A higher percentage of the pintails banded in the west was reported from eastern Asia, although the recovery rate index was not significantly correlated with the percentage of pintails found in northern Canada and Alaska (r = +0.46 NS). Apparently, a portion of the pintails which winter in the western United States annually nest in Siberia, regardless of water conditions on the North American breeding grounds.

  9. Genetic features of ancient West Siberian people of the Middle Ages, revealed by mitochondrial DNA haplogroup analysis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takehiro; Razhev, Dmitry; Amano, Tetsuya; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2011-08-01

    In order to investigate the genetic features of ancient West Siberian people of the Middle Ages, we studied ancient DNA from bone remains excavated from two archeological sites in West Siberia: Saigatinsky 6 (eighth to eleventh centuries) and Zeleny Yar (thirteenth century). Polymerase chain reaction amplification and nucleotide sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) succeeded for 9 of 67 specimens examined, and the sequences were assigned to mtDNA haplogroups B4, C4, G2, H and U. This distribution pattern of mtDNA haplogroups in medieval West Siberian people was similar to those previously reported in modern populations living in West Siberia, such as the Mansi, Ket and Nganasan. Exact tests of population differentiation showed no significant differences between the medieval people and modern populations in West Siberia. The findings suggest that some medieval West Siberian people analyzed in the present study are included in direct ancestral lineages of modern populations native to West Siberia. PMID:21753768

  10. Sea Ice, Hydrocarbon Extraction, Rain-on-Snow and Tundra Reindeer Nomadism in Arctic Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, B. C.; Kumpula, T.; Meschtyb, N.; Laptander, R.; Macias-Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Verdonen, M.

    2015-12-01

    It is assumed that retreating sea ice in the Eurasian Arctic will accelerate hydrocarbon development and associated tanker traffic along Russia's Northern Sea Route. However, oil and gas extraction along the Kara and Barents Sea coasts will likely keep developing rapidly regardless of whether the Northwest Eurasian climate continues to warm. Less certain are the real and potential linkages to regional biota and social-ecological systems. Reindeer nomadism continues to be a vitally important livelihood for indigenous tundra Nenets and their large herds of semi-domestic reindeer. Warming summer air temperatures over the NW Russian Arctic have been linked to increases in tundra productivity, longer growing seasons, and accelerated growth of tall deciduous shrubs. These temperature increases have, in turn, been linked to more frequent and sustained summer high-pressure systems over West Siberia, but not to sea ice retreat. At the same time, winters have been warming and rain-on-snow (ROS) events have become more frequent and intense, leading to record-breaking winter and spring mortality of reindeer. What is driving this increase in ROS frequency and intensity is not clear. Recent modelling and simulation have found statistically significant near-surface atmospheric warming and precipitation increases during autumn and winter over Arctic coastal lands in proximity to regions of sea-ice loss. During the winter of 2013-14 an extensive and lasting ROS event led to the starvation of 61,000 reindeer out of a population of ca. 300,000 animals on Yamal Peninsula, West Siberia. Historically, this is the region's largest recorded mortality episode. More than a year later, participatory fieldwork with nomadic herders during spring-summer 2015 revealed that the ecological and socio-economic impacts from this extreme event will unfold for years to come. There is an urgent need to understand whether and how ongoing Barents and Kara Sea ice retreat may affect the region's ancient

  11. Wildfires, smoke, and burn scars, near Yakutsk, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Lena River in central Siberia is hidden beneath a veil of smoke from multiple wildfires burning around the city of Yakutsk, Russia. Fires have been burning in the region off and on since late May 2002, and may be agricultural in cause. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 23, 2002. In the false=-color image, vegetation is bright green, smoke is blueish-white, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In both images, fire detections are marked with red outlines. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  12. The criteria for the evaluation of natural disasters in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilova, Sofia

    2010-05-01

    Russia is a very vast country, it covers areas with different kinds of landscape and climate - from subartic tundra in northern parts to semideserts in southern, from artic to subtropic climate. Of course, in different types of regions there are different types of natural hazards. But still some of them can be found in every region (eg. low temperatures or heavy showers). In Russia the words "natural disasters" are very closely connected to "material damage". It means that every natural phenomenon that can cause a catastrophic situation should suit 2 types of criteria: geographical and social-economical. Geographical criteria can be meteorological or meteo-hydrological, etc. In 1990 the Ministry of Emergency situations and natural disasters was organized in Russia and these criteria were fixed. Since that time there were no changes. The problem is that actually there is no spatial differentiation in geographical criteria of manifestation of natural hazards in Russia. In fact you have the same criteria in Yakutsk in Siberia and Sochi on the Black Sea coast. This fact can cause many problems. Statistics show natural disasters which were caused by natural hazards, which do not suit proper geographical criteria - but there is still material damage and even people's death. That's why we propose to distinguish (according to statistics) different parameters of natural hazards, which can cause natural disasters and material damage in different parts and climatic zones of Russia. Also we have to reconsider these criteria according to today's climate situation.

  13. [Endemic goiter in the extreme North of West Siberia].

    PubMed

    Luzina, I G; Suplotova, L A; Osadchenko, G A

    1998-01-01

    Random examinations covering 8-60-year-old 4345 citizens of 12 settlements of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomic Territory discovered goiter endemia throughout the territory but most evident the endemy manifested in the Far North. The prevalence of endemic goiter among schoolchildren made up 52.8% (enlargement of the goiter of the 1st and 2nd degree), among adults-49.2%. By ultrasound investigation, the above percentages were 29 and 26.4%, respectively. This corresponds to moderate endemia. The median of urinary iodine excretion averaged in the territory 5.1 micrograms%, while overall iodine insufficiency (number of children with urinary iodine < 10 micrograms%) was 81.9%. In the Far North iodine excretion was less but goiter incidence was higher than normal. Thus, in the Far North goiter endemia is rather serious.

  14. [Occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers of West Siberia].

    PubMed

    Pomytkina, T E; Pershin, A N

    2010-01-01

    The high incidence of chronic digestive diseases is recorded in chemical industry workers exposed to the isolated action of noxious substances. The aim of the investigation was to make a hygienic assessment of the risk for occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers exposed to a combination of noxious drugs. The working conditions and the prevalence of digestive diseases were studied in 4120 workers engaged in chemical and auxiliary processes. Under the isolated action of noxious substances, the workers had an average of 35% increase in the incidence of digestive diseases than unexposed ones (p < 0.05). Under the combined action of hazardous substances, the incidence of digestive diseases was 1.7-fold greater (p < 0.05) than in the unexposed subjects and 1.2-fold greater in those under isolated action. The odd ratio and relative risk for digestive diseases in the workers exposed to a combination of noxious substances were 4.0-11.1 and 3.5-10.7 times higher, respectively (p < 0.05) than in the unexposed subjects.

  15. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Temperate and green in the summer, the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia freezes over completely in the winter. This true-color image of the Kamchatka Peninsula was acquired on December 12, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and by the Bering Sea to the east. The ice and snow highlight the stunning valleys and tall peaks of the Sredinnyy Khrebet, which is the volcanic mountain range running down the center of the peninsula. The mountains along the range reach heights of over 3500 meters (11,484 feet). Many of the volcanoes are still active, and ash and volcanic rock has turned the snow a dark gray on the eastern side of the range. The light blue latticework of ridges, valleys, and alluvial fans extending from the center of the range were likely carved out by past and present glaciers and by run-off from spring snowmelt. The small island that extends off of the tip of the peninsula is Ostrov Paramushir (Paramushir Island). Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  16. Unique Locality of Wooly Rhinoceros in Arctic Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, S.; Sher, A.; Boeskorov, G.; Lazarev, P.; Binladen, J.; Willerslev, E.; Tikhonov, A.

    2009-12-01

    A permafrost goldfield area in northeastern Yakutia, Russia turns out to be the richest locality of extinct woolly rhinoceros in the world. It has yielded fossil horns of about 50 rhino individuals, and recently the most complete mummified body of this extinct giant. The age of fossils is about 40-50 thousand years before present, but permafrost helped to preserve them in perfect condition. The fossils, and especially mummies, present a perfect material for genetic studies. Woolly rhinoceros, Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blum.), is one of the symbols of the Ice Age and one of few large mammal species that disappeared from Eurasia about 14 000 years ago. Recently, a substantially complete mummy of woolly rhinoceros was found in permafrost at the Rodinka site near Cherskiy, northeastern Yakutia, Russia (68.76°N, 161.63°E). It is the body of an adult female, weighing almost 900 kg, with the preserved skull, two horns, lower jaw, one ear, and tail. The length of the carcass is about 2 m, the live length of the animal is estimated as more than 3 m. The right legs are partly preserved and the chest and belly cavities are partly empty; almost all hair has been lost. Despite these defects, it is the most complete mummy of woolly rhino ever found in permafrost. A fragment of rib from the body has been AMS dated to 39140±390 BP (OxA-18755). In recent years the Rodinka site has yielded an unprecedented number of woolly rhino fossils and is so far the richest locality for this extinct species. The woolly rhino had a very wide distribution in the Late Pleistocene - from France to the Bering Strait and from China to the high-arctic islands. It was perfectly adapted to the variety of severe periglacial (tundra-steppe) environments. Intriguingly, it was the only large Siberian mammal that never crossed the Bering Land Bridge to Alaska. In the vast lowlands of Arctic Siberia Coelodonta fossils are common, but much less abundant (below 1%) compared to those of other large Ice Age

  17. [Features of the distribution of alleles of the HLA-DRB1 04 and HLA-DQB1 03 genes among healthy people of European origin in Western Siberia].

    PubMed

    Sartakova, M L; Konenkov, V I; Kimura, A

    1993-04-01

    The allelic HLA-DRB1 04 and HLA-DQB1 03 polymorphism in caucasians living among the West Siberia Mongoloid aborigenes was studied. As a result of our studies, it was shown that the HLA-DRB1 0403/07 predominates and HLA-DRB1 0404/08 is absent in the Russian population of West Siberia, in contrast to those among Caucasians living in West Europe and North America. The frequencies of HLA-DQB1 03 alleles are similar to those observed among the all Caucasians. Gametic association HLA-DR4 - HLA-DQw was found for the first time in Caucasians of West Siberia. PMID:8354474

  18. Conifer Decline and Mortality in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharuk, V.; Im, S.; Ranson, K.

    2015-12-01

    "Dark needle conifer" (DNC: Abies sibirica, Pinus sibirica and Picea obovata) decline and mortality increase were documented in Russia during recent decades. Here we analyzed causes and scale of Siberian pine and fir mortality in Altai-Sayan and Baikal Lake Regions and West Siberian Plane based on in situdata and remote sensing (QuickBird, Landsat, GRACE). Geographically, mortality began on the margins of the DNC range (i.e., within the forest-steppe and conifer-broadleaf ecotones) and on terrain features with maximal water stress risk (narrow-shaped hilltops, convex steep south facing slopes, shallow well-drained soils). Within ridges, mortality occurred mainly along mountain passes, where stands faced drying winds. Regularly mortality was observed to decrease with elevation increase with the exception of Baikal Lake Mountains, where it was minimal near the lake shore and increased with elevation (up to about 1000 m a.s.l.). Siberian pine and fir mortality followed a drying trend with consecutive droughts since the 1980s. Dendrochronology analysis showed that mortality was correlated with vapor pressure deficit increase, drought index, soil moisture decrease and occurrence of late frosts. In Baikal region Siberian pine mortality correlated with Baikal watershed meteorological variables. An impact of previous year climate conditions on the current growth was found (r2 = 0.6). Thus, water-stressed trees became sensitive to bark beetles and fungi impact (including Polygraphus proximus and Heterobasidion annosum). At present, an increase in mortality is observed within the majority of DNC range. Results obtained also showed a primary role of water stress in that phenomenon with a secondary role of bark beetles and fungi attacks. In future climate with increased drought severity and frequency Siberian pine and fir will partly disappear from its current range, and will be substituted by drought-tolerant species (e.g., Pinus silvestris, Larix sibirica).

  19. [The problem of immigration in Russia].

    PubMed

    Slater, W

    1994-01-01

    "The article examines the threefold immigration problem currently facing Russia: the influx of refugees from the developing world who hope eventually to reach the West, and the large numbers of non-Russians and ethnic Russians entering the country from the other former Soviet republics. The institutions established recently to tackle immigration are insufficiently funded and often find themselves in conflict with other agencies, both Russian and international. Legislation on the status of immigrants is also confused. The most pressing issue, however, is that of Russian immigration into Russia. This has implications for domestic policies: the immigrants are regarded as a potential solution to the problem of rural depopulation and are prevented from entering densely populated regions. The exodus of ethnic Russians from the other former Soviet republic may also affect Russia's relations with these countries, which it has accused of discriminating against their Russian populations." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  20. Extensive Burn Scars in Russia's Amur Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Vast areas of southeastern Russia have been scorched by fires over the last few weeks. All across Siberia fires have been raging, and this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 15, 2002, shows extensive, dark burn scars along with actively burning fires (red dots) on the north side of the Amur River, which separates Russia (north) and China (south). The southern Amur region is largely devoted to farming and other agriculture, and these fires may have been set intentionally to prepare the land for the growing season. Fire is often used to clear land of unwanted vegetation, and to return the nutrients stored in vegetation back to the soil. However, fires that are too frequent or severe can devastate the soil, eventually making it unsuitable for farming or grazing. Fires can also escape control and spread into protected areas. In this image, fires are mostly concentrated in a lowland area within the drainage basin of the Zeya River, which drains from the frozen lake at the top of the image. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. Long-term Variations of Atmospheric CH4 Concentration over Siberia Derived from Aircraft Observation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasakawa, M.; Machida, T.; Ito, A.; Tsuda, N.; Arshinov, M.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Krasnov, O.; Patra, P. K.; Ishijima, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have been carrying out monthly flask sampling over 3 Siberian sites (Surgut, Novosibirsk, and Yakutsk) using aircraft and obtained the vertical profile of CH4 concentration up to 7 km since 1993. Temporal variation at each altitude exhibited increasing trend as observed globally (Figure). Seasonal variation at Yakutsk in East Siberia showed expected summer minimum, as seen at remote sites in northern mid to high latitudes, although no clear seasonality was observed at West Siberian sites (Surgut and Novosibirsk). Large CH4 emissions from West Siberian Lowlands (WSL) might compensate CH4 loss by reaction with OH radical during summer. The vertical gradient in CH4 concentration was larger in Surgut and Novosibirsk than in Yakutsk, which suggests a strong CH4 emission from WSL as well. However, the vertical gradient at Surgut was obviously decreasing; the annual mean difference between 5.5 km and 1.0 km decreased from 62-76 ppb during 1994-1996 to 33-49 ppb during 2012-2014. Chemical transport model reproduced this decrease tendency and suggested that global CH4 emissions have increased, but the contribution from WSL and Europe have decreased in this decade. Figure. Temporal variations in CH4 concentration observed at 1000 and 5500 km altitude over Surgut in West Siberia. Dot color and error bar indicates the number of samples in the same altitude and the range of measured concentration, respectively. The curved line shows fitting line.

  2. Family business in Russia: the path to middle class?

    PubMed

    Barkhatova, N; McMylor, P; Mellor, R

    2001-06-01

    The paper seeks to explore via a series of interview-based case studies aspects of the emergence of an entrepreneurial middle-class in Russia. The paper notes the origins of those studied in the professional or highly skilled workers in the former Soviet Union. The paper reveals the complexity and fragility of the circumstances of these entrepreneurs and suggests that commentary in both Russia and the West that pins its hopes for social stability on the emergence of a new property owning middle class in Russia are, at best, premature. PMID:11440056

  3. Family business in Russia: the path to middle class?

    PubMed

    Barkhatova, N; McMylor, P; Mellor, R

    2001-06-01

    The paper seeks to explore via a series of interview-based case studies aspects of the emergence of an entrepreneurial middle-class in Russia. The paper notes the origins of those studied in the professional or highly skilled workers in the former Soviet Union. The paper reveals the complexity and fragility of the circumstances of these entrepreneurs and suggests that commentary in both Russia and the West that pins its hopes for social stability on the emergence of a new property owning middle class in Russia are, at best, premature.

  4. Effects of Repeated Fires in the Forest Ecosystems of the Zabaikalye Region, Southern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L. V.; Conard, S. G.; Petkov, A.; Barrett, K.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Ivanova, G.

    2014-12-01

    Fire is the main ecological disturbance controlling forest development in the boreal forests of Siberia and contributing substantially to the global carbon cycle. The warmer and dryer climate observed recently in the boreal forests is considered to be responsible for extreme fire weather, resulting in higher fire frequency, larger areas burned, and an increase of fire severity. Because of the increase of fire activity, boreal forests in some regions may not be able to reach maturity before they re-burn, which means less carbon will be stored in the ecosystem and more will remain in the atmosphere. Moreover, if one fire occurs within a few years of another, some stands will not re-grow at all, and even more carbon will accumulate in the atmosphere. Zabaikalye region located in the south of Siberia is characterized by the highest fire activity in Russia. With a use of the satellite-based fire product we found that there are about 7.0 million hectares in the region burned repeatedly during the last decade. We have investigated a number of sites in-situ in light-coniferous (Scots pine and larch) forests and evaluated the impacts of repeated fires on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration. Substantial decrease of carbon stocks, change of the vegetation structure and composition, and soil erosion were observed in many areas disturbed by repeated fires. At drier sites located in the southern regions repeated fires prohibited successful regeneration and resulted in forest conversion to grassland. Detection and monitoring of changes in the areas of Siberia where repeated fires have caused a major shift in ecosystem structure and function is required for the development of sustainable forest management strategies to mitigate climate change. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program.

  5. Interaction of Siberia and Baltica at the final stage of amalgamation of the Eurasian part of Pangea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatsillo, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The probable relative positions of the Siberian and East European cratons (Siberia and Baltica paleocontinents, respectively) during the Early Permian and the pattern of their movements at the stage of consolidation in the structure of the Pangea supercontinent are reconstructed from the paleomagnetic data. The kinematics of Siberia and Baltica indicates that they belonged to different lithospheric plates during the Permian, but since then they could have moved cooperatively. The structural data for the folded zones surrounding these cratons and the kinematical constraints suggest the most probable scenario of the interaction between Siberia and Baltica during the Permian, in which the motion of Siberia relative to Baltica was a clockwise rotation around the Euler pole located in the southwest of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago. This interaction between the paleocontinents agrees with the meridional lengthening, i.e., the squeezing out of the structures whose relics currently compose the basement of the West Siberian Plate along the shear zones in the southern and northern directions, and it is verified by the pattern of formation of some distinctive structures in the Central Asian folded belt and Arctic Region.

  6. Investigation of ancient DNA from Western Siberia and the Sargat culture.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Casey C; Kaestle, Frederika A

    2010-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA from 14 archaeological samples at the Ural State University in Yekaterinburg, Russia, was extracted to test the feasibility of ancient DNA work on their collection. These samples come from a number of sites that fall into two groupings. Seven samples are from three sites, dating to the 8th-12th century AD, that belong to a northern group of what are thought to be Ugrians, who lived along the Ural Mountains in northwestern Siberia. The remaining seven samples are from two sites that belong to a southern group representing the Sargat culture, dating between roughly the 5th century BC and the 5th century AD, from southwestern Siberia near the Ural Mountains and the present-day Kazakhstan border. The samples are derived from several burial types, including kurgan burials. They also represent a number of different skeletal elements and a range of observed preservation. The northern sites repeatedly failed to amplify after multiple extraction and amplification attempts, but the samples from the southern sites were successfully extracted and amplified. The sequences obtained from the southern sites support the hypothesis that the Sargat culture was a potential zone of intermixture between native Ugrian and/or Siberian populations and steppe peoples from the south, possibly early Iranian or Indo-Iranian, which has been previously suggested by archaeological analysis.

  7. Investigation of ancient DNA from Western Siberia and the Sargat culture.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Casey C; Kaestle, Frederika A

    2010-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA from 14 archaeological samples at the Ural State University in Yekaterinburg, Russia, was extracted to test the feasibility of ancient DNA work on their collection. These samples come from a number of sites that fall into two groupings. Seven samples are from three sites, dating to the 8th-12th century AD, that belong to a northern group of what are thought to be Ugrians, who lived along the Ural Mountains in northwestern Siberia. The remaining seven samples are from two sites that belong to a southern group representing the Sargat culture, dating between roughly the 5th century BC and the 5th century AD, from southwestern Siberia near the Ural Mountains and the present-day Kazakhstan border. The samples are derived from several burial types, including kurgan burials. They also represent a number of different skeletal elements and a range of observed preservation. The northern sites repeatedly failed to amplify after multiple extraction and amplification attempts, but the samples from the southern sites were successfully extracted and amplified. The sequences obtained from the southern sites support the hypothesis that the Sargat culture was a potential zone of intermixture between native Ugrian and/or Siberian populations and steppe peoples from the south, possibly early Iranian or Indo-Iranian, which has been previously suggested by archaeological analysis. PMID:20649397

  8. Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing of Forest Dynamics in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, K. J.; Sun, G.; Kharuk, V. I.; Howl, J.

    2011-01-01

    The forested regions of Siberia, Russia are vast and contain about a quarter of the world's forests that have not experienced harvesting. However, many Siberian forests are facing twin pressures of rapidly changing climate and increasing timber harvest activity. Monitoring the dynamics and mapping the structural parameters of the forest is important for understanding the causes and consequences of changes observed in these areas. Because of the inaccessibility and large extent of this forest, remote sensing data can play an important role for observing forest state and change. In Central Siberia, multi-sensor remote sensing data have been used to monitor forest disturbances and to map above-ground biomass from the Sayan Mountains in the south to the taiga-tundra boundaries in the north. Radar images from the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C)/XSAR mission were used for forest biomass estimation in the Sayan Mountains. Radar images from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1), European Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (ERS-1) and Canada's RADARSAT-1, and data from ETM+ on-board Landsat-7 were used to characterize forest disturbances from logging, fire, and insect damage in Boguchany and Priangare areas.

  9. High-Resolution Regional Biomass Map of Siberia from Glas, Palsar L-Band Radar and Landsat Vcf Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, G.; Ranson, K.; Montesano, P.; Zhang, Z.; Kharuk, V.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic-Boreal zone is known be warming at an accelerated rate relative to other biomes. The taiga or boreal forest covers over 16 x106 km2 of Arctic North America, Scandinavia, and Eurasia. A large part of the northern Boreal forests are in Russia's Siberia, as area with recent accelerated climate warming. During the last two decades we have been working on characterization of boreal forests in north-central Siberia using field and satellite measurements. We have published results of circumpolar biomass using field plots, airborne (PALS, ACTM) and spaceborne (GLAS) lidar data with ASTER DEM, LANDSAT and MODIS land cover classification, MODIS burned area and WWF's ecoregion map. Researchers from ESA and Russia have also been working on biomass (or growing stock) mapping in Siberia. For example, they developed a pan-boreal growing stock volume map at 1-kilometer scale using hyper-temporal ENVISAT ASAR ScanSAR backscatter data. Using the annual PALSAR mosaics from 2007 to 2010 growing stock volume maps were retrieved based on a supervised random forest regression approach. This method is being used in the ESA/Russia ZAPAS project for Central Siberia Biomass mapping. Spatially specific biomass maps of this region at higher resolution are desired for carbon cycle and climate change studies. In this study, our work focused on improving resolution ( 50 m) of a biomass map based on PALSAR L-band data and Landsat Vegetation Canopy Fraction products. GLAS data were carefully processed and screened using land cover classification, local slope, and acquisition dates. The biomass at remaining footprints was estimated using a model developed from field measurements at GLAS footprints. The GLAS biomass samples were then aggregated into 1 Mg/ha bins of biomass and mean VCF and PALSAR backscatter and textures were calculated for each of these biomass bins. The resulted biomass/signature data was used to train a random forest model for biomass mapping of entire region from 50o

  10. Evaluation of Seismic Risk of Siberia Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Emanov, A. F.

    The outcomes of modern geophysical researches of the Geophysical Survey SB RAS, directed on study of geodynamic situation in large industrial and civil centers on the territory of Siberia with the purpose of an evaluation of seismic risk of territories and prediction of origin of extreme situations of natural and man-caused character, are pre- sented in the paper. First of all it concerns the testing and updating of a geoinformation system developed by Russian Emergency Ministry designed for calculations regarding the seismic hazard and response to distructive earthquakes. The GIS database contains the catalogues of earthquakes and faults, seismic zonation maps, vectorized city maps, information on industrial and housing fund, data on character of building and popula- tion in inhabited places etc. The geoinformation system allows to solve on a basis of probabilistic approaches the following problems: - estimating the earthquake impact, required forces, facilities and supplies for life-support of injured population; - deter- mining the consequences of failures on chemical and explosion-dangerous objects; - optimization problems on assurance technology of conduct of salvage operations. Using this computer program, the maps of earthquake risk have been constructed for several seismically dangerous regions of Siberia. These maps display the data on the probable amount of injured people and relative economic damage from an earthquake, which can occur in various sites of the territory according to the map of seismic zona- tion. The obtained maps have allowed determining places where the detailed seismo- logical observations should be arranged. Along with it on the territory of Siberia the wide-ranging investigations with use of new methods of evaluation of physical state of industrial and civil establishments (buildings and structures, hydroelectric power stations, bridges, dams, etc.), high-performance detailed electromagnetic researches of ground conditions of city

  11. Systematics and biology of some species of Micrurapteryx Spuler (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) from the Holarctic Region, with re-description of M. caraganella (Hering) from Siberia.

    PubMed

    Kirichenko, Natalia; Triberti, Paolo; Mutanen, Marko; Magnoux, Emmanuelle; Landry, Jean-François; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    During a DNA barcoding campaign of leaf-mining insects from Siberia, a genetically divergent lineage of a gracillariid belonging to the genus Micrurapteryx was discovered, whose larvae developed on Caragana Fabr. and Medicago L. (Fabaceae). Specimens from Siberia showed similar external morphology to the Palearctic Micrurapteryx gradatella and the Nearctic Parectopa occulta but differed in male genitalia, DNA barcodes, and nuclear genes histone H3 and 28S. Members of this lineage are re-described here as Micrurapteryx caraganella (Hering, 1957), comb. n., an available name published with only a brief description of its larva and leaf mine. Micrurapteryx caraganella is widely distributed throughout Siberia, from Tyumen oblast in the West to Transbaikalia in the East. Occasionally it may severely affect its main host, Caragana arborescens Lam. This species has been confused in the past with Micrurapteryx gradatella in Siberia, but field observations confirm that Micrurapteryx gradatella exists in Siberia and is sympatric with Micrurapteryx caraganella, at least in the Krasnoyarsk region, where it feeds on different host plants (Vicia amoena Fisch. and Vicia sp.). In addition, based on both morphological and molecular evidence as well as examination of type specimens, the North American Parectopa occulta Braun, 1922 and Parectopa albicostella Braun, 1925 are transferred to Micrurapteryx as Micrurapteryx occulta (Braun, 1922), comb. n. with albicostella as its junior synonym (syn. n.). Characters used to distinguish Micrurapteryx from Parectopa are presented and illustrated. These findings provide another example of the potential of DNA barcoding to reveal overlooked species and illuminate nomenclatural problems. PMID:27110203

  12. Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in Area Burned, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, burned area calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass burning emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest burned area product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in area burned in Siberia. Area burned was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass burning emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and area burned, leading to impacts on global air

  13. Planned LLR station in Russia and its impact on the lunar ephemeris accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, M.; Yagudina, E.; Torre, J.-M.; Feraudy, D.

    2015-08-01

    Precise modern Lunar Ephemerides (DE/LE, USA; INPOP series, France and EPM-ERA IAA, Russia) are based only on LLR (Lunar Laser Ranging) observations obtained at sixth LLR ground stations during 1969-2013 years. At present there are only four stations active: Grasse (Cerga), McDonald, Apache Point (Apollo) and Matera (Italy). To improve the accuracy of lunar ephemerides the new stations are necessary. Now exist two projects of new LLR stations: Altay (Russia) and Hartebeesthoek in South Africa (1m telescope). La Silla (Chilli) station is very promising but now only under theoretical consideration. In the paper, the impact of a installation of new LLR device on the 3.12 m telescope at Altay station Siberia, Russia is considered. To check the actuality of the project it should be shown, in particular, that the accuracy of the lunar ephemeris will visibly increase. The only way to prove that fact now is the numerical simulation.

  14. Seismic and electrical work at rivers and lakes of Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Liseikin, A. V.; Sigonin, P.

    2013-05-01

    In West and East Siberia a great deal of rivers and big lakes are situated. For oil and gas exploration these places hold much promise. It is very difficult to carry out seismic work in these regions, when temperature is fall down below 40 degrees centigrade. It is necessary to pave ways for technical equipment, to organize shooting operations in some cases, that harming ecology of investigated regions. It is well-known, that at seas and big reservoirs seismic works are carried out with use of air guns as sources and floating or ground cables as receivers. There is a special interest to carry out jointly processing and interpretation of seismic survey and electrical data. We should learn how to carry out such researches at rivers, developed a special combined technology on river seismic and electrical works carrying out. Geophysical Survey SB RAS has been carried out seismic and electrical works at rivers and reservoirs of Siberia for more then 20 years. We had to work in conditions, when depth of a reservoir was more then 10 meters or less then 1 meter. It was necessary to work out or adapt some floating equipment, to create air-guns working on light depths ("Malysh", "Sibiryak"), to create new recording equipment (seismic and electrical variants of "Baikal" equipment) for carrying out work in such conditions. There are presented the results of seismic researches, carried out in the Lake Baikal, Lake Teletskoe. For the first time it was determined, that the depth of sedimentary cover under Lake Baikal exceeds 14 km. On demands of government and private companies we carried out river works in Common-depth-point method at such rivers as: Ob, Volga, Enisey, Vakh, Lena, Kirenga, Nizhnya Tunguska. Comparison of results got at river profiles with surface ones, crossing the river, showed in difficult surface conditions (central part of the River Lena, the Nizhnya Tunguska) river seismic sections are better then surface sections. It is connected with the fact, that

  15. Information Needs Research in Russia and Lithuania, 1965-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maceviciute, Elena

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The invisibility of research on information needs from the East and Central Europe in the West suggested an exploration of the published research output from Lithuania and Russia from 1965 to 2003. Method: The data were collected from the abstracting journal Informatika-59. The publications were retrieved from Lithuanian and Russian…

  16. The Coast of Siberia: A Vladivostok Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronayne, Betty Lee

    This paper describes experiences of a reference librarian at California State University (Sacramento) who spent three weeks in Vladivostok (Russia) to assess the library and research needs of faculty and students at the Far Eastern State Technical University. After briefly describing the city of Vladivostok and its military role in the Soviet…

  17. Promoting sustainable energy strategies in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    Enormous structural changes are taking place in the economy of Russia. It is important that vital sectors of the economy undergo a smooth transition from a centrally-planned paradigm to a more market-oriented structure. Introducing market-oriented-institutional structures and energy planning approaches to Russian utilities can facilitate the transition to the market and allow them to become vehicles for change rather than mere witnesses. As real electricity prices increase relative to other prices, a significant industrial restructuring can be expected, with an accompanying reduction of energy consumption. By developing programs to help industry become more energy-efficiency, the electricity sector can play a central role in Russia`s economic recovery. A robust energy sector will be in a much better position to lead other sectors of the economy toward market-oriented solutions to the present economic crisis. Because of the magnitude of the task of recreating an economy for one of the world`s superpowers, institutional restructuring should take place incrementally. The transition of US utilities from a {open_quotes}build-and-grow{close_quotes} paradigm to one of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and subsequently to a hybrid of competition and IRP began and is continuing on the state and regional level. Local success stories on the West Coast and New England persuaded other states to adopt these methods. This strategy could also prove to be very effective in regions of Russia that are served by integrated electricity grids, such as the South Russia Power pool (Yuzhenergo) that serves the North Caucasus region. As the Russian energy system currently undergoes change, simultaneously privatizing and restructuring, these issues will be largely decided within the next two years. One of the greatest challenges involves implementing an environmentally sustainable strategy which ensures that energy efficiency and renewable energy are incorporated into the new structure.

  18. Ozone profile observations in Siberia in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhov, Valery; Balugin, Nikolay; Yushkov, Vladimir; Makshtas, Alexander; Ivlev, Georgii; Shepelev, Dmitry; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2014-05-01

    The ozonesonde observations of atmospheric ozone profiles at Salekhard aerological station (66.5N, 66.7E) in Western Siberia, Russian Federation are carried out since January 1997. In 1997-2013 we used electrochemical 2Z-ECC ozonesondes for ozone profile observations in the winter-spring period to study the ozone loss in the Arctic regions. The results of ozonesonde observation at Salekhard station are in the NDACC database. In January 2014 we upgraded this ozonesounding station with the new iMet-1 radiosonde and electrochemical 2Z-V7 ozonesonde of Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT), USA. The first results of ozonesonde profile measurements recorded in January-March 2014 at Salekhard aerological station will be presented and discussed.

  19. Mid-latitude auroras in Eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalev, Alexander

    We present characteristics of mid-latitude auroras in Eastern Siberia, recorded at the Geophysical Observatory of ISTP SB RAS during optical observations of airglow in 1989-2013. We analyze dependences of intensities of [OI] atomic oxygen (557.7 and 630 nm) emissions on geomagnetic activity level during different phases of geomagnetic storms. Diurnal distribution of registration of mid-latitude auroras and connection with variations of ionospheric parameters are analyzed too. Possible mechanisms of formation and peculiarities of the main types of mid-latitude auroras are discussed. The study was done under RF President Grant of Public Support for RF Leading Scientific Schools (NSh-2942.2014.5) and RFBR Grant No. 12-05-00024 a.

  20. Flora from the Induan stage (Lower Triassic) of Middle Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogucheva, N. K.

    2016-05-01

    The first data on the taxonomic composition of the Induan flora of Siberia are presented. The investigation of Triassic reference sections in northern Siberia (eastern Taimyr, Lena-Anabar Trough, Verkhoyansk region) and correlation with volcano-sedimentary complexes of the Tungus and Kuznetsk basins made it possible to establish for the first time the taxonomic composition of the flora from the Induan Stage of Siberia. Its composition is heterogeneous, forming two large plant formations, which occupied different ecological niches. On the eastern coastal-marine margins of Siberia (eastern Taimyr, Olenek coast, Verkhoyansk region), the Induan flora was largely characterized by lepidophytic ( Tomiostrobus) plants, while in the intracontinental areas (Tungus and Kuznetsk basins, partly Verkhoyansk region), it was characterized by Equisetales-Filicales communities.

  1. Behavior therapy in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sukhodolsky, D G; Tsytsarev, S V; Kassinove, H

    1995-06-01

    The development of behavior therapy in Russia is discussed within the context of the evolution of Russian psychology. The pre-revolutionary contributions of Sechenov, Grot, Pavlov, and Bekhterev to the conceptual foundation of behaviorism in Russia are examined. This is followed by a discussion of the marked impact of social and political influences on the development of therapeutic methods from 1917 onward. Major milestones in the development of behavior therapy are examined. Finally, it is noted that the current period of openness provides an expanded opportunity to teach behavior therapy which has so far been limited to major Russian cities.

  2. Evaluating oil, gas opportunities in western Siberia; Reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Connelly, W. ); Krug, J.A. )

    1992-12-07

    In this article, the authors discuss how to use the subsurface data to describe hydrocarbon reservoirs and estimate the original oil in place (OOIP) in western Siberia. The methodology for describing a reservoir and estimating the OOIP in western Siberia is similar to the approach for most reservoirs: Establish stratigraphic correlations across the field; Construct structure maps on key horizons; Construct porosity isopach maps for significant reservoirs; Construct net pay maps; Determine reservoir parameters; and Calculate pore-volume estimates of OOIP.

  3. Russia's energy policy, 1992-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Milov, V.; Coburn, L.L.; Danchenko, I.

    2006-05-15

    A team comprising a former Russian policymaker and American analysts of the current Russian energy policy examines the course of that policy and its limitations during the post-Soviet period. In the process, they critically analyze key problems in Russia's oil, gas, coal, and electricity sectors that represent a potential drag on growth of the entire Russian economy and at the very least call into question the sustainability of further increases in exports to the West. The authors explore in considerable depth and detail both the factors underlying the recent increase in government intervention in the energy sector and the likely consequences for domestic production, consumption, resource security, and critical exports.

  4. Waste management in the Irkutsk Region, Siberia, Russia: environmental assessment of current practice focusing on landfilling.

    PubMed

    Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Rechberger, Helmut; Christensen, Thomas H

    2014-05-01

    The municipal waste management system of the region of Irkutsk is described and a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed to assess the environmental performance of the system. Annually about 500 000 tons of waste are managed. The waste originates from three sources: household waste (27%), commercial waste (23%) and office & institutional waste (44%). Other waste of unknown composition constitutes 6%. Only 3% of the waste is recycled; 97% of the municipal waste is disposed of at the old Alexandrovsky landfill. The environmental impact from the current system is dominated by the landfill, which has no gas or leachate collection system. The global warming contribution is due to the emission of methane of the order of 420 000 tons CO2-equivalents per year. Collection and transport of the waste are insignificant compared with impacts from the landfill. As the old landfill runs out of capacity in a few years, the LCA modelling showed that introduction of a new and modern landfill with gas and leachate collection could improve the performance of the waste management system significantly. Collection of landfill gas and utilization for 30 years for electricity production (gas turbine) would reduce the global warming completely and result in a net saving of 100 000 CO2-equivalents per year due to storage of biogenic carbon in the landfill beyond 100 years. Considering other first-order degradation rates for the landfilled organic matter did not overtly affect the results, while assumptions about the top cover oxidation of methane significantly affected the results. This shows the importance of controlling the gas escape from the landfill.

  5. Dust pollution of snow cover in the industrial areas of Tomsk city (Western Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talovskaya, A. V.; Filimonenko, E. A.; Osipova, N. A.; Yazikov, E. G.; Nadeina, L. V.

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the results of long-term monitoring (2007-2014) of snow cover pollution in the territory of Tomsk city. Snow samples were collected in the territory of Tomsk. Determination of dust load level was carried out by comparing with the background and reference values. It has been determined that the north-east and central parts of Tomsk are the most contaminated areas, where brickworks, coal and gas-fired thermal power plant are located. The analysis of long-term dynamics showed a dust load decrease in the vicinity of coal and gas-fired thermal power plant due to upgrading of the existing dust collecting systems. During the monitoring period the high dust load in the vicinity of brickworks did not change. The lowest value of the dust load on snow cover was detected in the vicinity of the petrochemical plant and concrete product plants. The near and far zones of dust load on snow cover were determined with the reference to the location of the studied plants.

  6. Waste management in the Irkutsk Region, Siberia, Russia: environmental assessment of current practice focusing on landfilling.

    PubMed

    Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Rechberger, Helmut; Christensen, Thomas H

    2014-05-01

    The municipal waste management system of the region of Irkutsk is described and a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed to assess the environmental performance of the system. Annually about 500 000 tons of waste are managed. The waste originates from three sources: household waste (27%), commercial waste (23%) and office & institutional waste (44%). Other waste of unknown composition constitutes 6%. Only 3% of the waste is recycled; 97% of the municipal waste is disposed of at the old Alexandrovsky landfill. The environmental impact from the current system is dominated by the landfill, which has no gas or leachate collection system. The global warming contribution is due to the emission of methane of the order of 420 000 tons CO2-equivalents per year. Collection and transport of the waste are insignificant compared with impacts from the landfill. As the old landfill runs out of capacity in a few years, the LCA modelling showed that introduction of a new and modern landfill with gas and leachate collection could improve the performance of the waste management system significantly. Collection of landfill gas and utilization for 30 years for electricity production (gas turbine) would reduce the global warming completely and result in a net saving of 100 000 CO2-equivalents per year due to storage of biogenic carbon in the landfill beyond 100 years. Considering other first-order degradation rates for the landfilled organic matter did not overtly affect the results, while assumptions about the top cover oxidation of methane significantly affected the results. This shows the importance of controlling the gas escape from the landfill. PMID:24692457

  7. Magnetic properties of bottom sediments from Meromectic Shira Lake (Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogozin, D. Yu.; Balaev, D. A.; Semenov, S. V.; Shaikhutdinov, K. A.; Bayukov, O. A.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic properties were studied in bottom sediments of saline meromictic Shira Lake by the methods of static magnetometry and resonance Mössbauer spectroscopy for the first time. All layers of bottom sediments contain nanosized single-domain magnetite particles produced by magnetotactic bacteria. The concentration of magnetite in bottom sediments decreased with depth, reaching a local minimum in the layer corresponding to the minimal level of the lake observed in 1910-1930. It is demonstrated that biogenic magnetite may indicate climate-related changes in the level of Shira Lake, in addition to the other biological and geochemical characteristics.

  8. Genetic Diversity of Freshwater Leeches in Lake Gusinoe (Eastern Siberia, Russia)

    PubMed Central

    Kaygorodova, Irina A.; Mandzyak, Nadezhda; Petryaeva, Ekaterina; Pronin, Nikolay M.

    2014-01-01

    The study of leeches from Lake Gusinoe and its adjacent area offered us the possibility to determine species diversity. As a result, an updated species list of the Gusinoe Hirudinea fauna (Annelida, Clitellata) has been compiled. There are two orders and three families of leeches in the Gusinoe area: order Rhynchobdellida (families Glossiphoniidae and Piscicolidae) and order Arhynchobdellida (family Erpobdellidae). In total, 6 leech species belonging to 6 genera have been identified. Of these, 3 taxa belonging to the family Glossiphoniidae (Alboglossiphonia heteroclita f. papillosa, Hemiclepsis marginata, and Helobdella stagnalis) and representatives of 3 unidentified species (Glossiphonia sp., Piscicola sp., and Erpobdella sp.) have been recorded. The checklist gives a contemporary overview of the species composition of leeches and information on their hosts or substrates. The validity of morphological identification of each taxon has been verified by phylogenetic approach with a molecular marker adopted for a DNA barcoding of most invertebrates. PMID:25544958

  9. Temperature sensitivity of frozen peatland soils organic matter decomposition (North-Western Siberia, Nadym site, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarkhov, Matvey; Matyshak, George; Yakushev, Andrey; Bobrik, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Peatland soils play a considerable role in carbon cycle because of storing approximately 50% of total Earth's soils carbon. The steady temperature increase in arctic soils may cause a rapid organic matter decomposition in thawed layers - that will result in additional significant greenhouse gases emission (CO2, CH4). For further predictions improvement of soils response to global climate changes it is necessary to estimate the temperature sensitivity of soils organic matter decomposition. The purpose of the study was to estimate the response of frozen peatland soils organic matter to increase in the temperature of their functioning. The study object was frozen peatland soils of forest-tundra (the Tyumen region), developing under permafrost conditions. Weakly and medium decomposed moss peat samples were taken from different depths for laboratory studies and stored at 4 °C before the experiment started. At laboratory the response of CO2 efflux, basal respiration (BR) and soils enzymatic (esters) activity (SEA) to temperature increase was estimated. For 1.5 months one part of peat samples was subjected to sequential temperature increase from 4 to 25 °C and CO2 efflux was measured. Another part of the peat samples was simultaneously incubated at 4, 15 and 25 °C for 1-4 days for BR and SEA estimation. To identify the specifics of frozen peatland soils response the identical experiments were done with peat samples from southern taiga (the Moscow region). First results showed the contrast response of peatland soils from different ecosystems to temperature increase. For all studied soils the positive feedback to temperature increase was noticed, however the organic matter mineralization rate, estimated by CO2 efflux, differed a lot. The CO2 efflux values of forest-tundra samples were 3 times lower in comparison with southern taiga on average: the maximal difference was at 16-22 °C range. The microbial biomass activity, estimated by BR and SEA, also tended to increase with temperature for both peatland soils. The BR values of forest-tundra samples in comparison with southern taiga were 1.5 times lower on average, whereas SEA values caused the more significant difference: starting from 4 °C the forest-tundra samples SEA was presented by a factor of 100 lower values if compared with southern taiga samples. The temperature coefficient Q10, calculated on the basis of CO2 efflux values, revealed the maximal forest-tundra samples temperature sensitivity in «low» temperature range 4-13 °C (Q10=4,1). For the southern taiga samples only small Q10 variations (from 2.5 to 2.2) with increasing temperature were fixed. Thus, we have found that the contrasting temperature sensitivity results are related to peatland soils from different ecosystems. This fact must be considered when predicting the peatland soils response to changes in functioning conditions.

