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Sample records for western medicine treatment

  1. Combination treatment with herbal medicines and Western medicines in atopic dermatitis: Benefits and considerations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Hyungwoo

    2016-05-01

    Herbal medicines (HMs) are often used in combination with Western medicines (WMs) to improve therapeutic efficacies of orthodox medicines. This review discussed the current status of combination treatment with HMs and WMs in clinical practices. The influence of HMs on bioavailability of WMs was also discussed from the pharmacokinetic point of view. In addition, benefits and considerations of combination treatment were discussed using data obtained from clinical trials and randomized controlled trials of HMs treatment in skin diseases.

  2. [Treatment of Bell's palsy with combination of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Li-ming; Han, Mei; Zhang, Ke-qing; Jiang, Jiao-jiao

    2004-06-01

    To evaluation the clinical effect of combination of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine on Bell's palsy. 83 patients with Bell's palsy were randomly divided into two groups (trail group 54 cases and control group 29 cases). Patients in two groups were treated with medicine, acupuncture, physiotherapy, while patients in the trail group were treated with massage and functional exercise as the same time. The results of both groups were evaluated according to Portmann's Simple Scale. The score before treatment of trail group was 2.907 +/- 1.794, while control group was 2.931 +/- 2.034. And the score after treatment of trail group was 18.593 +/- 1.743, while control group was 9.862 +/- 3.091. Score of the function of facial muscles obtained from trail group was distinctly higher than that was from the control group (P < 0.01), as well as the improvement index (P < 0.01, trail group: 0.844 +/- 0.095, control group: 0.712 +/- 0.129). There is significant curative effect and suitability in the treatment of Bell's palsy with combination of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine. The improvement of facial muscles' motive function pre- and post-treatment and quantitative evaluation of curative effect can be objectively obtained by evaluation of facial muscles' function.

  3. Retinitis Pigmentosa Treatment with Western Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Peng, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Current management of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) includes an attempt at slowing down the degenerative process through therapies that use either Western or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Novel therapies in Western medicine (WM) include use of tailor-made gene therapy, transplantation of stem cells, or neuroprotection treatment. TCM treatment includes two major approaches. These are orally applied herbal decoctions and acupuncture. In fact, all TCM treatments are based on the differentiation of a symptom-complex, which is the characteristic essence of TCM. Thus, diagnosed RP may be treated via the liver, the kidney, and the spleen. The principle behind these treatments is to invigorate the blood and brighten the eyes by toning up the liver and the kidney. Also treatments to cope with deficiencies in the two concepts that are unique and fundamental to TCM are considered: Qi or “vital energy” and Yin and Yang or the harmony of all the opposite elements and forces that make up existence. In particular, the Qi deficiency that results from blood stasis is addressed in these treatments. This paper also puts forward the existing problems and the prospect of the future development on integrating TCM with WM. PMID:26124961

  4. Treatment of refractory diabetic gastroparesis: Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine therapies

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Bing; Zhou, Qiang; Li, Jun-Ling; Zhao, Lin-Hua; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Refractory diabetic gastroparesis (DGP), a disorder that occurs in both type 1 and type 2 diabetics, is associated with severe symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting, and results in an economic burden on the health care system. In this article, the basic characteristics of refractory DGP are reviewed, followed by a discussion of therapeutic modalities, which encompasses the definitions and clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapeutic efficacy evaluation of refractory DGP. The diagnostic standards assumed in this study are those set forth in the published literature due to the absence of recognized diagnosis criteria that have been assessed by an international organization. The therapeutic modalities for refractory DGP are as follows: drug therapy, nutritional support, gastric electrical stimulation, pyloric botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic or surgical therapy, and traditional Chinese treatment. The therapeutic modalities may be used alone or in combination. The use of traditional Chinese treatments is prevalent in China. The effectiveness of these therapies appears to be supported by preliminary evidence and clinical experience, although the mechanisms that underlie these effects will require further research. The purpose of this article is to explore the potential of combined Western and traditional Chinese medicine treatment methods for improved patient outcomes in refractory DGP. PMID:24914371

  5. [Treatment of intrahepatic cholestasis with integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhu, De-Zeng

    2004-11-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis results from the disturbance of the structure and function of bile secretory apparatus in hepatic cells. At present, the mechanism of the disease is still not clearly understood. The currently used Western medicine for liver-protective, cholagogic and immuno-suppressive treatment are not effective enough. According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, moisture, heat, stasis and toxin are the main factors of the etiology and pathogenesis of the jaundice in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis. Therefore, clearing away heat to drain dampness, cooling blood to remove toxin, activating blood to resolve stasis, soothing liver and invigorating spleen should be adopted in the treatment. In order to increase the therapeutic effects, rational application of traditional Chinese herbs combined with Western medicine should be emphasized in treating the disease under the doctrine of integration of syndrome differentiation and disease differentiation.

  6. Cancer survivors’ perspectives and experience on western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine treatment and rehabilitation: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ji-Wei; Yang, Zhi-Qi; Liu, Cong; Chen, Si-Jia; Shen, Qian; Zhang, Tian-Rui; Partike, Nancy S; Yuan, Zheng-Ping; Yu, Jin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background In the People’s Republic of China, both western medicine (WM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are the main treatment and rehabilitation options for cancer patients. This study aimed to explore cancer survivors’ perspectives and experience of treatment and rehabilitation, in order to promote patient-centered activities of treatment and rehabilitation. Methods Using a qualitative research approach, 68 cancer survivors were recruited from eight community cancer rehabilitation organizations in Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. Eight focus group interviews were conducted. All these interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the data were analyzed by theme analysis. Results WM was the main choice in treatment phase though study participants noted more side effects. TCM was primarily used in the recovery phase. The lack of communication between doctors and cancer patients appears to affect treatment adherence and impair the doctor–patient relationship. WM was expensive for diagnostic procedures and treatment, while the cumulative costs of frequent use of TCM in the long rehabilitation period were also high. Both treatment options created significant perceived economic burden on patients. Conflicting information about dietary supplements tended to make cancer survivors confused. Conclusion Improving the communication between doctors and cancer patients helps to ameliorate cancer patient adherence and the effect of treatments. It is essential to educate cancer patients about the effect and cost of both WM and traditional TCM. Meanwhile, marketing management and guidance to consumers regarding use of dietary supplements in the cancer rehabilitation field are also necessary. PMID:25565779

  7. Survival Benefits of Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Patients With Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue; Hao, Jian; Zhu, Cui-Hong; Niu, Yang-Yang; Ding, Xiu-Li; Liu, Chang; Wu, Xiong-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the most common complementary and alternative medicines used in the treatment of patients with cancer worldwide. However, the clinical effect of TCM on patients with pancreatic cancer remains unclear. This study was aimed to explore the efficacy of TCM on selected patients with pancreatic cancer and to study the usefulness of multimodality treatment, including TCM and western medicine (WM), in pancreatic cancer. From January 2009 to October 2013, 107 patients with pancreatic cancer were included in this study. Kaplan–Meier curves were used to assess the differences in survival time. Cox regression analysis was performed to determine survival trends adjusted for clinical and demographic factors. Cox regression analysis suggested that elevated CA19-9 levels (P = 0.048), number of cycles of chemotherapy (P = 0.014), and TCM were independent prognostic factors (P < 0.001). The survival hazards ratio of TCM was 0.419 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.261–0.671). The median overall survival (OS) was 19 months for patients with TCM treatment, while the median OS was 8 months for those without TCM treatment (P < 0.001). Patients who received multimodality treatment using TCM and WM had the best prognosis with a median OS of 19 months (P < 0.001). Patients with heat-clearing, diuresis-promoting and detoxification TCM treatment had a longer survival time (32.4 months) than those with blood-activating and stasis-dissolving (9.8 months) and tonifying qi and yang treatment (6.1 months; P = 0.008). These results indicate that TCM has an important potential value for improving the prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer, and multimodality treatment, including TCM and WM, leads to the best prognosis. More importantly, we suggest that heat-clearing, diuresis-promoting, and detoxification TCM treatment may improve the efficacy of TCM in pancreatic cancer. PMID:26131801

  8. [Study on the tumor microenvironment and tumor vascular normalization in integrative treatment of tumor by Chinese medicine and western medicine].

    PubMed

    You, Jie

    2011-08-01

    Vascular abnormalities inside tumors are important factors resulting in abnormal tumor microenvironment. Microenvironment was closely correlated with the malignant degrees, metastasis, and recurrence of tumors. Besides, the acid environment, oxygen deficiency, and other factors it induced may severely affect the efficacies of routine therapies, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Anti-angiogenesis treatment drugs targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) not only antagonize the angiogenesis of tumor vessels, but also promote the vascular normalization inside tumors to some extent, thus reducing interstitial hypertension, improving blood flow inside tumors, and enhancing therapeutic efficacies. Previous clinical and experimental studies have proved that many Chinese herbs show enhancing effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in comprehensive treatment of chemotherapy and radiotherapy combination. Meanwhile, recent studies have also proved that many Chinese herbs could fight against tumor vascular angiogenesis, lower serum VEGF concentration, and inhibit expressions of VEGF. Therefore, studying Chinese herbs' mechanisms of anti-tumor from promoting vascular normalization will open up a brand new field for seeking a cut-in point for Chinese medicine therapy in the comprehensive treatment, optimizing a treatment protocols, and further clarifying the roles of Chinese medicine in the comprehensive treatment.

  9. Optimization model research on efficacy in treatment of chronic urticaria by Chinese and Western medicine based on a genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yan, Macheng; Ye, Fuyuan; Zhang, Yuquan; Cai, Xi; Fu, Yanhua; Yang, Xuming

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the potential rules and knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Western Medicine (WM) treatment on chronic urticaria (CU) based on data-mining methods. Sixty patients with chronic urticaria, treated with TCM and WM, were selected. Gray correlation analyses were adopted to determine therapeutic efficacy. Association algorithms were utilized to ascertain the correlation between the disease course and treatment results. A genetic algorithm was applied to discover the optimization model in the TCM and WM treatment on CU. The total symptom scores after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of treatment in the TCM spleen-strengthening group correlated highly with the pretreatment total symptom score. The duration of treatment showed the greatest impact on the total symptom score. A quartic equation was established (y = - 1.6403 x 10 - 6 x(4) + 0.00025576x(3) + 0.0012819 x2 - 1.024x + 79.5879, and x = 106.9518, y = 83.0036) using the genetic algorithm. TCM treatment had a better effect in the later stage, whereas WM was better in the early stage. The duration of disease course had an impact on the effects of treatment. If the average total symptom score before treatment was < or = 83.0036, TCM or WM treatment could achieve better efficacy.

  10. [Exploration of microcosmic Chinese medicine used by western medicine].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi-jing

    2015-02-01

    "Microcosmic syndrome", "treatment based on syndrome differentiation", and "combination of disease identification and syndrome differentiation" generally refer to a mode: following the syndrome if with no disease identified, following the disease if with no syndrome type differentiated. For example, Chinese medical treatment of hypertension, high blood lipids, increased transaminase, and so on candirectly use Chinese recipes, but no longer with syndrome differentiation. Clinical application of Chinese patent medicine can also obtain favorable clinical. Western doctors need not follow syndrome differentiation. The invention of artemisinin was screened from more than 40 000 kinds of compounds and herbs, but with no reference of any traditional Chinese medical theory. A lot of folk remedy and empirical recipes have obtained effective efficacy but unnecessarily with profound Chinese medical theories. Various evidences showed that disease can also be cured without syndrome differentiation. I held that it might be associated with the same mechanism of Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Any disease can be cured or alleviated by Chinese medicine is a result from its modern pharmacological effect, which is achieved by improving etiologies, and pathogeneses. I was inspired by whether we can directly use traditional Chinese medicine with modern pharmacological effects to treat symptomatic disease. So I raised an idea of microcosmic Chinese medicine used by Western medicine, i.e., we find and use Chinese herbs with relatively effective modern pharmacological effect to treat diseases targeting at patients' clinical symptoms and signs, as well as various positive laboratory results (collectively called as microscopic dialectical indicators). More Western doctors would use it to treat disease due to omission of complicated and mysterious syndrome differentiation. This will promote extensive application and expansion of Chi- nese medicine and pharmacy, enlarge the team of

  11. Effects of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for the Treatment of Lupus Nephritis: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Mingli; Tu, Jinli; Hao, Yu; Zhao, Ye; Tian, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    After a thorough search through the database as CNKI database, VIP database, Wanfang database, PubMed, and Cochrane Library, the clinical experimental articles have been selected out on the effects of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine on the treatment of lupus nephritis. A meta-analysis was carried out in terms of clinical efficacy criteria and safety criteria by RevMan 5.3 software. Based on the results, we cautiously conclude that Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine used for lupus nephritis could improve the clinical efficacy while at same time lower the 24-hour urine protein, serum creatinine, and adverse drug reactions. PMID:28105057

  12. Ethnopharmacological survey on medicinal plants used in snakebite treatments in Western and Sabaragamuwa provinces in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dharmadasa, R M; Akalanka, G C; Muthukumarana, P R M; Wijesekara, R G S

    2016-02-17

    Sri Lanka has a great diversity of snake species. In this relation, over 40,000 cases of snakebite accidents are reported annually from different agro-ecological regions of the country. Since more than 95% of victims rely on traditional treatments, there is an urgent necessity to improve the system. Traditional knowledge on snakebite treatments has been passed on from generation to generation within families. Unfortunately, there has been a limited update of information on pertinent issues related to this subject. In the present study we conducted a comprehensive survey on the types of medicinal plant materials, including the specific plant parts that are available for this purpose. In addition, various treatment types, frequency index, heavily used and rare materials, family wise distribution, challenges faced by traditional practitioners and future prospects were also explored. The present survey covered two provinces with a high population of traditional practitioners for snakebites treatment in Sri Lanka.Information was gathered from a total of seventy-four (74) traditional practitioners from the Sabaragamuwa and Western provinces. A questionnaire was prepared and pre-tested by 10-15 respondents prior to the survey. Actual data were gathered through face-to-face interviews. Collected data were tabulated and analyzed. A total of 341 different plant species belonging to 99 families were documented. The highest number of plants was reported from the family Fabaceae (32 species). This was followed by Malvaceae (16 species), Asteraceae (15 species), Rutaceae (13 species Apocyanaceae (14 species), Lamiaceae (11 species), Poaceae, Euphorbaceae and Phyllanthaceae (10 species per each) respectively. Different parts of the plant such as leaves (53.67%), barks (26.10%), entire plant (14.08%), roots (10.26%), bulbs (8.80%), seeds (7.62%), fruits (6.45%), buds (5.87%), flowers (3.23%) stems (2.93%) and latex (2.05%) were used for the preparation of nine different types of

  13. Eastern and Western Approaches to Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tsuei, Julia J.

    1978-01-01

    An objective comparison of Eastern and Western approaches to medicine is necessary to further evaluate the validity of Oriental medical techniques such as acupuncture. The development of medicine in Western nations follows the way of hypothetical deduction and the Eastern approach uses the inductive method. The Western approach clearly divides the health from the disease, yet the Eastern approach considers health as a balanced state versus disease as an unbalanced state. The Western approach tends to change the environment and the Eastern way is to prefer to adapt to the environment. There are numerous difficulties in comparing these two approaches. The same terminology may apply to entirely different facts, the teaching and learning methods are quite different, and the evaluation of the treatment is almost not comparable. In order to help understand the Eastern approach better, an understanding is needed of the basic Chinese concepts: the concept of a small universe living in a large universe; the duality concept of yin and yang; the concept of anatomy; the concept of physiology in Chinese medicine—the state of equilibrium expressed by the five elements; the concept of pathophysiology expressed by the external and internal insults; the concept of maintaining and promoting health expressed by the circulation of chi and hsieh; the therapeutic concept in Chinese medicine—the normalization or reestablishment of balance of the body function; the concept of preventive medicine. PMID:664653

  14. Clown doctors: shaman healers of Western medicine.

    PubMed

    Van Blerkom, L M

    1995-12-01

    The Big Apple Circus Clown Care Unit, which entertains children in New York City hospitals, is compared with non-Western healers, especially shamans. There is not only superficial resemblance--weird costumes, music, sleight of hand, puppet/spirit helpers, and ventriloquism--but also similarity in the meanings and functions of their performances. Both clown and shaman violate natural and cultural rules in their performances. Both help patient and family deal with illness. Both use suggestion and manipulation of medical symbols in attempting to alleviate their patients' distress. Just as traditional ethnomedical systems have been integrated with Western medicine in other societies, clown doctors can provide complementary therapy that may enhance the efficacy of medical treatment in developed nations, particularly for children.

  15. Integration of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine in the era of precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Jian; Zhang, Teng

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine has received growing recognition from clinicians, health systems, and the pharmaceutical industry, as well as patients and policymakers, which will leave a major impact on the practice of medicine. Interestingly, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) provides personalized medical treatment based on the theory of TCM characterized by holistic concept and pattern differentiation. This, to some extent, is similar to the personalized medical treatment of precision medicine. In China, TCM as well as Western medicine (WM) plays an important role in healthcare. In this article, the authors summarized the influence of precision medicine on current medical directions, the advantages of TCM in disease treatment, further development of precision medicine and the strategies for integration of TCM and WM under this new treatment approach. In addition, the authors discuss the perspective of precise medical diagnosis and treatment, precise prevention, and the complementary advantages of the integration of TCM and WM. Finally, the authors give their perspectives on the challenges and opportunities presented by precision medicine, in the context of further research toward the integration of TCM and WM.

  16. A model and treatment for autism at the convergence of Chinese medicine and Western science: first 130 cases.

    PubMed

    Silva, Louisa M T; Schalock, Mark; Ayres, Robert

    2011-06-01

    To present a model for autism showing that impairment of sensory and self-regulation is the core deficit that underlies delays in social/language skills and abnormal behavior in autism; and to demonstrate the efficacy of a treatment for autism based on Chinese medicine. Children with autism under 6 years of age were assigned to treatment or wait-list conditions. A total of 130 children were treated and the results compared with 45 wait-list controls. Treatment is a tuina methodology directed at sensory impairment--Kai Qiao Tuina. The treatment was a five-month protocol that was implemented daily by trained parents via trained support staff. The effects of treatment on the main symptoms, autistic behavior, social/language delay, sensory and self-regulatory impairment, as well as on parenting stress, were observed and compared. The treatment had a large effect size (P<0.0001) on measures of sensory and self-regulation. The evaluations done by pre-school teachers demonstrated improvement in the measures of autism (P<0.003), and were confirmed by evaluations done by parents (P<0.0001). There was a large decrease (P<0.0001) in parenting stress. Sensory and self-regulatory impairment is a main factor in the development and severity of autism. Treatment of young children with autism with Kai Qiao Tuina resulted in a decrease in sensory and self-regulatory impairment and a reduction in severity of measures of autism.

  17. Research progress on prevention and treatment of glucolipid metabolic disease with integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiao

    2017-06-01

    Hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver and many other metabolic disorder are frequently co-existing in patients. In addition, these diseases are closely related in pathophysiological settings. However, increasing of the disease incidence, lacking of comprehensive prevention and control measurements against the key pathology point concomitant occurrence with the pattern of the single disease, single target therapy, that is leading therapeutic strategy for these metabolic disorders in the setting of Western medicine (WM). On the basis of the combination of the advantages of integrated Chinese medicine (CM) and WM, with unified understanding of such diseases, the new concept of glucolipid metabolic disease (GLMD) is introduced. In this new concept, disorders in glucose and lipid metabolism are recognized as the key trigger and major driving force for the progress of GLMD. The key points of pathology included dysfunction of neuronal-endocrine-immune system, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation and intestinal flora imbalance. In the core pathogenic perspective of CM, it can be explained as "Gan (Liver) Shi Shu Xie" (dysfunction of Gan in metabolism and emotion regulation) that will lead to the occurence/production of endogenous dampness and phlegm, blood stasis and turbid. This leads to the new concept of "Liver-based regulatory system for metabolic homeostasis" to be introduced further. The comprehensive prevention and control strategy "Tiao Gan Qi Shu Hua Zhuo" (modulating Gan, trigging key metabolic system to resolve pathogenic factors such as phlegm retention and dampness). Its representative formula Fufang Zhenzhu Tiaozhi Capsule () is innovated under such rationales. Comment for some commonly-used CM GLMD therapeutic drugs was presented. High-level evidence-based and epidemiological and mechanism studies should be carried out to further interpret and explain of the scientific connotation of GLMD.

  18. Exchange between Andean and Western medicine.

    PubMed

    Bastien, J W

    1982-01-01

    Western medicine has not been functionally incorporated into Andean economic, cultural, and social systems. Evaluation studies show that even though accessibility to Western medicine has increased considerably for rural Andeans, they still rely on traditional medicine. Western medicine has not been able to articulate with Andean ethnomedicine because of different structural relations within each system. Western medicine assumes a mechanistic ideology, chemical-based cures and technology which function efficiently within an urban-industrial framework; whereas Andean medicine assumes a synchronistic ideology, natural-based cures and personal skills which function efficiently within a mountainous rural area with structural components of verticality, specialization and reciprocity. Verticality implies that Andeans specialize in extracting resources from a limited number of zones and then exchange their resources for those produced by people on other zones. Andean ethnomedicine follows principles of verticality in that certain communities specialize in various aspects of Andean medicines, according to the resources available to that community. These medical practitioners travel to other communities providing their services in exchange for services or goods. The author illustrates this from his research among the Qollahuaya Andeans. The community of Kaata specializes in curing by divination and ritual. These diviners are important for community health of Andeans. The communities of Curva and Chajaya specialize in herbal curing: these herbalists are important for treating physical causes. However, the diviners and herbalists complement each other in providing for the total health of Andeans. The final section deals with concrete suggestions of how certain features of Western medicine can functionally fit Andean economic and social structure.

  19. Traditional Chinese medicine and Western psychopharmacology: building bridges.

    PubMed

    Shorter, Edward; Segesser, Kathryn

    2013-12-01

    This paper demonstrates that in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, there are striking similarities between the mechanisms of psychoactive agents used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and those of western psychopharmacology. While western researchers search for new treatments and novel mechanisms of action, investigators in Asia are analyzing traditional remedies in order to understand the mechanisms responsible for their effectiveness. A review of contemporary pharmacologic studies of agents used in TCM for psychiatric indications reveals that virtually all of the active principles of drug action established in 20th century psychopharmacology were encountered empirically in Chinese herbal medicine over the past 2000 years. Building bridges between these two traditions may thus be of benefit to both cultures. In addition to providing western patients with a wider selection of treatment options, the effort may help Asian clinicians and researchers avoid some of the errors that have troubled their western counterparts.

  20. Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Psychopharmacology: Building Bridges

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, Edward; Segesser, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, there are striking similarities between the mechanisms of psychoactive agents used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and those of western psychopharmacology. While western researchers search for new treatments and novel mechanisms of action, investigators in Asia are analyzing traditional remedies in order to understand the mechanisms responsible for their effectiveness. A review of contemporary pharmacologic studies of agents used in TCM for psychiatric indications reveals that virtually all of the active principles of drug action established in 20th century psychopharmacology were encountered empirically in Chinese herbal medicine over the past 2000 years. Building bridges between these two traditions may thus be of benefit to both cultures. In addition to providing western patients with a wider selection of treatment options, the effort may help Asian clinicians and researchers avoid some of the errors that have troubled their western counterparts. PMID:23418138

  1. Treatment of severe fluoroacetamide poisoning in patient with combined multiple organ dysfunction syndrome by evidence-based integrated Chinese and Western medicines

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Wanxin; Gao, Hongxia; Kang, Nini; Lu, Aili; Qian, Caiwen; Zhao, Yuanqi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Fluoroacetamide poisoning is the acute and severe disease of human, which leads to nervous, digestive, and cardiovascular system damage or even death in a short period of time. Patient concerns: We report a case of a 65-year-old woman with loss of consciousness, nausea, and vomiting who was sent to the hospital by passers-by. Diagnosis: She was diagnosed with severe fluoroacetamide poisoning with combined multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Interventions: When the diagnosis was unclear, we gave gastric lavage, support and symptomatic treatment, and closely with the vital sign. When the diagnosis was clear, based on the evidence of retrieved, muscle injection of acetamide, calcium gluconate, and vitamin C. Traditional Chinese medicine aspect, oral administration of mung bean soup of glycyrrhizae and Da-Cheng-Qi decoction enema. Outcomes: By setting reasonable treatment for patients, she had no special discomfort and complications after treatment. Besides, through 1-month follow-up, it was confirmed that the treatments were effective. Lessons: Evidence-based integrated Chinese and Western medicines can effectively improve the therapeutic effects in severe fluoroacetamide-poisoned patients with combined MODS. PMID:28682876

  2. [Explore pros and cons of proproetary Chinese medicines and Western medicines].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yu-Qin; Jiang, Zhao-Yun

    2008-10-01

    Improve the Medication methods and the efficacy of Chinese medicines with western medicines. Read the according article, compare the advantage and disadvantge of Chinese medicines and western medicines interaction and describe the mechanism of medicines in effect. It shows that using Chinese medicines with western medicines have more disadvantage than adavntage. The clinical Chinese medicines with western medicines should according physical properties and pharmacological effects of drug at first, after taking, general the interval is from 1 hour to 3 hours to prevent medicine has physical reactions or toxicity in stomach, ensure taking medicines safety.

  3. Is there a divide between local medicinal knowledge and Western medicine? a case study among native Amazonians in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Calvet-Mir, Laura; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tanner, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Background Interest in ethnomedicine has grown in the last decades, with much research focusing on how local medicinal knowledge can contribute to Western medicine. Researchers have emphasized the divide between practices used by local medical practitioners and Western doctors. However, researchers have also suggested that merging concepts and practices from local medicinal knowledge and Western science have the potential to improve public health and support medical independence of local people. In this article we study the relations between local and Western medicinal knowledge within a native Amazonian population, the Tsimane'. Methods We used the following methods: 1) participant observation and semi-structured interviews to gather background information, 2) free-listing and pile-sorting to assess whether Tsimane' integrate local medicinal knowledge and Western medicine at the conceptual level, 3) surveys to assess to what extent Tsimane' combine local medicinal knowledge with Western medicine in actual treatments, and 4) a participatory workshop to assess the willingness of Tsimane' and Western medical specialists to cooperate with each other. Results We found that when asked about medical treatments, Tsimane' do not include Western treatments in their lists, however on their daily practices, Tsimane' do use Western treatments in combination with ethnomedical treatments. We also found that Tsimane' healers and Western doctors express willingness to cooperate with each other and to promote synergy between local and Western medical systems. Conclusion Our findings contrast with previous research emphasizing the divide between local medical practitioners and Western doctors and suggests that cooperation between both health systems might be possible. PMID:18710524

  4. [Reflection on treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome by integrative medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Ni

    2012-02-01

    The current situation of Chinese medicine and Western medicine treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has made the integrative medicine treatment of AIDS an important treatment strategy. Integrative medicine treatment of AIDS has made certain achievements in clinical research, basic research, and other aspects. It has good mass foundation and curative efficacy, as well as insufficiency. I hope integrative medicine can be brought into full play in the treatment of AIDS and make breakthrough progress.

  5. [The methods of Western medicine in on ancient medicine].

    PubMed

    Ban, Deokjin

    2010-06-30

    The treatise On Ancient Medicine attests that questions of method were being debated both in medicine and in philosophy and is important evidence of cross-discipline methodological controversy. The treatise On Ancient Medicine is the first attempt in the history of Greek thought to provide a detailed account of the development of a science from a starting point in observation and experience. The author of it criticizes philosophical physicians who attempt to systematized medicine by reducing it to the interaction of one or more of the opposites hot, cold, wet, and dry, factors. He regards the theory of his opponents as hypothesis(hypothesis). Medicine has long been in possession of both an archē and a hodos, a principle and a method, which have enabled it to make discoveries over a long period of time. As far as method is concerned, the traditional science of medicine attained the knowledge of the visible by starting from observation and experience, but it recommended the use of reasoning and analogies with familiar objects as a means of learning about the invisible. It also utilized inference from the visible to the visible(epilogismos) and inference from the visible to the invisible(analogismos). The use of analogy as a means of learning about the obscure was also part of the common heritage of early philosophy and medicine. But the author's use of the analogical method distinguishes it from Empedocles' well-known analogy comparisons of the eye to a lantern and the process of respiration to the operations of a clepsydra. According to the author, traditional science of medicine used functional analogy like wine example and cheese example to know the function of humors within the body and utilized structured analogy like a tube example and a cupping instrument example to acknowledge an organ or structure within the body. But the author didn't distinguish between the claim that medicine has a systematic method of making discoveries and very different claim that it

  6. Precision Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Precision medicine helps doctors select cancer treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. Learn about the promise of precision medicine and the role it plays in cancer treatment.

  7. The Problem of Dualism in Modern Western Medicine.

    PubMed

    Gendle, Mathew H

    2016-01-01

    Dualism is historically important in that it allowed the medical practice to be divorced from church oversight. The reductionist approaches of modern Western medicine facilitate a dispassionate and mechanistic approach to patient care, and dualist views promoted by complementary and alternative medicine are also problematic. Behavioural disorders are multifactorally realizable and emerge apparently chaotically from interactions between internal physiological systems and the patient's environment and experiential history. Conceptualizations of behavioural disorders that are based on dualism deny the primacy of individual physiology in the generation of pathology and distract from therapies that are most likely to produce positive outcomes. Behavioural health professionals should adopt holistic models of patient care, but these models must be based on methodologies that emphasize radical emergence over the artificial separation of the "physical" and "mental." This will allow for the humanistic practice of medicine while simultaneously maximizing the likelihood of treatment success.

  8. The Problem of Dualism in Modern Western Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gendle, Mathew H.

    2016-01-01

    Dualism is historically important in that it allowed the medical practice to be divorced from church oversight. The reductionist approaches of modern Western medicine facilitate a dispassionate and mechanistic approach to patient care, and dualist views promoted by complementary and alternative medicine are also problematic. Behavioural disorders are multifactorally realizable and emerge apparently chaotically from interactions between internal physiological systems and the patient's environment and experiential history. Conceptualizations of behavioural disorders that are based on dualism deny the primacy of individual physiology in the generation of pathology and distract from therapies that are most likely to produce positive outcomes. Behavioural health professionals should adopt holistic models of patient care, but these models must be based on methodologies that emphasize radical emergence over the artificial separation of the “physical” and “mental.” This will allow for the humanistic practice of medicine while simultaneously maximizing the likelihood of treatment success. PMID:28031628

  9. Assessment of the Reporting Quality of Randomized Controlled Trials on Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease with Traditional Chinese Medicine from the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fang-fang; Xu, Qin; Sun, Qi; Zhao, Sheng-jun; Wang, Ping; Guo, Xue-rui

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to language limitations, little is known about the reporting quality of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine (CJITWM). Objective In this study, we utilized the CONSORT 2010 statement to understand the reporting quality of RCTs on CHD with TCM from the CJITWM. Methods The China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) electronic database was searched for CJITWM RCTs on the treatment of CHD with TCM, published between Janurary 1, 2006 and December 31, 2011. We excluded articles reported as “animal studies,” “topic review,” “diagnostic test,” “editorials,” or “others.” The CONSORT checklist was applied to evaluate the reporting quality of all eligible articles by two independent authors after extensive discussion. Each item was graded as either “yes” or “no” depending on whether the authors had reported it or not. Results We identified 21 articles meeting our inclusion criteria. The percentage of 11 of the 37 items was 4.8∼95.2%, 14 of the 37 items were reported in all included articles, while 12 items were not mentioned at all. The average reporting percentage for the “title and abstract” section was 52.4%, for the “introduction” section 100.0%, for the “methods” section 45.4%, for the “results” section 57.1%, for the “discussion” section 79.4%, and for the “other information” section 17.5%. Conclusion In general, the reviewed RCTs were not consistent with the CONSORT 2010 statement. Authors should adhere to the CONSORT statement in reporting RCTs; editorial departments may consider the CONSORT statement as a guideline and should instruct authors to write manuscripts, and reviewers to judge them according to CONSORT statutes. PMID:24489719

  10. [Tinnitus treated with combined traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine].

    PubMed

    Yang, D J

    1989-05-01

    Cases of annoying tinnitus were selected for this observation. They were examined by general physical examination, otoscopy and some of them by audiometry and tinnitus masking patterns test, and/or Ecoch G and BSER. Two groups, TCM-WM and controls, were designed with patient's sexes, ages, severity of tinnitus almost evenly distributed. Different kinds of medicines were given to the patients of 2 groups with single blind trial. For the controls, only western medicines such as valium, nicotinic acid, mixture bromides, vitamin B Co, ATP and carbamazepine (if 100 mg of lidocaine added to 50% glucose solution intravenously was effective) were taken orally. For TCM-WM group patients, besides the drugs used above, herbal decoctions were given twice a day, and observed for 5 days per therapeutic course. The medicinal herbs consist of: Rhizoma Gastrodiae, Ramulus Uncariae cum Uncis, Poria cocos, Flos Chrysanthemi, Akebia quinata, Radix Polygoni Multiflori, Fructus Liquidambris, Radix Rehmanniae, Rhizoma Alismatis, Radix Scrophulariae, Fructus Lycii, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Semen Plantaginis and Semen Vaccariae. Of the therapeutic results in 32 cases of TCM-WM group, 11 cases (34.4%) showed absence of tinnitus, 16 (50%) improved, and 5 (15.6%) failed. The total effective rate was 84.4%. In 27 cases of the controls, 5 cases (18.6%) showed absence of tinnitus, 10 (37%) improved, and 12 (44.4%) failed. The total effective rate was 55.6%. It showed that the therapeutic results of TCM-WM group was better than those of the controls (P less than 0.05).

  11. Context Effects in Western Herbal Medicine: Fundamental to Effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Snow, James

    2016-01-01

    Western herbal medicine (WHM) is a complex healthcare system that uses traditional plant-based medicines in patient care. Typical preparations are individualized polyherbal formulae that, unlike herbal pills, retain the odor and taste of whole herbs. Qualitative studies in WHM show patient-practitioner relationships to be collaborative. Health narratives are co-constructed, leading to assessments, and treatments with personal significance for participants. It is hypothesized that the distinct characteristics of traditional herbal preparations and patient-herbalist interactions, in conjunction with the WHM physical healthcare environment, evoke context (placebo) effects that are fundamental to the overall effectiveness of herbal treatment. These context effects may need to be minimized to demonstrate pharmacological efficacy of herbal formulae in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, optimized to demonstrate effectiveness of WHM in pragmatic trials, and consciously harnessed to enhance outcomes in clinical practice.

  12. Is traditional Chinese medicine recommended in Western medicine clinical practice guidelines in China? A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jun; Li, Xun; Sun, Jin; Han, Mei; Yang, Guo-Yan; Li, Wen-Yuan; Robinson, Nicola; Lewith, George; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based medicine promotes and relies on the use of evidence in developing clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The Chinese healthcare system includes both traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine, which are expected to be equally reflected in Chinese CPGs. Objective To evaluate the inclusion of TCM-related information in Western medicine CPGs developed in China and the adoption of high level evidence. Methods All CPGs were identified from the China Guideline Clearinghouse (CGC), which is the main Chinese organisation maintaining the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health of China, the Chinese Medical Association and the Chinese Medical Doctors’ Association. TCM-related contents were extracted from all the CPGs identified. Extracted information comprised the institution issuing the guideline, date of issue, disease, recommendations relating to TCM, evidence level of the recommended content and references supporting the recommendations. Results A total of 604 CPGs were identified, only a small number of which (74/604; 12%) recommended TCM therapy and only five guidelines (7%) had applied evidence grading. The 74 CPGs involved 13 disease systems according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition. TCM was mainly recommended in the treatment part of the guidelines (73/74, 99%), and more than half of the recommendations (43/74, 58%) were related to Chinese herbal medicine (single herbs or herbal treatment based on syndrome differentiation). Conclusions Few Chinese Western medicine CPGs recommend TCM therapies and very few provide evidence grading for the TCM recommendation. We suggest that future guideline development should be based on systematic searches for evidence to support CPG recommendations and involve a multidisciplinary approach including TCM expertise. PMID:26041487

  13. [Linguistic-cultural differences between Chinese and Western medicine and English translation of Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Lan, Feng-li

    2007-04-01

    This paper explores the influences of linguistic-cultural differences between Chinese and Western medicine on the English translation of Chinese medicinal terms/literature from such aspects as ideographic, phonetic writings and thinking modes, Chinese and Western medical terms, as well as Classic literature of Chinese medicine and medical English.

  14. [Clinical medicine of the western medicine in the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Zhen, C

    2001-07-01

    The 18th century is an important turning point not only in human history, but also in medical history. G. B. Morgagni was an Italian who founded the organic pathology in the 18th century, which was a bridge between basic medicine and clinical medicine of western medicine. H. Boerhaave called for "paying attention to the development of clinical medicine", and under this situation, western clinical medicine was attached importance and developed again in the 18th century. However, at the same time, the mechanical materialism was also infiltrated into western clinical medicine.

  15. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the traditional treatment of diabetes in Chtouka Ait Baha and Tiznit (Western Anti-Atlas), Morocco.

    PubMed

    Barkaoui, M; Katiri, A; Boubaker, H; Msanda, F

    2017-02-23

    In Morocco, diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem with more than 1.5 million cases in 2014. Medicinal plants are widely used by the Moroccan population to treat the illness. The aim of this work is to make an inventory of plant species used in folk medicine for the management of diabetes in Chtouka Ait Baha and Tiznit provinces. The survey was carried out by means of semi-structured questionnaires. A total of 380 interviews were conducted with traditional health practitioners and knowledgeable villagers. The data were analyzed through use value (UV), fidelity level (FL) and relative frequency of citation (RFC). In total, 48 plant species belonging to 25 families were reported. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Apiaceae were reported as the most represented families. Six plants are reported for the first time as used in traditional treatment of diabetes and one plant species was previously unknown for its medicinal use to treat diabetes in Morocco. The most frequently cited plant species are Allium sativum L., Salvia officinalis L., Marrubium vulgare L. and Lavandula dentata L. Leaves were the most cited plant part used, decoction is the preferred mode of preparation. This study showed the importance of folk medicine in the healthcare system for the local people living in the study area. The current study represents a useful documentation, which can contribute to preserving knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in this region and to explore the phytochemical and pharmacological potential of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. New developments in the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of combination of Chinese medicine and Western medicine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Liang, Xiao-Chun

    2016-12-05

    It is very common to use Chinese medicine (CM) combined with Western medicine (WM) in clinical practice. The appropriate combination of CM with WM can reduce toxicity and enhance effects in order to make the best use of advantages and bypass the disadvantages. However, an inappropriate combination can not only affect the curative effect but even cause death. Therefore, strengthening the complementary advantages of the CM and WM to improve the therapeutic efficacy and reduce side effects has become an important research topic of clinical medicine and pharmacy. Many researchers try to clarify the effects of combining CM with WM on therapeutic efficacy and absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion by pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics studies, providing evidence for clinical application. This review focuses on the new developments in the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the combination of CM with WM in order to give references for clinical treatment.

  17. Breviscapine Injection Improves the Therapeutic Effect of Western Medicine on Angina Pectoris Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuan; Li, Yafeng; Gao, Shoucui; Cheng, Daxin; Zhao, Sihai; Liu, Enqi

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of breviscapine injection in combination with Western medicine on the treatment of patients with angina pectoris. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Science Citation Index, EMBASE, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Wanfang Database, the Chongqing VIP Information Database and the China Biomedical Database were searched to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of Western medicine compared to breviscapine injection plus Western medicine on angina pectoris patients. The included studies were analyzed using RevMan 5.1.0 software. The literature search yielded 460 studies, wherein 16 studies matched the selection criteria. The results showed that combined therapy using Breviscapine plus Western medicine was superior to Western medicine alone for improving angina pectoris symptoms (OR =3.77, 95% Cl: 2.76~5.15) and also resulted in increased electrocardiogram (ECG) improvement (OR=2.77, 95% Cl: 2.16~3.53). The current evidence suggests that Breviscapine plus Western medicine achieved a superior therapeutic effect compared to Western medicine alone. PMID:26052709

  18. Breviscapine Injection Improves the Therapeutic Effect of Western Medicine on Angina Pectoris Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Li, Yafeng; Gao, Shoucui; Cheng, Daxin; Zhao, Sihai; Liu, Enqi

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of breviscapine injection in combination with Western medicine on the treatment of patients with angina pectoris. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Science Citation Index, EMBASE, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Wanfang Database, the Chongqing VIP Information Database and the China Biomedical Database were searched to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of Western medicine compared to breviscapine injection plus Western medicine on angina pectoris patients. The included studies were analyzed using RevMan 5.1.0 software. The literature search yielded 460 studies, wherein 16 studies matched the selection criteria. The results showed that combined therapy using Breviscapine plus Western medicine was superior to Western medicine alone for improving angina pectoris symptoms (OR=3.77, 95% Cl: 2.76~5.15) and also resulted in increased electrocardiogram (ECG) improvement (OR=2.77, 95% Cl: 2.16~3.53). The current evidence suggests that Breviscapine plus Western medicine achieved a superior therapeutic effect compared to Western medicine alone.

  19. Integration of traditional Chinese medicine with Western medicine--right or wrong?

    PubMed

    Cai, J F

    1988-01-01

    The presence of a dualistic medical system in most Asian, African and Latin American countries results from specific historical events. In China, traditional medicine and Western medicine exist side by side during the last century. Through Chinese medicine suffered from discrimination which retarded its development for several decades, under the protection and encouragement of New China's policy, it develops steadily and flourishes. Moreover, a new policy of integrating Chinese with Western medicine is a right orientation for development in China. Yet this is not the only way of development for traditional medicine. New achievements in traditional Chinese medicine prove that this new field is worthy of further exploration.

  20. A right to health: medicine as Western cultural imperialism?

    PubMed

    Matheson, Donna

    2009-01-01

    Western medicine is intrinsically tied with modern Western culture, and as such is foreign to many African cultures. Relying on personal observations from working in Angola as a physiotherapist as well as secondary research, the author explores the divide between Angolan culture and medical practices which are deeply rooted in scientific research. Most strikingly, the author finds that concepts of evidence-based medicine as well as individual human or patients' rights contain aspects foreign to Angolan culture. Illustrative examples are given of differences in attitudes towards finances and religion in relation to medicine. Finally, the author proposes that factors such as poverty and illiteracy can play an important role in differences in practices and customs commonly seen as being strictly tied to culture. Although medicine does carry with it components of Western culture, there may be positive components of medicine that non-Westerners would like to adopt. This article suggests that Westerners and Angolans can combine beneficial aspects of Angolan culture with medicine to improve health care for the people of Angola.

  1. Changing the knowledge base in Western herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sue

    2008-12-01

    The project of modernising Western herbal medicine in order to allow it to be accepted by the public and to contribute to contemporary healthcare is now over two decades old. One aspect of this project involves changes to the ways knowledge about medicinal plants is presented. This paper contrasts the models of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and Traditional Knowledge (TK) to illuminate some of the complexities which have arisen consequent to these changes, particularly with regard to the concept of vitalism, the retention or rejection of which may have broad implications for the clinical practice of herbal medicine. Illustrations from two herbals (central texts on the medicinal use of plants) demonstrate the differences between these frameworks in regard to how herbs are understood. Further, a review of articles on herbal therapeutics published in the Australian Journal of Herbal Medicine indicates that practitioners are moving away from TK and towards the use of EBM in their clinical discussions.

  2. Plural medicine in Sri Lanka: do Ayurvedic and Western medical practices differ?

    PubMed

    Waxler-Morrison, N E

    1988-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, as in India, two formally structured systems of medicine exist side by side. While Western-style biomedicine is believed to be useful, Ayurvedic medicine is well established and commonly used. Underlying one explanation for the persistence of such plural medical systems is a functional theory, suggesting that each system is used for different treatments, diseases, or for the ideological, linguistic or social characteristics of the physician. In part, Ayurvedic and Western medicine may persist because their practitioners provide distinctly different services. We tested part of this functional explanation by sending trained 'pseudo-patients' to 764 Ayurvedic and allopathic physicians across Sri Lanka. 'Patients' reported symptoms of common cold, diarrhea or back pain, and recorded after leaving the clinic many aspects of history-taking, diagnostic procedures and physician-patient interaction. Medicines prescribed were later analyzed by a laboratory. We found, basically, no significant differences between the medical practices of sampled Ayurvedic and Western-style physicians, with one exception. While both types spend 3-4 min asking four questions and doing two or three physical examination procedures, and while both prescribe, overwhelmingly, only Western medicines, the allopathic physicians give drugs, that, from the point of view of Western medicine, either 'help' or 'harm' and Ayurvedic physicians prescribe 'neutral' medicines. While we have not directly tested the entire functional explanation we suggest that a structural explanation of the persistence of two systems of medicine may be more valid. Ayurvedic and Western medicine continue in Sri Lanka because they, as institutions, are linked to the social, economic and political structure of the society. Thus, survival is based, not on what a physician does in his practice but upon the power of his medical profession to control medical territory.