  10. Home Education in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staroverova, T. I.

    2011-01-01

    From the eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries, home education (home schooling) by tutors and governesses in Russia was a customary form of schooling for an overwhelming majority of members of the nobility. Social and political transformations of the twentieth century led to substantial changes as the state got actively involved with…

  11. White Sea - Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

  12. Rehabilitation in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Erin

    2005-01-01

    For several decades, the disability community in Russia has battled for its rights. In 1995, a disability rights law was passed that covered multiple areas, such as environmental access, education, and work. This article focuses on Russian rehabilitation philosophy and practice. It is written from a mixture of perspectives?personal experience,…

  13. Permarfrost eco-hydrological changes in boreal larch forest manifested by wet climate in eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Y.; Fedorov, A. N.; Ohta, T.; Kotani, A.; Maximov, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    High-latitude regions in the northern hemisphere have undergone unanticipated environmental changes during the past few decades. Environmental changes in these regions have been substantially impacted by changes in the hydrological cycle, such as precipitation regime, snow distribution and duration, soil water storage, evapotranspiration and river discharge. The present study examines recent changes in continuous permafrost region and evaluates the impact of these changes on boreal larch forests based on intensive hydro-meteorological observation after abrupt increases in depth and moisture within the active layer occurring during periods of increasing precipitation (wet climate) at study sites in eastern Siberia. Field studies were conducted in the Spasskaya-pad Experimental forest (62°15'N, 129°37', 220m a.s.l.) located approximately 20 km north of Yakutsk in the Republic of Sakha, Russia. The site is located on the highest terrace of the left bank of the Lena River and is covered with a thin layer of Quaternary deposits consisting of alluvial deposits with low content of ice complex. During the last decade, atmospheric anomalies in Arctic may cause intensifying storm activities from summer to early winter in eastern Siberia. An anomalous increase in summer and winter precipitation after 2004 winter was observed in the central Lena River basin. The increased precipitation resulted in warming and wetting of the active layer and near surface permafrost. Deepening of active layer in accordance with saturated soil moisture under the wet climate activates thermokarst subsidence in and around alas lakes and correspondingly causes fatal damage to the growth of boreal (larch) forest in this region. According to multi-year sap flow measurements between 2006 and 2009, transpiration from the forest significantly reduced because the most of the trees standing in the concaved micro-topography and permafrost valley with deeper active layer have been withered and dead after

  14. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    SciTech Connect

    Reams, C.A.

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

  15. Fuel Consumption and Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Impact of Vegetation Types, Meteorological Conditions, Forestry Practices and Fire Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmila; Soja, Amber; Zhila, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forests play a crucial role in carbon budgets with Siberian carbon fluxes and pools making a major contribution to the regional and global carbon cycle. Wildfire is the main ecological disturbance in Siberia that leads to changes in forest species composition and structure and in carbon storage, as well as direct emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. At present, the global scientific community is highly interested in quantitative and accurate estimates of fire emissions. Little research on wildland fuel consumption and carbon emission estimates has been carried out in Russia until recently. From 2000 to 2007 we conducted a series of experimental fires of varying fireline intensity in light-coniferous forest of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior. From 2009 to 2013 we examined a number of burned logged areas to assess the potential impact of forest practices on fire emissions. In 2013-2014 burned areas in dark-coniferous and deciduous forests were examined to determine fuel consumption and carbon emissions. We have combined and analyzed the scarce data available in the literature with data obtained in the course of our long-term research to determine the impact of various factors on fuel consumption and to develop models of carbon emissions for different ecosystems of Siberia. Carbon emissions varied drastically (from 0.5 to 40.9 tC/ha) as a function of vegetation type, weather conditions, anthropogenic effects and fire behavior characteristics and periodicity. Our study provides a basis for better understanding of the feedbacks between wildland fire emissions and changing anthropogenic disturbance patterns and climate. The data obtained could be used by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and by managers to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts on the environmentand human health.

  16. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  17. Solid Inclusions in Au-nuggets, genesis and derivation from alkaline rocks of the Guli Massif, Northern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorani, Sami N.

    2016-04-01

    A total of 112 Au-nuggets, collected from alluvial placer deposits of the Ingarinda River from the Guli massif, located in northem Siberia, Russia, were investigated. The Guli massif consists of a huge dunite-clinopyroxenite complex (the largest complex in the world), an alkaline to highly alkaline rock suite (melilite, nephelinite, ijolite) enveloping the dunite and carbonatite intrusions, associated with disseminated schlieren type chromitite and Au-Ag, Pt placer deposits. The nuggets are characterized by various sizes and shapes and show chemical compositions Au, Au-Ag and AuCu, typical for a derivate of carbon-atites and/or ultramafic complexes. A great variety of oxide, silicate, REE-minerals, carbonate and sulphide inclusions have been detected in the nuggets, which are identical in mineralogy and chemical composition to mineral constituents of the alkaline to highly alkaline rock suite surrounding the Guli dunite core complex thus, considered as the source for Au-nuggets.

  18. Correlation and interpretation of paleosols and loess across European Russia and Asia over the last interglacial-glacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, Nathaniel W.; Rokosh, Dean; Evans, Michael E.; Little, Edward C.; Chlachula, Jiri; Velichko, Andrei

    2003-07-01

    Loess-paleosol sequences of the last interglacial-glacial cycle are correlated from European Russia to central Siberia and the Chinese Loess Plateau. During cold periods represented by marine oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 2 and 4, loess deposition dominated in the Russian Plain and the Loess Plateau. In central Siberia, loess deposition took place also, but five to seven thin, weakly developed paleosols are identified in both stages. OIS 3, in the Chinese Loess Plateau near Yangchang, consists of a loess bed that is flanked by two weakly developed paleosols. At Kurtak, Siberia, OIS 3 is represented by two distinct, stacked paleosols with no loess bed separating the paleosols. In the Russian Plain, OIS 3 consists of a single, possibly welded paleosol, representing upper and lower stage-3 climates. Brunisols and Chernozems dominate the profiles in China and Siberia, whereas Regosols, Luvisols, and Chernozems are evident in the northern and southern Russian Plain, respectively. OIS 5 is represented in China and the Russian Plain by pedo complexes in a series of welded soils, whereas in contrast, the Kurtak site consists of six paleosols with interbedded loess. The paleosols consist largely of Brunisols and Chernozems. Although the three areas examined have different climates, geographical settings, and loess source areas, they all had similar climate changes during the last interglacial-glacial cycle.

  19. The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Michael J.; Shishkin, Mikhail A.; Unwin, David M.; Kurochkin, Evgenii N.

    2003-12-01

    The former Soviet Union covers a vast area of land, and over the last 200 years, many dozens of extraordinary dinosaurs and other fossil amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals have been found in Mesozoic rocks in its territories. The Permo-Triassic of the Ural Mountains of Russia have produced hundreds of superb specimens, and many of the dinosaurs from Mongolia are unique. This is the first compilation in any Western language of this large body of Russian research and the first time so much of this research, previously unexplored by the West, has been introduced in English. The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia is written by a unique mix of Russian and Western palaeontologists, and provides an entrée to a range of fossil faunas, in particular reptiles, that have been little known outside Russia. It will undoubtedly become a major reference work for all vertebrate palaeontologists.

  20. Impact structures of northeastern Eurasia: The territories of Russia and adjacent countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaitis, V. L.

    1999-09-01

    More than thirty impact structures have been discovered in the last three decades in northeastern Eurasia, which includes Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Kazakhstan and Mongolia. The largest impact events of the 20th century also occurred here: the Tunguska and Sikhote Alin events, in Siberia and Primorye, respectively. Many of these impact structures have been studied in detail. This is particularly the case for the largest examples: Popigai (100 km), Puchezh-Katunki (80 km) and Kara (65 km). Detailed data and descriptions of the geological characteristics, morphology, and the nature of the impact breccias and impactites (impact melt rocks) are to be found in numerous publications published mostly in Russia. As these data and descriptions are not generally available to non-Russian scientists, this review summarizes the current state of knowledge on these impact structures. It also provides references to the principal publications detailing them.

  1. Thermal Properties of West Siberian Sediments in Application to Basin and Petroleum Systems Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romushkevich, Raisa; Popov, Evgeny; Popov, Yury; Chekhonin, Evgeny; Myasnikov, Artem; Kazak, Andrey; Belenkaya, Irina; Zagranovskaya, Dzhuliya

    2016-04-01

    Quality of heat flow and rock thermal property data is the crucial question in basin and petroleum system modeling. A number of significant deviations in thermal conductivity values were observed during our integral geothermal study of West Siberian platform reporting that the corrections should be carried out in basin models. The experimental data including thermal anisotropy and heterogeneity measurements were obtained along of more than 15 000 core samples and about 4 500 core plugs. The measurements were performed in 1993-2015 with the optical scanning technique within the Continental Super-Deep Drilling Program (Russia) for scientific super-deep well Tyumenskaya SG-6, parametric super-deep well Yen-Yakhinskaya, and deep well Yarudeyskaya-38 as well as for 13 oil and gas fields in the West Siberia. Variations of the thermal conductivity tensor components in parallel and perpendicular direction to the layer stratification (assessed for 2D anisotropy model of the rock studied), volumetric heat capacity and thermal anisotropy coefficient values and average values of the thermal properties were the subject of statistical analysis for the uppermost deposits aged by: T3-J2 (200-165 Ma); J2-J3 (165-150 Ma); J3 (150-145 Ma); K1 (145-136 Ma); K1 (136-125 Ma); K1-K2 (125-94 Ma); K2-Pg+Ng+Q (94-0 Ma). Uncertainties caused by deviations of thermal conductivity data from its average values were found to be as high as 45 % leading to unexpected errors in the basin heat flow determinations. Also, the essential spatial-temporal variations in the thermal rock properties in the study area is proposed to be taken into account in thermo-hydrodynamic modeling of hydrocarbon recovery with thermal methods. The research work was done with financial support of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science (unique identification number RFMEFI58114X0008).

  2. Systematics and biology of some species of Micrurapteryx Spuler (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) from the Holarctic Region, with re-description of M. caraganella (Hering) from Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Kirichenko, Natalia; Triberti, Paolo; Mutanen, Marko; Magnoux, Emmanuelle; Landry, Jean-François; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract During a DNA barcoding campaign of leaf-mining insects from Siberia, a genetically divergent lineage of a gracillariid belonging to the genus Micrurapteryx was discovered, whose larvae developed on Caragana Fabr. and Medicago L. (Fabaceae). Specimens from Siberia showed similar external morphology to the Palearctic Micrurapteryx gradatella and the Nearctic Parectopa occulta but differed in male genitalia, DNA barcodes, and nuclear genes histone H3 and 28S. Members of this lineage are re-described here as Micrurapteryx caraganella (Hering, 1957), comb. n., an available name published with only a brief description of its larva and leaf mine. Micrurapteryx caraganella is widely distributed throughout Siberia, from Tyumen oblast in the West to Transbaikalia in the East. Occasionally it may severely affect its main host, Caragana arborescens Lam. This species has been confused in the past with Micrurapteryx gradatella in Siberia, but field observations confirm that Micrurapteryx gradatella exists in Siberia and is sympatric with Micrurapteryx caraganella, at least in the Krasnoyarsk region, where it feeds on different host plants (Vicia amoena Fisch. and Vicia sp.). In addition, based on both morphological and molecular evidence as well as examination of type specimens, the North American Parectopa occulta Braun, 1922 and Parectopa albicostella Braun, 1925 are transferred to Micrurapteryx as Micrurapteryx occulta (Braun, 1922), comb. n. with albicostella as its junior synonym (syn. n.). Characters used to distinguish Micrurapteryx from Parectopa are presented and illustrated. These findings provide another example of the potential of DNA barcoding to reveal overlooked species and illuminate nomenclatural problems. PMID:27110203

  3. BRDF characteristics of tundra vegetation communities in Yamal, Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchhorn, Marcel; Heim, Birgit; Walker, Donald A. Skip; Epstein, Howard; Leibman, Marina

    2013-04-01

    Satellite data from platforms with pointing capabilities (CHRIS/Proba, RapidEye) or from sensors with wide swath (AVHRR, MODIS, MERIS) is influenced by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). This effect can cause significant changes in the measured spectral surface reflectance depending on the solar illumination geometry and sensor viewing conditions. The Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP), a German hyperspectral mission with expected launch in 2016, will provide high spectral resolution observations with a ground sampling distance of 30 meters. Since the EnMAP sensor has pointing capabilities, both spectral and directional reflection characteristics need to be taken into account for the algorithms development for vegetation parameters. The 'hyperspectral method development for Arctic VEGetation biomes' (hy-Arc-VEG) project is part of the national preparation program for the EnMAP mission. Within the EnMAP projcect hy-Arc-VEG we developed a portable field spectro-goniometer, named ManTIS (Manual Transportable Instrument for Spherical BRDF observations), for the in-situ measurements of anisotropic effects of tundra surfaces (national and international patent pending - DE 102011117713.6). The goniometer was designed for field use in difficult as well as challenging terrain and climate. It is therefore of low weight, without electrical devices and weatherproof. It can be disassembled and packed into small boxes for transport. The current off-nadir viewing capacity is matched to the EnMAP sensor configuration (up to 30°). We carried out spectral field and goniometer measurements on the joint YAMAL 2011 expedition (RU-US-DE) organized by the Earth-Cryosphere Institute (ECI) in August 2011 on the Yamal Peninsula, northwestern Siberia, Russia. The field goniometer measurements (conducted under varying sun zenith angles) as well as field spectro-radiometrical measurements were carried out at the NASA Yamal Land Cover/Land Use Change

  4. Academic medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Burger, Edward J; Ziganshina, Lilia; Ziganshin, Airat U

    2004-12-01

    Academic medicine, along with professionalism of the medical community in Russia underwent a remarkable evolution from the Revolution through the decline of the Soviet Union. The Soviet period brought about an enormous expansion of numbers of admissions to medical schools and a corresponding increase in the number of new physicians. Academic medical institutions were separated from institutions of higher learning in general and medical science was separated from the mainstream of science. Many of these features have been reversed in the past 14 years and re-professionalization of medicine has resumed. PMID:15578798

  5. An 84-kyr paleomagnetic record from the sediments of Lake Baikal, Siberia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, J.A.; King, J.W.; Colman, Steven M.; Kravchinsky, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    We have conducted a paleomagnetic study of sediment cores obtained from the Selenga prodelta region of Lake Baikal, Russia. This record, which spans approximately the last 84 kyr, contributes to a better understanding of the nature of geomagnetic field behavior in Siberia and is a useful correlation and dating tool. We demonstrate that the Lake Baikal sediments are recording variations in the geomagnetic field. The directional record displays secular variation behavior with a geomagnetic excursion at 20 ka and additional excursions appearing as large-amplitude secular variation at 41, 61, and 67 ka. Smoothing of the geomagnetic excursion behavior occurs in Lake Baikal sediments owing to the intermediate sedimentation rate (13 cm kyr-1). The Lake Baikal relative paleointensity record correlates to absolute paleointensity data for the last 10 kyr and to relative paleointensity records from the Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean for the last 84 kyr. This correlation suggests a strong global (i.e., dipole) component to these records and further supports the reliability of sediments as recorders of relative geomagnetic paleointensity. We show that a relative geomagnetic intensity stratigraphy has a potential resolution of 7 kyr by correlating continental and marine records. The geomagnetic intensity stratigraphy helps constrain the age of the difficult to date Lake Baikal sediments.

  6. Airborne trace metals and organochlorine compounds in arctic Alaska and Siberia: How important?

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, D.H.; Allen-Gil, S.; Gubala, C.P.; Ford, J.

    1995-12-31

    Metal contaminants of anthropogenic origin identified in the arctic atmosphere and the presence of organochlorines in arctic marine mammal tissues has raised the question of the importance of long-range transport of contaminants to the Arctic. Research focused on arctic regions in Alaska and the Taimyr peninsula of north central Russia. Inland watersheds were examined for evidence of increases in trace metal flux during the past 150 years and the presence of organochlorine compounds. Fish and ground squirrels were examined for body burdens of organic contaminants and plasma biomarkers were examined to evaluate biological effects. Sediment data from several lakes suggest that over broad regions, trace metal fluxes have increased only slightly (< 10%), if at all, since the pre-industrial era. The highest metal concentrations in lake sediments are associated with known elevated geologic sources of metals within the respective watersheds. Organochlorines are present in remote inland arctic ecosystems and are most concentrated in the tissues (e.g. liver) of organisms representing higher trophic levels. Arctic Siberia and Alaska (Taimyr peninsula) are similar with regard to contaminant concentrations. However, lichen and moss data suggest that Pb from Eurasian sources does not reach arctic Alaska. The results indicate that long range, transpolar transport and deposition of trace metals is not a large scale current phenomena in the two study regions. The transport and deposition of organochlorine compounds, however, is occurring but at relatively low levels.

  7. The Tunka radio extension (Tunka-Rex): Radio measurements of cosmic rays in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, F. G.; Bezyazeekov, P. A.; Budnev, N. M.; Gress, O. A.; Haungs, A.; Hiller, R.; Huege, T.; Kazarina, Y.; Kleifges, M.; Konstantinov, E. N.; Korosteleva, E. E.; Kostunin, D.; Krömer, O.; Kuzmichev, L. A.; Lubsandorzhiev, N.; Mirgazov, R. R.; Monkhoev, R.; Pakhorukov, A.; Pankov, L.; Prosin, V. V.; Rubtsov, G. I.; Wischnewski, R.; Zagorodnikov, A.

    2016-07-01

    The Tunka observatory is located close to Lake Baikal in Siberia, Russia. Its main detector, Tunka-133, is an array of photomultipliers measuring Cherenkov light of air showers initiated by cosmic rays in the energy range of approximately 1016 -1018 eV. In the last years, several extensions have been built at the Tunka site, e.g., a scintillator array named Tunka-Grande, a sophisticated air-Cherenkov-detector prototype named HiSCORE, and the radio extension Tunka-Rex. Tunka-Rex started operation in October 2012 and currently features 44 antennas distributed over an area of about 3km2, which measure the radio emission of the same air showers detected by Tunka-133 and Tunka-Grande. Tunka-Rex is a technological demonstrator that the radio technique can provide an economic extension of existing air-shower arrays. The main scientific goal is the cross-calibration with the air-Cherenkov measurements. By this cross-calibration, the precision for the reconstruction of the energy and mass of the primary cosmic-ray particles can be determined. Finally, Tunka-Rex can be used for cosmic-ray physics at energies close to 1 EeV, where the standard Tunka-133 analysis is limited by statistics. In contrast to the air-Cherenkov measurements, radio measurements are not limited to dark, clear nights and can provide an order of magnitude larger exposure.

  8. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.

    Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

  9. Artificial radionuclides in Russia due to the Fukushima NPP accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polianskaia, Olga; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Kim, Vera; Yahryushin, Valery; Volokitin, Andrey

    2013-04-01

    Radioactive emission into the atmosphere from the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) started on March 12th, 2011. The network of Federal Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Service (Rosgydromet) carries out supervision over a radiation situation on the territory of Russia. In Russia, the first radionuclides from Fukushima were detected on March 20th in the Far East by network. From March 20th to April 30th I-131 (particulate form), Cs-137 and Cs-134 were detected in samples of atmospheric aerosols at the 30 stations of networks and the same ones were detected in fallout at the 25 stations of networks. The first detection of I-131 in the European territory of Russia (ETR) occurred on March 23rd; and in the South and the North of Siberia - on March 26th. The volumetric activities of I-131 in the ETR sharply increased from March 28th to 30th. Along with the increasing content of I-131 cesium isotopes appeared in the air. The maximum values of radionuclides volume activity were observed between April 3rd and 4th: for I-131 - 4,0 mBq/m3, for Cs-137 - 1,15 mBq/m3, for Cs-134 - 1,04 mBq/m3. Observed in the Far East, the maximum values for I-131 were 2-4 times lower than in the ETR. The maximum values for I-131 in the Asian territory of Russia (ATR) were 2 - 8 times lower, than in the ETR. The Cs-137/Cs-134 ratio in samples of atmospheric aerosols was about 1. The ratio I-131/Cs-137 in air changed in a wide range. From March 23rd to April 5th the ratio fluctuated within 11 to 34, from April 5th to 20th of the ratio decreased and varied within 1,5 to 7,7, further it became less than 1. The value of cesium isotopes in second quarter of 2011 in fallout was lower than 2 Bq/m2. The addition to the density of soil contamination by Cs-137 by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less than the decrease of the density of contamination with this isotope of the global origin due to radioactive decay. Based on the obtained experimental data we can

  10. Flooding in Southern Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

  11. New ammonite zonation of the lower Callovian in North Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazev, V. G.; Kutygin, R. V.; Meledina, S. V.

    2010-08-01

    The lower Callovian succession observable in cliffs of Anabar Bay and Bolshoi Begichev Island is described with consideration of zonal subdivisions and beds with ammonites. The unified summary biozonation suggested for North Siberia includes the Cadoceras elatmae Zone with C. frearsi and C. elatmae (instead former C. anabarense) subzones, subsequent C. tschernyschewi and C. tolype zones, and successive C. cf. sublaeve, Rondiceras milaschevici, and Cadoceras ex gr. durum (formerly part of the middle Callovian) beds. As in Siberia and East Europe there are species in common C. elatmae (Nik.), C. frearsi (Orb.), C. tolype Buck., and C. emelianzevi Vor.; certain ammonite zones of Siberian succession are directly correlated with the East European, East Greenland and standard zonations. It is concluded that the lower Callovian is completely represented in Siberia. The lower part of the interval, formerly attributed to the middle Callovian, represents the upper part of the lower Callovian Substage. Zones established in the lower Callovian succession of Siberia are contiguous, whereas equivalents of the Elatmae Subzone and Tschernyschewi Zone have not been distinguished in sections of East Greenland. Evolutionary trends of species in subfamily Cadoceratinae are preliminary discussed.

  12. Classifications of bog peat sensitivity to anthropogenic impact (Western Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramarenko, V. V.; Matveenko, I. A.; Nikitenkov, A. N.; Molokov, V. Y.; Khoroshko, A. P.

    2016-09-01

    The article deals with strength parameters of peats in Western Siberia, evaluates their transformations under the anthropogenic mechanical impact, presents peat classification in terms of sensitivity allowing the forecast of strength loss when destructing their structure in the process of building roads, pipelines. Sensitivity classification also permits predicting roadability for construction design.

  13. Sizing up the sub-Tommotian unconformity in Siberia.

    PubMed

    Knoll, A H; Kaufman, A J; Semikhatov, M A; Grotzinger, J P; Adams, W

    1995-12-01

    Sedimentary rocks in the western Anabar region, northwestern Siberia, preserve an exceptional record of evolution and biogeochemical events near the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary. Carbon isotopic data on petrographically and geochemically screened samples collected at 1 to 2 m intervals support correlation of the lower Anabar succession (Staraya Reckha and lower Manykai Formations) with sub-Tommotian carbonates of the Ust'-Yu-doma Formation in southeastern Siberia. In contrast, the upper Manykai and most of the overlying Medvezhya Formation appear to preserve a sedimentary and paleontological record of an evolutionary important time interval represented in southeastern Siberia only by the sub-Tommotian unconformity. Correlation of the Anabar section with other northern Siberian successions that contain well-dated volcanic rocks permits the estimate that the sub-Tommotian unconformity in southeastern Siberia spans approximately 3 to 6 m.y. Diverse small shelly fossils (but not archaeocyathans) previously thought to mark the base of the Tommotian Stage evolved sequentially throughout this earlier interval.

  14. A new model of crustal structure of Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepanova, Y.; Artemieva, I. M.; Thybo, H.

    2010-12-01

    We report a new model of the structure of the crust in Siberia that encompasses two large tectonic regions, the Paleozoic West Siberian Basin and the Precambrian Siberian craton. The area of study covers a significant part of the north Eurasia and extends from the Ural mountains in the west to the Verkoyansk Ridge/Lena river in the east, and from the Arctic shelf in the north to the Tien Shan and Altay-Sayans mountains in the south. The new crustal model is based on our new ("from scratch") compilation of all available reliable seismic data and includes the results of seismic reflection, refraction and receiver functions studies, based on old and newly acquired seismic data (from the late 1960-ies until present). Seismic structure along seismic profiles is digitized with a 50 km lateral spacing which is comparable with the resolution of seismic models. Structural parameters based on gravity modeling, or tectonic similarities, or seismic data reported not along seismic reflection/refraction profiles but as interpolated contour maps are excluded from the new crustal database. Due to uneven quality of seismic data related both to data acquisition problems and interpretation limitations, a special attention is paid to the data quality problem, and quality parameters are incorporated into the new database of regional crustal structure. The present database comprises detailed and reliable information on the seismic structure of the crust for most of the tectonic structures of the region and provides valuable constraints for geophysical modeling of the mantle structure. We observe important spatial correlations between the crustal structure (thickness of the sediments, the basement, and different crustal layers, and average basement velocities) and tectonic and geological settings. Statistical analysis of age-dependence (we use tectono-thermal ages) of crustal parameters allows for distinguishing the effects of various tectonic processes on the crustal structure. The

  15. Nuclear plant emergency preparedness in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Randolph L

    2009-11-01

    An international team of experts conducted a detailed operational review at the Volgodonsk nuclear power plant. The review was the first mission by an International Atomic Energy Agency Operational Safety Review Team to Russia in over a decade. The author reviewed the emergency preparedness program in detail. Emergency preparedness professionals in the West are largely unfamiliar with Russian nuclear plant emergency preparedness programs, and the legacy of Chernobyl may leave some doubt as to their efficacy. This article describes the program in some detail and compares some elements to programs in the United States. The author was favorably impressed with the state of nuclear plant emergency preparedness in the Russian Federation and identified program elements that should be considered for implementation elsewhere. PMID:19820472

  16. Crustal structure of Siberia: a new appraisal of old seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepanova, Yu; Artemieva, I. M.; Milshtein, E.; Erinchek, Yu. M.; Thybo, H.

    2010-05-01

    We review the structure of the crust and the sedimentary cover in an area that encompasses two largest tectonic regions, the Paleozoic West Siberia basin and the Precambrian Siberian craton, and extends from the Ural mountains in the west to the Verkoyansk Ridge/Lena river in the east, and from the Arctic shelf in the north to the Tien Shan and Altay-Sayans mountains in the south. We compiled "from scratch" all available seismic data for the region, from the late 1960-ies until present. Our compilation includes results of seismic reflection, refraction and receiver functions studies, based on old and newly acquired seismic data; data along seismic profiles are digitized with a 50 km lateral spacing which is comparable with resolution of seismic models. Seismic data on the structure of the sedimentary cover was complemented by borehole data, where available. Due to uneven quality of seismic data related both to data acquisition and interpretation, a special attention was paid to this problem and quality parameters are incorporated into the new database of regional crustal structure. We have intentionally excluded unreliable constraints, such as based on gravity modelling or tectonic similarities, or seismic data reported not along seismic reflection/ refraction profiles but as interpolated contour maps. The present database comprises detailed and reliable information on the seismic structure of the crust for most of the tectonic structures of the region and allows examining spatial correlations with tectonic and geological structures, providing the basis for studies of crustal evolution and mantle modeling.

  17. Is there epidemiology in Russia?

    PubMed Central

    Vlassov, V.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the current state of epidemiology in Russia.
DESIGN—The structure of clinical research and statistical methods was used to shed light on the epidemiology in Russia. The frequencies of specific study designs were evaluated using Medline data for 1970-1997. To determine the proportion of advanced design clinical studies the frequency of cohort, prospective, follow up, or longitudinal studies, and controlled trials was evaluated. All diagnosis related studies were found to determine the usage of advanced statistical technique (ROC analysis). The adequacy of Medline information was checked by hand search of journals. All dissertations in epidemiology defended in Russia in 1995 and 1996 were evaluated for their methodology. The curriculum recommended by Ministry of Health to Medical Universities was evaluated. Available literature and library indexing of epidemiological terms examined.
MAIN RESULTS—Russian medical research uses less frequently advanced study designs and methods of data analysis. Medical students are taught epidemiology as a science of spread of infectious diseases. There is no department of epidemiology in Russian universities where epidemiology is taught in the modern sense and no epidemiological and biostatistical periodicals available in Russia.
CONCLUSION—Epidemiology in Russia remains in an archaic state of science of the spread of infectious diseases and it is detrimental to methodology of medical research in Russia.


Keywords: Soviet Union; Russia; study design; comparative studies PMID:10990475

  18. Petroleum Resource Management and Assessment project for the Western Siberian Administration Russia. TDA feasibility study. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the study is: (1) To determine the nature and availability of the information necessary for Resource Assessment in oil fields to be open to foreign investment; (2) To determine what resources are required to implement the 'Alberta Model' of Resource Management in Siberia; (3) To establish a pilot Data Collection and Information System, including software, hardware and technology; (4) To indicate whether the studied database model and related software can meet Russia's long term requirements for information management in the petroleum sector; (5) The transfer of information techniques to the Russian implementation teams; and (6) To define the requirements for a resource/economic study.

  19. Post-fire succession of ground vegetation of central Siberia in Scots pine forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, N.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-04-01

    Extensive wildfires have affected the Russian region in the last decade. Scots pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) are widespread in central Siberia and fire occurrence is high in these forests, whose dominant fire regime is one of frequent surface fires. We studied post- fire succession of ground vegetation has been studied on nine experimental fires of varying severity (from 620 to 5220 kW/m) in middle taiga Scots pine forests of central Siberia (Russia). It proved from our study that all species of the succession process are present from initial stages. We did not find any trend of ground vegetation diversity with the time during 8 years after the fire. Our investigation showed that post- fire recovery of the ground vegetation is determined by initial forest type, fire severity and litter burning depth. Fire severity had a clear effect in initial succession in study area and it clearly had an impact on percentage cover, biomass and structure of ground vegetation. In a lesser degree the small shrubs are damaged during ground fires. The dominating species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) regained the cover values above or close to 6—8 years. The post- fire biomass of ground vegetation 93—100% consists of species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) that survived after the fire and increased in the cover with the time. In pine forests mosses and lichens suffer to a greater degree after ground fires. Lichen layer was completely lost after the fires of any severity. Decrease of mosses species diversity takes place after ground fires. The post- fire cover and species diversity of the green mosses were progressively lower with increasing the fire severity during the observation period. Maximum changes are discovered in the post- fire structure of plant microgroups after the high- severity fire which resulted in intensive invasion by the post- fire mosses (Polytrichum strictum and P. commune). There is a positive trend of green moss microgroups recovery

  20. Summer Harvest in Saratov, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Saratov Oblast (province) is located in the southeastern portion of the East-European plain, in the Lower Volga River Valley. Southern Russia produces roughly 40 percent of the country's total agricultural output, and Saratov Oblast is the largest producer of grain in the Volga region. Vegetation changes in the province's agricultural lands between spring and summer are apparent in these images acquired on May 31 and July 18, 2002 (upper and lower image panels, respectively) by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR).

    The left-hand panels are natural color views acquired by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Less vegetation and more earth tones (indicative of bare soils) are apparent in the summer image (lower left). Farmers in the region utilize staggered sowing to help stabilize yields, and a number of different stages of crop maturity can be observed. The main crop is spring wheat, cultivated under non-irrigated conditions. A short growing season and relatively low and variable rainfall are the major limitations to production. Saratov city is apparent as the light gray pixels on the left (west) bank of the Volga River. Riparian vegetation along the Volga exhibits dark green hues, with some new growth appearing in summer.

    The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree backward, nadir and 60-degree forward-viewing cameras displayed as red, green and blue respectively. In these images, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and the spring and summer views were processed identically to preserve relative variations in brightness between the two dates. Urban areas and vegetation along the Volga banks look similar in the two seasonal multi-angle composites. The agricultural areas, on the other hand, look strikingly different. This can be attributed to differences in brightness and texture between bare soil and vegetated land. The chestnut-colored soils in

  1. Nursing and health in Russia.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    There are over one million nurses in Russia, and they work in a crippled healthcare system facing a dramatic increase in infectious diseases. But nurses are valiantly coping with the country's health crisis and becoming a recognized profession. PMID:9638513

  2. The main features of the interaction of mantle magmas with granulite complexes of the lower crust and their relationship with granitic melts (exemplified by the Early Caledonides of the West Baikal Region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, Alexandr; Khromykh, Sergei; Mekhonoshin, Alexei; Volkova, Nina; Travin, Alexei; Mikheev, Evgeny; Vladimirova, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Granulite complexes occurring in the Early Caledonian southern folded framing of the Siberian Craton are deeply eroded fragments of the Vendian-Early Paleozoic accretionary prism, which is an indicator of the early stages of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (Gladkochub et al., 2010). The main feature of the granulite complexes is a wide development of gabbro-pyroxenites composing tectonic plates, synmetamorphic intrusive bodies, and numerous disintegrated fragments (boudins and enclaves), immersed in a metamorphic matrix. The volume of basites reaches 5-10 %, which allows us to consider mantle magmatism as a heat source for the granulite metamorphism. The most studied polygon is Chernorud granulite zone, which is a part of the Olkhon metamorphic terrane, West Baikal Region. Just this polygon was used for considering the problems of interaction of mantle magmas with lower crust granulite complexes and their relationship with granitic melts. The Chernorud Zone is a typical example of the accretionary prism with a predominance of metabasalts (70-80 %), subordinate amounts of marbles, quartzites and metapelites that have been subjected to granulite facies metamorphism and viscoelastic flow of rock masses. Study of two-pyroxene granulites (metabasalts) and garnet-sillimanite gneisses (metapelites) allows us to estimate P-T metamorphic conditions (P = 7.7-8.6 kbar, T = 770-820°C) and their U-Pb metamorphic age (530-500 Ma). Metabasalts correspond in their geochemistry to the island-arc tholeiitic series (Volkova et al., 2010; Gladkochub et al., 2010). Sin-metamorphic gabbro-pyroxenites formed in two stages: 1) Chernorud complex - tectonic slices and body's exhumed from deep earth crust levels (10-12 kb) and composed of arc tholeiitic series rocks (age T ≥ 500 Ma); 2) Ulan-Khargana complex - supply magmatic canals and fragmented tabular intrusions. This rocks composition corresponds to subalkaline petrochemical series (OIB) and U/Pb age is equal to 485±10 Ma (Travin et al., 2009

  3. [Lactase deficiency among representatives of various nationalities of Siberia].

    PubMed

    Zhvavyĭ, N F; Kozlov, A I; Kondik, V M

    1991-01-01

    Some features of lactase tolerance were investigated in representatives of varying groups of indigenous population in Siberia-Mansi, Khanty, Nenets, Buryats. The indirect method was used to evaluate lactase activity. A total of 92 subjects were investigated. It was found that 32% of the representatives of the Urals population group and 53% of Buryats were capable of lactase assimilating. The data obtained correspond to the cultural-genetic hypothesis on the nature of lactase tolerance in the representatives of different ethnic groups.

  4. Fire effects on hydrochemistry of streams draining watersheds with continuous permafrost distribution in Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokushkin, Anatoly; Pokrovsky, Oleg; Kawahigashi, Masayuki; Viers, Jerome

    2010-05-01

    Wildfires, assumed to be the main disturbance factor in the boreal biome, are tended to increase in frequency and severity under "dry warming" (Conard et al. 2002). Short fire-return interval in larch dominated permafrost terrains of Siberia (Kharuk et al., 2008) exert significant control on ecosystem biogeochemical cycling throughout the complex influences of deforestation, ground vegetation and organic layer combustion as well as deepen soil active layer. Despite extensive research of fire impact on carbon exchange between soil, forest biomass and atmosphere in permafrost affected regions of Siberia, much less is known on the role of fire in control of element transport in rivers and watersheds affected by fire events. To analyze the effect of fires on chemical composition of surface fluids in permafrost zone, fourteen small forested watersheds (3-25 km2) have been selected in mid-stream of Nizhnyaya Tunguska River (Yenissey basin, Central Siberia, Russia). Analysis of larch trees in forest stands of the area demonstrated that presumably all basins were affected by wildfires in the past. Selected watersheds have been influenced by ground fires (>90% of watershed area) ca 110, 60 and 15 years ago (respectively in 1899, 1947 and 1993). Water sampling campaign has been conducted from snowmelt (mid-May) to the start of freezing (mid-October) on weekly and/or monthly interval in 2006-2009. In this study, we analyzed the dissolved loads for major and trace element concentrations. In terms of concentration changes in the course of the year, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC as well as associated elements like Fe, Al, Y and REE) and inorganic ions (e.g. DIC, Cl, Ca, Na, Mg etc.) demonstrated opposite tendencies during a frost-free season in all streams. However, basins with recent fire effect exhibited generally lower DOC concentrations in streams along with much more pronounced seasonal increase in concentrations of inorganic compounds. The increased

  5. Russia`s Great Game in a nuclear South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; Taylor, T.T.

    1998-12-31

    Lost in the noise of Pakistan`s nuclear weapon tests in the western Baluchistan desert on 28 and 30 May was a surprising diplomatic move by Russia. On 23 May, Russia became the first state to express its willingness to recognize India as a nuclear-weapon state, provided that India commits itself to the international nonproliferation regime. Russia`s Ambassador to India, Albert Chernyshev, stated in the days after the Indian but before the Pakistani nuclear tests that ``India proclaimed itself a nuclear weapons power. One now hopes that India will behave as a nuclear weapons power by acting responsibly. Every nuclear weapons state has some rights. But for getting recognition it must have some obligations. Once it is ready to show these obligations by joining the nonproliferation regime, its recognition as a nuclear weapons power will follow.`` Russia`s Great Game in South Asia in pursuit of short-term economic and other interests appears to be a serious obstacle on the path to dealing effectively with the South Asian nuclear crisis. Grave damage to security, stability and nonproliferation has already resulted from India`s and Pakistan`s actions, but the situation does not have to spiral out of control. It is imperative that the international community respond appropriately to this challenge. The international community is at a crossroads and Russia`s actions will be critical. Will it be willing to go beyond the narrow economic and political calculations reflected in its diplomatic posturing, and take actions that will serve its long-term interests by bridging differences with other great powers in order to demonstrate to India that it has not chosen the right path. If Russia decides it can gain from India`s current, perilous path and blocks or otherwise frustrates appropriate responses, the nuclear danger on the subcontinent will escalate and the global regimes to promote nonproliferation and to ban testing will be seriously, perhaps fatally, weakened with

  6. Database of in-situ field measurements for estimates of fuel consumption and fire emissions in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Buryak, Ludmila; Ivanova, Galina; Soja, Amber; Kalenskaya, Olga; Zhila, Sergey; Zarubin, Denis; Groisman, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires show great variability in the amount of fuel consumed and carbon emitted to the atmosphere. Various types of models are used to calculate global or large scale regional fire emissions. However, in the databases used to estimate fuel consumptions, data for Russia are typically under-represented. Meanwhile, the differences in vegetation and fire regimes in the boreal forests in North America and Eurasia argue strongly for the need of regional ecosystem-specific data. For about 15 years we have been collecting field data on fuel loads and consumption in different ecosystem types of Siberia. We conducted a series of experimental burnings of varying fireline intensity in Scots pine and larch forests of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions. In addition, we examined wildfire behavior and effects in different vegetation types including Scots pine, Siberian pine, fir, birch, poplar, and larch-dominated forests; evergreen coniferous shrubs; grasslands, and peats. We investigated various ecosystem zones of Siberia (central and southern taiga, forest-steppe, steppe, mountains) in the different subjects of the Russian Federation (Krasnoyarsk Kray, Republic of Khakassia, Republic of Buryatia, Tuva Republic, Zabaikalsky Kray). To evaluate the impact of forest practices on fire emissions, burned and unburned logged sites and forest plantations were examined. We found large variations of fuel consumption and fire emission rates among different vegetation types depending on growing conditions, fire behavior characteristics and anthropogenic factors. Changes in the climate system result in an increase in fire frequency, area burned, the number of extreme fires, fire season length, fire season severity, and the number of ignitions from lightning. This leads to an increase of fire-related emissions of carbon to the atmosphere. The field measurement database we compiled is required for improving accuracy of existing

  7. Coast of the East Siberian Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sea ice is pulling away from the coastline of northeastern Siberia in the east Siberia Sea. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 26, 2002, also the thinning of ice in bays and coves, and the blue reflection of the water from beneath causes the ice to appear bright blue. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  8. Hydrological processes at the Suntar-Hayata ridge (Eastern Siberia) in past, current and future climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterova, Nataliia; Semenova, Olga; Lebedeva, Liudmila

    2016-04-01

    The detailed studies of permafrost, hydrological and glaciological processes at the Suntar-Hayata Ridge started within the Program of International Geophysical Year (1957-1958). The Suntar-Hayta Ridge (with highest mountain reaching 2959 m) is situated in Eastern Siberia and divides the Lena, Indigirka and the Okhotsk sea rivers basins. It is characterized by original combination of climate, geological and glaciological conditions. In 2015 our research group got the access to the reports of High-Mountain Glaciological and Geocriological Suntar-Hayata station which were stored in the archives of Melnikov Permafrost Institute in Yakutsk (Russia). We used revealed data for assessment of runoff formation processes and the factors affecting them in remote high-elevation permafrost area, and estimated the parameters of hydrological model based on those findings. Two watersheds of different scale were selected as the objects of our studies - the Suntar river (7680 km2) and the Sakharyniya River (84.4 km2). The Hydrograph model (Vinogradov et al., 2011; Semenova et al., 2013) was used in the study as it explicitly describes hydrological processes in different permafrost environments including the dynamics of ground thaw/freeze (ex., Lebedeva et al., 2014). In the Hydrograph model the processes have a physical basis and certain strategic conceptual simplifications. The level of model complexity is suitable for a remote, sparsely gauged region such as Eastern Siberia as it allows for a priori assessment of the model parameters. Based on the observations (meteorological data, ground temperature at different depth, soil profile physical properties, characteristics of vegetation, snow measurements, etc.) the model parameters were estimated for four main landscapes of the studied watersheds (bare ground, mountain tundra, sparse larch forest and riparian forest at swamped soils). At the first stage we conducted the simulation of individual processes and compared the results with

  9. Elder knowledge and sustainable livelihoods in post-Soviet Russia: finding dialogue across the generations.

    PubMed

    Crate, Susan A

    2006-01-01

    Russia's indigenous peoples have been struggling with economic, environmental, and socio-cultural dislocation since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. In northern rural areas, the end of the Soviet Union most often meant the end of agro-industrial state farm operations that employed and fed surrounding rural populations. Most communities adapted to this loss by reinstating some form of pre-Soviet household-level food production based on hunting, fishing, and/or herding. However, mass media, globalization, and modernity challenge the intergenerational knowledge exchange that grounds subsistence practices. Parts of the circumpolar north have been relatively successful in valuing and integrating elder knowledge within their communities. This has not been the case in Russia. This article presents results of an elder knowledge project in northeast Siberia, Russia that shows how rural communities can both document and use elder knowledge to bolster local definitions of sustainability and, at the same time, initiate new modes of communication between village youth and elders.

  10. A review of the genus Drymeia Meigen, 1826 (Diptera: Muscidae) in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sorokina, Vera S; Pont, Adrian C

    2015-08-14

    A key is provided to the 26 species of the genus Drymeia Meigen, 1826 known from Russia and four additional species that may be found in Russia (D. brumalis (Rondani, 1866), D. cantabrigensis (Huckett, 1965), D. gymnophthalma (Hennig, 1963), D. similis (Malloch, 1918)). The key includes the 10 new species here described from the mountains of South Siberia (D. acrostichalis sp. nov., D. aristata sp. nov., D. cilitarsis sp. nov., D. glabra sp. nov., D. grandis sp. nov., D. grisea sp. nov., D. longiseta sp. nov., D. phaonina sp. nov., D. puchokana sp. nov., D. triseta sp. nov.,) and other two new species from the Russian Arctic (D. cristata sp. nov., D. taymirensis sp. nov.). Five species (D. fasciculata (Stein, 1916), D. firthiana (Huckett, 1965), D. groenlandica (Lundbeck, 1901), D. quadrisetosa (Malloch, 1919), D. neoborealis (Snyder, 1949)) are newly recorded from Russia. Three new synonymies are proposed: D. pribilofensis (Malloch, 1921) (syn: D. inaequalis (Malloch, 1922)), D. setibasis (Huckett, 1965) (syn: D. gymnophthalma sibirica (Lavčiev, 1971, unavailable junior secondary homonym) and D. quadrisetosa (Malloch, 1919) (syn: D. amurensis (Lavčiev, 1971)). The male terminalia and the female ovipositors of the new species are illustrated. New faunistic data are given for some previously described species of Russian Drymeia.

  11. [Has Russia gotten worse?].