  3. Population medicine in a curricular revision at Case Western Reserve.

    PubMed

    Ornt, Daniel B; Aron, David C; King, Nicholas B; Clementz, Laura M; Frank, Scott; Wolpaw, Terry; Wilson-Delfosse, Amy; Wolpaw, Daniel; Allan, Terrence M; Carroll, Matthew; Thompson-Shaheen, Karen; Altose, Murray D; Horwitz, Ralph I

    2008-04-01

    Inclusion of population medicine in a medical school curriculum has received growing attention. Recently, the Association of American Medical Colleges has highlighted this issue through support of the Regional Medicine and Public Health Education Centers initiative. The Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine joined this consortium while implementing a new curriculum in which population medicine would be an underlying theme woven with the classic science elements of disease. The organization for the first two years of the new curriculum, which was implemented in 2006, is a six-block structure during which the basic sciences are learned with key concepts of population medicine woven throughout. The focus for this article is Block One, in which population medicine is the major emphasis of the introduction to medicine. The first week, students learn social determinants, impact on communities, and social aspects of diabetes mellitus, even before addressing a patient's clinical presentation. Emphasis on student-centered learning is undertaken as part of the new curriculum, using a series of weekly, case-based, small-group sessions. This type of group learning is used throughout Block One as students encounter key components of population medicine. A thesis requirement was also introduced as a mechanism to emphasize research with opportunities for research in population medicine as well as other medical sciences. A variety of mechanisms are described to measure the outcomes of Block One.

  4. An attempt to integrate Western and Chinese medicine: rationale for applying Chinese medicine as chronotherapy against cancer

    PubMed Central

    Seki, K.; Chisaka, M.; Eriguchi, M.; Yanagie, H.; Hisa, T.; Osada, I.; Sairenji, T.; Otsuka, K.; Halberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Current Western medical treatment lays its main emphasis on evidence-based medicine (EBM) and cure is assessed by quantifying the effects of treatment statistically. In contrast, in Chinese medicine, cure is generally assessed by evaluating the patient's “pattern” (Zheng) [cf. Glossary] and medicines are prescribed according to this. We believe that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) cannot be evaluated precisely according to Western principles, in which a constant amount of the same medicine is given to a group of patients to be evaluated. When assessing cure using TCM, Zheng is more important than the determination of medical effects. This means that quantitative evaluation of TCM treatment can be very difficult. In this paper, we focused on the Yin-Yang [cf. Glossary] balance to determine Zheng, and at the same time attempted to determine the treatment effects by applying the concept of regulation of Yin-Yang according to chronotherapeutic principles. According to Zheng, advanced cancer patients generally lack both Yin and Yang. Chinese medical treatment therefore seeks to supplement both Yin and Yang. However, we divided patients into two groups and compared them with respect to survival. One group was administered a predominantly Yang (Qi) [cf. Glossary] tonic herbal treatment during the daytime, while the other group was administered Yin (Blood) [cf. Glossary] tonics during night time. A comparison of the results of treatment showed that the patients in the group receiving Yang (Qi) replenishment during the daytime lived longer than patients receiving Yin (Blood) nourishment during the night. Moreover, the patients in the daytime Yang (Qi) replenishment group also fared significantly better than patients treated solely by Western methods. PMID:16275482

  5. [Comparison between transmission of modern western medicine in China and Japan].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan-Ming

    2009-05-01

    In the middle period of the 16th century, western medicine had been introduced successively into China and Japan by the medium of Catholic missionaries. The transmission mode of western medicine in the two countries differed dramatically from each other due to the political, economic and social cultural differences of that time. In China, the transmission of western medicine focused on the theory first and transferred to the practical use later; while in Japan, it began with clinical treatment, then rose from the technology to the theory. As a result, the cognition to the western medical knowledge and medical system as well as the transplanting and localization in China and Japan were significantly different. The local western medical groups emerged earlier in Japan than in China, and the attitude toward western medicine was also more positive and a national health system was quickly established. The corresponding situation in China obviously lagged behind the one in Japan, and China learned from the successful experiences of Japan for a time.

  6. Integration of Chinese medicine with Western medicine could lead to future medicine: molecular module medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Ge; Chen, Ke-ji; Lu, Ai-ping

    2016-04-01

    The development of an effective classification method for human health conditions is essential for precise diagnosis and delivery of tailored therapy to individuals. Contemporary classification of disease systems has properties that limit its information content and usability. Chinese medicine pattern classification has been incorporated with disease classification, and this integrated classification method became more precise because of the increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms. However, we are still facing the complexity of diseases and patterns in the classification of health conditions. With continuing advances in omics methodologies and instrumentation, we are proposing a new classification approach: molecular module classification, which is applying molecular modules to classifying human health status. The initiative would be precisely defining the health status, providing accurate diagnoses, optimizing the therapeutics and improving new drug discovery strategy. Therefore, there would be no current disease diagnosis, no disease pattern classification, and in the future, a new medicine based on this classification, molecular module medicine, could redefine health statuses and reshape the clinical practice.

  7. Chinese herbs combined with Western medicine for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuemei; Zhang, Mingming; He, Lin; Li, Youping

    2012-10-17

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus, which first appeared in Foshan City, China on 22 December 2002. Chinese herbs were used in its treatment. To evaluate the possible effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines versus Western medicines alone for SARS patients. We searched CENTRAL 2012, Issue 3, MEDLINE (1966 to February Week 4, 2012), EMBASE (1990 to March 2012) and the Chinese Biomedical Literature (Issue 3, 2012). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines versus Western medicines alone for patients diagnosed with SARS. Two review authors (XL, MZ) independently extracted trial data. We extracted dichotomous and continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI). For dichotomous data, we used risk ratio (RR). For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD). We calculated overall results based on the random-effects model if heterogeneity existed between studies. If no heterogeneity was detected between the studies, we used the fixed-effect model. We used the Z score and the Chi(2) test with significance being set at P < 0.05 to test heterogeneity. No severe adverse events were reported. We included 12 RCTs and one quasi-RCT. A total of 640 SARS patients and 12 Chinese herbs were identified. We did not find Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines decreased mortality versus Western medicines alone. Two herbs may improve symptoms. Five herbs may improve lung infiltrate absorption. Four herbs may decrease the dosage of corticosteroids. Three herbs may improve the quality of life of SARS patients. One herb may shorten the length of hospital stay. Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines made no difference in decreasing mortality versus Western medicines alone. It is possible that Chinese herbs combined with Western medicines may improve symptoms, quality of life and absorption of pulmonary

  8. Traditional Knowledge of Western Herbal Medicine and Complex Systems Science

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, Kathryn; Bell, Iris R.; Koithan, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Traditional knowledge of Western herbal medicine (WHM) supports experiential approaches to healing that have evolved over time. This is evident in the use of polyherb formulations comprised of crude plant parts, individually tailored to treat the cause of dysfunction and imbalance by addressing the whole person holistically. The challenge for WHM is to integrate science with traditional knowledge that is a foundation of the practice of WHM. The purpose of this paper is to provide a plausible theoretical hypothesis by applying complex systems science to WHM, illustrating how medicinal plants are complex, adaptive, environmentally interactive systems exhibiting synergy and nonlinear healing causality. This paper explores the conceptual congruence between medicinal plants and humans as complex systems coherently coupled through recurrent interaction. Complex systems science provides the theoretical tenets that explain traditional knowledge of medicinal plants while supporting clinical practice and expanding research and documentation of WHM. PMID:24058898

  9. Integrative Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine service model for low back pain.

    PubMed

    Sit, Regina W S; Wong, Wendy; Law, Sheung Wai; Wu, Justin C Y

    2016-07-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common, costly, and debilitating condition that creates a heavy socioeconomic burden on the global health care systems. In Western Medicine (WM), the treatment goals are to relieve pain, reduce disability, and enhance rehabilitation. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), acupuncture is frequently used to rebalance the vital energy "Qi". Whilst numerous literatures are available from WM and TCM in the management of LBP, the value of an integrative WMTCM therapy remains unknown. This article aims to introduce an integrative WM-TCM service model for LBP, which is now available at the Hong Kong Institute of Integrative Medicine, the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

  10. Linking Ayurveda and Western medicine by integrative analysis.

    PubMed

    Fauzi, Fazlin Mohd; Koutsoukas, Alexios; Lowe, Robert; Joshi, Kalpana; Fan, Tai-Ping; Glen, Robert C; Bender, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    In this article, we discuss our recent work in elucidating the mode-of-action of compounds used in traditional medicine including Ayurvedic medicine. Using computational ('in silico') approach, we predict potential targets for Ayurvedic anti-cancer compounds, obtained from the Indian Plant Anticancer Database given its chemical structure. In our analysis, we observed that: (i) the targets predicted can be connected to cancer pathogenesis i.e. steroid-5-alpha reductase 1 and 2 and estrogen receptor-β, and (ii) predominantly hormone-dependent cancer targets were predicted for the anti-cancer compounds. Through the use of our in silico target prediction, we conclude that understanding how traditional medicine such as Ayurveda work through linking with the 'western' understanding of chemistry and protein targets can be a fruitful avenue in addition to bridging the gap between the two different schools of thinking. Given that compounds used in Ayurveda have been tested and used for thousands of years (although not in the same approach as Western medicine), they can potentially be developed into potential new drugs. Hence, to further advance the case of Ayurvedic medicine, we put forward some suggestions namely: (a) employing and integrating novel analytical methods given the advancements of 'omics' and (b) sharing experimental data and clinical results on studies done on Ayurvedic compounds in an easy and accessible way.

  11. Concurrent Study of Eastern and Western Medicine at the National College of Natural Medicine: Dual or Duel?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrea Christine

    2010-01-01

    Students at the National College of Natural Medicine (NCNM) are eligible to concurrently study both Western medicine, as reflected by the Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine (ND) program, and Eastern medicine, as exhibited by the Master of Science in Oriental Medicine (MSOM) degree program. The dual track is unique in that the dominant Western…

  12. Concurrent Study of Eastern and Western Medicine at the National College of Natural Medicine: Dual or Duel?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrea Christine

    2010-01-01

    Students at the National College of Natural Medicine (NCNM) are eligible to concurrently study both Western medicine, as reflected by the Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine (ND) program, and Eastern medicine, as exhibited by the Master of Science in Oriental Medicine (MSOM) degree program. The dual track is unique in that the dominant Western…

  13. [Complex network analysis on dynamic change regularity of combining use of Chinese and western medicine in 27,678 cases with ischemic stroke in acute phase].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Li, Yang; Sun, Lei-lei; Xie, Yan-ming; Guo, Chong-hui; Zhuang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    patients, and it was more combined with dehydration medicine by critically admission condition patients. This research found that the dynamic characteristics for the combination of Chinese patent medicine and western medicine of acute phase of ischemic stroke patients by big data analytics and complex networks modeling, and provide basis for acute phase of ischemic stroke patients, it provide basis for ischemic stroke treatment strategy making.

  14. A clinical study of integrating acupuncture and Western medicine in treating patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Pey; Chang, Ching-Mao; Shiu, Jing-Huei; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Wu, Ta-Peng; Yang, Jen-Lin; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Fun-Jou; Chern, Chang-Ming; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2015-01-01

    Complementary therapy with acupuncture for Parkinson's disease (PD) has been studied for quite a long time, but the effectiveness of the treatment still remains unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the integrated effects of acupuncture treatment in PD patients who received western medicine. In the short-term acupuncture treatment study, 20 patients received acupuncture therapy twice a week in acupoints DU 20, GB 20, LI 11, LI 10, LI 4, GB 31, ST 32, GB 34 and GB 38 along with western medicine for 18 weeks, and 20 controlled patients received western medicine only. In the long-term acupuncture treatment, 13 patients received acupuncture treatment twice a week for 36 weeks. The outcome parameters include Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory-Version 2 (BDI-II), and WHO quality of life (WHOQOL). In the short-term clinical trial, a higher percentage of patients in the acupuncture group had score improvement in UPDRS total scores (55% vs. 15%, p = 0.019), sub-score of mind, behavior and mood (85% vs. 25%, p < 0.001), activity of daily living (65% vs. 15%, p = 0.003), mobility (40% vs. 15%, p = 0.155) and complication of treatment (75% vs. 15%, p < 0.001), BDI-II score (85% vs. 35%, p = 0.003), and WHOQOL score (65% vs. 15%, p = 0.003) when compared to control group at the end of the 18 weeks' follow up. After 36 weeks of long-term acupuncture treatment, the mean UPDRS total scores and sub-score of mentation, behavior and mood, sub-score of complications of therapy and BDI-II score decreased significantly when compared to the pretreatment baseline. In conclusion, acupuncture treatment had integrated effects in reducing symptoms and signs of mind, behavior, mood, complications of therapy and depression in PD patients who received Western medicine.

  15. Progress of integrative Chinese and Western medicine in treating polycystic ovarian syndrome caused infertility.

    PubMed

    Song, Juan-juan; Yan, Miao-e; Wu, Xiao-ke; Hou, Li-hui

    2006-12-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most popular diseases that cause menstrual dysfunction and infertility in women. The present paper is a brief retrospection on the progress in treatment of PCOS caused infertility with integrative Chinese and Western medicine (ICWM). It can be seen from these materials that using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) recipes formulated by Shen-replenishing herbs or acupuncture to reinforce Gan-Shen, regulate Chong-Ren Channels in treating PCOS, stable clinical efficacy could be obtained, with less adverse reaction, though the effect initiated somewhat late. Whereas, when Shen-replenishing recipe and acupuncture are combined with hormone or ovulation promoting drugs of Western medicine, the above-mentioned shortcomings would be overcome. So, this combined therapy is frequently used in clinical practice.

  16. [Changes and establishment of the principle of "Unity of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine"].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian

    2014-11-01

    "Unity of traditional Chinese and western medicine" was one of the three major health work principles at the early founding of the People's Republic of China. It was not only a choice of political strategy in line with the lack of contemporary health-care resources, but also a part of the revolutionary heritage for more than 20 years in the process of the Chinese Communist Party from the preliminary "application of both traditional and western medicine" to the making of the principles of both "cooperation of traditional Chinese and western medicine" and "unity of traditional Chinese and western medicine". All this was closely related to the concrete environment of the Chinese health work of various stages of Yan'an period with strong revolutionary atmosphere and was not the professional demand of the health workers, rather, this principle set up in 1950 was the result of the careful consideration of Mao Zedong and an adjustment guided under the revolutionary framework of Neo-democracy set up under the guidance of the Common Principle which was a bettered adaptation to the contemporary national condition.

  17. Opportunities for silvicultural treatment in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Colin D. MacLean

    1980-01-01

    A recent Forest Survey inventory of western Oregon has been analyzed to determine the extent of physical opportunities to increase wood production through silvicultural treatment. Results are presented by owner group and by geographic unit.

  18. Self-reported use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) products in topical treatment of diabetic foot disorders by diabetic patients in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is little published on current Saudi diabetic patients' practices when they are exposed to foot disorders such as open wound, ulcer, and skin cracks. These factors are usually influenced by local culture and communities beliefs. The aim of the current study was to identify the pattern of patients' use of CAM products in dealing with diabetic foot disorders topically in a group of diabetic patients. Findings A Cross-sectional descriptive study of a representative cohort of diabetic patients living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was designed. A pre-designed questionnaire to identify local diabetics' practices in dealing topically with foot disorders including open wound, chronic ulcer, and skin cracks was designed. Questionnaire was administered by a group of trained nutrition female students to diabetics face to face living in their neighborhood. A total of 1634 Saudi diabetics were interviewed. Foot disorders occurred in approximately two thirds of the respondents 1006 (61.6%). Out of the 1006 patients who had foot disorders, 653 reported trying some sort of treatment as 307 patients (47.1%) used conventional topical medical treatment alone, 142 (21.7%) used CAM products alone, and 204 (31.2%) used both treatments. The most commonly used CAM product by the patients was Honey (56.6%) followed by Commiphora Molmol (Myrrh) in (37.4%) and Nigellia Sativa (Black seed) in (35.1%). The least to be used was Lawsonia inermis (Henna) in (12.1%). Ten common natural preparations used topically to treat diabetic foot disorders were also identified. Conclusions The use of CAM products in topical treatment of diabetic foot disorders is fairly common among Saudi diabetic patients. Honey headed the list as a solo topical preparation or in combination with other herbs namely black seeds and myrrh. The efficacy of the most common products needs further research. PMID:20925956

  19. Translation in different diagnostic procedures---traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Tsou, Hsiao-Hui; Wu, Yuh-Jenn; Lin, Chien-Hsiung; Chang, Yeu-Jhy

    2008-12-01

    Recently, the modernization of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) for treatment of patients with critical and/or life-threatening diseases has attracted much attention in the pharmaceutical industry. However, there exist essential differences in the evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a TCM as compared with a typical Western medicine (WM), even though they are for the same indication. Therefore, the modernization of a TCM should be based on a scientific evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of the TCM in terms of well-established quantitative criteria. We propose a study design to study the calibration and validation of the Chinese diagnostic procedure for evaluation of a TCM, with respect to a well-established clinical endpoint for evaluation of a WM. Statistical validation of such an instrument is essential to have an accurate and reliable clinical assessment of the performance of the TCM. Similar to the validation of a typical quality of life instrument, some validation performance characteristics such as validity, reliability, and ruggedness are considered. In this article, a design for validation of a standard quantitative instrument to be commonly employed for diagnosis of patient function/activity, performance, disease signs and symptoms, and disease status and severity based on Chinese diagnostic practice is proposed. Methods for statistical validation of the standard instrument are derived. More specifically, for validation of the TCM diagnostic instrument, we consider the following validation performance characteristics (parameters): validity (or accuracy), reliability (or precision), and ruggedness (interrater variability). A numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed methods for validation of the Chinese diagnostic procedure.

  20. The use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding: a population-based survey in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Main concerns for lactating women about medications include the safety of their breastfed infants and the potential effects of medication on quantity and quality of breast milk. While medicine treatments include conventional and complementary medicines, most studies to date have focused on evaluating the safety aspect of conventional medicines. Despite increasing popularity of herbal medicines, there are currently limited data available on the pattern of use and safety of these medicines during breastfeeding. This study aimed to identify the pattern of use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding in Perth, Western Australia, and to identify aspects which require further clinical research. Methods This study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire validated through two pilot studies. Participants were 18 years or older, breastfeeding or had breastfed in the past 12 months. Participants were recruited from various community and health centres, and through advertising in newspapers. Simple descriptive statistics were used to summarise the demographic profile and attitudes of respondents, using the SPSS statistical software. Results A total of 304 questionnaires from eligible participants were returned (27.2% response rate) and analysed. Amongst the respondents, 59.9% took at least one herb for medicinal purposes during breastfeeding, whilst 24.3% reported the use of at least one herb to increase breast milk supply. Most commonly used herbs were fenugreek (18.4%), ginger (11.8%), dong quai (7.9%), chamomile (7.2%), garlic (6.6%) and blessed thistle (5.9%). The majority of participants (70.1%) believed that there was a lack of information resources, whilst 43.4% perceived herbal medicines to be safer than conventional medicines. Only 28.6% of users notified their doctor of their decision to use herbal medicine(s) during breastfeeding; 71.6% had previously refused or avoided conventional medicine treatments due to concerns regarding safety of

  1. An ethnobotany of Western Cape Rasta bush medicine.

    PubMed

    Aston Philander, Lisa

    2011-11-18

    This descriptive ethnobiological research is the first documentation of the materials utilized in the pharmacopeia of a novel group of herbalists, Rasta bush doctors, found in the botanically diverse Western Cape of South Africa. This article suggests that medicinal plants used by bush doctors unite the disparate ethnomedicines found in South Africa. Ethnospecies name and parts used were recorded during detailed inventories of 39 bush doctors. Collection of voucher specimens for botanical identification occurred in 15 locations. Herbal remedies were classified into use categories and were compared to historical ethnobotanical literature to ascertain previous cultural affiliations. There were 205 ethnospecies found in the Rastafari ethnobiology, 181 were used medicinally. Ethnospecies belong to 71 plant families and 71% belonged to six plant families: Rutaceae (13), Asteraceae (13), Apiaceae (9), Lamiaceae (8), Fabaceae (8), and Euphorbiaceae (7). The majority of remedies (49%) were foliage. Medicinal plants treated over 30 ailments including: gastrointestinal symptoms (11%), urogential complaints (11%), skin ailments (9%), and cardiovascular diseases (8%). Bush doctors appropriated remedies traditionally important to Zulu, KhoiSan, European and Xhosa healing traditions. Novel plants and plant utilization were noted for 22 plant species. Use of previously undocumented plant materials as medicinals denote distinct local knowledge including novel Rastafarian utilization of herbs for spiritual and ritual purposes. The range of the largely herbaceous pharmacopeia is narrow compared to the region's highly biodiverse materials and historical records of medicinal use. Bush doctors' experimentation with known herbal remedies illustrates a striking level of cross-cultural adaptation. This syncretic pharmacopeia reflects the cultural diversity of Southern Africa, drawing upon recent invasive species, European influence and traditional herbs used by the KhoiSan, Zulu and Xhosa

  2. Herbal medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety.

  3. [Textbooks of western medicine in the early modernization period].

    PubMed

    Seo, H G

    1994-01-01

    The first modern hospital, royal Kwang-Hye-Won (House of Extended Grace) was established in April of 1885, whose name was changed into royal Che-Jung-Won (House of Helpfulness) in several days. Private (not royal) Je-Jung-Won opened its Medical School in 1899. And the teachers composed of western missionaries taught some Korean student-assistants the Western medicine with English textbooks in English. With very low effectiveness of teaching due to language barrier, Dr. Avison, the principal of that school decided to write medical textbooks in Korean. At first he tried to translate Henry Gray's Anatomy of 1859. In the effort he referred some Chinese and Japanese medical books. With that reason, we can find many Japanese style medical terms in some medical books of his. On the other hand, Eui-Hak-Kyo (the Medical School) was established by the Government of Dae-Han Empire in 1899. The teaching staff of the school published medical textbooks in Korean, some of which were written by Japanese doctors. After the Japanese annexation of Korea in 1910, Japanese government forced teachers of the school to teach with Japanese medical books and to speak Japanese in teaching. ...

  4. Differences in the origin of philosophy between Chinese medicine and Western medicine: Exploration of the holistic advantages of Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Da-zhi; Li, Shao-dan; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yin; Mei, Rong; Yang, Ming-hui

    2013-09-01

    To explore advantages of Chinese medicine (CM) by analyzing differences in the origin of philosophy for human health between CM and Western medicine (WM). Methodologically, a distinctive feature of CM is its systems theory, which is also the difference between CM and WM. Since the birth of CM, it has taken the human body as a whole from the key concepts of "qi, blood, yin-yang, viscera (Zang-Fu), and meridian and channel", rather than a single cell or a particular organ. WM evolves from the Western philosophic way of thinking and merely uses natural sciences as the foundation. The development of WM is based on human structures, or anatomy, and therefore, research of WM is also based on the way of thinking of decomposing the whole human body into several independent parts, which is the impetus of promoting the development of WM. The core of CM includes the holistic view and the dialectical view. Chinese herbal medicines contain various components and treat a disease from multiple targets and links. Therefore, Chinese herbal medicines treat a diseased state by regulating and mobilizing the whole body rather than just regulating a single factor, since the diseased state is not only a problem in a local part of the body but a local reflection of imbalance of the whole body.

  5. [Ten-day Periodical of Traditional Chinese Medicine and its concept of confluence of Chinese and western medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, S B; Wang, Z W

    2016-09-28

    The Ten-day Periodical of Traditional Chinese Medicine, a TCM Journal founded by the Xiamen Professional School of Traditional Chinese Medicine in July 1934, had published a lot of essays written by many TCM physicians that interpret the concept of traditional Chinese medicine by western medicine, offering the academic way of probing confluence of Chinese and Western Medicine in Xiamen. The aim of the Journal includes "developing TCM academy" and the "confluence of TCM with western medicine" , the exploration of TCM and the penetration of Chinese and western medicine, and getting rid of blind faith on "science" to set up the belief of TCM and to prove the ideas of visceral theory and its gasification by the anatomical knowledge of western medicine. The Journal envisaged the difference between the TCM and WM, avoided blind convergence, representing the academic inheritance and progress of the era. Although the essays published might have made a forced analogy by over-praising TCM, however, its exploration and convergence of TCM and the experiences are helpful to modern scholars to properly manage the relation of TCM and WM to face the future challenge consciously.

  6. Alternative Therapies for Diabetes: A Comparison of Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Approaches.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Eric; Luo, Luguang

    2017-05-18

    Across the world, the economic and health costs of diabetes are rising at an alarming rate. Each year in the United States, billions of dollars are spent on T2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatments, but such treatments are not always effective and can lead to adverse events. Many pharmacological treatments exist to control the primary and secondary symptoms of T2DM, but these medications are not always efficacious, do little to treat secondary T2DM symptoms, and often carry adverse side effects. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a form of alternative medicine that is becoming appealing to western healthcare systems because of its comprehensive, holistic approach to managing T2DM patients. Works across TCM printed texts, clinical trial databases, medical association practice guidelines, and the existing literature on TCM and western diabetes treatments (in print and online) are reviewed. Conventional pharmaceutical therapies for T2DM are not efficacious enough to maintain satisfactory blood glucose levels for all patients, and even patients who maintain stable blood glucose levels may still suffer from secondary T2DM symptoms as well as from the side effects of their medications. TCM therapies have demonstrated promising results in T2DM clinical studies without causing the types of side effects associated with standard pharmaceutical treatments. In addition, the economic burden of TCM diabetes treatments on patients and payers is oftentimes less than that of pharmaceutical regimens. TCM approaches can be a viable alternative approach to treatment in the modern U.S. healthcare landscape, but a number of obstacles impede its assimilation into western health systems. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. The application of metabolomics in traditional Chinese medicine opens up a dialogue between Chinese and Western medicine.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hongxin; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Huamin; Sun, Hui; Wang, Xijun

    2015-02-01

    Metabolomics provides an opportunity to develop the systematic analysis of the metabolites and has been applied to discovering biomarkers and perturbed pathways which can clarify the action mechanism of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). TCM is a comprehensive system of medical practice that has been used to diagnose, treat and prevent illnesses more than 3000 years. Metabolomics represents a powerful approach that provides a dynamic picture of the phenotype of biosystems through the study of endogenous metabolites, and its methods resemble those of TCM. Recently, metabolomics tools have been used for facilitating interactional effects of both Western medicine and TCM. We describe a protocol for investigating how metabolomics can be used to open up 'dialogue' between Chinese and Western medicine, and facilitate lead compound discovery and development from TCM. Metabolomics will bridge the cultural gap between TCM and Western medicine and improve development of integrative medicine, and maximally benefiting the human. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Integrative medicine for cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... it is used with standard anti-nausea medicines. Yoga . This ancient mind-body practice may help relieve stress, anxiety, and depression. Before doing yoga, be sure to check with your health care ...

  9. [The development of integrated Chinese and western medicine in recent 5 decades].

    PubMed

    Li, Yue-Feng; Zhang, Heng-Hong

    2013-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine was excluded from the governmental system in the Republican period since its establishment. The work of integrating Chinese and western medicine in Taiwan only got its real development until 1958. The founding of the China Medical College in the private sector is considered to be a milestone of the development of integrative medicine in Taiwan. It provided students with practical understanding of both Chinese and western medicine, but achieved little in regard to integrating the two medical systems. In the beginning years, students in the Department of the Medicine in China Medical College actually majored in both Chinese and western medicine. A representative physician of this period is Yun Zi-yu, who was educated at China Medical College. It was not until 1980 when the China Medical College Hospital was founded, the integration of the Chinese and Western medicine began to carry out and take shape within a well-organized clinical field in certain scale. For over 3 decades since its establishment, the Hospital was founded, the executing level of the integration of both medical systems has been gradually descended with different tiers of its executive levels, viz., from the "Chinese and Western Medicine Cooperation Hospital" through the "Center for Integrative Chinese and Western Medicine", to the "Department of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine". In the same period, more departments of Chinese medicine were set up in the teaching hospitals, private and public, in Taiwan, and the interaction and mutual cooperation of the Chinese and western medicine has been mainly practiced through clinical consultation and research projects.

  10. Taiwanese Medical Students' Narratives of Intercultural Professionalism Dilemmas: Exploring Tensions between Western Medicine and Taiwanese Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ming-Jung; Gosselin, Katherine; Chandratilake, Madawa; Monrouxe, Lynn V.; Rees, Charlotte E.

    2017-01-01

    In an era of globalization, cultural competence is necessary for the provision of quality healthcare. Although this topic has been well explored in non-Western cultures within Western contexts, the authors explore how Taiwanese medical students trained in Western medicine address intercultural professionalism dilemmas related to tensions between…

  11. Genomic insights into ayurvedic and western approaches to personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Prasher, Bhavana; Gibson, Greg; Mukerji, Mitali

    2016-03-01

    Ayurveda, an ancient Indian system of medicine documented and practised since 1500 B.C., follows a systems approach that has interesting parallels with contemporary personalized genomic medicine approaches to the understanding and management of health and disease. It is based on the trisutra, which are the three aspects of causes, features and therapeutics that are interconnected through a common organizing principle termed 'tridosha'. Tridosha comprise three ascertainable physiological entities; vata (kinetic), pitta (metabolic) and kapha (potential) that are pervasive across systems, work in conjunction with each other, respond to the external environment and maintain homeostasis. Each individual is born with a specific proportion of tridosha that are not only genetically determined but also influenced by the environment during foetal development. Jointly they determine a person's basic constitution, which is termed their 'prakriti'. Development and progressi on of different diseases with their subtypes are thought to depend on the origin and mechanism of perturbation of the doshas, and the aim of therapeutic practice is to ensure that the doshas retain their homeostatic state. Similarly, western systems biology epitomized by translational P4 medicine envisages the integration of multiscalar genetic, cellular, physiological and environmental networks to predict phenotypic outcomes of perturbations. In this perspective article, we aim to outline the shape of a unifying scaffold that may allow the two intellectual traditions to enhance one another. Specifically, we illustrate how a unique integrative 'Ayurgenomics' approach can be used to integrate the trisutra concept of Ayurveda with genomics. We observe biochemical and molecular correlates of prakriti and show how these differ significantly in processes that are linked to intermediate patho-phenotypes, known to take different course in diseases. We also observe a significant enr ichment of the highly connected

  12. [Introduction and development of modern western medicine into Chaoshan (Chaozhou-Shantou)area].

    PubMed

    Wang, J H

    2017-07-28

    Shantou was opened officially in 1861. Willian Gauld, a doctor of British Presbyterian arrived in Shantou in 1863 topractisemedicine and missionary work, and set up the Medical Missionary Hospital. Since then, western medicine began to enter the Chaoshan area. Hereafter, the American Baptists, the Japanese Hakuai Society and the French Catholic Church also entered successively into the Chaoshan area, and the hospitals of western medicine were founded. At the same time, local organizations and individuals of the Chaoshan area also established western medical institutions. Chaoshan people had certain resistance to the transmission of Western medicine, which was obviously less than other places of the mainland. The reasons included not only the church hospital taking some measures to win the people's support, providing human health services, as well as the superiority of western medicine itself, but also the shortage of doctors and medicine in the Chaoshan area and thepeople's tolerance for foreign things. In addition to the provision of medical services in the hospital, the church hospital also set up medical education and trained a group of local medical talents. Although western medicine served as the pioneer of western religion into the Chaoshan area, it also brought advanced medical ideals, technology, equipment, and medical system, laying down the foundation for the development of western medicine in Chaoshan area.

  13. Nutrient composition of selected medicinal leafy vegetables in Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ijarotimi, O Steve; Ekeh, Ogechi; Ajayi, O Philip

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the nutritional composition and consumption patterns of selected local leafy vegetables among families in Akure Township, Western Nigeria. The data collection involved administration of interviewer-structured questionnaires to the mothers. The questionnaire was designed to collect information on the medicinal and consumption pattern of vegetables. The chemical compositions of the vegetables were analyzed using standard methods. The nutrient composition of the vegetables showed that the protein content of Jathropha tanjorenses (40.94%) was significantly higher than the remaining leafy vegetable samples, whereas Curcubita pepo (8.25%) contained the least protein content. The fiber content of Solanum americanum (13.79%) was significantly higher when compared with other leafy vegetable samples. Also, the energy value of Baselia allia (401.68 kcal) was the highest, whereas that of C. pepo (285.10 kcal) was the lowest. Regarding mineral composition, J. tanjorenses had the highest contents of zinc, iron, and Na/K ratio, whereas Vernononia amygdalina and Solanum macrocarpon had the least and highest Na/K and Ca/P ratios, respectively. The consumption patterns of the respondents showed that one-quarter of the respondents consumed the vegetables regularly, whereas the remaining consumed occasionally or never consumed the vegetables. In conclusion, this study established that the leafy vegetables contained appreciable amounts of nutrients that could be of health and nutritional benefits to the consumers.

  14. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in western part of central Taurus Mountains: Aladaglar (Nigde - Turkey).

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Ebru; Alpınar, Kerim

    2015-05-26

    With this study, we aimed to document traditional uses of medicinal plants in the western part of Aladaglar/Nigde. This study was conducted between 2003 and 2005. The research area was in the western part of the Aladaglar mountains. The settlements in Aladaglar (5 towns and 10 villages) were visited during the field work. The plants collected by the help of medicinal plant users. The plants were identified and voucher specimens prepared. These voucher specimens were kept at the Herbarium of Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy (ISTE). We collected the information by means of semi-structured interviews with 170 informants (90 men and 80 women). In addition, the relative importance value of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants researched in the study. According to the results of the identification, among 126 plants were used by the inhabitants and 110 species belonging to 40 families were used for medicinal purposes. Most of the medicinal plants used in Aladaglar/Nigde belong to the families Lamiaceae (25 species), Asteraceae (16 species), Apiaceae (7 species), Fabaceae (6 species) and Brassicaceae (5 species). The most commonly used plant species were Hypericum perforatumThymus sipyleus var. sipyleus, Rosa canina, Urtica dioica, Malva neglecta, Thymus leucotrichus, Salix alba, Mentha longifolia, Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus, Viscum album subsp. abietis, Allium rotundum and Taraxacum stevenii. The most common preparations were infusion and decoction. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (86%), hemorrhoids (79%), urinary diseases (69%), diabetes (68%) and respiratory diseases (61%). The use of traditional medicine was still widespread among the inhabitants of Aladaglar mountains/Nigde region. Due to the lack of medical facilities in the villages of Aladaglar mountains, local people prefer herbal treatment rather than

  15. Significance of Kampo, Japanese traditional medicine, in the treatment of obesity: basic and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, Jun-Ichi; Moriya, Junji; Takeuchi, Kenji; Nakatou, Mio; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Junji

    2013-01-01

    The cause of obesity includes genetic and environmental factors, including cytokines derived from adipocytes (adipo-cytokines). Although drug therapy is available for obesity, it is highly risky. Our main focus in this review is on the traditional form of Japanese medicine, Kampo, in the treated of obesity. Two Kampo formulas, that is, bofutsushosan () and boiogito (), are covered by the national health insurance in Japan for the treatment of obesity. Various issues related to their action mechanisms remain unsolved. Considering these, we described the results of basic experiments and presented clinical evidence and case reports on osteoarthritis as examples of clinical application of their two Kampo medicine. Traditional medicine is used not only for treatment but also for prevention. In clinical practice, it is of great importance to prove the efficacy of combinations of traditional medicine and Western medicine and the utility of traditional medicine in the attenuation of adverse effects of Western medicine.

  16. Vegetation Response to Western Juniper Slash Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Casey; Miller, Rick; Bates, Jonathan D.

    2013-09-01

    The expansion of piñon-juniper woodlands the past 100 years in the western United States has resulted in large scale efforts to kill trees and recover sagebrush steppe rangelands. It is important to evaluate vegetation recovery following woodland control to develop best management practices. In this study, we compared two fuel reduction treatments and a cut-and-leave (CUT) treatment used to control western juniper ( Juniperus occidentalis spp. occidentalis Hook.) of the northwestern United States. Treatments were; CUT, cut-and-broadcast burn (BURN), and cut-pile-and-burn the pile (PILE). A randomized complete block design was used with five replicates of each treatment located in a curl leaf mahogany ( Cercocarpus ledifolius Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray)/mountain big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata Nutt. spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle)/Idaho fescue ( Festuca idahoensis Elmer) association. In 2010, 4 years after tree control the cover of perennial grasses (PG) [Sandberg's bluegrass ( Poa secunda J. Pres) and large bunchgrasses] were about 4 and 5 % less, respectively, in the BURN (7.1 ± 0.6 %) than the PILE (11.4 ± 2.3 %) and CUT (12.4 ± 1.7 %) treatments ( P < 0.0015). In 2010, cover of invasive cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum L.) was greater in the BURN (6.3 ± 1.0 %) and was 50 and 100 % greater than PILE and CUT treatments, respectively. However, the increase in perennial bunchgrass density and cover, despite cheatgrass in the BURN treatment, mean it unlikely that cheatgrass will persist as a major understory component. In the CUT treatment mahogany cover increased 12.5 % and density increased in from 172 ± 25 to 404 ± 123 trees/ha. Burning, killed most or all of the adult mahogany, and mahogany recovery consisted of 100 and 67 % seedlings in the PILE and BURN treatments, respectively. After treatment, juniper presence from untreated small trees (<1 m tall; PILE and CUT treatments) and seedling emergence (all treatments) represented 25-33 % of pre-treatment tree

  17. A novel classification method for aid decision of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yufeng; Liu, Bo; He, Liyun; Bai, Wenjing; Yu, Xueyun; Cao, Xinyu; Luo, Lin; Rong, Peijing; Zhao, Yuxue; Li, Guozheng; Liu, Baoyan

    2017-09-01

    Traditional Chinese patent medicines are widely used to treat stroke because it has good efficacy in the clinical environment. However, because of the lack of knowledge on traditional Chinese patent medicines, many Western physicians, who are accountable for the majority of clinical prescriptions for such medicine, are confused with the use of traditional Chinese patent medicines. Therefore, the aid-decision method is critical and necessary to help Western physicians rationally use traditional Chinese patent medicines. In this paper, Manifold Ranking is employed to develop the aid-decision model of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment. First, 115 stroke patients from three hospitals are recruited in the cross-sectional survey. Simultaneously, traditional Chinese physicians determine the traditional Chinese patent medicines appropriate for each patient. Second, particular indicators are explored to characterize the population feature of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment. Moreover, these particular indicators can be easily obtained byWestern physicians and are feasible for widespread clinical application in the future. Third, the aid-decision model of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment is constructed based on Manifold Ranking. Experimental results reveal that traditional Chinese patent medicines can be differentiated. Moreover, the proposed model can obtain high accuracy of aid decision.

  18. "The medicine from behind": The frequent use of enemas in western African traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    van Andel, Tinde; van Onselen, Sabine; Myren, Britt; Towns, Alexandra; Quiroz, Diana

    2015-11-04

    with young infants, frequent enema use can pose serious risks like direct toxicity caused by harmful ingredients, mechanical injury and infections. In Africa, enemas containing herbal medicine are common methods of administering herbal medicine for a variety of diseases, rather than just medicinal treatments for constipation as previously thought. Health professionals should be aware of the extent of, and motivation behind enema use to develop culturally appropriate education programs, especially targeted at vulnerable groups such as elderly people, parents of young infants and pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of combined Chinese medicine and Western medicine for ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Xi, Han-xu; Zhu, Sha; Yu, Na; Wang, Jing; Li, Yan; Yu, Guo-pei; Ma, Xie-min; Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Lue-ping

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of combining Chinese medicine (CM) with Western medicine (WM) for ischemic stroke patients. Hospitalization summary reports between 2006 and 2010 from eight hospitals in Beijing were used to analyze the length of stay (LOS), cost per stay (CPS), and outcomes at discharge. Among 12,009 patients (female, 36.44%; mean age, 69.98±13.06 years old), a substantial number of patients were treated by the WM_Chinese patent medicine (CPM)_Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) (38.90%); followed by the WM_CPM (32.55%), the WM (24.26%), and the WM_CHM (4.15%). With adjustment for confounding variables, LOS of the WM_CPM_CHM group was about 10 days longer than that of the WM group, and about 6 days longer than that of the WM_CPM group or the WM_CHM group (P<0.01); CPS of the WM_CPM_CHM group was United States dollar (USD) 1,288 more than that of the WM group, and about USD 600 more than that of the WM_CPM group or the WM_CHM group (P<0.01). Compared with the WM group, odd ratio (OR) of recovered and improved outcome of the WM_CPM_CHM group was the highest [OR: 12.76, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 9.23, 17.64, P<0.01], OR of death outcome of the WM_CPM_CHM group was the lowest (OR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.12, P<0.01). There was no significant difference between LOS, CPS and OR of the WM_CPM group and those of the WM_CHM group (P>0.05). Cost/effectiveness and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the WM_CPM_CHM group were robustly higher than those of the WM group. Compared with WM alone, supplementing CPM and CHM to WM provides significant health benefits of improving the chance of recovered and improved outcome, and reducing the death rate, at an expense of longer LOS and higher CPS.

  20. The Use of Traditional and Western Medicine among Korean American Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Miyong; Han, Hae-Ra; Kim, Kim B.; Duong, Diep N.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of traditional and western medicine by Korean American elderly people, noting factors associated with their health-seeking behaviors and health service utilization. Interview data indicate that respondents used a broad spectrum of health resources, both traditional and western. Health insurance status and source of health care…

  1. Chinese herbal medicine research in eczema treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Eczema is a chronic relapsing atopic dermatitis (AD) associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance and poor quality of life of the patient. Treatment of eczema includes use of emollient, topical and systemic antimicrobial agents, corticosteroid or immunomodulating agents. Many patients also seek alternative treatments such as dietary avoidance, supplementation or both. This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of eczema and clinical trials involving Chinese medicine in the treatment of eczema. Research reports on Chinese herbal medicine for eczema were retrieved from PubMed and the Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews for this review. Only a few RCTs demonstrated the efficacy (or lack of efficacy) of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating atopic eczema. Further larger scale trials are warranted. PMID:21527032

  2. The impact of Western physicians on the modernization of Turkish surgery and medicine, 1827-1936.

    PubMed

    Bilsel, Yilmaz; Bektas, Hasan; Tilki, Metin

    2010-09-01

    Efforts of modernizing the Ottoman Empire and society started during the 19th century. Initially reforms have been limited by institutions such as the armed forces, faculty of engineering and medicine. For this reason, a large number of western physicians invited to state to take prestigious positions in its few existing medical schools and other state establishments, in particular help with reforming its higher education. After the establishment of young Turkish Republic, western forms of science, medicine, art and literature penetrated the culture and continued to flourish. This article brings to light the efforts of these surgeons, and physicians and tells about their contributions to surgery and medicine in Turkey.

  3. Limitations of Western Medicine and Models of Integration Between Medical Systems.

    PubMed

    Attena, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    This article analyzes two major limitations of Western medicine: maturity and incompleteness. From this viewpoint, Western medicine is considered an incomplete system for the explanation of living matter. Therefore, through appropriate integration with other medical systems, in particular nonconventional approaches, its knowledge base and interpretations may be widened. This article presents possible models of integration of Western medicine with homeopathy, the latter being viewed as representative of all complementary and alternative medicine. To compare the two, a medical system was classified into three levels through which it is possible to distinguish between different medical systems: epistemological (first level), theoretical (second level), and operational (third level). These levels are based on the characterization of any medical system according to, respectively, a reference paradigm, a theory on the functioning of living matter, and clinical practice. The three levels are consistent and closely consequential in the sense that from epistemology derives theory, and from theory derives clinical practice. Within operational integration, four models were identified: contemporary, alternative, sequential, and opportunistic. Theoretical integration involves an explanation of living systems covering simultaneously the molecular and physical mechanisms of functioning living matter. Epistemological integration provides a more thorough and comprehensive explanation of the epistemic concepts of indeterminism, holism, and vitalism to complement the reductionist approach of Western medicine; concepts much discussed by Western medicine while lacking the epistemologic basis for their emplacement. Epistemologic integration could be reached with or without a true paradigm shift and, in the latter, through a model of fusion or subsumption.