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    During a 1995 conference on AIDS prevention organized by the U.S. Agency for International Development, undersecretary of state Tim Wirth spoke of the connection between international drug trafficking and the spread of HIV infection. The drug traffickers with their private armies and growing power are a menace to democracy in several countries, not just Latin American nations like Colombia whose problems are known, but others such as South Africa, Nigeria, and Russia. In 1987, most of the countries of the former Soviet Union adopted an AIDS control policy similar to that of Cuba, with universal obligatory screening and identification and location of sexual contacts. Counseling, medical care, and respect for confidentiality were nonexistent. A small number of cases were diagnosed in each country. Most of the countries have discontinued these costly and authoritarian measures. The replacement programs, based on individual initiative, are poorly financed. The drugs available to them are largely limited to AZT, which is locally produced. The unemployment, declining incomes, and arrival of traffickers of all kinds in these countries since the fall of the Soviet Union appear to present ideal conditions for the propagation of AIDS. Drug use and prostitution, increasingly involving men and children as well as women, have flourished. Rates of HIV infection under the circumstances are unlikely to remain low. The division of individuals into groups at risk is unrealistic, because drug users become prostitutes and prostitutes use drugs. The most effective campaign against AIDS in these countries may therefore depend on a merciless campaign against drug trafficking. PMID:12179248

  12. Plant response to climate change along the forest-tundra ecotone in northeastern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Berner, Logan T; Beck, Pieter S A; Bunn, Andrew G; Goetz, Scott J

    2013-11-01

    Russia's boreal (taiga) biome will likely contract sharply and shift northward in response to 21st century climatic change, yet few studies have examined plant response to climatic variability along the northern margin. We quantified climate dynamics, trends in plant growth, and growth-climate relationships across the tundra shrublands and Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) woodlands of the Kolyma river basin (657 000 km(2) ) in northeastern Siberia using satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), tree ring-width measurements, and climate data. Mean summer temperatures (Ts ) increased 1.0 °C from 1938 to 2009, though there was no trend (P > 0.05) in growing year precipitation or climate moisture index (CMIgy ). Mean summer NDVI (NDVIs ) increased significantly from 1982 to 2010 across 20% of the watershed, primarily in cold, shrub-dominated areas. NDVIs positively correlated (P < 0.05) with Ts across 56% of the watershed (r = 0.52 ± 0.09, mean ± SD), principally in cold areas, and with CMIgy across 9% of the watershed (r = 0.45 ± 0.06), largely in warm areas. Larch ring-width measurements from nine sites revealed that year-to-year (i.e., high-frequency) variation in growth positively correlated (P < 0.05) with June temperature (r = 0.40) and prior summer CMI (r = 0.40) from 1938 to 2007. An unexplained multi-decadal (i.e., low-frequency) decline in annual basal area increment (BAI) occurred following the mid-20th century, but over the NDVI record there was no trend in mean BAI (P > 0.05), which significantly correlated with NDVIs (r = 0.44, P < 0.05, 1982-2007). Both satellite and tree-ring analyses indicated that plant growth was constrained by both low temperatures and limited moisture availability and, furthermore, that warming enhanced growth. Impacts of future climatic change on forests near treeline in Arctic Russia will likely be influenced by shifts in both temperature and moisture, which implies

  13. Reconstruction of environmental chanees in Holocen in Siberian Arctic, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarova, Larisa; Diekmann, Bernhard; Frolova, Larisa; Palagushkina, Olga; Tumanov, Oleg; Nourgaliev, Danis

    2013-04-01

    The study of Arctic palaeoenvironmental records enables qualitative and quantitative estimations of past climate changes and provides basis for prediction of future changes in the region. The timing of Holocene climate events in North Atlantic region is relatively good studied. In contrast to it, at present there are very few quantitative palaeoclimatic data for eastern Siberia and proxy records from northern Eurasia mostly document environmental changes at low temporal resolution, and are derived from pollen studies. Due to relatively small magnitude of temperature changes throughout the Holocene, reconstructions based on a single proxy must be interpreted with caution. More reliable estimate of the Holocene climate changes can be obtained only by averaging results inferred from several proxies. The basis, however, of all quantitative reconstruction approaches are regional calibration datasets from which the empirical reconstruction model (i.e. the transfer function) will be established. A 380 cm long sediment core from Lake Temje (Central Yakutia, North-Eastern Russia) was studied to infer Holocene palaeoenvironmental change in the extreme periglacial setting of eastern Siberia during the last 10,000 yrs. Data on sediment composition were used to characterize changes in the depositional environment during the ontogenetic development of the Lake Temje. The analysis of fossil chironomid remains and statistical treatment of chironomid data by the application of a newly developed transfer functions provided inferences of mean July air temperatures (TJuly) and water depths (WD). We obtained a qualitative and quantitative reconstruction of Holocene climate in Central Yakutia and recognized three stages of palaeoenvironmental changes: The early Holocene between 10 and 8 kyr BP was characterized by colder-than-today and moist summer conditions. Cryotextures in the lake sediments document full freezing of the lake water during the winter time. A general warming trend

  14. Stability and biodegradability of organic matter from Arctic soils of Western Siberia: Insights from 13C-NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejarque, Elisabet; Abakumov, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    Arctic soils contain large amounts of organic matter which, globally, exceed the amount of carbon stored in vegetation biomass and in the atmosphere. Recent studies emphasize the potential sensitivity for this soil organic matter (SOM) to be mineralised when faced with increasing ambient temperatures. In order to better refine the predictions about the response of SOM to climate warming, there is a need to increase the spatial coverage of empirical data on SOM quantity and quality in the Arctic area. This study provides, for the first time, a characterisation of SOM from the Gydan Peninsula in the Yamal Region, Western Siberia, Russia. On the one hand, soil humic acids and their humification state were characterised by measuring the elemental composition and diversity of functional groups using solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Also, the total mineralisable carbon was measured. Our results show that there is a predominance of aliphatic carbon structures, with a distribution of functional groups that has a minimal variation both regionally and within soil depth. Such vertical homogeneity and low level of aromaticity reflects the accumulation in soil of lowly decomposed organic matter due to cold temperatures. Mineralisation rates were found to be independent of SOM quality, and to be mainly explained solely by the total carbon content. Overall, our results provide further evidence on the sensitivity that the soils of Western Siberia may have to increasing ambient temperatures and highlight the important role that this region can play in the global carbon balance under the effects of climate warming.

  15. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  16. Genesis of the West Siberian Basin and its petroleum geology: a recent interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    From Late Carboniferous through Middle Jurassic time, the region of West Siberia passed through orogenic, rift, and early platform stages. The Early-Middle Jurassic was a time of cyclical marine and continental deposition. It is suggested that: (a) the oil in the Lower Cretaceous Neocomian sandstones was sourced by bituminous clays that interfinger with these sandstones on the west; and (b) that Upper Cretaceous Cenomanian gas was sourced in part by deeply buried Paleozoics and by overlying Upper Cretaceous Turonian clays. Predicted discoveries in West Siberia include several thousand small fields with reserves of less than 10 million tons, 250 to 300 medium-sized fields, and several large fields with 30 to 100 million tons. -from Author

  17. START II and the politics of arms control in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Lepingwell, J.W.R.

    1995-12-31

    The arguments for nuclear weapons reduction in the post-Cold War era are compelling, but as the nuclear confrontation has receded, so has the urgency attached to the destruction of nuclear weapons. In Russia, pressing economic and political problems have diverted attention from the nuclear issue, while the polarization of politics has reduced chances for the early ratification of START II. The increasing mistrust of the West in Russian political conservative circles, combined with the cost of disarmament, have given rise to a strong lobby for slowing the arms reduction process. 88 refs. 3 tabs.

  18. Britain's Siberia: Mary Coutts's account of the asylum system.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, A

    2005-06-01

    This paper examines a pamphlet entitled Britain's Siberia. The High Statistics of Insanity Explained by a Certified Lunatic. Research has revealed that the writer was Mary Coutts and that she had been a detained patient in the Aberdeen Royal Asylum. The paper analyses what Coutts had to say about her experiences and compares this to the official asylum records and what they reveal about her inmate stay. The paper also relates Coutts' account to that of other patients who have written about their experiences. As one of the few women to have left a record of life in the asylum, Coutts' story is of particular interest.

  19. [Testate amoebae inhabiting middle taiga bogs in Western Siberia].

    PubMed

    Kur'ina, I V; Preĭs, Iu I; Bobrov, A A

    2010-01-01

    The population of testate amoebae from the most typical middle taiga bogs of Western Siberia have been studied. More than one hundred (103) species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been revealed in recent surface samples. The relation between ecological characteristics of habitats and the composition of a Protozoa population has been demonstrated. The ecological preferences of species concerning the index of wetness, ash level, and acidity have been revealed. Using the correspondence analysis, the ecological optimums and the tolerance of species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been established.

  20. Modelling The Continental Effect Of Oxygen Isotopes Over Europe And Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.; Ciais, P.; Hoffmann, G.

    18O in atmospheric CO2 bears the potential to separate the biospheric gross fluxes, namely assimilation and respiration. It has thus the potential to tell if assimilation or respiration is the key parameter which determines the inter­annual variability of the carbon cycle in Europe. But the knowledge of CO18O fluxes is still in its infancy. An enormous work was done in the laboratory but in­situ measurements are rare. To study processes, close the gap between small scale measurements and existing global models and investigate on e. g. continental scales, we built an integrated global 3D model of 18O in atmospheric CO2 that calculates 18O in the water cycle pools, the CO2 and the inherent 18O­CO2 fluxes and transports these in the atmosphere, all with a time step of 40 minutes. Hence, the model is capable to investigate small scale, local and regional processes in a global context. Within the framework of the European Project EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX, we investigated the 18O processes in Europe and Siberia north of 40 N. We show that there is a well­known large impoverishment in the water isotopic composition of rain in the continental interior but it is significantly reduced during growing season. We validated the model directly by comparing it to net ecosystem exchange measurements from eddy­flux towers and indirectly by comparing it to atmospheric measurements of CO2 and 18O­CO2 in 3000 m a. s. l. We analyzed the longitudinal gradient in leaf discrimination which reflects primarily the gradient in leaf water isotopic composition. There are three prominent features: 1. The leaf water gradient is itself determined only 25% by the longitudinal gradient in source water but 75% by the change of relative humidity with longitude. 2. West and East of the Ural are two distinguished land areas with very different behavior in terms of CO2 and 18O­CO2 whereas Europe in contrary to Siberia is very homogeneous. 3. Leaf discrimination falls well below 0 East of 90 E which

  1. Shannon Lucid Trains in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut Shannon Lucid is seen egressing from a training version of a soyez spacecraft, during a water survival training session in Russia. In March of 1996, Lucid accompanied the STS-76 crew to the Russian space station, Mir, where she stayed for a little over four months before returning to Earth with the STS-79 crew.

  2. Gender Asymmetries in Today's Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…

  3. Tidal power plants in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Bernshtein, L.B. )

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the performance of tidal power plants in Russia and the expansion of tidal plant to new sites. The topics of the article include remote construction and transport techniques, pilot plant performance, economics and payback, and a review of global tidal power plant designs that are on hold due to economic problems relating to the global economy.

  4. The evolutionary history of sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok (Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773)) and its implications for the paleo-hydrological history of Siberia

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Broad-scale phylogeographic studies of freshwater organisms provide not only an invaluable framework for understanding the evolutionary history of species, but also a genetic imprint of the paleo-hydrological dynamics stemming from climatic change. Few such studies have been carried out in Siberia, a vast region over which the extent of Pleistocene glaciation is still disputed. Brachymystax lenok is a salmonid fish distributed throughout Siberia, exhibiting two forms hypothesized to have undergone extensive range expansion, genetic exchange, and multiple speciation. A comprehensive phylogeographic investigation should clarify these hypotheses as well as provide insights on Siberia's paleo-hydrological stability. Results Molecular-sequence (mtDNA) based phylogenetic and morphological analysis of Brachymystax throughout Siberia support that sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok are independent evolutionary lineages, with the majority of their variation distributed among major river basins. Their evolutionary independence was further supported through the analysis of 11 microsatellite loci in three areas of sympatry, which revealed little to no evidence of introgression. Phylogeographic structure reflects climatic limitations, especially for blunt-snouted lenok above 56° N during one or more glacial maxima. Presumed glacial refugia as well as interbasin exchange were not congruent for the two lineages, perhaps reflecting differing dispersal abilities and response to climatic change. Inferred demographic expansions were dated earlier than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Evidence for repeated trans-basin exchange was especially clear between the Amur and Lena catchments. Divergence of sharp-snouted lenok in the Selenga-Baikal catchment may correspond to the isolation of Lake Baikal in the mid-Pleistocene, while older isolation events are apparent for blunt-snouted lenok in the extreme east and sharp-snouted lenok in the extreme west of their respective

  5. Thermokarst lake waters across the permafrost zones of western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manasypov, R. M.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Shirokova, L. S.

    2014-07-01

    This work describes the hydrochemical composition of thermokarst lake and pond ecosystems, which are observed in various sizes with different degrees of permafrost influence and are located in the northern part of western Siberia within the continuous and discontinuous permafrost zones. We analysed the elemental chemical composition of the lake waters relative to their surface areas (from 10 to 106 m2) and described the elemental composition of the thermokarst water body ecosystems in detail. We revealed significant correlations between the Fe, Al, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and various chemical elements across a latitude gradient covering approximately 900 km. Several groups of chemical elements that reflect the evolution of the studied water bodies were distinguished. Combining the data for the studied latitude profile with the information available in the current literature demonstrated that the average dissolved elemental concentrations in lakes with different areas depend specifically on the latitudinal position, which is presumably linked to (1) the elements leached from frozen peat, which is the main source of the solutes in thermokarst lakes, (2) marine atmospheric aerosol depositions, particularly near the sea border and (3) short-range industrial pollution by certain metals from the largest Russian Arctic smelter. We discuss the evolution of the chemical compositions observed in thermokarst lakes during their formation and drainage and predict the effect that changing the permafrost regime in western Siberia has on the hydrochemistry of the lakes.

  6. Evaluating oil, gas ventures in W. Siberia: Feasibility studies

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, J.A. ); Connelly, W. )

    1993-02-08

    This article discusses the methodology and calculations used in performing the economic evaluations for a typical western Siberia oil project venture. The discussion of taxes, funds, depreciation, and costs assumes the venture is a stock company and that economics are calculated on a project basis. Most ventures available to western companies are delineated oil fields that are not yet developed or producing. The authors focus on this type of property. The required elements for an economic evaluation include original-oil-in-place (OOIP) and recoverable reserves; development plan and associated production forecast; and capital requirements and operating costs. The level of evaluation-i.e., screening, preliminary feasibility study, Technical Efficiency of Organization (TEO), or full feasibility study-determines the detail needed for each of these elements. Several economic analyses of a venture should be made to evaluate the sensitivity of alternative development plans, joint venture deal terms, capital requirements, operating costs, product prices, and taxation variables. The first three parts of this five part series dealt with (1) log and core data, (2) reservoir description and (3) flow tests and reservoir performance, and provided a technical foundation for the evaluation of oil and gas ventures in western Siberia.

  7. Vertical plate motions in the West Siberian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vibe, Yulia

    2014-05-01

    The West Siberian Basin is a sedimentary basin situated between the Ural Mountains and the Siberian Craton. The Basin has experienced several periods of subsidence and uplift since the arrival of the Siberian Traps c. 250 Ma. Although the Basin is extensively explored and hosts large reserves of Oil and Gas, the forces driving the vertical motions are poorly understood. In this work we attempt to analyse the amount, timing and location of subsidence and uplift in the Basin to shed light on the possible causes of these motions. A detailed description of sedimentary layers is published in a number of Soviet-era books and articles and serves as a basis for our research. This data is first converted into sediment grids through time. Subsequently, the sediments, the sediment load and the compaction are taken into account ('backstripping') to produce the depth of the Basin at respective time steps. With this technique we calculate the tectonic component of subsidence. Uncertainties related to uplift events are estimated by the unconformities in the stratigraphic charts. One of the possible driving forces of vertical motions is a change of force balance arising at plate boundaries. Since active plate tectonics have been absent from West Siberia since the formation of the Urengoy and Khodosey Rifts, c. 250Ma, we study the far-field tectonic effects as a potential driving mechanism. Indeed, some of the significant vertical events in the West Siberian Basin coincide with the major tectonic events around Siberia. An example is the spreading in the Arctic (Eurasian Basin) in the Eocene (56 Ma) which was synchronous with initiation of uplift events in the northern part of West Siberia. In the middle Oligocene (33 Ma), the northern and eastern parts of the basin were subjected to uplift as subsidence migrated southwards and the Basin rose above the sea level. This was coincident with the changes of plate motions in the northern North Atlantic and Indo-European collision.

  8. Russia`s nuke complex: A case for downsizing

    SciTech Connect

    Bukharin, O.

    1995-07-01

    Nuclear weapons stored in former Soviet republics, uncontrolled export of bomb-grade nuclear materials, and recruitment of ex-Soviet nuclear physicists by Third-World nations remain today`s top proliferation risks, reports Oleg Bukharin, a visiting researcher at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environment Studies. To address these risks, Russia {open_quotes}must shift its weapons production and development to weapons dismantlement, management of weapons materials, and maintenance of a much smaller...arsenal,{close_quotes} Bukharin writes. The goal of such conversion, he says, {open_quotes}is a nuclear complex that is environmentally safe...and compatible with nonproliferation objectives.{close_quotes} Reconfiguration of Russia`s weapons complex also must provide for redeployment of the hundreds of thousands of scientists, engineers, and technicians who have supported the federation`s nuclear weapons program, Bukharin insists. {open_quotes}A truly durable strategy to prevent the dispersion of Russian weapons expertise must [involve] these weapons experts in non-weapons research,{close_quotes} says Bukharin. Furthermore, Bukharin writes, the Russian conversion program must prevent nuclear materials from falling into the wrong hands. {open_quotes}Widespread corruption, crime, and emerging black markets increase the risk of diversion of weapons-grade uranium or plutonium,{close_quotes} he says.

  9. Fe-U-PGE-Au-Ag-Cu Deposits of the Udokan-Chiney Region (East Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gongalskiy, B.; Krivolutskaya, N.; Murashov, K.; Nistratov, S.; Gryazev, S.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction. Cupriferous sandstones-shales and magmatic copper-nickel deposits mark out the western and southern boundaries of the Siberian Craton accordingly. Of special interest are the Paleoproterozoic deposits of the Udokan-Chiney mining district (Gongalskiy, Krivolutskaya, 2008). Copper reserves and resources of this region are estimated at more than 50 Mt. Half of them is concentrated at the unique Udokan Deposit and the second half is distributed among sedimentary (Unkur, Pravoingamakitskoye, Sakinskoye, Krasnoye, Burpala) and magmatic deposits of the Chiney (Rudnoye, Verkhnechineyskoye, Kontaktovoye), Luktur and Maylav massifs. Results. It was established that the ores are characterized by similarity in chemical composition (main, major and rare elements that are Ag, Au, PGE) and mineral assemblages with varying proportions. It is important to emphasize that Fe role in mineralization was previously ignored. Meanwhile the Udokan deposit contains 10 Mt of magnetite metacrystals so as chalcocite ores may contain up to 50% magnetite too. It has been recently found that the Chiney titanomagnetite ores comprise commercially significant uranium and rare-earth metal concentrations (Makaryev et al., 2011). Thus the Udokan-Chiney region comprises Cu, Fe, Ti, V, U, REE, Ag, Au, PGE. These deposits differ from similar objects, the Olympic Dam in particular, by a much smaller content of fluid-bearing minerals. Copper mineralization at the Udokan is represented by chalcocite-bornite ores. They occur as ore beds conformable with sedimentary structures or as cross-cutting veins. The central zones of the former are often brecciated. They are rimmed by fine magnetite, bornite, and chalcocite dissemination. Bornite-chalcopyrite and chalcopyrite-pyrite veins are known at the lower levels of the Udokan ore bed. Such ore compositions are predominant in other ore deposits in sedimentary rocks (Pravoingamakitskoye, Unkur) and have a hydrothermal origin. Silver grades are up to 370 g/t in grab samples (Gongalskiy et al., 2008a). The long-lived Udokan-Chiney ore-magmatic has small areal extent of explosive rocks and breccias (n*10 m) with massive sulfide veins (chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite) which are similar to Sudbury offset dikes. While the same vertical zones at the Rudnoye deposit have been confirmed over 0.5 km downward from the lower contact of the Chiney massif. Conclusions. Multielement and similar mineralogical composition ores of different deposits in the Udokan-Chiney area reflect long evolution of ore processes in very movable block of the crust. Observed combination of magmatic, sedimentary and partially hydrothermal deposits is a result of the telescoping of a wide range of metals into a limited area.

  10. Measurements of Ultra-fine and Fine Aerosol Particles over Siberia: Large-scale Airborne Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Stohl, Andreas; Belan, Boris; Ciais, Philippe; Nédélec, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the results of in-situ measurements of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles carried out in the troposphere from 500 to 7000 m in the framework of several International and Russian State Projects. Number concentrations of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles measured during intensive airborne campaigns are presented. Measurements carried over a great part of Siberia were focused on particles with diameters from 3 to 21 nm to study new particle formation in the free/upper troposphere over middle and high latitudes of Asia, which is the most unexplored region of the Northern Hemisphere. Joint International airborne surveys were performed along the following routes: Novosibirsk-Salekhard-Khatanga-Chokurdakh-Pevek-Yakutsk-Mirny-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB/PLARCAT2008 Project) and Novosibirsk-Mirny-Yakutsk-Lensk-Bratsk-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB Project). The flights over Lake Baikal was conducted under Russian State contract. Concentrations of ultra-fine and fine particles were measured with automated diffusion battery (ADB, designed by ICKC SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia) modified for airborne applications. The airborne ADB coupled with CPC has an additional aspiration unit to compensate ambient pressure and changing flow rate. It enabled to classify nanoparticles in three size ranges: 3-6 nm, 6-21 nm, and 21-200 nm. To identify new particle formation events we used similar specific criteria as Young et al. (2007): (1) N3-6nm >10 cm-3, (2) R1=N3-6/N621 >1 and R2=N321/N21200 >0.5. So when one of the ratios R1 or R2 tends to decrease to the above limits the new particle formation is weakened. It is very important to notice that space scale where new particle formation was observed is rather large. All the events revealed in the FT occurred under clean air conditions (low CO mixing ratios). Measurements carried out in the atmospheric boundary layer over Baikal Lake did not reveal any event of new particle formation. Concentrations of ultra

  11. Estimating carbon emissions in Russia using the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, D. J.; Jin, J.; Yang, Y.; Conard, S. G.; Sukhinin, A.; Stocks, B. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Russian boreal forest zone contains about 28 percent of the global terrestrial carbon. Wildfires in Russia burn an estimated 12-15 million ha annually. In a warming climate, fires in the boreal zone are expected to increase in area and severity, with the potential for increasing global fire emissions and decreasing carbon stored in soils and biomass. Current fire data for these forests generally do not account for the large spatial and temporal variations in fuel loads and consumption for differing forest types and weather patterns. As a result, it has been difficult to obtain good estimates of annual carbon emissions. While methods are being developed to estimate carbon emission remotely, there is an immediate need for more accurate estimates. Our previous work has indicated that the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) is suitable for use in Russia. CFFDRS fuel consumption models can be used to estimate carbon emissions. The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Indexes (FWI) System, part of the CFFDRS, estimates the moisture content of various fuel classes and uses these estimates to generate a set of relative fire behavior indicators. As part of the Russian FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project, we conducted 14 experimental surface fires on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest sites in Siberia under a range of weather and fuel conditions. Detailed measurements of fuel consumption on each fire provided a basis for modeling carbon emissions using the FWI System. Carbon released by these experimental surface fires ranged from 4.8 to 15.4 t C ha-1 depending on burning conditions and fuel conditions. Provided burn areas and burn dates are known, and forest type and antecedent weather data are available, these models can be used to estimate the total annual carbon emissions for forest fires in Russia. Weather data was obtained for all Russian weather stations over a 55-year period (1953-2008) from the National Climate Data Center

  12. New and little-known species of Arachnospila (subgenus Ammosphex) (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) from East Siberia.

    PubMed

    Loktionov, Valery M; Lelej, Arkady S

    2015-01-19

    Seventeen species are listed. Five new species: Arachnospila (Ammosphex) kasparyani sp. nov. (Tuva), A. (A.) maxim sp. nov. (Tuva, Khakassia), A. (A.) moczari sp. nov. (Tuva), A. (A.) scythia sp. nov. (Tuva), A. (A.) sibirica sp. nov. (Tuva, Republic of Altai) are described and illustrated. Arachnospila (Ammosphex) eoabnormis Lelej, 1995, A. (A.) orientausa Loktionov & Lelej, 2011, and A. (A.) mongolopinata Wolf, 1981 are newly recorded from East Siberia. The distribution of eight species in East Siberia is enlarged. The revised key of 24 species in males from East Siberia and Russian Far East is given.

  13. [Transformation of soil organic matter in microarthropod community from the Northern Taiga of West Siberia].

    PubMed

    Mordkovich, V G; Berezina, O G; Liubechanskiĭ, I I; Andrievskiĭ, V S; Marchenko, I I

    2006-01-01

    Recolonization of defaunated soil by springtails as well as by gamasid and oribatid mites and the changes in organic matter content of soil were studied in the northern taiga. After a one-year exposure in gauze bags (1.7 mm mesh), the abundance of microarthropods was higher but the number of species was lower compared to the surrounding soil. Large surface and litter forms did not colonize the samples, while the number of small and/or soil forms was higher. Soil samples inaccessible for microarthropods (0.15 mm mesh) were depleted of organic carbon compared to both surrounding soil and recolonized samples. The content of humic and fulvic acids was higher in the samples inaccessible to microarthropods. Humification processes prevailed in soils in the absence of microarthropods.

  14. Airborne studies of submicron aerosol in the troposphere over West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Panchenko, M.V.; Zuev, V.E.; Belan, B.D.; Terpugova, S.A.

    1996-04-01

    Submicron fraction particles that have the longest lifespan and are included in almost all atmospheric processes are of special importance among the great variety of sizes of particles present in the atmosphere. Submicron particles mainly determine the opticle state of the atmosphere in the visible spectral range, essentially cause the absorption of infrared radiation and, since they are the products and participants in all aerosol-to-gas transformations, accumulate of a lot of various chemical compounds and transfer them to large distances. Investigation of the processes of the spatial-temporal variability of aerosol particles for different climatic zones of the earth is the experimental base for studying their effect on climatically and ecologically significant factors and estimating their unfavorable tendencies. The increasing anthropogenic loading of the earth`s atmosphere is creating an urgency for aerosol research. Regardless of how perfect the analytical and numerical methods of solving radiation problems may be, success in forecasting climatic change is mainly determined by the reliability of the experimental data on optical parameters of the atmosphere and of the description of their variability under the effect of external factors.

  15. Carbonate Reservoirs Within Abalak Clay Rocks and Bazhenov Shales in the Central West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, A.; Balushkina, N.; Prokofiev, V.; Bychkov, A.; Kalmykov, G.

    2015-12-01

    It has been established that main reservoirs within deposits of Abalak and Bazhenov formations are confined with carbonate rocks. Carbonate rocks are often fractured, irregularly distributed, genesis of carbonate material is not obvious, reservoir properties can strongly change at short distances. It complicates prediction of prospective carbonate rocks location in the sedimentary column and laterally. Main objective of the work was to reveal genesis of carbonate material and environmental factors influencing on reservoir properties of carbonate rocks. Carbonate rocks of different types have been studied in details using petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical methods. To reveal genesis of carbonate material and environmental conditions during its precipitation analysis of stable carbon and oxygen isotopes distribution and analysis of gas-liquid inclusions in calcite were carried out. As a result three groups of carbonates have been distinguished: methane-derived carbonates that precipitated as a result of microbial activity in the upper part of marine sediments; high-temperature calcite that precipitated from hydrothermal fluids, fills cracks within methane-derived carbonates of the first group; secondary limestones and dolomites that precipitated during katagenesis or also from hydrothermal fluids. Main reservoirs are associated with: 1. limestones at top of Abalak deposits with numerous cracks and caverns partially filled with high-temperature calcite - fractured cavernous reservoir; 2. dolomitized silicites within Bazhenov formation - fractured microporous reservoir. In both cases reservoir properties were formed as a result of secondary alterations of carbonate rocks, particularly induced by hydrothermal fluids migrating from underlying strata. For this reason presence of reservoirs in carbonate rocks is closely connected with the areas of excessive fissuring where fluids migration pathways exist. The work has been carried out with support of RFBR (Russian Foundation for Basic Research) grant №14-05-31344.

  16. Authigenic mineral formation in fluid permeability zones in the West Siberia Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurchatova, A. N.; Melnikov, V. P.; Rogov, V. V.; Slagoda, E. A.

    2016-06-01

    Basic chemical and mineralogical anomalies in permafrost caused by hydrocarbon migration are considered. Direct evidence for bacterial oxidation of light hydrocarbons, primarily methane, were first obtained in fluid permeability zones in the permafrost as a stepwise formation of authigenic minerals such as iron sulfides and oxides, carbonates, silicates, and gypsum.

  17. Development of children from urban and rural areas of West Siberia.

    PubMed

    Grebneva, N N; Zagainova, A B; Krivoschekov, S G

    2001-11-01

    Four hundred and twenty three Slavic children aged 4-9 were tested for age sex-tape related physiological features, the effects of residence (urban vs. rural), kindergarten or school establishments on physical development. The data obtained indicated that total body dimensions decreased in preschool and school age children from 1989-1999. Urban schoolchildren tended to be asthenic. Urban schoolchildren differed from the rural in their adaptation response to the standard step-test. PMID:11768443

  18. An annotated catalogue of the gamasid mites associated with small mammals in Asiatic Russia. The family Laelapidae s. str. (Acari: Mesostigmata: Gamasina).

    PubMed

    Vinarski, Maxim V; Korallo-Vinarskaya, Natalia P

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-nine species of mites of the family Laelapidae s. str. have been recorded as associated with small mammals (rodents, insectivores) in Asiatic Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). These species belong to two subfamilies (Laelapinae, Myonyssinae) and six genera: Androlaelaps Berlese, 1903, Dipolaelaps Zemskaya & Piontkovskaya, 1960, Laelaps C.L. Koch, 1836, Hyperlaelaps Zakhvatkin, 1948, Myonyssus Tiraboschi, 1904, Oryctolaelaps Lange, 1955. A list of the species, with data on synonymy, geographic ranges, and relationships with mammal hosts is provided. Some considerations concerning patterns of distribution of the parasitic Laelaptidae of Asiatic Russia are presented as well as their classifications from the point of view of known host association records. PMID:27395087

  19. [Characterization of the H5N1 influenza virus isolated during an outbreak among wild birds in Russia (Tuva Republic) in 2010].

    PubMed

    Marchenko, V Iu; Sharshov, K A; Silko, N Iu; Susloparov, I M; Durymanov, A G; ZaĭkovskaIa, A V; Alekseev, A Iu; Smolovskaia, O V; Stefanenko, A P; Malkova, E M; Shestopalov, A M

    2011-01-01

    The study of basic biological properties of H5N1 subtype strain isolated during an outbreak among wild birds in Russia in 2010 was presented. The study was carried out using conventional methods according to the WHO recommendations. H5N1 influenza virus isolated in Siberia belonged to clade 2.3.2 of the hemagglutinin gene; the phylogenetic analysis was performed. The antigenic characteristics and the basic genetic markers of biological properties were studied. It was shown that all strains were highly pathogenic for chickens and white mice. Thus, it was shown that in Russia in the 2010 H5N1 virus phylogenetically closely related to Asian variants caused epizootic among wild birds. The potential danger of this variant of the virus for humans was confirmed by different methods. We discussed the possibility of formation of H5N1 influenza natural focus.

  20. [Polymorphism of the mtDNA control region in wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus (Mammalia: Artiodactyla) from the European part of Russia].

    PubMed

    Baranova, A I; Kholodova, M V; Davydov, A V; Rozhkov, Iu I

    2012-09-01

    Genetic diversity ofwild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) inhabiting the European part of Russia, including Komi Republic, Arkhangelsk oblast, Murmansk oblast, and the Republic of Karelia was characterized using sequence polymorphism of the mtDNA control region. Despite of currently low population number of wild reindeer, they were characterized by a high level of genetic diversity (pi = 0.018; H= 0.872 to 0.914). Phylogenetic analysis showed close relationships between European reindeer and wild reindeer of Siberia. In reindeer from Murmansk oblast a haplotype in common with the wild reindeer form Southwestern Norway was described. The reindeer sample examined contained no haplotypes earlier described for the reindeer of Central Norway. It is suggested that in recent past wild reindeer from the European north of Russia formed one population with the reindeer from the north of the Asian part of Eurasia.

  1. Birds of the Indigirka River Delta, Russia: Historical and biogeographic comparisons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, J.M.; Esler, Daniel; Degtyarev, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    We documented the breeding status and relative abundance of all avian species on the coastal portion of the Indigirka River Delta during spring and summer 1993-95. Data on avifaunal composition were then compared to data from adjacent areas from Eastern Siberia to the Chukotka Peninsula to evaluate how species composition changes longitudinally within the arctic and typical tundra zones of northern Russia. We recorded 63 species on the Indigirka River Delta, 37 (58.7 %) of which were confirmed breeders during at least one of the three years. Five new species were recorded breeding (Arenaria interpres, Calidris acuminata, Limnodromus scolopaceus, Stercorarius parasiticus, and Asio flammeus), and 13 previously unrecorded species were observed during this study. We also identified several species of rare or threatened status in Russia and North America, including Branta bernicla, Somateria fischeri, Polysticta stelleri, and Rhodostethia rosea. We used parsimony and distance matrix methods to compare the breeding species richness on the Indigirka River Delta to that of six other Russian Arctic areas. Biogeographic comparisons revealed the presence of two clades in the Russian Arctic: the Lena River Delta east to Chaun Delta and the Chukotka Peninsula.

  2. Bibliography of studies on hybrid zones of the common shrew chromosome races distributed in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Nadjafova, Rena S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, has become a model species for cytogenetic and evolutionary studies after discovery of extraordinary Robertsonian polymorphism at the within-species level. Development of differential staining techniques (Q-, R-and G-banding) made it possible to identify the chromosomal arms and their combination in racial karyotypes. Entering into contact with each other, the chromosomal races might form hybrid zones which represent a great interest for understanding of the process of speciation. Until recently all known hybrid zones of S. araneus were localized in Western Europe and only one was identified in Siberia (Russia) between Novosibirsk and Tomsk races (Aniskin and Lukianova 1989, Searle and Wójcik 1998, Polyakov et al. 2011). However, a rapidly growing number of reports on discovery of interracial hybrid zones of Sorex araneus in the European part of Russia and neighboring territories appeared lately. The aim of the present work is to compile the bibliography of all studies covering this topic regardless of the original language and the publishing source which hopefully could make research data more accessible to international scientists. It could also be a productive way to save current history of Sorex araneus researches in full context of the ISACC (International Sorex araneus Cytogenetics Committee) heritage (Searle et al. 2007, Zima 2008).

  3. Paleobiology of the Mesoproterozoic Billyakh Group, Anabar Uplift, northern Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeev, V. N.; Knoll, A. H.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    1995-01-01

    Silicified peritidal carbonates of the Mesoproterozoic Kotuikan and Yusmastakh Formations, Anabar Uplift, northeastern Siberia, contain exceptionally well-preserved microfossils. The assemblage is dominated by ellipsoidal akinetes of nostocalean cyanobacteria (Archaeoellipsoides) and problematic spheroidal unicells (Myxococcoides); both are allochthonous and presumably planktonic. The assemblage also includes distinctive mat-forming scytonematacean and entophysalidacean cyanobacteria, diverse short trichomes interpreted as cyanobacterial hormogonia or germinated akinetes, rare longer trichomes, and several types of colonial unicells. Although many taxa in the Kotuikan-Yusmastakh assemblage are long-ranging prokaryotes, the overall character of the assemblage is distinctly Mesoproterozoic, with its major features shared by broadly coeval floras from Canada, China, India, and elsewhere in Siberia. Microfossils also occur in middle to inner shelf shales of the Ust'-Il'ya and lower Kotuikan Formations. Leiosphaerid acritarchs (up to several hundred microns in diameter) characterize this facies. As in other Mesoproterozoic acritarch assemblages, acanthomorphic and other complex forms that typify Neoproterozoic assemblages are absent. The combination in Billyakh assemblages of exceptional preservation and low eukaryotic diversity supports the hypothesis that nucleated organisms diversified markedly near the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary. The assemblages also demonstrate the antiquity of cyanobacteria capable of cell differentiation and suggest the importance of both changing peritidal substrates and evolving eukaryotes in determining stratigraphic patterns of Proterozoic prokaryotes. The permineralized assemblage contains 33 species belonging to 17 genera. Ten new species or new combinations are proposed: Archaeoellipsoides costatus n. sp., A. elongatus n. comb., A. dolichos n. comb., A. minor n. nom., A. crassus n. comb., A. major n. comb., A. bactroformis n

  4. Human evolution in Siberia: from frozen bodies to ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Yakuts contrast strikingly with other populations from Siberia due to their cattle- and horse-breeding economy as well as their Turkic language. On the basis of ethnological and linguistic criteria as well as population genetic studies, it has been assumed that they originated from South Siberian populations. However, many questions regarding the origins of this intriguing population still need to be clarified (e.g. the precise origin of paternal lineages and the admixture rate with indigenous populations). This study attempts to better understand the origins of the Yakuts by performing genetic analyses on 58 mummified frozen bodies dated from the 15th to the 19th century, excavated from Yakutia (Eastern Siberia). Results High quality data were obtained for the autosomal STRs, Y-chromosomal STRs and SNPs and mtDNA due to exceptional sample preservation. A comparison with the same markers on seven museum specimens excavated 3 to 15 years ago showed significant differences in DNA quantity and quality. Direct access to ancient genetic data from these molecular markers combined with the archaeological evidence, demographical studies and comparisons with 166 contemporary individuals from the same location as the frozen bodies helped us to clarify the microevolution of this intriguing population. Conclusion We were able to trace the origins of the male lineages to a small group of horse-riders from the Cis-Baïkal area. Furthermore, mtDNA data showed that intermarriages between the first settlers with Evenks women led to the establishment of genetic characteristics during the 15th century that are still observed today. PMID:20100333

  5. The first record of "spelaeoid" bears in Arctic Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sher, Andrei V.; Weinstock, Jacobo; Baryshnikov, Gennady F.; Davydov, Sergey P.; Boeskorov, Gennady G.; Zazhigin, Vladimir S.; Nikolskiy, Pavel A.

    2011-08-01

    For a long time, "spelaeoid" (cave-bear-like) bears, Ursus ( Spelearctos) spp., were believed to be almost purely European animals. Their geographic range has recently been extended to the east, in southern Siberia, Transbaikalia, Kirghizia, Mongolia and Korea. Two unexpected new findings, presented here in detail, significantly change existing views on the distribution of cave bears; both were found in North-Eastern Siberia, far beyond the Arctic Circle, more than 1500 km to the north-east of the previously accepted range. One of the fossils is a mandible, found near the town of Cherskiy at 68.73°N, 161.38°E. The analysis of local geology and accompanying mammal fossils suggests that it comes from the Olyorian Fauna (Early to early Middle Pleistocene). Morphologically, the Cherskiy mandible is closest to Ursus savini, a small middle Pleistocene cave bear from the British Cromer Forest-bed Formation, but differs in having a slightly more advanced dentition, and thus it is described as a new subspecies Ursus savini nordostensis. Another newly recognized fossil of the "spelaeoid" bear is an astragalus found at the Oskhordokh site at 67.54°N, 135.67°E, on a large gravel bar on the right bank of the Adycha River. This specimen is attributed to Ursus cf . deningeri. The paper also presents an interesting example of the interaction between classical and "molecular" palaeontology. The new finds significantly change existing ideas on the ecology and evolution of cave bears, some of the most remarkable members of the extinct Pleistocene megafauna.

  6. Soil Organic Matter in Forest Ecosystems of the Forest-tundra zone of Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhortova, Liudmila

    2010-05-01

    Our study was conducted on 17 forest sample plots in the forest-tundra zone of Central Siberia, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia. They were covered by larch/feather moss/shrub and larch/grass forest types growing on cryozems and podburs (Cryosols). The investigation was aimed at estimating soil organic matter storage and structure in forest ecosystems growing along the northern tree line. Such ecosystems have low rates of exchange processes and biological productivity. Estimating soil carbon in these forest types is important for a deeper understanding of their role in biogeochemical cycles and forecasting consequences of climate changes. Soil organic matter was divided into pools by biodegradation resistance level and, hence, different roles of these pools in biological cycles. The soil organic matter was divided into an easily mineralizable (LMOM) fraction, which includes labile (insoluble) (LOM) and mobile (soluble) (MOM) organic compounds, and a stable organic matter fraction that is humus substances bound with soil matrix. The forest-tundra soil carbon was found to total 30.9 to 125.9 tons/ha. Plant residues were the main part of the soil easily mineralizable organic matter and contained from 13.3 to 62.4% of this carbon. Plant residue carbon was mainly allocated on the soil surface, in the forest litter. Plant residues in the soil (dead roots + other "mortmass") were calculated to contribute 10-30% of the plant residues carbon, or 2.5-15.1% of the total soil carbon. Soil surface and in-soil dead plant material included 60-95% of heavily decomposed residues that made up a forest litter fermentation subhorizon and an "other mortmass" fraction of the root detritus. Mobile organic matter (substances dissolved in water and 0.1N NaOH) of plant residues was found to allocate 15-25% of carbon. In soil humus, MOM contribution ranged 14 to 64%. Easily mineralizable organic matter carbon appeared to generally dominate forest-tundra soil carbon pool. It was measured to

  7. Emission of greenhouse gases from geographically isolated wetlands of Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovatskaya, E.; Dyukarev, E.; Veretennikova, E.

    2014-12-01

    Wetlands are integral components of landscapes with specific nutrient dynamics and carbon sequestration potentials, which frequently differ, based on hydroperiod and seasonal hydropattern, as well as the constituent concentration of inputs, site-specific storages and vegetation structures. Human modifications have the potential to significantly alter controls on carbon dynamics. This study focused on determining carbon emissions (CO2 and CH4) from geographically isolated peatlands within the Ob-Tom River Interfluve area of Western Siberia affected by water diversion for municipal use by the city of Tomsk, Russia. Two oligotrophic wetlands within the study area were selected for site-specific CO2 studies, the Timiryazevskoe (16 ha) and Kirsanovskoe wetlands (29 ha), both affected by the Tomsk water intake (177 water wells 250 000 m3 water daily). Measurements of СО2 and CH4 emissions from peat surfaces were carried out bi-monthly in growing periods from 2008-2013 in two dominate vegetation zones, pine- shrub-sphagnum phytocenosis (ryam) and sedge-sphagnum fens. СО2 emissions were measured using OPTOGAS-500.4 infrared gas analyzer and dark chamber. Methane emissions were measured using static chamber method. Air samples were collected by syringes and analyzed at gas chromatograph Shimadzu-GC14B. Observations were accompanied by measurement of air temperature and humidity, surface temperature, peat temperature at various depths and the water table level. CО2 emission over the vegetative growing period had clearly pronounced seasonal dynamics with maximum values in the middle of the growing season (mid-July) and minimum values in spring and autumn. The average total flux over the studied period is 123±55 gС/m2 at sedge-sphagnum fen of Kirsanovskoe wetland and 323±66 gС/m2 at fen of Timiryazevskoe wetland. Total СО2 flux for the snow-free period at ryam sites of Timiryazevskoe and Kirsanovskoe wetlands is 238±84 and 260±47 gС/m2 accordingly. Methane

  8. Kurchatov IAE dedicated SR facility SIBERIA status report and SR instrumentation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterikhin, Yu. Ye.

    1992-01-01

    The SIBERIA facility in Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow, U.S.S.R. is discussed. The experimental stations, beamlines and the necessary synchrotron radiation-instrumentation is created by the

  9. Kurchatov IAE dedicated SR facility SIBERIA status report and SR instrumentation problems

    SciTech Connect

    Nesterikhin, Y.Y. )

    1992-01-01

    The SIBERIA facility in Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow, U.S.S.R. is discussed. The experimental stations, beamlines and the necessary synchrotron radiation{minus}instrumentation is created by the

  10. New zonal and infrazonal scales for the Kimmeridgian in Westarn Siberia based on cardioceratid ammonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogov, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    It is proposed to use a Boreal scale based on the succession of cardioceratids (with the Bauhini, Kitchini, Sokolovi, and Decipiens zones) for the subdivision of the Kimmeridgian of Western Siberia instead of the aulacospephanid-based Subpolar Urals scale which was traditionally used in this region. It is shown that the use of the Boreal scale allows a finer subdivision and correlation of the Kimmeridgian of Western Siberia. A complete succession of zones and subzones based on cardioceratids and several biohorizons previously established in western Arctic are confirmed. The infrazonal Kimmeridgian scale of Western Siberia is correlated with the scales of Franz Josef Land, Spitsbergen, and northern Central Siberia. The diagnosis and ranges of Plasmatites zieteni (Rouill.), characteristic of the basal part of the Kimmeridgian (zieteni biohorizon), are given. The new species Amoeboceras (?) klimovae Rogov, sp. nov. and Amoebites peregrinator Rogov, sp. nov. (index species of the biohorizons recognized by the present author) are described.

  11. What is the P value of Siberian soils? Soil phosphorus status in south-western Siberia and comparison with a global data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brédoire, Félix; Bakker, Mark R.; Augusto, Laurent; Barsukov, Pavel A.; Derrien, Delphine; Nikitich, Polina; Rusalimova, Olga; Zeller, Bernd; Achat, David L.

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is particularly strong in northern Eurasia and substantial ecological changes are expected in this extensive region. The reshaping and migration northwards of bioclimatic zones may offer opportunities for agricultural development in western and central Siberia. However, the bioclimatic vegetation models currently employed for projections still do not consider soil fertility, in spite of this being highly critical for plant growth. In the present study, we surveyed the phosphorus (P) status in the south-west of Siberia where soils have developed on loess parent material. We selected six sites differing in pedoclimatic conditions and the soil was sampled at different depths down to 1 m in aspen (Populus tremula L.) forest as well as in grassland areas. The P status was assessed by conventional methods and by isotope dilution kinetics. We found that P concentrations and stocks, as well as their distribution through the soil profile, were fairly homogeneous on the regional scale studied, although there were some differences between sites (particularly in organic P). The young age of the soils, together with slow kinetics of soil formation processes have probably not yet resulted in a sufficiently wide range of soil physico-chemical conditions to observe a more diverging P status. The comparison of our data set with similar vegetation contexts on the global scale revealed that the soils of south-western Siberia, and more generally of northern Eurasia, often have (very) high levels of total, organic and inorganic P. The amount of plant-available P in topsoils, estimated by the isotopically exchangeable phosphate ions, was not particularly high but was intermediate on the global scale. However, large stocks of plant-available P are stored in subsurface layers which currently have low fine-root exploration intensities. These results suggest that the P resource is unlikely to constrain vegetation growth and agricultural development under the present

  12. Vegetation modeling in Yakutia, northeastern Siberia: connecting to palaeovegetation simulation and model-data comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, J.; Herzschuh, U.

    2009-04-01

    Vegetation model is a useful tool to understand the impacts of climate change on ecosystems in the present, past and future. Simulation of the palaeovegetation can link the geographical pattern of vegetation in the past to pollen proxy and then test the palaeoclimate modeling. In this study we used an equilibrium vegetation model (BIOME4) and a dynamic vegetation model (LPJ) to predict the present-day vegetation pattern and their dynamic changes from 1901-2002 in Yakutia, an Arctic and sub-Arctic region in eastern Siberia, where is sensitive to climate change. Both the models characterized the basic features of regional vegetation pattern, function and their changes through time. The BIOME4 simulated a reasonable pattern of present biome distribution compared to the regional vegetation maps, the deciduous taiga-montane forests in the southern and central Yakutia, evergreen taiga-montane forests in the southwestern mountainous region and in the eastern coast, shrub tundra and dwarf shrub tundra in the northwest and northeast mixed with temperate xerophytic shrubland. In the NW Yakutia the LPJ demonstrated a dynamic change of local vegetation during the past 102 years responding to the changed climates. Forest and shrub covered the large area from the beginning to the 1950s of the 20th Century. Tundra extended from the west to the east during 1960s to 1970s. The woody plants extended in 1980s and in late 1990s to early 21st Century and grasses extended in 1990s. The performance of global vegetation models in regional study is well, but problems still existed. More plant functional types especially the shrubs and grasses and climatic constraints to them should be taken into account when improving the models. Soil water-related parameters should be redefined. The modules of permafrost, snow, and fire should be added or modified. Regional input data of climates, vegetation and soils at finer resolutions will be obtained from the regional and local studies.

  13. A Holocene molluscan succession from floodplain sediments of the upper Lena River (Lake Baikal region), Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Dustin; Preece, Richard C.; Shchetnikov, Alexander A.; Parfitt, Simon A.; Dlussky, Konstantin G.

    2008-05-01

    Floodplain sediments of the upper Lena River near Basovo in south-central Siberia have yielded the most detailed Holocene molluscan succession yet reported from the entire eastern Palaearctic. Over 72,500 shells from at least 28 species of terrestrial and 23 species of freshwater mollusc have been recovered, an abundance and diversity far higher than previously reported from the region. The molluscan assemblages are dominated by land snails, especially members of the genus Vallonia, represented by five species including Vallonia tenuilabris and two poorly known species Vallonia kamtschatica and Vallonia cf. chinensis. Other noteworthy species recovered include Gastrocopta theeli, Carychium pessimum, Vertigo extima (southernmost record), Vertigo microsphaera and the first Asian records of three other taxa ( Vertigo geyeri, Vertigo genesii and Vertigo parcedentata). Illustrations are provided for the critical species, since opinions differ about the status of various taxa and the correct names that should be used. The molluscan assemblages show clear successional trends during the early to mid-Holocene, reflecting episodes of dryness/wetness on the floodplain. Drier conditions at ca 6350 14C yr BP coincide with major changes in the archaeological record seen at other sites in the region but it remains unclear whether the two are linked. A prominent charcoal-rich horizon dated to ca 2800 14C yr BP marks a burning event in the catchment, which resulted in a two-fold increase in sediment accumulation rate. Remains of small mammals occurred throughout the sequence including a tooth of Microtus cf. maximowiczii, possibly the first occurrence of Ungar vole west of Lake Baikal. The faunal analyses have been integrated with a detailed pedological study of the sedimentary profile and a chronology was obtained by means of 12 AMS radiocarbon dates. This study provides the first detailed palaeoecological information relating to Holocene molluscan assemblages from the Cis

  14. Mapping of Geographically Isolated Wetlands of Western Siberia Using High Resolution Space Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyukarev, E.; Pologova, N.; Dyukarev, A.; Lane, C.; Autrey, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    Using the remote sensing data for integrated study of natural objects is actual for investigation of difficult to access areas of West Siberia. The research of this study focuses on determining the extent and spectral signatures of isolated wetlands within Ob-Tom Interfluve area using Landsat and Quickbird space images. High-resolution space images were carefully examined and wetlands were manually delineated. Wetlands have clear visible signs at the high resolution space images. 567 wetlands were recognized as isolated wetlands with the area about 10 000 ha (of 2.5% of the study area). Isolated wetlands with area less 2 ha are the most frequent. Half of the total amount of wetlands has area less than 6.4 ha. The largest isolated wetland occupies 797 ha, and only 5% have area more than 50 ha. The Landsat 7 ETM+ data were used for analysis of vegetation structure and spectral characteristics of wetlands. The masked isolated wetlands image was classified into 12 land cover classes using ISODATA unsupervised classification. The attribution of unsupervised classification results allowed us to clearly recognize 7 types of wetlands: tall, low and sparse ryams (Pine-Shrub-Sphagnum community), open wetlands with shrub, moss or sedge cover, and open water objects. Analysis of spectral profiles for all classes has shown that Landsat spectral bands 4 and 5 have higher variability. These bands allow to separate wetland classed definitely. Accuracy assessment of isolated wetland map shows a good agreement with expert field data. The work was supported by grants ISTC № 4079.

  15. Precursor genes of future pandemic influenza viruses are perpetuated in ducks nesting in Siberia.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, K; Takada, A; Ito, T; Imai, M; Takakuwa, H; Hatta, M; Ozaki, H; Tanizaki, T; Nagano, T; Ninomiya, A; Demenev, V A; Tyaptirganov, M M; Karatayeva, T D; Yamnikova, S S; Lvov, D K; Kida, H

    2000-01-01

    Influenza A viruses of different subtypes were isolated from fecal samples of ducks in their nesting areas in Siberia in summer from 1996 to 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of the NP genes of the isolates in Siberia and those in Hokkaido, Japan on their flyway of migration from Siberia to the south in autumn revealed that they belong to the Eurasian lineage of avian influenza viruses. It is noted that the genes of the isolates in Siberia are closely related to those of H5N1 influenza virus strains isolated from chickens and humans in Hong Kong in 1997 as well as to those of isolates from domestic birds in southern China. The results indicate that influenza viruses perpetuated in ducks nesting in Siberia should have contributed genes in the emergence of the H5N1 virus in Hong Kong. Vaccine prepared from avirulent A/duck/Hokkaido/4/96 (H5N3) influenza virus was potent enough to protect mice from challenge with lethal dose of the pathogenic H5N1 virus [19]. Intensive surveillance study of aquatic birds especially in Siberia is, therefore, stressed to provide information on the future pandemic influenza virus strains and for vaccine preparation.

  16. Analysis of Y chromosome STR haplotypes in the European part of Russia reveals high diversities but non-significant genetic distances between populations.

    PubMed

    Roewer, Lutz; Willuweit, Sascha; Krüger, Carmen; Nagy, Marion; Rychkov, Sergey; Morozowa, Irina; Naumova, Oksana; Schneider, Yuriy; Zhukova, Olga; Stoneking, Mark; Nasidze, Ivan

    2008-05-01

    A total of 17 Y-specific STR loci were studied in 12 districts of the European part of Russia aiming to ascertain the amount of substructure required for the construction of a representative regional database. All groups exhibited high haplotype diversities but low inter-population variance as measured by an analysis of molecular variance. However, when Western Russia is taken as a whole, the genetic distances to the neighbouring populations were significant. Whereas gradual change in the Y chromosome pool exists between Russia and the Slavic-speaking populations to the West, remarkable discontinuities were observed with neighbouring populations in the East, North and South.

  17. Aerospace Medical Support in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

  18. Levels of dioxins and dibenzofurans in breast milk of women residing in two cities in the Irkutsk Region of Russian Siberia compared with American levels.

    PubMed

    Schecter, A; Piskac, A L; Grosheva, E I; Matorova, N I; Ryan, J J; Fürst, P; Päpke; Adibi, J; Pavuk, M; Silver, A; Ghaffar, S

    2002-04-01

    The presence of dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human tissue, food, and environmental samples from Russia has been monitored since 1988 as part of a research collaboration between a number of countries including Finland, the United States, Germany, the former Soviet Union, and Canada. Although elevated TCDD and PnCDD levels have previously been found in blood of male and female Russian chemical manufacturing workers and in their children, dioxin levels in the general population have usually been found to be lower than in Americans and Europeans. This study continues earlier work in the Irkutsk region of Russian Siberia, where we report levels of dioxin, dibenzofurans, and PCBs in human milk samples taken from general population women living in the industrialized cities of Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye, near Lake Baikal. Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) toxic equivalents (TEQs) compared in this paper for the industrialized regions of Siberia, Ukraine, and the US are similar, ranging from 6.1 to 7 parts per trillion (ppt). Recent 1998 milk samples from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye have total mean polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) TEQs of 10 and 21.7 ppt, respectively, with the other industrialized countries ranging from 2.3 to 6.7 ppt. Although dioxin-like PCBs were not measured for the city of Usolye-Sibirskoye (1998), total mean PCDD/F TEQ from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye (1998) were the two highest levels in this study, with 26.9 and 28.5 ppt, respectively, followed by 1993-1994 Ukraine samples with 24 ppt, 1989 Siberian samples with 13.6 ppt, and 1996 USA with 11.4 ppt total TEQ. In this study, higher levels of dioxins are noted in milk from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye than found in earlier Russian studies, with mean levels also exceeding 1996 and 1999 US breast milk dioxin levels. PMID:11993631

  19. A 33,000-Year-Old Incipient Dog from the Altai Mountains of Siberia: Evidence of the Earliest Domestication Disrupted by the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Crockford, Susan J.; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Background Virtually all well-documented remains of early domestic dog (Canis familiaris) come from the late Glacial and early Holocene periods (ca. 14,000–9000 calendar years ago, cal BP), with few putative dogs found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 26,500–19,000 cal BP). The dearth of pre-LGM dog-like canids and incomplete state of their preservation has until now prevented an understanding of the morphological features of transitional forms between wild wolves and domesticated dogs in temporal perspective. Methodology/Principal Finding We describe the well-preserved remains of a dog-like canid from the Razboinichya Cave (Altai Mountains of southern Siberia). Because of the extraordinary preservation of the material, including skull, mandibles (both sides) and teeth, it was possible to conduct a complete morphological description and comparison with representative examples of pre-LGM wild wolves, modern wolves, prehistoric domesticated dogs, and early dog-like canids, using morphological criteria to distinguish between wolves and dogs. It was found that the Razboinichya Cave individual is most similar to fully domesticated dogs from Greenland (about 1000 years old), and unlike ancient and modern wolves, and putative dogs from Eliseevichi I site in central Russia. Direct AMS radiocarbon dating of the skull and mandible of the Razboinichya canid conducted in three independent laboratories resulted in highly compatible ages, with average value of ca. 33,000 cal BP. Conclusions/Significance The Razboinichya Cave specimen appears to be an incipient dog that did not give rise to late Glacial – early Holocene lineages and probably represents wolf domestication disrupted by the climatic and cultural changes associated with the LGM. The two earliest incipient dogs from Western Europe (Goyet, Belguim) and Siberia (Razboinichya), separated by thousands of kilometers, show that dog domestication was multiregional, and thus had no single place of origin (as

  20. Russia [Teachers Guide and Student Readings].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Schools, Pittsburgh, PA. Intercultural Understanding Project.

    This teaching unit, one of a series of curriculum guides on different world areas for use at the secondary level, treats the culture and history of Russia, oftentimes comparing it with that of the United States. Major teaching objectives are to have students compare and contrast basic geographic, cultural, and historical information on Russia and…

  1. The SIBERIA dedicated synchrotron radiation source: status report on the storage rings complex at the Kurchatov Institute for Atomic Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemiev, A. N.; Akhmedzhanov, S. M.; Vasilyev, A. A.; Gritsuk, G. M.; Dozorov, A. V.; Doronkin, Yu. V.; Zabelin, A. V.; Klimenko, M. N.; Kotov, S. A.; Krylov, Yu. V.; Lebedev, V. A.; Lipilin, A. V.; Nagornyh, I. M.; Nikulin, O. N.; Odintsov, D. G.; Pashkov, S. D.; Pesterev, S. G.; Prosvetov, V. K.; Rybakov, V. N.; Samorukov, M. M.; Treshchin, V. A.; Ushkov, V. L.; Tsup, A. R.; Chaikin, E. M.; Yupinov, Yu. L.

    1991-10-01

    This paper reviews the status of the SIBERIA storage rings complex. The parameters of the linac, booster synchrotron and main ring are given. The transfer of the SIBERIA-1 storage ring to its new site is described. The main parameters of the engineering systems for the SIBERIA complex are presented. The assembly of the SIBERIA-2 storage ring is planned to be finished in 1991. The SIBERIA storage rings complex has been constructed at the Kurchatov Institute for Atomic Energy (IAE) and is the first dedicated synchrotron radiation source in the USSR. The facility includes the SIBERIA-1 450 MeV electron storage ring, the SIBERIA-2 2.5 GeV electron storage ring, two electron transport lines EOC-1 and EOC-2, and an 80-100 MeV electron linac which serves as the injector. The general layout of SIBERIA is shown in fig. 1. All accelerators of the SIBERIA facility are designed and manufactured at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) at Novosibirsk.

  2. The carbon balance of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolman, Han; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Recapp Russia Synthesis Team

    2013-04-01

    We determine the net land to atmosphere flux of carbon in Russia, including Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan using inventory based, eddy covariance, and inversion methods. Our high boundary estimate is -342 Tg C yr-1 from the eddy covariance method, and this is close to the upper bounds of the inventory based Land Ecosystem Assessment and inverse models estimate. A lower boundary estimate is provided at -1350 Tg C yr-1 from from the inversion models. The average of the three methods is -613.5 Tg C yr-1. The methane emission is estimated separately at 41.4 TgC yr-1. These three methods agree well within their respective error bounds. There is thus good consistency between bottom up and top down methods. The forests of Russia primarily cause the net atmosphere to land flux ( -692 Tg C yr-1 from the LEA) with remarkable little interannual variability. It remains however remarkable that the three methods provide such close estimates (-615, -662, -554 TgCyr-1) for NBP, given the inherent uncertainties in all of the approaches. The lack of recent forest inventories, the few eddy covariance sites and associated uncertainty with upscaling and under sampling of concentrations for the inversions are among the prime causes of the uncertainty. The DGVMs suggest a much lower uptake at -91Tg C yr-1 and we argue that this is caused by a high estimate of heterotrophic respiration compared to other methods.

  3. Russia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... is accentuated, in part, by the long slant path through the atmosphere. The largest plumes are in the lower left and upper right, with some ... however, in that such fires can heat the lower atmosphere layers sufficient to create "bubbles" of hot air. As these bubbles rise, they ...

  4. Influence of logging on the effects of wildfire in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S. V.; McRae, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and affect burning conditions and fuel consumption. We investigated 100 individual sites with different histories of logging and fire on a total of 23 study areas in three different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration in pine and larch forests. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Logged areas in the Angara region had the highest surface and ground fuel loads (up to 135 t ha-1), mainly due to logging debris. This resulted in high carbon emissions where fires occurred on logged sites (up to 41 tC ha-1). The Shushenskoe/Minusinsk and Zabaikal regions are characterized by better slash removal and a smaller amount of carbon emitted to the atmosphere during fires. Illegal logging, which is widespread in the Zabaikal region, resulted in an increase in fire hazard and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads (on average 108 t ha-1) and carbon emissions (18-28 tC ha-1) in the Zabaikal region are on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where trees fell on the ground following the first fire event. Partial logging in the Shushenskoe/Minusinsk region has insufficient impact on stand density, tree mortality, and other forest conditions to substantially increase fire hazard or affect carbon stocks. Repeated fires on logged sites resulted in insufficient tree regeneration and transformation of forest to grasslands. We conclude that negative impacts of fire and logging on air quality, the carbon cycle, and ecosystem

  5. Season - dependent and source-influenced aerosol in Northern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovicheva, Olga; Makshtas, Alexander; Bogorodsky, Peter; Eleftheriadis, Kostantinos; Diapouli, Evangelia; Shonia, Natalia; Uttal, Taneil

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol may serve as a tracer of arctic pollution, allowing a link to climate response if its major characteristics relating to natural and anthropogeneous sources are defined. It has been shown that BC and sulfates are the most important aerosol constituents measured in the Arctic boundary layer; these species demonstrate similar seasonal variations with a peak during winter to early spring and a minimum in summer. Long - time gap in consistent aerosol observations in the Russian Arctic strongly limits the assessment of air pollution and climate impacts. On-line monitoring, sampling, and analyses of atmospheric aerosols were carried out at the Tiksi Hydrometeorological Observatory, Northern Siberia, during one year from September 2014 to 2015. Physico-chemical characterization combining aethalometry, thermo-optical analysis, and analytical chemistry was used in order to identify the seasonal variability of aerosols and to link their composition to possible sources, as well as to characterize the differences in aerosol chemical composition between natural background conditions and BC-pollution episodes. The present study reports the first results from the Tiksi Observatory on season-dependent and source-influenced characteristics of aerosol species, such as carbon fractions (OC, EC), inorganic and organic functionalities of chemical compounds, sulfates, nitrates and other ion components, and elements. In addition, data obtained by individual particles analysis provide insight into micromarkers of combustion sources. Aerosol at the Tiksi Observatory is found to be originated from natural marine, biogenic, and continental sources as well as influenced by local residential activity and regional pollution. Characterization of aerosols during OC and BC-pollution episodes, combined with analysis of the wind direction, atmosphere stability, and air mass trajectories, allows for the identification of the sources which are responsible for the emission of hazardous compounds

  6. A multitracer study of peat profiles from Tunguska, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tositti, L.; Mingozzi, M.; Sandrini, S.; Forlani, L.; Buoso, M. C.; De Poli, M.; Ceccato, D.; Zafiropoulos, D.

    2006-10-01

    Two peat columns from Tunguska (Siberia) were analysed for pollen, spores, charcoal, trace elements and γ-emitters in order to identify the fingerprints of the impact of a still unidentified cosmic body (TCB), which occurred in the summer of 1908, and the level of environmental pollution in a background area of central Siberia. Peat layers were subject to non-destructive γ-ray spectrometry to derive radiochronology by the excess210Pb method. The age-to-depth relationship was crosschecked by using both 1963 horizon of 137Cs associated to maximum global fallout deposition and palynological data profiles. Vertical distributions of trace elements in the peat columns were obtained by PIXE multielemental analysis allowing determination of the levels of environmental contamination in a background region of the Siberian taiga. The association of heavy metals such as Ni, Co and Cu in the profiles suggests the connection of the area with mining and metal smelting activity in the north of the region through atmospheric circulation. As concerns global scale contamination, the inventory of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs (4.6 kBq m - 2 ) shows a value typical of remote slightly contaminated areas resulting from global scale redistribution of radioactive fallout from Cold War nuclear weapon testing. The atmospheric inventory of the natural radionuclide 210Pb, for which a mean annual flux of 200 Bq m - 2 yr - 1 has been calculated, is typical of continental regions. The influence of Tunguska Cosmic Body in the peat is recognizable by a large discontinuity in the palynological profile of the peat monolith at a depth coinciding with the 1908 layer as determined by the 210Pb technique, showing a large peak of total pollen counting attributed to the impact of the shockwave on the area in which huge tree stands were destroyed. Following the event, tree pollen concentration decreases abruptly showing the temporary inception of a mire environment with an increase of Sphagnum spore

  7. The taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) of Russia: distributional and reproductive ranges.

    PubMed

    Uspensky, Igor; Garruto, Ralph M; Goldfarb, Lev

    2003-01-01

    The finding of an unfed adult female of the taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus Schulze is reported from the northern part of Eastern Siberia (the central part of the Sakha Republic [former Yakutia]) of Russia. This finding supplements other reported single findings of the taiga tick in different sites of the central part of the Sakha Republic, thus increasing its distributional range. The reproductive range of the taiga tick is limited to two separate areas in the southern parts of the Republic. The most probable mode of tick introduction northwards from the border of the reproductive range is by spring bird migrations from their wintering areas to breeding sites. The possibility of the establishment of stable tick populations in the areas of introduction is also considered.

  8. Ancient DNA reveals prehistoric gene-flow from siberia in the complex human population history of North East Europe.

    PubMed

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across

  9. Climatically induced interannual variability in aboveground production in forest-tundra and northern taiga of central Siberia.

    PubMed

    Knorre, Anastasia A; Kirdyanov, Alexander V; Vaganov, Eugene A

    2006-02-01

    To investigate the variability of primary production of boreal forest ecosystems under the current climatic changes, we compared the dynamics of annual increments and productivity of the main components of plant community (trees, shrubs, mosses) at three sites in the north of Siberia (Russia). Annual radial growth of trees and shrubs was mostly defined by summer temperature regime (positive correlation), but climatic response of woody plants was species specific and depends on local conditions. Dynamics of annual increments of mosses were opposite to tree growth. The difference in climatic response of the different vegetation components of the forest ecosystems indicates that these components seem to be adapted to use climatic conditions during the short and severe northern summer, and decreasing in annual production of one component is usually combined with the increase of other component productivity. Average productivity in the northern forest ecosystems varies from 0.05 to 0.14 t ha(-1) year(-1) for trees, from 0.05 to 0.18 t ha(-1) year(-1) for shrubs and from 0.54 to 0.66 t ha(-1) year(-1) for mosses. Higher values of tree productivity combined with lower annual moss productivity were found in sites in northern taiga in comparison with forest-tundra. Different tendencies in the productivity of the dominant species from each vegetation level (trees, shrubs, mosses) were indicated for the last 10 years studied (1990-1999): while productivity of mosses is increasing, productivity of trees is decreasing, but there is no obvious trend in the productivity of shrubs. Our results show that in the long term, the main contribution to changes in annual biomass productivity in forest-tundra and northern taiga ecosystems under the predicted climatic changes will be determined by living ground cover.

  10. Ancient DNA Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow from Siberia in the Complex Human Population History of North East Europe

    PubMed Central

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W.; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across

  11. Surveillance of tick-borne encephalitis virus in wild birds and ticks in Tomsk city and its suburbs (Western Siberia).

    PubMed

    Mikryukova, Tamara P; Moskvitina, Nina S; Kononova, Yulia V; Korobitsyn, Igor G; Kartashov, Mikhail Y; Tyuten Kov, Oleg Y; Protopopova, Elena V; Romanenko, Vladimir N; Chausov, Evgeny V; Gashkov, Sergey I; Konovalova, Svetlana N; Moskvitin, Sergey S; Tupota, Natalya L; Sementsova, Alexandra O; Ternovoi, Vladimir A; Loktev, Valery B

    2014-03-01

    To study the role of wild birds in the transmission of tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), we investigated randomly captured wild birds bearing ixodid ticks in a very highly endemic TBE region located in Tomsk city and its suburbs in the south of Western Siberia, Russia. The 779 wild birds representing 60 species were captured carrying a total of 841 ticks, Ixodes pavlovskyi Pom., 1946 (n=531), Ixodes persulcatus P. Sch., 1930 (n=244), and Ixodes plumbeus Leach. 1815 (n=66). The highest average number of ticks per bird in a particular species was found for the fieldfare (Turdus pilaris Linnaeus, 1758) (5.60 ticks/bird) and the tree pipit (Anthus trivialis Linnaeus, 1758) (13.25 ticks/bird). Samples from wild birds and ticks collected in highly endemic periods from 2006 to 2011 were tested for the TBEV markers using monoclonal modified enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and RT-PCR. TBEV RNA and antigen were found in 9.7% and 22.8% samples collected from wild birds, respectively. TBEV markers were also detected in 14.1% I. persulcatus ticks, 5.2% I. pavlovskyi, and 4.2% I. plumbeus ticks collected from wild birds. Two TBEV strains were also isolated on PKE (pig kidney embryo) cells from fieldfare and Blyth's reed warbler (Acrocephalus dumetorum Blyth, 1849). Sequencing of 5'-NCR of TBEV revealed that all TBEV isolates belong to Far Eastern (dominate) and Siberian genotypes. Several phylogenetic subgroups included TBEV sequences novel for the Tomsk region. Our data suggest that wild birds are potential disseminators of TBEV, TBEV-infected ixodid ticks, and possibly other tick-borne infections.

  12. The Influences of Land Surface Properties on Soil Thermal Regimes in the Low Arctic of Northwestern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, H. E.; Frost, G. V., Jr.; Matyshak, G. V.; Walker, D. A.; Meakem, V. M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the feedbacks among climate, permafrost, and vegetation is crucial for assessments of arctic ecosystem vulnerability and response to climate change, and for development of sustainable engineering and management methods associated with infrastructure. Vegetation, snow cover, and near-surface soil organic layers are key determinants in regulating the energy exchange between the atmosphere and the deeper soils. Here we present high-temporal resolution soil thermal regime data over annual time extents for multiple sites at two locations in the Low Arctic of northwestern Siberia. At a location near Nadym, Russia, we measured soil temperatures at various depths in the soil profile (down to 60 cm) at three sites: 1) a boreal forest stand with lichen understory and a shallow organic layer (8 cm), 2) a young, cryoturbated Sphagnum peatland with soil organic layers to 40 cm depth, and 3) an old Sphagnum peatland with deep organic soil horizons (58+ cm). At a location near Kharp, Russia, we measured soil temperatures at 5 and 20 cm depth for sites along a chronosequence of tall alder shrub expansion, from short-statured tundra to mature and old alder stands, with deeper organic layers. The deeper snow accumulation at the Nadym forest site kept winter soil temperatures dramatically warmer than the peatland soils, up to 8 °C difference, but the shading of the forest tended to cool the surface during the summer. The overall effect of the forest was cooler summer soils in the near-surface layers, yet warmer summer soils at the deeper layers (20-60 cm). The forest location had substantially greater thawing degree days at depth (20-60 cm), compared to the Sphagnum peatlands. At the Kharp site, mature alder shrub stands cooled summer soil temperatures relative to shorter tundra by up to 8 °C (at 20 cm depth), yet warmed winter soils by greater than 10 °C. Mature and old shrubland locations had reduced thawing degree days at 20 cm depth relative to short

  13. The history of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Ragozin, Boris Vladimirovich

    2016-01-01

    Ayurveda is one of the world's oldest medical sciences, with a history that goes back more than 5,000 years. The knowledge of Ayurveda has at various times had an impact on a number of branches of medicine: From ancient Greek medicine in the West to the Chinese and Tibetan in the East. Ayurveda continues to retain its prominent position in our modern world, being officially recognised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and enjoying great popularity in the US, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. In India, Ayurveda is recognised by conventional medicine on a par with modern medical science. In the Soviet Union a strong interest in Ayurveda arose for the first time after the Chernobyl disaster, and since then Ayurveda has been actively developing in Russia. In this article we present the chronology of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia since 1989, explore academic literature on the subject available in Russian and review the existing Ayurvedic products and services offered on the Russian market. PMID:27143798

  14. The history of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Ragozin, Boris Vladimirovich

    2016-01-01

    Ayurveda is one of the world's oldest medical sciences, with a history that goes back more than 5,000 years. The knowledge of Ayurveda has at various times had an impact on a number of branches of medicine: From ancient Greek medicine in the West to the Chinese and Tibetan in the East. Ayurveda continues to retain its prominent position in our modern world, being officially recognised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and enjoying great popularity in the US, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. In India, Ayurveda is recognised by conventional medicine on a par with modern medical science. In the Soviet Union a strong interest in Ayurveda arose for the first time after the Chernobyl disaster, and since then Ayurveda has been actively developing in Russia. In this article we present the chronology of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia since 1989, explore academic literature on the subject available in Russian and review the existing Ayurvedic products and services offered on the Russian market. PMID:27143798

  15. The history of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia.

    PubMed

    Ragozin, Boris Vladimirovich

    2016-01-01

    Ayurveda is one of the world's oldest medical sciences, with a history that goes back more than 5,000 years. The knowledge of Ayurveda has at various times had an impact on a number of branches of medicine: From ancient Greek medicine in the West to the Chinese and Tibetan in the East. Ayurveda continues to retain its prominent position in our modern world, being officially recognised by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and enjoying great popularity in the US, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands. In India, Ayurveda is recognised by conventional medicine on a par with modern medical science. In the Soviet Union a strong interest in Ayurveda arose for the first time after the Chernobyl disaster, and since then Ayurveda has been actively developing in Russia. In this article we present the chronology of the development of Ayurvedic medicine in Russia since 1989, explore academic literature on the subject available in Russian and review the existing Ayurvedic products and services offered on the Russian market.

  16. Arctic East Siberia had a lower latitude in the Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Woelfli, Willy; Baltensperger, Walter

    2007-06-01

    Remains of mammoths in Arctic East Siberia, where there is not sufficient sunlight over the year for the growth of the plants on which these animals feed, indicate that the latitude of this region was lower before the end of the Pleistocene than now. Reconstructing this geographic pole shift, we introduce a massive object, which moved in an extremely eccentric orbit and was hot from tidal work and solar radiation. Evaporation produced a disk-shaped cloud of ions around the Sun. This cloud partially shielded the solar radiation, producing the cold and warm periods characterizing the Pleistocene. The shielding depends on the inclination of Earth's orbit, which has a period of 100,000 years. The cloud builds up to a point where inelastic particle collisions induce its collapse The resulting near-periodic time dependence resembles that of Dansgaard-Oeschger events. The Pleistocene ended when the massive object had a close encounter with the Earth, which suffered a one per mil extensional deformation. While the deformation relaxed to an equilibrium shape in one to several years, the globe turned relative to the rotation axis: The North Pole moved from Greenland to the Arctic Sea. The massive object split into fragments, which evaporated. PMID:17625673

  17. Magnetofossils in the sediment of Lake Baikal, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, J. A.; King, J. W.

    1996-05-01

    A multidisciplinary approach involving rock-magnetics, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction was used to identify a biogenic magnetite component in the Lake Baikal, Siberia, sedimentary magnetic record. The distinctive biogenic component to the magnetic record occurs as chains of single-domain, elongate hexagonal and tear-drop cone-shaped magnetite particles. These magnetofossils are inferred to be magnetosomes produced by magnetotactic bacteria living in the surficial sediment throughout Lake Baikal. Postdepositional reduction diagenesis results in the loss of the fine-grained magnetofossils at depth. In addition, this study shows that the fine-grained magnetofossils are removed by the process of storage diagenesis during long periods (21 months) of core storage, which results in a change to a coarser grained, slightly higher coercivity bulk magnetic mineral assemblage. Although the Lake Baikal sedimentary magnetic record has several distinct and complex components, by determining their origin this study has shown that the sediments are well suited for environmental magnetic study.

  18. Time scaling of tree rings cell production in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popkova, Margarita; Babushkina, Elena; Tychkov, Ivan; Shishov, Vladimir; Vaganov, Eugene

    2016-04-01

    It is assumed that an annual tree-ring growth is adequately determined by a linear function of local or regional precipitation and temperature with a set of coefficients that are temporally invariant. But often that relations are non-linear. The process-based tree-ring VS-model can be used to resolve the critical processes linking climate variables to tree-ring formation. This work describes a new block of VS-model which allows to estimate a cell production in tree rings and transfer it into time scale based on the simulated integral growth rates of the model. In the algorithm of time identification for cell production we used a integral growth rates simulated by the VS-model for each growing season. The obtained detailed approach with a calculation of the time of each cell formation improves significantly the date accuracy of new cell formation in growing season. As a result for each cell in the tree-ring we estimate the temporal moment of the cell production corresponded to the seasonal growth rate in the same time scale. The approach was applied and tested for the cell measurements obtained for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) for the period 1964-2013 in Malaya Minusa river (Khakassia, South Siberia). The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (RSF # 14-14-00219)

  19. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  20. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, G.C.

    1998-12-01

    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  1. [Priest-doctors in Russia].

    PubMed

    Berlan, Hélène; Triaire, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Jean Pierre Frank offers in the early nineteenth century a revolution in medical Russian Empire. Indeed, Russia is in an emergency situation where the lack of practitioners is obvious. The imperial project is inspired by past practices in some European countries. Frank fits these transfers and implements a unique model where the priest-doctor stands out as the solution to overcome the lack of medicalization of the Empire. Even if the attempt was a failure, it remains that the proposals were part of Frank in both an ancient tradition that priests and physicians providing care for souls and bodies, but also showed that called his wishes the advent of "public health" in this country disinherited. PMID:23923338

  2. Fires in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Numerous thermal anomalies were detected on the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia in late June and early July by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Some of the anomalies (red dots) were fires, but at least one was the result of ongoing volcanic activity at one of the Peninsula's numerous active volcanoes. The erupting volcano, called Sheveluch, can be seen most clearly in the image from July 8, 2002. It is located in the upper right quadrant of the image, and appears as a grayish circular patch amid the surrounding green vegetation. In its center is a red dot indicating that MODIS detected a thermal signature coming from the restless volcano. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  3. [The demographic potential of Russia].

    PubMed

    Vishnevskii, A

    1998-05-01

    This is a general review of current demographic trends in Russia. The author analyzes the decline in population size that is taking place at the end of the twentieth century, and traces its origins as far back as the disturbances associated with World War I, the Communist revolution, and the civil war that followed it. Political repression during the Stalinist period and the tribulations experienced during World War II also contributed to the current demographic crisis. The author discusses the changes in migration patterns and the declining fertility and increasing mortality rates. The decline in life expectancy is also addressed. Some comparisons are made with the demographic situation in other European countries. PMID:12322045

  4. Horizons West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitses, Jim

    The western is the most popular and enduring of Hollywood forms. It is one embodiment of a traditional theme in American culture: the West as both Garden of natural dignity and innocence and also as treacherous Desert resisting the gradual sweep of agrarian progress and community values. Westerns have in common: a) history, America's past; b)…

  5. Russia's energy policy: A framing comment

    SciTech Connect

    Aslund, A.

    2006-05-15

    A prominent specialist on the Russian economy provides a framing comment on two preceding papers entitled 'Russia's Energy Policy' (by Vladimir Milov, Leonard Coburn, and Igor Danchenko) and 'Russia's Energy Policy: A Divergent View' (by Matthew J. Sagers). The author argues that Russia's current energy policy should be viewed as an outcome of competition between three overlapping programs. In this context, he identifies three policy models - the old Soviet, the liberal or oligarchic, and the most recent state capitalist. The latter is currently supported by President Putin, who prioritizes diversification of the country's economy at the expense of diminished investments in the oil and gas sector.

  6. Methane emissions from the West Siberian wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, S.; Glagolev, M.; Kleptsova, I.; Sabrekov, A.; Peregon, A.; Machida, T.

    2010-12-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas contributing as much as 20% of the anthropogenic radiative forcing in the contemporary atmosphere. Therefore estimation of the relative contribution of different methane sources to the atmosphere is a crucial task in addressing the problem of global warming. Mires are the main natural source of methane. West Siberia gains the especial importance in this respect as one of the most paludified region in the world with the mire area of 68.5 Mha or 27% of this region area. Since the previously published estimations of the regional flux varied widely from 2 to 22 MtCH4y-1, long-term and large-scale investigations of CH4 emission were organized in this study. More than 1500 methane flux measurements were made during the summer-autumn of 2007-2010. All variety of wetland types was reduced to 8 microlandscape types: palsas, ryams (dwarf pine-shrub-sphagnum communities), ridges, eutrophic, mesotrophic and oligotrophic hollows, peat mats and wetland ponds. Mire micro-landscapes of 30 key sites distributed in 7 zones (tundra, forest-tundra, north, middle and south taiga, sub-taiga and forest-steppe) of West Siberia were observed. Methane fluxes were measured by the static chamber method. Emission data were generalized into spatial emission model. The model is based upon a fractional area coverage map of mire micro-landscapes, methane emission periods for each zone and methane flux probability density distributions for each microlandscape type in these zones. The methane emission map with the resolution 0.5°×0.5° was created. It was confirmed that palsas, ryams and ridges had the lowest methane fluxes (1st/2nd/3rd quartiles are -0.04/0/0.04 mgCH4m-2h-1 for palsas, 0/0.04/0.28 mgCH4m-2h-1 for ryams, 0/0.09/0.37 mgCH4m-2h-1 for ridges) while the peat mats, poor fens and fens had the highest fluxes (2.74/4.65/6.11 mgCH4m-2h-1 for peat mats, 1.15/3.35/6.21 mgCH4m-2h-1 for fens combined with poor fens). Highest methane fluxes, reaching

  7. A carbon accumulation maximum during the Medieval Climate Anomaly in the world’s biggest bog, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beilman, D.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    The West Siberia Lowland is the most carbon-rich northern wetland region, holding an important portion of total northern peatland carbon (70 Gt of 270-450 Gt C) mainly in the southern lowland (44 Gt) in very large peatlands. The largest of these, the Great Vasyugan Bog complex, spans 63,252 km2 and alone holds ~11 Gt C. Our previous work has shown that recent-past growth of WSL peat C pool has been greatest in southern WSL in large peatlands close to the southern limit of peatland distribution. In this study, we investigate a Great Vasyugan site to investigate peat carbon sensitivity in two ways: 1) assess past changes in vegetation, species-specific 13C geochemistry, and rate of carbon accumulation relative to recent-past climate variation, and 2) assess the relative lability of this deep peat C through laboratory incubations. Carbon accumulation over the last 2000 years, a period of relatively consistent vegetation and litter inputs but variable local hydrology, reached a maximum between 1150 and 1350 AD during Medieval Climate Anomaly conditions. A carbon accumulation minimum occurred between about 1350 and 1550 AD. Regardless of depth, age, or rate of carbon burial, deep peat from between 30 and 230 cm below the surface showed a similar rate of potential aerobic respiration that changed little over 42 days of incubation. Taken together, these data suggest that in some peatlanlds warmer and hydrologically-variable conditions can promote long-term belowground carbon storage.

  8. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Cole, C.R.

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin`s moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers.

  9. New Holocene refugia of giant deer (Megaloceros giganteus Blum.) in Siberia: updated extinction patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Plicht, J.; Molodin, V. I.; Kuzmin, Y. V.; Vasiliev, S. K.; Postnov, A. V.; Slavinsky, V. S.

    2015-04-01

    We obtained new data on the existence of giant deer (Megaloceros giganteus Blum.) in Siberia during the Holocene. Bones and antler of giant deer from new localities in western (Baraba forest steppe) and eastern (Angara River basin) Siberia are dated by radiocarbon, ranging 7900-10,300 BP (ca 8800-12,200 cal BP). Based on these data, we can extend the 'Siberian' Early Holocene habitat of giant deer at least 2400 km to the east compared to previous works. The final extinction of giant deer turned out to be more complex than it was previously thought, with perhaps relatively large refugium in Western Siberia at 7900-7000 BP (ca 8800-7900 cal BP) which was reduced to the Trans-Urals region at 7000-6800 BP (ca 7900-7600 cal BP).

  10. Main results obtained by the Siberia Regional Project of GAME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohata, T.; Fukushima, Y.

    2002-12-01

    GAME(GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment) selected one of their field experiment site in Siberia. Importance of this area was, first, its large area on Eurasia, second, potential effect of fresh water supply to the Arctic Ocean, thirdly, this region is one center of the recent intense warming. In order to progress the study, we set up the following objectives. 1) Clarify the physical processes of the land-surface/atmosphere interacting system. 2) Clarify the characteristics and variability of regional energy/water cycle. 3) Obtain the climate trend and land-surface change during the past 50 years. 4) Improve and develop atmospheric and hydrological models 5) Collection and archive of regional ground based/satellite data. 6) Establishment of observational network for long-term variation study, and development of hardware. The 1st phase of the study was 1996-2001, and from 2002 to 2004, 2nd phase emphasizing on integration is continued. Among the drainage in Siberia, Lena River was selected and following main results were obtained. (1) Land surface processes at three local sites: Heat water exchange study was made at three sites (Tundra: Tiksi, Flat taiga:Yakutsk, Mountaineous taiga:Tynda) for multiple years. They all showed strong influence of frozen ground (permafrost) to the heat/ water balance at patch scale. Snow cover had strong influence to hydrological process at Tundra and Mountaineous taiga, but it was masked at Flat Taiga. In Flat taiga, rhythm of heat flux to atmosphere is regulated strongly by foliation of leaves. Grassland (called alas) in comparison with nearby forest show different seasonal progress of fluxes, higher evaporation and low sensible heat at small young alas, and lower evaporation at vastly cultivated alas. Inter-annual variation of evaporation seem to be small in the Flat taiga forest compared with Tundra, although soil moisture show strong inter-annual variability, mainly due to the result of active function of the trees. In dry years trees

  11. Agrolandscape Research of Geosystems in the South of Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysanova, G.; Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Minusinskaya basin, the area under research, is situated in the south of Central Siberia and is an agrarian region, which differs from another territories of Siberia. The territory provides for foodstuff not only its population but another regions as well. Nature-climate conditions favour the development of agriculture and cattle-breeding. Complex geographical study of rural lands, which is implemented by two approaches: a natural and industrial system block is necessary for rational use of agrolandscapes. Agrolandscapes are objects for rationalization of land management in agricultural regions. From our point of view application of a landscape map as a base for working out of agrolandscape map (Fig. 1a) and a map of agronatural potential of geosystems (Fig. 2), gives an opportunity to take stock of reserves of agricultural lands not only in quantitative but qualitative respects and also to determine the ways of optimal transformation of arable lands depending on nature conditions of regions and their development. Landscape maps that reflect differentiation of not only natural formations, changed by anthropogenious influence and also natural analogues, concern to a number of important tools of planning for optimal land use. The main principles of working out of typological landscape map of a medium scale aroused from targets and tasks of agrolandscape estimation of the territory [1]. The landscape map was worked out according to V.A. Nikolaev's methodology [2]: types of landscapes correlated with types of lands use, composition of cereals in rotation of crops, agro-techniques, crop capacity, climate indices, etc. Existing natural-agricultural systems are shown in the map. Their characteristics includes information about natural and agricultural blocks. Agronatural potential had been calculated by summarize estimations of its component parts. As a result of these calculations 30 arable agrolandscapes, marked out into the landscape map, were joined according to summ

  12. Vegetation Structure Changes in the South Part of Western Siberia at the End of XX Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyukarev, E.; Pologova, N. N.; Golovatskaya, E. A.; Dyukarev, A. G.; Gordov, E. P.; Okladnikov, I. G.; Titov, A. G.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding human impact on changes in vegetation composition and structure can be performed using analysis of space images obtained from high resolution satellite sensors. Natural ecosystems at the South and Sob-Taiga zone of Western Siberia are characterized by development of an early succession stages, given the projected increase in disturbance, or will be converted into human-dominated terrestrial production systems. Disturbances appear to be increasing in some regions, leading to fragmentation of natural ecosystems and to a generally "weedier," structurally simpler biosphere with fewer systems in a more ecologically complex old-growth state. The analysis of structure of vegetation cover at two test sites located at the south-west part of the West-Siberian Plain in the South and Sub-Taiga zone was made using LANDSAT space images and ground data obtained in various seasons and years. The studied area of the first test site (“Bakchar”) is occupied by bogs, paludificated forests and cultivated lands. Test site “Tomsk” covered by cultivated lands and dark coniferous forest complexes. Vegetation classification was made using NELDA project legend (www.fsl.orst.edu/nelda). The main part of Site “Bakchar” is occupied by tree dominated classes (66%). Wetlands occupy about 43% of the area. Part of herbaceous vegetation is rather low (9%). Site “Tomsk” has completely different structure of classes. More than one-half of the area (52%) is covered by cultivated lands. Forests occupy 42% of the area. Wetlands (9%) exist in the Ob’-Tom’ interfluve and left bank of the Ob’ river. During the XX century the vegetation cover was exposed to natural and anthropogenic changes. Comparison of space images from different years (1990, 1999 and 2007) allowed to reveal dynamics in vegetation cover. Decrease of forest area in 1990-1999 at site “Bakchar” are primary occurs due to intense forest cutting for timber industry and local use. A strong wind have

  13. The Social Position of Schoolteachers in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Il'in, V. A.; Shabunova, A. A.; Leonidova, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the teaching profession in Russia shows that teachers are characterized by low pay and low prestige. There is an urgent need to change this situation if the modernization and innovative development of Russian society are to be achieved.

  14. Public health nursing education in Russia.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, L Louise; Paganpegara, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990 brought many changes to Russia, including changes in nursing education. However, the changes did not include content in public health nursing. Most health care in Russia is provided at the tertiary level in hospitals. Health promotion and health education are new concepts in Russia and are not well understood. When health education does occur, it is at the individual level, taught by physicians, and in response to new diagnoses. Health promotion at the primary level and with aggregates is not often practiced. Russia currently is in a demographic crisis where health indicators continue to decline. Russian nurses trained in public health principles, such as health promotion, health education, and providing primary and secondary prevention services at the population and aggregate level, can positively affect the current demographic crisis.