  4. A comparison of Chinese traditional and Western medical approaches for the treatment of mild hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, N. D.; Ming, S.; Zhou, H. Y.; Black, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    We compared the efficacy of Chinese traditional treatment for mild hypertension with that of a standard Western medical regimen in a group of 50 well-matched patients (24 allocated to Western medicine and 26 to Chinese traditional medicine) with mild hypertension (diastolic blood pressure 90-104 mmHg). Those receiving Western therapy were treated in a stepped-care fashion with dihydrochlorothiazide and atenolol. Those in the Chinese traditional therapy group received one of two mixtures of nine herbs and other ingredients, depending on symptoms at initial evaluation. Blood pressure dropped significantly in both groups after only a few days on therapy. After 19 days on treatment, the group receiving Western therapy had a fall in blood pressure from 168.2/96.3 mmHg to 137.3/76.7 mmHg (p less than 0.01), while those on Chinese traditional therapy fell from 168.2/95.9 mmHg to 146.4/80.5 mmHg (p less than 0.01). The fall in blood pressure was significantly greater, however, in those given Western therapy. The relief of existing symptoms or development of possible drug side effects was similar in both groups, except for nocturia, occurring more often in the group treated with Western therapy. We conclude that Western therapy is more effective in reducing blood pressure as compared with Chinese traditional therapy, but effective control of blood pressure in mild hypertensives is possible with either form of treatment. PMID:1897264

  5. [Research and analysis to Shui nationality medicine treatment orthopedics & traumatology].

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian-Shan; Li, Pu; Yang, Yong; Chen, Xin-Chun; Lin, Li

    2013-05-01

    To investigated Shui nationality folk medicine's awareness to orthopedics & traumatology, the history of orthopedics & traumatology treatment, Shui nationality folk doctors' practicing medicine, heritage, diagnosis and treatment methods and tools, etc, through investigated drug resources category and distribution characteristics of Shui nationality medicine to orthopedics & traumatology treatment, explored and finished Shui nationality medicine orthopedics & traumatology treatment theoretical system. After more than 5 years' exploration and finishing, preliminarily formed the theoretical system framework and medicine application characteristics of Shui nationality medicine treating orthopedics & traumatology. Shui nationality medicine treatment orthopedics & traumatology has distinctive national style, and worthy to further exploration and research.

  6. Treatment of asthma and food allergy with herbal interventions from traditional chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased over the past 2-3 decades in Westernized countries. Despite increased understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases, control of severe asthma is still difficult. Asthma is also associated with a high prevalence of anxiety, particularly in adolescents. There is no effective treatment for food allergy. Food allergy is often associated with severe and recalcitrant eczema. Novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine, used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western healthcare. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine for asthma treatment. Since 2005, several controlled clinical studies of "antiasthma" herbal remedies have been published. Among the herbal medicines, antiasthma herbal medicine intervention is the only antiasthma traditional Chinese medicine product that is a Food and Drug Administration investigational new drug that has entered clinical trials in the United States. Research into the effects and mechanisms of action of antiasthma herbal medicine intervention in animal models is actively being pursued. Research on traditional Chinese medicine herbal medicines for treating food allergy is rare. The herbal intervention Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 is the only Food and Drug Administration botanical investigational new drug under investigation as a multiple food allergy therapy. This review article discusses promising traditional Chinese medicine interventions for asthma, food allergy, and comorbid conditions, and explores their possible mechanisms of action. © 2011 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  7. A web-based knowledge management system integrating Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine for relational medical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Hernandez, Maria C; Lai-Yuen, Susana K; Piegl, Les A; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-10-26

    This article presents the design of a web-based knowledge management system as a training and research tool for the exploration of key relationships between Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine, in order to facilitate relational medical diagnosis integrating these mainstream healing modalities. The main goal of this system is to facilitate decision-making processes, while developing skills and creating new medical knowledge. Traditional Chinese Medicine can be considered as an ancient relational knowledge-based approach, focusing on balancing interrelated human functions to reach a healthy state. Western Medicine focuses on specialties and body systems and has achieved advanced methods to evaluate the impact of a health disorder on the body functions. Identifying key relationships between Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine opens new approaches for health care practices and can increase the understanding of human medical conditions. Our knowledge management system was designed from initial datasets of symptoms, known diagnosis and treatments, collected from both medicines. The datasets were subjected to process-oriented analysis, hierarchical knowledge representation and relational database interconnection. Web technology was implemented to develop a user-friendly interface, for easy navigation, training and research. Our system was prototyped with a case study on chronic prostatitis. This trial presented the system's capability for users to learn the correlation approach, connecting knowledge in Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine by querying the database, mapping validated medical information, accessing complementary information from official sites, and creating new knowledge as part of the learning process. By addressing the challenging tasks of data acquisition and modeling, organization, storage and transfer, the proposed web-based knowledge management system is presented as a tool for users in medical training and research to explore, learn and

  8. The ontological status of western science and medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hankey, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This paper traces the revolutionary changes that have transformed the ontological status of western physics and biology over the last thirty years, so as to show in detail how they have moved towards the perspective of the Vedic sciences. From this it appears that Ayurveda's more holistic approach is no longer in opposition to the views of physics and biology. In physics, experimental verification of phenomena associated with quantum correlations have forced scientists to accept that the macroscopic world is not strongly objective: traditional western scientific ontology stands rejected. One consequence is that the world is not necessarily reductionist i.e. based solely on the properties of its tiniest constituents. In biology, the 1930's discovery of homeostasis has reached a natural climax: the feedback instabilities, identified by Norbert Wiener as inevitably accompanying control processes, are now recognized to be states of optimal regulation, where organisms centre their function. The non-reductive properties of these states clearly distinguish the theory of control from previous physical theories; they now occupy the centre-stage of life. Possibly against expectation, their non-reductive nature makes their physics holistic: western biology seems to have broken free of reductionist physics. When Ayurveda and bioscience are compared in light of these little appreciated advances in fundamental science, the supposed differences between them are vastly reduced – they practically dissolve. Instead of being poles apart, the ontologies of western science and Ayurveda seem to have become almost identical. PMID:23125507

  9. Application of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yan; Yao, Kuiwu; Jiang, Wenrui

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, which is related to many cardiac and cerebral vascular diseases, especially stroke. It can therefore increase cardiovascular mortality and all-cause death. The current treatments of AF remain to be western drugs and radiofrequency ablation which are limited by the tolerance of patients, adverse side effects, and high recurrence rate, especially for the elderly. On the contrary, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with long history of use involves various treatment methods, including Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) or bioactive ingredients, Chinese patent medicines, acupuncture, Qigong, and Tai Chi Chuan. With more and more researches reported, the active roles of TCM in AF management have been discovered. Then it is likely that TCM would be effective preventive means and valuable additional remedy for AF. The potential mechanisms further found by numerous experimental studies showed the distinct characteristics of TCM. Some CHMs or bioactive ingredients are atrial-selective, while others are multichannel and multifunctional. Therefore, in this review we summarized the treatment strategies reported in TCM, with the purpose of providing novel ideas and directions for AF management. PMID:28243308

  10. Complementary and alternative treatments in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Malone, Michael A; Gloyer, Kathryn

    2013-12-01

    Many patients suffering from pain and dysfunction attributable to musculoskeletal conditions will use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Unfortunately, there is a paucity of both the quantity and quality of CAM treatments for specific musculoskeletal conditions. Many CAM treatments are used for a variety of musculoskeletal conditions, but may be more commonly used for specific conditions. This article addresses the use of CAM for specific musculoskeletal conditions, followed by a review of other CAM treatments and their potential indications for a multitude of conditions, based on the current medical literature and traditional use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Taiwanese medical students' narratives of intercultural professionalism dilemmas: exploring tensions between Western medicine and Taiwanese culture.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ming-Jung; Gosselin, Katherine; Chandratilake, Madawa; Monrouxe, Lynn V; Rees, Charlotte E

    2017-05-01

    In an era of globalization, cultural competence is necessary for the provision of quality healthcare. Although this topic has been well explored in non-Western cultures within Western contexts, the authors explore how Taiwanese medical students trained in Western medicine address intercultural professionalism dilemmas related to tensions between Western medicine and Taiwanese culture. A narrative interview method was employed with 64 Taiwanese medical students to collect narratives of professionalism dilemmas. Noting the prominence of culture in students' narratives, we explored this theme further using secondary analysis, identifying tensions between Western medicine and Taiwanese culture and categorizing students' intercultural professionalism dilemmas according to Friedman and Berthoin Antal's 'intercultural competence' framework: involving combinations of advocacy (i.e., championing one's own culture) and inquiry (i.e., exploring one's own and others' cultures). One or more intercultural dilemmas were identified in nearly half of students' professionalism dilemma narratives. Qualitative themes included: family relations, local policy, end-of-life care, traditional medicine, gender relations and Taiwanese language. Of the 62 narratives with sufficient detail for further analysis, the majority demonstrated the 'suboptimal' low advocacy/low inquiry approach (i.e., withdrawal or inaction), while very few demonstrated the 'ideal' high advocacy/high inquiry approach (i.e., generating mutual understanding, so 'intercultural competence'). Though nearly half of students' professionalism narratives concerned intercultural dilemmas, most narratives represented disengagement from intercultural dilemmas, highlighting a possible need for more attention on intercultural competence training in Taiwan. The advocacy/inquiry framework may help educators to address similar disconnects between Western medicine and non-Western cultures in other contexts.

  12. [Western and traditional Chinese medicine disease management programs of chronic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhaoming; Sheng, Xiaogang; Pan, Guangming

    2012-06-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is one of the greatest disease in modem medicine as chronic disease . It cost lots of financial resources to deal with. Western and traditional Chinese medicine Disease management programs (DMP) can notability improve the qualities of life and reduce the expenses for CHF. The disease management programs of CHF have achieved kind of success, but the management programs method witch is of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) characteristic idea carry into testing execution in few TCM hospitals only. This article review the necessary of DMP research, advances in research of DMP research, and relationship between management programs method of Western and traditional Chinese medicine and illness state improvement of CHF patients.

  13. [Exploration into rules of combined Chinese and Western medical treatment on immune infertility].

    PubMed

    Yao, Dan-ni; Chen, Wen-yu; Xiao, Ying

    2010-03-01

    In order to explore the rules of combined Chinese and Western medical treatment on immune infertility, the study was carried out by searching relative primary documents from databases and 26 articles (dealing with 5865 cases) were screened out. Excel was used to perform the frequency analysis on the Western drugs and 27 Chinese recipes emerging in the documents separately. It was discovered that the combined use of Chinese and Western medicines has its superiority. Low dose glucocorticoids together with vitamine is the main Western treatment used, and dexamethasone is the most frequently used preparation of glucocorticoids. Among the 72 Chinese drugs presented in the 27 Chinese recipes, 13 appeared for more than 1800 times, they were Angelica sinensis, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Radix Paeoniae Rubra, Radix Astragali, Poria, Carthamus tinctorius, Phellodendron amurense, Scutellaria baicalensis, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Rehmannia glutinosa, Cuscuta chinensis, Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Glycyrrhiza.

  14. 21st century rural nursing: Navajo Traditional and Western medicine.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Barbara L; Anslow, Rosemary M; Begay, Wanda; Sister Benvinda A Pereira; Sullivan, Mary Pat

    2002-01-01

    Past experiences enhance the future. Health care providers gaining expertise in creative thinking, traditional medicine, spirituality, and cultural sensitivity is an essential requirement for 21st century health care. We must stay mindful that poverty, isolation, and rural living may create new forms of social exclusion because of lack of communication and rapidly changing technology. Conversely, sensory overload resulting from a faster paced lifestyle and rapid enhancements in technology may cause increased tension and stress. This article reviews successes that may offer the reader ideas on coping with the provision of health care services in such a volatile changing environment, while honoring tradition and cultural competency.

  15. Attitudes, Knowledge, Use, and Recommendation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by Health Professionals in Western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Brambila-Tapia, Aniel Jessica Leticia; Rios-Gonzalez, Blanca Estela; Lopez-Barragan, Liliana; Saldaña-Cruz, Ana Miriam; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Katya

    2016-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased in many countries, and this has altered the knowledge, attitudes, and treatment recommendations of health professionals in regard to CAM. Considering Mexican health professionals׳ lack of knowledge of CAM, in this report we surveyed 100 biomedical researchers and Ph.D. students and 107 specialized physicians and residents of a medical specialty in Guadalajara, México (Western Mexico) with a questionnaire to address their attitudes, knowledge, use, and recommendation of CAM. We observed that significantly more researchers had ever used CAM than physicians (83% vs. 69.2%, P = .023) and that only 36.4% of physicians had ever recommended CAM. Female researchers tended to have ever used CAM more than male researchers, but CAM use did not differ between genders in the physician group or by age in either group. Homeopathy, herbal medicine, and massage therapy were the most commonly used CAMs in both the groups. Physicians more frequently recommended homeopathy, massage therapy, and yoga to their patients than other forms of CAM, and physicians had the highest perception of safety and had taken the most courses in homeopathy. All CAMs were perceived to have high efficacy (>60%) in both the groups. The attitude questionnaire reported favorable attitudes toward CAM in both the groups. We observed a high rate of Mexican health professionals that had ever used CAM, and they had mainly used homeopathy, massage therapy, and herbal medicine. However, the recommendation rate of CAM by Mexican physicians was significantly lower than that in other countries, which is probably due to the lack of CAM training in most Mexican medical schools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cooperation and Conflict: Faction Problem of Western Medicine Group in Modern China.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jeongeun

    2016-08-01

    After the defeat of the Opium War and the Sino-Japanese War, China's intellectuals realized necessity of modernization (Westernization) to survive in the imperial order of the survival of the fittest. In particular, it was urgent to accept Western medicine and train the doctors who learned Western medicine to change the sick and weary Chinese to be robust. Thus, new occupations of the Western Medicine Group (xiyi, doctors who learned Western medicine) emerged in China. As with the first profession, the new Western Medicine Group tried to define standards of Western medicine and medical profession; however, it was difficult in the absence of the strong central government. In addition, they formed a faction by the country where they studied or the language they learned. The factions included the Britain - America faction(yingmeipai) consisting of the Britain - America studied doctors or graduates from Protestant missions based medical schools, and the Germany - Japan faction(deripai), graduates from medical schools by Japanese or German government and the Chinese government. In 1915, they founded the National Medical Association of China mainly consisting of the Britain - America faction and the National Medical and Pharmaceutical Association of China led by the Germany - Japan faction. Initially, exchanges were active so most of eminent doctors belonged the two associations at the same time. They had a consciousness of a common occupation group as a doctor who had learned Western medicine. Thus, they actively cooperated to keep their profits against Chinese medicine and enjoy their reputation. Their cooperation emitted light particularly in translation of medical terms and unified works. Thanks to cooperation, the two associations selected medical terminologies by properly using the cases of the West and Japan. Additionally, medical schools of the Britain - America faction and the Germany - Japan faction produced various levels of the Western Medicine Group doctors

  17. [Systems biology is a bridge of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-Bin; Cheng, Hai-Bo; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Hong-Guang; Wu, Mian-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The integration of Chinese medicine (CM) and Western medicine (WM) is the only way for the development of medicine, and it is the best form for unifying systems theory and reductionism. In this paper, systems biology and its application in medical research were discussed. The authors put forward that systems biology may possibly interpret the scientific connotation of the complex theoretic systems of CM, which will make WM to well know the human body and disease. We hold that systems biology is a bridge of integrated CM and WM.

  18. Joint development of evidence-based medical record by doctors and patients through integrated Chinese and Western medicine on digestive system diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Gao, Hong-yang; Gao, Rui; Zhao, Ying-pan; Li, Qing-na; Zhao, Yang; Tang, Xu-dong; Shang, Hong-cai

    2016-02-01

    Building the clinical therapeutic evaluation system by combing the evaluation given by doctors and patients can form a more comprehensive and objective evaluation system. A literature search on the practice of evidence-based evaluation was conducted in key biomedical databases, i.e. PubMed, Excerpt Medica Database, China Biology Medicine disc and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. However, no relevant study on the subjects of interest was identified. Therefore, drawing on the principles of narrative medicine and expert opinion from systems of Chinese medicine and Western medicine, we propose to develop and pilot-test a novel evidence-based medical record format that captures the perspectives of both patients and doctors in a clinical trial. Further, we seek to evaluate a strategic therapeutic approach that integrates the wisdom of Chinese medicine with the scientific basis of Western medicine in the treatment of digestive system disorders. Evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of remedies under the system of Chinese medicine is an imperative ongoing research. The present study intends to identify a novel approach to assess the synergistic benefits achievable from an integrated therapeutic approach combining Chinese and Western system of medicine to treat digestive system disorders.

  19. [Zhu Lian's cognition on theory and method of acupuncture and moxibustion under background of western medicine].

    PubMed

    Li, Su-yun; Zhang, Li-jian; Liu, Bing

    2014-11-01

    With new acupuncture and moxibustion as the study object, based on the basic composition of acupuncture-moxibustion theory, from 3 aspects of meridian-acupoint theory, acupuncture-moxibustion method theory and acupuncture-moxibustion treatment theory, under the background of western medicine, ZHU Lian's different opinions on theory and method of acupuncture and moxibustion were discussed. It was believed by ZHU Lian that the distribution of 14-meridians was approximately identical to that of nerves, so with modern neuroanatomy knowledge to understand the meaning of acupoint; the acupuncture function could be explained from the angle of neurophysiology. Clinical diagnosis and treatment method could be established by modern classification methods of diseases. ZHU Lian's cognition that was different from traditional theory and method of acupuncture and moxibustion was combined with updated physiology and anatomy knowledge at that time, and was involved with Pavlov's advanced nerve theory, so she firstly put forward the opinion that acupuncture therapy can't work without the involvement of cerebral cortex.

  20. Epistemological challenges in contemporary Western healthcare systems exemplified by people's widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Salamonsen, Anita; Ahlzén, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    Modern Western public healthcare systems offer predominantly publicly subsidized healthcare traditionally based on biomedicine as the most important basis to cure persons who suffer from disorders of somatic or psychiatric nature. To which extent this epistemological position is suitable for this purpose is under scientific debate and challenged by some people's personal understandings of health and illness, their individual illness experiences and their decision-making. Current studies show decreasing levels of patient trust in Western public healthcare and a widespread patient-initiated use of complementary and alternative medicine which is often linked to unmet patient-defined healthcare needs. Patients'/complementary and alternative medicine users' understandings of their afflictions are often based on elements of biomedical knowledge as well as embodied and experience-based knowledge. We believe this points to the need for a phenomenologically and socially based understanding of health and illness. In this article, we analyze challenges in contemporary healthcare systems, exemplified by people's widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine and based on three ways of understanding and relating to unhealth: disease (the biomedical perspective), illness (the phenomenological perspective), and sickness (the social perspective). In public healthcare systems aiming at involving patients in treatment processes, acknowledging the coexistence of differing epistemologies may be of great importance to define and reach goals of treatment and compliance.

  1. Medicinal Plants: Their Use in Anticancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Greenwell, M.; Rahman, P.K.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Globally cancer is a disease which severely effects the human population. There is a constant demand for new therapies to treat and prevent this life-threatening disease. Scientific and research interest is drawing its attention towards naturally-derived compounds as they are considered to have less toxic side effects compared to current treatments such as chemotherapy. The Plant Kingdom produces naturally occurring secondary metabolites which are being investigated for their anticancer activities leading to the development of new clinical drugs. With the success of these compounds that have been developed into staple drugs for cancer treatment new technologies are emerging to develop the area further. New technologies include nanoparticles for nano-medicines which aim to enhance anticancer activities of plant-derived drugs by controlling the release of the compound and investigating new methods for administration. This review discusses the demand for naturally-derived compounds from medicinal plants and their properties which make them targets for potential anticancer treatments. PMID:26594645

  2. Design and development of an expert system to assist diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis using traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y K; Tsutsui, T; Endo, A; Minato, K; Takahashi, T

    1994-01-01

    The treatment of chronic hepatitis with traditional Chinese medicine shows good therapeutic effectiveness in clinical practice. Since the process for the diagnosis in Chinese medicine is quite different from that of modern Western medicine, many physicians of modern medicine cannot practise it readily and effectively. We describe an expert system designed to support physicians who may not be familiar with the domain of traditional Chinese medicine, to treat chronic hepatitis by using Chinese medicine. This system was developed by logic programming language PROLOG, where the knowledge of Chinese medicine is represented in a semantic network structure and the reasoning strategy is based on the hypothesize-and-test approach. This system can guide the user to collect patient information easily, and based on those items of information this leads to the possible diagnosis and treatment for chronic hepatitis using Chinese medicine. The results of this system are compared with 40 patient case records and analysed by a specialist in Chinese medicine.

  3. Genetic medicines: treatment strategies for hereditary disorders.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Timothy P; Crystal, Ronald G

    2006-04-01

    The treatment of the more than 1,800 known monogenic hereditary disorders will depend on the development of 'genetic medicines' - therapies that use the transfer of DNA and/or RNA to modify gene expression to correct or compensate for an abnormal phenotype. Strategies include the use of somatic stem cells, gene transfer, RNA modification and, in the future, embryonic stem cells. Despite the efficacy of these technologies in treating experimental models of hereditary disorders, applying them successfully in the clinic is a great challenge, which will only be overcome by expending considerable intellectual and economic resources, and by solving societal concerns about modifications of the human genetic repertoire.

  4. Complementary medicine treatments for fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Berman, B M; Swyers, J P

    1999-09-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic-pain-related syndrome associated with high rates of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use. Among the many CAM therapies frequently used by fibromyalgia patients, empirical research data exist to support the use of only three: (1) mind-body, (2) acupuncture, and (3) manipulative therapies for treating fibromyalgia. The strongest data exist for the use of mind-body techniques (e.g. biofeedback, hypnosis, cognitive behavioural therapy), particularly when utilized as part of a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. The weakest data exist for manipulative techniques (e.g. chiropractic and massage). The data supporting the use of acupuncture for fibromyalgia are only moderately strong. Also, for some fibromyalgia patients, acupuncture can exacerbate symptoms, further complicating its application for this condition. Further research is needed not only in these three areas, but also for other treatments being frequently utilized by fibromyalgia patients.

  5. [An introduction to the transmission of modern western medicine in southwestern borderland].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Fu, Liling

    2015-03-01

    Yunnan is located in the southwestern border of China, neighboring South Asia and Southeast Asia. Since the end ofthe 19th century, the western medicine was introduced into Yunnan Province along with the arrival of missionaries, exerting great influence on local medicine in Yunnan, even in inland China, and has become an integral part of Chinese modern medical history. Initially, the missionaries who knew only a little medical knowledge and treated the patients effectively during their missionary work with the western medicines they carried, so as to develop the believers. At the beginning of the 20th century, Catholic Church and Christian Church began to establish Church Hospitals in Yunnan, including the "Dafashi Hospital (French Consulate Hospital)" set up in 1901, and "Fudian Hospital (French Government Hospital)" established in 1902, and many Hospitals set up in Yunnan Province. The Church Hospitals also established medical schools and nurse schools all over Yunnan, which promoted modern medical education in Yunnan, and had profound influence on modern education of western medicine in this Provence.

  6. Conservation of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants of Western Himalayan region Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sajjad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Mehmood, Ansar; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem

    2017-05-01

    The aim of present was to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants traditionally used by inhabitants of Rawalakot Azad Kashmir and to screen selected medicinal plants for their antibacterial potential. Several field surveys were conducted to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants through interviews from local inhabitants during 2010-2013. During the study, 58 plant species, belonging to 37 families, were identified and their medicinal uses were recorded. Ethnobotanical data indicates that inhabitants of Rawalakot use medicinal plant mainly for the treatment of stomach, liver and sexual disorders. Usually fresh plant materials were used for medicinal preparations and administrated orally. Among all the species studied, three most frequently used medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Berberis lycium and Zanthoxylum armatum were screened for their antibacterial potential by using disc diffusion method. The crude aqueous, petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts were found to be very active against selected bacterial strains. The present study contributes significantly to the medicinal plant knowledge and shows that medicinal plant knowledge is deteriorating among younger generations. Therefore, further research is needed to document indigenous knowledge, to find conservation status of medicinal plant species and to find antimicrobial compounds for more sophisticated usage of medicinal plants in future.

  7. Trends of increase in western medical services in traditional medicine hospitals in China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jay J; Wang, Ying; Lin, Fang; Lu, Jun; Moseley, Charles B; Sun, Mei; Hao, Mo

    2011-09-06

    Compare changes in types of hospital service revenues between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) hospitals and Western-medicine based general hospitals. 97 TCM hospitals and 103 general hospitals were surveyed in years of 2000 and 2004. Six types of medical service revenue between the two types of hospitals were compared overtime. The national statistics from 1999 to 2008 were also used as complementary evidence. For TCM hospitals, the percentage of service revenue from Western medicine increased from 44.3% to 47.4% while the percentage of service revenue from TCM declined from 26.4% to 18.8% from 1999 to 2004. Percentages of revenue from laboratory tests and surgical procedures for both types of hospitals increased and the discrepancy between the two types of hospitals was narrowed from 1999 to 2004. For TCM hospitals, revenues from laboratory tests increased from 3.64% to 5.06% and revenues from surgical procedures increased from 3.44% to 7.02%. General hospitals' TCM drug revenue in outpatient care declined insignificantly from 5.26% to 3.87%, while the decline for the TCM hospitals was significant from 19.73% to 13.77%. The national statistics from 1999 to 2008 showed similar trends that the percentage of revenue from Western medicine for TCM hospitals increased from 59.6% in 1999 to 62.2% in 2003 and 66.1% in 2008 while the percentage of revenue from TCM for TCM hospitals decreased from 18.0% in 1999, 15.4% in 2003, and 13.7% in 2008. Western medicine has become a vital revenue source for TCM hospitals in the current Chinese health care environment where government subsidies to health care facilities have significantly declined. Policies need to encourage TCM hospitals to identify their own special and effective services, improve public perception, increase demand, strengthen financial sources, and ultimately make contributions to preserving one of the national treasures.

  8. Simulations of alternative mechanical thinning treatment programs on western timberland

    Treesearch

    Karen L. Abt; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Kenneth E. Skog; R. James Barbour; Miles A, Hemstrom; Robert J. Huggett

    2011-01-01

    We used the Economics of Biomass Removals model to evaluate the required treatment acreages, volumes removed, treatment costs and product revenues from national forest and other ownerships. We used three distinct treatment prescriptions to achieve two hazard reduction goals for treatable timberlands in the Western United States. The two hazard reduction goals were to...

  9. Influence of Prescribed Herbal and Western Medicine on Patients with Abnormal Liver Function Tests: A Retrospective Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ah-Ram; Yim, Je-Min; Kim, Won-Il

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and the efficacy of Korean herbal, western and combination medicine use in patients with abnormal liver function tests. Methods: We investigated nerve disease patients with abnormal liver function tests who were treated with Korean herbal, western and combination medicine at Dong-Eui University Oriental Hospital from January 2011 to August 2011. We compared aspartic aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (T-bil) levels before and after taking medicine and excluded patients who had liver-related disease when admitted. Results: AST and ALT were decreased significantly in patients who had taken herbal, western medicine. AST, ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken combination medicine. Compare to herbal medicine, AST, ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken western medicine, and ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken combination medicine. There were no significant differences between western and combination medicine. Conclusions: This study suggests that prescribed Korean herbal medicine, at least, does not injure liver function for patients’, moreover, it was shown to be effective in patients with abnormal liver function tests. PMID:25780634

  10. The crisis of the western system of medicine in contemporary capitalism.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    1978-01-01

    This article makes a critique of current interpretations of the crises of the western system of medicine and presents alternative explanations for those crises. It indicates that the crises of medicine--reflected in its ubiquitous problems of costs and ineffectiveness--are due to and reflect the crises of legitimation and capital accumulation of contemporary capitalism. The article is divided into six parts: the first two define the characteristics of the crises of western contemporary capitalism and of its system of medicine, with a critique of current theories which try to explain them. Parts three and four contrapose to these theories a Marxist interpretation of the crises, tracing their causes to the needs created by the process of capital accumulation and to the demands expressed by the working population. The needs and demands generated by Capital and Labor are intrinsically in conflict, and are realized in the daily practice of class struggle. The characteristics and consequences of that struggle for health and for the organization, content, and ideology of medicine are analyzed in the fifth part. This class struggle takes place within a political context in which Capital and its social expression, the bouregeoisie or corporate class, have the dominant influence on the organs of the State. The sixth part of the article shows how that dominance determines the nature of the State responses to the crises of medicine. A primary thesis of this paper is that social class, class struggle, capitalism, and imperialism are not passé categories, as most ideologists of capitalism postulate, but rather they are the most important paradigms for understanding the crises of the western system of power and its medicine.

  11. Medicinal Plants for Diabetes Treatment During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Debora Cristina; Leal-Silva, Thais; Soares, Thaigra Sousa; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Queiroz; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of great importance that affects an increasing number of people every day. In particular, diabetes is a common and important disease during pregnancy and is marked by complications, both fetal and maternal, that increase the risks of morbidity and mortality for diabetic pregnant women and their offspring. Drugs such as insulin and hypoglycemic drugs are given to treat diabetes, but regular exercise and adequate diet have also been indicated. Furthermore, coadjutant therapies such as medicinal plants are popularly used to reduce diabetes-induced hyperglycemia, either within or outside the context of pregnancy. However, studies examining plant use for diabetes treatment are necessary to confirm its possible effects and its safety for the mother and fetus. The objective of this literature review was to conduct a survey of plant species that are utilized worldwide and their stated therapeutic uses. A literature search was performed using the terms "diabetes and pregnancy", which resulted in the identification of 31,272 articles. Of these studies, only 12 (0.0038%) were related to medicinal plants, demonstrating that there has been little investigation into this issue. Of the papers analyzed in this review, half evaluated plant leaves, indicating that these scientific studies attempted to reproduce the preparations commonly used by various populations, i.e., in the form of tea. Additionally, more than 90% of studies utilized experimental animals to evaluate the maternal-fetal safety of medicinal plant substances that may potentially be dangerous for humans. Thus, once confidence levels for plant-derived substances are established based on toxicological analyses and safety is confirmed, it is possible that plants will be used to complement conventional diabetes therapies.

  12. [The transition of acupuncture and moxibustion in Japan in modern times after western medicine spreading to the East].

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Yun

    2014-04-01

    The research methods, such as philology of medicine history and comparison between tradition and modern and so on were adopted in this article to study the acupuncture-moxibustion development after western medicine spreading to the East in Japan and its main transition under the impact of western medicine. The results showed that from Meiji to Showa period, under the influence of western medicine, the transition of Japanese acupuncture-moxibustion mainly embodied in following three aspects, incuinng acupuncture works absorbing western medicine knowledge, applying experiment measures to explore acupuncture principle and launching acupuncture teaching in accordance with Europe and America academy educational pattern. The changes on acupuncture works, teaching materials and methods of researching and teaching have triggered the transition and transformation of Japanese acupuncture-moxibustion from tradition to modern.

  13. Significance of Kampo, Japanese Traditional Medicine, in the Treatment of Obesity: Basic and Clinical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Jun-ichi; Moriya, Junji; Takeuchi, Kenji; Nakatou, Mio; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Junji

    2013-01-01

    The cause of obesity includes genetic and environmental factors, including cytokines derived from adipocytes (adipo-cytokines). Although drug therapy is available for obesity, it is highly risky. Our main focus in this review is on the traditional form of Japanese medicine, Kampo, in the treated of obesity. Two Kampo formulas, that is, bofutsushosan (防風通聖散) and boiogito (防己黄耆湯), are covered by the national health insurance in Japan for the treatment of obesity. Various issues related to their action mechanisms remain unsolved. Considering these, we described the results of basic experiments and presented clinical evidence and case reports on osteoarthritis as examples of clinical application of their two Kampo medicine. Traditional medicine is used not only for treatment but also for prevention. In clinical practice, it is of great importance to prove the efficacy of combinations of traditional medicine and Western medicine and the utility of traditional medicine in the attenuation of adverse effects of Western medicine. PMID:23662155

  14. Mechanism of Treatment of Kidney Deficiency and Osteoporosis is Similar by Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Su-Juan; Yue, Wei; Rahman, Khalid; Xin, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a theoretical based system and is completely different from western medicine and states that numerous diseases, especially chronic diseases, are cured or relieved. "Zheng" (syndrome) is a summarization of the pathological changes which take place during the different stages of the development of a disease, including its location, cause and nature as well as the state of both Xie-qi (pathogenic factors) and Zheng-qi (healthy energy). Compared to a single symptom, syndrome can demonstrate the nature of a disease more extensively, completely and correctly. However, it is difficult to compare "Zheng" to the western medicine theory, which is based on scientific evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of a specific disease. Estrogen deficiency is a major pathogenetic factor in bone loss after menopause and oophorectomy with the subsequent risk of developing osteoporosis. According to TCM theory, the kidney stores essence and this can transform into bone marrow to nourish the bones, strenghthen the skeleton by promoting growth and repair. The kidney deficiency can decrease the estrogen level adjusted by the gonadal axis, causing osteoporosis. Traditional Chinese medicines tonifying the kidney can significantly enhance the level of estrogen to alleviate osteoporosis. In combination with other evidence, we further deduce that the syndrome as defined within TCM has a similar pathological mechanism to that defined by western medicine. If TCM theory is to be understood and accepted, and further fused with the western medicine theory, the micro pathological basis of TCM syndrome must be investigated extensively, which will lead to bridging the two theories together. The fusion of TCM with western medicine will pay more attention to analyzing the common nature and difference of disease and syndrome. This paper reviews the way forward for new translational advances.

  15. Out-of-pocket expenditures on traditional and Western medicine in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Steven T; Chang, Hung-Hao; Lin, Tsui-Fang

    2013-08-01

    Coexistence of traditional and modern medicine is common in Asian countries. This paper investigates out-of-pocket expenditures on traditional medicine, traditional medical service, and Western medicine by households in Taiwan. Using a national sample of 13,765 households, the three expenditure equations are estimated with a censored system procedure. Effects of socio-demographic variables are explored by calculating marginal effects on probabilities and levels of medical expenses. Different types of medical expenditures are correlated. Households with higher income and more aging members use more traditional medicine than others, as do households in agricultural sector and in urban areas. In addition, households living in rural areas relative to those in the cities are more likely to use and also spend more on traditional service. Regional disparity of health care utilization is found. Higher income households spend more on traditional medicine, likely due to the fact that patients usually pay out-of-pocket for herbal materials needed in preparation of traditional medicine. To ensure equity in health care utilization, establishment of hospitals and clinics in rural areas should be considered.

  16. Behaviors of providers of traditional korean medicine therapy and complementary and alternative medicine therapy for the treatment of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun-Sang; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Ki-Kyong; Lee, Ji-Eun; Kim, Min-Young

    2015-03-01

    In Korea, cancer is one of the most important causes of death. Cancer patients have sought alternative methods, like complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) together with Western medicine, to treat cancer. Also, there are many kinds of providers of CAM therapy, including providers of Korean oriental medicine therapy. The purpose of this study is to identify the behaviors of Korean oriental medicine therapy and CAM therapy providers who treat cancer patients and to provide background knowledge for establishing a new policy with the management and quality control of CAM. Structured and well organized questionnaires were made, and 350 persons were surveyed concerning the providers of CAM or Korean oriental medicine. The questionnaires were collected and analyzed. The questionnaires (182) were collected. The questionnaires identified a total of 73 known providers, such as medicinal professionals or other providers of CAM suppliers, 35.6% of whom had had experience with treating cancer patients (52.6% vs. 29.6%). The treatment methods were a little different: alternative therapy and nutritional therapy being preferred by medicinal professionals and mind body modulation therapy and alternative therapy being preferred by other CAM providers. Four patients (7.4%) experienced side effects, and 6 patients (12.5%) experienced legal problems. As the method for managing the therapy, CAM providers, medicinal professionals, and other CAM providers had different viewpoints. For example, some CAM providers stated that both legislation and an official education on CAM or a national examination were needed as a first step to establish the provider's qualifications and that as a second step, a license test was needed for quality control. To the contrary, medicinal professionals stated that a license test was needed before legislation. Adequate management and quality control of CAM providers is thought to involve both education and legislation.

  17. Traditional Medicine and Childcare in Western Africa: Mothers’ Knowledge, Folk Illnesses, and Patterns of Healthcare-Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Towns, Alexandra M.; Mengue Eyi, Sandra; van Andel, Tinde

    2014-01-01

    Background In spite of the strong role of traditional medicine in childcare in the pluralistic healthcare system in Western Africa, little information is known on mothers’ domestic plant knowledge. Identifying local perspectives and treatments of children’s illnesses, including folk illnesses, is essential to having a comprehensive understanding of how mothers make healthcare treatment decisions. We aimed to identify which infant illnesses Beninese and Gabonese mothers knew to treat with medicinal plants and for which illnesses they sought biomedical care or traditional healers. Methods We conducted 81 questionnaires with mothers in Bénin and Gabon and made 800 botanical specimens of cited medicinal plants. We calculated the number of species cited per illness and the proportion of participants knowledgeable on at least one herbal remedy per illness. Using qualitative data, we described folk illnesses in each country and summarized responses on preferences for each of the three healthcare options. Results Participants from both countries were most knowledgeable on plants to treat respiratory illnesses, malaria, diarrhea, and intestinal ailments. Mothers also frequently mentioned the use of plants to encourage children to walk early, monitor the closure of fontanels, and apply herbal enemas. Major folk illnesses were atita and ka in Bénin and la rate and fesses rouges in Gabon. Traditional healers were reported to have specialized knowledge of cultural bound illnesses. Malaria was frequently cited as an illness for which mothers would directly seek biomedical treatment. Conclusion Mothers largely saw the three systems as complementary, seamlessly switching between different healing options until a remedy was found. Folk illnesses were found to give insight into local treatments and may reveal important neglected diseases. Due to high reported levels of knowledge on treating top statistical causes of infant mortality and folk illnesses, mothers’ medicinal

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Medicinal Herbs for the Treatment of Hyperuricemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianping; Chen, Shaoqing; Li, Shuzhen; Lu, Meili; Li, Yanan; Su, Youxin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chinese medicinal herbs may be useful for the treatment of hyperuricemia, but there has been no systematic assessment of their efficacy and safety. Objectives. To systematically assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Methods. Six electronic databases were searched from their inception to December 2015. Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) were included. Cochrane criteria were applied to assess the risk of bias. Data analysis was performed using RevMan software version 5.2. Results. Eleven RCTs with 838 patients were included. There was no significant difference in serum uric acid between Chinese medicinal herbs and traditional Western medicine (SME: 0.19, 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.43; p = 0.10). In terms of overall efficacy, the Chinese medicinal herbs were significantly superior to Western medicine (RR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.17; p = 0.0007). The Chinese medicinal herbs were better than Western medicine in reducing the adverse reactions (RR: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.62; p = 0.001). And all these funnel plots showed unlikelihood of publishing bias. Conclusions. The results indicate that Chinese medicinal herbs may have greater overall efficacy with fewer adverse drug reactions, although the evidence is weak owing to the low methodological quality and the small number of the included trials.

  19. Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Medicinal Herbs for the Treatment of Hyperuricemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jianping; Chen, Shaoqing; Li, Shuzhen; Lu, Meili

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chinese medicinal herbs may be useful for the treatment of hyperuricemia, but there has been no systematic assessment of their efficacy and safety. Objectives. To systematically assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Methods. Six electronic databases were searched from their inception to December 2015. Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) were included. Cochrane criteria were applied to assess the risk of bias. Data analysis was performed using RevMan software version 5.2. Results. Eleven RCTs with 838 patients were included. There was no significant difference in serum uric acid between Chinese medicinal herbs and traditional Western medicine (SME: 0.19, 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.43; p = 0.10). In terms of overall efficacy, the Chinese medicinal herbs were significantly superior to Western medicine (RR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.17; p = 0.0007). The Chinese medicinal herbs were better than Western medicine in reducing the adverse reactions (RR: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.62; p = 0.001). And all these funnel plots showed unlikelihood of publishing bias. Conclusions. The results indicate that Chinese medicinal herbs may have greater overall efficacy with fewer adverse drug reactions, although the evidence is weak owing to the low methodological quality and the small number of the included trials. PMID:27818696

  20. Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD): comparison of Chinese and western culture (Part A).

    PubMed

    Wong, V C N

    2009-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey of the use of CAM by children was undertaken in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital in Hong Kong (March-December 2006). A questionnaire survey concerning the use of CAM was administered to chief caretakers (only the mothers) who accompanied children with neurodevelopmental disabilities followed up in our Neurodevelopmental paediatrics clinics. Four hundred and thirty agreed for interview of which 98 (22.8%) had Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). CAM was used in 40.8% for ASD and 21.4% of non-ASD (p < 0.001). We describe the profile of use of CAM in ASD in this part A paper. The three most common type of CAM use was Acupuncture (47.5%), Sensory Integration (42.5%), and Chinese Medicine (30%). About 76.9% of interviewees expected CAM to augment conventional treatment. Although 47.5% used both conventional western medicine and CAM, only 22.4% disclosed the use of CAM to Doctors. The following factors were significantly related to CAM use: father's job and mother's religion. Our frequency of CAM used in children with ASD was lower in Canada (52%) and USA (74%, 92%). The main CAM use in western culture was biological-based therapy whereas acupuncture was the most common CAM used in our locality.

  1. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  2. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments and Pediatric Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Joseph M.; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa

    2008-01-01

    Children and adolescents often use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments outside their indications, particularly to lose weight. Some of the herbal remedies and dietary supplements that may of relevance for psychopharmacological practice are discussed with respect to CAM treatments.

  3. Trends of increase in western medical services in traditional medicine hospitals in china

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Compare changes in types of hospital service revenues between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) hospitals and Western-medicine based general hospitals. Methods 97 TCM hospitals and 103 general hospitals were surveyed in years of 2000 and 2004. Six types of medical service revenue between the two types of hospitals were compared overtime. The national statistics from 1999 to 2008 were also used as complementary evidence. Results For TCM hospitals, the percentage of service revenue from Western medicine increased from 44.3% to 47.4% while the percentage of service revenue from TCM declined from 26.4% to 18.8% from 1999 to 2004. Percentages of revenue from laboratory tests and surgical procedures for both types of hospitals increased and the discrepancy between the two types of hospitals was narrowed from 1999 to 2004. For TCM hospitals, revenues from laboratory tests increased from 3.64% to 5.06% and revenues from surgical procedures increased from 3.44% to 7.02%. General hospitals' TCM drug revenue in outpatient care declined insignificantly from 5.26% to 3.87%, while the decline for the TCM hospitals was significant from 19.73% to 13.77%. The national statistics from 1999 to 2008 showed similar trends that the percentage of revenue from Western medicine for TCM hospitals increased from 59.6% in 1999 to 62.2% in 2003 and 66.1% in 2008 while the percentage of revenue from TCM for TCM hospitals decreased from 18.0% in 1999, 15.4% in 2003, and 13.7% in 2008. Conclusion Western medicine has become a vital revenue source for TCM hospitals in the current Chinese health care environment where government subsidies to health care facilities have significantly declined. Policies need to encourage TCM hospitals to identify their own special and effective services, improve public perception, increase demand, strengthen financial sources, and ultimately make contributions to preserving one of the national treasures. PMID:21896200

  4. Riparian fuel treatments in the western USA: Challenges and considerations

    Treesearch

    Kathleen A. Dwire; Kristen E. Meyer; Gregg Riegel; Timothy Burton

    2016-01-01

    Fuel reduction treatments are being conducted throughout watersheds of the western United States to reduce hazardous fuels in efforts to decrease the risk of high-severity fire. The number of fuel reduction projects that include near-stream environments is increasing, bringing new challenges to riparian management. Riparian areas are protected by administrative...