  15. Enzyme activities along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J.; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Knoltsch, Anna; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Takriti, Mounir; Richter, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and thus carbon and nutrient cycling in soils is mediated by the activity of extracellular enzymes. The specific activities of these enzymes and their ratios to each other represent the link between the composition of soil organic matter and the nutrient demand of the microbial community. Depending on the difference between microbial nutrient demand and substrate availability, extracellular enzymes can enhance or slow down different nutrient cycles in the soil. We investigated activities of six extracellular enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, leucine-amino-peptidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitotriosidase, phosphatase and phenoloxidase) in the topsoil organic horizon, topsoil mineral horizon and subsoil horizon in seven ecosystems along a 1,500 km-long North-South transect in Western Siberia. The transect included sites in the southern tundra, northern taiga, middle taiga, southern taiga, forest-steppe (in forested patches as well as in adjacent meadows) and Steppe. We found that enzyme patterns varied stronger with soil depth than between ecosystems. Differences between horizons were mainly based on the increasing ratio of oxidative enzymes to hydrolytic enzymes. Differences between sites were more pronounced in topsoil than in subsoil mineral horizons, but did not reflect the north-south transect and the related gradients in temperature and precipitation. The observed differences between sites in topsoil horizons might therefore result from differences in vegetation rather than climatic factors. The decreasing variability in the enzyme pattern with depth might also indicate that the composition of soil organic matter becomes more similar with soil depth, most likely by an increasing proportion of microbial remains compared to plant derived constituents of SOM. This also indicates, that SOM becomes less divers the more it is processed by soil microorganisms. Our findings highlight the importance of soil depth on enzyme

  16. Nitrogen dynamics in Turbic Cryosols from Siberia and Greenland.

    PubMed

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Bárta, Jiří; Capek, Petr; Guggenberger, Georg; Hofhansl, Florian; Kaiser, Christina; Lashchinsky, Nikolaj; Mikutta, Robert; Mooshammer, Maria; Santrůčková, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Zimov, Sergey A; Richter, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Turbic Cryosols (permafrost soils characterized by cryoturbation, i.e., by mixing of soil layers due to freezing and thawing) are widespread across the Arctic, and contain large amounts of poorly decomposed organic material buried in the subsoil. This cryoturbated organic matter exhibits retarded decomposition compared to organic material in the topsoil. Since soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is known to be tightly linked to N availability, we investigated N transformation rates in different soil horizons of three tundra sites in north-eastern Siberia and Greenland. We measured gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization (ammonification) and nitrification, as well as microbial uptake of amino acids and NH4 (+) using an array of (15)N pool dilution approaches. We found that all sites and horizons were characterized by low N availability, as indicated by low N mineralization compared to protein depolymerization rates (with gross N mineralization accounting on average for 14% of gross protein depolymerization). The proportion of organic N mineralized was significantly higher at the Greenland than at the Siberian sites, suggesting differences in N limitation. The proportion of organic N mineralized, however, did not differ significantly between soil horizons, pointing to a similar N demand of the microbial community of each horizon. In contrast, absolute N transformation rates were significantly lower in cryoturbated than in organic horizons, with cryoturbated horizons reaching not more than 32% of the transformation rates in organic horizons. Our results thus indicate a deceleration of the entire N cycle in cryoturbated soil horizons, especially strongly reduced rates of protein depolymerization (16% of organic horizons) which is considered the rate-limiting step in soil N cycling. PMID:24302785

  17. An ordinary chondrite impactor for the Popigai crater, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagle, Roald; Claeys, Philippe

    2005-06-01

    With a diameter of ˜100 km, Popigai in Northern Siberia is the largest crater known in the Cenozoic. The concentrations in platinum group elements (PGE) were analyzed in twenty samples of homogeneous impact melt collected in the northwestern flank of the crater to identify the composition of the projectile. The method selected was preconcentration by NiS fire assay followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This technique measures all the PGE (except Os) and by using aliquots >10g, the results are highly reproducible. The major and trace element composition of the impact melt resembles that of gneissic lithologies of the Anabar shield, which are representative of the target rock. The PGE are enriched in the melt by factors of 3 to 14 compared to the main target lithology, but the meteoritic contamination is only around 0.2 wt.%. Using plots of elemental ratios such as Ru/Rh vs. Pt/Pd or Ru/Rh vs. Pd/Ir, the Popigai impactor is clearly identified as an ordinary chondrite and most likely L-chondrite. This study indicates that PGE elemental ratios allow discrimination of the type of impactor, even in the case of low meteoritic contamination. This study confirms that a significant fraction of the crater-forming projectiles presently documented could have an ordinary chondrite composition. Their probable source, the S-type asteroids, appears to form the majority of the bodies in the main asteroid belt and among Near Earth Objects (NEOs). The ordinary chondrite origin of the Popigai projectile supports an asteroidal origin for the late Eocene impacts as a plausible alternative to the comet shower scenario proposed by Farley et al. (1998).

  18. Parameterization of tree-ring growth in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychkov, Ivan; Popkova, Margarita; Shishov, Vladimir; Vaganov, Eugene

    2016-04-01

    No doubt, climate-tree growth relationship is an one of the useful and interesting subject of studying in dendrochronology. It provides an information of tree growth dependency on climatic environment, but also, gives information about growth conditions and whole tree-ring growth process for long-term periods. New parameterization approach of the Vaganov-Shashkin process-based model (VS-model) is developed to described critical process linking climate variables with tree-ring formation. The approach (co-called VS-Oscilloscope) is presented as a computer software with graphical interface. As most process-based tree-ring models, VS-model's initial purpose is to describe variability of tree-ring radial growth due to variability of climatic factors, but also to determinate principal factors limiting tree-ring growth. The principal factors affecting on the growth rate of cambial cells in the VS-model are temperature, day light and soil moisture. Detailed testing of VS-Oscilloscope was done for semi-arid area of southern Siberia (Khakassian region). Significant correlations between initial tree-ring chronologies and simulated tree-ring growth curves were obtained. Direct natural observations confirm obtained simulation results including unique growth characteristic for semi-arid habitats. New results concerning formation of wide and narrow rings under different climate conditions are considered. By itself the new parameterization approach (VS-oscilloscope) is an useful instrument for better understanding of various processes in tree-ring formation. The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (RSF # 14-14-00219).

  19. Nitrogen dynamics in Turbic Cryosols from Siberia and Greenland☆

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Bárta, Jiří; Čapek, Petr; Guggenberger, Georg; Hofhansl, Florian; Kaiser, Christina; Lashchinsky, Nikolaj; Mikutta, Robert; Mooshammer, Maria; Šantrůčková, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Zimov, Sergey A.; Richter, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Turbic Cryosols (permafrost soils characterized by cryoturbation, i.e., by mixing of soil layers due to freezing and thawing) are widespread across the Arctic, and contain large amounts of poorly decomposed organic material buried in the subsoil. This cryoturbated organic matter exhibits retarded decomposition compared to organic material in the topsoil. Since soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is known to be tightly linked to N availability, we investigated N transformation rates in different soil horizons of three tundra sites in north-eastern Siberia and Greenland. We measured gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization (ammonification) and nitrification, as well as microbial uptake of amino acids and NH4+ using an array of 15N pool dilution approaches. We found that all sites and horizons were characterized by low N availability, as indicated by low N mineralization compared to protein depolymerization rates (with gross N mineralization accounting on average for 14% of gross protein depolymerization). The proportion of organic N mineralized was significantly higher at the Greenland than at the Siberian sites, suggesting differences in N limitation. The proportion of organic N mineralized, however, did not differ significantly between soil horizons, pointing to a similar N demand of the microbial community of each horizon. In contrast, absolute N transformation rates were significantly lower in cryoturbated than in organic horizons, with cryoturbated horizons reaching not more than 32% of the transformation rates in organic horizons. Our results thus indicate a deceleration of the entire N cycle in cryoturbated soil horizons, especially strongly reduced rates of protein depolymerization (16% of organic horizons) which is considered the rate-limiting step in soil N cycling. PMID:24302785

  20. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  1. Ground and aircraft-based methane measurements in Siberia: source attribution using tracers and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzoumanian, E.; Paris, J. D.; Pruvost, A.; Peng, S.; Turquety, S.; Berchet, A.; Pison, I.; Helle, J.; Arshinov, M.; Belan, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. It is also naturally emitted by a number of processes, including microbial activity in wetlands, permafrost degradation and wildfires. Our current understanding of the extent and amplitude of its natural sources, as well as the large scale driving factors, remain highly uncertain (Kirschke et al., Nature Geosci., 2013). Furthermore, high latitude regions are large natural sources of CH4 in the atmosphere. Observing boreal/Arctic CH4 variability and understanding its main driving processes using atmospheric measurements and transport model is the task of this work. YAK-AEROSIB atmospheric airborne campaigns (flights in the tropospheric layer up to 9 km connecting the two cities of Novosibirsk and Yakutsk) and continuous measurements at Fonovaya Observatory (60 km west of Tomsk - 56° 25'07"N, 84° 04'27"E) have been performed in order to provide observational data on the composition of Siberian air. The study is focused on 2012, during which a strong heat wave impacted Siberia, leading to the highest mean daily temperature values on record since the beginning of the 20th century. This abnormal drought has led to numerous large forest fires. A chemistry-transport model (CHIMERE), combined with datasets for anthropogenic (EDGAR) emissions and models for wetlands (ORCHIDEE) and wildfires (APIFLAME), is used to determine contributions of CH4 sources in the region. Recent results concerning CH4 fluxes and its atmospheric variability in the Siberian territory derived from a modeled-based analysis will be shown and discussed. This work was funded by CNRS (France), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CEA (France), Presidium of RAS (Program No. 4), Brunch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5), Interdisciplinary integration projects of Siberian Branch of RAS (No. 35, No. 70, No. 131), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No 14-05-00526, 14-05-00590). Kirschke, S

  2. [Polyploid races of earthworms (Lumbricidae, Oligochaeta) in the East European plain and Siberia].

    PubMed

    Vsevolodova-Perel', T S; Bulatova, N Sh

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of polyploid races of earthworms in the East European plain and Siberia was analyzed. Amphimictic autopolyploid races of two species of the Asian genus Eisenia, E. nordenskioldi and A. atlavinyteae, are widespread in Siberia, from its southern boundary to the arctic region, while polyploid Lumbricidae in the East-European plain, except for the Volga region, are represented mainly by parthenogenetic forms of other genera. This is presumably related to differences in the Pleistocene environmental history between the two adjacent geographic regions of Eurasia.

  3. Agroclimatic potential in central Siberia in an altered 21st century climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A.; Tchebakova, N.; Parfenova, E.; Lysanova, G.

    2012-04-01

    The largest temperature increases are currently found in Northern Hemishpere upper latitudes, and this is where temperature increases from climate change are predicted to be the greatest in the future. Alteration of boreal and Arctic landscapes is already apparent, particularly in Siberia. In this work, we will explore the current spatial and temporal patterns of agriculture potential in Siberia and then investigate potential future agriculture dynamics. Humans have traditionally cultivated steppe and forest-steppe on fertile soils for agriculture. It is predicted that forests will move northwards in a warmer climate and be replaced by forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems. Climate change impacts on agriculture in south-central Siberia are analyzed based on the hypothesis that agriculture in traditionally cold Siberia may benefit from warming. Simple models are used to determine crop range and regression models are constructed to determine crop yield, and these are applied to climate change scenarios for various time frames: pre-1960, 1960-1990, 1990-2010 using historic data and for 2020 and 2080 using HadCM3 B1 and A2 projections. From 50 to 85% of central Siberia is predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture by the end of the century, and only soil potential would limit crop advance and expansion to the north. Crop production could increase twofold. Future climatic resources in Siberia would provide potential growth for a variety of crops that previously did not exist on these lands. Traditional Siberian crops could gradually shift as far as 500 km northwards (about 50-70 km per decade) within suitable soil conditions, and new crops, nonexistent today, may be introduced in the dry south that would necessitate irrigation. Agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming but would also result in different feedbacks to the atmosphere and climate systems, in terms of an altered landscape albedo, substantially modified hydrological

  4. The joint Russia-US-Sweden studies in the East-Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) during the last decade (1999-2009): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, Valentin; Shakhova, Natalia; Dudarev, Oleg; Gustafsson, Orjan; Anderson, Leif; Semiletov, Igor

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic Ocean is surrounded by permafrost, which is being degraded at an increasing rate under conditions of warming which are most pronounced in Siberia and Alaska . A major constraint on our ability to understand linkages between the Arctic Ocean and the global climate system is the scarcity of observational data in the Siberian Arctic marginal seas where major fresh water input and terrestrial CNP fluxes exist. The East-Siberian Sea has never been investigated by modern techniques despite the progress that has been made in new technologies useful for measuring ocean characteristics of interest. In this multi-year international project which joins scientists from 3 nations (Russia-USA-Sweden), and in cooperation with scientists from other countries (UK, Netherlands) we focus on he ESAS which is poorly explored areas located west from the U.S.-Russia boundary. In this report we overview the main field activities and present some results obtained during the last decade (1999-2009). Siberian freshwater discharge to the Arctic Ocean is expected to increase with increasing temperatures, potentially resulting in greater river export of old terrigenous organic carbon to the ocean. We suggest that rivers integrate variability in the components of the hydrometeorological regime, including soil condition, permafrost seasonal thaw, and thermokarst development, all the variables that determine atmospheric and ground water supply for the rivers and chemical weathering in their watershed.. It has been found that 1) carbon dioxide and methane fluxes are significant (and non-counted) components of the carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean; 2) transport of eroded terrestrial material plays a major role in the accumulation of carbon in the ESAS (Dudarev et al., Gustafsson et al., Vonk et al., Sanchez-Garcia et al., Charkin et al., Semiletov et al., this session) ; 3) the seabed is a major CH4 source over the ESAS (N.Shakhova et al., this session); 3) eroded carbon is biodegradable

  5. Trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) associated with urban development in arctic and subarctic Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outten, S.; Miles, V.; Ezau, I.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in the high Arctic have been reliably documented, with widespread "greening" (increase in NDVI), specifically along the northern rim of Eurasia and Alaska. Whereas in West Siberia south of 65N, widespread "browning" (decrease in NDVI) has been noted, although the causes remain largely unclear. In this study we report results of statistical analysis of the spatial and temporal changes in NDVI around 28 major urban areas in the arctic and subarctic Western Siberia. Exploration and exploitation of oil and gas reserves has led to rapid industrialization and urban development in the region. This development has significant impact on the environment and particularly in the vegetation cover in and around the urbanized areas. The analysis is based on 15 years (2000-2014) of high-resolution (250 m) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data acquired for summer months (June through August) over the entire arctic and subarctic Western Siberian region. The analysis shows that the NDVI background trends are generally in agreement with the trends reported in previous coarse-resolution NDVI studies. Our study reveals greening over the arctic (tundra and tundra-forest) part of the region. Simultaneously, the southern (boreal taiga forest) part is browning, with the more densely vegetation areas or areas with highest NDVI, particularly along Ob River showing strong negative trend. The unexpected and interesting finding of the study is statistically robust indication of the accelerated increase of NDVI ("greening") in the older urban areas. Many Siberian cities become greener even against the decrease in the NDVI background. Moreover, interannual variations of urban NDVI are not coherent with the NDVI background variability. We also find that in tundra zones, NDVI values are higher in a 5-10 km buffer zone around the city edge than in rural areas (40 km distance from the city edge), and in taiga in a 5-10 km

  6. Eruption of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001 ASTER captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 8028'. The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25 km ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964. Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and the Far East, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in

  7. Abortion and infertility in Russia.

    PubMed

    Kulakov, V I

    1995-03-01

    The exceptionally high rate of induced abortion in Russia (204/100 live births in 1991) and of abortion-related genital tract infection and infertility implies an urgent need for both the prevention of unwanted pregnancy and less invasive abortion techniques. Vacuum aspiration is gradually replacing curettage as the abortion method of choice for first-trimester abortions, and research is being conducted on pharmacologic abortion involving prostaglandins in combination with RU-486. Infertility, which affects 10-15% of married Russian couples, accounts for 50% of visits to the largest gynecologic hospitals. 92% of women and 49% of men in couples with impaired fertility exhibit pathology of the reproductive system, primarily prior inflammatory morbidity of the genitalia. The use of surgery to correct these impairments is largely unsuccessful, especially when there has been prior treatment with the hydroturbation method. The Federal Family Planning Program for 1993-97 reflects increased awareness of the problem; among its goals are the creation of state and social structures for a family planning service, mass media campaigns, the preparation of educational materials on the avoidance of unwanted pregnancy, and staff training in sex education and family planning.

  8. Integrated Paleomagnetism and U-Pb Geochronology of Mafic Dikes of the Eastern Anabar Shield Region, Siberia: Implications for Mesoproterozoic Paleolatitude of Siberia and Comparison with Laurentia.

    PubMed

    Ernst; Buchan; Hamilton; Okrugin; Tomshin

    2000-07-01

    This article reports the first joint paleomagnetic and U-Pb geochronologic study of Precambrian diabase dikes in the Anabar Shield and adjacent Riphean cover of Siberia. It was undertaken to allow comparison with similar published studies in Laurentia and to test Proterozoic reconstructions of Siberia and Laurentia. An east-trending Kuonamka dike yielded a provisional U-Pb baddeleyite emplacement age of 1503+/-5 Ma and a virtual geomagnetic pole at 16 degrees S, 221 degrees E (dm=17&j0;, dp=10&j0;). A paleomagnetic pole at 6 degrees N, 234 degrees E (dm=28&j0;, dp=14&j0;) was obtained from five Kuonamka dikes. An east-southeast-trending Chieress dike yielded a U-Pb baddeleyite emplacement age of 1384+/-2 Ma and a virtual geomagnetic pole at 4 degrees N, 258 degrees E (dm=9&j0;, dp=5&j0;). Kuonamka and Chieress poles are interpreted to be primary but do not average out secular variation. Assuming that the Siberian Plate has remained intact since the Mesoproterozoic, except for mid-Paleozoic opening of the Viljuy Rift, then the above results indicate that the Siberian Plate was in low latitudes at ca. 1503 and 1384 Ma, broadly similar to low latitudes determined for Laurentia from well-dated paleopoles at 1460-1420, 1320-1290, and 1267 Ma. This would allow Laurentia and Siberia to have been attached in the Mesoproterozoic, as suggested in several recent studies based on geological criteria. However, because paleomagnetic results from the Anabar Shield region do not average out secular variation and the ages of poles from Siberia and Laurentia are not well matched, it is not yet possible to distinguish between these reconstructions or to rule out other configurations that also maintain the two cratons at low paleolatitudes.

  9. Integrated Paleomagnetism and U-Pb Geochronology of Mafic Dikes of the Eastern Anabar Shield Region, Siberia: Implications for Mesoproterozoic Paleolatitude of Siberia and Comparison with Laurentia.

    PubMed

    Ernst; Buchan; Hamilton; Okrugin; Tomshin

    2000-07-01

    This article reports the first joint paleomagnetic and U-Pb geochronologic study of Precambrian diabase dikes in the Anabar Shield and adjacent Riphean cover of Siberia. It was undertaken to allow comparison with similar published studies in Laurentia and to test Proterozoic reconstructions of Siberia and Laurentia. An east-trending Kuonamka dike yielded a provisional U-Pb baddeleyite emplacement age of 1503+/-5 Ma and a virtual geomagnetic pole at 16 degrees S, 221 degrees E (dm=17&j0;, dp=10&j0;). A paleomagnetic pole at 6 degrees N, 234 degrees E (dm=28&j0;, dp=14&j0;) was obtained from five Kuonamka dikes. An east-southeast-trending Chieress dike yielded a U-Pb baddeleyite emplacement age of 1384+/-2 Ma and a virtual geomagnetic pole at 4 degrees N, 258 degrees E (dm=9&j0;, dp=5&j0;). Kuonamka and Chieress poles are interpreted to be primary but do not average out secular variation. Assuming that the Siberian Plate has remained intact since the Mesoproterozoic, except for mid-Paleozoic opening of the Viljuy Rift, then the above results indicate that the Siberian Plate was in low latitudes at ca. 1503 and 1384 Ma, broadly similar to low latitudes determined for Laurentia from well-dated paleopoles at 1460-1420, 1320-1290, and 1267 Ma. This would allow Laurentia and Siberia to have been attached in the Mesoproterozoic, as suggested in several recent studies based on geological criteria. However, because paleomagnetic results from the Anabar Shield region do not average out secular variation and the ages of poles from Siberia and Laurentia are not well matched, it is not yet possible to distinguish between these reconstructions or to rule out other configurations that also maintain the two cratons at low paleolatitudes. PMID:10856011

  10. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    Environmental Sciences) biannual Young Scientists' School (YSS) and international conferences [15]. These include lecture courses for young scientists, training sessions, invited lectures and thematic workshops (www.scert.ru/en/conferences/). The first event was organized in 2000, and thereafter each year 50-70 young scientists from Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States participate in CITES and ENVIROMIS conferences. These events are organized to support multidisciplinary education, contain no parallel sessions, are composed of about 50% students, and all presentations are posted to assist future professional activity. In the first years, these activities were supported internationally (INTAS, the EC International Cooperation Program within FP5 and FP6); however, recent activities have been supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the RF Ministry of Education and Science and the SB RAS. Some results gained in the course of SIRS projects being carried out, and current challenges While some findings on regional climate dynamics were reported in the EGU 2009 NEESPI session and in manuscripts listed on the NEESPI website (www.neespi.org/science/NEESPI_publications.pdf), a majority of them have been published in Russian journals and are still unknown in the international climatic community. However, additional reports can be found in the Enviro-RISKS final scientific report [16], mainly in the third volume devoted to climate change, terrestrial ecosystems and hydrology (www.dmi.dk/dmi/sr08-05-3.pdf). We have already established that temperatures have increased, particularly in the winter in Eastern Siberia (0.5°/decade), and the number of frost days (~1 day yr-1) and growing season length has also increased (~1 day yr-1) [17, 18]. Even more troubling is the potential for these transient phenomena to manifest themselves as nonlinear reactions to ongoing climatic change [19]. There are three main scientific research challenges to the SIRS community, which

  11. Why Russia is not a state

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, J.E.

    1993-08-16

    This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

  12. The Deep Permafrost Carbon Pool of Siberia and Alaska (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, J.; Schirrmeister, L.; Grosse, G.; Ulrich, M.; Wetterich, S.; Herzschuh, U.; Hubberten, H. W.

    2013-12-01

    Estimating the amount of organic carbon stored in Arctic permafrost and its biogeochemical characteristics are important topics in today's permafrost research. While the uppermost cryosoil horizons are reasonably studied and recorded in the Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD), there are large uncertainties concerning the quantity and distribution of permafrost deep organic carbon. We studied the organic carbon content of the Yedoma region of unglaciated Siberia and Alaska. This region is unique because of its long-term accumulation of organic carbon, which was deeply incorporated into permafrost during the late Quaternary. Inclusion of labile organic matter into permafrost halted decomposition and resulted in a deep long-term carbon sink. Organic carbon in the Yedoma region occurs mainly as peat inclusions, twigs and root fragments, other solid and fine detrital plant remains, fossil remains of mammals, insects, aquatic plankton and soil microorganisms, and finally their decompositional and metabolic products in terms of particulate and dissolved organic matter. With our study we show that two major sub-reservoirs compose the Yedoma region deep frozen organic carbon; Yedoma deposits (late Pleistocene ice- and organic-rich silty sediments) and deposits formed in thaw-lake basins (generalised as thermokarst deposits). Thaw-lake basins result when lake formation degrades Yedoma deposits, then the lakes drain and deposits refreeze. Therefore, the deep Yedoma region organic carbon pool is far from homogeneous and strongly linked to depositional and permafrost dynamics as well as the ecological and climatic history. Using of approximately 1000 frozen samples from 23 Siberian and Alaskan study sites and a new approach for upscaling, we find significant differences to former estimates of the Yedoma coverage area, thickness of the relevant frozen deposits, ground ice content and finally in organic carbon content that lead to a reassessment of the deep

  13. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  14. A Trek in the Sayan Mountains: How I Sent My Class to Siberia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Describes a summer trip taken by 2 teachers, a parent, and 11 boys aged 14 to 16 to the Sayan Mountains of Siberia. The group was from a small private secondary school in the backwoods of Canada. A Siberian mountaineering club from Irkutsk led the group to the summit of Munku Sardik. (KS)

  15. Primary multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 2 regions, Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Zhdanova, Svetlana; Heysell, Scott K; Ogarkov, Oleg; Boyarinova, Galina; Alexeeva, Galina; Pholwat, Suporn; Zorkaltseva, Elena; Houpt, Eric R; Savilov, Eugeniy

    2013-10-01

    Of 235 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients who had not received tuberculosis treatment in the Irkutsk oblast and the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), eastern Siberia, 61 (26%) were multidrug resistant. A novel strain, S 256, clustered among these isolates and carried eis-related kanamycin resistance, indicating a need for locally informed diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:24047678

  16. [Diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome in Siberia and in the Far East].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Iu P; Voevoda, M I; Simonova, G I

    2012-01-01

    In Siberia and in the Far East region overall incidence of diabetes mellitus is somewhat lower than in the European part of the country, though these indices reduplicate on average in 10-15 years. The prevalence of both diabetes (both types) and metabolic syndrome among indigenous mongoloid population is lower than among Caucasian.

  17. Space Biology in Russia Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

    At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the

  18. [Palivizumab: four seasons in Russia].

    PubMed

    Baranov, A A; Ivanov, D O; Aliamovskaia, G A; Amirova, V R; Antoniuk, I V; Asmolova, G A; Beliaeva, I A; Bokeria, E L; Briukhanova, O A; Vinogradova, I V; Vlasova, E V; Galustian, A N; Gafarova, G V; Gorev, V V; Davydova, I V; Degtiarev, D N; Degtiareva, E A; Dolgikh, V V; Donits, I M; Zakharova, N I; Zernova, L Iu; Zimina, E P; Zuev, V V; Keshishian, E S; Kovalev, I A; Koltunov, I E; Korsunskiĭ, A A; Krivoshchekov, E V; Krsheminskaia, I V; Kuznetsova, S N; Liubimenko, V A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Nesterenko, É V; Nikolaev, S V; Ovsiannikov, D Iu; Pavlova, T I; Potapova, M V; Rychkova, L V; Safarov, A A; Safina, A I; Skachkova, M A; Soldatova, I G; Turti, T V; Filatova, N A; Shakirova, R M; Ianulevich, O S

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the Russian Federation (RF) registered palivizumab--innovative drug, based on monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization of seasonal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children of disease severe progress risk group, which include primarily premature infants, children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease. Currently, palivizumab is included in the list of recommended medicines and medical care standards of different countries, including Russia. In the review the results of Russian research on the progress of RSV infection, its epidemiology and immunization experience gained over the 2010-2014 period are summarized in relation to the foreign data. During the four epidemic seasons palivizumab immunization covered more than 3,200 children of severe RSV infection risk group with a progressive annual increase in the number of patients who received the drug. Geography of palivizumab immunization is also greatly expanded in our country during this time. If during the first two seasons measures of immunization were taken mainly in Moscow and St. Petersburg, at the present time, thirty one territorial entities of the Russian Federation have the experience in the drug application. Analysis of the results of RSV infection immunization (made in several regions) confirms the high clinical efficacy and palivizumab safety already demonstrated in international studies. In addition, the analysis presents the potential to improve the efficiency of the integrated RSV infection immunization programs, realizing in the establishment of high-risk child group register, adequate counseling for parents, as well as the development of the routing of patients and coordination of interaction between different health institutions during the immunization. PMID:25563005

  19. Flooding of the Ob River, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of heavy rainfall, snowmelt, and ice jams in late May and early June of this year caused the Ob River and surrounding tributaries in Western Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in thess image taken on June 16, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Last year, the river flooded farther north. Normally, the river resembles a thin black line, but floods have swollen the river considerably. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  20. Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  1. Physical processes of thermokarst lakes in the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia - observations and modeling (Lena River Delta, Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boike, J.; Georgi, C.; Kirilin, G.; Muster, S.; Abramova, K.; Fedorova, I.; Chetverova, A.; Grigoriev, M.; Bornemann, N.; Langer, M.

    2015-04-01

    The thermal regimes of five lakes located within the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia (Lena River Delta) have been investigated using hourly water temperature and water level records covering a three year period (2009-2012), together with bathymetric survey data. The lakes included thermokarst lakes located on Holocene river terraces that may be connected to Lena River water during spring flooding, and a thermokarst lake located on deposits of the Pleistocene Ice Complex. The data were used for numerical modeling with FLake software, and also to determine the physical indices of the lakes. The lakes vary in area, depths and volumes. The winter thermal regime is characterized by an ice cover up to 2 m thick that survives for more than 7 months of the year, from October until about mid-June. Lake-bottom temperatures increase at the start of the ice-covered period due to upward-directed heat flux from the underlying thawed sediment. The effects of solar radiation return prior to ice break-up, effectively warming the water beneath the ice cover and inducing convective mixing. Ice break-up starts the beginning of June and takes until the middle or end of June for completion. Mixing occurs within the entire water column from the start of ice break-up and continues during the ice-free periods, as confirmed by the Wedderburn numbers. Some of the lakes located closest to the Lena River are subjected to varying levels of spring flooding with river water, on an annual basis. Numerical modeling using FLake software indicates that the vertical heat flux across the bottom sediment tends towards an annual mean of zero, with maximum downward fluxes of about 5 W m-2 in summer and with heat released back into the water column at a~rate of less than 1 W m-2 during the ice-covered period. The lakes are shown to be efficient heat absorbers and effectively distribute the heat through mixing. Monthly bottom water temperatures during the ice-free period range up to 15

  2. Radioactive contamination of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) following fallout from the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Bolsunovsky, A; Dementyev, D

    2014-12-01

    Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011-2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg(-1)(131)I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg(-1)(134)Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg(-1)(137)Cs. An important finding was the detection of (134)Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2-2.6), suggesting the presence of "older", pre-Fukushima accident (137)Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two-three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident (137)Cs.

  3. Modern nature and climate changes in Siberia: new methods and results of analysis of instrumented observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanov, Mikhail V.

    2002-02-01

    Peculiarity of nature and climate changes in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and in Siberia is that the temporal variability of meteorological quantities here has a wide range and their spatial variability has a complicated zone structure. Therefore, regional monitoring of modern nature and climate changes in Siberia is of scientific interest from the viewpoint of the global changes observed. Another Siberian peculiarity is associated with the fact that there are many unique objects that have global importance both as natural complexes (boreal forests, water- bog systems, Baikal lake, etc.) And as technogenic objects (oil and gas production, coal mining, metallurgy, transport, etc.). Therefore monitoring and modeling of regional nature and climate changes in Siberia have great practical importance, which is underestimated now, for industrial development of Siberia. Taking into account the above peculiarities and tendencies on investigation of global and regional environmental and climate changes, the multidisciplinary project on Climate and Ecological Monitoring of Siberia (CEMS) was accepted to the research and development program Sibir' since 1993. To realize this project, the Climate and Ecological Observatory was established in Tomsk at the Institute for Optical Monitoring (IOM) SB RAS. At the present time the stations (the basic and background ones) of this observatory are in a progress and theory and instruments for monitoring are being developed as well. In this paper we discuss some results obtained in the framework of CEMS project that were partially published in the monographs, in scientific journals, and will be published in the Proceedings of the 8th Joint International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics and Atmosphere Physics. This review has a purpose not only to discuss the obtained regularities but also to formulate scientific and technical tasks for further investigations into the regional changes of technogenic, natural, and

  4. Integrated chronostratigraphy of Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary beds in the western Anabar region, northern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, A J; Knoll, A H; Semikhatov, M A; Grotzinger, J P; Jacobsen, S B; Adams, W

    1996-01-01

    Carbonate-rich sedimentary rocks of the western Anabar region, northern Siberia, preserve an exceptional record of evolutionary and biogeochemical events near the Proterozoic/Cambrian boundary. Sedimentologically, the boundary succession can be divided into three sequences representing successive episodes of late transgressive to early highstand deposition; four parasequences are recognized in the sequence corresponding lithostratigraphically to the Manykal Formation. Small shelly fossils are abundant and include many taxa that also occur in standard sections of southeastern Siberia. Despite this coincidence of faunal elements, biostratigraphic correlations between the two regions have been controversial because numerous species that first appear at or immediately above the basal Tommotian boundary in southeastern sections have first appearances scattered through more than thirty metres of section in the western Anabar. Carbon- and Sr-isotopic data on petrographically and geochemically screened samples collected at one- to two-metre intervals in a section along the Kotuikan River, favour correlation of the Staraya Reckha Formation and most of the overlying Manykai Formation with sub-Tommotian carbonates in southeastern Siberia. In contrast, isotopic data suggest that the uppermost Manykai Formation and the basal 26 m of the unconformably overlying Medvezhya Formation may have no equivalent in the southeast; they appear to provide a sedimentary and palaeontological record of an evolutionarily significant time interval represented in southeastern Siberia only by the sub-Tommotian unconformity. Correlations with radiometrically dated horizons in the Olenek and Kharaulakh regions of northern Siberia suggest that this interval lasted approximately three to six million years, during which essentially all 'basal Tommotian' small shelly fossils evolved.

  5. Analyses of changes in vegetation cover in the South and Sub-Taiga of Western Siberia using Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyukarev, Egor; Pologova, Nina; Golovatskaya, Eugenia

    2010-05-01

    Understanding human impact on vegetation composition and structure, at scales from the patch to the globe, and capacity to monitor change over time is fundamental research problem to address Global Change and ensure sustainable development. Natural ecosystems at the South and Sob-Taiga zone of Western Siberia are characterized by development of an early successional states, given the projected increase in disturbance, or will be converted into human-dominated terrestrial production systems. Disturbances (e.g., fire, dieback due to insect attacks) appear to be increasing in some regions, leading to fragmentation of natural ecosystems and to a generally "weedier," structurally simpler biosphere with fewer systems in a more ecologically complex old-growth state. The analysis of structure of vegetation cover at two test sites located at the south-west part of the West-Siberian Plain in the South and Sub-Taiga zone was made using LANDSAT space images and ground data. The studied area of the first test site ("Bakchar") is occupied by bogs, paludificated forests and cultivated lands. Test site "Tomsk" covered by cultivated lands in the south, dark coniferous forest complexes an early and old-growth state in the north part. Mire types at the test sites are presented by open fens, ridge-hollow / ridge-lake complexes and pine-shrub-sphagnum communities with different tree height and layer density. During the XX century the vegetation cover was exposed to natural and anthropogenic changes. Comparison of space images from different years (1990, 1999 and 2007) allowed revealing dynamics in vegetation cover. Forest change was calculated using the Disturbance Index (Healey, 2006). Decrease of forest area in 1990-1999 are primary occurs due to intense forest cutting for timber industry and local use. A strong wind have damaged forests between 1990 and 1999 in stripes oriented from south-west to north -east in the prevailing wind direction. Strong winds were registered in 2003

  6. Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and

  7. Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  8. Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space

  9. River Runoff Sensitivity in Eastern Siberia to Global Climate Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiadi, A. G.; Milyukova, I. P.; Kashutina, E.

    2008-12-01

    During several last decades significant climate warming is observed in permafrost regions of Eastern Siberia. These changes include rise of air temperature as well as precipitation. Changes in regional climate are accompanied with river runoff changes. The analysis of the data shows that in the past 25 years, the largest contribution to the annual river runoff increase in the lower reaches of the Lena (Kyusyur) is made (in descending order) by the Lena river watershed (above Tabaga), the Aldan river (Okhotsky Perevoz), and the Vilyui river (Khatyryk-Khomo). The similar relation is also retained in the case of flood, with the seasonal river runoff of the Vilyui river being slightly decreased. Completely different relations are noted in winter, when a substantial river runoff increase is recorded in the lower reaches of the Lena river. In this case the major contribution to the winter river runoff increase in the Lena outlet is made by the winter river runoff increase on the Vilyui river. Unlike the above cases, the summer-fall river runoff in the lower reaches of the Lena river tends to decrease, which is similar to the trend exhibited by the Vilyui river. At the same time, the river runoff of the Lena (Tabaga) and Aldan (Verkhoyansky Perevoz) rivers increase. According to the results of hydrological modeling the expected anthropogenic climate warming in XXI century can bring more significant river runoff increase in the Lena river basin as compared with the recent one. Hydrological responses to climate warming have been evaluated for the plain part of the Lena river basin basing on a macroscale hydrological model featuring simplified description of processes developed in Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Two atmosphere-ocean global circulation models included in the IPCC (ECHAM4/OPY3 and GFDL-R30) were used as scenarios of future global climate. According to the results of hydrological modeling the expected anthropogenic climate warming in

  10. Inclusions of chlorides in natural diamonds from Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titkov, Sergey; Ryabchikov, Igor; Pomazansky, Bogdan; Magazina, Larisa

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, microinclusions of Cl-bearing high density fluids that contained silicic, carbonatitic and saline components in variable proportions have been revealed in octahedral diamonds with cloudy central or intermediate growth zones, in diamonds with fibrous coat and in fibrous cubic diamonds from many kimberlite deposits (Tomlinson et al., 2006; Klein-BenDavid et al., 2007 and references therein). Experimental works have shown that chloride-bearing system is a favorable medium for diamond growth (Palyanov et al., 2007). In course of study of microinclusions in diamonds from Siberia unusual chloride microinclusions with specific morphologies have been found by us in a rounded dark-grey dodecahedron from the placer deposits with unknown source in northern Yakutia and in a dark-grey coarse-grained polycrystalline aggregate of diamond from the kimberlites of western Yakutia. The rounded dodecahedron represented V variety according to the diamond classification by Y.L.Orlov consisted of a quite perfect core and fibrous coat with abundant black microinclusions. Its rounded shape was formed during post growth dissolution. The polycrystalline diamond aggregate contained numerous black microinclusions of magnetite and some other Fe-phase as was reported previously (Titkov et al., 2003). The microinclusions were studied using a JEOL JSM-5300 scanning electron microscope equipped with an Oxford LINK ISIS energy-dispersive spectrometer with an analytical range from Be to U. In preparation for analysis, each sample was crushed after being wrapped in a special paper to avoid contamination. Analysis was performed on rough surfaces of fragments that were fairly flat and oriented nearly perpendicular to the electron beam. These samples were carbon coated. Study of rounded dodecahedron fragments revealed irregular cavity, about 30 m across. Its main volume was occupied by a large inclusion of variable composition with an average of 20.6 wt% Na, 15.5 wt% K, 0.6 wt% S, 0

  11. United States/Russia Space Cooperation Documentary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents the initiative to develop a multinational, permanent space research laboratory. Historical background on the U.S. and Soviet manned space flight program as well as joint efforts such as the Apollo-Soyuz link up is shown. The current initiative will begin with collaborative missions involving NASA's space shuttle and Russia's Mir space station, and culminate in a permanently manned space station involving the U.S., Russia, Japan, Canada, and ESA. Shown are computer simulations of the proposed space station. Commentary is provided by the NASA administrator, former astronauts, cosmonauts, and Russian and American space experts.

  12. TB an epidemic in Russia's prisons.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Over 100,000 prisoners are infected with tuberculosis (TB) in Russia, which has the highest incarceration rate in the world. Drug-resistant TB is found in thousands of inmates, and approximately 20,000 have died from it within the past 2 years. Although the country now has 50 centers for TB-infected prisoners, many are not being cured because of medicine shortages and failure to complete treatment. Up to 25 percent of TB infections found in Russian jails are multi-drug resistant, as opposed to 4 percent in Russia's general population and under 2 percent in the United States. PMID:11367347

  13. Chinese Students in the Higher Educational Institutions of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aref'ev, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    There has been an increase in the number of students from China studying in Russia, but still less than 2 percent of Chinese who study abroad do so in Russia. A third of these students would not encourage others to do so, on the grounds that educational conditions are not good and that they feel unwelcome in Russia. Most of these students…

  14. Greening of the Arctic: Partitioning Warming Versus Reindeer Herbivory for Willow Populations on Yamal Peninsula, Northwest Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, B. C.; Macias-Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Kumpula, T.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic warming has been linked to observed increases in tundra shrub cover and growth in recent decades on the basis of significant relationships between deciduous shrub growth/biomass and temperature. These vegetation trends have been linked to Arctic sea-ice decline and thus to the sea-ice/albedo feedback known as Arctic amplification. However, the interactions between climate, sea ice, tundra vegetation and herbivores remain poorly understood. Recently we revealed a 50-year growth response over a >100,000 km2 area to a rise in summer temperature for willow (Salix lanata), one the most abundant shrub genera at and north of the continental treeline and an important source of reindeer forage in spring, summer and autumn. We demonstrated that whereas plant productivity is related to sea ice in late spring, the growing season peak responds to persistent synoptic-scale air masses over West Siberia associated with Fennoscandian weather systems through the Rossby wave train. Substrate was important for biomass accumulation, yet a strong correlation between growth and temperature encompasses all observed soil types. Vegetation was especially responsive to temperature in early summer. However, the role of herbivory was not addressed. The present data set explores the relationship between long-term herbivory and growth trends of shrubs experiencing warming in recent decades. Semi-domestic reindeer managed by indigenous Nenets nomads occur at high densities in summer on exposed ridge tops and graze heavily on prostrate and low erect willows. A few meters away in moderately sloped landslides tall willows remain virtually ungrazed as their canopies have grown above the browse line of ca. 180 cm. Here we detail the responses of neighboring shrub populations with and without intensive herbivory yet subject to the same decadal warming trend.

  15. Space Radar Image of Moscow, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a vertically polarized L-band image of the southern half of Moscow, an area which has been inhabited for 2,000 years. The image covers a diameter of approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) and was taken on September 30, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The city of Moscow was founded about 750 years ago and today is home to about 8 million residents. The southern half of the circular highway (a road that looks like a ring) can easily be identified as well as the roads and railways radiating out from the center of the city. The city was named after the Moskwa River and replaced Russia's former capital, St. Petersburg, after the Russian Revolution in 1917. The river winding through Moscow shows up in various gray shades. The circular structure of many city roads can easily be identified, although subway connections covering several hundred kilometers are not visible in this image. The white areas within the ring road and outside of it are buildings of the city itself and it suburban towns. Two of many airports are located in the west and southeast of Moscow, near the corners of the image. The Kremlin is located north just outside of the imaged city center. It was actually built in the 16th century, when Ivan III was czar, and is famous for its various churches. In the surrounding area, light gray indicates forests, while the dark patches are agricultural areas. The various shades from middle gray to dark gray indicate different stages of harvesting, ploughing and grassland. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific

  16. Thermal processes of thermokarst lakes in the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia - observations and modeling (Lena River Delta, Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boike, J.; Georgi, C.; Kirilin, G.; Muster, S.; Abramova, K.; Fedorova, I.; Chetverova, A.; Grigoriev, M.; Bornemann, N.; Langer, M.

    2015-10-01

    Thermokarst lakes are typical features of the northern permafrost ecosystems, and play an important role in the thermal exchange between atmosphere and subsurface. The objective of this study is to describe the main thermal processes of the lakes and to quantify the heat exchange with the underlying sediments. The thermal regimes of five lakes located within the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia (Lena River Delta) were investigated using hourly water temperature and water level records covering a 3-year period (2009-2012), together with bathymetric survey data. The lakes included thermokarst lakes located on Holocene river terraces that may be connected to Lena River water during spring flooding, and a thermokarst lake located on deposits of the Pleistocene Ice Complex. Lakes were covered by ice up to 2 m thick that persisted for more than 7 months of the year, from October until about mid-June. Lake-bottom temperatures increased at the start of the ice-covered period due to upward-directed heat flux from the underlying thawed sediment. Prior to ice break-up, solar radiation effectively warmed the water beneath the ice cover and induced convective mixing. Ice break-up started at the beginning of June and lasted until the middle or end of June. Mixing occurred within the entire water column from the start of ice break-up and continued during the ice-free periods, as confirmed by the Wedderburn numbers, a quantitative measure of the balance between wind mixing and stratification that is important for describing the biogeochemical cycles of lakes. The lake thermal regime was modeled numerically using the FLake model. The model demonstrated good agreement with observations with regard to the mean lake temperature, with a good reproduction of the summer stratification during the ice-free period, but poor agreement during the ice-covered period. Modeled sensitivity to lake depth demonstrated that lakes in this climatic zone with mean depths > 5 m develop

  17. Smoke and Clouds over Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Several mountain ranges and a portion of the Amur River are visible in this set of MISR images of Russia's far east Khabarovsk region. The images were acquired on May 13, 2001 during Terra orbit 7452. The view from MISR's 70-degree forward-looking camera is at the top left; the 26-degree forward-looking view is at the top right. The larger image at the bottom is a stereo 'anaglyph' created using the cameras at two intermediate angles. To view the stereo image in 3-D you need red/blue glasses with the red filter placed over your left eye. All of the images are oriented with north to the left to facilitate stereo viewing. Each image covers an area about 345 kilometers x 278 kilometers.

    The Amur River, in the upper right, and Lake Bolon, at the top center, are most prominent in the 26-degree view due to sunglint (mirror-like reflection of the Sun's rays by the water). The Amur River valley is a primary breeding ground for storks and cranes and a stopover for large numbers of migratory birds. About 20% of the Amur wetlands are protected by official conservation measures, but human development has converted large portions to agricultural uses. Other notable features in these images are several mountain chains, including the Badzhal'skiy to the left of center and the Bureiskiy in the lower left.