  5. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices.

    PubMed

    Fornaro, Michele; Clementi, Nicoletta; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2009-10-07

    The origins of Western culture extensively relate to Ancient Greek culture. While many ancient cultures have contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and the origins of psychiatry, the Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients expressed towards medicine and toward what today is referred to as 'psychopathology'. Myths and religious references were used to explain what was otherwise impossible to understand or be easily communicated. Most ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients may have had towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common even today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths could represent a valuable knowledge base for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. This paper explores many human aspects and feelings towards doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths and focusing on the perception of mental illness.

  6. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, Michele; Clementi, Nicoletta; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2009-01-01

    The origins of Western culture extensively relate to Ancient Greek culture. While many ancient cultures have contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and the origins of psychiatry, the Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients expressed towards medicine and toward what today is referred to as 'psychopathology'. Myths and religious references were used to explain what was otherwise impossible to understand or be easily communicated. Most ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients may have had towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common even today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths could represent a valuable knowledge base for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. This paper explores many human aspects and feelings towards doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths and focusing on the perception of mental illness. PMID:19811642

  7. Chaos in Western Medicine: how issues of social-professional status are undermining our health.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nathan W

    2012-07-25

    From the period immediately following the second world war, western (orthodox) medicine - both as a philosophy of medicine and as a professional guild of medical professionals actively practicing medicine - has made progress in leaps and bounds, especially considering the advances in technology and associated enterprises. Over the last thirty years, however, the practice of orthodox medicine has taken a turn for the worst despite progressive philosophies and tenets of basic practice as offered by the professional bodies that regulate how medicine is operated and implemented. Current healthcare environments are in a chaotic state of affairs, most notably due to issues involving affordability of medical professionals. It is argued that the social-professional status of medical doctors allow exorbitant and unreachable demands on governments for increased salaries. The title-based supremacy of doctors within the occupations domain is not supported by what they are offering society at large, and it compromises the ability of medical institutions and governments to provide better and more affordable healthcare. From a sociological point of view, this paper examines the social-religious history of such social class-based occupational power and dominance, and paves the way toward an overhaul of current medical education frameworks that proactively will ensure greater occupational equity in healthcare settings, across all healthcare disciplines tasked with patient care and improvement of healthcare services. In essence, doctoral titles should only be awarded after successful completion of postgraduate doctoral studies, and a new breed of medical professionals must emerge, able to contribute more meaningfully to the advancement of medicine as a profession, as well as toward increased standards of healthcare and improved health services delivery.

  8. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anant Gopal; Kumar, Akhilesh; Tewari, Divya Darshan

    2012-05-16

    Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal. Study was conducted during 2010-2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references. During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41) being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34). In the study area the informants' consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53%) were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%). Curcuma longa (84%) and Azadirachta indica (76%) are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use. The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the authors note that neither the local inhabitants nor the government

  9. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal. Methods Study was conducted during 2010–2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references. Results During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41) being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34). In the study area the informants’ consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53%) were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%). Curcuma longa (84%) and Azadirachta indica (76%) are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use. Conclusions The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the authors note that

  10. Chaos in Western Medicine: How Issues of Social-Professional Status are Undermining Our Health

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, N. W.

    2012-01-01

    From the period immediately following the second world war, western (orthodox) medicine – both as a philosophy of medicine and as a professional guild of medical professionals actively practicing medicine – has made progress in leaps and bounds, especially considering the advances in technology and associated enterprises. Over the last thirty years, however, the practice of orthodox medicine has taken a turn for the worst despite progressive philosophies and tenets of basic practice as offered by the professional bodies that regulate how medicine is operated and implemented. Current healthcare environments are in a chaotic state of affairs, most notably due to issues involving affordability of medical professionals. It is argued that the social-professional status of medical doctors allow exorbitant and unreachable demands on governments for increased salaries. The title-based supremacy of doctors within the occupations domain is not supported by what they are offering society at large, and it compromises the ability of medical institutions and governments to provide better and more affordable healthcare. From a sociological point of view, this paper examines the social-religious history of such social class-based occupational power and dominance, and paves the way toward an overhaul of current medical education frameworks that proactively will ensure greater occupational equity in healthcare settings, across all healthcare disciplines tasked with patient care and improvement of healthcare services. In essence, doctoral titles should only be awarded after successful completion of postgraduate doctoral studies, and a new breed of medical professionals must emerge, able to contribute more meaningfully to the advancement of medicine as a profession, as well as toward increased standards of healthcare and improved health services delivery. PMID:23121737

  11. Statistical identification of syndromes feature and structure of disease of western medicine based on general latent structure model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Yi, Dan-Hui; Xie, Yan-Ming; Tian, Feng

    2012-11-01

    Syndrome differentiation is the character of Chinese medicine (CM). Disease differentiation is the principle of Western medicine (WM). Identifying basic syndromes feature and structure of disease of WM is an important avenue for prevention and treatment of integrated Chinese and Western medicine. The idea here is first to divide all patients suffering from a disease of WM into several groups in the light of the stage of the disease, and secondly to identify basic syndromes feature in a distinct stage, and finally to achieve the purpose of syndrome differentiation. Syndrome differentiation is simply taken as a classifier that classifies patients into distinct classes primarily based on overall observation of their symptoms. Previous clustering methods are unable to cope with the complexity of CM. We therefore show a new multi-dimensional clustering method in the form of general latent structure (GLS) model, which is a suitable statistical learning technique of latent class analysis. In this paper, we learn an optimal GLS model which reflects much better model quality compared with other latent class models from the osteoporosis patient of community women (OPCW) real data including 40-65 year-old women whose bone mineral density (BMD) is less than mean-2.0 standard deviation (M-2.0SD). Further, we illustrate a case analysis of statistical identification of CM syndromes feature and structure of OPCW from qualitative and quantitative contents through the GLS model. Our analysis has discovered natural clusters and structures that correspond well to CM basic syndrome and factors of osteoporosis patients (OP). The GLS model suggests the possibility of establishing objective and quantitative diagnosis standards for syndrome differentiation on OPCW. Hence, for the future it can provide a reference for the similar study from the perspective of a combination of disease differentiation and syndrome differentiation.

  12. Pharmacological treatment of catarrh in Iranian traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    Choopani, Rasool; Sadr, Saeed; Kaveh, Shahpar; Kaveh, Narges; Dehghan, Sohrab

    2015-01-01

    Catarrh is a condition that is carefully explained in Iranian traditional medicine. Medieval Iranian physicians used some medicinal plants in the treatment of the catarrh. Some of these substances are used in treatment today, although still more of these materials can be used in modern medicine. In this study we searched known sources of Iranian traditional medicine and collected the ideas of former great scholars and physicians about medicinal plants that are used for treatment of catarrh. Then we searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science databases and found 10 medicinal herbs that have the ability to treat catarrh. Plants discussed in this study are consistent with new research and can be used in modern treatments. According to rising bacterial resistance to antibiotics and complications of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs, it seems that the various components of the medicinal herbs can be beneficial in producing new drugs. Also it is hoped that more investigations on medicinal plants will be conducted in the future treatment of catarrh and other diseases related to it. PMID:26151014

  13. "If you don't believe it, it won't help you": use of bush medicine in treating cancer among Aboriginal people in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the use of bush medicine and traditional healing among Aboriginal Australians for their treatment of cancer and the meanings attached to it. A qualitative study that explored Aboriginal Australians' perspectives and experiences of cancer and cancer services in Western Australia provided an opportunity to analyse the contemporary meanings attached and use of bush medicine by Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia Methods Data collection occurred in Perth, both rural and remote areas and included individual in-depth interviews, observations and field notes. Of the thirty-seven interviews with Aboriginal cancer patients, family members of people who died from cancer and some Aboriginal health care providers, 11 participants whose responses included substantial mention on the issue of bush medicine and traditional healing were selected for the analysis for this paper. Results The study findings have shown that as part of their healing some Aboriginal Australians use traditional medicine for treating their cancer. Such healing processes and medicines were preferred by some because it helped reconnect them with their heritage, land, culture and the spirits of their ancestors, bringing peace of mind during their illness. Spiritual beliefs and holistic health approaches and practices play an important role in the treatment choices for some patients. Conclusions Service providers need to acknowledge and understand the existence of Aboriginal knowledge (epistemology) and accept that traditional healing can be an important addition to an Aboriginal person's healing complementing Western medical treatment regimes. Allowing and supporting traditional approaches to treatment reflects a commitment by modern medical services to adopting an Aboriginal-friendly approach that is not only culturally appropriate but assists with the cultural security of the service. PMID:20569478

  14. [Use of alternative medicine in the treatment of allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Félix Berumen, José Alfredo; González Díaz, Sandra Nora; Canseco González, Carlos; Arias Cruz, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    The alternative medicine and the complementary medicine are forms of treatment very spread and frequently demanded by patients with allergic diseases. According to recent studies, homeopathy, acupuncture and herbal medicine are the most commonly used types of alternative medicine. To know the frequency in the use of different types of alternative medicine for the treatment of allergic diseases in patients attended at the Centro Regional de Alergia e Immunologia Clínica of the Hospital Universitario de Monterrey, Nuevo León. A transversal, descriptive and observational study was done by the use of questionnaires applied to patients and/or patients' relatives attended in this Center. This survey included questions to focus the investigation in the use of a Iternative medicine for the treatment of any allergic disease. The data analysis was done by descriptive statistics. Four hundred one questionnaires were applied. The average age of the patients was of 14 years (range from 1 to 73 years). Fourty-seven percent (189 patients) were female and 58.2% (212 patients) were male. The diagnoses included: allergic rhinitis in 215 patients (53.6), asthma in 97 (24.2%), rhinitis and asthma in 73 (18.2) and atopic dermatitis in 16 (4%). Out of the patients 34.4% (138) had used at least one type of alternative medicine for the treatment of their allergic disease. Homeopathy was the most commonly used type of alternative medicine (78.2%), followed by the natural medicine (31.5%). Alternative medicine for the treatment of allergic diseases is frequent in patients who attend to this center. Homeopathy and the natural medicine are the most used.

  15. Congruences in Chinese and Western medicine from 1830-1911: smallpox, plague and cholera.

    PubMed Central

    Summers, W. C.

    1994-01-01

    A close examination of three examples, smallpox, plague and cholera, suggest that for acute infectious diseases the Chinese viewed the symptomatologies, the causes, and the rational treatments of these illnesses in many ways similar to that of their contemporary Western counterparts. Rather than holding an opposing, clashing or incongruent system of medical thoughts for these common, well-recognized infectious diseases, the Chinese were prepared, by a long tradition of ontological thinking, to be receptive to the adoption, incorporation or modification of Western medical ideas in the late nineteenth century. PMID:7544052

  16. [Comments on Nigel Wiseman's A Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine: on the use of Western medical terms in English glossary of Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhu-fan; Liu, Gan-zhong; Lu, Wei-bo

    2005-11-01

    Mr. Wiseman believes that Western medical terms chosen as equivalents of Chinese medical terms should be the words known to all speakers and not requiring any specialist knowledge or instrumentation to understand or identify, and strictly technical Western medical terms should be avoided regardless of their conceptual conformity to the Chinese terms. According to such criteria, many inappropriate Western medical terms are selected as English equivalents by the authors of the Dictionary, and on the other hand, many ready-made appropriate Western medical terms are replaced by loan English terms with the Chinese style of word formation. The experience obtained by translating Western medical terms into Chinese when Western medicine was first introduced to China should be helpful for developing English equivalents at present. However, the authors of the Dictionary adhere to their own opinions and reject others' experience. The English terms thus created do not reflect the genuine meaning of the Chinese terms, but make the English glossary in chaos. The so-called true face of traditional Chinese revealed by such terms is merely the Chinese custom of word formation and metaphoric rhetoric. In other words, traditional Chinese medicine is not regarded as a system of medicine but merely some Oriental folklore.

  17. Substitutes or complements? Diagnosis and treatment with non-conventional and conventional medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Aida Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Portugal has a strong tradition of conventional western healthcare. So it provides a natural case study for the relationship between Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) and Western Medicine (WM). This work aims to test the relationship between CAM and WM users in the diagnosis and treatment stages and to estimate the determinants of CAM choice. Methods: The forth Portuguese National Health Survey is employed to estimate two single probit models and obtain the correlation between the consumption of CAM and WM medicines in the diagnosis and treatment stages. Results: Firstly, both in the diagnosis and the treatment stage, CAM and WM are seen to be complementary choices for individuals. Secondly, self-medication also shows complementarity with the choice of CAM treatment. Thirdly, education has a non-linear relationship with the choice of CAM. Finally, working status, age, smoking and chronic disease are determinant factors in the decision to use CAM. Conclusion: The results of this work are relevant to health policy-makers and for insurance companies. Patients need freedom of choice and, for the sake of safety and efficacy of treatment, WM and CAM healthcare ought to be provided in a joint and integrated health system. PMID:25844385

  18. [The first national Whole-time Training Class for Western Physicians Learning Traditional Chinese Medicine in China].

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiaosi; Hu, Xiaofeng

    2015-11-01

    On 19 October, 1955, at the time when the Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine affiliated with the Ministry of Health was established, the opening ceremony of the first Whole-time Training Class for Western Physicians Learning Systematically Traditional Chinese Medicine was also held. Altogether 84 new graduates from western medical colleges and skilled doctors of western medicine from all over the country were registered. During the 2.5 year term of training, the students learnt 16 professional courses and then practiced at the clinic, and graduated with gratifying results in July, 1958. On 11 October the same year, Chairman Mao made an important instruction to the report submitted by the Leading Party Group of the Ministry of Health, "A Report to the Party Central Committee about the situation, results and experience of Whole-time Training Class for Western Physicians Learning Traditional Chinese Medicine", by pointing out that "in the future, the Training Class for Western Physicians Learning Traditional Chinese Medicine should be held across the country hereafter. This is a top issue and is not to be ignored".

  19. The political economy of the introduction of Western medicine in India and preexisting health practices.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Debabar

    2009-01-01

    In India, by the second century B.C., Ayurvedic medicine had already taken the momentous step of becoming rational therapeutics. Physicians created a methodology based on the supreme importance of direct observation of natural phenomena and the technique of rational processing of empirical data. However, over the long history of the country, Ayurvedic medicine underwent severe erosion of its knowledge and practice because of profound political, cultural, social, and economic changes. Nevertheless, it was used by the poor because access to Western medicine was denied by the ruling classes. Alarm bells started to ring with the declaration of self-reliance and self-determination by the poor at Alma-Ata in 1978. A syndicate of the rich countries, with active support of India's ruling elite, mobilized the enormous influence and resources of organizations such as the International Monetary Fund, World Health Organization, UNICEF, and World Bank to promote their unconcealed agenda of promoting the private health sector and further decimating the public sector.

  20. Medicinal plants used to induce labour during childbirth in western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kamatenesi-Mugisha, Maud; Oryem-Origa, Hannington

    2007-01-03

    Traditional medicine usage in rural Ugandan population for day-to-day health care needs is close to 90%. Women and children form the bulk of the people reliant on herbal medicine. This study was undertaken to document how ethnomedical folklore aids childbirth in rural western Uganda by conducting field surveys, discussions and interviews with the resource users (mothers) and health providers (traditional birth attendants). Health surveys revealed that over 80% of childbirths are conducted at home by using herbal remedies in Bushenyi district. Seventy-five plants have been recorded for usage in inducing labour and some of these plants may be oxytocic. The dilemma lies in the toxicity levels and the unspecified dosages that may threaten the life of the unborn baby and the mother. The high population growth rate, high total fertility rate coupled with high maternal mortality and morbidity in Uganda calls for rethinking in gendered health provision policies and programmes for which herbal medicine integration in health care systems seems viable.

  1. Traditional use of medicinal plants among the tribal communities of Chhota Bhangal, Western Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Uniyal, Sanjay Kr; Singh, KN; Jamwal, Pankaj; Lal, Brij

    2006-01-01

    The importance of medicinal plants in traditional healthcare practices, providing clues to new areas of research and in biodiversity conservation is now well recognized. However, information on the uses for plants for medicine is lacking from many interior areas of Himalaya. Keeping this in view the present study was initiated in a tribal dominated hinterland of western Himalaya. The study aimed to look into the diversity of plant resources that are used by local people for curing various ailments. Questionnaire surveys, participatory observations and field visits were planned to illicit information on the uses of various plants. It was found that 35 plant species are commonly used by local people for curing various diseases. In most of the cases (45%) under ground part of the plant was used. New medicinal uses of Ranunculus hirtellus and Anemone rupicola are reported from this area. Similarly, preparation of "sik" a traditional recipe served as a nutritious diet to pregnant women is also not documented elsewhere. Implication of developmental activities and changing socio-economic conditions on the traditional knowledge are also discussed. PMID:16545146

  2. Remission of Unresectable Lung Metastases from Rectal Cancer After Herbal Medicine Treatment: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungsuk; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-01-01

    Lung metastasis is frequent in rectal cancer patients and has a poor prognosis, with an expected three-year survival rate of about 10%. Though western medicine has made great strides in the curative resection of liver metastases, resection of lung metastases has lagged far behind. Many preclinical studies have suggested that herbal treatments block metastasis, but few clinical studies have addressed this topic. We present the case of a 57-year-old Asian male with lung metastases from rectal cancer. He first underwent resection of the primary lesion (stage IIA, T3N0M0) and six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Unfortunately, lung metastases were confirmed about one year later. Palliative chemotherapy was begun, but his disease continued to progress after three cycles and chemotherapy was halted. The patient was exclusively treated with herbal medicine-standardized allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua stokes extract combined with Dokhwaljihwang-tang (Sasang constitutional medicine in Korea). After seven weeks of herbal medicine treatment, the lung metastases were markedly improved. Regression of lung metastases has continued; also, the patient's rectal cancer has not returned. He has been receiving herbal medicine for over two years and very few side effects have been observed. We suggest that the herbal regimen used in our patient is a promising candidate for the treatment of lung metastases secondary to rectal cancer, and we hope that this case stimulates further investigation into the efficacy of herbal treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

  3. Traditional Japanese herbal medicines for treatment of odontopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Kojiro

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights several refractory oral diseases, such as stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome (BMS), glossalgia, atypical facial pain (AFP), oral cancer, dry mouth, and Sjögren's syndrome (SJS), in which use of Japanese herbal medicines, Kampo medicines (KM), on the basis of Kampo theory could exert the maximum effects on human body. (1) In acute stomatitis, heat because of agitated vital energy may affect the head, chest, and middle abdominal region. Stomatitis is also related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There are many antioxidants in the crude extracts of KM. Thus, we can control environmental factors (cold, heat, dampness, dryness) and vital energy, blood, and fluid of the organ systemically using KM to treat stomatitis and eliminate local ROS accumulation. (2) BMS, glossalgia, and AFP are multifactorial syndromes involving the interaction of biological and psychological factors. Local temperature decrease and edema often occur in chronic pain. These are local circulatory disturbances that can be resolved by improving the flow of blood and fluid. Several KM, such as Tokishakuyakusan and Kamishoyosan (KSS), are effective for enhancing peripheral circulation. Those such as Saikokaryukotuboreito, Yokukansan, KSS, and Saibokutou can reduce stress and associated pain by altering glutamatergic and monoaminergic transmission in the brain. The clinical efficacy of KM for BMS and AFP may depend on the regulation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic and descending glutamatergic pain modulation systems. (3) Regarding oral cancer treatment, I introduce four possible applications of KM, inhibition of the proliferation of cancer cells, complementation of the main cancer therapy, reduction of side effect caused by the main anti-cancer therapy and improvement of quality of life such as the overall status and/or oral discomfort. This review explains in more details Hozai such as Hochuekkito (HET), Juzendaihoto, and Ninjinyoeito (NYT) that are frequently

  4. [Use of herbal medicine for cancer treatment-related toxicities].

    PubMed

    Samuels, Noah; Morag, Ofir; Maimon, Yair

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatment-related toxicities often require dose reductions and delays. Herbal medicine use is prevalent among cancer patients. Though evidence is lacking regarding benefits in treatment outcomes and immunity, a large body of evidence supports the use of herbals for reducing treatment-induced toxicities. We present three cases where herbal medicine provided relief from side effects of anti-cancer treatment, enabling the completion of treatment protocols. In the first case, a 79 year-old female patient with metastatic breast cancer developed flushing and excessive sweating from Tamoxifen treatment. Herbal medicine reduced symptoms significantly, enabling the continuation of treatment with partial disease resolution. In the second case, a 69 year-old male with esophageal cancer terminated treatment on the adjuvant treatment protocol because of severe nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, peripheral neuropathy and fatigue. Herbal medicine reduced symptom severity and chemotherapy was reinstituted. In the third case, a 58 year-old female patient with advanced metastatic colon cancer was referred by her oncologist for treatment with herbal medicine for alleviation of fatigue and weakness, flushing and palpitations, mouth ulcers and dyspnea. Despite significant symptom reduction, with completion of treatment regimens, her disease progressed and she subsequently succumbed to the disease. In summary, the above cases illustrate potential benefits of herbal medicine in the reduction of cancer treatment-related symptoms, enabling patients to complete their anti-cancer treatment regimen. Further research examining the efficacy and safety of herbal compounds is needed, in light of potential toxicity and negative interactions with conventional treatment.

  5. Building a medicine bank for Venezuela. AIDS treatment access.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    A partnership began in 1994 between United Against AIDS International (UAAI) of New York and Accion Ciudadana Contra el SIDA (ACCSI) of Venezuela has led to the development of a volunteer infrastructure including medicine and medical supply donors, airlines, truck drivers, customs officials, storage facilities, and medical personnel to bring treatment to people with AIDS (PWA) in Venezuela. Renate Koch, ACCSI director, began bringing medications home to Venezuela in early 1994, following a visit to New York City, where she met with representatives of ACT UP], the Global Network of People with AIDS, and other New York-based HIV/AIDS associations. Hugh Ward, who founded UAAI to provide HIV/AIDS drugs to PWA in Venezuela, later met with Koch and several other nongovernmental organizations in Caracas. Ward explained that most unused medicines and treatments given to people with AIDS in the US are thrown away after the patient has died or when the patient's health condition demands an alternate treatment. A network of New York-based AIDS organizations and doctors' groups now collects the medicines returned to them by PWA for donation to the medicine bank program. Once the medicines are received in Caracas, they are stored at Accion Ecumenica health clinic for distribution to PWA. While there is always a need for more medicines and supplies, the current network is able to back-stock enough quantities to ensure that patients will receive consistent and sustained treatment. Limited quantities of retrovirals and protease inhibitors are included in the medicine bank.

  6. Medicinal flora and ethnoecological knowledge in the Naran Valley, Western Himalaya, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mountain ecosystems all over the world support a high biological diversity and provide home and services to some 12% of the global human population, who use their traditional ecological knowledge to utilise local natural resources. The Himalayas are the world's youngest, highest and largest mountain range and support a high plant biodiversity. In this remote mountainous region of the Himalaya, people depend upon local plant resources to supply a range of goods and services, including grazing for livestock and medicinal supplies for themselves. Due to their remote location, harsh climate, rough terrain and topography, many areas within this region still remain poorly known for its floristic diversity, plant species distribution and vegetation ecosystem service. Methods The Naran valley in the north-western Pakistan is among such valleys and occupies a distinctive geographical location on the edge of the Western Himalaya range, close to the Hindu Kush range to the west and the Karakorum Mountains to the north. It is also located on climatic and geological divides, which further add to its botanical interest. In the present project 120 informants were interviewed at 12 main localities along the 60 km long valley. This paper focuses on assessment of medicinal plant species valued by local communities using their traditional knowledge. Results Results revealed that 101 species belonging to 52 families (51.5% of the total plants) were used for 97 prominent therapeutic purposes. The largest number of ailments cured with medicinal plants were associated with the digestive system (32.76% responses) followed by those associated with the respiratory and urinary systems (13.72% and 9.13% respectively). The ailments associated with the blood circulatory and reproductive systems and the skin were 7.37%, 7.04% and 7.03%, respectively. The results also indicate that whole plants were used in 54% of recipes followed by rhizomes (21%), fruits (9.5%) and roots (5

  7. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 3: plants used in traditional medicine in Kikuku village, Muleba District

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practice. Traditional medicines are the mainstay of healthcare in this region and are known to support the management of many illnesses such as malaria, bacterial infections, epilepsy, gynecological problems and others. However, most of the plants being used have either not been documented or evaluated for safety and efficacy or both. This study, the sixth of an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plants that are used at Kikuku village, Muleba District. Methodology A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the common/local names of the plants, parts of the plants used, diseases treated, methods of preparing the herbal remedies, dosage of the remedies administered, frequency and duration of treatment and toxicity of the medicines. A literature review was carried out for information on the ethnomedical uses of the reported plants. Results A total of 49 plant species belonging to 47 genera and 24 plant families were documented. The family Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae had the highest representation. The plants are used for the treatment of skin conditions (10 plants; 20%), bacterial infections and wounds (14 plants; 28.6%), malaria (14 plants; 28.6%), gastrointestinal disorders (11 plants; 22.4%), gynecological problems including infertility (8 plants; 16.3%), hypertension (5 plants; 10.2%), viral infections (7 plants; 14.3%), chest problems (5 plants; 10.2%), diabetes (3 plants; 6.1%), cancer (2 plants; 4.1%), inflammatory conditions (arthritis, rheumatism), HIV and AIDS, and hernia each treated by 1 plant (3 plants in total; 6.1%). Information obtained from the literature indicate that 25 (51.0%) of the therapeutic claims are supported by laboratory results or have similar claims of ethnomedical use from other countries. Conclusion Herbal remedies comprise an important and effective component of the healthcare system in Kikuku

  8. [Non-medicinal treatments of spasticity in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Mailhan, L; Papeix, C

    2012-04-01

    Non-medicinal treatments of spasticity may be proposed in patients with multiple sclerosis as either an adjunct to pharmacological treatments or the first line of treatment. Assessment of non-medicinal treatments, whether manual, surgical or with instrumentation, shows it to be beneficial for limb spasticity. Studies also reveal that, contrary to expectations, physical exercise does not increase spasticity. This means that physical exercise may be prioritized and that sports practice should not be forbidden, provided that the patient has an adequate neurological status and takes sufficient breaks to avoid fatigue.

  9. Homeopathic treatment in emergency medicine: a case series.

    PubMed

    Oberbaum, M; Schreiber, R; Rosenthal, C; Itzchaki, M

    2003-01-01

    Following a multiple-casualty construction disaster in Israel, members of The Center of Integrated Complementary Medicine joined in the emergency activity of the Shaare Zedek Medical Center. They administered homeopathic treatment to injured patients to supplement conventional orthopaedic treatment. This was to our knowledge the first time that complementary medicine had been used officially in conjunction with conventional medicine in an emergency situation. Our objective is to report and summarize the rationale, procedures and outcome of the complementary medicine intervention. Fifteen orthopaedic patients were included. They were treated by homeopathy in two phases starting 24 h post-trauma. All patients initially received Arnica montana 200CH in a single dose. Anxiety was treated with Aconite 200CH in nine patients, Opium 200CH in three, Ignatia 200CH in two and Arsenicum album 200CH in one according to type of anxiety. One day later, most patients reported a lessening of pain, 58% felt improvement, 89% had reduced anxiety, and overall, 61% felt that homeopathic treatment was helpful. In the second phase, 48 h post-trauma, specific complaints were addressed with classical homeopathy. At discharge patients rated the homeopathic treatment successful in 67% of the specific complaints. Several issues relating to the use of homeopathy in emergency medicine and its relation to conventional treatment are discussed. These include compliance, the conduct of rounds, shortage of time and staff, and the procurement of medicines.

  10. Chinese medicines as a resource for liver fibrosis treatment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a condition of abnormal proliferation of connective tissue due to various types of chronic liver injury often caused by viral infection and chemicals. Effective therapies against liver fibrosis are still limited. In this review, we focus on research on Chinese medicines against liver fibrosis in three categories, namely pure compounds, composite formulae and combination treatment using single compounds with composite formulae or conventional medicines. Action mechanisms of the anti-fibrosis Chinese medicines, clinical application, herbal adverse events and quality control are also reviewed. Evidence indicates that some Chinese medicines are clinically effective on liver fibrosis. Strict quality control such as research to identify and monitor the manufacturing of Chinese medicines enables reliable pharmacological, clinical and in-depth mechanism studies. Further experiments and clinical trials should be carried out on the platforms that conform to international standards. PMID:19695098

  11. Herbal medicine in the treatment of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Babić, Dragan

    2007-09-01

    During five thousand years of recorded history, we know that from the ancient times people have used different methods and procedures in treatment of different psychiatric disorders and very often these were medicinal preparations of plants. Numerous scientific discoveries and industrial age gave a big contribution to medicine development and significantly improved quality of life for psychiatric patients during the last century. However, evidence-based medicine after big bliss faced a lot of disappointments, and an attitude that some natural drugs were unnecessarily thrown out of use step by step came along. On the other hand, there are a huge number of patients that use natural medicinal plants in self-treatment of different psychiatric disorders. The aim of this article is not giving advantage to natural medicines over chemicals, nor to support self-treatment. The aim is to encourage thinking about the meaning of natural medicines in the treatment of mental disorders and an attempt of preventing to push them out totally into silence wherever it is justified and based on facts.

  12. Tibetan medicine "RNSP" in treatment of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing-Ming; He, Xue; Lian, Hui-Juan; Yuan, Dong-Ya; Hu, Qun-Ying; Sun, Zheng-Qi; Li, Yan-Song; Zeng, Yu-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (Alzheimer Disease, AD) is one of the most common type in senile dementia. Its main pathological features were that a large number of senile plaques gathered in brain extracellular and tangles fibrosis appeared in nerve cells. Currently, the pathogenesis of AD is still uncertain, and scale investigation and combined brain CT, MRI data were analyzed mainly for clinical diagnosis. Mitigation and improvement of the nervous system activity to interfere with the subsequent behavior of the patients are the main methods for treatment. In clinical no drug can really prevent and cure AD. From the view point of Tibetan medicine studies, Tibetan medicine RNSP has effect on improving memory and repairing the neurons in the brain. In this study, we combined the characteristics of AD pathology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment methods to explore the feasibility of Tibetan medicine RNSP for the treatment of AD to provide new ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of AD.

  13. Literature Review: Herbal Medicine Treatment after Large-Scale Disasters.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Shin; Kaneko, Soichiro; Numata, Takehiro; Kamiya, Tetsuharu; Arita, Ryutaro; Saito, Natsumi; Kikuchi, Akiko; Ohsawa, Minoru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Ishii, Tadashi

    2017-09-27

    Large-scale natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and typhoons, occur worldwide. After the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami, our medical support operation's experiences suggested that traditional medicine might be useful for treating the various symptoms of the survivors. However, little information is available regarding herbal medicine treatment in such situations. Considering that further disasters will occur, we performed a literature review and summarized the traditional medicine approaches for treatment after large-scale disasters. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library for articles written in English, and Ichushi for those written in Japanese. Articles published before 31 March 2016 were included. Keywords "disaster" and "herbal medicine" were used in our search. Among studies involving herbal medicine after a disaster, we found two randomized controlled trials investigating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), three retrospective investigations of trauma or common diseases, and seven case series or case reports of dizziness, pain, and psychosomatic symptoms. In conclusion, herbal medicine has been used to treat trauma, PTSD, and other symptoms after disasters. However, few articles have been published, likely due to the difficulty in designing high quality studies in such situations. Further study will be needed to clarify the usefulness of herbal medicine after disasters.

  14. Land-Use and Socioeconomic Change, Medicinal Plant Selection and Biodiversity Resilience in Far Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Baral, Kedar; Paudel, Prashant; Acharya, Ram P.; Thapa-Magar, Khum B.; Cameron, Mary; Bussmann, Rainer W.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous plant use-systems have evolved under, and constantly adapted to human and non-human impacts. In the last decades however, increasing socioeconomic and cultural transformations, including land-use change, outmigration, globalized markets, the introduction of new species, and climate change have led to a decreasing availability of indigenous resources, and are ultimately leading to a reduction of local use-knowledge. Participant observations, discussions, walks-in-the-woods, semi-structured interviews and informal meetings were carried out in 12 villages of far western Nepal between 2011 and 2015 to assess how sociocultural changes have affected the sustenance of indigenous systems and local biodiversity, when compared to studies carried out in the previous decades. Our findings show that there were no statistically significant differences in subject variable means, but differences were relatively important to plant parts-use and plant growth-forms (p = 0.183 and 0.088 respectively). Cissampelos pareira, Acorus calamus, Calotropis gigantea were found to have the greatest relative importance, whereas Ageratina adenophora, Melia azedarach, Carum carvi were most important based on use values. Among them, C. pareira and A. adenophora were introduced. The spatial distribution of species collected for medicine showed that all habitats were important for collection however, habitats close to villages were more favored. The use of non-indigenous and easily available species and more accessible habitats is becoming more prevalent as primary forests become increasingly overexploited, indigenous species become limited, and sociocultural cause of land use change expand. The utilization of indigenous and non-indigenous species and nearby habitats, although possibly affecting the quality of medicinal species, nonetheless reveals the dynamism of indigenous medicines as an adaptive asset mitigating human and non-human environmental changes. PMID:27936247

  15. Land-Use and Socioeconomic Change, Medicinal Plant Selection and Biodiversity Resilience in Far Western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Baral, Kedar; Paudel, Prashant; Acharya, Ram P; Thapa-Magar, Khum B; Cameron, Mary; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous plant use-systems have evolved under, and constantly adapted to human and non-human impacts. In the last decades however, increasing socioeconomic and cultural transformations, including land-use change, outmigration, globalized markets, the introduction of new species, and climate change have led to a decreasing availability of indigenous resources, and are ultimately leading to a reduction of local use-knowledge. Participant observations, discussions, walks-in-the-woods, semi-structured interviews and informal meetings were carried out in 12 villages of far western Nepal between 2011 and 2015 to assess how sociocultural changes have affected the sustenance of indigenous systems and local biodiversity, when compared to studies carried out in the previous decades. Our findings show that there were no statistically significant differences in subject variable means, but differences were relatively important to plant parts-use and plant growth-forms (p = 0.183 and 0.088 respectively). Cissampelos pareira, Acorus calamus, Calotropis gigantea were found to have the greatest relative importance, whereas Ageratina adenophora, Melia azedarach, Carum carvi were most important based on use values. Among them, C. pareira and A. adenophora were introduced. The spatial distribution of species collected for medicine showed that all habitats were important for collection however, habitats close to villages were more favored. The use of non-indigenous and easily available species and more accessible habitats is becoming more prevalent as primary forests become increasingly overexploited, indigenous species become limited, and sociocultural cause of land use change expand. The utilization of indigenous and non-indigenous species and nearby habitats, although possibly affecting the quality of medicinal species, nonetheless reveals the dynamism of indigenous medicines as an adaptive asset mitigating human and non-human environmental changes.

  16. Traditional Chinese medicine for modern treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Han, Lu; Xie, Yuan-Hong; Wu, Rong; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2017-01-20

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive degenerative disorder of brain commonly seen among the elderly. As conventionally medical therapy is of limited relief and potential side effects, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has attracted growing public and professional attention. Therapies such as acupuncture, musical/rhythmic therapy and deep brain stimulation have been gradually proved positively in clinic. In this review, we retrospected the scientific or evidence-based-medicine advances of application and research for modern treatment of PD by CAM, especially traditional Chinese medicine in categories.

  17. Treatment Strategies for Human Arboviral Infections Applicable to Veterinary Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-16

    0 Lf Reprintod from Tropical Veterinary Medicine : Current Issues and Perspectives 1• • Volume 653 of the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences...June 16, 1992 _ Treatment Strategies for Human = __ Arboviral Infections Applicable to I= ’ Veterinary Medicine = ! Chlh. MEIR KENDE (A) U •Department...A 3 0. C . U. 2 * >. U u U>1 it 020 ce*. 0. , -,r- 8 C- ed U a - .; U~u0.M KENDE: HUMAN ARBOVIRAL INFECTIONS AND VETERINARY MEDICINE 299 TABLE 2

  18. Methodologies for investigating natural medicines for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon Sun; Kung, Sidney; Grewal, Thomas; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2012-02-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a prominent condition in Western countries. In this review we describe the characteristics and current treatments of NAFLD and discuss opportunities for developing new therapeutic management approaches, with a particular emphasis on development of animal studies and in vitro assays for identification of components of natural product medicines. The main manifestation of NAFLD is hepatic lipid accumulation in the form of lipid droplets (LDs), known as hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). Current treatments for NAFLD generally aim to reduce triglyceride (TG) accumulation, often utilizing thiazolidinedines (TZDs) and fibrates, which are known to lower TG levels in hyperlipidemia, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Both of these compounds act through activation of nuclear receptors of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) family, thereby activating genes involved in triglyceride metabolism. Thus treatment using natural PPAR α and PPAR γ ligands, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), has also been considered. Alternatively, natural medicines for the treatment of NAFLD have a long and successful history of controlling disease without prominent side effects. However, active compounds in natural medicine responsible for lowering hepatic TG levels are yet poorly characterized. This points to the need for medium-high throughput screening assays to identify active components within natural herbs. As outlined in this review, the quantification of the size and number of lipid droplets could provide an opportunity to screen compound libraries derived from natural medicine for their potential to reduce NAFLD.

  19. [Factors determining the selection of treatment options of complementary and alternative medicine].

    PubMed

    Zörgő, Szilvia; Purebl, György; Zana, Ágnes

    2016-04-10

    Complementary and alternative medicine have undoubtedly been gaining ground on the healthcare market, thus the vital question arises why patients choose these treatments, oftentimes at the cost of discontinuing the Western medical therapy. The aim of the authors was to investigate and scrutinize factors leading to the utilization of various alternative medical services. The basis of this qualitative research was medical anthropological fieldwork conducted at a clinic of Traditional Chinese Medicine including participant observation (355 hours), unstructured interviews with patients (n = 93) and in-depth interviews (n = 14). Patients of alternative medical systems often do not receive a diagnosis, explanation or cure for their illness from Western medicine, or they do not agree with what they are offered. In other instances, patients choose alternative medicine because it exhibits a philosophical congruence with their already existing explanatory model, that is, previous concepts of world, man or illness. A particular therapy is always part of a cultural system and it is embedded in a specific psycho-social context, hence choice of therapy must be interpreted in accordance with this perspective.

  20. Identifying Knowledge Sharing Barriers in the Collaboration of Traditional and Western Medicine Professionals in Chinese Hospitals: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lihong; Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project that aims at identifying knowledge sharing (KS) barriers between traditional and western medicine practitioners co-existing and complementing each other in Chinese healthcare organisations. The study focuses on the tacit aspects of patient knowledge, rather than the traditional technical information shared…

  1. Identifying Knowledge Sharing Barriers in the Collaboration of Traditional and Western Medicine Professionals in Chinese Hospitals: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lihong; Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project that aims at identifying knowledge sharing (KS) barriers between traditional and western medicine practitioners co-existing and complementing each other in Chinese healthcare organisations. The study focuses on the tacit aspects of patient knowledge, rather than the traditional technical information shared…

  2. A Survey of Chinese Medicinal Herbal Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Beckmann, Kathrin; Radtke, Janine; Efferth, Thomas; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Schröder, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. PMID:24285975

  3. Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting envenomation.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman; Manthiri, Rajamohamed Abbas; Abdo, Nasreddien; Al-Duaiji, Fawzi Abdullah; Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Scorpion sting envenoming poses major public health problems. The treatment modalities include antivenoms, chemical antidotes and phytotherapy, with varying degrees of effectiveness and side effects. In this investigation, we reviewed the use of Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. The relevant literature was collected using the online search engines including Science Direct, Google and PubMed with the help of specific keywords. We also used the printed and online resources at our institutional library to gather the relevant information on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. A descriptive statistics was used for data compilation and presentation. The results of this survey showed the use of at least 92 medicinal plants with beneficial effects for treating victims of stings of different scorpion species. These commonly used herbs spanned to 37 families whilst different parts of these plants were employed therapeutically for alleviation of envenomation symptoms. The application of leaves (41%) was preferred followed by roots (19%), whole plant (14%) and seeds (9%). The use of latex (4%), stem (3%), flowers (3%) and bark (3%) was also reported. In some cases, tannin (2%), rhizome (1%) and shoot (1%) were also used. In conclusion, herbal medicines are effectively used for the treatment of patients with scorpion envenomation. This type of medication is free from side effects as observed with chemical antidotes or antivenom therapy. It is important to identify the active ingredients of herbal drugs for improving their therapeutic potential in traditional medicine.

  4. Comparison of conventional medicine, TCM treatment, and combination of both conventional medicine and TCM treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: study protocol of a randomized comparative effectiveness research trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Sheng; Xie, Yang; Li, Su-Yun; Yu, Xue-Qing

    2014-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects millions worldwide. Although many therapies exist and are being developed to relieve symptoms and reduce mortality, few data are available to understand which of the therapeutic alternatives is the most cost-effective for COPD patients in everyday clinical practice, especially for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Comparative effectiveness research can help patients, clinicians, and decision-makers make best informed treatment decisions where such evidence was previously lacking. This study aims to compare the effectiveness and economic evaluation of three treatments: (1) conventional Western medicine; (2) TCM treatments, which have been evaluated and have certain effect; and (3) a combination of both conventional Western medicine and TCM treatments, and then determine which treatment is the most suitable for COPD patients. A multicenter, pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial is adopted. A total of 360 patients will be recruited and randomly assigned to one of the three treatments group, with 120 in each group. Patients in the conventional Western medicine group will be given Salbutamol, Formoterol, Salmeterol/fluticasone, respectively, according to the guidelines. For the TCM group, patients will be given Bufei granule, Bu-Fei Jian-Pi granule, Bu-Fei Yi-Shen granule, and Yi-Qi Zi-Shen granule based on their corresponding TCM syndrome patterns, respectively. For the combination of conventional medicine and TCM treatments group, patients will be given a combination of conventional Western medicine and TCM granules. Treatments in each group are recognized as a whole comprehensive intervention. After the 26-week treatment, another 26 weeks will be followed up. The outcome measures including the frequency and duration of acute exacerbations, lung function, dyspnea, exercise capacity, quality of life, and economic evaluation will be assessed. It is hypothesized that each of the three treatments will have

  5. [Analysis of the treatment with traditional Chinese medicine in chronic glomerulonephritis based on histopathologic type].

    PubMed

    Hu, Z Y; Chen, Y P; Zha, P

    1992-08-01

    The histopathologic type of 189 cases of chronic glomerulonephritis (GN) were confirmed by renal biopsies, they were subdivided into 3 groups. 77 patients of Western medicine (WM) group was treated by conventional WM (prednison or CTX), and after treatment the total effective rate was 55.8%. The TCM-WM group was treated by the same WM plus treatment according to Syndrome Differentiation with Chinese medicinal herbs, and the total effective rate was 86% in 50 patients. The TCM group was treated by Chinese medicinal herbs, and the total effective rate was 67.3% in 62 cases. There was very significant difference (P < 0.01) between the WM and the TCM-WM group. Among the patients of TCM-WM and TCM groups, 67% of 112 cases were manifested as Dampness-Heat Syndrome, so it suggested that one of the important method for GN treatment is clearing away Dampness-Heat. The effects of TCM-WM group is much better than the WM group in treating mesangio-proliferative GN and membranous GN. It was difficult for WM in treating IgA nephropathy, membrano-proliferative GN and focal glomerulosclerosis, but Chinese medicinal herbs were effective with replenishing Qi and strengthening the Spleen, clearing away Dampness-Heat, promoting blood circulation and relieving Stasis, etc.

  6. Expert Consensus on the Treatment of Hypertension with Chinese Patent Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li Ying; Chan, Kam Wa; Yuwen, Ya; Shi, Nan Nan; Han, Xue Jie; Lu, Aiping

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study was aimed to determine the therapeutic principle and identify Chinese Patent Medicine (CPM) with corresponding indications for hypertension treatment. Methods. Three rounds of Delphi survey were mailed among 40 cardiovascular integrative medicine specialists. Items with agreement of more than 80% respondents were included in the consensus. Results. According to majority of the panelists, CPM is suitable for most hypertensive patients and should be used according to traditional Chinese medicine pattern classification. CPM could be used alone for grade 1 hypertension and could be used in combination with Western biomedicine (WM) for both grade 2 and grade 3 hypertension. It is recommended that less than two CPMs are used simultaneously. For the treatment of grade 2 and 3 hypertension, CPM and WM should be taken separately. Recommended CPMs included Tianma Gouteng granule, Qiju Dihuang capsule, Jinkui Shenqi pill, Yinxingye tablet, Niuhuang Jiangya pill and Banxia Tianma pill. The indications of 4 CPMs were specified with symptoms related to TCM pattern classification by the experts. Conclusions. An expert consensus on CMP application was formed for the treatment of hypertension in the form of integrative medicine. A flow of IM hypertension management was proposed based on the results of the survey. PMID:23662141

  7. Consensus on the integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine criteria of diagnostic classification in polycystic ovary syndrome (draft).

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin; Yu, Chao-Qin; Cao, Qi; Wang, Li; Wang, Wen-Jun; Zhou, Li-Rong; Li, Jing; Qian, Qiao-Hong

    2017-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine and metabolic disorder of women, with complex pathogenesis and heterogeneous manifestations. Professor Jin Yu recently wrote an article entitled "Proposal of Diagnosis and Diagnostic Classification of PCOS in Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine."From this, the Obstetrics and Gynecology branches of the Chinese Association of Integrative Medicine and the China Association of Chinese Medicine collaborated with the Gynecology branch of the Chinese Association for Research and Advancement of Chinese Medicine to draft a report on the consensus of criteria for the diagnosis and classification of PCOS in integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. The diagnosis for PCOS includes all three features: (1) oligo-ovulation or anovulation; (2) clinical and/or laboratory evidence of hyperandrogenism;(3) PCOS is classified into four types: types Ia,Ib, IIa, and IIb. Syndrome differentiation types for PCOS in traditional Chinese medicine are as follows: Kidney deficiency with phlegm blockage syndrome, Kidney Yin deficiency with phlegm blockage and blood stasis syndrome, and Kidney deficiency with Liver Qi stagnation syndrome.

  8. Some popular medicinal plants and diseases of the Upper Palaeolithic in Western Georgia.

    PubMed

    Martkoplishvili, Inga; Kvavadze, Eliso

    2015-05-26

    Palynological studies of cultural layers of cave sediments have been used in order to better understand traditional practices. The Upper Palaeolithic in Georgia (36,000-11,000 cal. BP) provides a rich source of such material. However, up to day from such sediments the identification of medicinal plants has hardly been achieved. Large quantities of pollen most notably from entomophilous taxa in fossil spectra can serve as a tool to identify traditionally important species. As these plants are used in modern popular medicine on the territory of Georgia (like Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia annua L., Artemisia absinthium L., Centaurea jacea L., Urtica dioica L.) can be served as an indirect evidence for their medicinal relevance from the Palaeolithic Period up to days. Their modern uses may point that the main diseases during the Upper Palaeolithic were the same as today. The Upper Palaeolithic sediments were studied palynologically come from four caves: Dzudzuana, Satsurblia, Kotias Klde and Bondi. Modern sediments were investigated from 6 caves. Fossil and modern samples were taken according to the standard procedure in palynology. The laboratory treatment was carried out as follows: first, 50g of the sample was boiled in 10% KOH. At the second stage, centrifuging of the material in cadmium liquid was performed. At the final stage, acetolysis treatment was used. Pollen of A. absinthium L. (Asteraceae), A. annua L. (Asteraceae), A. millefolium L. (Asteraceae), C. jacea L. (Asteraceae), and U. dioica L. (Urticaceae) are identified to species level. This species are not edible and are popular in present-day folk medicine. In the Upper Palaeolithic layers, significant amounts of studies species pollen were recorded in the cave, likely due to their flowering branches being brought in by humans for use. Detailed consideration of the pharmacological characteristics of the examined species showed that almost all of them have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial

  9. Evidence-Based Medicine in the Treatment of Infantile Hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Keller, Robert G; Patel, Krishna G

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, the treatment of infantile hemangiomas has undergone dramatic breakthroughs. This review critically evaluates the latest literature that supports the myriad treatment options for infantile hemangiomas. It chronicles the fading role of steroid therapy and evolution of propranolol use as the major treatment modality. Although propranolol is helping this disease become more of a medical disease and less of a surgical dilemma, the report also reveals a continued search to find nonsystemic treatment options. In summary, this is an evidence-based medicine review for the treatment of infantile hemangiomas.

  10. [Overview of clinical study on traditional Chinese medicine invigorating spleen and stomach, promoting blood circulation and remove blood stasis in treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Liu, Zhen

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, traditional Chinese medicines invigorating spleen and stomach, promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis have made fruitful achievements in the treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and remarkable curative effects in eliminating clinical signs, enhancing the mucosal barrier, improving submucosal microcirculation, prompting submucosal atrophic glands and atypical hyperplasia reversal. This essay summarizes reports and literatures for clinical studies on CAG in recent years, and discusses its etiology, pathogenesis and clinical administration of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine, in order to provide ideas and methods for CAG treatment with traditional Chinese medicines.

  11. MEDICINE SELLERS AND MALARIA TREATMENT IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    PubMed Central

    GOODMAN, CATHERINE; BRIEGER, WILLIAM; UNWIN, ALASDAIR; MILLS, ANNE; MEEK, SYLVIA; GREER, GEORGE

    2009-01-01

    Medicine sellers are widely used for fever and malaria treatment in sub-Saharan Africa, but concerns surround the appropriateness of drugs and information provided. There is increasing interest in improving their services, so we reviewed the literature on their characteristics, and interventions to improve their malaria-related practices. Sixteen interventions were identified, involving a mix of training/capacity building, demand generation, quality assurance and creating an enabling environment. Although evidence is insufficient to prove which approaches are superior, tentative conclusions were possible. Interventions increased rates of appropriate treatment, and medicine sellers were willing to participate. Features of successful interventions included a comprehensive situation analysis of the legal and market environment; “buy-in” from medicine sellers, community members and government; use of a combination of approaches; and maintenance of training and supervision. Interventions must be adapted to include artemisinin-based combination therapies, and their sustainability and potential to operate at national level should be further explored. PMID:18165494

  12. Liuwei dihuang pills enhance the effect of Western medicine in treating type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Pu, Run; Geng, Xiang-nan; Yu, Fei; Liang, Hui-gang; Shi, Lu-wen

    2013-10-01

    To perform meta-analyses evaluating the efficacy of adding Liuwei Dihuang Pills (, LDP) to Western medicine in improving treatment outcomes for type 2 diabetes. Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Chinese databases, including the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched to identify eligible studies; i.e., if the study involved a randomized clinical trial in which the experimental group combined LDP with Western drugs and the control group used the corresponding Western drugs alone to treat type 2 diabetes. Outcomes were measured in terms of fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (2hPG) and HbA1c level. Efficacy was also measured by using control and response rates. The combined odds ratio (OR), mean difference (MD), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Studies included in the analysis were less adequate than expected in terms of methodological quality. A total of 1,609 patients from 18 studies were included. We found that adding LDP can lower patients' FBG (MD=0.54 mmol/L, 95% CI [0.15, 0.93], P=0.007), 2hPG (MD=1.05 mmol/L, 95% CI [0.29, 1.81], P<0.01) and HbA1c (MD=0.23, 95% CI [0.02, 0.45], P=0.008). There were also improvements in treatment response rates (OR=3.41, 95% CI [2.38, 4.90], P<0.01) and control rates (OR=2.47, 95% CI [1.91, 3.20], P<0.01). Adding LDP to Western medicine might improve treatment outcomes of diabetes, including FBG, 2hPG, response rates and control rates.

  13. Medical Treatment and Medicinal Charms Mentioned in the Atharvanic Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bhide, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The ancient Vedic texts Provides us with valuable information and guide lines on various multi-faced aspects of human life. The present discussion is limited to the medical treatment and medicinal charms mentioned in the Atharvanic literature with specific consideration to Kausikasutra for better understanding of the rites and actions mentioned in Atharvanaveda. PMID:22556455

  14. The practice and regulatory requirements of naturopathy and western herbal medicine in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Vivian; McCabe, Pauline; Bensoussan, Alan; Myers, Stephen; Cohen, Marc; Hill, Sophie; Howse, Genevieve

    2009-01-01

    Australian health workforce regulation is premised on the need to protect public health and safety. Specific criteria are set out by governments to ascertain the degree of risk and the need for government intervention. A study was undertaken to understand the current state of usage and the practice of naturopathy and western herbal medicine, and to ascertain whether statutory regulation was warranted. We found increased use of these complementary therapies in the community, with risks arising from both the specific practices as well as consumers negotiating a parallel primary health care system. We also found highly variable standards of training, a myriad of professional associations, and a general failure of current systems of self-regulation to protect public health and safety. Statutory regulation was the preferred policy response for consumers, insurers, general practitioners, and most of the complementary therapists. While we found a case for statutory registration, we also argue that a minimalist regulatory response needs to be accompanied by other measures to educate the public, to improve the standards of practice, and to enhance our understanding of the interaction between complementary and mainstream health care. PMID:22312205

  15. Factors affecting the career path choices of graduates at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jelinski, Murray D.; Campbell, John R.; Naylor, Jonathan M.; Lawson, Karen L.; Derkzen, Dena

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the demographics of the Class of 2006, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, and to determine which factors influenced the graduates’ career path choices. Data were collected via an on-line survey and the response rate was 95.7% (67/70). The majority (57%) of graduates were starting their veterinary career in a food animal-related (FAR) job. Two factors were significantly associated with this choice: 1) those raised in, or near, a small center (population < 10 000) were 3.4 times (P = 0.03) more likely to accept a FAR position than were those raised in a large center (> 10 000), and 2) graduates with a bachelor of science in agriculture (BSc Ag) were 4.5 times (P = 0.04) more likely to begin their career as a FAR practitioner than were those without such a degree. However, 9 of the 16 graduates having a BSc Ag had an urban upbringing. PMID:18309746

  16. Factors affecting the career path choices of graduates at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jelinski, Murray D; Campbell, John R; Naylor, Jonathan M; Lawson, Karen L; Derkzen, Dena

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the demographics of the Class of 2006, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, and to determine which factors influenced the graduates' career path choices. Data were collected via an on-line survey and the response rate was 95.7% (67/70). The majority (57%) of graduates were starting their veterinary career in a food animal-related (FAR) job. Two factors were significantly associated with this choice: 1) those raised in, or near, a small center (population < 10 000) were 3.4 times (P = 0.03) more likely to accept a FAR position than were those raised in a large center (> 10 000), and 2) graduates with a bachelor of science in agriculture (BSc Ag) were 4.5 times (P = 0.04) more likely to begin their career as a FAR practitioner than were those without such a degree. However, 9 of the 16 graduates having a BSc Ag had an urban upbringing.

  17. [Recent progress of international harmonization of crude drugs and medicinal plants--activity of FHH (The Western Pacific Regional Forum for the Harmonization of Herbal Medicines)].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Nobuo

    2011-03-01

    The Western Pacific Regional Forum for the Harmonization of Herbal Medicines (FHH) was established in 2002. The general proposed objective of the FHH is to promote public health by recognizing and developing standards and technical guidelines that aim to improve the quality, safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. At a sub-committee meeting of FHH nomenclature and standardization held in Tokyo, all the participants recognized the importance of comparing the descriptions of herbal medicines contained in member countries' pharmacopoeias or monograph standards as the first step in the harmonization of nomenclature and standardization. It was agreed to set up five expert working groups (EWG) to carry out the following specific tasks: 1) Nomenclature, 2) Testing Methods in Monographs, 3) List of Chemical Reference Standards (CRS) and Reference of Medicinal Plant Materials (RMPM), 4) List of Analytically Validated Methods, and 5) Information on General Tests. In this review, we report four topics of FHH activities from 2002-2009 as follows: 1) Comparative study on testing methods and specification values for crude drugs used in monographs among four Western Pacific regional countries (Japan, China, Korea and Vietnam), 2) Comparative study on TLC conditions for identification, chemical assay conditions for component quantification used in monographs among the four countries, 3) Comparative study on general testing methods for crude drugs among the four countries, 4) Comparative study on TLC identification for crude drugs used in monographs among the four countries considering harmonization and clean analysis.

  18. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qi; Wang, Su-Juan; Chen, Jian-Yu; Xin, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar is a complication of wound healing and has a high recurrence rate which can lead to significant abnormity in aesthetics and functions. To date, no ideal treatment method has been established. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of hypertrophic scarring has not been clearly defined. Although a large amount of scientific research has been reported on the use of medicinal plants as a natural source of treatment for hypertrophic scarring, it is currently scattered across a wide range of publications. Therefore, a systematic summary and knowledge for future prospects are necessary to facilitate further medicinal plant research for their potential use as antihypertrophic scar agents. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by focusing on medicinal plants which have been scientifically tested in vitro and/or in vivo and proved as potential agents for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Although the chemical components and mechanisms of action of medicinal plants with antihypertrophic scarring potential have been investigated, many others remain unknown. More investigations and clinical trials are necessary to make use of these medical plants reasonably and phytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach against hypertrophic scars. PMID:25861351

  19. Effective Medicinal Plant in Cancer Treatment, Part 2.

    PubMed

    Kooti, Wesam; Servatyari, Karo; Behzadifar, Masoud; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Nouri, Bijan; Zare Marzouni, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases. With due attention to rapid progress in the phytochemical study of plants, they are becoming popular because of their anticancer effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effective medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer and study their mechanism of action. In order to gather information the keywords "traditional medicine," "plant compounds," "medicinal plant," "medicinal herb," "toxicity," "anticancer effect," "cell line," and "treatment" were searched in international databases such as ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Scopus and national databases such as Magiran, Sid, and Iranmedex, and a total of 228 articles were collected. In this phase, 49 nonrelevant articles were excluded. Enhancement P53 protein expression, reducing the expression of proteins P27, P21, NFκB expression and induction of apoptosis, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway, and reduction of the level of acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation are the most effective mechanisms of herbal plants that can inhibit cell cycle and proliferation. Common treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy can cause some complications. According to results of this study, herbal extracts have antioxidant compounds that can induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation by the investigated mechanisms.

  20. Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weili; Zhang, Yinan; Huang, Yingjie; Lu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This chapter summarizes recent developments in preclinical and clinical research on Chinese herbal medicines and their neurochemical mechanism of action for the treatment of drug addiction. We searched Chinese and English scientific literature and selected several kinds of Chinese herbal medicines that have beneficial effects on drug addiction. Ginseng (Renshen) may be clinically useful for the prevention of opioid abuse and dependence. Rhizoma Corydalis (Yanhusuo) may be used to prevent relapse to chronic drug dependence. Alkaloids of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Gouteng) appear to have positive effects on methamphetamine and ketamine addiction. Both Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) and Radix Pueraiae (Gegen) have beneficial inhibitory effects on alcohol intake. Sinomenine has been shown to have preventive and curative effects on opioid dependence. l-Stepholidine, an alkaloid extract of the Chinese herb Stephania intermedia (Rulan), attenuated the acquisition, maintenance, and reacquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference and antagonized the heroin-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. Traditional Chinese herbal medicines may be used to complement current treatments for drug addiction, including withdrawal and relapse. As the molecular mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese herbal medicines are elucidated, further advances in their use for the treatment of drug addiction are promising. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. TREATMENT OF ASTHMA AND FOOD ALLERGY WITH HERBAL INTERVENTIONS FROM TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Min

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased over the past 2–3 decades in Westernized countries. Despite increased understanding of the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases, control of severe asthma is still difficult. Asthma is also associated with high prevalence of anxiety in particular adolescents. There is no effective treatment for food allergy. Food allergy is often associated with severe and recalcitrant eczema. Novel approaches for treatment of asthma and food allergy and comorbid conditions are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), used in Asia for centuries, is beginning to play a role in Western health care. There is increasing scientific evidence supporting the use of TCM for asthma treatment. This review article discusses promising TCM interventions for asthma, food allergy and comorbid conditions and explores their possible mechanisms of action. Since 2005, several controlled clinical studies of “anti-asthma” herbal remedies have been published. Among the herbal medicines, anti-asthma herbal medicine intervention (ASHMI) is the only anti-asthma TCM product that is a US FDA investigational new drug (IND) that has entered clinical trials. Research into ASHMI’s effects and mechanisms of actions in animal models is actively being pursued. Research on TCM herbal medicines for treating food allergy is rare. The herbal intervention, Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) is the only US FDA botanical IND under investigation as a multiple food allergy therapy. Published articles and abstracts, as well as new data generated in preclinical and clinical studies of ASHMI and FAHF-2 are the bases for this review. The effect of TCM therapy on food allergy associated recalcitrant eczema, based on case review, is also included. Laboratory and clinical studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of ASHMI treatment on asthma. The possible mechanisms underlying the efficacy are multiple. Preclinical studies demonstrated the efficacy and

  2. Withholding and withdrawing medical treatment: an emergency medicine perspective.

    PubMed

    Iserson, K V

    1996-07-01

    In emergency medicine, a significant difference rightfully persists between the withholding and withdrawal of life-sustaining medical treatment. The justification for this difference stems part from the nature of emergency medical practice and the unique manner in which clinicians apply many ethical principles. In the usual setting, the decision to withhold further medical treatment is done quietly, often without input from the patients surrogate decisionmaker, whereas withdrawal of ongoing medical treatment can be more obvious and difficult. This situation is reversed in the emergency medicine setting. The withholding of emergency medical treatment is much more problematic than later withdrawal of unwanted or useless interventions. Emergency physicians and prehospital providers often lack vital information about their patients' identities, medical conditions, and wishes. Society also has specific expectations of emergency physicians. Because of the nature of emergency medicine, both in the prehospital and the emergency department settings, the distinction between withdrawal and withholding of medical treatment has never disappeared and is not likely to do so in the future.

  3. Chinese medicines in the treatment of experimental diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Yi; Chen, Xiao-Xin; Tang, Sydney Chi-Wai; Sze, Stephen Cho-Wing; Feng, Yi-Bin; Lee, Kai-Fai; Zhang, Kalin Yan-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a severe micro vascular complication accompanying diabetes mellitus that affects millions of people worldwide. End-stage renal disease occurs in nearly half of all DN patients, resulting in large medical costs and lost productivity. The course of DN progression is complicated, and effective and safe therapeutic strategies are desired. While the complex nature of DN renders medicines with a single therapeutic target less efficacious, Chinese medicine, with its holistic view targeting the whole system of the patient, has exhibited efficacy for DN management. This review aims to describe the experimental evidence for Chinese medicines in DN management, with an emphasis on the underlying mechanisms, and to discuss the combined use of herbs and drugs in DN treatment.

  4. Ethnobotanical study of nutri-medicinal plants used for the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic ailments among the local communities of western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Asiimwe, Savina; Kamatenesi-Mugisha, Maud; Namutebi, Agnes; Borg-Karlsson, Anna-Karin; Musiimenta, Peace

    2013-11-25

    Herbal remedies are a source of therapeutics for nearly 80% of the population in Uganda. Poor health facilities and limited access to antiretroviral drugs have perpetuated and increased the use of traditional medicine especially in rural areas for the treatment of opportunistic ailments of HIV/AIDS. To document the traditional uses of nutri-medicinal plants in the management of immunocompromised ailments associated with HIV/AIDS. To document the parts and growth forms of plants used, methods of preparation and administration of the herbal remedies. The study was conducted in Mbarara and Isingiro districts of western Uganda between December 2010 and May 2011. Ethnobotanical information was collected from 64 respondents who were sampled based on recommendations of local elders and administrators. Ethnobotanical data on the use of nutri-medicinal plants for traditional treatment of HIV/AIDS opportunistic ailments were collected by employing semi-structured interviews with selected respondents, house hold visits and field observations as described by (Martin, 1995a). The respondents were mainly traditional medical practitioners who treat patients who are already receiving antiretroviral drugs. Fidelity levels of plant species and informant consensus factor were determined to show the percentage of informants claiming the use of certain plant species for the same major purpose and to analyse people's knowledge of plant use. The study revealed 81 plant species most of which were herbs (49%). Leaves (71%) were the most frequently used parts in remedy preparations which were mainly administered orally (85%). The majority of plants (54%) were harvested from wild populations. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Plumeria obtusa L., and Abutilon guineense (Shumach.) Baker. F and Exell were the nutri-medicinal plants that scored the highest Fidelity level values. The informant's consensus about usages of plants ranged from 0.75 to 0.80. Plants that are presumed to be effective in treating

  5. Medicinal plants used in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Skin is an organ providing contact with the environment and protecting the human body from unfavourable external factors. Skin inflammation, reflected adversely in its functioning and appearance, also unfavourably affects the psyche, the condition of which is important during treatment of chronic skin diseases. The use of plants in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases results from their influence on different stages of inflammation. The paper presents results of the study regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of the plant raw material related to its influence on skin. The mechanism of action, therapeutic indications and side effects of medicinal plants used for treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin are described. PMID:24278070

  6. [Experience of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in first case of imported Zika virus disease in China].

    PubMed

    Deng, Yichu; Zeng, Liping; Bao, Wen; Xu, Pinghua; Zhong, Gongrong

    2016-02-01

    Zika virus disease is an acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus transmitted through Aedes mosquitoes. To explore the therapeutic effect of integrated traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Zika virus disease, the treatment process of the first imported case in China was reviewed. The first imported Zika virus disease in China was admitted to Ganxian People's Hospital in Jiangxi Province on February 6th, 2016, and the patient received isolation treatment for 9 days and cured later. The effect of antiviral treatments including Xiyanping injection was evaluated based on clinical diagnosis and treatment process of the patient. A 34-year old male patient was admitted with chief complaint of fever for 9 days, orbital pain and itching rash for 4 days on February 6th, 2016. (1) Epidemiological characteristics: the patient was bitted by mosquitoes during his business trip in Venezuela since January 1st, where Zika virus disease was spreading. On January 20th he had dizziness without fever, and the symptom disappeared after taking medicines without details. Paroxysmal dizziness, chills and mild fever without myalgia was experienced on January 28th. On February 3rd small red rash appeared in the neck, spreading to anterior part of chest, limbs and trunk, and the fever, fatigue, nausea was continued, and a new symptom of paroxysmal pain in back of ears and orbits appeared, during which he had not go to hospital. The symptoms relieved on February 4th. He returned to Ganxian County on February 5th, he had yellow stool 3 times with normal temperature, without abdominal pain, and red rash still appeared in the neck. He went to Ganxian People's Hospital on February 6th, 2016. (2) Clinical manifestation: the vital signs showed a temperature of 36.8?centigrade, a pulse rate of 80 bpm, a respiratory rate of 20 bpm, and a blood pressure of 110/70 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa). It was showed by physical examination that red rash appeared in the neck, and no superficial enlarged

  7. An ethno-medicinal study of medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Baharvand-Ahmadi, Babak; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Tajeddini, Pegah; Naghdi, Nasrollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is the greatest public health problem and is considered as the silent epidemic of the 21st century. In Iran, there are approximately 1.5 million diabetic patients. Before the discovery of insulin, medicinal plants were widely used for the treatment of diabetes in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the indigenous plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Shiraz, southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured direct interviews were conducted with 25 herbalists to identify medicinal plants used to treat diabetes. Questionnaires were included herbalist personal information, plant local name, growth season, plant parts used, preparation methods, and traditional therapies. Results: The interview data indicated that, 24 medicinal plants from 19 families are used for the treatment of diabetes in Shiraz. The families with most antidiabetic species were Compositae (13%), Rosaceae (13%) and Cucurbitaceae (8%). The most frequently used plant parts were fruits (38%) and the most common preparation method was decoction (62%). For 45% of reported plants, pharmaceutical studies approved antidiabetic effects in animal or humane model of diabetes. Results of this study showed that the plants recommended by Shirazian herbalists have potential antidiabetic effects. Conclusions: It is suggested that the ingredients of indigenous plants be studied to determine therapeutic effects and mechanism of action. If they were safe and effective, they can be refined and processed to produce natural drugs. PMID:27047810

  8. Medicinal plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia J; Jacobo-Herrera, Frida E; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Heinrich, Michael; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos

    2016-02-17

    Cancer cases numbers are increasing worldwide positioning this disease as the second cause of mortality for both sexes. Medicinal plants have been used in the fight against cancer as the basis for drug discovery and nowadays more than 70% of anticancer drugs have a natural origin. Mexico is regarded for its cultural and biological diversity, which is reflected in the vast traditional knowledge of herbal remedies. In this review we examined herbal remedies employed in colorectal cancer treatment (CRC). The goal of this work was to gather scientific reports of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for CRC treatment. We performed a search on scientific literature databases using as keywords: "colon cancer", "gastric cancer", "cytotoxicity", studies "in vitro and in vivo", in combination with "Mexican medicinal plants" or "Mexican herbal remedies". The selection criteria of cytotoxic activity for extracts or pure compounds was based on the National Cancer Institute of USA recommendations of effective dose 50 (ED50) of ≤20μg/mL and ≤4μg/mL, respectively. In this review we report 25 botanic families and 39 species of plants used for the treatment of colon cancer in Mexico with evidence in studies in vitro and in vivo. Medicinal plants are still a great source of novel chemical structures with antineoplastic potential as it is proven in this work. The selection criteria and activity was narrowed for methodological purposes, nevertheless, drug discovery of natural origin continues to be a highly attractive R&D strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatment Options for Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Tal; Marchisio, Paola; Tamir, Sharon Ovnat; Torretta, Sara; Gavriel, Haim; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Otitis media (OM) has numerous presentations in children. Together with conventional medical therapies aimed to prevent and/or treat OM, a rising number of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment options can be offered. Since OM is common in children, parents may ask healthcare professionals about possible CAM therapies. Many physicians feel that their knowledge is limited regarding these therapies, and that they desire some information. Therefore, we conducted a literature review of CAM therapies for OM, taking into account that many of these treatments, their validity and efficacy and have not been scientifically demonstrated. We performed a search in MEDLINE (accessed via PubMed) using the following terms: “CAM” in conjunction with “OM” and “children. Retrieved publications regarding treatment of OM in children which included these terms included randomized controlled trials, prospective/retrospective studies, and case studies. The following CAM options for OM treatment in children were considered: acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal medicine/phytotherapy, osteopathy, chiropractic, xylitol, ear candling, vitamin D supplement, and systemic and topical probiotics. We reviewed each treatment and described the level of scientific evidence of the relevant publications. The therapeutic approaches commonly associated with CAM are usually conservative, and do not include drugs or surgery. Currently, CAM is not considered by physicians a potential treatment of OM, as there is limited supporting evidence. Further studies are warranted in order to evaluate the potential value of CAM therapies for OM. PMID:26871802

  10. Globalizing the Science Curriculum: An Undergraduate Course on Traditional Chinese Medicine as a Complementary Approach to Western Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Robert; Lin, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    A course has been created to examine the ways in which China and the West have approached human health and medicine. Though fundamentally different, these two systems are complementary in a number of ways. This course is a model for a global science course in an educational initiative that incorporates Asian themes into science and engineering…

  11. The Merging of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine in China: Old Ideas Cross Culturally Communicated through New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, James A.

    Cross-cultural communication between China and the West, instigated in 1979 by the establishment of an open-door policy in China, has led to the merging of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with the medical practices of the West. The result of these medical exchanges is a blending of medical practices that proves to be more effective in the…

  12. Globalizing the Science Curriculum: An Undergraduate Course on Traditional Chinese Medicine as a Complementary Approach to Western Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Robert; Lin, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    A course has been created to examine the ways in which China and the West have approached human health and medicine. Though fundamentally different, these two systems are complementary in a number of ways. This course is a model for a global science course in an educational initiative that incorporates Asian themes into science and engineering…

  13. The use of herbal medicine in cancer-related anorexia/ cachexia treatment around the world.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kai-Chun; Li, Ying-Xiao; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-related cachexia, a condition in which the body is consumed by deranged carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism that is induced by inflammatory cytokines. Cachexia is associated with poor treatment outcome, fatigue and poor quality of life. Pharmacological intervention in the treatment and/or prevention of cachexia has been mainly aimed at the use of appetite enhancers to increase oral nutritional intake so far. Herbal remedies are part of traditional and folk healing methods with long histories of use. In this report, we have assessed which herbal approaches have had associated cancer cachexia case reports. Commonly used herbal medicines in western countries include essiac, iscador, pau d'arco tea, cannabinoids and so on. Some Kampo herbs and formulations are commonly used by cancer patients reduce the side effects and complications during the antitumor therapy. The relevant herbal medicines include ginseng, C. rhizome and radix astragali, and the related herbal remedies, such as TJ-48, TJ-41, PHY906 and Rikkunshito. However, there still have some adverse effects caused or amplified by herb and drug interactions that are difficult to separate. However, randomized effectiveness of herbal medicines shall be further identified in controlled clinical trials involving cancer patients with cachexia.

  14. Review of Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guang-dong; Li, Chao-yuan; Cui, Wen-peng; Guo, Qiao-yan; Dong, Chang-qing; Zou, Hong-bin; Liu, Shu-jun; Dong, Wen-peng; Miao, Li-ning

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious chronic complications of diabetes; 20–40% of diabetic patients develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, exact pathogenesis of DN is not fully clear and we have great difficulties in curing DN; poor treatment of DN led to high chances of mortality worldwide. A lot of western medicines such as ACEI and ARB have been demonstrated to protect renal function of DN but are not enough to delay or retard the progression of DN; therefore, exploring exact and feasible drug is current research hotspot in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used to treat and control diabetes and its complications such as DN in a lot of scientific researches, which will give insights into the mechanism of DN, but they are not enough to reveal all the details. In this paper, we summarize the applications of herbal TCM preparations, single herbal TCM, and/or monomers from herbal TCM in the treatment of DN in the recent 10 years, depicting the renal protective effects and the corresponding mechanism, through which we shed light on the renal protective roles of TCM in DN with a particular focus on the molecular basis of the effect and provide a beneficial supplement to the drug therapy for DN. PMID:26649322

  15. Treatment of understory hemlock in the western white pine type

    Treesearch

    I. T. Haig

    1933-01-01

    Silvicultural practice for the national forests in the mixed western white pine stands of northern Idaho has long been complicated by the economic problems arising from the presence of aggressive, tolerant, low-value species, such as western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and lowland white fir (Abies grandis), in association with the less tolerant, faster-growing, high-...

  16. Treatment of Diarrhoea in Rural African Communities: An Overview of Measures to Maximise the Medicinal Potentials of Indigenous Plants

    PubMed Central

    Njume, Collise; Goduka, Nomalungelo I.

    2012-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in rural communities in Africa, particularly in children under the age of five. This calls for the development of cost effective alternative strategies such as the use of herbal drugs in the treatment of diarrhoea in these communities. Expenses associated with the use of orthodox medicines have generated renewed interest and reliance on indigenous medicinal plants in the treatment and management of diarrhoeal infections in rural communities. The properties of many phenolic constituents of medicinal plants such as their ability to inhibit enteropooling and delay gastrointestinal transit are very useful in the control of diarrhoea, but problems such as scarcity of valuable medicinal plants, lack of standardization of methods of preparation, poor storage conditions and incertitude in some traditional health practitioners are issues that affect the efficacy and the practice of traditional medicine in rural African communities. This review appraises the current strategies used in the treatment of diarrhoea according to the Western orthodox and indigenous African health-care systems and points out major areas that could be targeted by health-promotion efforts as a means to improve management and alleviate suffering associated with diarrhoea in rural areas of the developing world. Community education and research with indigenous knowledge holders on ways to maximise the medicinal potentials in indigenous plants could improve diarrhoea management in African rural communities. PMID:23202823

  17. [Efficacy observation of treating early and midterm chronic renal failure patients by qi supplementing, collateral dredging, detoxifying, and turbidity descending recipe combined with basic methods of Western medicine].

    PubMed

    Guo, Li-fang; Wang, Feng-li; Wang, Yue-hua

    2012-08-01

    To observe therapeutic efficacy of treating early and midterm chronic renal failure (CRF) patients by qi supplementing, collateral dredging, detoxifying, and turbidity descending recipe (QSCDDTDR) combined with basic methods of Western medicine (WM). Totally 160 early and midterm CRF patients were recruited from Hebei Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hebei Medical University from January 2007 to December 2011. They were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group, 80 in each group. On the basis of basic treatment of WM, QSCDDTDR was given to patients in the treatment group, while niaoduqing granule (NDQG) was given to those in the control group. After 12 months of treatment, the therapeutic efficacy, Chinese medicine (CM) symptom scores, serum creatinine (SCr), blood urine nitrogen (BUN), 24 h urine protein quantitation, hemoglobin (Hb), and the occurrence of end-point events were observed. The total effective rate in the treatment group was 77.6% (28/76), obviously higher than that in the control group [(58.1%, 43/74), P < 0.05]. After treatment the CM syndrome scores obviously decreased in the treatment group (18.3 +/- 5.3), obviously lower than before treatment (26.0 +/- 4.4) and the control group (22.4 +/- 4.9) (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The levels of SCr, BUN, and 24 h urine protein quantitation were (169.1 +/- 22.6) micromol/L, (10.4 +/- 2.0) mmol/L, (861.4 +/- 232.7) mg/24 h, respectively, in the treatment group after treatment, which were lower than before treatment [(204.1 +/- 27.7) micromol/L, (13.2 +/- 3.2) mmol/L, (1 287.5 +/- 442.3) mg/24 h, P < 0.01). The aforesaid indices were also improved in the control group after treatment (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The decrease in SCr, BUN, and 24 h urine protein quantitation after treatment was more obviously in the treatment group than in the control group [(185.8 +/- 23.9) micromol/L, (11.2 +/- 2.5) mmol/L, (1014.5 +/- 301.7) mg/24 h; P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The incidence rate of the end

  18. Correlations between symptoms as assessed in traditional chinese medicine (TCM) and ACR20 efficacy response: a comparison study in 396 patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with TCM or Western medicine.

    PubMed

    He, Yiting; Lu, Aiping; Zha, Yinglin; Yan, Xiaoping; Song, Yuejin; Zeng, Shengping; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Wanhua; Su, Li; Feng, Xinghua; Qian, Xian; Lu, Cheng

    2007-12-01

    This research was designed to explore the role of joint and nonarticular clinical manifestations traditionally evaluated in Chinese herbal medicine in predicting efficacy of treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Three hundred ninety-six patients were randomly divided to receive Western medicine (WM) therapy, 197 cases; and traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCM), 199 cases. A complete physical examination and 18 clinical manifestations typically assessed in TCM were recorded before the randomization. The WM therapy included diclofenac extended action tablets, methotrexate, and sulfasalazine. The TCM therapy included Glucosidorum Tripterygll Totorum tablets and Yishen Juanbi tablets. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) response criteria were used for efficacy evaluation. All data were analyzed using the SPSS11.5 statistical package. ACR20 and 50 responses with WM treatment were higher at 24 weeks than in the TCM group. In the WM group, 89% achieved ACR20 whereas 65.8% on TCM reached this response In the WM group, efficacy was negatively related to subjective symptoms of dizziness, and positively related to joint tenderness and thirst as recorded at entry. In contrast, in the TCM group the efficacy was positively related to joint tenderness and joint pain, and negatively related to the joint stiffness and more nocturia. Symptoms including those not directly related to joints and those inquired about in TCM may have influence on the efficacy of therapy, and might merit further study to ascertain if they can be helpful to guide specific therapy.

  19. Treatment of Alzheimer's disease in Iranian traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian-Attari, Mohammad Mahdi; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dargahi, Leila; Shirzad, Meysam; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with a high prevalence in recent years. Dramatic growth in AD prevalence has increased the importance of more researches on AD treatment. History has shown that traditional medicine can be a source of inspiration to find new therapies. This study tried to codify the recommendations of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) by studying the main medical manuscripts. The second purpose was to compare these findings with new medical information. Cardinal traditional medical and pharmacological texts from 10th to 18th century were searched for traditional terms of dementia (Nesyan, Fisad-uz-Zekr, Faramooshkari) focused on treatment methods. The findings were classified into three groups: lifestyle recommendations, dietary approaches, and drug therapies. These findings were compared with new medical findings. ITM has dietary recommendations for dementia such as increasing consumption of nuts, poultry and eggs, milk, and grape products (like raisin and currant). These compounds are full of unsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and polyphenolic compounds. New findings suggest that these substances can help in prevention and treatment of AD. ITM has some lifestyle considerations like increasing physical and mental activities, listening to music, attending musical feasts, and smelling specific perfumes. New medical findings confirm nearly all of these recommendations. Along with the aforementioned items, treatment with natural medicines is in the first line of traditional treatment of dementia. New investigations show that many of these herbs have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory factors and acetylcholine esterase inhibitory effects. A few of them also have N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) blocking activity. When these herbs are put together in traditional formulations, they can comprehensively fight against the disease. More ethnopharmacological and ethnomedical studies on ITM antidementia therapy can be followed by

  20. Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian-Attari, Mohammad Mahdi; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dargahi, Leila; Shirzad, Meysam; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with a high prevalence in recent years. Dramatic growth in AD prevalence has increased the importance of more researches on AD treatment. History has shown that traditional medicine can be a source of inspiration to find new therapies. Objectives: This study tried to codify the recommendations of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) by studying the main medical manuscripts. The second purpose was to compare these findings with new medical information. Materials and Methods: Cardinal traditional medical and pharmacological texts from 10th to 18th century were searched for traditional terms of dementia (Nesyan, Fisad-uz-Zekr, Faramooshkari) focused on treatment methods. The findings were classified into three groups: lifestyle recommendations, dietary approaches, and drug therapies. These findings were compared with new medical findings. Results: ITM has dietary recommendations for dementia such as increasing consumption of nuts, poultry and eggs, milk, and grape products (like raisin and currant). These compounds are full of unsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and polyphenolic compounds. New findings suggest that these substances can help in prevention and treatment of AD. ITM has some lifestyle considerations like increasing physical and mental activities, listening to music, attending musical feasts, and smelling specific perfumes. New medical findings confirm nearly all of these recommendations. Along with the aforementioned items, treatment with natural medicines is in the first line of traditional treatment of dementia. New investigations show that many of these herbs have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory factors and acetylcholine esterase inhibitory effects. A few of them also have N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) blocking activity. When these herbs are put together in traditional formulations, they can comprehensively fight against the disease. Conclusions: More ethnopharmacological

  1. Combination therapy of Western drugs and herbal medicines: recent advances in understanding interactions involving metabolism and efflux.

    PubMed

    Gouws, Chrisna; Steyn, Dewald; Du Plessis, Lissinda; Steenekamp, Jan; Hamman, Josias H

    2012-08-01

    While complementary and alternative medicine markets prosper with an increasing number of consumers of herbal medicines, there is an associated likelihood for herb-drug interactions to occur. Modulation of the activity of metabolic enzymes and/or active transporters by chemical constituents of herbal medicines may influence the therapeutic outcomes of coadministered allopathic medicines due to changes in their pharmacokinetic profiles. Although valuable information on herb-drug interactions is obtained by in vitro studies, such as the mechanisms of interaction, clinical significance of interactions is ultimately demonstrated by in vivo data. The authors outline the mechanisms of herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions briefly and discuss pharmacokinetic interactions between different therapeutic classes of Western drugs and herbal medicines. Furthermore, the authors also discuss herb-drug interactions from both in vitro and in vivo studies with specific focus on recent findings. Basic and clinical researches have contributed to the comprehension of the underlying mechanisms involved as well as the practical implications of herb-drug interactions. This provides a foundation for development of guidelines to inform patients about herb-drug interactions that can affect their health.

  2. [Treatment of diabetic nephropathy by integrative medicine: a multi-center prospective cohort study].

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Zhang, Hui-Min; Fei, Yu-Tong

    2012-03-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of integrative medicine (IM) treatment for diabetic nephropathy (DN), and to explore the medication laws by Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome typing. One hundred and seventy outpatients or inpatients with DN at Dongfang Hospital of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, and China-Japan Friendship Hospital of the Ministry of Health were recruited from March 2008 to July 2009. They were allocated into the IM group (116 cases) or the Western medicine group (54 cases) according to whether or not they were willing to receive CM syndrome typing. The incidence of endpoint events and secondary outcome measures [such as body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), 24 h urinary protein (24 hU), serum creatinine (SCr), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)] of two groups were observed at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months respectively during the follow-ups. Patients in the IM group were syndrome typed. The CM recipes were collected to calculate the frequency of Chinese materia medica used. The liver function, blood routines, and ECG were observed and compared during the follow-ups. The follow-up period was 3 to 24 months with the mean of 14 months. Data suitable for analysis mainly covered the 3rd, 6th, 12th and 18th month of the follow-up. Both PPS and FAS analysis showed that there were no significant difference in the incidence of endpoint between two groups (11.2% vs 7.4%, P>0.05). The level of body mass index (BMI) [(25.0 +/- 3.1) kg/m2] and fasting blood glucose (FBG) [(7.9 +/- 1.5) mmol/L] in the IM group were lower than those of the Western medicine group [(28.6 +/- 4.4) kg/m2 and (8.8 +/- 2.9) mmol/L respectively] at the 6-month follow-up (P<0.05). The levels of FBG [(7.9 +/- 1.4) mmol/L] and HbA1c [(7.8 +/- 1.4)%] in the IM group were lower than those of the Western medicine

  3. [Reproductive medicine: more than the diagnosis and treatment of infertility].

    PubMed

    Fauser, B C J M

    2005-09-03

    The young specialty of reproductive medicine has developed tremendously in barely 30 years and has taken a prominent place in the field of obstetrics and gynaecology. In addition to the diagnosis and treatment of infertility, reproductive medicine comprises a large number of medical activities, most of which affect women in almost all phases of life, from shortly after puberty to old age. A key role is played by the pathophysiology of ovarian function and ovarian hormones. Requests for medical assistance concern: disorders of sexual development, the consequences for health in the short- and long-term of overweight and anovulation early in life, premature menopause and the need for hormone replacement, damage to the ovaries as a result of radio- or chemotherapy for cancer, the hormonal aspects of breast cancer, the hormonal aspects of sexuality and well-being, and counselling regarding contraception or menopausal symptoms and hormone replacement.

  4. Outpatient hypertension treatment, treatment intensification, and control in Western Europe and the United States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Richard; Alexander, G Caleb; Stafford, Randall S

    2007-01-22

    Hypertension guidelines in the United States tend to have more aggressive treatment recommendations than those in European countries. To explore international differences in hypertension treatment, treatment intensification, and hypertension control in western Europe and the United States, we conducted cross-sectional analyses of the nationally representative CardioMonitor 2004 survey, which included 21 053 hypertensive patients visiting 291 cardiologists and 1284 primary care physicians in 5 western European countries and the United States. The main outcome measures were latest systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) levels, hypertension control (latest BP level, <140/90 mm Hg), and medication increase (dose escalation or an addition to or switch of drug therapy) for inadequately controlled hypertension. At least 92% of patients in each country received antihypertensive drug treatment. The initial pretreatment BP levels were lowest and the use of combination drug therapy (>or=2 antihypertensive drug classes) was highest in the United States. Multivariate analyses controlling for age, sex, current smoking, and physician specialty indicated that, compared with US patients, European patients had higher latest systolic BP levels (by 5.3-10.2 mm Hg across countries examined) and diastolic BP levels (by 1.9-5.3 mm Hg), a smaller likelihood of hypertension control (odds ratios, 0.27-0.50), and a smaller likelihood of medication increase for inadequately controlled hypertension (odds ratios, 0.29-0.65) (all P<.001). In addition, controlling for initial pretreatment BP level attenuated the differences in latest systolic and diastolic BP levels and the likelihood of hypertension control. Lower treatment thresholds and more intensive treatment contribute to better hypertension control in the United States compared with the western European countries studied.