    Smoke plumes from several forest fires can be seen. They are especially apparent in the 70-degree view where the smoke's visibility is accentuated, in part, by the long slant path through the atmosphere. The largest plumes are in the lower left and upper right, with some smaller plumes above and to the right of the image centers. In the upper images the hazy region in the vicinity of these smaller plumes has the appearance of low-altitude smoke, but depth perception provided by the stereo anaglyph shows that it is actually a distinct layer of high-altitude cirrus clouds. Whether the cirrus is related to the fires is uncertain. It is possible, however, for the fires have

  18. Mapping Russia: Geographic and Cultural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khachikian, Arthur

    For people living in the 20th century, Russia has been associated with images of communism, the Bolshevik Revolution, totalitarian regimes and leaders, and the fears and stereotypes of the Cold War era. The dissolution of the Soviet Union, the end of the Cold War, and the liberal revolutions of the 1980s-1990s have provided an opportunity to…

  19. Education and Society in the New Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anthony, Ed.

    This collection of essays examines the changes that have occurred in Russia since the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. A historical perspective is used to show that many of the changes were underway during perestroika and that post-Soviet developments are an extension of those changes. The book is divided into four sections. Section 1, "The Soviet…

  20. The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

  1. Libraries at "the End of Russia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronayne, Betty

    2000-01-01

    Describes the library at Far Eastern State Technical University in Vladivostok (Russia) based on a visit that was part of a collaborative project with California State University, Sacramento. Highlights include staffing; problems with funding, space, and technology; library collections in the Department of World Politics and Law; and the nearby…

  2. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Tkachenko, Evgeniy A.; Morozov, Vyacheslav G.; Yunicheva, Yulia V.; Pilikova, Olga M.; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A.; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T.; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K.

    2015-01-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%. PMID:26584463

  3. Building Bridges: Miami "Ambassadors" Visit Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Toni Fuss

    2001-01-01

    Describes a three-week exchange program where William H. Turner Technical Arts High School (Miami, Florida) students participated in the U.S./Russian student exchange program. Focuses on the students' stereotypes before the trip and their interview comments following the trip about the hardships in Russia. (CMK)

  4. Education in the Fate of Today's Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borisenkov, V.P.; Kraevskii, V.V.; Valeev, G.Kh.; Avtonomova, N.S.; Evdokimov, A.K.; Shchedrina, T.G.; Belomestnova, N.V.; Beliaeva, M.A.; Shimina, A.N.; Karmanchikov, A.J.; Korol, A.D.; Varnavskaia, N.Ia.; Berezhnova, E.V.; Daniliuk, A.Ia.; Anua, R.G.; Sidorina, T.Iu.; Tarba, I.D.; Arlamov, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Education in the fate of today's Russia was the topic of a scientific seminar titled "Philosophy, Education, and Society," held in the summer of 2007 in the city of Gagra by the editors of the journals "Voprosy filosofii" and "Pedagogika," the Moscow N.E. Bauman State Technical University, and the Russian Academy of Education. Philosophers,…

  5. Display technologies in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doane, William J.; Cladis, Patricia E.; Curtin, Christopher; Larimer, James; Slusarczuk, Marko; Talbot, Jan B.; Yaniv, Ziv

    1994-12-01

    This report is a review of advanced display research, development, and manufacturing activity in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. Topics covered include: liquid crystal display materials and related technologies; liquid crystal and other non-emissive displays; vacuum fluorescent, electroluminescent, field emission, and other emissive displays; and phosphors and other emissive materials. Also included is a review of infrastructure and business issues related to the display industry in the former Soviet Union. The panel found promising technologies in projection systems (e.g., the 'quantoscope' - utilizing an e-beam pumped laser), Supertwisted Nematic (STN) Liquid Cristal Displays (LCD) manufacturing at several locations in Russia and Belarus, developing capabilities and plans for future Active Matrix Liquid Cristal Display (AMLCD) production in all three countries, and a strong vacuum-fluorescent production capability in Saratov, Russia. Most significantly, the panel found many advanced concepts under development at basic research laboratories throughout the three countries visited; these research efforts are now in jeopardy due to insufficient funding, an uncertain business climate and deteriorating infrastructure. Nevertheless, there are many promising opportunities for foreign investment in display technology and manufacturing in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus.

  6. 77 FR 12880 - Uranium From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... on July 1, 2011 (76 FR 38694) and determined on October 4, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 64107, October 17, 2011). The Commission transmitted its determination in this review to... COMMISSION Uranium From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  7. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Detlev H; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Yunicheva, Yulia V; Pilikova, Olga M; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K

    2015-12-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%.

  8. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...)). Background The Commission instituted this review on March 1, 2011 (76 FR 11273) and determined on June 6, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 34749, June 14, 2011). The Commission transmitted... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the...

  9. 76 FR 11273 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... nitrate from Russia (71 FR 17080). The Commission is now conducting a second review to determine whether... recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for information is... (65 FR 37759, June 16, 2000). Following five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission,...

  10. Stable isotope ratios of atmospheric CO_{2} and CH_{4} over Siberia measured at ZOTTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timokhina, Anastasiya; Prokushkin, Anatily; Lavric, Jost; Heimann, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The boreal and arctic zones of Siberia housing the large amounts of carbon stored in the living biomass of forests and wetlands, as well as in soils and specifically permafrost, play a crucial role in earth's global carbon cycle. The long-term studies of greenhouse gases (GHG) concentrations are important instruments to analyze the response of these systems to climate warming. In parallel to GHG observations, the measurements of their stable isotopic composition can provide useful information for distinguishing contribution of individual GHG source to their atmospheric variations, since each source has its own isotopic signature. In this study we report first results of laboratory analyses of the CO2 and CH4 concentrations, the stable isotope ratio of δ13C-CO2, δ18O-CO2, δ13C-CH4, δD-CH4 measured in one-liter glass flasks which were obtained from 301 height of ZOTTO (Zotino Tall Tower Observatory, near 60° N, 90° E, about 20 km west of the Yenisei River) during 2008 - 2013 and 2010 - 2013 for stable isotope composition of CO2 and CH4. The magnitudes of δ13C-CO2 and δ18O-CO2 in a seasonal cycle are -1.4±0.1‰ (-7.6 - -9.0‰) and -2.2±0.2‰ (-0.1 - -2.3‰), respectively. The δ13C-CO2 seasonal pattern opposes the CO2 concentrations, with a gradual enrichment in heavy isotope occurring during May - July, reflecting its discrimination in photosynthesis, and further depletion in August - September as photosynthetic activity decreases comparatively to ecosystem respiration. Relationship between the CO2 concentrations and respective δ13C-CO2 (Keeling plot) reveals isotopic source signature for growing season (May - September) -27.3±1.4‰ and -30.4±2.5‰ for winter (January - March). The behavior of δ18O-CO2 associated with both high photosynthetic rate in the June (enrichment of atmospheric CO2 by 18O as consequence of CO2 equilibrium with "heavy" leaf water) and respiratory activity of forest floor in June - October (depletion of respired CO2 by 18O

  11. The influence of climate on peatland extent in Western Siberia since the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, G A; Brovkin, V A; Kleinen, T

    2016-01-01

    Boreal and subarctic peatlands are an important dynamical component of the earth system. They are sensitive to climate change, and could either continue to serve as a carbon sink or become a carbon source. Climatic thresholds for switching peatlands from sink to source are not well defined, and therefore, incorporating peatlands into Earth system models is a challenging task. Here we introduce a climatic index, warm precipitation excess, to delineate the potential geographic distribution of boreal peatlands for a given climate and landscape morphology. This allows us to explain the present-day distribution of peatlands in Western Siberia, their absence during the Last Glacial Maximum, their expansion during the mid-Holocene, and to form a working hypothesis about the trend to peatland degradation in the southern taiga belt of Western Siberia under an RCP 8.5 scenario for the projected climate in year 2100. PMID:27095029

  12. Growth dynamics and biodiversity of larch forest after wildfire at the north of central Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Danilin, I.

    1996-12-31

    Investigations of qualitative and quantitative changes occurring in disturbed forest communities in Siberia are now recognized as important issues, since anthropogenic stress is increasingly affecting forests from year to year and often results in irreversible decomposition of forest ecosystems over large areas. In forests of central Siberia, fire accounts for the greatest disturbance. The level of fire-caused forest destruction is noticeably high. Space imagery analysis has revealed that, from 1980 throughout 1995, the average annual forest area covered by fires was more than 500,000 ha. In as much as this is a country with permafrost soils, fires promote swamping and treeless areas. However, forests regenerate naturally on some burned areas. Forest regeneration can occur either with stand replacement (through secondary birch) or without replacement when new forests are formed by the pre-fire edificators. The second way of succession is ecologically more preferable, because the larch population is more resistant to external influences and keeps its native biodiversity.

  13. The influence of climate on peatland extent in Western Siberia since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, G. A.; Brovkin, V. A.; Kleinen, T.

    2016-04-01

    Boreal and subarctic peatlands are an important dynamical component of the earth system. They are sensitive to climate change, and could either continue to serve as a carbon sink or become a carbon source. Climatic thresholds for switching peatlands from sink to source are not well defined, and therefore, incorporating peatlands into Earth system models is a challenging task. Here we introduce a climatic index, warm precipitation excess, to delineate the potential geographic distribution of boreal peatlands for a given climate and landscape morphology. This allows us to explain the present-day distribution of peatlands in Western Siberia, their absence during the Last Glacial Maximum, their expansion during the mid-Holocene, and to form a working hypothesis about the trend to peatland degradation in the southern taiga belt of Western Siberia under an RCP 8.5 scenario for the projected climate in year 2100.

  14. The influence of climate on peatland extent in Western Siberia since the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, G. A.; Brovkin, V. A.; Kleinen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Boreal and subarctic peatlands are an important dynamical component of the earth system. They are sensitive to climate change, and could either continue to serve as a carbon sink or become a carbon source. Climatic thresholds for switching peatlands from sink to source are not well defined, and therefore, incorporating peatlands into Earth system models is a challenging task. Here we introduce a climatic index, warm precipitation excess, to delineate the potential geographic distribution of boreal peatlands for a given climate and landscape morphology. This allows us to explain the present-day distribution of peatlands in Western Siberia, their absence during the Last Glacial Maximum, their expansion during the mid-Holocene, and to form a working hypothesis about the trend to peatland degradation in the southern taiga belt of Western Siberia under an RCP 8.5 scenario for the projected climate in year 2100. PMID:27095029

  15. Potential change in forest types and stand heights in central Siberia in a warming climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Korets, M. A.; Conard, S. G.

    2016-03-01

    Previous regional studies in Siberia have demonstrated climate warming and associated changes in distribution of vegetation and forest types, starting at the end of the 20th century. In this study we used two regional bioclimatic envelope models to simulate potential changes in forest types distribution and developed new regression models to simulate changes in stand height in tablelands and southern mountains of central Siberia under warming 21st century climate. Stand height models were based on forest inventory data (2850 plots). The forest type and stand height maps were superimposed to identify how heights would change in different forest types in future climates. Climate projections from the general circulation model Hadley HadCM3 for emission scenarios B1 and A2 for 2080s were paired with the regional bioclimatic models. Under the harsh A2 scenario, simulated changes included: a 80%-90% decrease in forest-tundra and tundra, a 30% decrease in forest area, a ˜400% increase in forest-steppe, and a 2200% increase in steppe, forest-steppe and steppe would cover 55% of central Siberia. Under sufficiently moist conditions, the southern and middle taiga were simulated to benefit from 21st century climate warming. Habitats suitable for highly-productive forests (≥30-40 m stand height) were simulated to increase at the expense of less productive forests (10-20 m). In response to the more extreme A2 climate the area of these highly-productive forests would increase 10%-25%. Stand height increases of 10 m were simulated over 35%-50% of the current forest area in central Siberia. In the extremely warm A2 climate scenario, the tall trees (25-30 m) would occur over 8%-12% of area in all forest types except forest-tundra by the end of the century. In forest-steppe, trees of 30-40 m may cover some 15% of the area under sufficient moisture.

  16. Mesozoic tectonics of the Arctic: New constraints from provenance studies,Taimyr, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Pease, V.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the tectonic development of the Arctic Ocean is important for understanding global tectonics and the framework of petroleum and mineral resources in the Arctic area. The Eurasia and Amerasia basins are the principal physiographic domains of the Arctic Ocean. The Eurasia Basin is known to be the result of slow seafloor spreading; the origin of the Amerasia Basin however remains controversial. Lack of information on the timing, structure, and geochemistry of geological units around the Amerasia Basin limits our ability to understand its development. The Taimyr Peninsula where Mesozoic deformation is well-developed provides a natural laboratory to investigate the tectonic development of the Amerasia Basin. Provenance studies of Taimyr constrain the source areas of Mesozoic sediments in the region and thus identify affinities between them. Detrital zircons from six samples of Triassic and Jurassic sandstone from Southern Taimyr were dated using LA-ICP-MS to test existing models for the opening of the Amerasia Basin. Two Triassic samples present great similarity in detrital zircon population with Triassic sandstone from the paleo-Taimyr river system, including Chukotka, the Wrangel Island and the New Siberian Islands. These samples all contain Permo-Triassic (236 - 250 Ma), Permo-Carboniferous (260 - 330 Ma), Devonian (340 - 390 Ma) late Precambrian-Silurian (420 - 580 Ma) and Neoproterozoic (620 - 1000 Ma) zircons. These detrital zircon ages suggest Triassic sediments in these locations may have been derived from Siberia Trap, Taimyr and the Ural Mountains of Arctic Russia. It is therefore likely that Taimyr, Chukotka, the Wrangel Island and the New Siberian Islands which are separated at present were close to each other or belonged to the same large drainage system before the opening of the Amerasia Basin. Two Middle Jurassic samples and two Upper Jurassic samples from Taimyr have dominant Permo-Triassic peaks (246 - 260 Ma) suggesting a proximal source

  17. Long-lived connection between southern Siberia and northern Laurentia in the Proterozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, R. E.; Hamilton, M. A.; Söderlund, U.; Hanes, J. A.; Gladkochub, D. P.; Okrugin, A. V.; Kolotilina, T.; Mekhonoshin, A. S.; Bleeker, W.; Lecheminant, A. N.; Buchan, K. L.; Chamberlain, K. R.; Didenko, A. N.

    2016-06-01

    Precambrian supercontinents Nuna-Columbia (1.7 to 1.3 billion years ago) and Rodinia (1.1 to 0.7 billion years ago) have been proposed. However, the arrangements of crustal blocks within these supercontinents are poorly known. Huge, dominantly basaltic magmatic outpourings and intrusions, covering up to millions of square kilometres, termed Large Igneous Provinces, typically accompany (super) continent breakup, or attempted breakup and offer an important tool for reconstructing supercontinents. Here we focus on the Large Igneous Province record for Siberia and Laurentia, whose relative position in Nuna-Columbia and Rodinia reconstructions is highly controversial. We present precise geochronology--nine U-Pb and six Ar-Ar ages--on dolerite dykes and sills, along with existing dates from the literature, that constrain the timing of emplacement of Large Igneous Province magmatism in southern Siberia and northern Laurentia between 1,900 and 720 million years ago. We identify four robust age matches between the continents 1,870, 1,750, 1,350 and 720 million years ago, as well as several additional approximate age correlations that indicate southern Siberia and northern Laurentia were probably near neighbours for this 1.2-billion-year interval. Our reconstructions provide a framework for evaluating the shared geological, tectonic and metallogenic histories of these continental blocks.

  18. Landscape-level soil profile inventories of soil organic matter with emphasis on cryoturbation in three regions of continuous permafrost (Zackenberg, Greenland; Taymyr Peninsula, Siberia; and Eastern Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmtag, Juri; Ramage, Justine; Hugelius, Gustaf; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Richter, Andreas; Kuhry, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The northern circumpolar permafrost region occupies about 16% of the global soil area and holds approximately 50% of the global soil organic carbon (SOC). We here describe the quantity and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) in three regions of continuous permafrost with an emphasis on the importance of cryoturbation for SOC storage. This study is based on landscape-level soil profile inventories to 1 m depth in five different study sites: Zackenberg (Greenland), Ary-Mas and Logata (Taymyr Peninsula, Siberia) and Shalaurovo and Chersky (Eastern Siberia). SOC storage and SOM composition is assessed using soil chemical, elemental and radiocarbon dating analysis. The estimated mean SOC storage for the top meter in Zackenberg is 8.3 kg C m-2 in comparison to 27.6 kg C m-2, 31.3 kg C m-2, 30.0 kg C m-2, 20.3 kg C m-2 in Ary-Mas, Logata, Shalaurovo and Chersky, respectively. Differences can largely be explained by poorly developed soils in the mountainous area of Zackenberg, but the quantity and distribution of buried, i.e. cryoturbated organic matter and the occurrence of SOC-rich peatland soils (fens and bogs) are also important factors.

  19. The Security of Russia's Nuclear Arsenal: The Human Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.Y.

    1999-10-12

    Assertions by the Russian military that all of their nuclear weapons are secure against theft and that nuclear units within the military are somehow insulated from the problems plaguing the Russian military should not be accepted uncritically. Accordingly, we should not give unwarranted credence to the pronouncements of military figures like Cal.-Gen. Igor Valynkin, Chief of the Defense Ministry's 12th Main Directorate, which oversees the country's nuclear arsenal. He contends that ''Russian nuclear weapons are under reliable supervision'' and that ''talk about the unreliability of our control over nuclear weapons has only one pragmatic goal--to convince international society that the country is incapable of maintaining nuclear safety and to introduce international oversight over those weapons, as it is done, for example, in Iraq.'' While the comparison to Iraq is preposterous, many analysts might agree with Valynkin's sanguine appraisal of the security of Russia's nuclear weapons. In contrast, I argue that the numerous difficulties confronting the military as a whole should cause concern in the West over the security of the Russian nuclear arsenal.

  20. Quaternary glaciations in the Verkhoyansk Mountains, Northeast Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauch, Georg; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2010-07-01

    Geomorphological mapping revealed five terminal moraines in the central Verkhoyansk Mountains. The youngest terminal moraine (I) was formed at least 50 ka ago according to new IRSL (infrared optically stimulated luminescence) dates. Older terminal moraines in the western foreland of the mountains are much more extensive in size. Although the smallest of these older moraines, moraine II, has not been dated, moraine III is 80 to 90 ka, moraine IV is 100 to 120 ka, and the outermost moraine V was deposited around 135 ka. This glaciation history is comparable to that of the Barents and Kara ice sheet and partly to that of the Polar Ural Mountains regarding the timing of the glaciations. However, no glaciation occurred during the global last glacial maximum (MIS 2). Based on cirque orientation and different glacier extent on the eastern and western flanks of the Verkhoyansk Mountains, local glaciations are mainly controlled by moisture transport from the west across the Eurasian continent. Thus glaciations in the Verkhoyansk Mountains not only express local climate changes but also are strongly influenced by the extent of the Eurasian ice sheets.

  1. Historical earthquakes studies in Eastern Siberia: State-of-the-art and plans for future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziminovich, Ya. B.; Shchetnikov, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Many problems in investigating historical seismicity of East Siberia remain unsolved. A list of these problems may refer particularly to the quality and reliability of data sources, completeness of parametric earthquake catalogues, and precision and transparency of estimates for the main parameters of historical earthquakes. The main purpose of this paper is to highlight the current status of the studies of historical seismicity in Eastern Siberia, as well as analysis of existing macroseismic and parametric earthquake catalogues. We also made an attempt to identify the main shortcomings of existing catalogues and to clarify the reasons for their appearance in the light of the history of seismic observations in Eastern Siberia. Contentious issues in the catalogues of earthquakes are considered by the example of three strong historical earthquakes, important for assessing seismic hazard in the region. In particular, it was found that due to technical error the parameters of large M = 7.7 earthquakes of 1742 were transferred from the regional catalogue to the worldwide database with incorrect epicenter coordinates. The way some stereotypes concerning active tectonics influences on the localization of the epicenter is shown by the example of a strong М = 6.4 earthquake of 1814. Effect of insufficient use of the primary data source on completeness of earthquake catalogues is illustrated by the example of a strong M = 7.0 event of 1859. Analysis of the state-of-the-art of historical earthquakes studies in Eastern Siberia allows us to propose the following activities in the near future: (1) database compilation including initial descriptions of macroseismic effects with reference to their place and time of occurrence; (2) parameterization of the maximum possible (magnitude-unlimited) number of historical earthquakes on the basis of all the data available; (3) compilation of an improved version of the parametric historical earthquake catalogue for East Siberia with

  2. Climatological conditions of enhanced Arctic storm activity in relation to permafrost degradation in eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Y.; Nakamura, T.; PARK, H.; Fedorov, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    The last decade (2000-2010) was the warmest on record at high northern latitudes. Surface air temperature anomalies and associated sea level pressure fields in Arctic exhibited different spatial patterns at the beginning of the 21st century than they did throughout the majority of the 20th century. In eastern Siberia, the abrupt soil warming within upper permafrost layer and deepening active layer thickness has observed in response to increasing in soil moisture under wet hydro-climatic conditions during the warming period of 2000s. According to climatological analyses, the large positive anomalies of both rainfall and snow accumulation in eastern Siberia are caused by strengthened cyclonic pattern in these years which induce more water vapor advection. These anomalies are more enhanced than those before 1990s and continuously appear after 2004. Long-term simulation of permafrost temperature and active layer thickness using a sophisticated land surface model (CHANGE) was carried out. The correlations between precipitation in late summer and soil temperature showed that the most regions exhibited either negative or not significant correlations between precipitation and soil temperature during the past period (1961-1980), whereas positive correlations were observed during the recent period (1991-2009). A region of significantly positive correlation was observed along the Siberian coast and in eastern Siberia and could have corresponded with areas of increased storm activity. The soil warming is thus due to not only increasing in snow accumulation which is well-known relationship by previous studies but also increasing in rainfall in late summer which furthermore accelerates the warming due to changes in hydro-thermal properties within the active layer. The precipitation increase in the last decade led to deepening active layer accompanying with remarkable increase in soil moisture. The perennially waterlogged conditions had exacerbated the boreal forest habitat; that

  3. Flooding of the Taz, Pur, and Yenisey Rivers, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Each spring and summer, rivers across Siberia experience flooding as the waters in the south begin to melt and run before the ice has retreated from the northern limits. The ice causes jams which are sometimes loosened up using explosives. This pair of MODIS images from June 18, 2002, shows flooding on the Pur (left), Taz (center), and Yenisey (right) Rivers in central Siberia. In the false-color image, ice and snow are red, clouds are white, water is black, and vegetation is green. Bare soil is brown. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  4. From East to West: patterns of genetic diversity of populations living in four Eurasian regions.

    PubMed

    Kutuev, I; Khusainova, R; Karunas, A; Yunusbayev, B; Fedorova, S; Lebedev, Y; Hunsmann, G; Khusnutdinova, E

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed the distribution and patterns of the genetic diversity of eight Alu loci (ACE, ApoA1, PV92, TPA25, NBC27, NBC102, NBC148, and NBC182) in 1,049 individuals representing 16 populations of the Volga-Ural region (Bashkirs, Tatars, Komis, Maris, Mordvins, and Udmurts), Central Asia (Kazakhs, Uzbeks, and Uighurs), the North Caucasus (Karachays, Kumyks, Kuban Nogays, and Karanogays), and Central South Siberia (Yakuts, Kalmyks and Evenks). Geographic divide between Europe and Asia, e.g. the Ural Mountains and the Caspian Sea, can also be considered as a genetic boundary. The data indicates that the populations of the two boundary regions between Europe and Asia, the Volga-Ural region of Russia, and populations of the North Caucasus are more similar to European than to Asian populations. Finally, Siberian and Central Asian populations are genetically closely related to each other.

  5. From East to West: patterns of genetic diversity of populations living in four Eurasian regions.

    PubMed

    Kutuev, I; Khusainova, R; Karunas, A; Yunusbayev, B; Fedorova, S; Lebedev, Y; Hunsmann, G; Khusnutdinova, E

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed the distribution and patterns of the genetic diversity of eight Alu loci (ACE, ApoA1, PV92, TPA25, NBC27, NBC102, NBC148, and NBC182) in 1,049 individuals representing 16 populations of the Volga-Ural region (Bashkirs, Tatars, Komis, Maris, Mordvins, and Udmurts), Central Asia (Kazakhs, Uzbeks, and Uighurs), the North Caucasus (Karachays, Kumyks, Kuban Nogays, and Karanogays), and Central South Siberia (Yakuts, Kalmyks and Evenks). Geographic divide between Europe and Asia, e.g. the Ural Mountains and the Caspian Sea, can also be considered as a genetic boundary. The data indicates that the populations of the two boundary regions between Europe and Asia, the Volga-Ural region of Russia, and populations of the North Caucasus are more similar to European than to Asian populations. Finally, Siberian and Central Asian populations are genetically closely related to each other. PMID:16465065

  6. Russia clamps downs on data release

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-30

    This paper reports that Russia is stepping up enforcement of laws banning unauthorized release of detailed geological and geophysical data to foreign companies. But companies authorized to sell or license information about Russian minerals say the stricter oversight isn't affecting their activities. That's because the effort is intended to curb illegal sales of data by Russian regional organizations and federal agencies. In addition, Russia's state tax department and ministries of finance and justice are considering sanctions to be imposed for violations of lawful procedures. The added vigilance by Russian officials likely will help clear up confusion among foreign companies, resulting from vague laws and regulations, about how and from whom data may be obtained obtained legally.

  7. Urbanization data of Samara city, Russia.

    PubMed

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    A method has been developed for urbanization by using satellite data and socio-economic data. These datasets consists three decade Landsat images and population data. A detailed description using flow chart is given to show how to use this data to produce land use/cove maps. The land use/cove maps were used to know the urban growth in Samara City, Russia. PMID:26937466

  8. Urbanization data of Samara city, Russia.

    PubMed

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    A method has been developed for urbanization by using satellite data and socio-economic data. These datasets consists three decade Landsat images and population data. A detailed description using flow chart is given to show how to use this data to produce land use/cove maps. The land use/cove maps were used to know the urban growth in Samara City, Russia.

  9. Urbanization data of Samara city, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    A method has been developed for urbanization by using satellite data and socio-economic data. These datasets consists three decade Landsat images and population data. A detailed description using flow chart is given to show how to use this data to produce land use/cove maps. The land use/cove maps were used to know the urban growth in Samara City, Russia. PMID:26937466

  10. Treatment needs, diagnoses and use of services for acutely admitted psychiatric patients in northwest Russia and northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We compared demography, diagnoses and clinical needs in acutely admitted psychiatric hospital patients in northwest Russia and northern Norway. Method All acutely admitted psychiatric patients in 1 psychiatric hospital in north-west Russia and 2 in northern Norway were in a three months period assessed with HoNOS and a Norwegian form developed to study acute psychiatric services (MAP). Data from a total of 841 patients were analysed (377 Norwegian, 464 Russian) with univariate and multivariate statistics. Results Russian patients were more often males who had paid work. 2/3 were diagnosed with alcohol and organic disorders, and 70% reported problems related to sleep. Depression was widespread, as were problems associated with occupation. Many more Norwegian patients were on various forms of social security and lived in community supported homes. They had a clinical profile of affective disorders, use of drugs, suicidality and problems with activities involved of daily life. Slightly more Norwegian patients were involuntary admitted. Conclusion Acutely admitted psychiatric patients in North West Russia and Northern Norwegian showed different clinical profiles: alcohol, depression and organic disorders characterised Russian patients, affective disorders, suicidality and use of drugs characterised the Norwegians. Whereas Norwegian patients are mainly referred from GPs the Russians come via 1.line psychiatric services (“dispensaries”). Average length of stay for Russian patients was 2.5 times longer than that of the Norwegian. PMID:23317010

  11. Hydrodaynamic - Statistical Forecast Method To 36-48h Ahead Of Storm Wind And Tornadoes Over The Territory Of Europe And Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perekhodtseva, Elvira V.

    2010-05-01

    calculations of the discriminant functions in the nodes of the grid 75x75km and the values of probabilities P of dangerous wind and thus to get fully automated forecasts. . In order to apply the alternative forecast to European part of Russia and Europe the author proposes the empirical threshold values specified for this phenomenon and advance period 36 hours. According to the Pirsey-Obukhov criterion (T), the success of this hydrometeorological-statistical method of forecast of storm wind and tornadoes to 36 -48 hours ahead in the warm season for the territory of Europe part of Russia and Siberia is T = 1-a-b=0,54-0,78 after independent and author experiments during the period 2004-2009 years. A lot of examples of very successful forecasts are submitted at this report for the territory of Europe and Russia. The same decisive rules were applied to the forecast of these phenomena during cold period in 2009-2010 years too. On the first month of 2010 a lot of cases of storm wind with heavy snowfall were observed and were forecasting over the territory of France, Italy and Germany.

  12. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    PubMed

    Shamtsyan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements.

  13. When did "scientific psychology" begin in Russia?

    PubMed

    Sirotkina, Irina

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of the institutionalisation of psychology in Russia was as complex as in other countries. The institutionalisation was more than a single event or even a series of events: it was a manifold process that involved various actors, groups, and political parties, and took at least several decades. Psychology was taught within the subject of philosophy, but as a separate course, at high schools, from the early nineteenth century. When, in mid-century, philosophy was banned from universities for political reasons, logic and psychology still remained in the curriculum. Psychology became a contested area in the 1860s, with the rise of the radical movement that accompanied the abolition of serfdom and other reforms. The young radicals, or nihilists, favoured positive science and gave clear preference to physiology; at medical schools, psychology gradually became part of physiology and psychiatry teaching. Psychiatric clinics provided a venue for the first psychological experiments; the first courses in experimental psychology were also taught to psychiatry students. At the turn of the century, humanities departments joined in by opening laboratories and adding courses in experimental psychology to the philosophical psychology traditionally taught. Yet by 1917, the year when the monarchy ended in Russia, only two universities, in Moscow and Odessa, had succeeded in founding laboratories. The institutionalisation of psychology on a mass scale followed the Bolshevik revolution in Russia. The new communist regime facilitated the country's modernisation, and psychology became one of its instruments. PMID:19569437

  14. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    PubMed

    Shamtsyan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. PMID:23633268

  15. Microbiological composition of river waters in the Ob’ basin (West Siberia) and its associations with hydrochemical indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savichev, O. G.; Tokarenko, O. G.; Pasechnik, E. Yu; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Ivanova, E. A.; Nadeina, L. V.

    2015-11-01

    Chemical and microbiological composition of the Mid-Ob’ and its feeders’ waters has been studied. Swampiness of the area is the cause of significant organic and biogenic substance content in streams, and it is also responsible for a large variety of organotrophic microflora. Microbiological composition of studied streams characterizes them as contaminated. Settlements are the main sources of the investigated area water pollution.

  16. Transformation of soil organic matter in leached chernozems under minimized treatment in the forest-steppe of West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, I. N.; Samokhvalova, L. M.; Mishina, P. V.

    2016-07-01

    Changes in the contents of total organic carbon and the carbon of easily mineralizable fractions of organic matter (labile humus, detritus, and mortmass) in the layers of 0-10, 10-25, and 0-25 cm were studied in leached chernozems ((Luvic Chernozems (Loamic, Aric)) subjected to deep plowing and surface tillage for nine years. In the layer of 0-25 cm, the content of Corg did not show significant difference between these two treatments and comprised 3.68-3.92% in the case of deep plowing and 3.63-4.08% in the case of surface tillage. Tillage practices greatly affected the distribution of easily mineralizable fractions of organic matter in the layers of 0-10 and 10-25 cm, though the difference between two treatments for the entire layer (0-25 cm) was insignificant. Surface tillage resulted in the increase in the contents of mortmass (by 59%), detritus (by 32%), and labile humus (by 8%) in the layer of 0-10 cm in comparison with deep plowing. At the same time, the contents of these fractions in the layer of 10-25 cm in the surface tillage treatment decreased by 67, 46, and 3%, respectively. The estimate of the nitrogen-mineralizing capacity made according to the data on the uptake of soil nitrogen by oat plants in a special greenhouse experiment confirmed the observed regularities of the redistribution of easily mineralizable organic matter fractions by the soil layers. In case of surface tillage, it increased by 23% in the layer of 0-10 cm; for the layer of 0-25 cm, no significant differences in the uptake of nitrogen by oat plants were found for the two studied treatments.

  17. Methane emissions from lakes in West Siberian wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantsev, Vladimir; Glagolev, Mihail; Golubyatnikov, Leonid; Maksutov, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    Wetland lakes are less studied component in the methane emission inventories. We investigated methane fluxes in lakes situated in wetlands in most eco-regions of West Siberia including taiga (16 sites overall in sub-taiga, southern taiga, middle taiga, northern taiga), forest-steppe (1 site), forested tundra (1 site) and tundra (5 sites). Flux measurements were made during summer and autumn of 2007 and summer of 2008 and 2009. We used static chambers with base size of 40x40 cm and height of 30 cm and 40 cm floated on water surface. Each observation included collecting 4 samples in a 7-10 minute time step. Methane concentrations in samples were determined with the GC-FID. Concentration trend during exposure and fluxes were calculated with linear regression of concentration versus time. Environmental factors (pH, EC and temperature profile) were measured at each site. Mean fluxes by eco-region and corresponding statistics were obtained. In the following list, numbers in parenthesis are in the given order: 1st quartile/median/3rd quartile: forest-steppe - 98.0/125.6/146.0; sub-taiga - 62.0/84.6/170.3; southern taiga - 2.4/3.8/12.5; middle taiga - 0.1/0.4/1.4; northern taiga - 0.01/0.1/1.2; forested tundra - 0.3/0.6/1.4; tundra - 0.3/0.6/1.1 mgC-CH4m-2h-1. Interestingly, tundra fluxes are same as in the forested tundra to the south, and forest-steppe fluxes are much higher than on the other areas. Observed emission rates vary along with a combination of two factors: eco-region and pH. Probably, eco-region type connects with temperature, and pH connects with conditions of mineral supply. Emission rate dependence on pH has maximum around with pH = 5.2-5.4. Fluxes of CH4 from the lakes in the forest-steppe and sub-taiga are higher than in surrounding wetlands, while lake fluxes in other climate regions of West Siberia are comparable with those from the corresponding wetlands. Our data concur with previous report by (Repo et al, 2007), who observed fluxes at two sites in

  18. [Changes in the ranges of pasture ixodid ticks of the genus Ixodes Latr., 1795 (Parasitiformes, Ixodinae) in Western Siberia].

    PubMed

    Mal'kova, M G; Iakimenko, V V; Tantsev, A K

    2012-01-01

    The character of distribution of two species from the genus Ixodes, the Taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes pavlovskyi in the plain part of Western Siberia is analyzed. The northern border of the range of I. persulcatus in HMAO-Ugra was clarified on the basis of long-term data on the population density of adult and immature ticks (1960-2011). The shift of the southern border of the species range in Western Siberia at the background of anthropogenic transformation (forest restoring activity, stopped sanitary forest cutting, road construction etc) is demonstrated; peculiarities of the distribution of the Taiga tick in some localities of the southwestern Siberia is analyzed. The modern state of the tick population in the joint dwelling zone of I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi is characterized. Possible reasons of changes in the structure of tick communities toward total prevalence of I. pavlovskyi in recreation zones of Novosibirsk and Tomsk are discussed. It is noted that the most significant changes in the character of distribution of these two tick species in Western Siberia had evidently occurred after 1990. Just in this period, local stable populations of the Taiga tick to the south of its main range in Western Siberia (within Omsk and Novosibirsk Provinces) were formed; the character of its distribution in the right bank of the Ob River (Novosibirsk Province) and in the valley of the Tom River (Tomsk Province) had changed; I. pavlovskyi became the dominating species.

  19. Of interest to the specialist - patents of the West Siberian Metallurgical Combine

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Russia`s West Siberian Metallurgical Combine reports on several patents that have been granted for advances in smelting and ore refining processes. The patents include: mechanized unit for cleaning door frames, linings and jambs in coke-oven batteries; sinter production on conveyor-type machines; a new technique for sampling molten smelting products; a new lubricant for ingot molds that is free from volatile compounds; a new grade of steel for quenched and tempered reinforcing bars of classes At-IV and At-VI; a machine for packaging and fastening rolled sections of steel; and two new techniques for heat-treatment of rolled steel products.

  20. West Nile virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... believe West Nile virus is spread when a mosquito bites an infected bird and then bites a person. ... avoid getting West Nile virus infection after a mosquito bite. People in good health generally do not develop ...

  1. Russian-US Partnership to Study the 23-km-diameter El'gygtgyn Impact Crater, Northeast Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.; Minyuk, Pavel S.; Brigham-Grette, Julie; Glushkova, Olga; Layer, Paul; Raikevich, Mikhail; Stone, David; Smirnov, Valdimir

    2002-01-01

    El'gygytgyn crater, located within Eastern Siberia, is a Pliocene-aged (3.6 Ma), well-preserved impact crater with a rim diameter of roughly 23 km. The target rocks are a coherent assemblage of crystalline rocks ranging from andesite to basalt. At the time of impact the region was forested and the Arctic Ocean was nearly ice-free. A 15-km lake fills the center of the feature and water depths are approximately 175 m. Evidence of shock metamorphism, -- including coesite, fused mineral glasses, and planar deformation features in quartz -- has been reported. This feature is one of the youngest and best preserved complex craters on Earth. Because of its remote Arctic setting, however, El gygytgyn crater remains poorly investigated. The objectives of this three-year project are to establish and maintain a research partnership between scientists from Russia and the United States interested in the El gygytgyn crater. The principal institutions in the U.S. will be the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks and the University of Massachusetts Amherst. The principal institution in Russia will be the North East Interdisciplinary Scientific Research Institute (NEISRI), which is the Far-East Branch of the Russian Academy of Science. Three science tasks are identified for the exchange program: (1) Evaluate impactite samples collected during previous field excursions for evidence of and level of shock deformation. (2) Build a high-resolution digital elevation model for the crater and its surroundings using interferometric synthetic aperture radar techniques on JERS-1, ERS-1, ERS-2, and/or RadarSat range-doppler data. (3) Gather all existing surface data available from Russian and U.S. institutions (DEM, remote sensing image data, field-based lithological and sample maps, and existing geophysical data) and assemble into a Geographic Information Systems database.

  2. Landscape and zonal features of the formation of producing economy in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Natalia, Erman

    2016-04-01

    Based on analysis of the extensive source base, including complex landscape, component, paleogeographic and archeological published and scientific materials as well as the connected analysis of published paleogeographical, paleolandscape and historical and geographic maps of the territory of Russia landscape and zonal features of the transition from appropriating economy to producing economy were determined. All the specifics of historical changes in the landscape use of the vast areas of Russia is caused by the variety of its landscape zones and the specifics of their constituent landscapes. Human economic activities as a factor of differentiation and development of landscapes became apparent almost in all landscape zones together with the emergence of the producing type of economy from the Aeneolithic-Bronze Age (Atlantic period) in the southern steppe regions (in the northern areas of the main centers of the producing economy) and from the Bronze Age in the forest areas. The emergence of the producing economy in the forest-steppe and steppe landscape zones on the territory of Russia is dated IV (Aeneolithic) - III (Early Bronze Age) millennium BC. It is from this period that on the European part of Russia and in Siberia the so-called Neolithic revolution begins. The use of copper and bronze axes helped to develop new areas for planting crops in the forest-steppe zone. In the forest-steppe zone swidden and lea tillage cultivation develops. In the steppe and forest-steppe Eurasia depending on the local landscape conditions two ways of producing economy with a predominance of cattle-breeding developed: nomadic cattle breeding and house cattle breeding with a significant influence of agriculture in the economy and long-term settlements. The steppe areas were completely dominated by the mobile nomadic herding, breeding cattle and small cattle. Along with the valley landscapes the interfluvial landscapes were also actively explored. Almost in all the steppe areas

  3. Y-chromosome distribution within the geo-linguistic landscape of northwestern Russia.

    PubMed

    Mirabal, Sheyla; Regueiro, Maria; Cadenas, Alicia M; Cavalli-Sforza, L Luca; Underhill, Peter A; Verbenko, Dmitry A; Limborska, Svetlana A; Herrera, Rene J

    2009-10-01

    Populations of northeastern Europe and the Uralic mountain range are found in close geographic proximity, but they have been subject to different demographic histories. The current study attempts to better understand the genetic paternal relationships of ethnic groups residing in these regions. We have performed high-resolution haplotyping of 236 Y-chromosomes from populations in northwestern Russia and the Uralic mountains, and compared them to relevant previously published data. Haplotype variation and age estimation analyses using 15 Y-STR loci were conducted for samples within the N1b, N1c1 and R1a1 single-nucleotide polymorphism backgrounds. Our results suggest that although most genetic relationships throughout Eurasia are dependent on geographic proximity, members of the Uralic and Slavic linguistic families and subfamilies, yield significant correlations at both levels of comparison making it difficult to denote either linguistics or geographic proximity as the basis for their genetic substrata. Expansion times for haplogroup R1a1 date approximately to 18,000 YBP, and age estimates along with Network topology of populations found at opposite poles of its range (Eastern Europe and South Asia) indicate that two separate haplotypic foci exist within this haplogroup. Data based on haplogroup N1b challenge earlier findings and suggest that the mutation may have occurred in the Uralic range rather than in Siberia and much earlier than has been proposed (12.9+/-4.1 instead of 5.2+/-2.7 kya). In addition, age and variance estimates for haplogroup N1c1 suggest that populations from the western Urals may have been genetically influenced by a dispersal from northeastern Europe (eg, eastern Slavs) rather than the converse.

  4. Y-Chromosome distribution within the geo-linguistic landscape of northwestern Russia

    PubMed Central

    Mirabal, Sheyla; Regueiro, Maria; Cadenas, Alicia M; Cavalli-Sforza, L Luca; Underhill, Peter A; Verbenko, Dmitry A; Limborska, Svetlana A; Herrera, Rene J

    2009-01-01

    Populations of northeastern Europe and the Uralic mountain range are found in close geographic proximity, but they have been subject to different demographic histories. The current study attempts to better understand the genetic paternal relationships of ethnic groups residing in these regions. We have performed high-resolution haplotyping of 236 Y-chromosomes from populations in northwestern Russia and the Uralic mountains, and compared them to relevant previously published data. Haplotype variation and age estimation analyses using 15 Y-STR loci were conducted for samples within the N1b, N1c1 and R1a1 single-nucleotide polymorphism backgrounds. Our results suggest that although most genetic relationships throughout Eurasia are dependent on geographic proximity, members of the Uralic and Slavic linguistic families and subfamilies, yield significant correlations at both levels of comparison making it difficult to denote either linguistics or geographic proximity as the basis for their genetic substrata. Expansion times for haplogroup R1a1 date approximately to 18 000 YBP, and age estimates along with Network topology of populations found at opposite poles of its range (Eastern Europe and South Asia) indicate that two separate haplotypic foci exist within this haplogroup. Data based on haplogroup N1b challenge earlier findings and suggest that the mutation may have occurred in the Uralic range rather than in Siberia and much earlier than has been proposed (12.9±4.1 instead of 5.2±2.7 kya). In addition, age and variance estimates for haplogroup N1c1 suggest that populations from the western Urals may have been genetically influenced by a dispersal from northeastern Europe (eg, eastern Slavs) rather than the converse. PMID:19259129

  5. Khatyrka, a new CV3 find from the Koryak Mountains, Eastern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, Glenn J.; Andronicos, Christopher L.; Bindi, Luca; Distler, Vadim V.; Eddy, Michael P.; Eiler, John M.; Guan, Yunbin; Hollister, Lincoln S.; Kostin, Alexander; Kryachko, Valery; Steinhardt, William M.; Yudovskaya, Marina; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2013-08-01

    A new meteorite find, named Khatyrka, was recovered from eastern Siberia as a result of a search for naturally occurring quasicrystals. The meteorite occurs as clastic grains within postglacial clay-rich layers along the banks of a small stream in the Koryak Mountains, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug of far eastern Russia. Some of the grains are clearly chondritic and contain Type IA porphyritic olivine chondrules enclosed in matrices that have the characteristic platy olivine texture, matrix olivine composition, and mineralogy (olivine, pentlandite, nickel-rich iron-nickel metal, nepheline, and calcic pyroxene [diopside-hedenbergite solid solution]) of oxidized-subgroup CV3 chondrites. A few grains are fine-grained spinel-rich calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with mineral oxygen isotopic compositions again typical of such objects in CV3 chondrites. The chondritic and CAI grains contain small fragments of metallic copper-aluminum-iron alloys that include the quasicrystalline phase icosahedrite. One grain is an achondritic intergrowth of Cu-Al metal alloys and forsteritic olivine ± diopsidic pyroxene, both of which have meteoritic (CV3-like) oxygen isotopic compositions. Finally, some grains consist almost entirely of metallic alloys of aluminum + copper ± iron. The Cu-Al-Fe metal alloys and the alloy-bearing achondrite clast are interpreted to be an accretionary component of what otherwise is a fairly normal CV3 (oxidized) chondrite. This association of CV3 chondritic grains with metallic copper-aluminum alloys makes Khatyrka a unique meteorite, perhaps best described as a complex CV3 (ox) breccia.