  5. Treatment of anxiety and depression: medicinal plants in retrospect.

    PubMed

    Fajemiroye, James O; da Silva, Dayane M; de Oliveira, Danillo R; Costa, Elson A

    2016-06-01

    Anxiety and depression are complex heterogeneous psychiatric disorders and leading causes of disability worldwide. This review summarizes reports on the fundamentals, prevalence, diagnosis, neurobiology, advancement in treatment of these diseases and preclinical assessment of botanicals. This review was conducted through bibliographic investigation of scientific journals, books, electronic sources, unpublished theses and electronic medium such as ScienceDirect and PubMed. A number of the first-line drugs (benzodiazepine, azapirone, antidepressant tricyclics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors, noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, etc.) for the treatment of these psychiatric disorders are products of serendipitous discoveries. Inspite of the numerous classes of drugs that are available for the treatment of anxiety and depression, full remission has remained elusive. The emerging clinical cases have shown increasing interests among health practitioners and patients in phytomedicine. The development of anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs of plant origin takes advantage of multidisciplinary approach including but not limited to ethnopharmacological survey (careful investigation of folkloric application of medicinal plant), phytochemical and pharmacological studies. The selection of a suitable plant for a pharmacological study is a basic and very important step. Relevant clues to achieving this step include traditional use, chemical composition, toxicity, randomized selection or a combination of several criteria. Medicinal plants have been and continue to be a rich source of biomolecule with therapeutic values for the treatment of anxiety and depression. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  6. Herbal and food folk medicines of the Russlanddeutschen living in Künzelsau/Taläcker, South-Western Germany.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, Andrea; Gray, Charlotte

    2008-07-01

    An urban ethnobotanical study was carried out among a community of Russlanddeutschen (Germans from Russia) who in recent years have moved from Russia and Central Asia to Künzelsau, a small town located in Württemberg, in South-Western Germany. Thirty-six in-depth interviews were conducted with the women in this community, and 62 homemade medicinal preparations derived from 46 botanical species were recorded. As well as common medicinal plant uses that are well known in modern evidence-based German and Western European phytotherapy, we were able to record traces of the community's Russian and Central Asian (Turkic) heritage through the very popular use of sorrel as a depurative or for preventing and treating colds and flu; the use of dill as a digestive; watermelon as a diuretic; birch to relieve rheumatism and arthritis; buckwheat as a tonic; rye-based fermented beverages as a stimulant and as a depurative, diverse berries to prevent colds and flu; coriander as a digestive, and other medicinal foods. Traces of archaic German preparations were also recorded, which were probably Swabian in origin. Nearly half of the overall quoted items represented folk functional foods. The researchers believe that the findings in this study could stimulate public health policies aimed at improving both the phyto-pharmacovigilance of lesser-known herbal drugs, and the health and well-being of migrants by promoting a better understanding of emic health beliefs and newcomers' healing strategies.

  7. Treatment of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Female Infertility.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dan; Li, Lily; Zeng, Bai-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Female infertility is when a woman of reproductive age and sexual active, without contraception, cannot get pregnant after a year and more or keeps having miscarriages. Although conventional treatments for infertility such as hormone therapy, in vitro fertilization and many more, helped many female patients with infertility get pregnant during past a few decades, it is far from satisfactory with prolonging treatment time frames and emotional and financial burden. In recent years, more patients with infertile problems are seeking to alternative and complementary medicines to achieve a better outcome. In particular, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is increasingly popular for treating infertility due to its effectiveness and complimentary with conventional treatments. However, the mechanisms of action of CHM in treating female infertility are not well understood. In this chapter authors reviewed research development of CHM applied in many infertile models and CHM clinical studies in many conditions associated with female infertility, published in past 15 years. The data of review showed that CHM has either specific target mechanisms of action or multitarget mechanisms of action, via regulating relevant hormone levels in female reproductive system, improving ovary function, enhancing uterine receptivity. More studies are warranted to explore the new drugs from CHM and ensure safety, efficacy, and consistency of CHM. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvised Hand Injury Treatment Using Traditional Veterinary Medicine in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Raf; November, Eva J J; Rayyan, Maissa

    2017-09-13

    In remote wilderness environments, local people with traditional knowledge of medicinal plants are potentially important first-line health care providers. We present a case of a 31-year-old man who fell off a horse while trekking through a remote mountain landscape in Ethiopia and sustained blunt force trauma to the hand. A local mountain hut keeper examined the patient's hand and used heated leaves of the succulent plant Kalanchoe petitiana to treat a suspected metacarpal fracture. As first responder in a low-resource setting, the hut keeper relied on his traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine to improvise a treatment for a human injury in a remote mountain environment. Although in this case the outcome of the traditional intervention was positive, our analysis shows that the massage component of the intervention could have led to complications. Conversely, reports from the use of related Kalanchoe species suggest that heated Kalanchoe leaves could be useful in the compression component of traditional care for hand injuries. Validation of traditional remedies and their therapeutic potential are needed if they are to complement wilderness wound care safely and reliably. The documentation and validation of these remedies are urgently needed, as many medicinal plants and indigenous knowledge of how to use these valuable natural resources are being lost. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A study of western pharmaceuticals contained within samples of Chinese herbal/patent medicines collected from New York City's Chinatown.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gretchen M; Stripp, Richard

    2007-09-01

    In America, recent growth in the popularity of Chinese herbal/patent medicines (CHM/CPM) has generated concerns as to the safety of these and other herbal remedies. Lack of strict federal regulations has lead to the possibility of improper labeling and even adulteration of these products with western drugs or other chemical contaminants. Our laboratory has conducted an analytical study to determine the presence of undeclared pharmaceuticals and therapeutic substances within CHM/CPM sold in New York City's Chinatown. Ninety representative samples randomly purchased in the form of pills, tablets, creams and teas were screened by appropriate analytical techniques including TLC, GC/MS and HPLC. Five samples contained nine different western pharmaceuticals. Two of these samples contained undeclared or mislabeled substances. One sample contained two pharmaceuticals contraindicated in people for whom the product was intended. Drugs identified include promethazine, chlormethiazole, chlorpheniramine, diclofenac, chlordiazepoxide, hydrochlorothiazide, triamterene, diphenhydramine and sildenafil citrate (Viagra).

  10. [Pharmacists in community medicine: especially in cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Takagi, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    It is important for clinics and hospitals to cooperate in treating cancer patients in the community health. We are treating cancer patients in cooperation with five general hospitals in Shizuoka and about 100 clinics in the same community. In this system, it is required that pharmacists in the community should have knowledge about beneficial effects and adverse events of anticancer drugs as do hospital pharmacists, and furthermore they should have good communication with cancer patients. The expectation for pharmacists is great in community medicine especially in the treatment of cancer patients.

  11. Zika virus infection and biological treatment for reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Kwak-Kim, Joanne; Song, Jeehey; Kim, Michael Woo-Il; Gilman-Sachs, Alice

    2017-02-01

    The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is particularly challenging in the field of reproductive medicine as various biological tissues and byproducts, such as intravenous immunoglobulin G or cells are utilized during reproductive cycles, and an infected mother has an increased risk of having babies with fetal microcephaly and other congenital brain anomalies. In this review, current guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of ZIKV, ZIKV testing, and tissue and blood product usages are summarized for physicians caring for those planning pregnancy or going through infertility treatment.

  12. Anti-Freckles Herbal Treatment in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zakerin, Sara; Fahimi, Shirin; Rezghi, Maedeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Freckles are numerous pigmented spots of the skin, mainly confined to the face, even arms and back. Although freckles are light-brown macules, most frequently observed in individuals with red or blond hair, they are common to Asian people too. Freckles increase in number, size, and depth of pigmentation during the summer months. Histologically, freckles show increased production of melanin pigment by a normal number of melanocytes. Freckles commonly stop spreading before adolescence and last for life, but could sometimes be subtle in adulthood. Treatments are often requested for cosmetic purposes. Before the advent of lasers, treatment modalities for pigmentary disorders included surgical excision, dermabrasion, chemical bleaching, and peeling. These treatments may lead to unwanted side effects of potential scarring or undesired pigmentation changes. In Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), freckles have been known as well. “Namash” was the term used by ITM scholars to indicate freckles. There is a wide range of plants, which were prescribed by Iranian physicians for the treatment of freckles. The purpose of this study is to find the most frequent useful herbs for freckles as mentioned in ITM references. Methods: Seven ITM references were studied for anti-freckles medicines. The references were Canon of Medicine (Avicenna), Alhavi (Razes) Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Momen tonekaboni), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili), Ikhtiyarat Badi’i (Ansari), Al-abnia An-Haghyegh el-advia (Heravi), and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiya (Ibn al-Baitar). Moreover, plants were ordered according to their repetition in the references. Afterwards, traditional names of the selected plants were matched with the scientific names using botanical text references. Results: This study demonstrated that Myristica fragrans Houtt, Cicer arietema L., Eruca sativa Lam., Lilium candidium L., Amygdalus communis L., Arum italicum L. were the most frequent herbs mentioned in ITM

  13. Anti-Freckles Herbal Treatment in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zakerin, Sara; Fahimi, Shirin; Rezghi, Maedeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Freckles are numerous pigmented spots of the skin, mainly confined to the face, even arms and back. Although freckles are light-brown macules, most frequently observed in individuals with red or blond hair, they are common to Asian people too. Freckles increase in number, size, and depth of pigmentation during the summer months. Histologically, freckles show increased production of melanin pigment by a normal number of melanocytes. Freckles commonly stop spreading before adolescence and last for life, but could sometimes be subtle in adulthood. Treatments are often requested for cosmetic purposes. Before the advent of lasers, treatment modalities for pigmentary disorders included surgical excision, dermabrasion, chemical bleaching, and peeling. These treatments may lead to unwanted side effects of potential scarring or undesired pigmentation changes. In Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), freckles have been known as well. “Namash” was the term used by ITM scholars to indicate freckles. There is a wide range of plants, which were prescribed by Iranian physicians for the treatment of freckles. The purpose of this study is to find the most frequent useful herbs for freckles as mentioned in ITM references. Methods: Seven ITM references were studied for anti-freckles medicines. The references were Canon of Medicine (Avicenna), Alhavi (Razes) Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Momen tonekaboni), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili), Ikhtiyarat Badi’i (Ansari), Al-abnia An-Haghyegh el-advia (Heravi), and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiya (Ibn al-Baitar). Moreover, plants were ordered according to their repetition in the references. Afterwards, traditional names of the selected plants were matched with the scientific names using botanical text references. Results: This study demonstrated that Myristica fragrans Houtt, Cicer arietema L., Eruca sativa Lam., Lilium candidium L., Amygdalus communis L., Arum italicum L. were the most frequent herbs mentioned in ITM

  14. Medicinal wild plant knowledge and gathering patterns in a Mapuche community from North-western Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Estomba, Diego; Ladio, Ana; Lozada, Mariana

    2006-01-03

    Medicinal plant use has persisted as a long standing tradition in the Mapuche communities of Southern Argentina and Chile. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the rural Curruhuinca community located near the mountain city of San Martin de los Andes, Argentina. Semi-structured interviews were carried out on 22 families in order to examine the present use of medicinal plants and their reputed therapeutic effects. Ecological variables, such as distance to the gathering site and biogeographical origin were also analyzed. Our results showed that the Curruhuinca dwellers cited 89 plant species for medicinal purposes, both of native and exotic origin. They know about 47 native plants, of which they use 40, and they know of 42 exotic medicinal plants of which they use 34. A differential pattern was observed given that only native species, relevant for the traditional Mapuche medicine, were collected at more distant gathering sites. The interviewees mentioned 268 plant usages. Those most frequently reported had therapeutic value for treating digestive ailments (33%), as analgesic/anti-inflammatory (25%) and antitusive (13%). Native species were mainly cited as analgesics, and for gynecological, urinary and "cultural syndrome" effects, whereas exotic species were mainly cited for digestive ailments. The total number of medicinal plants known and used by the interviewees was positively correlated with people's age, indicating that this ancient knowledge tends to disappear in the younger generations.

  15. Treatment adherence and beliefs about medicines among Egyptian vitiligo patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mostafa A Sayed; Abou-Taleb, Doaa A E; Mohamed, Refaat Ragheb

    2016-11-01

    Vitiligo is a chronic disorder of depigmentation that has different treatment modalities, but patients' nonadherence is common. This study aimed to assess the influence of patients' medication beliefs on patients' adherence to topical, oral medications, and phototherapy in vitiligo. Between September 2015 and February 2016, 260 patients with vitiligo were asked to fill in the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) to assess their beliefs about therapy for vitiligo. Their adherence to the therapy was examined using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). The MMAS-8 scale and BMQ had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.78 and 0.66, respectively). Using Morisky's recommended cutoff point, 71% of patients were categorized as low or nonadherent to the scheduled therapy. Patients who perceived specific necessity of dermatological medicines significantly adhered to their therapy (OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.09, 1.38; p = 0.001) whereas patients who had specific concerns about the adverse effects exhibited significant low adherence (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.56, 0.76; p < 0.001). Positive beliefs about the necessity of medications in vitiligo do not necessarily reflect high adherence. Patients' adherence behavior is a multidimensional and dynamic process. The prolonged course of treatment, its cost, and unsatisfactory outcomes influenced the patients' adherence. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Complementary and alternative medicine for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi-Hao A.; Nahas, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To review the evidence supporting selected complementary and alternative medicine approaches used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE (from January 1966), EMBASE (from January 1980), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched until March 2008, combining the terms irritable bowel syndrome or irritable colon with complementary therapies, alternative medicine, acupuncture, fiber, peppermint oil, herbal, traditional, yoga, massage, meditation, mind, relaxation, probiotic, hypnotherapy, psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, or behavior therapy. Results were screened to include only clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Level I evidence was available for most interventions. MAIN MESSAGE Soluble fibre improves constipation and global IBS symptoms. Peppermint oil alleviates IBS symptoms, including abdominal pain. Probiotic trials show overall benefit for IBS but there is little evidence supporting the use of any specific strain. Hypnotherapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy are also effective therapeutic options for appropriate patients. Certain herbal formulas are supported by limited evidence, but safety is a potential concern. All interventions are supported by systematic reviews or meta-analyses. CONCLUSION Several complementary and alternative therapies can be recommended as part of an evidence-based approach to the treatment of IBS; these might provide patients with satisfactory relief and improve the therapeutic alliance. PMID:19221071

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi-Hao A; Nahas, Richard

    2009-02-01

    To review the evidence supporting selected complementary and alternative medicine approaches used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). MEDLINE (from January 1966), EMBASE (from January 1980), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched until March 2008, combining the terms irritable bowel syndrome or irritable colon with complementary therapies, alternative medicine, acupuncture, fiber, peppermint oil, herbal, traditional, yoga, massage, meditation, mind, relaxation, probiotic, hypnotherapy, psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, or behavior therapy. Results were screened to include only clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Level I evidence was available for most interventions. Soluble fibre improves constipation and global IBS symptoms. Peppermint oil alleviates IBS symptoms, including abdominal pain. Probiotic trials show overall benefit for IBS but there is little evidence supporting the use of any specific strain. Hypnotherapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy are also effective therapeutic options for appropriate patients. Certain herbal formulas are supported by limited evidence, but safety is a potential concern. All interventions are supported by systematic reviews or meta-analyses. Several complementary and alternative therapies can be recommended as part of an evidence-based approach to the treatment of IBS; these might provide patients with satisfactory relief and improve the therapeutic alliance.

  18. Timber markets and fuel treatments in the western US

    Treesearch

    Karen L. Abt; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2006-01-01

    We developed a model of interrelated timber markets in the U.S. West to assess the impacts of large-scale fuel reduction programs on these markets, and concomitant effects of the market on the fuel reduction programs. The linear programming spatial equilibrium model allows interstate and international trade with western Canada and the rest of the world, while...

  19. Clinical holistic medicine: holistic treatment of rape and incest trauma.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Neikrug, Shimshon; Merric, Joav

    2005-04-06

    Studies indicate that at least 15% of the female population in western countries has experienced sexual abuse and severe sexual traumas. This paper explains how even serious sexual abuse and trauma can be healed when care and resources encourage the patient to return to the painful life events. When the physician cares and receives the trust of the patient, emotional holding and processing will follow quite naturally. Spontaneous regression seems to be an almost pain-free way of integrating the severe traumas from earlier experiences of rape and incest. This technique is a recommended alternative to classical timeline therapy using therapeutic commands. When traumatized patients distance themselves from their soul (feelings, sexuality, and existential depth), they often lose their energy and enjoyment of life. However, this does not mean that they are lost to life. Although it may seem paradoxical, a severe trauma may be a unique opportunity to regain enjoyment of life. The patient will often be richly rewarded for the extensive work of clearing and sorting out in order to experience a new depth in his or her existence and emotional life, with a new ability to understand life in general and other people in particular. So what may look like a tragedy can be transformed into a unique gift; if the patient gets sufficient support, there is the possibility of healing and learning. Consciousness-based medicine seems to provide severely traumatized patients with the quality of support and care needed for their soul to heal.

  20. [The contribution of T. Sydenham (1624-1689) to the formation of modern Western medicine (on the occasion of the 390th anniversary of his birth)].

    PubMed

    Stochik, A M; Zatravkin, S N

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the contribution of the English physician T. Sydenham to the formation of modern Western medicine. Based on the analysis of his major works, the authors concluded that T. Sydenham's main merit was not the application of an empirical approach to studying human diseases, but the development of two theoretical concepts in the 1660s to 1680s, which introduced new ideas about the causes of diseases and epidemics. Recognition of T. Sydenham's ideas by the majority of the medical community led to a fundamental revision of the views on illnesses, to the emergence of qualitatively new approaches to the study, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of human diseases, by giving rise to a new subject of medical study, such as physical and social environmental factors in man along with his body in health and disease.

  1. Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia from Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hung-Jin; Kuo, Chia-Chen; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2014-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer that immature white blood cells continuously overproduce in the bone marrow. These cells crowd out normal cells in the bone marrow bringing damage and death. Methotrexate (MTX) is a drug used in the treatment of various cancer and autoimmune diseases. In particular, for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, it had significant effect. MTX competitively inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an enzyme that participates in the tetrahydrofolate synthesis so as to inhibit purine synthesis. In addition, its downstream metabolite methotrexate polyglutamates (MTX-PGs) inhibit the thymidylate synthase (TS). Therefore, MTX can inhibit the synthesis of DNA. However, MTX has cytotoxicity and neurotoxin may cause multiple organ injury and is potentially lethal. Thus, the lower toxicity drugs are necessary to be developed. Recently, diseases treatments with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) as complements are getting more and more attention. In this study, we attempted to discover the compounds with drug-like potential for ALL treatment from the components in TCM. We applied virtual screen and QSAR models based on structure-based and ligand-based studies to identify the potential TCM component compounds. Our results show that the TCM compounds adenosine triphosphate, manninotriose, raffinose, and stachyose could have potential to improve the side effects of MTX for ALL treatment. PMID:25136372

  2. [Phytomedicine in otorhinolaryngology - evidence-based medicine with medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Sertel, S

    2011-12-01

    Phytomedicine has become an increasingly important treatment option for patients in the western world. Patients who experienced failure or adverse reactions with conventional western medicine often switch to natural and holistic methods. In eastern countries, with their long history of traditional medicine, patients often resort to herbal preparations as the majority of western medicines are unaffordable. The desire of western physicians for evidence-based medicine also applies in the sector of phytomedicine. A serious perception of natural products in scientific medicine can therefore only be based on data from prospective, controlled, randomized double-blind clinical trials. In order to illuminate the present scientific foundation of effective and reliable phytomedicine, a literature search in PubMed (Medline) was conducted based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The main focus was on the field of otorhinolaryngology. Besides the presentation of selected, reliable studies and the evaluation of the efficacy of various medicinal plants, shortcomings of selected publications are discussed.

  3. [Development of Precision Medicine in the Surgical Treatment of Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Tan, Fengwei; Li, Ning; Gao, Shugeng; He, Jie

    2016-06-20

    Precision medicine is to developing the most appropriate individualized treatment for each patient based on the macro to the micro level of individual differences. Genomic, proteomics, metabolomics data, and other big data analysis methods are the essence of precision medicine. Precision medicine brings the hope to overcome cancer. Among all kinds of tumors, lung cancer is the biggest threat to human. This paper reviewed the development of precision medicine in the surgical treatment of lung cancer.

  4. [Analysis of citations referenced in articles published in Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine from 2001 to 2004].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-hai; Liang, Li

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the referential rule and the informative absorbing capacity of the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine (CJITWM), and analyze the characteristics of literature requirement of scientists working in integrated Chinese and Western medicine (ICWM) field offering suggestions on literary utilization. Citation analysis was used to analyze the references cited in 1825 articles published in CJIM from 2001 to 2004 according to their time sequence of publishing. The citation rate was 53.64%, and 9.51% citations per article. Most of the citations were mainly cited from journals (85.38%) and books (13.4%). The Price Index was 49.22%, and the self-citation rate for author and periodical were 3.63% and 7.77% respectively. CJITWM is a highly authorized and representative professional academic periodical in the field of ICWM. The citations are mainly cited from periodicals written in Chinese or English, they are of good novelty and quality, but the citation rate should be further improved.

  5. [An era of pioneers?--the weekly "Der Spiegel" and its reports on service medicine in Western Germany 1947-1955].

    PubMed

    Prüll, C-R

    2008-10-08

    After 1945, Western medicine was influenced mostly by investigations from Britain and the USA. This paper deals with the presentation of German medicine in the German weekly "Der Spiegel" between 1947 and 1955, when German society changed from a post-war community focussed on survival to a modern western society. The paper will particularly focus on medicine as a service, dealing not with diagnostic and therapeutic innovations, but with troublesome every-day problems of body and soul at the border of health and disease. The paper argues that "service medicine" was an important tool for German medicine to achieve social acceptance and to integrate itself into the new German democratic society with its private market economy.

  6. Use of Herbal Medicine Among Pregnant Women on Antenatal Care at Nekemte Hospital, Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Objectives: Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and use of herbal drugs among pregnant women attending Nekemte Hospital to provide baseline information for future studies. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify the prevalence of using herbal medicines among pregnant women. About 50.4% of study participants used herbal drugs during their pregnancy. The proportion of herbal drug usage was gradually decreased along with the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The most and least commonly used herbs were ginger (44.36%) and tenaadam (9.15 %), respectively. The common indications of herbal remedies use during pregnancy were nausea (23.90%) and morning sickness (21.05%). Results: The result of the present study confirmed wide use of herbal drugs use during pregnancy that need to report the safety concerns of these drugs during pregnancy. Conclusions: To achieve the requirements of pregnant women, it is vital for health care workers to be familiar with the effect of herbal medicine in pregnancy. PMID:25625049

  7. General public knowledge, preferred dosage forms, and beliefs toward medicines in western Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alhaddad, Mahmoud S; Abdallah, Qasem M; Alshakhsheer, Sami M; Alosaimi, Salman B; Althmali, Ahmed R; Alahmari, Solaiman A

    2014-06-01

    To measure general public knowledge, source of knowledge, preferred dosage forms, and beliefs toward medicines. A cross-sectional study design using convenience-sampling technique was used. A pre-validated questionnaire was designed and distributed to the general public through face-to-face interviews. All data were analyzed, and p-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. The study took place in the Clinical Pharmacy Department, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between August 2012 and February 2013 RESULTS: Nine hundred participants successfully responded to this study. Males represented two-thirds of the respondents (66.8%). In addition, 52% of respondents were of high education level. Modern (74.2%) and alternative medicines (88.7%) were understood by most respondents. Tablets (69.6%) and capsules (37.6%) represented the highest preferred dosage forms. In addition, physicians (66.6%) and pharmacists (46.2%) were the main sources of information regarding medicines. In terms of beliefs, respondents showed wrong beliefs in many statements used in this study. There is a need to improve public knowledge and beliefs toward medicines as well as utilizing public preferred dosage forms. In addition, pharmacists should play a major role in these programs since they are experts on medicines and play a more active role in patient education and counseling.

  8. Black Contributions to the Early History of Western Medicine: Lack of Recognition as a Cause of Black Under-Representation in US Medical Schools

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Frederick

    1979-01-01

    During several millenia, blacks in ancient Egypt made numerous contributions to medicine and were acknowledged as the inventors of the art of medicine. They produced the earliest physicians, medical knowledge, and medical literature. They contributed to the development of medicine in ancient Greece. Ancient writers, including Herodotus, Isocrates, and Diodorus, affirm this. Modern presentations of ancient medicine, however, deprive blacks of the knowledge of their early contributions to medicine by ignoring or subtly misrepresenting the black identity of the ancient Egyptians. Blacks are currently under-represented in US medical schools. It is proposed that the recognition of the contributions of blacks to the early history of Western medicine would inspire black students to study medicine. PMID:423296

  9. The treatment of patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms in China: a study comparing expectations and treatment satisfaction in psychosomatic medicine, biomedicine, and traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, Kurt; Xudong, Zhao; Anselm, Kathrin; Kern, Stephanie; Wirsching, Michael; Schaefert, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about treatment for patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) in China. This study investigates the treatment expectations and treatment satisfaction of patients with MUS in psychosomatic medicine, biomedicine, and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In a cross-sectional survey, n = 96 (10.3%) out of 931 participating patients were screened positive for multiple somatoform symptoms. These patients answered questionnaires concerning symptom duration, number of doctor visits, functional impairment, emotional distress, treatment expectations, treatment satisfaction, and empathy in the consultation. The physicians filled in a questionnaire about applied or recommended treatment. Most of the patients from psychosomatic medicine wanted psychotherapy. In TCM, 55% of the patients had already received TCM treatment and most of them wanted to continue TCM treatment. Patients in biomedicine did not express clear expectations; most of them had had no previous treatment. A combination of treatment methods was most prevalent in biomedicine in comparison to psychosomatic medicine and TCM. The outcome from the patients' point of view was significantly better in TCM than in psychosomatic medicine and biomedicine. Psychosomatic medicine's strength was the empathetic physician-patient interaction. From a biopsychosocial perspective, these results suggest that various treatment approaches with various emphases can be effective depending on the patient's complaints, his illness beliefs, and what the physician offers. The results will be verified in a larger multicenter longitudinal study.

  10. Development, Implementation, and Compliance of Treatment Pathways in Radiation Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Potters, Louis; Raince, Jadeep; Chou, Henry; Kapur, Ajay; Bulanowski, Daniel; Stanzione, Regina; Lee, Lucille

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: While much emphasis on safety in the radiation oncology clinic is placed on process, there remains considerable opportunity to increase safety, enhance outcomes, and avoid ad hoc care by instituting detailed treatment pathways. The purpose of this study was to review the process of developing evidence and consensus-based, outcomes-oriented treatment pathways that standardize treatment and patient management in a large multi-center radiation oncology practice. Further, we reviewed our compliance in incorporating these directives into our day-to-day clinical practice. Methods: Using the Institute of Medicine guideline for developing treatment pathways, 87 disease specific pathways were developed and incorporated into the electronic medical system in our multi-facility radiation oncology department. Compliance in incorporating treatment pathways was assessed by mining our electronic medical records (EMR) data from January 1, 2010 through February 2012 for patients with breast and prostate cancer. Results: This retrospective analysis of data from EMR found overall compliance to breast and prostate cancer treatment pathways to be 97 and 99%, respectively. The reason for non-compliance proved to be either a failure to complete the prescribed care based on grade II or III toxicity (n = 1 breast, 3 prostate) or patient elected discontinuance of care (n = 1 prostate) or the physician chose a higher dose for positive/close margins (n = 3 breast). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that consensus and evidence-based treatment pathways can be developed and implemented in a multi-center department of radiation oncology. And that for prostate and breast cancer there was a high degree of compliance using these directives. The development and implementation of these pathways serve as a key component of our safety program, most notably in our effort to facilitate consistent decision-making and reducing variation between physicians. PMID:23653892

  11. Traditional chinese medicine in treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Zhang, Hanjie; Ye, Jianping

    2008-06-01

    In management of metabolic syndrome, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicines with a complete theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this article, basic principle of TCM is introduced and 25 traditional Chinese herbs are reviewed for their potential activities in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Three herbs, ginseng, rhizoma coptidis (berberine, the major active compound) and bitter melon, were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Ginseng extracts made from root, rootlet, berry and leaf of Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) and Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), are proved for anti-hyperglycemia, insulin sensitization, islet protection, anti-obesity and anti-oxidation in many model systems. Energy expenditure is enhanced by ginseng through thermogenesis. Ginseng-specific saponins (ginsenosides) are considered as the major bioactive compounds for the metabolic activities of ginseng. Berberine from rhizoma coptidis is an oral hypoglycemic agent. It also has anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia activities. The action mechanism is related to inhibition of mitochondrial function, stimulation of glycolysis, activation of AMPK pathway, suppression of adipogenesis and induction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression. Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is able to reduce blood glucose and lipids in both normal and diabetic animals. It may also protect beta cells, enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce oxidative stress. Although evidence from animals and humans supports the therapeutic activities of ginseng, berberine and bitter melon, multi-center large-scale clinical trials have not been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines.

  12. Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jun; Zhang, Hanjie; Ye, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In management of metabolic syndrome, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicines with a complete theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this article, basic principle of TCM is introduced and 22 traditional Chinese herbs are reviewed for their potential activities in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Three herbs, ginseng, rhizoma coptidis (berberine, the major active compound) and bitter melon, were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Ginseng extracts made from root, rootlet, berry and leaf of Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) and Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), are proved for anti-hyperglycemia, insulin sensitization, islet protection, anti-obesity and anti-oxidation in many model systems. Energy expenditure is enhanced by ginseng through thermogenesis. Ginseng-specific saponins (ginsenosides) are considered as the major bioactive compounds for the metabolic activities of ginseng. Berberine from rhizoma coptidis is an oral hypoglycemic agent. It also has anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia activities. The action mechanism is related to inhibition of mitochondrial function, stimulation of glycolysis, activation of AMPK pathway, suppression of adipogenesis and induction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression. Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is able to reduce blood glucose and lipids in both normal and diabetic animals. It may also protect β cells, enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce oxidative stress. Although evidence from animals and humans consistently supports the therapeutic activities of ginseng, berberine and bitter melon, multi-center large-scale clinical trials have not been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines. PMID:18537696

  13. The evaluation of clinical therapy effects of oral western medicine combined with magnetic pulse acupoint stimulation in treating elderly patients with coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xin; Guo, Li; Jiang, Zheng-Ming; Xu, Ai-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Treat the patients suffered from coronary heart disease with oral western medicine, combining with magnetic pulse acupoint stimulation, and observe the therapeutic effects of such combination therapy method. Methods: 56 old people with coronary heart disease are randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group. Both groups of patients are treated by the routine drugs, in addition, the patients of the treatment group are treated by magnetic pulse therapy additionally. Compare clinical symptoms, blood lipid and blood rheological indexes of the patients in the two groups when they are selected and after 30 days’ treatment. Results: after 30 days’ treatment, it is found that clinical symptoms, blood lipid and blood rheological indexes of the patients in the treatment group are significantly improved compared with those when they are selected and those of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: patients with coronary heart disease, treated by pulsed magnetic therapy and the conventional drug intervention, had relieved synptom, improve blood lipid and heart blood supply function. PMID:26309664

  14. Traditional medicine in the treatment of drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Liu, Yanli; Zhu, Weili; Shi, Jie; Liu, Yu; Ling, Walter; Kosten, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate clinical trials and neurochemical mechanisms of the action of traditional herbal remedies and acupuncture for treating drug addiction. We used computerized literature searches in English and Chinese and examined texts written before these computerized databases existed. We used search terms of treatment and neurobiology of herbal medicines, and acupuncture for drug abuse and dependence. Acupuncture showed evidence for clinical efficacy and relevant neurobiological mechanisms in opiate withdrawal, but it showed poor efficacy for alcohol and nicotine withdrawal or relapse prevention, and no large studies supported its efficacy for cocaine in well-designed clinical trials. Clinical trials were rare for herbal remedies. Radix Puerariae showed the most promising efficacy for alcoholism by acting through daidzin, which inhibits mitocochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and leads to disulfiram-like alcohol reactions. Peyote also has some evidence for alcoholism treatment among Native Americans. Ginseng and Kava lack efficacy data in addictions, and Kava can be hepatotoxic. Thunbergia laurifolia can protect against alcoholic liver toxicity. Withania somnifera and Salvia miltiorrhiza have no efficacy data, but can reduce morphine tolerance and alcohol intake, respectively, in animal models. Traditional herbal treatments can compliment pharmacotherapies for drug withdrawal and possibly relapse prevention with less expense and perhaps fewer side effects with notable exceptions. Both acupuncture and herbal treatments need testing as adjuncts to reduce doses and durations of standard pharmacotherapies.

  15. Local indigenous knowledge about some medicinal plants in and around Kakamega forest in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Nickson Erick

    2012-01-01

    Kakamega forest is Kenya’s only rainforest and is distinguishably rich in biodiversity but threatened by agricultural encroachment and other forms of human activity. It is also one of Kenya’s Important Bird Areas and a significant source of natural products to neighboring rural communities, such as medicinal plants, food, wood and other fibers. By using structured questionnaires for direct interviews, local indigenous knowledge was tapped through involvement of a focal group of elderly key informants in three blocks of the forest. Forty key species of medicinal plants used by local people were identified and recorded. Fifty-five percent of these were shrubs, thirty-two percent trees, seven-and-a-half percent lower plants such as herbs or forbs while five percent were climbers. About seventy percent of the medicinal plants occurred inside the forest itself and thirty percent around the edge and the immediate surroundings outside the forest. Thirty-eight (95%) of the plants were indigenous to Kenya and two (5%) exotic. Such extensive indigenous knowledge of the medicinal uses of the plants, including their distribution trends in the forest, may be tapped for decision support in rural health service planning, policy formulation for conserving the forest, tracking and mitigation of climate change impacts. PMID:24701341

  16. A study on use of animals as traditional medicine by Sukuma Tribe of Busega District in North-western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Vats, Rajeev; Thomas, Simion

    2015-05-07

    protected species were also used as important medicinal resources. We also found that cough, tuberculosis, asthma and other respiratory diseases are the utmost cited disease, as such, a number of traditional medicines are available for the treatment. The present work indicates that 42 animal species were being used to treat nearly 30 different ailments and results show that ethnozoological practices are an important alternative medicinal practice by the Sukuma tribe living in Bungesa district. The present study also indicates the very rich ethnozoological knowledge of these people in relation to traditional medicine. So there is a critical need to properly document to keep a record of the ethnozoological information. We hope that the information generated in this study will be useful for further research in the field of ethnozoology, ethnopharmacology and conservation approach.

  17. Integrating spiritual and Western treatment modalities in a Native American substance user center: provider perspectives.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Jacquelene F; Momper, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    Few studies examine how traditional Native American and Western healing practices are being integrated in Native American substance user treatment centers. Data are presented from a 2008 study of providers of integrated substance user treatment for Native Americans at an urban Western US center. Nineteen semistructured interviews were conducted to examine 10 providers' views of the integration of traditional and Western healing and the impact on recovery for clients. We used a grounded theory approach to data analysis with manual and NVivo codes and themes developed. Limitations and implications for practice are discussed.

  18. Integrating Spiritual and Western Treatment Modalities in a Native American Substance User Center: Provider Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Jacquelene F.; Momper, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies examine how traditional Native American and Western healing practices are being integrated in Native American substance user treatment centers. Data are presented from a 2008 study of providers of integrated substance user treatment for Native Americans at an urban Western US center. Nineteen semi-structured interviews were conducted to examine 10 providers’ views of the integration of traditional and Western healing and the impact on recovery for clients. We used a grounded theory approach to data analysis with manual and NVivo codes and themes developed. Limitations and implications for practice are discussed. PMID:21810077

  19. Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Vijayshree; Shinto, Lynne; Bourdette, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disabling disease of the CNS that affects people during early adulthood. Despite several US FDA-approved medications, the treatment options in MS are limited. Many people with MS explore complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments to help control their MS and treat their symptoms. Surveys suggest that up to 70% of people with MS have tried one or more CAM treatment for their MS. People with MS using CAM generally report deriving some benefit from the therapies. The CAM therapies most frequently used include diet, omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants. There is very limited research evaluating the safety and effectiveness of CAM in MS. The most promising among CAM therapies that warrant further investigation are a low-fat diet, omega-3 fatty acids, lipoic acid and vitamin D supplementation as potential anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agents in both relapsing and progressive forms of MS. There is very limited research evaluating the safety and effectiveness of CAM in MS. However, in recent years, the NIH and the National MS Society have been actively supporting the research in this very important area. PMID:20441425

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson disease: molecules to medicine.

    PubMed

    Savitt, Joseph M; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M

    2006-07-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a relatively common disorder of the nervous system that afflicts patients later in life with tremor, slowness of movement, gait instability, and rigidity. Treatment of these cardinal features of the disease is a success story of modern science and medicine, as a great deal of disability can be alleviated through the pharmacological correction of brain dopamine deficiency. Unfortunately these therapies only provide temporary, though significant, relief from early symptoms and do not halt disease progression. In addition, pathological changes outside of the motor system leading to cognitive, autonomic, and psychiatric symptoms are not sufficiently treated by current therapies. Much as the discovery of dopamine deficiency led to powerful treatments for motor symptoms, recent discoveries concerning the role of specific genes in PD pathology will lead to the next revolution in disease therapy. Understanding why and how susceptible cells in motor and nonmotor regions of the brain die in PD is the first step toward preventing this cell death and curing or slowing the disease. In this review we discuss recent discoveries in the fields of diagnosis and treatment of PD and focus on how a better understanding of disease mechanisms gained through the study of monogenetic forms of PD has provided novel therapeutic targets.

  1. A comparison between conflict of interest in Western and Islamic literatures in the realm of medicine

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Mojtaba; Aramesh, Kiarash; Larijani, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    In Western literatures, “conflict” is a general term that refers to discord between two or more entities. In Islamic jurisprudence, however, in addition to the term “conflict” (Taāruz), there is another term which is called tazāhum. The two terms, however, have different definitions. Conflict between two concepts, for instance, indicates that one is right and the other is wrong, while tazāhum does not necessarily have to be between right and wrong, and may appear between two equally right concepts. Moreover, conflict exists on a legislative level, while tazāhum is a matter of obedience and adherence, meaning that in practice, both sides cannot continue to coexist. Conflict of interest is a known term in Western literatures, and according to D.F. Thompson, it refers to a situation where professional judgment regarding a primary interest is improperly and unjustifiably influenced by a secondary interest. Taking into account Thompson’s definition and the distinction between “conflict” (Taāruz) and “tazāhum”, the English term “conflict of interest” translates to “tazāhum of interest” in Islamic jurisprudence as it refers to a person’s action without reflecting right or wrong, and simply concerns priority of one interest over another. The resolution to tazāhum in Islamic jurisprudence lies in two principles: the principle of significance and the principle of choice. For instance, in case of conflict (the Western term) or tazāhum (the Islamic term) between the interests of patient and physician, the patient’s interest should be the main concern based on the principle of significance. Although Western literatures propose methods such as disclosure or prohibition in order to resolve conflict of interest, the foundation for these solutions seems to have been the principle of significance. PMID:25512828

  2. What is needed for phage therapy to become a reality in Western medicine?

    PubMed

    Brüssow, Harald

    2012-12-20

    The current status of phage therapy approaches is reviewed and possible hurdles to a practical medical application of bacteriophages in Western countries are identified as discussed at a recent EMBO meeting on "Viruses of Microbes" in Brussels. In view of the growing antibiotic resistance crisis, a coordinated effort by the public health sector is needed to evaluate the potential of phage therapy as an adjunct to antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: among Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices.

    PubMed

    Fornaro, Michele; Clementi, Nicoletta; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2009-01-01

    While many ancient cultures contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and psychiatry origins, Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients could express toward medicine and toward what today referred as "psychopathology". Myths and religious references were used to explain what elsewhere impossible to understand or easily communicated. Most of ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients could have towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common yet today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths, should represent a valuable knowledge for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists, and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. The paper explores many human aspects and feelings toward doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths, focusing on the perception of mental illness.

  4. Is old medicine new medicine?

    PubMed

    Montaocean, K

    1991-07-01

    By the year 2000, over 90% of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are expected in Third World countries where Western medicine is often unavailable, unaffordable, or culturally unacceptable. Thus, there is a need for greater attention to the potential role of traditional medicine and healers in the prevention and treatment of AIDS. A US-based nongovernmental organization, Green Cross Inc, is examining cross-cultural healing traditions and seeking areas of convergence between scientific bio-medicine and indigenous traditional healing systems. At a street clinic operated by Green Cross in Washington DC, both Western medicine and traditional Chinese practices such as acupuncture, herbal remedies, and meditation are offered to AIDS patients at those at risk of infection. Although the individualized nature of Chinese medicine makes it difficult to evaluate through use of Western research methods, there is anecdotal evidence that it reduces the stress, anxiety, depression, and fatigue that accompany AIDS. Health care systems in all parts of the world could benefit from the concept that illness cannot be treated in isolation from individuals and communities.

  5. Tracking down the first recorded sickle cell patient in Western medicine.

    PubMed

    Savitt, Todd L

    2010-11-01

    In 1910, the first article describing a case of sickle cell anemia appeared in Archives of Internal Medicine. In 1987, a historian of African American medical history, Todd Savitt, took advantage of an opportunity to research the circumstances behind the publication of that first article and identify the people (patient and physicians) involved. Savitt recounts his "adventures" in tracing the story to its origins in the West Indies.

  6. Traditional Chinese patent medicines for cancer treatment in China: a nationwide medical insurance data analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Lu, Peng; Shi, Luwen; Li, Shao

    2015-11-10

    Based on the nationwide survey into inpatients' utilization of the health service covered by China's urban basic medical insurance from 2008 to 2010, we analyzed the use rate, cancer profile and combined use of anticancer Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) on 51,382 insured cancer patients by using statistical, bi-clustering and network methods. We found that 42.4% of 51,382 cancer patients used 33 anticancer CPMs, and 51.7% used 71 anticancer Western medicines (WMs). The CPMs were most often used in lung (52%) and nasopharynx (52%) cancer patients, and least in bladder cancer (21%) and leukemia of unspecified cell type (21%) patients. The cost per patient for all 33 anticancer CPMs was 2069RMB, lower than that of the WMs (3458RMB). The cancer profile of commonly used CPMs and WMs for the top 17 cancers (>500 sampled patients) were provided, indicating anticancer CPMs had a broad spectrum of cancers and lacked selectivity in cancer treatment (CPM mean CV = 49%; WM mean CV = 152%). Moreover, 24.8% of the cancer patients used both CPMs and WMs, and CPM-WM combined use networks were constructed for four major cancers. This first nationwide analysis revealed the use characteristics and herb-drug combined use patterns of insurance covered anticancer CPMs in China. The study offers valuable information to guide future studies of the precision, safety and standard use of CPMs.

  7. Traditional Chinese patent medicines for cancer treatment in China: a nationwide medical insurance data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Lu, Peng; Shi, Luwen; Li, Shao

    2015-01-01

    Based on the nationwide survey into inpatients' utilization of the health service covered by China's urban basic medical insurance from 2008 to 2010, we analyzed the use rate, cancer profile and combined use of anticancer Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) on 51,382 insured cancer patients by using statistical, bi-clustering and network methods. We found that 42.4% of 51,382 cancer patients used 33 anticancer CPMs, and 51.7% used 71 anticancer Western medicines (WMs). The CPMs were most often used in lung (52%) and nasopharynx (52%) cancer patients, and least in bladder cancer (21%) and leukemia of unspecified cell type (21%) patients. The cost per patient for all 33 anticancer CPMs was 2069RMB, lower than that of the WMs (3458RMB). The cancer profile of commonly used CPMs and WMs for the top 17 cancers (>500 sampled patients) were provided, indicating anticancer CPMs had a broad spectrum of cancers and lacked selectivity in cancer treatment (CPM mean CV = 49%; WM mean CV = 152%). Moreover, 24.8% of the cancer patients used both CPMs and WMs, and CPM-WM combined use networks were constructed for four major cancers. This first nationwide analysis revealed the use characteristics and herb-drug combined use patterns of insurance covered anticancer CPMs in China. The study offers valuable information to guide future studies of the precision, safety and standard use of CPMs. PMID:26513017

  8. Liuwei Dihuang Pills Enhance the Effect of Western Medicine in Treating Diabetic Nephropathy: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lan; Wang, Qiuhong; Yi, Yongxin; Wang, Shihan; Qiu, Zonglin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effectiveness and adverse effects of adding Liuwei Dihuang Pills (LDP) to Western medicine for treating diabetic nephropathy. Methods. Studies were retrieved from seven electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), and Wanfang Data until November 2015. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Meta-analysis was performed on the overall therapeutic efficacy of hyperglycemia and renal functions, and the study also analyzed adverse events. Results. A total of 1,275 patients from 18 studies were included. The methodological quality of these included trials was generally low. We found that adding LDP can lower patients' FBG (MD: −0.36 [−0.46, −0.25], P < 0.00001), PBG (MD: −1.10 [−1.35, −0.85], P < 0.00001), and HbA1c (MD: −0.14 [−0.49, 0.21], P = 0.43). There were also improvements in lowering patients' BUN (MD: −0.67 [−0.89, −0.45], P < 0.00001), SCr (MD: −0.96 [−1.53, −0.39], P < 0.00001), 24 h UTP (SMD: −1.26 [−2.38, −0.15], P < 0.00001), UAER (MD: −26.18 [−27.51, −24.85], P < 0.00001), and UmAlb (SMD: −1.72 [−2.67, −0.77], P < 0.00001). Conclusion. There is encouraging evidence that adding LDP to Western medicine might improve treatment outcomes of diabetic nephropathy, including hyperglycemia and renal functions. However, the evidence remains weak. More rigorous high-quality trials are warranted to substantiate or refute the results. PMID:26997962

  9. Polydrug abuse among opioid maintenance treatment patients is related to inadequate dose of maintenance treatment medicine.

    PubMed

    Heikman, Pertti Kalevi; Muhonen, Leea Hellevi; Ojanperä, Ilkka Antero

    2017-07-06

    Polydrug abuse is a known problem among opioid-dependent patients receiving opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). However, improved laboratory diagnostics is required to reveal polydrug abuse in its current scope. Furthermore, there are few studies focusing on the relationship between polydrug abuse and adequacy of the dose of OMT medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the polydrug abuse among opioid-dependent patients receiving OMT with inadequate (Group IA) and adequate (Group A) doses of OMT medicine as experienced by the patients. Craving for opioids and withdrawal symptoms were evaluated as indicators of the adequacy rating. This is a retrospective register-based study of 60 OMT patients on either methadone or sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone medication, whose polydrug abuse was studied from urine samples by means of a comprehensive high-resolution mass spectrometry method. Inadequate doses of the OMT medicines were associated with higher subjective withdrawal scores and craving for opioids. Six groups of abused substances (benzodiazepines, amphetamines, opioids, cannabis, new psychoactive substances, and non-prescribed psychotropic medicines) were found among OMT patients. Group IA patients showed significantly more abuse of benzodiazepines and amphetamines than the Group A patients. All the new psychoactive substances and most of the non-prescribed psychotropic medicines were detected from the Group IA patients. There was no difference in the doses of the OMT medicine between Groups IA and A patients. Polydrug abuse, detected by definitive laboratory methods, was widespread and more common among Group IA than Group A patients, emphasizing the requirement for individual OMT medicine dose adjustment.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of canine uropathogens at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Teaching Hospital, 2002-2007.

    PubMed

    Ball, Katherine R; Rubin, Joseph E; Chirino-Trejo, M; Dowling, Patricia M

    2008-10-01

    Between January 2002 and June 2007, uropathogens were isolated from 473 of 1557 canine urine samples submitted to Prairie Diagnostic Services from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Culture and susceptibility results were analyzed, retrospectively, to estimate the prevalence of common bacterial uropathogens in dogs with urinary tract infections and to identify changes in antimicrobial resistance. The most common pathogens identified were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus intermedius, Enterococcus spp., and Proteus spp. Antimicrobial resistance increased during the study period, particularly among recurrent E. coli isolates. Using the formula to help select rational antimicrobial therapy (FRAT), bacterial isolates were most likely to be susceptible to gentamicin, fluoroquinolones, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and groups 4 and 5 (third generation) cephalosporins.

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal morphology and dark septate fungal associations in medicinal and aromatic plants of Western Ghats, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, T; Senthilkumar, M; Rajangam, M; Udaiyan, K

    2006-12-01

    We investigated roots of 107 medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) in the Western Ghats region of Southern India for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophyte (DSE) associations. Of the 107 MAPs belonging to 98 genera in 52 families examined, 79 were AM and 38 harbored a DSE association. Typical Arum- and Paris-type mycorrhizas are first reported in the presumed nonmycorrhizal family Amaranthaceae. Similarly, DSE associations are recorded for the first time in nine plant families and 37 plant species. Thirty MAPs had both AM and DSE associations. The number of MAPs having Arum-type mycorrhiza was greater than those having Paris-type. This was more prominent among herbaceous plants than in trees where the Paris-type was predominant. Similarly, the Arum-type was more prevalent in annuals than in perennials. DSE associations were more frequent in herbs and perennials compared to other MAPs.

  12. Alternative ponderosa pine restoration treatments in the western United States

    Treesearch

    James McIver; Phillip Weatherspoon; Carl Edminster

    2001-01-01

    Compared to presettlement times, many ponderosa pine forests of the United States are now more dense and have greater quantities of fuels. Widespread treatments are needed in these forests to restore ecological integrity and to reduce the risk of uncharacteristically severe fires. Among possible restorative treatments, however, the appropriate balance among cuttings,...

  13. Phytochemicals from traditional medicinal plants used in the treatment of diarrhoea: modes of action and effects on intestinal function.

    PubMed

    Palombo, Enzo A

    2006-09-01

    Medicinal plants have been used as traditional treatments for numerous human diseases for thousands of years. Diarrhoeal diseases continue to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world and there is renewed interest in the discovery of novel compounds that can be used to fight these diseases. Numerous studies have validated the traditional use of antidiarrhoeal medicinal plants by investigating the biological activity of extracts of such plants, which have antispasmodic effects, delay intestinal transit, suppress gut motility, stimulate water adsorption or reduce electrolyte secretion. Of the numerous phytochemicals (such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and terpenes) present in active extracts, tannins and flavonoids are thought to be responsible for antidiarrhoeal activity by increasing colonic water and electrolyte reabsorption. Others act by inhibiting intestinal motility. As some of the active ingredients are potentially toxic, there is a need to evaluate the safety of plant preparations. A few clinical trials have evaluated the safety and tolerability of traditional and herbal medicine preparations used to treat diarrhoea and generally indicate that minimal side effects are observed. However, with the increased popularity of plant-derived and herbal medicines in Western society, the benefits and potential dangers of these medicines must be considered.

  14. Genetic structuring of remnant forest patches in an endangered medicinal tree in North-western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Habitat loss and fragmentation may have detrimental impacts on genetic diversity, population structure and overall viability of tropical trees. The response of tropical trees to fragmentation processes may, however, be species, cohort or region-specific. Here we test the hypothesis that forest fragmentation is associated with lower genetic variability and higher genetic differentiation in adult and seedling populations of Prunus africana in North-western Ethiopia. This is a floristically impoverished region where all but a few remnant forest patches have been destroyed, mostly by anthropogenic means. Results Genetic diversity (based on allelic richness) was significantly greater in large and less-isolated forest patches as well as in adults than seedlings. Nearly all pairwise FST comparisons showed evidence for significant population genetic differentiation. Mean FST values were significantly greater in seedlings than adults, even after correction for within population diversity, but varied little with patch size or isolation. Conclusions Analysis of long-lived adult trees suggests the formerly contiguous forest in North-western Ethiopia probably exhibited strong spatial patterns of genetic structure. This means that protecting a range of patches including small and isolated ones is needed to conserve the extant genetic resources of the valuable forests in this region. However, given the high livelihood dependence of the local community and the high impact of foreign investors on forest resources of this region, in situ conservation efforts alone may not be helpful. Therefore, these efforts should be supported with ex situ gene conservation actions. PMID:24602239

  15. A meta-analysis of neuroprotective effect for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Na, Lu; Bin, Li; Botao, Zheng; Shuaijie, Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of surgery combined with traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)in the treatment of glaucoma by meta-analysis based on clinical controlled trial. Methods All the prospective randomized controlled trialsof surgery combined with TCM in the treatment of glaucoma were searched in the databases of Medline (1960-2015.1), CENTRAL (the Cochrane central register of controlled trials 1989-2015.1, EMBASE (1980∼2015.1) and CNKI (1979-2015.1). Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the included studies, extracted the relevant data and performed a cross-check. The pooled relative risk (RR) or standard mean difference (SMD) of surgery combined with TCM versus western medicine or surgery alone were calculated as the effect size by meta-analysis method. All the data was analyzed by stata11.0 software (http://www.stata.com; Stata Corporation, College Station, TX). Results Finally, eleven clinical controlledtrails with 843 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results indicated that the surgery combined with TCM treatment procedure can significant improve the vision recovery rate compared to control group (RR=1.22, 95% CI:1.06∼1.40, P=0.005); And after treatment, the visual field in combined group was significantly improved compared to control group (SMD=0.26∼95% CI:0.09∼0.43, P=0.003). Conclusion Surgery combined with TCM can improve the vision recovery rate and the visual fieldin the treatment of glaucoma compared to surgery or western medicine alone.

  16. A meta-analysis of neuroprotective effect for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Chao, Li; Na, Lu; Bin, Li; Botao, Zheng; Shuaijie, Li

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of surgery combined with traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)in the treatment of glaucoma by meta-analysis based on clinical controlled trial. All the prospective randomized controlled trialsof surgery combined with TCM in the treatment of glaucoma were searched in the databases of Medline (1960-2015.1), CENTRAL (the Cochrane central register of controlled trials 1989-2015.1, EMBASE (1980∼2015.1) and CNKI (1979-2015.1). Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the included studies, extracted the relevant data and performed a cross-check. The pooled relative risk (RR) or standard mean difference (SMD) of surgery combined with TCM versus western medicine or surgery alone were calculated as the effect size by meta-analysis method. All the data was analyzed by stata11.0 software (http://www.stata.com; Stata Corporation, College Station, TX). Finally, eleven clinical controlledtrails with 843 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results indicated that the surgery combined with TCM treatment procedure can significant improve the vision recovery rate compared to control group (RR=1.22, 95% CI:1.06∼1.40, P=0.005); And after treatment, the visual field in combined group was significantly improved compared to control group (SMD=0.26∼95% CI:0.09∼0.43, P=0.003). Surgery combined with TCM can improve the vision recovery rate and the visual fieldin the treatment of glaucoma compared to surgery or western medicine alone.

  17. Description of an internal medicine outreach consultant appointment in Western KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2007 to mid-2014.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Robert Ian; Gaede, Bernhard; Aldous, Colleen

    2015-04-06

    . This study is a description of an Internal Medicine outreach appointment in western KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) from 2007 to mid-2014, facilitated by the transport services of the Red Cross Air Mercy Service (AMS) and funded by the KZN-Department of Health (KZN-DOH). The hospital visits represented 'multifaceted' as opposed to 'simple' outreach. The AMS database of outreach visits was analysed according to frequencies of visits, number of patient contacts and number of contacts with medical personnel. A brief history and nature of the outreach visits is described. From January 2007 to end-June 2014, the outreach physician undertook 481 hospital visits and visited seven hospitals (out of 21) more than 40 times each. A total of 3340 medical personnel contacts were made, and 5239 patients were seen. Other Internal Medicine specialists undertook an additional 199 visits, during which they made 1157 personnel contacts and saw 2020 patients. The combined total was thus 680 visits undertaken, 4497 medical personnel contacts made, and 7259 patients seen. This study showed that the appointment of a dedicated outreach consultant for a particular discipline together with a reliable air and road transport system was successful in providing access to specialist care in rural settings. This strategy could be recommended throughout South Africa. Further studies would be required in order to assess outcomes.

  18. Safety of herbal medicine in treatment of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Najafian, Jamshid; Abdar-Esfahani, Morteza; Arab-Momeni, Morteza; Akhavan-Tabib, Afshan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity is a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. There are many unconventional therapies, including herbal medicine, to treat this condition. Some people believe that herbal medicines are safe. This case and review is about adverse complication of treating obesity with some herbal medicine. CASE REPORT A 19 year old male with sever obesity (120 kg) used green tea (15 cups of green tea per day) and an intensive dietary regimen to lose weight. He lost 30 kg after 2 months. At that time, one day after usual exercise he suddenly lost consciousness due to left ventricular fibrillation. CONCLUSION Use of herbal medicine for weight reduction is not always safe. Moreover, for some herbal medicine the risk is sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use that medicine. PMID:24963315

  19. Attitudes, skill and use of evidence-based practice among US Western herbal medicine providers: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Snow, James E; Leach, Matthew J; Clare, Bevin A

    2017-03-01

    Background Evidence-based practice (EBP) has been the focus of increasing attention in the teaching and delivery of both complementary and conventional healthcare. Western herbal medicine (WHM) is a system of complementary healthcare rooted in tradition. How WHM practitioners perceive, are prepared for, and use EBP, has to date been largely ignored. We therefore examined the use, opinion, skills, and training in EBP, and barriers and facilitators of EBP uptake, among herbal practitioners in the United States (US). Methods The study utilized a cross-sectional, descriptive survey design. A sample of US clinical herbalists was invited to complete a validated online questionnaire, the Evidence-Based practice Attitude and utilization SurvEy (EBASE). Results Seventy-four US herbal practitioners completed the survey (response rate=35 %). Participants demonstrated a generally positive attitude toward EBP (median attitude subscore 31 [possible range=8-40]), a moderate to high level of self-assessed skill in EBP (median skill subscore 46 [13-65]) and a moderate level of EBP uptake (median use subscore 12 [0-24]). Apart from a lack of clinical evidence in herbal medicine, there were few perceived barriers to EBP uptake among herbal practitioners. Access to the Internet, online databases and full-text journal articles were considered most useful in facilitating the uptake of EBP in WHM practice. Conclusions Respondents' attitudes, skill level, and uptake of EBP were generally consistent with other complementary and alternative medicine providers. Educational initiatives, including those focused on the appraisal and application of evidence, may help to optimize the use of EBP among WHM practitioners.

  20. [Exploration on syndrome differentiation standardization of Chinese medicine diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Yu, Wen-ya; Lu, Ai-ping; Han, Xue-jie

    2011-10-01

    The syndrome differentiation standardization of Chinese medicine and treatment technologies is the premise of Chinese medicine's entry into the world. But its individualized diagnosis and therapeutic features are contrary to the specification of standardization. The achievement and existent problems in syndrome differentiation standardization of Chinese medicine and treatment technologies were summarized in this paper. The thinking ways and recommendations to solve were proposed as well.

  1. A technique for identifying treatment opportunities from western Oregon and Washington forest survey plots.

    Treesearch

    Colin D. MacLean

    1980-01-01

    Identification of opportunities for silvicultural treatment from inventory data is an important objective of Renewable Resources Evaluation in the Pacific Northwest. This paper describes the field plot design and data analysis procedure used by what used to be known as Forest Survey to determine the treatment opportunity associated with each inventory plot in western...

  2. The Protestant medical missions to China: the introduction of Western medicine with vaccination.

    PubMed

    Fu, Louis

    2013-05-01

    Modern medicine in China began with the arrival of Anglo-American Protestant missionaries in the early 19th century. Conditions were vastly different from the times of the Jesuits in Peking during the 17th and 18th centuries, when the priests enjoyed the endorsement of the Court and high officials. Faced with hostile and xenophobic officialdom and populace, surgeons of the British East India Company in collaboration with missionaries took the initiative. In 1805 Dr Alexander Pearson (1780-1874) introduced smallpox vaccination in Macao and Canton. Reverend Dr Robert Morrison (1782-1834) of the London Missionary Society with another East India Company Surgeon, Dr John Livingstone (1829) opened a dispensary for the poor in Macao in 1820. These pioneers paved the way for later Anglo-American medical missionaries who revolutionized medical practice in China.

  3. Psychopharmacological Treatment Options for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health: The WHO Essential Medicines Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutcher, Stan; Murphy, Andrea; Gardner, David

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) and suggests modification for appropriate psychopharmacological treatment of child- and adolescent-onset mental disorders. The EML enlists few of the psychotropic medicines that are useful for the treatment of young people thereby limiting the…

  4. Psychopharmacological Treatment Options for Global Child and Adolescent Mental Health: The WHO Essential Medicines Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutcher, Stan; Murphy, Andrea; Gardner, David

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) and suggests modification for appropriate psychopharmacological treatment of child- and adolescent-onset mental disorders. The EML enlists few of the psychotropic medicines that are useful for the treatment of young people thereby limiting the…

  5. Evolutionary medicine: A meaningful connection between omics, disease, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Asab, Mones; Chaouchi, Mohamed; Amri, Hakima

    2008-01-01

    The evolutionary nature of diseases requires that their omics be analyzed by evolution-compatible analytical tools such as parsimony phylogenetics in order to reveal common mutations and pathways’ modifications. Since the heterogeneity of the omics data renders some analytical tools such as phenetic clustering and Bayesian likelihood inefficient, a parsimony phylogenetic paradigm seems to connect between the omics and medicine. It offers a seamless, dynamic, predictive, and multidimensional analytical approach that reveals biological classes, and disease ontogenies; its analysis can be translated into practice for early detection, diagnosis, biomarker identification, prognosis, and assessment of treatment. Parsimony phylogenetics identifies classes of specimens, the clades, by their shared derived expressions, the synapomorphies, which are also the potential biomarkers for the classes that they delimit. Synapomorphies are determined through polarity assessment (ancestral vs. derived) of m/z or gene-expression values and parsimony analysis; this process also permits intra and interplatform comparability and produces higher concordance between platforms. Furthermore, major trends in the data are also interpreted from the graphical representation of the data as a tree diagram termed cladogram; it depicts directionality of change, identifies the transitional patterns from healthy to diseased, and can be developed into a predictive tool for early detection. PMID:18458745

  6. Integrative medicine as adjunct therapy in the treatment of atopic dermatitis--the role of traditional Chinese medicine, dietary supplements, and other modalities.

    PubMed

    DiNicola, C; Kekevian, A; Chang, C

    2013-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is becoming increasingly prevalent in the pediatric population, with rates reportedly as high as 18-25 %. Westernized medicine has traditionally used a combination of emollients, antihistamines, corticosteroids, and immunomodulating agents to combat this often frustrating disease. Of late, integrative medicine has become the subject of more research as concerns grow regarding prolonged use of corticosteroids and their side effects in pediatric patients. Probiotics have been extensively studied to define their role in the treatment and prevention of AD in children. Unfortunately, results are varying showing significant improvement in some patients but not all. With regard to prevention, studies show that the use of probiotics during pregnancy does decrease the incidence of AD in children. Prebiotics and synbiotics are also a conceivable option for prevention of AD. A number of studies on Chinese herbal medicine have been performed, with a collective result of symptom improvement and decreased levels of inflammatory cytokines. However, there were reports of asymptomatic transaminitis in a few patients that warrant further testing. While the herbs tested in more recent randomized clinical trials were free from corticosteroids, a previous study showed high levels of dexamethasone in unlabeled herbal eczema creams. Vitamins and minerals have also been suggested as an alternative treatment of AD. Studies however have not yet demonstrated improvement of AD with vitamin or mineral supplementation. Topical vitamin B(12) is the exception to this; however, no topical vitamin B(12) preparation is available for use. Finally, relaxation techniques are also being investigated as adjunctive methods of treatment, but well-designed scientific studies are lacking.

  7. Comparison between Complementary Dietary Treatment of Alzheimer Disease in Iranian Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine

    PubMed Central

    AHMADIAN-ATTARI, Mohammad Mahdi; MOSADDEGH, Mahmoud; KAZEMNEJAD, Anooshiravan; NOORBALA, Ahmad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Dietary notifications have been introduced recently for Alzheimer Disease (AD). In Iranian old medical manuscripts, there are some nutritional recommendations related to Nesyan (AD equivalent). The aim of this article was to compare dietary recommendations of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) with novel medical outcomes. Methods 1) Searching for dietary recommendations and abstinences described in ITM credible manuscripts; 2) Extracting fatty components of ITM diet according to the database of the Department of Agriculture of the USA; 3) Statistical analysis of fatty elements of traditionally recommended foods via Mann-Whitney Test in comparison with elements of the abstinent ones; 4) Searching for AD dietary recommendations and abstinences which currently published in medical journals; 5) Comparing traditional and new dietary suggestions with each other. Results 1) Traditionally recommended foods are fattier than abstinent ones (P<0.001). There are meaningful differences between unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) (P<0.001), saturated fatty acids (P<0.001), and cholesterol (P<0.05) of recommended foods and abstinent ones. 2) Traditionally recommended diet is also fattier than the abstinent diet (4.5 times); UFAs of the recommended diet is 11 times more than that of the abstinent one; it is the same story for cholesterol (1.4 times); 3) Recent studies show that diets with high amounts of UFAs have positive effects on AD; a considerable number of papers emphasizes on probable positive role of cholesterol on AD; 4) Traditional recommended diet is in agreement with recent studies. Conclusion ITM recommended diet which is full of unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol can be utilized for complementary treatment of AD. PMID:26060643

  8. Comparison between Complementary Dietary Treatment of Alzheimer Disease in Iranian Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian-Attari, Mohammad Mahdi; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Kazemnejad, Anooshiravan; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali

    2013-12-01

    Dietary notifications have been introduced recently for Alzheimer Disease (AD). In Iranian old medical manuscripts, there are some nutritional recommendations related to Nesyan (AD equivalent). The aim of this article was to compare dietary recommendations of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) with novel medical outcomes. 1) Searching for dietary recommendations and abstinences described in ITM credible manuscripts; 2) Extracting fatty components of ITM diet according to the database of the Department of Agriculture of the USA; 3) Statistical analysis of fatty elements of traditionally recommended foods via Mann-Whitney Test in comparison with elements of the abstinent ones; 4) Searching for AD dietary recommendations and abstinences which currently published in medical journals; 5) Comparing traditional and new dietary suggestions with each other. 1) Traditionally recommended foods are fattier than abstinent ones (P<0.001). There are meaningful differences between unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) (P<0.001), saturated fatty acids (P<0.001), and cholesterol (P<0.05) of recommended foods and abstinent ones. 2) Traditionally recommended diet is also fattier than the abstinent diet (4.5 times); UFAs of the recommended diet is 11 times more than that of the abstinent one; it is the same story for cholesterol (1.4 times); 3) Recent studies show that diets with high amounts of UFAs have positive effects on AD; a considerable number of papers emphasizes on probable positive role of cholesterol on AD; 4) Traditional recommended diet is in agreement with recent studies. ITM recommended diet which is full of unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol can be utilized for complementary treatment of AD.

  9. Bioprospecting Endophytic Fungi and Their Metabolites from Medicinal Tree Aegle marmelos in Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Mani, Vellingiri Manon; Soundari, Arockiamjeyasundar Parimala Gnana; Karthiyaini, Damodharan; Preeth, Kathirvel

    2015-09-01

    The increasing emergence of lead drugs for the resistance produced by the pathogenic strains and arrival of new diseases have initiated the need for searching novel metabolites with best anticancer and antimicrobial properties than the existing one. With this view, the investigation was conducted for the isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of potential endophytic fungi of Aegle marmelos, a medicinal tree used for more than three decades, for curing various disorders. A total of 169 endophytic fungal strains obtained from sampling and among those 67 were pigmented strains. Upon antagonistic screening, five endophytic fungal strains exhibited antagonistic potentiality by inhibiting the pathogens. These five potent strains were characterized at molecular level by sequencing the amplified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and ITS 4 regions of rDNA and they were grouped under order Pleosporales, Eurotiales, and Capnodiales. The metabolites from the respective strains were produced in fungal culturing media and extracted using polar solvents. Further, the extracts of five endophytes manifested antimicrobial activity against tested clinical pathogens and Alternaria alternata (FC39BY), Al. citrimacularis (FC8ABr), and Curvularia australiensis (FC2AP) exhibited significant antimicrobial profile against 9 of 12 tested pathogens, showing broad spectrum activity. The antioxidant levels of all the five endophytes revealed the highest activity at least concentrations, and major activity was unveiled by the members of order Pleosporales FC2AP and FC8ABr. This research explains the value of endophytic fungal extracts and its significance of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.

  10. Bioprospecting Endophytic Fungi and Their Metabolites from Medicinal Tree Aegle marmelos in Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Soundari, Arockiamjeyasundar Parimala Gnana; Karthiyaini, Damodharan; Preeth, Kathirvel

    2015-01-01

    The increasing emergence of lead drugs for the resistance produced by the pathogenic strains and arrival of new diseases have initiated the need for searching novel metabolites with best anticancer and antimicrobial properties than the existing one. With this view, the investigation was conducted for the isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of potential endophytic fungi of Aegle marmelos, a medicinal tree used for more than three decades, for curing various disorders. A total of 169 endophytic fungal strains obtained from sampling and among those 67 were pigmented strains. Upon antagonistic screening, five endophytic fungal strains exhibited antagonistic potentiality by inhibiting the pathogens. These five potent strains were characterized at molecular level by sequencing the amplified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and ITS 4 regions of rDNA and they were grouped under order Pleosporales, Eurotiales, and Capnodiales. The metabolites from the respective strains were produced in fungal culturing media and extracted using polar solvents. Further, the extracts of five endophytes manifested antimicrobial activity against tested clinical pathogens and Alternaria alternata (FC39BY), Al. citrimacularis (FC8ABr), and Curvularia australiensis (FC2AP) exhibited significant antimicrobial profile against 9 of 12 tested pathogens, showing broad spectrum activity. The antioxidant levels of all the five endophytes revealed the highest activity at least concentrations, and major activity was unveiled by the members of order Pleosporales FC2AP and FC8ABr. This research explains the value of endophytic fungal extracts and its significance of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. PMID:26539047

  11. Maya Healers' Conception of Cancer as Revealed by Comparison With Western Medicine.

    PubMed

    Berger-González, Mónica; Gharzouzi, Eduardo; Renner, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Cultural diversity in clinical encounters is common, yet mental constructions regarding cancer that influence expected treatment are poorly studied for indigenous people. We explored Maya healers' conceptions, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer to remedy this problem. In-depth structured interviews with 67 traditional Maya healers in Guatemala across Kaqchikel, Kiche', Mam, Mopan, and Q'eqchi' ethnolinguistic groups were conducted by using a transdisciplinary format. Analysis of qualitative data in categorized matrixes allowed for statistical examination of tendencies and the results were complemented by validation workshops with Maya representatives. Maya classification of diseases has broad categories of malignant diseases including cancer. Specific Maya terms might equate to particular cancer types, which would open new avenues for research. Notions of malignancy and metastasis were expressed by healers as core characteristics of cancer, a disease believed to be both material and spiritual. Resolution of and/or treatment for cancer is based on restoring physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual equilibrium of the patient and extending that equilibrium to his larger social circle. Maya conceptions of cancer determine how traditional diagnostic tools are used and dictate treatment options that include the patient's social-spiritual support system. Official health care providers' understanding of these principles can improve implementation of culturally appropriate protocols that increase indigenous patients' compliance and reduce rates of treatment abandonment.

  12. Maya Healers' Conception of Cancer as Revealed by Comparison With Western Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gharzouzi, Eduardo; Renner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cultural diversity in clinical encounters is common, yet mental constructions regarding cancer that influence expected treatment are poorly studied for indigenous people. We explored Maya healers' conceptions, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer to remedy this problem. Methods In-depth structured interviews with 67 traditional Maya healers in Guatemala across Kaqchikel, Kiche', Mam, Mopan, and Q'eqchi' ethnolinguistic groups were conducted by using a transdisciplinary format. Analysis of qualitative data in categorized matrixes allowed for statistical examination of tendencies and the results were complemented by validation workshops with Maya representatives. Results Maya classification of diseases has broad categories of malignant diseases including cancer. Specific Maya terms might equate to particular cancer types, which would open new avenues for research. Notions of malignancy and metastasis were expressed by healers as core characteristics of cancer, a disease believed to be both material and spiritual. Resolution of and/or treatment for cancer is based on restoring physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual equilibrium of the patient and extending that equilibrium to his larger social circle. Conclusion Maya conceptions of cancer determine how traditional diagnostic tools are used and dictate treatment options that include the patient's social-spiritual support system. Official health care providers' understanding of these principles can improve implementation of culturally appropriate protocols that increase indigenous patients' compliance and reduce rates of treatment abandonment. PMID:28717684

  13. A strategic assessment of forest biomass and fuel reduction treatments in western states

    Treesearch

    Bob Rummer; Jeff Prestemon; Dennis May; Pat Miles; John Vissage; Ron McRoberts; Greg Liknes; Wayne D. Shepperd; Dennis Ferguson; William Elliot; Sue Miller; Steve Reutebuch; Jamie Barbour; Jeremy Fried; Bryce Stokes; Edward Bilek; Ken Skog

    2003-01-01

    In the 15 western states there are at least 28 million acres of forest that could benefit from some type of mechanical treatment to reduce hazardous fuel loading. It is estimated that about 60 percent of this area could be operationally accessible for treatment with a total biomass treatment volume of 345 million bone dry tons (bdt). Two-thirds of this forest area is...

  14. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  15. Medicinal plants used by traditional medicine practitioners for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related conditions in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Lamorde, Mohammed; Tabuti, John R S; Obua, Celestino; Kukunda-Byobona, Collins; Lanyero, Hindam; Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline; Bbosa, Godfrey S; Lubega, Aloysius; Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper; Ryan, Mairin; Waako, Paul J; Merry, Concepta

    2010-07-06

    In Uganda, there are over one million people with HIV/AIDS. When advanced, this disease is characterized by life-threatening opportunistic infections. As the formal health sector struggles to confront this epidemic, new medicines from traditional sources are needed to complement control efforts. This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related opportunistic infections, and to document the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to HIV/AIDS recognition, control and treatment in Sembabule, Kamuli, Kabale and Gulu districts in Uganda. In this study, 25 traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) were interviewed using structured questionnaires. The TMPs could recognize important signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS and its associated opportunistic infections. The majority of practitioners treated patients who were already receiving allopathic medicines including antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) prescribed by allopathic practitioners. There were 103 species of medicinal plants identified in this survey. Priority plants identified include Aloe spp., Erythrina abyssinica, Sarcocephalus latifolius, Psorospermum febrifugum, Mangifera indica and Warburgia salutaris. There was low consensus among TMPs on the plants used. Decoctions of multiple plant species were commonly used except in Gulu where mono-preparations were common. Plant parts frequently used were leaves (33%), stem bark (23%) and root bark (18%). About 80% of preparations were administered orally in variable doses over varied time periods. The TMP had insufficient knowledge about packaging and preservation techniques. Numerous medicinal plants for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients were identified in the four districts surveyed and the role of these plants in the management of opportunistic infections warrants further investigation as these plants may have a role in Uganda's public health approach to HIV/AIDS control. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  16. Nurse prescribing of medicines in Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing number of countries are introducing some form of nurse prescribing. However, international reviews concerning nurse prescribing are scarce and lack a systematic and theoretical approach. The aim of this review was twofold: firstly, to gain insight into the scientific and professional literature describing the extent to and the ways in which nurse prescribing has been realised or is being introduced in Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries; secondly, to identify possible mechanisms underlying the introduction and organisation of nurse prescribing on the basis of Abbott's theory on the division of professional labor. Methods A comprehensive search of six literature databases and seven websites was performed without any limitation as to date of publication, language or country. Additionally, experts in the field of nurse prescribing were consulted. A three stage inclusion process, consisting of initial sifting, more detailed selection and checking full-text publications, was performed independently by pairs of reviewers. Data were synthesized using narrative and tabular methods. Results One hundred and twenty-four publications met the inclusion criteria. So far, seven Western European and Anglo-Saxon countries have implemented nurse prescribing of medicines, viz., Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, Sweden, the UK and the USA. The Netherlands and Spain are in the process of introducing nurse prescribing. A diversity of external and internal forces has led to the introduction of nurse prescribing internationally. The legal, educational and organizational conditions under which nurses prescribe medicines vary considerably between countries; from situations where nurses prescribe independently to situations in which prescribing by nurses is only allowed under strict conditions and supervision of physicians. Conclusions Differences between countries are reflected in the jurisdictional settlements between the nursing and medical professions

  17. The Quaternary Tahoe-Medicine Lake trough: The western margin of the Basin and Range transition, NE California

    SciTech Connect

    Page, W.D. . Geoscience Dept.); Sawyer, T.L. ); Mclaren, M.K.; Savage, W.U.; Wakabayashi, J.

    1993-04-01

    The Tahoe-Medicine Lake trough is a series of small right-stepping, en echelon tectonic depressions that extend 400 km NNW from Lake Tahoe to near the Oregon border. The trough developed since the Miocene, and forms the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Mountains, and the western boundary of the Plumas province and Modoc Plateau, which are transitional to the Basin and Range. The geomorphic expression of the trough indicates late Pleistocene and Holocene fault activity along its length. The continuity of the structure, however, has been masked in places by volcanic deposits that have filled or partly filled the tectonic lows. Moderate historical earthquakes (M5-6) have occurred only along the southern trough. Microearthquakes prominently follow the trough from Lake Tahoe north [omega] Lake Almanor. From there northward, seismicity patterns are predominantly shallow (<5 km) volcanic-related clusters at Mt. Lassen, Medicine Lake, and Tennent and Stephens passes. Geologic and seismicity data indicate that the NW-trending south-central section has a significant component of right-slip, which appears to be related to the Walker Lane shear zone. To the south, the trough is the NNW-striking, 10- to 20-km-wide Tahoe depression, which extends from Lake Tahoe to the Sierra Valley and is partly filled with Quaternary volcanic deposits near Truckee. The escarpment and probable displaced moraines along this section indicate late Pleistocene and possibly Holocene activity. Seismicity is diffuse except in the vicinity of the 1966 Truckee earthquake (M6.0). Northward, from Sierra Valley to American Valley, the trough changes trend to the NW, and is the 6-km-wide Plumas trench, which down-faults the Mehrten Fm. (Miocene to early Pliocene) about 1,000 m.

  18. Efficacy of Iranian Traditional Medicine in the Treatment of Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi Fard, Mehri; Shojaii, Asie

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a brain disorder which affects about 50 million people worldwide. Ineffectiveness of the drugs in some cases and the serious side effects and chronic toxicity of the antiepileptic drugs lead to use of herbal medicine as a form of complementary and alternative medicine. In this review modern evidences for the efficacy of antiepileptic medicinal plants in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM) will be discussed. For this purpose electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, and Google Scholar were searched for each of the antiepileptic plants during 1970-February 2013.Anticonvulsant effect of some of the medicinal plants mentioned in TIM like Anacyclus pyrethrum, Pimpinella anisum, Nigella sativa, and Ferula gummosa was studied with different models of seizure. Also for some of these plants like Nigella sativa or Piper longum the active constituent responsible for antiepileptic effect was isolated and studied. For some of the herbal medicine used in TIM such as Pistacia lentiscus gum (Mastaki), Bryonia alba (Fashra), Ferula persica (Sakbinaj), Ecballium elaterium (Ghesa-al Hemar), and Alpinia officinarum (Kholanjan) there is no or not enough studies to confirm their effectiveness in epilepsy. It is suggested that an evaluation of the effects of these plants on different epileptic models should be performed. PMID:23936834

  19. Health-care seeking behaviour and the use of traditional medicine among persons with type 2 diabetes in south-western Uganda: a study of focus group interviews

    PubMed Central

    Atwine, Fortunate; Hultsjö, Sally; Albin, Björn; Hjelm, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Health-care seeking behaviour is important as it determines acceptance of health care and outcomes of chronic conditions but it has been investigated to a limited extent among persons with diabetes in developing countries. The aim of the study was to explore health-care seeking behaviour among persons with type 2 diabetes to understand reasons for using therapies offered by traditional healers. Methods Descriptive study using focus-group interviews. Three purposive focus-groups were conducted in 2011 of 10 women and 7 men aged 39–72 years in Uganda. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and qualitatively analysed according to a method described for focus-groups. Results Reasons for seeking help from traditional healers were symptoms related to diabetes such as polydipsia, fatigue and decreased sensitivity in lower limbs. Failure of effect from western medicine was also reported. Treatment was described to be unknown extracts, of locally made products taken as herbs or food, and participants had sought help from different health facilities with the help of relatives and friends. Conclusion The pattern of seeking care was inconsistent, with a switch between different health care providers under the influence of the popular and folk sectors. Despite beliefs in using different healthcare providers seeking complementary and alternative medicine, participants still experienced many physical health problems related to diabetes complications. Health professionals need to be aware of the risk of switches between different health care providers, and develop strategies to initiate health promotion interventions to include in the care actors of significance to the patient from the popular, folk and professional sectors, to maintain continuity of effective diabetes care. PMID:26090034

  20. Utilization of Western and Traditional Korean Medicine for Children and Adolescents with Mental Disorders: a Nationwide Population-based Study from 2010 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    When in need of medical treatment, Korean citizens have a choice of practitioners of western medicine (WM) or Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM). However, the two branches frequently conflict with one another, particularly with regard to mental disorders. This study was designed to compare the utilization of WM and TKM, focusing on child/adolescent patients with mental disorders. We analyzed F-code (Mental and behavioral disorders) claims from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, including data from 0–18-year-old patients from 2010 to 2012. Slightly more men than women utilized WM, while TKM use was almost evenly balanced. WM claims increased with advancing age, whereas utilization of TKM was common for the 0-6 age group. In WM and TKM, the total number of claims relying on the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) was 331,154 (92.78%) and 73,282 (97.85%), respectively, and the number of claims relying on medical aid was 25,753 (7.22%) and 1,610 (2.15%), respectively. The most frequent F-coded claim in WM was F90 (Hyperkinetic disorders), with 64,088 claims (17.96%), and that in TKM was F45 (Somatoform disorders), with 28,852 claims (38.52%). The prevalence of a single disorder without comorbidities was 168,764 (47.29%) in WM and 52,615 (70.25%) in TKM. From these data, we conclude that WM takes prevalence over TKM in cases of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as in psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. On the other hand, patients utilizing TKM more commonly present with physical health problems including somatoform problems, sleep, and eating disorders. PMID:27134500

  1. Health-care seeking behaviour and the use of traditional medicine among persons with type 2 diabetes in south-western Uganda: a study of focus group interviews.

    PubMed

    Atwine, Fortunate; Hultsjö, Sally; Albin, Björn; Hjelm, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Health-care seeking behaviour is important as it determines acceptance of health care and outcomes of chronic conditions but it has been investigated to a limited extent among persons with diabetes in developing countries. The aim of the study was to explore health-care seeking behaviour among persons with type 2 diabetes to understand reasons for using therapies offered by traditional healers. Descriptive study using focus-group interviews. Three purposive focus-groups were conducted in 2011 of 10 women and 7 men aged 39-72 years in Uganda. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and qualitatively analysed according to a method described for focus-groups. Reasons for seeking help from traditional healers were symptoms related to diabetes such as polydipsia, fatigue and decreased sensitivity in lower limbs. Failure of effect from western medicine was also reported. Treatment was described to be unknown extracts, of locally made products taken as herbs or food, and participants had sought help from different health facilities with the help of relatives and friends. The pattern of seeking care was inconsistent, with a switch between different health care providers under the influence of the popular and folk sectors. Despite beliefs in using different healthcare providers seeking complementary and alternative medicine, participants still experienced many physical health problems related to diabetes complications. Health professionals need to be aware of the risk of switches between different health care providers, and develop strategies to initiate health promotion interventions to include in the care actors of significance to the patient from the popular, folk and professional sectors, to maintain continuity of effective diabetes care.

  2. Indigenous plant medicines for health care: treatment of Diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Nisha H; Parikh, Palak K; Kothari, Charmy

    2014-05-01

    Medicinal plants have played an important role in treating and preventing a variety of diseases throughout the world. Metabolic syndrome had become a global epidemic, defined as a cluster of three of five criteria: insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, abdominal obesity, hypertension, low high-density cholesterol, and hypertriglyceridemia. The current review focuses on Indian medicinal plant drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill-effects of diabetes and hyperlipidemia and its secondary complications, plant-based drugs are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. The current review focuses on twenty-three medicinal plants used in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus and nine medicinal plants used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. The wealth of knowledge on medicinal plants points to a great potential for research and the discovery of new drugs to fight diseases, including diabetes and hyperlipidemia.

  3. Protocol for a prospective observational study of conventional treatment and traditional Korean medicine combination treatment for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong-Eun; Yun, Young-Ju; Shin, Yong-Beom; Kim, Nam-Kwen; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Shin, Myung-Jun; Yu, Sun-Ae

    2016-06-08

    Cerebral palsy leads to many complications as well as delayed motor development, and early intensive rehabilitation in infancy, which is based on the theory of brain plasticity, is emphasized. In addition to conventional treatment, including physical, occupational, or speech-language therapies, children also have a demand for traditional Korean medicine interventions such as acupuncture or herbal medicine; however, a lack of evidence has made traditional Korean medicine difficult to implement in practice. We planned a multicentre, prospective, observational study to assess the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of conventional treatment and traditional Korean medicine combination treatment for children with cerebral palsy. Three hundred children with cerebral palsy aged 6 to 78 months will be recruited from six institutions. Data from each child are collected every month for a one-year period, during which time treatment might be changed or discontinued. A qualified investigator visits the sites to measure effectiveness variables, including Gross Motor Function Measure and Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory. Adverse events and cost-effectiveness variables are collected using surveys conducted at baseline, mid-study, and end of study, as well as monthly tracking surveys. In the analyses, participants will be classified into two groups: group A children will be the conventional treatment group with physical, occupational, speech-language or other conventional rehabilitation therapies, whereas group B children will be the combination treatment group with traditional Korean medicine interventions, that is, herbal medicine, chuna, moxibustion and acupuncture, in addition to conventional treatment. Only a few clinical case reports have evaluated the effectiveness and safety of traditional Korean medicine; therefore, more data are required to provide optimal information to children with cerebral palsy and their guardians. We hypothesized that

  4. Chinese herbal medicine for atopic dermatitis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hsiewe Ying; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Chen, DaCan; Xue, Charlie Changli; Lenon, George Binh

    2013-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, itching skin disease, and conventional therapies offer inadequate symptom management. Patients with AD are increasingly turning to Chinese medicine. We systematically evaluated the clinical evidence of the efficacy and safety of oral Chinese herbal medicine for AD. Searches were conducted on major electronic databases using the following key words: "randomized controlled trials," "atopic dermatitis," "traditional Chinese medicine," "traditional East Asian medicine," "herbal medicine," "Chinese herbal drugs," "medicinal plants," "phytotherapy," "Kampo medicine," and "Korean traditional medicine." The results were screened to include English/Chinese randomized controlled trials. A metaanalysis was conducted on suitable outcome measures. Seven randomized controlled trials were included (1 comparing Chinese herbal medicine and Western medicine with Western medicine alone; 6 comparing Chinese herbal medicine with placebo). Combined Chinese herbal medicine with Western medicine was superior to Western medicine alone. Three placebo controlled trials showed significant treatment efficacy and 2 showed significantly reduced concurrent therapy with Chinese herbal medicine. No abnormalities in safety profile or severe adverse events were reported. A metaanalysis of all included studies could not be conducted because of study heterogeneity. Chinese herbal medicine significantly improved symptom severity of AD and was reported as well tolerated. However, the poor quality of studies did not allow for valid conclusions to support its tolerability and routine use. Additional studies addressing the methodologic issues are warranted to determine the therapeutic benefit of Chinese herbal medicine for AD. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Successful treatment of acute systemic anaphylaxis in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Hayman, David T S; King, Tony; Cameron, Kenneth

    2010-09-01

    This brief communication describes the successful treatment of acute systemic anaphylaxis in a wild-born but captive infant western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Republic of Congo. The infant demonstrated signs of acute respiratory distress, lingual swelling, and reaction to intradermal tuberculin, given 55 hr earlier. Details of the treatment with steroids, anesthetic induction, and i.v. epinephrine are all reported, and potential antigens that may have initiated the anaphylactic shock are discussed.

  6. [Clinical observation on treatment of postcardiotomic complications with Chinese herbal medicine based on syndrome differentiation with angiocardiopathy].

    PubMed

    Ma, L; Jiao, Z; Zhang, R

    1999-04-01

    To study the effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) based on Syndrome Differentiation on postcardiotomic complications in patients with angiocardiopathy. Aimed at the frequently encountered postcardiotomic complications including fever, cough and expectoration, belching, abdominal distension, palpitation, short breath, etc. CHM treatment was applied in combination with routine western drugs treatment (cardiac tonic, diuretics, vascular dilatator and anticoagulant). Twenty out of 22 patients with protracted fever and irresponsive to multi-antibiotics therapy were cured, the other one with hydrothorax received other therapy and the another one with drug fever was natural cured after stopping medication. Among 23 patients complicated mainly with respiratory symptoms, 17 were cured and 6 improved, among 15 with digestive symptoms, 12 cured and 3 improved, and among 7 with cardiovascular symptoms, 3 cured, 2 improved and 2 ineffective. CHM has good effect on postcardiotomic complications, it could improve the functional recovery of heart and lung.