  6. America's Historic West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    Settlers who pushed west over the Great Divide to the shores of the Pacific Ocean found the American West to be an expanse of extreme differences in time, topography, and ways of life. This paper elaborates on several historic sites in the American West. The purpose of the paper is to introduce a series of places to the students and teachers of…

  7. Recent ecohydrological change in relation to permafrost degradation in eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Y.; Fedorov, A. N.; Maximov, T. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recently, our continuous observations during the last decade revealed considerable evidence of abrupt land surface moistening and synchronized rapid soil warming within active layer and upper part of permafrost in the central Lena River basin in eastern Siberia. The present study focuses firstly on the linkage between atmospheric and land surface variations in eastern Siberia in terms of the hydrothermal variations within the surface layer of the permafrost and influence of storm track activity in Arctic during pre-winter and snow start season and moreover on the linkage between the permafrost degradation and ecohydrological change in this region. We utilized soil temperature, moisture and active layer thickness data from the observational network in the left and right banks of the Lena River in the Yakutsk area. Daily data of precipitation and snow depth and reanalysis dataset were used to analyze the large-scale atmospheric fields and determine storm-track activity. The peculiar feature of the warming is that the soil moisture correspondingly increases within the active layer observed at many sites in the Yakutsk area. This hydro-thermal change is primarily due to wetting climate conditions rather than atmospheric warming with abnormally large amounts of winter snow accumulation and summer precipitation in the central and southern part of the Lena River basin. The wetting conditions in eastern Siberia are likely due to enhancement of cyclonic anomaly over the Arctic Ocean and eastward propagation of storm activities in summer and early winter. Water vapor flux from Pacific side (Okhotsk sea) was enhanced in conjunction with the manifested precipitation over the eastern Siberia. As results, consecutive positive anomalies of winter snow accumulation and next summer precipitation which had seldom occurred in the second half of the last century in eastern Siberia effectively humidified land surface on the permafrost region after 2005 resulting abrupt soil warming in

  8. Endurance of larch forest ecosystems in eastern Siberia under warming trends.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Hideki; Iwahana, Go; Ohta, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    The larch (Larix spp.) forest in eastern Siberia is the world's largest coniferous forest. Its persistence is considered to depend on near-surface permafrost, and thus, forecast warming over the 21st century and consequent degradation of near-surface permafrost is expected to affect the larch forest in Siberia. However, predictions of these effects vary greatly, and many uncertainties remain about land - atmosphere interactions within the ecosystem. We developed an integrated land surface model to analyze how the Siberian larch forest will react to current warming trends. This model analyzed interactions between vegetation dynamics and thermo-hydrology, although it does not consider many processes those are considered to affect productivity response to a changing climate (e.g., nitrogen limitation, waterlogged soil, heat stress, and change in species composition). The model showed that, under climatic conditions predicted under gradual and rapid warming, the annual net primary production of larch increased about 2 and 3 times, respectively, by the end of the 21st century compared with that in the previous century. Soil water content during the larch-growing season showed no obvious trend, even when surface permafrost was allowed to decay and result in subsurface runoff. A sensitivity test showed that the forecast temperature and precipitation trends extended larch leafing days and reduced water shortages during the growing season, thereby increasing productivity. The integrated model also satisfactorily reconstructed latitudinal gradients in permafrost presence, soil moisture, tree leaf area index, and biomass over the entire larch-dominated area in eastern Siberia. Projected changes to ecosystem hydrology and larch productivity at this geographical scale were consistent with those from site-level simulation. This study reduces the uncertainty surrounding the impact of current climate trends on this globally important carbon reservoir, and it demonstrates the need

  9. Fire Impact on Phytomass and Carbon Emissions in the Forests of Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Galina A.; Zhila, Sergei V.; Ivanov, Valery A.; Kovaleva, Nataly M.; Kukavskaya, Elena A.; Platonova, Irina A.; Conard, Susan G.

    2014-05-01

    Siberian boreal forests contribute considerably to the global carbon budget, since they take up vast areas, accumulate large amount of carbon, and are sensitive to climatic changes. Fire is the main forest disturbance factor, covering up to millions of hectares of boreal forests annually, of which the majority is in Siberia. Carbon emissions released from phytomass burning influence atmospheric chemistry and global carbon cycling. Changing climate and land use influence the number and intensity of wildfires, forest state, and productivity, as well as global carbon balance. Fire effects on forest overstory, subcanopy woody layer, and ground vegetation phytomass were estimated on sites in light-conifer forests of the Central Siberia as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). This study focuses on collecting quantitative data and modeling the influence of fires of varying intensity on fire emissions, carbon budget, and ecosystem processes in coniferous stands. Fires have a profound impact on forest-atmospheric carbon exchange and transform forests from carbon sinks to carbon sources lasting long after the time of burning. Our long-term experiments allowed us to identify vegetation succession patterns in taiga Scots pine stands after fires of known behavior. Estimating fire contributions to the carbon budget requires consideration of many factors, including vegetation type and fire type and intensity. Carbon emissions were found to depend on fire intensity and weather. In the first several years after fire, the above-ground phytomass appeared to be strongly controlled by fire intensity. However, the influence of burning intensity on organic matter accumulation was found to decrease with time.

  10. Factors promoting larch dominance in Eastern Siberia: fire versus growth performance and implications for carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, E.-D.; Wirth, C.; Mollicone, D.; von Lüpke, N.; Ziegler, W.; Achard, F.; Mund, M.; Prokushkin, A.; Scherbina, S.

    2012-01-01

    The relative roles of fire and climate in determining canopy species composition and aboveground carbon stocks were investigated. Measurements were made along a transect extending from the dark taiga zone of Central Siberia, where Picea and Abies dominate the canopy, into the Larix zone of Eastern Siberia. We test the hypotheses that the change in canopy species composition is based (1) on climate-driven performance only, (2) on fire only, or (3) on fire-performance interactions. We show that the evergreen conifers Picea obovata and Abies sibirica are the natural late-successional species both in Central and Eastern Siberia, provided there has been no fire for an extended period of time. There are no changes in the climate-driven performance of the observed species. Fire appears to be the main factor explaining the dominance of Larix. Of lesser influence were longitude, hydrology and active-layer thickness. Stand-replacing fires decreased from 300 to 50 yr between the Yenisei Ridge and the upper Tunguska. Repeated non-stand-replacing surface fires eliminated the regeneration of Abies and Picea. With every 100 yr since the last fire, the percentage of Larix decreased by 20 %. Biomass of stems of single trees did not show signs of age-related decline. Relative diameter increment was 0.41 ± 0.20 % at breast height and stem volume increased linearly over time with a rate of about 0.36 t C ha-1 yr-1 independent of age class and species. Stand volumes reached about 130 t C ha-1 (equivalent to about 520 m3 ha-1). Individual trees of Larix were older than 600 yr. The maximum age and biomass seemed to be limited by fungal rot of heart wood. 60 % of old Larix and Picea and 30 % of Pinus sibirica trees were affected by stem rot. Implications for the future role of fire and of plant diseases are discussed.

  11. The Ioko-Dovyren layered massif (Southern Siberia, Russia): 1. Internal structure, magma compositions, and fingerprints of open magma chamber behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariskin, Alexey; Danyushevsky, Leonid; Nikolaev, Georgy

    2013-04-01

    The Yoko-Dovyren massif (YDM) is located ~60 km to NE of the Baikal Lake, being morphologically a ridge of 26 km long and up to 2114 m high. Geologically, the pluton is a lens-shaped body (up to 3.5 thick) which together with associated peridotite sills, diabase dikes, and overlying volcanics represents a volcanic-plutonic association (728+/-2.4 Ma [1]), formed in the Late Riphean within a huge rifting system (the Olokit trough) at the southern margin of the Siberian craton. A unique feature of the regional geology is the concordance of the igneous rocks with the enclosing carbonate-terrigenous sediments along its strike and dip, which is nearly vertical due to post-intrusive folding. This allows one to sample the intrusive complex across the strike, from the lower to upper contacts. The modal layering of YDM includes a bottom unit of plagioclase lherzolites (100-150 m) followed by a succession of cumulates including: Pl-bearing and adcumulate dunites (Ol+Chr, 800-900 m), troctolite (Ol+Pl+Chr, ~700 m), Ol gabbro (Pl+Ol+Cpx, Pig-gabbro and quartz gabbronorites (Pl+Cpx±Opx±Pig). Despite its Precambrian age, YDM was not metamorphosed significantly, so that most of intrusive rocks are very fresh, preserving both their igneous textures and original mineralogy. Parental magma compositions have been evaluated based on studies of the chilled zones and underlying ultramafic sills. The most primitive rocks of YDM have been discovered at the lower contact composed of chilled diabases and picritic rocks containing variable amounts of Ol, and ophitic textures of their groundmass. The FeO-MgO trend displayed by these high porosity cumulates suggests them to contain originally olivine ~Fo88. The COMAGMAT model calculations indicate the initial temperature of the heterogeneous magma is to be of 1310oC, with the magmatic melt containing ~12% MgO [2]. Using this composition as starting one, we simulated the parent crystallization sequence which corresponds to that observed in the YDM cumulates. Estimates for Ol-gabbronorites and Pl-dunites from ultramafic sills result in more evolved magma containing Ol~Fo85 at T~1190oC. Both geochemical and cumulate structure of YDM is indicative of a significant amount of mafic melts to be extracted from the original cumulate piles, followed by their expulsion from the magma staging chamber. Fingerprints of such an open-system behavior are recorded in (1) strong depletion in incompatible elements of the bulk YDM composition with respect to parental magmas, (2) a complimentary "over-enrichment" with Ol cumulates and sulfides, (3) insignificant variations of Ol composition throughout the Layered Series, and (4) the absence of the Upper Border Series as a marginal compositional reversal. This research was supported by AngloAmerican, BHP Billiton and Votorantim Metais through AMIRA project P962, by the Australian Research Council funding to the CODES, and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects 08-05-00194a, 11-05-00268a). [1] Ariskin et al. (2013) Geochem. Intern. [2] Ariskin et al. (2012)Abs. 12th Intern. Ni-Cu-(PGE) symp. (China)

  12. Investigation of the tritium content in surface water, bottom sediments (zoobenthos), macrophytes, and fish in the mid-stream region of the Yenisei River (Siberia, Russia).

    PubMed

    Bondareva, Lydia; Schultz, Michael K

    2015-11-01

    The potential sources of tritium input to the Yenisei River ecosystem are derived from local operations of nuclear facilities of the Mining and Chemical Combine operated by the state-owned Rosatom corporation and from sources derived from global weapons testing fallout and nuclear power. The background tritium concentrations in zoobenthos, bottom sediments, relevant commercial fish species, and widespread endogenous aquatic plants have been obtained for the first time in this region. Our results demonstrate that the major input term of tritium to this region of the Yenisei is derived from nearby mining operations of Rosatom, with tritium concentrations in aquatic plants marginally exceeding the observed background values obtained from upstream control sample collection sites. PMID:26178837

  13. REE, Uranium (U) and Thorium (Th) contents in Betula pendula leaf growing around Komsomolsk gold concentration plant tailing (Kemerovo region, Western Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusupov, D. V.; Karpenko, Yu A.

    2016-09-01

    The article deals with the research findings of peculiarities of REE, Uranium and Thorium distribution in the territory surrounding the tailing of former Komsomolsk gold concentration plant according to the data from Betula pendula leaf testing. In the leaf element composition the slight deficiency of MREE and substantial excess of HREE are presented. In the nearest impacted area around the tailing, La, Yb, U and Th content, and Th/U ratio are lower than in the distant buffer area. It is shown, that value of Th/U ratio and REE can be an indicator for geochemical transformations of technogenic landscapes in mining districts. The results of the research can be used for biomonitoring of the territory around the tailing.

  14. Model of erosion-landslide interaction in the context of the reservoir water level variations (East Siberia, Russia): Factors, environment and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaeva, Oksana; Khak, Viktoria; Kozyreva, Elena

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive investigation of landslide-erosion interactions has been carried out in the local shore geosystem of the Bykovo site located on the left shore of the Bratsk reservoir. The landslide process develops in the Mid-Quaternary grounds (aQ of the erosion-accumulative terrace's fragment that comprises sand, sand with pebbles, sandy loams and loams. This study aims to assess the environmental factors of interacting landslide and gully erosion processes, to estimate their temporal dynamics by comparative analysis of cartographic models based on the data of repeated theodolite surveys, and to find out what level regime of the reservoir stimulates the activation of the landslide process. The authors propose two-stage descriptive model of erosion-landslide interaction and development mechanisms in the context of the reservoir water level variations in the Bratsk reservoir. The activation of landslide processes in the reservoir shores follows the periods of high water level stands. Shore slope stability is disturbed by abrasion of slope foot and inundation of the slide zone. The soils subject to landslide, erosion-landslide and erosion processes differ in their microstructure and properties. Largest erosion susceptibility is typical of soils with skeleton-aggregated microstructure, fine- and coarse-silt sandy loams and loams of high porosity, whose interstructural bonds are attributed to water-soluble salts (Sws = 0.4-0.5%) and high carbonate contents (Scr = 34-66%). High dispersion and aggregation of clay fractions is typical of the loams of the slide zone. The structure of soils subject to deformation slide is represented primarily by fine-sand particles and aggregates with smaller cohesion and strength properties.

  15. Russia in the World Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibikova, Tatiana; Koronkevich, Nikolay; Barabanova, Elena; Zaytseva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    The comparison of Russia and the countries of the former USSR with other countries of the world on various natural and anthropogenic characteristics, including those for water sector, has become more popular in recent years. At the same time, after the break-up of the Soviet Union there were significant changes in political, social and economic spheres on the territory of new formed countries, that influenced their water resources state. Such changes as well as other environmental changes may become even more significant in the future that predetermines the necessity of the profound study of the question, as all the conditions and changes still have not been fully explored. First of all, it concerns the economic crisis including water sector in the early 90's which has not been fully overcome until present time despite economic recovery in the last years of the twentieth century. Together with the changes in climatic conditions it caused perceptible changes in the river runoff on the territory of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, countries which have much in common. As the result, peculiar conditions for the formation and usage of water resources on the territory of the former Soviet Union have been formed. The laboratory of hydrology of the Institute of Geography of Russian Academy of Sciences analysed the situation with water resources in the countries of the former Soviet Union, and the position of Russia in the global water industry. The comparison of changes in various water consumption characteristics of the states was made; the evaluation of influence of changing economic activity on the river flow and quality of waters was analysed; comparison by the availability of water resources, anthropogenic influence, efficiency of water use, with world characteristics was made. There were 19 countries selected, including the Post-Soviet states, which occupy 54% of land and form 56% of the world population. Among the compared parameters there were: availability of water

  16. Nature of voluminous meimechite-picrite associations in Siberia and other regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, Yu. R.; Gora, M. P.

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of petrochemical and geochemical information of the same levels, which characterize rocks and primary melt inclusions in olivines of heterochronic meimechite-picrite associations in Siberia (Maimecha-Kotui province), Primorye (Sikhote-Alin), and Kamchatka demonstrated that, besides the similar appearance and identical structural patterns, they are considerably discrepant in the concentration and distribution of incompatible and rare earth elements. Those differences are also observed for the compositions and evolutionary trends of parental high-temperature magnesium-rich melts. This, in turn, was assumed to be a consequence of a variable degree of melting of the mantle protoliths in the mentioned regions, which is supported by geochemical modeling.

  17. Paleomagnetism of Angara-Vitim batholith: relative position of Siberia and Europe in Permian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyukin, I.; Shatsillo, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the Late Paleozoic paleomagnetic data of the Siberian platform is a white spot on the general background of the received data. These paleomagnetic data are needed to develop APWP of the Siberian platform, paleogeography and assessment of its place in the global paleoreconstructions for the Late Paleozoic. In particular, to determine the relative motions of Siberia and the Europe during the amalgamation of the supercontinent Pangea. The purpose of this paper is to obtain reliable data for the Late Paleozoic of the Siberian platform. The main object of the present study is the Late Paleozoic Angara-Vitim batholith (AVB). Age AVB is well defined (U-Pb 294 +/- 6 Ma). The study area is located in the northern part of the Baikal-Patom folded region, namely Patom passive margin. Where is superimposed tectonic processes absent. During the detailed thermo-cleaning revealed the presence of high-temperature characteristic components of magnetization. This component is present in the samples as the most stable. The main mineral - a carrier of magnetization is magnetite, hematite content with a subordinate, and maghemite (magnetic iron oxide modification of γ-Fe2O3, the transition from magnetite to hematite). The presence of hematite and maghemite in granites associated with increased activity of the volatile oxygen in the formation of these rocks. The direction of the remanent magnetization vector shows high stability in the entire range of demagnetization (from 120 C to 640 C) and is characterized by northern declinations and steep negative inclinations. In favor of a primary thermoremanent nature magnetization AVB granitoids may indicate two things: 1) the difference between the calculated directions from known areas of Mesozoic-Cenozoic directions Siberia, 2) positive "test firing" (regional remagnetization of older rocks Patom passive margin). The parameters of the pole: Plat=36.9, Plong=124.4, A95=6.4. The obtained data say that in the early Permian time, the Siberian

  18. Application of the Terra Modis Satellite Data for Environmental Monitoring in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashchenkoa, I. G.; Peremitina, T. O.

    2016-06-01

    Using the MODIS thematic products, the status of vegetation of oil producing areas in Western Siberia for the period 2010-2015 is monitored. An approach for estimating the impact of various factors on the ecology of oil producing areas using the NDVI coefficient and remote sensing data on the status of vegetation is proposed. The approach is tested within four technologically-disturbed lands - four oil fields, Krapivinskoye, Myldzhenskoye, Luginetskoye, and Urmanskoye in Tomsk region. The territory of the Oglatsky Status Nature Reserve of regional importance is investigated as a reference area.

  19. A People-to-People Environmental Program in Russia: Experiential Service Learning in Novgorod, Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silcox, Harry C.; Sweeney, Shawn

    1993-01-01

    Describes a joint American and Russian environmental service project in which 26 American secondary students, teachers, and environmentalists set up an environmental learning center in Novgorod (Russia) and provided training in the use of environmental laboratory equipment. Discusses the interpersonal connections and culture conflict experienced…

  20. News of Education in Russia: [2010--The Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents statements by President Dmitry A. Medvedev at the meeting of the Council on the Implementation of Priority National Projects and Demographic Policy on the development of education, health care, and demography, and at the ceremony on the occasion of the launching of the Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia, held at the Russian…

  1. "Russia and Europe"--The Fundamental Problem of Courses in the History of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vul'fson, B. L.

    2009-01-01

    Russia is witnessing an unprecedented explosion of interest in its history. This is entirely understandable. In the Russians' desire to understand the profound changes going on in different areas of their lives they are attempting to look at the past with new eyes, because the past has merged with the present and to a large extent determines its…

  2. A Short Assessment of Select Remediation Issues at the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gephart, Roy E.

    2007-06-01

    At the invitation of the National Academies, Roy Gephart traveled to Russia with an eight-member U.S. team during June, 2008 to participate in a workshop hosted by the National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences on radiation contamination and remediation issues in the former Soviet Union. Cleanup problems were assessed by the American participants for six Russian sites: Kurchatov Institute, Lakes 10 and 11 at Mayak, Andreev Bay, Krasnokamensk Mining Enterprise (Siberia), Almaz Mining Enterprise (North Caucasus), and one site for testing peaceful nuclear explosions. Roy lead the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute review session and wrote an assessment of key cleanup issues. Kurchatov is the leading institute in the Former Soviet Union devoted to military and civilian nuclear programs. Founded in 1943 in the outskirts of Moscow, this 100 hectare site of nearly undeveloped, prime real estate is now surrounded by densely populated urban and business districts. Today there are growing concerns over the public safety and environmental security of the site resulting from increasingly obsolete nuclear facilities and a legacy of inadequate waste management practices that resulted in contaminant releases and challenging remediation problems. In addition, there is growing concern over the presence of nuclear facilities within urban areas creating potential targets for terrorist attacks.

  3. Ionosphere effects of tropical cyclones over the Asian region of Russia according to oblique radio-sounding data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernigovskaya, Marina A.; Kurkin, Vladimir I.; Oinats, Alexey V.; Poddelsky, Igor N.

    2014-11-01

    The possibility of manifestation of tropical cyclones in variations of ionospheric parameters in the zone far removed from the disturbance source region has been studied. The data from frequency analysis by maximal observed frequencies (MOF) for the oblique sounding (OS) signals were used. We revealed 1-5 h time intervals with higher oscillation energetics along the Norilsk-Irkutsk, Magadan-Irkutsk, and Khabarovsk-Irkutsk paths (Eastern Siberia and the Far East of Russia) during equinoctial periods (March, September 2005-2011), in November, 2005 and in summer 2010-2011 for different periods of the solar cycle. These time intervals may be interpreted as a manifestation of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) whose sources are atmospheric internal gravity waves. By jointly analyzing ionospheric, heliomagnetic, atmospheric, and satellite data on tropical cyclones (TCs), we attempted to associate the series of the revealed TIDs with ionospheric responses to TCs over the Western North Pacific Ocean during the above periods. A significant increase in wave disturbances on OS paths was established to be noted during active tropical cyclogenesis periods in autumn months. For spring equinox (March, 2005-2011), we also note TID manifestations in MOF time variations under quiet heliomagnetic conditions and in TC absence, but the intensity of these wave disturbances was significantly lower, than that of autumn seasons for various years. We estimated the wavelike disturbance propagation velocity by the delay time of TID passing the medium points of the spaced OS paths.

  4. Prison health in Russia: the larger picture.

    PubMed

    Bobrik, Alexey; Danishevski, Kirill; Eroshina, Ksenia; McKee, Martin

    2005-04-01

    Russia, despite recent legal reforms, still has one of the highest rates of imprisonment in the world. There are many reports of the adverse conditions in Russian prisons, often highlighting the consequences for health, in particular, risks of HIV, tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases. However, there are no reviews of the broader health issues in the Russian penal system. This paper reviews the available information on the health of the imprisoned population in Russia and the factors underlying it. It was undertaken by means of a search of Russian and international literature, including unpublished sources, supplemented by in-depth interviews with 27 key informants from the Ministry of Justice, prison administration, and non-governmental organizations. Published and unpublished data from the ministries of health and justice were used to describe the demographic characteristics of the imprisoned population and compare it with the general population. Although convicts are drawn disproportionately from disadvantaged groups in society and are detained in adverse physical conditions, the standardized mortality ratio from all causes is slightly over one-third of that in the overall Russian male population. This is mainly explained by an eight-fold lower mortality from external causes and a more than two-fold lower mortality from cardiovascular disease. These far outweigh the increased mortality from infectious diseases. The chances of survival of young men in Russia may actually be improved by being in prison, highlighting the need for policies that reduce the overall level of violence and other external risks, such as dangerous driving habits, in Russian society. Yet while conditions are improving in Russian prisons, with death rates falling, there are still many avoidable deaths and high levels of mental illness and infectious disease. There is also much that is not known about the health of Russian convicts, with what is available reflecting what is measured

  5. Recent upper mantle structure beneath Siberia and surrounding areas according to a seismic tomography and numerical thermogravitational convection modeling data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushenkova, N.; Chervov, V.; Koulakov, I.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the interaction between the recent lithosphere structure and dynamics of the upper mantle beneath a big segment of Asia. This study is based on the results of seismic tomography using travel times from the ISC catalog (1964-2007) and numerical thermogravitational modeling. The model contains thick lithosphere blocks of the Siberian Craton, the Tarim plate, and remnant parts of the Mongol-Tuva microcontinent. These blocks are alternated with weaker younger lithosphere corresponding to the West-Siberian plate, orogenic belts in southern Siberia and the Arctic shelves to the north. In the tomography part, we have updated a previously published model by Koulakov and Bushenkova (2010) based on a larger dataset including reflected PP and teleseismic P travel times from global catalogues. The lithosphere thickness has been estimated based on seismic anomalies at 250 km depth according to a technique described in (Bushenkova et al., 2008). These estimates were used to define the lithosphere thickness which is then implemented for setting the boundary conditions in numerical modeling and for joint interpretation of the final results. When computing the mantle dynamics, we consider the viscosity which is depends from temperature and pressure. Calculations are performed in the spherical coordinates. To minimize the boundary effects and to take into account the effect of the outside features, we considerably enlarged the calculation area by including the Russian, North- and South China Cratons and the Indian Plate. The modeling results demonstrate formation of steady ascending flows caused by overheating under the cratons (the average temperature of the upper mantle under a craton increases to ~100°) and descending flows on their periphery. The ascending flows spread along the bottom of the cratonic lithosphere and propagate towards its edges which cause smaller-scale convection cells nearly the borders of the cratons. The computed temperature distribution is

  6. Space Radar Image of Baikal Lake, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band black-and-white image of the forests east of the Baikal Forest in the Jablonowy Mountains of Russia. The image is centered at 52.5 degrees north latitude and 116 degrees east longitude near the mining town of Bukatschatscha. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. This area is part of an international research project known as the Taiga Aerospace Investigation using Geographic Information System Applications.

  7. Update on international adoption: focus on Russia.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Robinson, Cheryl Broadus

    2011-06-01

    American families will continue to adopt children from foreign countries; the desire to have a child transcends national boundaries. Sadly, not all adoptions have happy outcomes. A recent and well-reported incident involved an American mother, who, exasperated with her adopted son's severe behavioral problems, returned him to Russia, alone, on an aircraft. Other tragic reports involve internationally adopted children who have died at the hands of their American parents. This article provides an overview of the consequences of institutionalization as a risk factor for behavioral health of children; implications for nursing care of adoptive families follow. PMID:21598869

  8. Natural factors of technological disasters in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    More than 90 percent of disasters occurring in the Russian Federation are technological accidents and catastrophes, which account for nearly 80 percent of all the fatalities and affected people. A total of 1966 technological disasters and 152 natural ones occurred in Russia in 2008. In addition to technical, social, and economic causes of technological disasters, natural factors also play an essential role in triggering or magnifying them. A data base of technological disasters happened in Russia since 1992 has been created. More than 11,000 events are listed in the data base. New information is constantly being added to it. Occurrence time and location, a type of disaster, a number of people killed and affected, economic and ecological losses as well as a probable cause of every disaster are registered; its short description is also included. Using collected data a contribution of various natural hazards and phenomena to occurrence of technological disasters in Russia was assessed. Almost 5 percent of all technological disasters listed in the data base were triggered by natural processes. Natural factors caused the most part of accidents at power supply systems (72 percent), 11 percent of accidents at heat- and 9 percent at water supply systems; more than 10 percent of sudden collapses of buildings and mines as well as water accidents; 4.5 percent of pipeline ruptures, and 2 to 3 percent of air crashes, automobile and railway accidents. The majority of these technological disasters and accidents caused by natural factors were produced by windstorms and hurricanes (37 percent), snowfalls and snowstorms (27 percent), rainfalls (16 percent), hard frost and icy conditions of roads (12 percent), and thunderstorms (nearly 4 percent). Climate changes expected until the end of the century will have important consequences for frequency increasing and change in spatial distribution of technological disasters triggered by hydrometeorological phenomena. Increasing of

  9. Temporal trends of anthropogenic SO2 emitted by non-ferrous metal smelters in Peru and Russia estimated from Satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhar, M. F.; Platt, U.; Wagner, T.

    2008-09-01

    We report on satellite observations of atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) emitted from metal smelting industries in Peru, South America and Siberia, Russia. Most of the non-ferrous metal ores are sulfidic and during the smelting process the sulfur is emitted as SO2. In addition to Norilsk, Russia, Peruvian copper smelters are among the most polluting point sources in the world. We retrieve SO2 column amounts from spectra of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on the Earth Research Satellite 2 (ERS-2) for the years 1996 to 2002 using an algorithm based on differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Areas of enhanced SO2 column amounts are clearly identified on a 7-years mean map of GOME observations over the regions with La Oroya and Ilo copper smelters of Peru and Norilsk smelters of Russia. Since the instrument sensitivity is highly dependent on surface albedo, SO2 vertical profile, solar zenith angle (SZA), wavelength, clouds, and aerosol, radiative transfer modelling is used to convert the analysed slant column densities into vertical column densities. In this study, the full spherical Monte-Carlo radiative transport model TRACY-II is used for SO2 AMF calculation. GOME data is analysed in further detail by calculating time series over these regions. For the different locations, the results demonstrate both, increasing and decreasing trends in the SO2 column amounts over the time period of 1996 2002. The decreasing trend for the Ilo copper smelter is in good agreement with implemented measures for emission reductions. However, even for the cases with decreasing trends, these point sources are still a dominant source of anthropogenic SO2 emissions in their region. For the smelters in Peru, the potential influence due to SO2 emission by the nearby volcanoes is investigated and found to be negligible.

  10. Engineering and Technical Education in Russia, in Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aref'ev, A. L.; Aref'ev, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of the main tendencies in the development of engineering and technical education in Russia during the last 100 years shows that earlier strengths have been lost, and that currently technical education in Russia is far behind modern world standards.

  11. Higher Education Reform in Russia: Democratization or Bureaucratization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panfilova, T. V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reforms have increased the level of administrative oversight, and also of interference of the structure and content of university education in Russia. This is leading to a weakening of Russian higher education. In this article, the author talks about the reform of the system of higher education in Russia and the bureaucratization of higher…

  12. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  13. 76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... its notice of institution (75 FR 74746, December 1, 2010) were adequate and that the respondent... COMMISSION Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it...

  14. The Universities of Russia: Areas and Prospects of Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdashkevich, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a significant increase in university students in Russia, the growth of private and state-financed higher education, and the beginnings of a move to a national network of research institutions. The recent economic recession, however, poses a challenge to the continuance of current fee-based higher education in Russia.…

  15. 75 FR 35086 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... group responses to its notice of institution (75 FR 9252, March 1, 2010) were adequate.\\1\\ A record of... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... orders on magnesium from China and Russia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it...

  16. Adolescent Drunkenness: Perception of the Problem in Russia and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybakova, L. N.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia among children is increasing, but programs to address this problem have not been adequately developed. The experience of other countries in equipping children to handle alcohol in a mature and safe way can be used as a basis for creating new programs in Russia.

  17. Problems of the Reproduction of Russia's Science Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voronin, Iu. M.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past ten years there have been signs in Russia of a dangerous widespread tendency to underrate the creation of a whole set of conditions necessary for expanded reproduction of the country's science potential. Russia has fallen farther and farther behind technologically, its ability to compete in the world markets of science-intensive…

  18. Educational Changes in Russia. Bulletin, 1919, No. 37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Theresa

    1919-01-01

    In the press reports bearing upon conditions in Russia since the outbreak or the revolution in March, 1917, little mention has been made of the tremendous changes that have shaken the entire educational system in that country. One needs only read "Vyestnik Vremennavo Pravitelstva" ("Messenger of the Provisional Government"), Russia's official…

  19. In Russia: Warm Schools in a Cold Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kay

    1996-01-01

    Since 1993, groups of Connecticut high school students have had the opportunity to explore Russia firsthand, thanks to a program called "Linking Schools Through Language and Technology." Although Russia is an unstable society, schools visited by New Haven youngsters were cozy, child-centered beacons of continuity and tradition. Schools had a…

  20. 78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 25, 2013 (78 FR 44969). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... Russia and Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings 7202.21.10, 7202.21.50,...

  1. New archeomagnetic intensity data from Western Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salnaya, Natasha; Gallet, Yves; Akimova, Stanislava; Antipov, Ilya; Glazunova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    We recently started a new archeomagnetism research program for Western Russia. The main objective of this project is to recover the geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Russia over the past two millennia, in order to compare these variations with those already known from Western and Eastern Europe. We sampled several ensembles of baked brick fragments precisely dated by historical constraints between the XIIth and XIVth centuries AD from the archeological site of Novgorod, south of St Petersburg, and between the XVIIth and XVIIIth centuries AD from the Monastery of New Jerusalem located close to Moscow. Most fragments, with a magnetic mineralogy dominated by magnetite, are suitable for archeointensity experiments. For some fragments from Novgorod, the magnetization is carried by a mixture of magnetite and another mineral of high coercivity and low unblocking temperature. The unblocking temperatures are close to 200°C. This mineral, most probably a form of hematite with Al substitutions, is therefore similar to that previously reported from archeological fired-clay artifacts originating from Europe and South America. Archeointensity experiments were conducted using the experimental protocol developed for the Triaxe magnetometer. We will present our first archeointensity results and a preliminary comparison with available European results, mostly from France and Bulgaria.

  2. Space Surveillance: United States, Russia, and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidelmann, P. K.

    2012-06-01

    With the launch of Sputnik, the United States and Russia began the process of tracking artificial satellites. This led to developments for observations, orbit determination, and catalog maintenance. The two countries followed somewhat different approaches to the same problem based on the available hardware and theoretical developments. As more sophisticated hardware and theories have been developed, progress has been made. However, new problems have developed because of debris, collision possibilities, and reentering objects. In addition, the range of spacecraft has increased to include geosynchronous orbits. In more recent times the European Space Agency (ESA) and China have become involved in various aspects of Space Surveillance. In 1994, the first meeting between United States and Russian experts in the field of space surveillance was held. Since then, seven more US Russia Space Surveillance Workshops have been held, with the addition of participants from ESA. Terry Alfriend has been the US Technical Chairman for many of these workshops. In 2009 a US China Space Surveillance Technical Interchange was held in Shanghai, China, and Terry was the US Technical Chairman.

  3. Family and family therapy in Russia.

    PubMed

    Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

    2012-04-01

    This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized. PMID:22515460

  4. Heavy Drinking and Suicide in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Russian levels of alcohol consumption and suicide are among the highest in the world. While observers have long suspected an association between the two, they were unable to investigate this hypothesis until recently due to past Soviet secrecy and thus a lack of data. This study took advantage of the newly available data during the post-Soviet era to examine the cross-sectional association between heavy drinking and suicide mortality in Russia. Aggregate mortality data for the Russian regions (n = 78) for the year 2000 were used to measure heavy drinking and suicide rates. Government data were used to control for the regional economic situation and strength of social institutions. Ordinary Least Squares regression was employed to estimate the effect of a proxy for heavy drinking on overall and sex-specific age-adjusted suicide rates. The results showed a positive and significant association between the two, and the association held for overall, male and female rates. These results not only confirmed an association between heavy drinking and suicide in Russia, but when compared to findings from previous studies of other countries they led to the hypothesis that a nation’s beverage preference may be as important as its wet/dry drinking culture in its sensitivity of suicide rates to alcohol consumption. PMID:17160138

  5. Family and family therapy in Russia.

    PubMed

    Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

    2012-04-01

    This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized.

  6. The resurgence of tuberculosis in Russia.

    PubMed

    Shilova, M V; Dye, C

    2001-07-29

    This paper documents and attempts to explain the epidemic spread of tuberculosis (TB) in Russia during the 1990s. After several decades of decline, the notification rate of all new TB cases among permanent residents increased by 7.5% per year from 1991-1999 and the death rate by 11% per year. Growth was quickest from 1993-1995 but increased again after the economic crisis of August 1998. Approximately 120 000 new cases and 30 000 deaths were reported in 1999. Case detection and cure rates have fallen in Russia since the mid-1980s; the fall has been accompanied by a higher frequency of severe disease among cases, and higher death and case fatality rates. With a mathematical model describing the deterioration in case finding and cure rates we could replicate the average rate of increase in incidence 1991-1999 but not the precise timing of the observed changes. Other factors that probably helped to shape the observed rise in caseload include enhanced transmission due to the mixing of prison and civilian populations, an increase in susceptibility to disease, and changes in the proportion of cases detected by surveillance. Although our explanation for the resurgence of TB is incomplete, we have identified a set of measures that can be implemented now to cut transmission, incidence and deaths. PMID:11516384

  7. Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine

    SciTech Connect

    Wolkov, Benjamin M.; Balatsky, Galya I.

    2012-07-26

    In 1993, the Russian Federation set out a new military doctrine that would determine the direction of its armed forces until President Putin set out the next doctrine in 2000. The Russian Federation creating the doctrine was new; the USSR had recently collapsed, Gorbachev - the creator of the predecessor to this doctrine in 1987 - was out of office, and the new Russian military had only been formed in May, 1992.1 The analysis of the 1993 doctrine is as follows: a definition of how doctrine is defined; a short history of Russian military doctrine leading up to the 1993 doctrine (officially the Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation); and finally, what the doctrine established. An overview of the 1993 doctrine is: (1) Russia's 1993 doctrine was a return to older, more aggressive doctrine as a result of stability concerns surrounding the recent collapse of the USSR; (2) Russia turned from Gorbachev's 'defensive defense' in the 1987 doctrine to aggressive defense with the option of preempting or striking back against an aggressor; (3) Russia was deeply concerned about how nationalism would affect the former Soviet Republics, particularly in respect to the ethnic Russians still living abroad; and (4) Nuclear doctrine pledged to not be the first to use nuclear weapons but provided for the potential for escalation from a conventional to a nuclear war. The 2000 doctrine (officially the Russian Federation Military Doctrine) was created in a more stable world than the 1993 doctrine was. The Russian Federation had survived independence and the 'threat of direct military aggression against the Russian Federation and its allies' had diminished. It had secured all of the nuclear weapons from its neighbors Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, and had elected a new president, Vladimir Putin, to replace Boris Yeltsin. Yet, even as the doctrine took more defensive tones than the 1993 doctrine, it expanded its nuclear options. Below are a new definition of

  8. New family planning priorities in Russia.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, F

    1994-01-01

    October 1991 to May 1994 in Russia was a period of significant political, social, and economic change. Over this period, however, administrators recognized the importance of sexual health issues in the health and fertility of women and decided to encourage family planning. Family planning services are organized at the city level by the Ministry of Health and are generally managed by gynecologists. Doctors are taught by lecture. Further, contraceptive supplies are extremely limited in many areas. The first priority of the country's family planning program is to improve the availability of reliable, safe contraceptives. Sex education must then be provided to young people and adults, the media should be used to disseminate information, the role of nurses in family planning should be expanded, and practitioners should be made more aware of methods of postcoital birth control. Much has been achieved over the three years. Donors and foreign advisors must continue to provide support in training and ideas, share experiences, and provide necessary supplies until Russia's contraception production capacity and industry can go it alone.

  9. Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achat, D. L.; Bakker, M. R.; Zeller, B.; Derrien, D.; Barsukov, P.; Nikitich, P.

    2011-12-01

    Phosphorus is one of the most limiting nutrients in many ecosystems and mineral reserves available for fertilizer production are forecasted to last for no more than 100 yrs. Crop requirements for P are often lower in forests than in agriculture and P fertilization to forest ecosystems is not very common on a global scale. In southern Siberia, expected climate change would lead to higher overall precipitation, higher temperatures and subsequently to changes in land use (i.e. agricultural land could increase on detriment of forests). In the present work we evaluated P status in four forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia including 1 site with lowland Populus tremula, and 3 upland sites in the Salair mountains with Populus tremula, Abies siberica or with small forest openings. The upland sites feature twice higher productivity than the lowland sites and it was suggested that thick snow cover on those sites would enable winter activity of microbial communities leading to faster soil degradation processes and higher nutrient availability. We thus wanted to test whether biological processes in the upland sites were of larger impact on P status than in the lowland sites. We combined 32P isotopic dilution techniques (for diffusive P), chemical extractions (for total P, organic P) and fumigation/incubation/respiration methods (for microbial P) to test this hypothesis. Additional soil analyses (C, N and othes) were performed. Results will be interpreted in the light of the exising knowledge on botany, climate, pedology and expected implications for future land use, would this occur to change.

  10. Arctic ice core records of vanillic acid from Siberia, Greenland, and Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieman, M. M.; Saltzman, E. S.; McConnell, J.; Fritzsche, D.; Opel, T.; Isaksson, E. D.; Schwikowski, M.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major source for atmospheric gases and aerosols, and an important part of the global carbon cycle and radiation budget. The factors controlling centennial and millennial variability in regional to global biomass burning dynamics are not well understood because there are few well-dated proxy records only. We are exploring ice core records of organic compounds resulting from incomplete combustion of lignin as tracers for biomass burning. In this study we investigate the distribution of vanillic acid (VA) in Arctic ice cores. VA is a major product of conifer combustion, but may also be produced from angiosperms. VA was measured in ice core samples using ion chromatography with electrospray MS/MS detection. Here we present measurements of vanillic acid in three Arctic ice cores from Siberia (Akademii Nauk; 0-3 kyr bp), northern Greenland (Tunu; 0-1.75 kyr bp), and Svalbard (Lomonosovfonna; 0-0.75 kyr bp). The Siberian record exhibits 3 strong centennial scale maxima (1200-600 BC, AD 300-800, and AD 1450-1700). All three cores exhibit a smaller feature around 1250, with a subsequent decline in Greenland and Svalbard. VA levels in Greenland and Svalbard are generally smaller than those in Siberia. These results suggest strong regional input from Northern Eurasian sources (i.e. boreal forests) to the Siberian core, and lower Arctic-wide "background" levels at the other sites.

  11. Bird orientation at high latitudes: flight routes between Siberia and North America across the Arctic Ocean

    PubMed

    Alerstam; Gudmundsson

    1999-12-22

    Bird migration and orientation at high latitudes are of special interest because of the difficulties associated with different compass systems in polar areas and because of the considerable differences between flight routes conforming to loxodromes (rhumblines) or orthodromes (great circle routes). Regular and widespread east-north-east migration of birds from the northern tundra of Siberia towards North America across the Arctic Ocean (without landmark influences) were recorded by ship-based tracking radar studies in July and August. Field observations indicated that waders, including species such as Phalaropusfulicarius and Calidris melanotos, dominated, but also terns and skuas may have been involved. Analysis of flight directions in relation to the wind showed that these movements are not caused by wind drift. Assuming possible orientation principles based on celestial or geomagnetic cues, different flight trajectories across the Arctic Ocean were calculated: geographical loxodromes, sun compass routes, magnetic loxodromes and magnetoclinic routes. The probabilities of these four alternatives are evaluated on the basis of both the availability of required orientation cues and the predicted flight paths. This evaluation supports orientation along sun compass routes. Because of the longitudinal time displacement sun compass routes show gradually changing compass courses in close agreement with orthodromes. It is suggested that an important migration link between Siberia and North American stopover sites 1000-2500km apart across the Arctic Ocean has evolved based on sun compass orientation along orthodrome-like routes. PMID:10693821

  12. Vector and host relationships of California serogroup viruses in western Siberia.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C J; Lvov, S D; Savage, H M; Calisher, C H; Smith, G C; Lvov, D K; Gubler, D J

    1993-07-01

    During 1990 and 1991, adult mosquitoes were collected along the Ob River and its tributaries in western Siberia from approximately 51 degrees 18'N to 66 degrees 4'N. Fifteen virus strains were isolated from 74,196 mosquitoes tested in 1,874 pools. These included Tahyna virus from Aedes cataphylla-punctor subgroup (one) and Ae. excrucians (one), and Inkoo (INK) virus from Ae. communis (one), Ae. communis subgroup (one), Ae. hexodontus (two), Ae. punctor subgroup (two), Ae. punctor complex (one), and unidentified Aedes species (three). In addition, a single Ae. euedes yielded a strain of snowshoe hare (SSH) virus and a strain of Getah, an alphavirus. A Bunyamwera serogroup virus was isolated from Ae. excrucians. With the exception of the two isolates from a single mosquito, minimum infection rates among mosquito taxa ranged from 0.4 to 16.7 per 1,000. The INK virus isolates were widely distributed geographically; however, seven of the 10 isolates were from two sites north of the Arctic Circle. During 1991, sera from two mouse species, five vole species, and four shrew species were collected along the upper Ob River for serologic tests. The prevalence of neutralizing antibody to SSH virus in these sera was 80%. Prevalence rates in the four most abundant species were Apodemus agrarius, 73%; Clethrionomys rutilus, 71%; Microtus arvalis, 80%; and Sorex araneus, 91%. This is the first attempt to clarify the vector and vertebrate host relationships of California serogroup viruses in western Siberia. PMID:8352392

  13. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Russia. International Survey on Adult Education for Indigenous Peoples. Country Study: Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschtyb, Nina

    Adult education for indigenous peoples in Russia was examined. First, information on government institutions, indigenous organizations, international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) engaged in adult education for Russia's indigenous peoples was compiled. Next, questionnaires and survey techniques were used to research the policy…

  14. Fire Regime and Land Abandonment in European Russia: Case Study of Smolensk Oblast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Manisha, A.; Romanenkov, V.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Hansen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fires in anthropogenically-dominated landscapes are generally attributed to ecosystem management, agriculture, and policy drivers. In European Russia, fire mainly occurring on agricultural lands, wetlands, and abandoned lands. In the agricultural practice in Russia prescribed fires are believed to increase pasture and hay productivity, suppress trees and shrub expansion, and reduce fire hazards, with fire frequency fire dependent on land use and agricultural practices. The large-scale socio-economic transition since the fall of the Soviet Union has led to changes in land use and land management, including land abandonment and changing agricultural practices. In June 2014, an extensive field campaign was completed in the Smolensk Oblast, located approximately two hundred kilometers west of Moscow on the border with Belarus. Our field sampling was based on circa 1985 Landsat-based forest cover map (Potapov et al., 2014). Points were randomly selected from the non-forested class of the 1985 classification, prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Of total field collects, 55% points were sampled on land in either early or late stage of abandonment, 15% from actively cropped fields, and 30% from hay or pasture. Fire frequency was calculated for the 108 field points using 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire data for years 2000-2014. Also we calculated percent of points burned in spring 2014 using 30 m Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data to derive burn scars. Actively cropped fields had lowest burn frequency while abandoned lands - early and late stage abandonment - had highest frequency. Fire frequency was significantly higher on wet soils than dry soils, with no relationship between fire frequency and tree canopy cover. We hypothesize, higher fire frequency on abandoned lands was likely due to greater fuel loads and because of traditional belief in rural Russia that fire is efficient way to suppress tree and shrub expansion.

  15. Koolen metamorphic complex, NE Russia: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the Bering Strait region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinin, Vyacheslav V.; Gelman, Mikhail L.; Sedov, Boris M.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Millwer, Elizabeth L.; Toro, Jaime; Calvert, Andrew T.; Fantini, Riccardo M.; Wright, James E.; Natal'in, Boris A.

    Structural culminations of midcrustal metamorphic rocks are found on both sides of the Bering Strait in Alaska and Russia and occur within a magmatic belt of Cretaceous age. Geologic mapping in the Koolen Lake-Lavrentia Bay region of the Chukchi Peninsula, Russia, outlines the basic relations between deformation, metamorphism, and magmatism in one of these structural culminations, the Koolen metamorphic complex. Here, a 10-15 km-thick, southwest dipping structural succession of gneisses and high-grade metamorphic rocks is exposed. The succession consists of a lower sequence of granitic gneisses and an upper sequence of biotite-rich gneisses, quartzofeldspathic gneisses, lesser amphibolite and marble, and gneisses and schists with an increasing abundance of intercalated marble and calc-silicate units toward the top. All rocks are strongly foliated and exhibit north-south trending stretching lineations. Deformation occurred during sillimanite-grade metamorphism concurrent with partial melting of the crust. Metamorphic conditions varied from 7 to 3 kbar and from 700°C-500°C. Three fractions of monazite from a deformed pegmatite yielded ages of 104 Ma. Igneous monazite from undeformed biotite granite yielded a U-Pb age of 94 Ma, indicating peak metamorphism and deformation is Cretaceous. Relations in the Koolen complex are similar to those in the Kigluaik gneiss dome, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, where upper amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism and deformation occurred between ~105 and 90 Ma. Our findings,together with regional relations, suggest that wholesale crustal extension or extensional collapse of the crust affected this region, perhaps during Pacific-ward migration of subduction. The results do not support large amounts of east-west shortening between North America and Russia predicted by poles of rotation related to opening of the North Atlantic in the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary.

  16. Virologic and genetic studies relate Amerind origins to the indigenous people of the Mongolia/Manchuria/southeastern Siberia region.

    PubMed Central

    Neel, J V; Biggar, R J; Sukernik, R I

    1994-01-01

    A commonly held theory is that the first wave of migrants into the New World was derivative from the ethnic groups then inhibiting eastern Siberia. However, these ethnic groups lack a mtDNA haplogroup (B) that is well represented in Amerindian tribes. Also, the time depth of the other three mtDNA haplogroups found in Amerindians (A, C, and D) appears to be greater in the Amerindians than in the eastern Siberian ethnic groups. In this communication we demonstrate that the human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type II, present in 11 of the 38 Amerindian tribes thus far examined, is not present in any of the 10 ethnic groups of eastern Siberia that we have studied. However, the virus has just been reported in the indigenous population of Mongolia, and mtDNA haplogroup B is also represented in this region. On the basis of these facts, we propose that the ancestors of the first migrants to the New World were not derived from north and central Siberia but from populations to the south, inhabiting the regions of Mongolia, Manchuria, and/or the extreme southeastern tip of Siberia. Images PMID:7938021

  17. Engineering a Business School in a Former Soviet-Era Closed City: The Case of Omsk, Siberia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chukhlomin, Valeri; Chukhlomina, Irina

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a modernization project undertaken by a nationally accredited Russian university located in Omsk, Siberia, and aimed at developing a new international business school. A unique feature of the project is that it was successfully implemented in a former Soviet-era closed city. Until 1991, the university hadn't had any…

  18. Middle and upper cretaceous amber from the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberia: Evidence for a new structural sub-class of resinite

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.B.

    1994-08-01

    Analysis of three amber (resinite) samples collected from Middle and Upper Cretaceous sediments in the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberia, indicates that these materials are based on copolymers of biformene (I) and communol (II). No resinites of similar structural character have previously been described and hence, these samples represent a previously unknown structural sub-class of resinite.

  19. Experience and Perspectives of Art History Development in Educational Space of Siberia at the Turn of XX-XXI ?enturies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nekhvyadovich, Larisa Ivanovna; Chernyaeva, Irina Valerievna

    2016-01-01

    The article has a program-analytical nature, contains an analysis and assessment of the scientific school of T. M. Stepanskaya, Doctor of Arts, professor, member of Russian Union of Artists. The goal of T. M. Stepanskaya's professional activity is incorporation of Art History in higher educational institutions in Siberia. The authors consider the…

  20. Mouth of the Ob River, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite shows the cause and effect of the large-scale seasonal flooding experienced on rivers throughout Siberia each year. Because many Siberian rivers flow from south to north, they flood regularly in the spring as meltwater from southern latitudes backs up against the still-frozen northern reaches of the rivers.These images show the Ob' River on the western edge of the Central Siberian Plateau. The images from June 20, 2002, show the mouth of the Ob' River (large river at left) where it empties into Kara Sea. In the false-color image, Vegetation appears in bright green, water appears dark blue or black, and ice appears bright blue. The ice is still choking the river's outlet to the sea.The effect of this ice block on the more southern stretches of the river can be seen in the images captured on June 17. In the false-color image, water is black, vegetation is in shades of gold and green, and clouds are pale orange. In the northernmost portion of the Ob' visible in this image (the Ob' runs southeast to northwest in the image), what is normally a fine mesh of braided streams and branches of the river channel has become almost a lake in places. The flood waters have engorged the river to 52 kilometers (32 miles) wide in places. Rivers can back up for hundreds of miles, and cause devastating flooding for towns and villages along the banks. Often, explosives are dropped into ice jams in an effort to free the river and give the flood waters a chance to escape. The spring and summer floods of 2002 have proven to be quite severe and perhaps as many as 100,000 people have been affected across the country. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  1. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  2. Biomedical journals and databases in Russia and Russian language in the former Soviet Union and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Danishevskiy, Kirill D

    2008-01-01

    In the 20th century, Russian biomedical science experienced a decline from the blossom of the early years to a drastic state. Through the first decades of the USSR, it was transformed to suit the ideological requirements of a totalitarian state and biased directives of communist leaders. Later, depressing economic conditions and isolation from the international research community further impeded its development. Contemporary Russia has inherited a system of medical education quite different from the west as well as counterproductive regulations for the allocation of research funding. The methodology of medical and epidemiological research in Russia is largely outdated. Epidemiology continues to focus on infectious disease and results of the best studies tend to be published in international periodicals. MEDLINE continues to be the best database to search for Russian biomedical publications, despite only a small proportion being indexed. The database of the Moscow Central Medical Library is the largest national database of medical periodicals, but does not provide abstracts and full subject heading codes, and it does not cover even the entire collection of the Library. New databases and catalogs (e.g. Panteleimon) that have appeared recently are incomplete and do not enable effective searching. PMID:18826569

  3. On the discovery of a cave lion from the Malyi Anyui River (Chukotka, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillova, I. V.; Tiunov, A. V.; Levchenko, V. A.; Chernova, O. F.; Yudin, V. G.; Bertuch, F.; Shidlovskiy, F. K.

    2015-06-01

    An incomplete postcranial skeleton (67 elements) of a cave lion, a lower jaw and a bundle of fine yellowish hair were found by a local resident in 2008 and 2009 washed out from the perennially frozen Pleistocene sediments in the lower reaches of the Malyi Anyui River (western Chukotka). This is the first skeleton of a cave lion (Panthera spelaea Goldfuss) to be found in Russia. The bone sizes are similar to finds of cave lion bones known from N-E Russia, but larger than East Beringian and smaller than West European ones. The remains have been studied using a variety of methods, including morphology, morphometry, SEM-examination, AMS-dating, and isotopic study, which included examination of over 100 samples of various members of the mammoth faunal assemblage (mammoth, wooly rhinoceros, bison, horse, bear, etc.). The results showed that the northeastern Asian cave lion hunted mainly bison and horses, but not reindeer, unlike its Western Europe counterpart. Bone and claw sheath dating showed an unexpectedly old geochronological age of over 61,000 years (OZQ290, OZQ291), while the hair was dated 28,690 ± 130 (OZQ292), which makes its affinity with the same individual as the skeleton questionable. Further studies to investigate possible unremoved contamination and obtain more reliable date are planned.

  4. Modeling and Assessing Insect Disturbance on Boreal Forests in the Krasnoyarsk region of Russia by Employing the FAREAST Gap Model and Local Forest Inventory and Disturbance Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, A. E.; Shuman, J. K.; Soukhavolosky, V.; Kovalev, A.; Stevens, T.; Shugart, H. H.

    2008-12-01

    FAREAST: an individual-based forest dynamics model was initially developed to simulate the forested region around Changbai Mountain in northern China. In recent years the model has been expanded across Siberia. The model output for biomass (tCha-1) has been verified against forest inventory data for a number of sites across Russia. With this success, an additional module for the model was written by Anton Kovalev to predict the impact of insect disturbance on the Boreal forests. This model predicts the probability of an insect outbreak occurring, and then, by assessing each individual tree in a modeled stand, predicts whether a tree will be killed as a result of insect predation. From this, a disturbance index is calculated that includes lost biomass as a result of insect disturbance and subsequent species composition. This disturbance "fingerprint" is being compared to forest inventory and insect disturbance data from the Usolsky forests in the Krasnoyarsk region of central Siberia. Silkworm disturbance is expressed in this geo- database as a percentage of trees damaged or killed in a stand. The forest inventory data allows us to calculate a biomass estimate that will be compared to the biomass outputs generated by the model post insect disturbance. The validation of simulated biomass with independent inventory data confirms that FAREAST is a robust model of Russian forest dynamics. Effective validation of the insect disturbance model will allow us to generate a more complete picture of the changing ecology of the Siberian Boreal landscape. The economic cost of lumber lost as a result of Silkworm damage has been enormous, if verified, FAREAST will afford us the opportunity to estimate the extent of that loss and predict the changing ecological dynamics of the Boreal forest system under the worlds evolving climate.

  5. Fatal attraction: Explaining Russia's sensitive nuclear transfers to Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchinsky, Leah R.

    This paper explores Russia's sensitive nuclear assistance to Iran in an effort to determine why a supplier state might proliferate against its own apparent security interests. The goal is to help readers understand the supply-side dynamics of nuclear proliferation. Through careful reconstruction of the historical narrative, using open source data, this study tests the plausibility of a "fatalistic calculus" explanation, identified by Stephen Sestanovich as a possible driver for Russia's behavior. According to the hypothesis, Russia has cooperated with Iran as a way both to stay in the good graces of a neighbor that is suspected of developing nuclear weapons and to win short-term influence and profits. The paper also examines the role of other factors advanced in the existing supply-side literature, such as economic motives identified by physicist and nonproliferation scholar David Albright. The findings show that bureaucratic, economic and fatalistic factors have each played a role in motivating Russia's cooperation with Iran, with their relative importance shifting over time. Fatalism begets a strategy of Russian "minimaxing," in the lexicon of Russia scholar Robert Freedman, wherein Russia attempts to minimize damage to its relationship with the U.S. while maximizing influence in Iran via nuclear cooperation. Fatalism, as actualized by minimaxing, best explains Russia's behavior after former Russian president Vladmir Putin came to power, when the bureaucratic and economic arguments become less cogent.

  6. Economic transition and health transition: comparing China and Russia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Rao, K; Fei, J

    1998-05-01

    Drawing on experiences from China and Russia (the world's two largest transitional economies), this paper empirically examines the impact of economic reforms on health status. While China's overall health status continued to improve after the economic reform, Russia experienced a serious deterioration in its population health. The observed differences in health performance between China and Russia can be explained by the different impacts of economic reforms on three major socioeconomic determinants of health. Depending on whether or not the reform improves physical environment (as reflected in income level and nutritional status), social environment (including social stability and security system), and health care, we would observe either a positive or a negative net effect on health. Despite remarkable differences in overall health development, China and Russia share some common problems. Mental and social health problems such as suicides and alcohol poisoning have been on the rise in both countries. These problems were much more serious in Russia, where political and social instability was more pronounced, associated with Russia's relatively radical reform process. With their economies moving toward a free market system, health sectors in China and Russia are undergoing marketization, which has had serious detrimental effect on the public health services.

  7. Sexuality education moves forward in Russia.

    PubMed

    Popova, V J

    1996-01-01

    Efforts in the late-1980s to provide sex education to young people in Russia were interrupted, temporarily, by peristroika and the need to focus on political and economic concerns. In the early 1990s, several public family planning associations emerged with support from foreign funds and began limited condom distribution programs. Beginning in 1996, a sex and family life education curriculum developed by the Russian Sexological Association will be taught to students in grades 5-11. The curriculum moves from basic facts on reproduction to a consideration, in the higher grades, of the family, the psychological aspects of sexual relationships, and interpersonal communication and conflict resolution. Although the comprehensive nature of the curriculum has been commended, there is a shortage of educators with the social-psychological background required to present the material.

  8. Superconductivity in Russia: Update and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozhogin, V.

    1995-01-01

    The research projects and new technological developments that have occured in Russia are highlighted in this document. Some of the research discussed includes: x-ray structure analysis of YBCO superconducting single crystals and accompanying phase transformations; the role of electron-electron interaction in High Temperature Superconductors (HTSC); the formation of Cooper pairs in crystals; the synthesis and research on a new family of superconductors based on complex copper and mercury oxides (HgBa2CuO4 + alpha and HgBa2CaCu2O6 + alpha); methods for the extraction of higher (up to C200) fullerenes and metalfullerenides has been developed; and process of production of Josephson junctions and development of SQUID's.

  9. Training of clinical laboratory professionals in Russia.

    PubMed

    Morozova, V T; Dolgov, V V; Malakhov, V N

    1994-12-31

    In Russia, specialized education of clinical laboratory physicians who work in the positions of medical technologists, head of laboratory or one of its divisions is conducted in various forms of postgraduate training, namely internship, primary specialization courses, advanced study courses, graduate clinical studies and postgraduate fellowship. Such education is offered at 14 Departments for Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics, which are located within the Institutes for Advanced Medical Studies or at Faculties for Advanced Medical Studies in Medical Institutes. Until the present, the primary specialization courses and the advanced study courses have been the most prevalent forms of training clinical laboratory professionals. These two types of courses offer formal lectures, seminars as well as practical classes, and the course contents are regulated by a uniform curriculum promulgated by the Ministry of Health. Training in these courses is the necessary prerequisite to obtain degree of advanced qualification as an expert in clinical laboratory diagnostics, which in turn provides access to better remunerated positions.

  10. New System of Food Control in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakova, Irina V.

    Food safety is quite important for human health in all countries. Humanity has the uniform space and must take care about all parts of it. Pollution of one region leads to the same state of others regions through water, land, air, living organisms. The poor-quality or poisoned food products can pollute the territory and influence negatively on the environment. The food security is important, especially, in connection with the possibility of terrorist attacks. The Federal Service of control in sphere of protection of the rights of consumers was formed in Russia in 2004. This Service carries out the activity directly and through the territorial organizations in interaction with administrative structures in food control and inspection, namely in sanitary-epidemiological service, veterinary service, grain service, inspection of trade connections and standardization and certification. The control is carried out on the basis of laws. The law № 29-FZ concerns the quality and safety of foodstuff and how to control it. The law 134-FZ attracted the protection of the rights of legal persons and individual businessmen. The modification of the law №234-FZ about protection of the rights of consumers is connected with new food - GMOs. Great attention is paid to the safety of new food. Private companies also perform analysis of heavy metals, mycotoxins, radiation and the presence of bacteria, virus or genetically modified organisms. We would like to thank the group Pilot Study "Food chain security" for very important work concerning food safety in different countries. They help us to understand internal problems in Russia and to create the cooperation with other countries. All these steps are very important for the protection population from toxic food.

  11. Stationary plasma thruster evaluation in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.

    1992-01-01

    A team of electric propulsion specialists from U.S. government laboratories experimentally evaluated the performance of a 1.35-kW Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT) at the Scientific Research Institute of Thermal Processes in Moscow and at 'Fakel' Enterprise in Kaliningrad, Russia. The evaluation was performed using a combination of U.S. and Russian instrumentation and indicated that the actual performance of the thruster appears to be close to the claimed performance. The claimed performance was a specific impulse of 16,000 m/s, an overall efficiency of 50 percent, and an input power of 1.35 kW, and is superior to the performance of western electric thrusters at this specific impulse. The unique performance capabilities of the stationary plasma thruster, along with claims that more than fifty of the 660-W thrusters have been flown in space on Russian spacecraft, attracted the interest of western spacecraft propulsion specialists. A two-phase program was initiated to evaluate the stationary plasma thruster performance and technology. The first phase of this program, to experimentally evaluate the performance of the thruster with U.S. instrumentation in Russia, is described in this report. The second phase objective is to determine the suitability of the stationary plasma thruster technology for use on western spacecraft. This will be accomplished by bringing stationary plasma thrusters to the U.S. for quantification of thruster erosion rates, measurements of the performance variation as a function of long-duration operation, quantification of the exhaust beam divergence angle, and determination of the non-propellant efflux from the thruster. These issues require quantification in order to maximize the probability for user application of the SPT technology and significantly increase the propulsion capabilities of U.S. spacecraft.

  12. Petroleum and geothermal production technology in Russia: Summary of information obtained during informational meetings with several Russian Institutes

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Teufel, L.W.

    1995-04-01

    Russian scientists and engineers have drilled the deepest holes in the world. It is recognized that this experience has given them an expertise in drilling superdeep holes, as well as other aspects of drilling, completions, and geophysics. More and more US oil and gas companies are vigorously expanding their exploration and development into Russia. It is important for them to identify and use Russian technology in drilling, completion, logging, and reservoir characterization to the extent possible, in order to both reduce drilling costs and help support the Russian economy. While these US companies are interested in becoming involved in and/or sponsoring research in Russia, they have been unsure as to which scientists and institutes are working on problems of interest. It was also important to determine in which areas Russian technology is farther advanced than in the West. Such technology could then be commercialized as part of the Industrial Partnering Program. In order to develop a clear understanding of these issues, two Sandia engineers with drilling and completions expertise and a geophysicist with expertise in reservoir analysis traveled to Russia to meet with Russian scientists and engineers to discuss their technologies and areas of interest. This report contains a summary of the information obtained during the visit.

  13. Climate-Driven Changes Within the Larch Forest of Northern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharuk, V.

    2015-12-01

    Thanks to the support of NASA's Carbon Cycle and Ecosystem Focus Area programs, joint NASA/ Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences studies have been conducted throughout Siberia. The overall objective has been to obtain field and satellite measurements to examine carbon stocks and track changes in forests across this vast area. In this presentation, we discuss some of the finding from this 25+ year collaboration' i.e., observed climate-driven changes within larch communities in northern Siberia. Field measurements and satellite data, including Terra/MODIS, Landsat, GRACE and QuickBird were used for analysis of forest conditions. The following results will be discussed. (1). At the northern limit of larch (Larix gmelinii) range (i.e.,~72°N) tree mortality was observed during the cooling period from the 16th century to the beginning of the 19th century. Post- Little Ice Age (LIA) trees re-establishment followed warming temperatures by the middle of the19th century. The current tree line has recovered to the pre-LIA line location although tree heights and stand densities are comparatively lower. The mean rate of upward migration was found to be 0.35 m yr-1 (with a range of 0.21-0.58). (2) The migration of the "dark needle conifers" (DNC: Abies sibirica, Pinus sibirica, Picea obovata) into the southern margin zone of larch dominated forest was documented. Meanwhile, within the traditional DNC range decline and mortality of both Siberian pine and fir were observed and attributed, primarily, due to an increased drought. (3) Within Central Siberia larch growth is limited by early summer temperatures and available water from thawing permafrost. Larch tree ring width (TRW) correlated with early summer temperatures and water vapor pressure (r = 0.73 and r = 0.69, respectively), drought (SPEI; r = 0.68-0.82), snow accumulation (r = 0.61), previous year precipitation (r = 0.63) and soil water anomalies (r = 0.79). Larch TRW growth and Gross Primary Productivity

  14. Paleomagnetic Results From Cretaceous and Tertiary Basalts of The Trans-baikal Region, Southeastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X.; Coe, R. S.; Metelkin, D. V.; Gordienko, I. V.; Lyons, J.; Klimuk, V.; Petroutchik, A.; Davydov, A.; Hromova, E.; Novokrechennih, L.

    Early Cretaceous basaltic rocks from the southeastern margin of the Siberian Platform record relative rotations that are probably older than Tertiary. We have obtained pre- liminary results from dated Cretaceous basaltic lava flows exposed in three separated depressions of the Trans-Baikal region, southeastern Siberia. Progressive thermal and AF demagnetization in each case removed a secondary magnetization, after which the characteristic component (ChRM) is isolated and decays toward the origin. Five sites collected from Bichura area (50.6N, 107.6E) yield a positive fold and reversal test. The mean ChRM directions for flows exposed along a 500 m stretch of the Chikol River (50.5 N, 106.9E) are all reversed and pass a baked contact test. The corresponding paleomagnetic poles are not statistically different from the 95-130 Ma reference pole of Besse and Courtillot (1991) in terms of paleolatitudes. This is an important pre- liminary finding for the tectonic reconstruction of Asia, because that reference pole is based entirely on data transferred from other plates, and much current debate is fo- cused on the existence or not of large relative movements between the Chinese and Mongolian blocks to the south and Siberia. Our data so far suggest that the Eurasian reference poles for Cretaceous are probably appropriate for Siberia, and so we need to seek other explanations for the anomalous inclinations from central Asia. When compared to the expected direction, about 30 degrees of counterclockwise rota- tion in declination is indicated by the data from locations near the Mongolian border (50.6 N, 105.8E) and 50 degrees clockwise rotation is suggested by the data from the Chikol River section, but no deflection of the declination is observed for the Bichura area. We suggest that local deformation is the preferred interpretation for the clock- wise rotation because the river trend and other local structures also show clockwise deflection in the regions where the rotated

  15. Petrology of the Plutonic Rocks of west-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Thomas P.

    1970-01-01

    A series of plutons in west-central Alaska defines the Hogatza plutonic belt which extends for about 200 miles in an east-west direction from the northeastern Seward Peninsula to the Koyukuk River. The plutonic rocks have an aggregate area of about 1,200 square miles and their composition, distribution, and possible petrogenesis are discussed for the first time in this report. Field, petrographic and chemical data supported by K/Ar age dating indicate the plutonic rocks are divisible into two suites differing in age, location, and composition. The western plutons are mid-Cretaceous (~100 m.y.) in age and consist of a heterogeneous assemblage of monzonite, syenite, quartz monzonite. Associated with these granitic rocks is a group of alkaline sub-silicic rocks that forma belt of intrusive complexes extending for a distance of at least 180 miles from west-central Alaska to the Bering Sea. The complex at Granite Mountain shows a rare example of zoning from an alkaline rim to a quartz-bearing core. The occurrence of a similar complex at Cape Dezhnev on the easternmost tip of Siberia suggests the alkaline province may extend into Siberia. The easternmost plutons are Late Cretaceous (180 m.y.) in age and composed primarily of granodiorite and quartz monzonite similar to calc-alkaline plutons found throughout the North America Cordillera. The plutons are epizonal and intrude deformed but unmetamorphosed Lower Cretaceous andesitic volcanics and volcanic graywacke which constitute the highly mobile Yukon-Koyukuk volcanogenic province of west-central Alaska. No older rocks have been found within the confines of this vast tract; the occurrence of a bounding ophiolite sequence has lead to the suggestion that the province was formed by large-scale rifting and is underlain by oceanic crust. The possibility of no juvenile sialic crust over much of the area suggests that the potassium-rich magma now represented by the alkaline rocks originated in the mantle. The distribution of the

  16. 7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE OF SOUTH ABUTMENT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  17. 110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, WEST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  18. 2. Building 5 west elevation, showing Building 4 west elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Building 5 west elevation, showing Building 4 west elevation and stack associated with Building 3 to right. View looking SEE. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 5, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at the west edge of state park property. (recreation of HABS No. CA-38-P152-1). - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  20. 13. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE WEST TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE WEST TOWER TO THE MAIN SUSPENSION CABLE WEST ANCHORAGE. February 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. Recognition of Intermediate Crust (IC), its construction and its distinctive epeirogenic behaviour: an exciting new tool for plate kinematic analysis (PKA) of the Arctic margins and western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmaston, M. F.

    2012-04-01

    briefly to extend the analysis, first to the formation of the West Siberian Basin, the IC nature of whose crust (but not its low thermal epeirogenic sensitivity) has been obscured by Permo-Triassic addition of the Siberian flood basalts, and thence to the complicated MCC distribution seen in Khazakhstan. The pattern of the older elements of the latter appears to be a further, but more ancient, example of the plate dynamics evidence [1, 2, 3] for 'deep-keeled' cratons, in that, when they separate, horizontal inflows of mantle are induced which impinge on the lesser keels of MCC blocks in the region, potentially generating IC-floored basins in between them. In this way the geology which now lies between the Baltica and East Siberia cratons can in principle provide powerful constraints on the freedom with which palaeomagnetic data for them has been interpreted. A key element in this is that otherwise-missing components of the Timanian orogen are apparently to be found on the western edge of the Siberian platform. This means that the NZPK strip and Pechora Basin area were formed as part of the Timanian interplay between the then-roughly-parallel sides of the Baltica and Siberian cratons. A final step in this limited analysis suggests that the clockwise bending of northern Novaya Zemlya was the dextral consequence of the final (~2000 km) northwestward cratonic separation of Baltica plus NZPK etc. to form the IC of the West Siberian Basin during the 580-535 Ma interval. This may be older than any of the NZ rocks suitable for palaeomagnetic determination. Resolution of the conflict between this geologically and geometrically secured reconstruction and that prescribed palaeomagnetically for 'Rodinia' appears to lie in the possibility that at some point on the APWP there has been an inadvertent switch between following the N and the S pole, due to the habitual choosing of the lesser of two plate motion speeds during the interval between points on the curve. In that case some of

  2. Recent glacier area changes in the East Sayan Range, interior of Siberia, derived from Landsat TM/ETM+ based inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Eduard; Osipova, Olga

    2016-04-01

    Mountain glaciers are considered to be reliable indicators of climate and multi-temporal monitoring allows to quantify the relationships between glaciation and climate. However, changes of small glaciers (with area < 1 km2) were studied in a less degree. We studied glaciers of the East Sayan, a mountain range (with altitudes up to 3491 m) stretching over 1000 km from north-west to south-east (in Russia and partially in Mongolia). The studied glaciers are in peculiar continental climate environments which could affect the recent glacial evolution. The last East Sayan glacier inventory (as a part of the Catalogue of Glaciers of the USSR) was mainly based on aerial photographs of the 1950s. Using Landsat TM/ETM+ scenes we obtained GIS-based multi-temporal glacier inventory covering the time interval from 1980s to 2000s. The 2000 glacier inventory included about 80 glaciers with a total area of 11.69 km2. The East Sayan is dominated by extremely small glaciers, with exposed areas ranged from 0.001 to 1.392 km2. About 40 glaciers have an area <0.1 km2 and the only glacier is >1.0 km2. In addition, we reconstructed the maximal glacier limits during the Little Ice Age (LIA, ~ 1850) using numerous end moraines located in front of modern glaciers. The total ice area has decreased from 24.8 km2 in 1850 to 10.9 km2 in 2000, thus, by 13.9 km2 or 56%. We found that the mean value of relative ice changes and their scatter increase towards smaller glaciers. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No. 15-05-04525).

  3. 5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES TO LEFT MIDDLE GROUND OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  4. About some processes of replacement of PGM from the placers of Southern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvedov, G. I.; Knyazev, V. N.; Nekos, V. V.

    2003-04-01

    .I. Sapin, N.I.Kiryukhina (1991) Trasformations of platinum-group minerals from Primor'ye placers. - Mineralogical Zhurnal, vol.13, No1, pp.31-40 (in Russian). 5. D.C.Harris, L.J.Cabri (1991) Nomenclature of platinum-group-element alloys: review and revision. - Canadian Mineralogist, vol.29, pp.231-237. 6. L.J.Cabri (ed.) (1978) Unnamed platinum-group minerals. In: Platinum-group elements: mineralogy, geology, recovery. - Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Montreal, pp.177-195. 7. G.I.Shvedov, V.N.Knyazev Unnamed PGE Phases from Gold Placer Deposits of South Siberia, Russia. - 9th International Platinum Symposium, July 21-25, Billings, Montana, USA, 2002 (http://www.duke.edu/˜boudreau/IPS_Abstracts.htm).

  5. Geochemical groundwater peculiarities of Paleogene sediments in S-E Western Siberia artesian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balobanenko, A. A.; L’ gotin, V.; Dutova, E. M.; Pokrovsky, D. S.; Nikitenkov, A. N.; Raduk, I. V.

    2016-09-01

    The geochemical peculiarities of groundwater in Paleogene deposits in southeastern part of Western Siberia artesian basin are considered in the paper. Landscape, climate, geostructural and hydrogeological conditions define the water composition and quality peculiarities in this region. It has been established that ion-saline composition, mineralization and water quality changes arre governed by the horizontal zonal distribution. Groundwater of taiga landscapes generally is in equilibrium with kaolinite and quartz, mainly involving Ca- and Mg-montmorillonite, illite, carbonate minerals, sometimes barite. Groundwater in woodland grass and grassland, together with previously mentioned minerals, is usually in equilibrium with barite, colestine, and particularly, fluorite and gypsum. As a result, all relevant elements are removed from the groundwater and their accumulation level is restricted.

  6. A preliminary investigation of siliceous microfossil succession in late quaternary sediments from Lake Baikal, Siberia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julius, M. L.; Stoermer, E. F.; Colman, S. M.; Moore, T. C.

    1997-01-01

    Siliceous microfossil assemblage succession was analyzed in a 100 m sediment core from Lake Baikal, Siberia. The core was recovered from the lake's central basin at a water depth of 365 m. Microfossil abundance varied greatly within the intervals sampled, ranging from samples devoid of siliceous microfossils to samples with up to 3.49 x 1011 microfossils g-1 sediment. Fluctuations in abundance appear to reflect trends in the marine δ18O record, with peak microfossil levels generally representing climate optima. Microfossil taxa present in sampled intervals changed considerably with core depth. Within each sample a small number of endemic diatom species dominated the assemblage. Changes in dominant endemic taxa between sampled intervals ranged from extirpation of some taxa, to shifts in quantitative abundance. Differences in microfossil composition and the association of variations in abundance with climate fluctuations suggest rapid speciation in response to major climatic excursions.

  7. Structural studies of the lipid membranes at the Siberia-2 synchrotron radiation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, M. A.; Ermakova, E. V.; Ryabova, N. Yu.; Nayda, O. V.; Zabelin, A. V.; Pogorely, D. K.; Korneev, V. N.; Balagurov, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Lipid membranes are a subject of contemporary interdisciplinary studies at the junction of biology, biophysics, pharmacology, and bionanotechnology. The results of the structural studies of several types of lipid membranes by the lamellar and lateral diffraction of X-ray synchrotron radiation are presented. The experiments were performed at the Mediana and DICSI stations of the Siberia-2 synchrotron radiation source at the Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute. The data obtained are compared with the results of studying lipid membranes at the small-angle scattering beamlines D22 and D24 at LURE (France) and at the A2 beamline at DESY (Germany). The parameters of the DICSI station are shown to meet the basic requirements for the structural study of lipid systems, which are of fundamental and applied interest.

  8. Dinosaur evolution. A Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur from Siberia with both feathers and scales.

    PubMed

    Godefroit, Pascal; Sinitsa, Sofia M; Dhouailly, Danielle; Bolotsky, Yuri L; Sizov, Alexander V; McNamara, Maria E; Benton, Michael J; Spagna, Paul

    2014-07-25

    Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous deposits from northeastern China have yielded varied theropod dinosaurs bearing feathers. Filamentous integumentary structures have also been described in ornithischian dinosaurs, but whether these filaments can be regarded as part of the evolutionary lineage toward feathers remains controversial. Here we describe a new basal neornithischian dinosaur from the Jurassic of Siberia with small scales around the distal hindlimb, larger imbricated scales around the tail, monofilaments around the head and the thorax, and more complex featherlike structures around the humerus, the femur, and the tibia. The discovery of these branched integumentary structures outside theropods suggests that featherlike structures coexisted with scales and were potentially widespread among the entire dinosaur clade; feathers may thus have been present in the earliest dinosaurs.

  9. Archaeomagnetic studies of materials from the Gorelyi Les and Ust-Khaita monuments (Eastern Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.

    2008-03-01

    Archaeomagnetic studies of materials from archaeological monuments of the Irkutsk and Baikal regions provided new constraints on the geomagnetic intensity variation in Eastern Siberia for the interval from the 5th millennium BC through the 1st millennium AD. Material from the Gorelyi Les and Ust-Khaita multilayer archaeological monuments of the Irkutsk region is dated according to layer depths of deposits. Data on the geomagnetic intensity obtained from archaeomagnetic studies corroborate the validity of this method of dating. It is established that the average level of the geomagnetic intensity smoothly rose in the interval from the 5th millennium BC through the 1st millennium AD, with faster variations being superimposed on this trend. The pattern of the geomagnetic intensity variation is similar to those in other Eurasian regions.

  10. Satellite analysis of the severe 1987 forest fires in northern China and southeastern Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, Donald R, Jr.; Stocks, Brian J.; Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pierson, Joseph M.

    1994-01-01

    Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the Heilongjiang Province of China. Satellite imagery is used to examine the development and areal distribution of 1987 forest fires in this region. Overall trace gas emissions to the atmosphere from these fires are determined using a satellite-derived estimate of area burned in combination with fuel consumption figures and carbon emission ratios for boreal forest fires.

  11. Attaining khinem: challenges, coping strategies and resilience among Eveny adolescents in northeastern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Ulturgasheva, Olga

    2014-10-01

    This article examines challenges, coping strategies, and resilience among Eveny adolescents in northeastern Siberia. It explores situations which the study participants associate with challenge and hardship, namely their experiences of transition from life in the family reindeer herding camp to schooling at the age of 7, bullying, boredom, and violence. By situating the data within the Eveny framework of resilience (khinem), the study provides the ethnographic context for coping strategies and efforts (e.g., sharing, inter- and intragenerational support, availability of safe homes) undertaken by the community in order to mitigate the situations of risk and hardship and to facilitate adolescents' resilience. The account emphasizes that instead of identifying adolescents as either resilient or vulnerable, it is necessary to explore culturally specific processes and practices which potentially contribute to their acquisition of resilience. PMID:25116205

  12. Larch Forests of Middle Siberia: Long-Term Trends in Fire Return Intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Dvinskaya, Mariya L.; Petrov, Ilya A.; Im, Sergei T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Fire history within the northern larch forests of Central Siberia was studied (65+degN). Fires within this area are predominantly caused by lightning strikes rather than human activity. Mean fire return intervals (FRIs) were found to be 112 +/- 49 years (based on firescars) and 106 +/- 36 years (based on firescars and tree natality dates). FRIs were increased with latitude increase and observed to be about 80 years at 64N, about 200 years near the Arctic Circle and about 300 years nearby the northern range limit of larch stands (approx.71+degN). Northward FRIs increase correlated with incoming solar radiation (r = -0.95). Post- Little Ice Age (LIA) warming (after 1850) caused approximately a doubling of fire events (in comparison with a similar period during LIA). The data obtained support a hypothesis of climate-induced fire frequency increase. Keywords Fire ecology Fire history Fire frequency Siberian wildfires Larch forests Climate change

  13. Satellite Analysis of the Severe 1987 Forest Fires in Northern China and Southeastern Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, Donald R., Jr.; Stocks, Brian J.; Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pierson, Joseph M.

    1994-01-01

    Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the Heilongjiang Province of China. Satellite imagery is used to examine the development and areal distribution of 1987 forest fires in this region. Overall trace gas emissions to the atmosphere from these fires are determined using a satellite-derived estimate of area burned in combination with fuel consumption figures and carbon emission ratios for boreal forest fires.

  14. Dinosaur evolution. A Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur from Siberia with both feathers and scales.

    PubMed

    Godefroit, Pascal; Sinitsa, Sofia M; Dhouailly, Danielle; Bolotsky, Yuri L; Sizov, Alexander V; McNamara, Maria E; Benton, Michael J; Spagna, Paul

    2014-07-25

    Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous deposits from northeastern China have yielded varied theropod dinosaurs bearing feathers. Filamentous integumentary structures have also been described in ornithischian dinosaurs, but whether these filaments can be regarded as part of the evolutionary lineage toward feathers remains controversial. Here we describe a new basal neornithischian dinosaur from the Jurassic of Siberia with small scales around the distal hindlimb, larger imbricated scales around the tail, monofilaments around the head and the thorax, and more complex featherlike structures around the humerus, the femur, and the tibia. The discovery of these branched integumentary structures outside theropods suggests that featherlike structures coexisted with scales and were potentially widespread among the entire dinosaur clade; feathers may thus have been present in the earliest dinosaurs. PMID:25061209

  15. Microfossils in cherts from the Mesoproterozoic (Middle Riphean) Debengda Formation, the Olenek Uplift, northeastern Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeev, V. N.; Knoll, A. H.; Kolosova, S. P.; Kolosov, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    Silicified shallow-water marine carbonate deposits of the Proterozoic Debengda Formation (the Olenek Uplift, northeastern Siberia) contain well preserved microfossils. One or two distinct assemblages consists only of filamentous Siphonophycus microfossils, which are presumably the extracellular sheaths of hormogonium cyanobacteria. The other is dominated by coccoidal microfossils, first by the entophysalidacean cyanobacterium Eoentophysalis. The coccoidal assemblage was recognized in the layered carbonate precipitate structures of a superficially stromatolite appearance. Despite its simple composition, the microfossil assemblage supports the generally accepted Mesoproterozoic (middle Riphean) age of the Debengda Formation. This conclusion corresponds to the available data on isotopic geochronology, and to the composition of columnar stromatolites from the Dehengda Formation. Both the structural features and carbon isotopic composition of its rocks are comparable to those of rocks of known Mesoproterozoic age, but differ from the characteristics of definitely Neoproterozoic deposits.

  16. Formation and growth rates of atmospheric nanoparticles: four years of observations at two West Siberian stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belan, Boris D.; Davydov, Denis K.; Kozlov, Artem V.; Arshinova, Victoria

    2015-04-01

    In spite of fact that the first report on the new particle formation (NPF) itself was done by John Aitken more than one century ago (Aitken, 1898), a phenomenon of NPF bursts taken place in the atmosphere was discovered not very long ago. Nevertheless, to date it is known that they may occur quite often in a variety of environments (Kulmala et al., 2004; Hirsikko et al., 2011). Siberia occupies a vast area covered by forests, but the comprehensive data on burst frequency, as well as on formation and growth rates of freshly nucleated particles in this key region are still lacking. Continuous measurements of aerosol size distribution carried out in recent years at two West Siberian stations (TOR-station - 56o28'41"N, 85o03'15"E; Fonovaya Observatory - 56o25'07"N, 84o04'27"E) allowed this gap in data to be filled up. Analysis of the size spectra classified in accordance with criteria proposed by Dal Maso et al. (2005) and Hammed et al. (2007) enabled a conclusion to be drawn that NPF events in Wets Siberia are more often observed during spring (from March to May) and early autumn (secondary frequency peak in September). On average, particle formation bursts took place on 23-28 % of all days. Such a seasonal pattern of the NPF occurrence is very similar to one observed at SMEAR II Station (Hyytiälä, Finland; Dal Maso et al. 2005, 2007). Formation rates (FR) of particles with diameters below 25 nm varied in a wide range from 0.1 to 10 cm-3 s-1. Mean values of FR for the entire period of observations were 1.7 cm-3s-1 (median = 1.13 cm-3 s-1) at TOR-station and 0.88 cm-3 s-1 (median = 0.69 cm-3 s-1) at Fonovaya Observatory. Enhanced values of FR are usually observed from spring to autumn. Mean growth rates of observed at TOR-station and Fonovaya Observatory were 6.5 nm h-1 (median = 5.0 nm h-1) and 8.3 nm h-1 (median = 6.4 nm h-1), respectively. This work was supported by the Branch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5); State contracts of

  17. Educational level and adult mortality in Russia: an analysis of routine data 1979 to 1994.

    PubMed

    Shkolnikov, V M; Leon, D A; Adamets, S; Andreev, E; Deev, A

    1998-08-01

    The investigation of socio-economic differences in mortality in Russia was effectively prohibited in the Soviet period. The extent and nature of any such differences is of considerable interest given the very different principles upon which Russian society has been organised for most of this century compared to the West where socio-economic differences in health have been extensively documented. Using cross-sectional data on mortality in Russia around the 1979 and 1989 Censuses, we have analysed mortality gradients according to length of education. Our results show that educational differences in mortality are at least as big as seen in Western countries, and are most similar to the recently reported differences observed for other former communist countries such as the Czech Republic, Estonia and Hungary. As observed in many other countries the strength of association of mortality with education declines with age, varies by cause of death and is generally stronger among men than women. Differentials are particularly large for accidents and violence, where for men and women the mortality rate among those with primary or basic secondary education is over twice that of people with higher education. Even larger effects are seen for causes directly related to alcohol (including alcoholic cirrhosis and accidental poisoning by alcohol), and for infectious and parasitic diseases and respiratory diseases. These educational differences may in part be related to educational differences in alcohol consumption. Of particular significance is the fact that there are indications that socio-economic differences in mortality have widened considerably in the 1990s, a period during which there was a huge increase in the national burden of alcohol-related deaths. This widening of socio-economic differences at this time suggest that these increases in consumption were especially acute among those with less education. At a more general level the fact that large educational differences in

  18. [Genetic diversity of group A rotavirus isolates found in Western Siberia in 2007-2011].

    PubMed

    Zhirakovskaia, E V; Aksanova, R Kh; Gorbunova, M G; Tikunov, A Iu; Kuril'shchikov, A M; Sokolov, S N; Netesov, S V; Tikunova, N V

    2012-01-01

    Genetic analysis of group A rotavirus recovered from fecal samples of children admitted to hospitals in Novosibirsk and Omsk during four epidemic seasons 2007, 2007/2008, 2009/2010, 2010/2011 was performed. A total of 1416 rotavirus isolates were genotyped using multiplex PCR. The isolates of the most common rotavirus genotypes G1P[8], G4P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8] co-circulated in Western Siberia during 2007-2011. In isolated cases G9P[8], G2P[8], G3P[9], and G4P[6] genotypes were detected. Change of dominant genotype from G1P[8] to G4P[8] occurred in 2008 in Omsk and in Novosibirsk in 2009 as well. Incidence and distribution of rotavirus genotypes differed and changed every epidemic season in both cities. The phylogenetic analysis based on VP4 (VP8*), VP7, and VP6 gene sequences showed that the majority of isolates from Novosibirsk and Omsk were clustered together and demonstrated high level homology with rotavirus isolates found in other regions of Eurasia. In addition, a rare P[8]b (OP354-like) subtype of the VP4 gene was identified in fourteen isolates (G9, G1, and G4) in Novosibirsk and in a single isolate Omsk08-381/G9P[8]b in Omsk. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the necessity of long-term monitoring of rotavirus isolates in Western Siberia. This is important for selection of rotavirus vaccine for immunization of infants, improvement of diagnostic kits and understanding of the epidemiology and the evolution of group A rotaviruses. PMID:23248851

  19. Greenhouse gas aerosols and pollutants over Siberia: the YAK-AEROSIB French Russian Joint International Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Jean-Daniel; Belan, Boris D.; Ancellet, Gérard; Nédélec, Philippe; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Pruvost, Arnaud; Berchet, Antoine; Arzoumanian, Emmanuel; Pison, Isabelle; Ciais, Philippe; Law, Kathy

    2014-05-01

    Despite the unique scientific value of better knowing atmospheric composition over Siberia, regional observations of the tropospheric composition over this region are still lacking. Large local anthropogenic emissions, strong ecosystem gas exchange across the vast forest expanse, and processes feeding back to global climate such as wetlands CH4 emissions, seabed hydrates destabilization and degrading permafrost make this region particularly crucial to investigate. We aim at addressing this need in the YAK-AEROSIB program by collecting high-precision in-situ measurements of the vertical distribution of CO2, CH4, CO, O3, black carbon and ultrafine particles distribution in the Siberian troposphere, as well as other parameters including aerosol lidar profiles, on a pan-Siberian aircraft transect. Campaigns are performed almost annually since 2006 until now on this regular route, while special campaigns are occasionnally arranged to sample the troposphere elsewere (e.g. Russian Arctic coast). We show the background tropospheric composition obtain