  7. Treatment of Western Australia's mentally ill during the early colonial period, 1826-1865.

    PubMed

    Maude, Phil

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes the early settlement of Western Australia and colonial strategies implemented to manage the mentally ill. Western Australian Colonial treatment of the mentally ill began in 1829 with the first mentally ill patient, Dr Nicholas Were Langley. Building commenced to house the mentally ill with the use of a prison, 'The Round House', and later the temporary shelter 'Scott's Warehouse'. Both convicts and the mentally ill were initially housed together, but evidence exists of attempts to provide therapeutic diversions at Scott's Warehouse.

  8. [Natural science vs. natural philosophy: Friedrich Theodor von Frerichs and the emergence of modern western medicine in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Hansen, Werner

    2016-12-01

    The beginnings of modern western medicine reach to about 1800 when under the liberating influence of French Revolution observation of diseases was started to follow more scientifically justified criteria. At that time speculative doctrines prevailed, e. g. those set up natural philosopher Schelling. In this context Internist Friedrich Theodor von Frerichs at Berlin Charité University Hospital gained great merits because of his struggle for a scientifically-based experimental clinical medicine. This is demonstrated nicely in a recently found autograph document. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Traditional Chinese medicine typing of affective disorders and treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L D; Zhang, Y L; Xu, S H; Zhou, G; Jin, S B

    1994-01-01

    According to the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), 50 patients with affective disorders were typed into the categories of depressed liver resulting in fire, mild Yang deficiency and mild Yin deficiency and were treated with Xiao Yao San Jia Wei. The results are 26 patients with marked improvement, 17 patients with improvement and 7 patients with no improvement.

  10. Clinical phenotype network: the underlying mechanism for personalized diagnosis and treatment of traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuezhong; Li, Yubing; Peng, Yonghong; Hu, Jingqing; Zhang, Runshun; He, Liyun; Wang, Yinghui; Jiang, Lijie; Yan, Shiyan; Li, Peng; Xie, Qi; Liu, Baoyan

    2014-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) investigates the clinical diagnosis and treatment regularities in a typical schema of personalized medicine, which means that individualized patients with same diseases would obtain distinct diagnosis and optimal treatment from different TCM physicians. This principle has been recognized and adhered by TCM clinical practitioners for thousands of years. However, the underlying mechanisms of TCM personalized medicine are not fully investigated so far and remained unknown. This paper discusses framework of TCM personalized medicine in classic literatures and in real-world clinical settings, and investigates the underlying mechanisms of TCM personalized medicine from the perspectives of network medicine. Based on 246 well-designed outpatient records on insomnia, by evaluating the personal biases of manifestation observation and preferences of herb prescriptions, we noted significant similarities between each herb prescriptions and symptom similarities between each encounters. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of TCM personalized medicine, we constructed a clinical phenotype network (CPN), in which the clinical phenotype entities like symptoms and diagnoses are presented as nodes and the correlation between these entities as links. This CPN is used to investigate the promiscuous boundary of syndromes and the co-occurrence of symptoms. The small-world topological characteristics are noted in the CPN with high clustering structures, which provide insight on the rationality of TCM personalized diagnosis and treatment. The investigation on this network would help us to gain understanding on the underlying mechanism of TCM personalized medicine and would propose a new perspective for the refinement of the TCM individualized clinical skills.

  11. Utilization patterns of Chinese medicine and Western medicine under the National Health Insurance Program in Taiwan, a population-based study from 1997 to 2003

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Lee-Chin; Huang, Nicole; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Lee, Chen-Hua; Kao, Feng-Yu; Huang, Yi-Tsau

    2008-01-01

    Background In 1995, Taiwan has launched a national health-care system (the National Health Insurance Program, NHI) covering the use of both Western medicine (WM) and Chinese medicine (CM). This population-based study was conducted to understand the role of CM in this dual medical system by determining the utilization patterns of CM and WM and to analyze the demographic characteristics and primary indications influencing the choice of the medical services for the development of strategies to enhance the appropriate use and reduce unnecessary use of CM. Methods This study used the NHI sample files from 1997 to 2003 consisting of comprehensive utilization and enrolment information for a random sample of 200,432 NHI beneficiaries of the total enrolees from 1995 to 2000. A total of 136,720 subjects with valid and complete enrolment and utilization data were included in this study. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for utilization of CM and WM. The usage, frequency of services, and primary indications for CM and WM were evaluated. A significance level of α = 0.05 was selected. Results Compared with WM, the odds of CM increased from 1997 to 2003. The odds of using CM (OR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.45–1.50; p < 0.001) and WM (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.72–1.77; p < 0.001) were higher in females and that of CM increased with age to a peak in the 45–54-year-group (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.68–1.82; p < 0.001) and WM (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.05–1.13; p < 0.001) in the elderly subjects (≥ 65 years). The odds of CM and WM were similar in all income groups. However, those of CM were higher in Central (OR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.56–1.74; p < 0.001) and Southern Taiwan (OR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.12–1.25; p < 0.001) and lower in the remote areas (OR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.52–0.63; p < 0.001). Most of the patients had one ambulatory visit of both medical services annually. However, the utilization of WM predominated over CM. Over 90% of CM service was

  12. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments by Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christon, Lillian M.; Mackintosh, Virginia H.; Myers, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may elect to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments with their children in place of, or in addition to, conventional treatments. CAM treatments are controversial and understudied and, for most, the efficacy has not been established. The current study (n = 248) examined…

  13. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Treatments by Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christon, Lillian M.; Mackintosh, Virginia H.; Myers, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may elect to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments with their children in place of, or in addition to, conventional treatments. CAM treatments are controversial and understudied and, for most, the efficacy has not been established. The current study (n = 248) examined…

  14. Naturalness as an ethical stance: idea(l)s and practices of care in western herbal medicine in the UK.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Nina

    2015-01-01

    An association of non-biomedical healthcare with appeals to nature and naturalness, and an invocation of a rhetoric of gentleness, goodness, purity and moral power has been noted previously, and some scholars argue that nature has taken on a meaning broadly opposed to the rational scientific order of modernity. Drawing on an ethnographic study of women's practice and use of western herbal medicine (WHM) in the UK, the intertwining of the perceived naturalness of WHM with distinct care practices points to a further avenue for exploration. To examine patients' and herbalists' discourses of the naturalness of WHM and associated idea(l)s and practices of care, understandings of nature and a feminist ethics of care are utilized as analytical frameworks. The analysis presented suggests that, through WHM, patients and herbalists become embedded in a complex spatio-temporal wholeness and web of care that intertwines past, present and future, self and others, and local and global concerns. In the emerging 'ordinary ethics of care', naturalness constitutes a sign of goodness and of a shared humanity within the organic world, while care, underpinned by idea(l)s of natural and holistic care practices, links human and non-human others. Thus, the naturalness of WHM, as perceived by some patients and herbalists, engages and blends with a continually unfolding field of relationships in the lifeworld(s), where care practices, caring relations and collective wellbeing may constitute an ethical stance that raises deeper questions about the significance of relationality, the values of care/caring and the mutual involvement of nature and human being(s).

  15. [Treatment of traditional Chinese medicine for idiopathic male infertility].

    PubMed

    Furuya, Yuzo; Akashi, Takuya; Fuse, Hideki

    2004-08-01

    Several Chinese herbal medicines have been used to treat patients with idiopathic male infertility and have been reported to improve semen quality. The clinical efficacy of these medicines was reviewed. The therapeutic effect of Hochu-ekki-to based on the pretreatment traditional diagnosis (Sho) was examined. Three months after the administration of Hochu-ekki-to, the semen count and motility significantly increased in comparison with pretreatment values. When the patients were classified into 3 categories based on "Sho", Hochu-ekki-to was effective in semen motility in patients with vacuity pattern (Kyo-Sho). Seminal plasma soluble Fas (sFas) levels before and three months after the administration of drug were analyzed. Seminal plasma sFas level elevated significantly after the administration of Hochu-ekki-to. After the administration of Hochu-ekki-to, seminal plasma sFas levels significantly correlated with sperm concentration. To make the best use of traditional medicine, it is important to give medication according to the traditional diagnosis (Sho).

  16. Individualized medicine, health medicine, and constitutional theory in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi

    2012-03-01

    The patterns of modern science and changes in the medical model can result in the transformation of the current state of individualized and health medicines into being the primary trend in medical development. Chinese and Western medical systems are dissimilar in terms of value orientations, thinking style, and research directions because of their different historical and cultural backgrounds. Individualized treatment in modern medicine is mainly established based on individual genome information and the differences in mononucleotide polymorphisms. However, such treatment method is expensive, creates an uncertain genetic marker, and leads to different result interpretations, among other problems. The Chinese constitutional theory developed in the 1970s expresses the principle behind Chinese health medicine and individual treatment and provides the corresponding methods. The Chinese constitutional theory divides the constitution of the Chinese population into nine categories based on established classification criteria. It promotes the study of the relationship of each constitution to diseases and Chinese medicine preparation toward adjusting the constitution and preventing diseases. The theory also provides methods and tools for individualized treatment. Constitution identification shows the direction and provides the core technology for the evaluation of the health status. By combining the developments in modern biotechnology, new diagnostic techniques and treatment models of constitution-differentiation, disease-differentiation, and syndrome-differentiation can be established for the development of individualized Chinese medicine treatment and health medicine for the international medical community.

  17. The use of TeleMedicine in the treatment of paediatric obesity: feasibility and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ann McGrath; James, Rochelle L; Boles, Richard E; Goetz, Jeannine R; Belmont, John; Malone, Brett

    2011-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of conducting empirically supported family-based paediatric obesity group treatment via TeleMedicine. Seventeen families were randomly assigned to one of two conditions (physician visit, TeleMedicine). Measures included feasibility, satisfaction and intervention outcome measures such as BMI percentile, and nutrition and activity behaviours. Measures were completed at baseline, post-treatment and at 1-year follow-up. Analyses indicate that both feasibility and satisfaction data regarding the TeleMedicine intervention were positive. Intervention outcome indicates no change in BMI percentile or nutrition and activity behaviours for either treatment group. A behavioural family-based weight loss intervention delivered via TeleMedicine was well received by both parents and providers. Due to the small sample size, null findings regarding intervention outcome should be interpreted with caution. Future research should focus on methods to increase the impact of this intervention on key outcome variables. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Successful Treatment of Chronic Viral Hepatitis With High-dilution Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sarter, Barbara; Banerji, Pratip

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Two cases of viral hepatitis that had failed conventional therapy are presented. Both were subsequently treated with protocols using homeopathic medicines as detailed below. Both patients sustained remissions for 2 years after taking ultradilute natural medicines after their conventional treatment had been discontinued. Methods: The treatment protocol included Chelidonium majus 6X and Thuja 30C as the main medicines. Other homeopathic medicines were used as detailed below. Cases were confirmed with standard hepatitis antibody and viral measurements. Patients were followed for more than 2 years with measurements of viral counts, liver enzymes, and other relevant biomarkers of liver disease. Results: Both patients are alive and functioning normally in their home environments more than 2 years after treatment initiation. Discussion: We review the literature related to the chief medicines used in these cases and find that they have known and demonstrated therapeutic effects suggesting plausible mechanisms of action in these cases. Conclusions: Clinical trials of this homeopathic treatment protocol should be conducted to explore the therapeutic potential of these medicines for treatment of viral hepatitis. PMID:24278798

  19. The influence of social context on the treatment outcomes of complementary and alternative medicine: the case of acupuncture and herbal medicine in Japan and the U.S.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae-Mahn

    2015-04-25

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as acupuncture and herbal medicine, is popular in many countries. Yet, treatment outcomes of CAM are found to vary significantly between medical trials in different social environments. This paper addresses how the social organization of medicine affects medical treatment outcomes. In particular, it examines the extent to which two popular complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions (acupuncture and herbal medicine) are coordinated with biomedicine and how coordination characteristics are related to the treatment outcomes of the two CAM interventions. This paper conducts an archival analysis of the institutional settings of the CAM interventions in Japan and the U.S. It also conducts a systematic content analysis of the treatment outcomes in 246 acupuncture reports and 528 herbal medicine reports that are conducted in Japan or the U.S. and registered in the Cochrane Library's Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and 716 acupuncture reports and 3,485 herbal medicine reports that are from Japan or the U.S. and listed in MEDLINE. It examines the association between the treatment outcomes of the two interventions and the geographical location of the reports; it also explores how the institutional settings of the interventions are related to the treatment outcomes. Japanese herbal medicine is integrated into the national medical system the most and American herbal medicine the least; American acupuncture and Japanese acupuncture fall in the middle. Treatment outcomes are the most favorable for Japanese herbal medicine and the least favorable for American herbal medicine. The outcomes of American acupuncture and Japanese acupuncture fall in the middle. The co-utilization of CAM with biomedicine can produce difficulties due to tensions between CAM and biomedicine. These difficulties and subsequent CAM treatment outcomes vary, depending on how CAM is institutionalized in relation to biomedicine

  20. A Pilot Whole Systems Clinical Trial of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Naturopathic Medicine for the Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hammerschlag, Richard; Calabrese, Carlo; Mist, Scott; Aickin, Mikel; Sutherland, Elizabeth; Leben, Joseph; DeBAR, Lynn; Elder, Charles; Dworkin, Samuel F.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To assess the feasibility and acceptability of studying whole systems of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Naturopathic medicine (NM) in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), and to determine whether there is indication to support further research. Design A pilot study using a randomized controlled clinical trial design of whole system TCM and NM versus state-of-the-art specialty care (SC). Setting/location Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW), and practitioner offices in Portland, Oregon. Subjects One hundred and sixty (160) women 25–55 years of age attending a KPNW TMD specialty clinic. Interventions Whole system TCM and NM, and KPNW TMD clinic SC; the intervention protocols were designed to model the individually tailored type of community care offered in alternative medicine practices in Portland and in the KPNW TMD clinic, using protocols that enhanced similarities among practitioners within each system and permitted full descriptions of the treatments provided. Outcome measures TMD was ascertained using the Research Diagnostic Criteria/TMD; outcomes were self-reported worst and average facial pain and interference with activities (scaled 0–10 where 10 is worst). Results Of 948 consecutive eligible patients, 160 were randomized to one of three arms; 128 provided endpoint data. TCM and NM demonstrated significantly greater in-treatment reductions for worst facial pain compared to SC (adjusted regression analysis; higher negative values indicate greater improvement, = −1.11 ± 0.43, p = 0.010 and −1.02 ± 0.45, p = 0.025 for TCM and NM, respectively, compared to SC) and at 3 months post-treatment (−1.07 ± 0.51, p = 0.037 and −1.27 ± 0.54, p = 0.019 for TCM and NM versus SC, respectively). Additionally, TCM provided significantly greater decreases in average pain than SC; NM provided significantly greater decreases than SC or TCM in TMD-related psychosocial interference

  1. A Review of On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems in Western Australia from 1997 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gunady, Maria; Shishkina, Natalia; Tan, Henry; Rodriguez, Clemencia

    2015-01-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are widely used in Western Australia (WA) to treat and dispose of household wastewater in areas where centralized sewerage systems are unavailable. Septic tanks, aerobic treatment units (ATUs), and composting toilets with greywater systems are among the most well established and commonly used OWTS. However, there are concerns that some OWTS installed in WA are either performing below expected standards or failing. Poorly performing OWTS are often attributed to inadequate installation, inadequate maintenance, poor public awareness, insufficient local authority resources, ongoing wastewater management issues, or inadequate adoption of standards, procedures, and guidelines. This paper is to review the installations and failures of OWTS in WA. Recommendations to the Department of Health Western Australia (DOHWA) and Local Government (LG) in regard to management strategies and institutional arrangements of OWTS are also highlighted. PMID:25960745

  2. Review of selected Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Emily; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how Chinese herbal medicines are used in the treatment of diabetes, focusing on potential benefits and risks. Medline, expert interviews, and Internet searches were used to identify Chinese herbal medicines with antidiabetic properties and their diabetes-related health claim, proposed antidiabetic effect, adverse effects, contraindications, and drug interactions. Twenty-three herbs and 5 herbal formulas were selected for review. Antidiabetic health claims included increasing serum insulin, decreasing blood glucose, increasing glucose metabolism, and/or stimulating pancreatic function. Side effects were few or not reported. The use of Chinese herbal medicines in diabetes is promising but still far from proven. Diabetes educators need to be aware of the risks and benefits of herbal medicines. Patients should be asked about the use and source of herbal medicines and carefully monitored for drug interactions and adverse effects.

  3. Medicinal plants and the treatment of diabetes in Senegal: survey with patients.

    PubMed

    Dièye, Amadou Moctar; Sarr, Anna; Diop, Saïd Norou; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Sy, Guata Yoro; Diarra, Mounibé; Rajraji Gaffary, Ilham; Ndiaye Sy, Awa; Faye, Babacar

    2008-04-01

    Diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide and is a major public health problem. Its frequency increases every day in all countries. However, in developing African countries, few people have access to drugs. In addition, in Africa, traditional beliefs induce people to use medicinal plants whenever they have health problems. Thus, many people in these developing countries use plants for the treatment of diabetes. Yet, few studies are focused on the knowledge and attitudes of the users on medicinal plants in Africa in general and in Senegal in particular. Hence we undertook this survey on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of diabetes in Senegal in order to make recommendations which could contribute to the increase of the value of herbal medicines in developing countries. We did a cross-sectional survey by direct interview at a university teaching hospital, in Dakar with a representative sample of 220 patients. Forty-one plants were used by the patients and the two most frequently cited were Moringa oleifera Lam (65.90%) and Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich) Hochst (43.20%). Patients gave several reasons for using medicinal plants (traditional treatment: 40%, efficacy: 32%, low cost: 20%). The principal suppliers of plants were tradesmen in the market (66.8%) and traditional therapists (5%). Sixty-five per cent of patients think that medicinal plants are efficient for the treatment of diabetes and 20% have reported adverse effects which could be caused by medicinal plants. In conclusion, many people in our study think that medicinal plants are efficient for the treatment of diabetes, which requires research work by scientists in developing countries in this field in order to prove their efficacy and innocuousness.

  4. A Review of Herbal Medicine in Iranian Traditional Manuscripts for Treatment of Participatory Gastric Headache.

    PubMed

    Jafarpour, Mehrnaz; Yousefi, Gholamhossein; Hamedi, Azadeh

    2016-05-01

    Participatory gastric headache is a type of headache described in Iranian traditional medicine. It is defined as a headache not originated from the head and neck disorders; rather the pain in the head is caused by gastric dysfunction and its disorders. Treatment of this type of headache is completely reliant on the treatment of the gastric complaint. Reviewing Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) literature, a broad spectrum of herbal medicines that could be useful in the treatment of this type of headache is described. Accordingly, this review was performed to gather and discuss the therapeutic management of this disorder in ITM and evaluating related characteristics of each medicinal herb. In this study, medicinal plants prescribed for gastric headache from different ancient Iranian literature is documented. The botanical name, family name, part used, temperaments, rout of administration and dosage forms are provided in this article. About 40 plants, mainly used orally, were prescribed for the treatment of participatory gastric headache. Most of them have the astringent effect, which is related to their dryness temperament. Therefore, they could strengthen the stomach and prevent ascending vapors into the brain that in turn helps to get relief from headache. In addition, they possess reinforcement effect on the brain. In general, herbal medicines with tonic characteristics could be effective in participatory gastric headache.

  5. Personalized medicine and treatment approaches in hypertension: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, James Brian

    2016-01-01

    In the US, hypertension affects one in three adults. Current guideline-based treatment of hypertension involves little diagnostic testing. A more personalized approach to the treatment of hypertension might be of use. Several methods of personalized treatment have been proposed and vetted to varying degrees. The purpose of this narrative review is to discuss the rationale for personalized therapy in hypertension, barriers to its development and implementation, some influential examples of proposed personalization measures, and a view of future efforts. PMID:27103841

  6. [Preprosthetic orthodontic treatment--interdisciplinary cooperation in dental medicine].

    PubMed

    Eftene, Oana Alexandra; Ispas, Dana Catrinel; Temelcea, Anca Nicoleta; Stanciu, R P; Simion, Ileana Graţiela; Stanciu, D

    2010-01-01

    If, not long time ago, the simple prosthetic rehabilitation of an edentulous patient--with or without additional maxillary teeth abnormalities--was the only therapeutic solution, presently, the pre-prosthetic orthodontic treatment enabling the dental restoration treatment meets the basic requirements of any dental treatment, i.e. the (re)set-up of the morphological and functional integrity and the functions of jaws, with minimum biological sacrifice.

  7. [Establish proposal of diagnosis and treatment of traditional Chinese medicine in AIDS patients with recurrent oral ulcerations].

    PubMed

    Pan, Ju-Hua; Huang, Shi-Jing; Zheng, Jun; Wu, Wei; Xue, Liu-Hua

    2013-08-01

    The pathogenesis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome-associated recurrent oral ulcerations (AIDS-ROU) remained obscure and these was no specific treatment for it. Syndrome differentiation in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) focus on integral regulation and has an advantage of the disease that etiology and pathogenesis remain obscure. A draft of Chinese medicine diagnosis and treatment standard procedure for AIDS-ROU was established by literature retrieval and peer review. Two questionnaires were carried out to investigate the confirmation and advice of in-group specialist to key points of the draft including diagnosis, treatment and nursing. Then the procedures were revised accordingly. The preliminary results showed the recovery rate of complete questionnaires in the 1st survey was 96%. Specialists confirmed more on outline, case history and physical examinations, syndrome differentiation of hyperactivity of fire due to Yin deficiency syndrome (HFYDS), treatment of heat accumulated in heart and spleen syndrome (HAHSS) and HFYDS, treatment of western medicine and nursing. They held different opinions on incidence, treatment of deficiency of spleen-QI and stomach-QI syndrome (DSSS) and criterion of therapeutical evaluation. Cronbach coefficient alpha (CCA) was 0.998 and split-half reliability R was 0.91. Recovery rate of complete questionnaires in 2nd survey was 100%. Specialists confirmed more on outline, etiology and pathogenesis, case history and physical examination, auxiliary examination, diagnostic criteria, syndrome differentiation and treatment of HAHSS and HFYDS. They held different opinions on syndrome differentiation and treatment of intermingled cold and heat syndrome and DSSS, nursing and the other therapies. CCA was 0.428 and split-half reliability R was 0.96. Coefficient of variations of the 2nd survey were less than those of the 1st survey, which mean coordination was improved. Each single item in two surveys contributed less difference in

  8. PERSONALIZED MEDICINE FOR DEPRESSION: CAN WE MATCH PATIENTS WITH TREATMENTS?

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Gregory E.; Perlis, Roy H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Response to specific depression treatments varies widely among individuals. Understanding and predicting that variation could have great benefits for people living with depression. Method The authors describe a conceptual model for identifying and evaluating evidence relevant to personalizing treatment for depression. They review evidence related to three specific treatment decisions: choice between antidepressant medication and psychotherapy, selection of a specific antidepressant medication, and selection of a specific psychotherapy. They then discuss potential explanations for negative findings as well as implications for research and clinical practice. Results Many previous studies have examined general predictors of outcome, but few have examined true moderators (predictors of differential response to alternative treatments). The limited evidence indicates that some specific clinical characteristics may inform the choice between antidepressant medication and psychotherapy and the choice of specific antidepressant medication. Research to date does not identify any biologic or genetic predictors of sufficient clinical utility to inform the choice between medication and psychotherapy, the selection of specific medication, or the selection of a specific psychotherapy. Conclusions While individuals vary widely in response to specific depression treatments, that variability remains largely unpredictable. Future research should focus on identifying true moderator effects and should consider how response to treatments varies across episodes. At this time, our inability to match patients with treatments implies that systematic follow-up and adjustment of treatment is more important than initial treatment selection. PMID:20843873

  9. Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of depression: applications, efficacies and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Li, Menglin; Liang, Yan; Yang, Yiting; Liu, Zhe; Yao, Keyu; Chen, Zijie; Zhai, Shuangqing

    2017-09-18

    Depression is a common psychiatric disorder and a leading cause of disability world-wide. Traditional Chinese medicine is one of the commonly used complementary and alternative medicine therapies for depression. Clinical trials have been carried out to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine currently. The exploration of herbal mechanisms of action used for the treatment of depression has also received great attention. This study is performed to summarize the frequently used formulae, patent drugs and single herbs in treating depression, review the literatures of clinical trials in treating depressive disorders, and to list the possible mechanisms involved during the treatment. Besides, we will analyze the limitations of present studies and the obstacles in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Herbal Medicines for the Treatment of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Current Scenario and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Devkar, Ranjitsinh V.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a multifactorial disease and has close correlations with other metabolic disorders. This makes its treatment difficult using a single pharmacological drug. Use of plant extract/decoction or polyherbal formulation to treat various liver diseases is very well mentioned in various traditional systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Japanese or traditional Chinese Medicine, and Kampo medicine). Medicinal herbs are known for their multifaceted implications and thus can form an effective treatment schedule against NASH. Till date, several plant extracts, polyherbal formulations, and phytochemicals have been evaluated for their possible therapeutic potential in preventing onset and progression of NASH in experimental models, but clinical studies using the same are sparse. Herbal extracts with antioxidants, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic properties have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of NASH. This review article is a meticulous compilation of our current knowledge on the role of natural products in alleviating NASH and possible lacunae in research that needs to be addressed. PMID:24987431

  11. “Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders”

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Complementary and alternative medical treatments are commonly used for children with autism spectrum disorders. This review discusses the evidence supporting the most frequently used treatments, including categories of mind-body medicine, energy medicine, biologically based, manipulative and body-based practices, with the latter two the most commonly selected by families. It is important for clinical providers to understand the evidence for efficacy (or lack thereof) and potential side effects. Some CAM practices have evidence to reject their use, such as secretin, others have emerging evidence to support their use, like melatonin. Most treatments, however, have not been adequately studied and do not have evidence to support their use. PMID:18775371

  12. Changing global essential medicines norms to improve access to AIDS treatment: lessons from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunn, A; Fonseca, E Da; Gruskin, S

    2009-01-01

    Brazil's large-scale, successful HIV/AIDS treatment programme is considered by many to be a model for other developing countries aiming to improve access to AIDS treatment. Far less is known about Brazil's important role in changing global norms related to international pharmaceutical policy, particularly international human rights, health and trade policies governing access to essential medicines. Prompted by Brazil's interest in preserving its national AIDS treatment policies during World Trade Organisation trade disputes with the USA, these efforts to change global essential medicines norms have had important implications for other countries, particularly those scaling up AIDS treatment. This paper analyses Brazil's contributions to global essential medicines policy and explains the relevance of Brazil's contributions to global health policy today.

  13. Changing global essential medicines norms to improve access to AIDS treatment: Lessons from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, A.; Fonseca, E. Da; Gruskin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Brazil's large-scale, successful HIV/AIDS treatment programme is considered by many to be a model for other developing countries aiming to improve access to AIDS treatment. Far less is known about Brazil's important role in changing global norms related to international pharmaceutical policy, particularly international human rights, health and trade policies governing access to essential medicines. Prompted by Brazil's interest in preserving its national AIDS treatment policies during World Trade Organisation trade disputes with the USA, these efforts to change global essential medicines norms have had important implications for other countries, particularly those scaling up AIDS treatment. This paper analyses Brazil's contributions to global essential medicines policy and explains the relevance of Brazil's contributions to global health policy today. PMID:19333805

  14. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants administered for the treatment of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Baharvand-Ahmadi, Babak; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Tajeddini, Pegah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Naghdi, Nasrollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is very high in human societies and their prevention and treatment are the most important priority in many countries. Hypertension makes an important contribution to the development of CVDs. Objectives: This study aimed to collect the ethno-medicinal knowledge of the traditional healers of Shiraz on medicinal plants used in the treatment of hypertension. Materials and Methods: Ethno-medicinal data were collected from September 2012 to July 2013 through direct interview. Twenty-five healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and their traditional ethno-medicinal knowledge was recorded. Questionnaires were included apothecary personal information, plant local name, plant parts used, method of preparation, season of harvest and traditional use. Data collected from surveys and interviews were transferred to Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed. Results: Analysis of data showed that, 27 medicinal plants from 22 families are used for the treatment of hypertension. The families with most antihypertensive species were Apiaceae (8%), Rosaceae (8%) and Papaveraceae (8%). The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (36%) followed by fruits (30%), aerial part (17%) and branches (7%). The most frequently used preparation method was decoction (95%). Borago officinalis (51.85%), Berberis vulgaris (51.58%) had the highest frequency of mention. Conclusion: The ethno-medicinal survey of medicinal plants recommended by traditional healers for the treatment of hypertension provides new areas of research on the antihypertensive effect of medicinal plants. In the case of safety and effectiveness, they can be refined and processed to produce natural drugs. PMID:27689107

  15. Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fanghua; Li, Anyuan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Gao, Jianjun; Li, Jijun; Kokudo, Norihiro; Li, Xiao-Kang; Tang, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that in cancer treatment Chinese herbal medicines in combination with chemo- or radio-therapy can be used to enhance the efficacy of and diminish the side effects and complications caused by chemo- and radio-therapy. Therefore, an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines is needed by physicians and other health care providers. This review provides evidence for use of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy. First, Chinese herbal medicines (e.g. Astragalus, Turmeric, Ginseng, TJ-41, PHY906, Huachansu injection, and Kanglaite injection) that are commonly used by cancer patients for treating the cancer and/or reducing the toxicity induced by chemo- or radio-therapy are discussed. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that these Chinese herbal medicines possess great advantages in terms of suppressing tumor progression, increasing the sensitivity of chemo- and radio-therapeutics, improving an organism's immune system function, and lessening the damage caused by chemo- and radio-therapeutics. Second, clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant cancer treatment are reviewed. By reducing side effects and complications during chemo- and radio-therapy, these Chinese herbal medicines have a significant effect on reducing cancer-related fatigue and pain, improving respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal side effects including diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, protecting liver function, and even ameliorating the symptoms of cachexia. This review should contribute to an understanding of Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment for cancer and provide useful information for the development of more effective anti-cancer drugs.

  16. Immune-mediated Hemolytic Anemia and Thrombocytopenia in the Dog: A retrospective study of 55 cases diagnosed from 1979 through 1983 at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Marion L.; Kruth, Stephen A.

    1985-01-01

    All recognized cases (n = 55) of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia in dogs presented to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine from 1969 through 1983 were reviewed. Specific areas of concern were: association with other conditions, therapeutic response, prognosis, relapse rate and final outcome. Of these 55 cases, 19 were immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, 26 were immune-mediated thrombocytopenia and 10 were both immune-mediated hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Females were slightly over-represented and the mean age was 6.4 years. Therapy consisted of various combinations of immuno-suppressive drugs and in some cases, whole blood transfusion and splenectomy. No firm conclusions could be made regarding therapeutic efficacy, as a result of variation in treatment protocol and the occasional unavailability of follow-up data. Well over half of all cases were diagnosed as idiopathic. Precipitating factors or diseases most frequently implicated in secondary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia or hemolytic anemia were: recent vaccination, drug therapy, obstetrical complications, stress, recent viral infection and neoplasia. Twice as many cases of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia were seen in the cooler months (October to March), although this could not be related to antibody class or thermal reactivity. Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia both as a single disease and combined with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia had no seasonal incidence. History, clinical findings and hematological and clinical chemistry findings were consistent with data previously reported, with the exception of icterus, which appeared to be of higher incidence than most reports, being present in almost 50% of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia cases. Just over half of all dogs survived, although the survival rate was highest for immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, followed closely by immune-mediated thrombocytopenia and lowest for the combined disease. Immune

  17. Genetic Structure, Diversity and Long Term Viability of a Medicinal Plant, Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham. (Icacinaceae), in Protected and Non-Protected Areas in the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Shivaprakash, K. Nagaraju; Ramesha, B. Thimmappa; Uma Shaanker, Ramanan; Dayanandan, Selvadurai; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani

    2014-01-01

    Background and Question The harvesting of medicinal plants from wild sources is escalating in many parts of the world, compromising the long-term survival of natural populations of medicinally important plants and sustainability of sources of raw material to meet pharmaceutical industry needs. Although protected areas are considered to play a central role in conservation of plant genetic resources, the effectiveness of protected areas for maintaining medicinal plant populations subject to intense harvesting pressure remain largely unknown. We conducted genetic and demographic studies of Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham, one of the extensively harvested medicinal plant species in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India to assess the effectiveness of protected areas in long-term maintenance of economically important plant species. Methodology/Principal Findings The analysis of adults and seedlings of N. nimmoniana in four protected and four non-protected areas using 7 nuclear microsatellite loci revealed that populations that are distributed within protected areas are subject to lower levels of harvesting and maintain higher genetic diversity (He = 0.816, Ho = 0.607, A = 18.857) than populations in adjoining non-protected areas (He = 0.781, Ho = 0.511, A = 15.571). Furthermore, seedlings in protected areas had significantly higher observed heterozygosity (Ho = 0.630) and private alleles as compared to seedlings in adjoining non-protected areas (Ho = 0.426). Most populations revealed signatures of recent genetic bottleneck. The prediction of long-term maintenance of genetic diversity using BOTTLESIM indicated that current population sizes of the species are not sufficient to maintain 90% of present genetic diversity for next 100 years. Conclusions/Significance Overall, these results highlight the need for establishing more protected areas encompassing a large number of adult plants in the Western Ghats to conserve genetic diversity

  18. Genetic Structure, Diversity and Long Term Viability of a Medicinal Plant, Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham. (Icacinaceae), in Protected and Non-Protected Areas in the Western Ghats Biodiversity Hotspot.

    PubMed

    Shivaprakash, K Nagaraju; Ramesha, B Thimmappa; Uma Shaanker, Ramanan; Dayanandan, Selvadurai; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani

    2014-01-01

    The harvesting of medicinal plants from wild sources is escalating in many parts of the world, compromising the long-term survival of natural populations of medicinally important plants and sustainability of sources of raw material to meet pharmaceutical industry needs. Although protected areas are considered to play a central role in conservation of plant genetic resources, the effectiveness of protected areas for maintaining medicinal plant populations subject to intense harvesting pressure remain largely unknown. We conducted genetic and demographic studies of Nothapodytes nimmoniana Graham, one of the extensively harvested medicinal plant species in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India to assess the effectiveness of protected areas in long-term maintenance of economically important plant species. The analysis of adults and seedlings of N. nimmoniana in four protected and four non-protected areas using 7 nuclear microsatellite loci revealed that populations that are distributed within protected areas are subject to lower levels of harvesting and maintain higher genetic diversity (He = 0.816, Ho = 0.607, A = 18.857) than populations in adjoining non-protected areas (He = 0.781, Ho = 0.511, A = 15.571). Furthermore, seedlings in protected areas had significantly higher observed heterozygosity (Ho = 0.630) and private alleles as compared to seedlings in adjoining non-protected areas (Ho = 0.426). Most populations revealed signatures of recent genetic bottleneck. The prediction of long-term maintenance of genetic diversity using BOTTLESIM indicated that current population sizes of the species are not sufficient to maintain 90% of present genetic diversity for next 100 years. Overall, these results highlight the need for establishing more protected areas encompassing a large number of adult plants in the Western Ghats to conserve genetic diversity of economically and medicinally important plant species.

  19. Erectile dysfunction treatment and traditional medicine—can East and West medicine coexist?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joe K. C.; Tan, Ronny B. W.

    2017-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common sexual problem affecting many men irrespective of cultures, beliefs and nationalities. While medical therapy for ED has been revolutionized by the advent of oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and intracavernosal injection of vasoactive agents, recent technological advances such stem cell therapy, low intensity shock wave and newer generation of penile prosthesis implant offer hope to men who do not respond to conventional medical therapy. In contrast, traditional and complementary medicine (TCM) focuses on the restoration and better overall bodily regulation with the use of various herbal and animal products as well as exercises to invigorate qi (energy) in vital organs. Western medicine involves an analysis of ED symptom and underlying causes that contribute to ED, while TCM emphases the concept of holism and harmonization of body organs to achieve natural sexual life. The following article reviews our current understanding regarding the philosophical approach, and evaluates the evidence surrounding various ED therapies between mainstream Western Medicine and TCM. PMID:28217454

  20. Paleolithic diets as a model for prevention and treatment of Western disease.

    PubMed

    Lindeberg, Staffan

    2012-01-01

    To explore the possibility that a paleolithic-like diet can be used in the prevention of age-related degenerative Western disease. Literature review of African Paleolithic foods in relation to recent evidence of healthy nutrition. Available evidence lends weak support in favor and little against the notion that lean meat, fish, vegetables, tubers, and fruit can be effective in the prevention and treatment of common Western diseases. There are no obvious risks with avoiding dairy products, margarine, oils, refined sugar, and cereal grains, which provide 70% or more of the dietary intake in northern European populations. If stroke, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer are preventable by dietary changes, an ancestral-like diet may provide an appropriate template. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A meta-analysis of Chinese herbal medicine in treatment of managed withdrawal from heroin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-ting; Shi, Jie; Epstein, David H; Bao, Yan-Ping; Lu, Lin

    2009-02-01

    Chinese herbal medicine has shown promise for heroin detoxification. This review extends a prior meta-analysis of Chinese herbal medicine for heroin detoxification, with particular attention to the time course of symptoms. Both English and Chinese databases were searched for randomized trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine to either alpha2-adrenergic agonists or opioid agonists for heroin detoxification. The methodological quality of each study was assessed with Jadad's scale (1-2 = low; 3-5 = high). Meta-analysis was performed with fixed- or random-effect models in RevMan software; outcome measures assessed were withdrawal-symptoms score, anxiety, and adverse effects of treatment. Twenty-one studies (2,949 participants) were included. For withdrawal-symptoms score relieving during the 10-day observation, Chinese herbal medicine was superior to alpha2-adrenergic agonists in relieving opioid-withdrawal symptoms during 4-10 days (except D8) and no difference was found within the first 3 days. Compared with opioid agonists, Chinese herbal medicine was inferior during the first 3 days, but the difference became non-significant during days 4-9. Chinese herbal medicine has better effect on anxiety relieving at late stage of intervention than alpha2-adrenergic agonists, and no difference with opioid agonists. The incidence of some adverse effects (fatigue, dizziness) was significantly lower for Chinese herbal medicine than for alpha2-adrenergic agonists (sufficient data for comparison with opioid agonists were not available). Findings were robust to file-drawer effects. Our meta-analysis suggests that Chinese herbal medicine is an effective and safety treatment for heroin detoxification. And more work is needed to determine the specific effects of specific forms of Chinese herbal medicine.

  2. A Meta-Analysis of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Treatment of Managed Withdrawal from Heroin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting-ting; Epstein, David H.; Bao, Yan-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine has shown promise for heroin detoxification. This review extends a prior meta-analysis of Chinese herbal medicine for heroin detoxification, with particular attention to the time course of symptoms. Both English and Chinese databases were searched for randomized trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine to either α2-adrenergic agonists or opioid agonists for heroin detoxification. The methodological quality of each study was assessed with Jadad’s scale (1–2 = low; 3–5 = high). Meta-analysis was performed with fixed- or random-effect models in RevMan software; outcome measures assessed were withdrawal-symptoms score, anxiety, and adverse effects of treatment. Twenty-one studies (2,949 participants) were included. For withdrawal-symptoms score relieving during the 10-day observation, Chinese herbal medicine was superior to α2-adrenergic agonists in relieving opioid-withdrawal symptoms during 4–10 days (except D8) and no difference was found within the first 3 days. Compared with opioid agonists, Chinese herbal medicine was inferior during the first 3 days, but the difference became non-significant during days 4–9. Chinese herbal medicine has better effect on anxiety relieving at late stage of intervention than α2-adrenergic agonists, and no difference with opioid agonists. The incidence of some adverse effects (fatigue, dizziness) was significantly lower for Chinese herbal medicine than for α2-adrenergic agonists (sufficient data for comparison with opioid agonists were not available). Findings were robust to file-drawer effects. Our meta-analysis suggests that Chinese herbal medicine is an effective and safety treatment for heroin detoxification. And more work is needed to determine the specific effects of specific forms of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:18584321

  3. [Comparative research into the process of forming the theory of constitution in ancient western medicine and that of four trigrams constitution in Korean medicine and contents of two theories of constitution].

    PubMed

    Park, Joo-Hong

    2009-06-01

    After conducting comparative research into the process of forming the Theory of Constitution in Ancient Western Medicine and that of Four Trigrams Constitution(Sasang Constitution) in Korean Medicine and contents of two Theories of Constitution in terms of medical history, both theories were found to be formed by an interaction between philosophy and medicine, followed by a combination of the two, on a philosophical basis. The Theory of Constitution in Ancient Western Medicine began with the Theory of Four Elements presented by Empedocles, followed by the Theory of Four Humors presented by Hippocrates and the Theory of Four Temperaments by Galenos, forming and developing the Theory of Constitution. After the Middle Ages, there was no significant advance in the Theory of Constitution by modern times ; however, it developed into the theory of constitution type of Kretschmer and others after the 19th century and into the scientific theory of constitution based on genetics presented by Garrod and others early in the 20th century. The Theory of Four Trigrams Constitution began with the Theory of Constitution in Huangdi Neijing, followed by developments and influences of existing medicine called beginning, restoration, and revival periods and DongeuisoosebowonSaSangChoBonGwon based on the original philosophy of Four Trigrams presented by Lee Je-ma, which is found in GyeokChiGo, DongMuYuGo and so on, ultimately forming and developing into the Theory of Four Trigrams Constitution in Dongeuisoosebowon. Recently, a lot of research is being conducted into making it objective in order to achieve reproducibility in diagnosis and so forth of Four Trigrams Constitution.

  4. An Australian nationwide survey on medicinal cannabis use for epilepsy: History of antiepileptic drug treatment predicts medicinal cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Suraev, Anastasia S; Todd, Lisa; Bowen, Michael T; Allsop, David J; McGregor, Iain S; Ireland, Carol; Lintzeris, Nicholas

    2017-02-24

    Epilepsy Action Australia conducted an Australian nationwide online survey seeking opinions on and experiences with the use of cannabis-based products for the treatment of epilepsy. The survey was promoted via the Epilepsy Action Australia's main website, on their Facebook page, and by word of mouth. The survey consisted of 39 questions assessing demographics, clinical factors, including diagnosis and seizure types, and experiences with and opinions towards cannabis use in epilepsy. A total of 976 responses met the inclusion criteria. Results show that 15% of adults with epilepsy and 13% of parents/guardians of children with epilepsy were currently using, or had previously used, cannabis products to treat epilepsy. Of those with a history of cannabis product use, 90% of adults and 71% of parents reported success in reducing seizure frequency after commencing cannabis products. The main reasons for medicinal cannabis use were to manage treatment-resistant epilepsy and to obtain a more favorable side-effect profile compared to standard antiepileptic drugs. The number of past antiepileptic drugs tried was a significant predictor of medicinal cannabis use in both adults and children with epilepsy. Fifty-six percent of adults with epilepsy and 62% of parents/guardians of children with epilepsy expressed willingness to participate in clinical trials of cannabinoids. This survey provides insight into the use of cannabis products for epilepsy, in particular some of the likely factors influencing use, as well as novel insights into the experiences of and attitudes towards medicinal cannabis in people with epilepsy in the Australian community. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Cannabinoids and Epilepsy".

  5. Swiss ethnoveterinary knowledge on medicinal plants - a within-country comparison of Italian speaking regions with north-western German speaking regions.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Maria; Zbinden, Mirjam; Vogl, Christan R; Ivemeyer, Silvia; Meier, Beat; Amorena, Michele; Maeschli, Ariane; Hamburger, Matthias; Walkenhorst, Michael

    2017-01-03

    Ethnoveterinary knowledge in Europe may play an important role as a basis for sustainable treatment options for livestock. Aims of our study were (a) to compare the ethnoveterinary practices of two culturally and sociodemographically different regions of Switzerland, (b) to compare results with earlier ethnoveterinary studies conducted in Switzerland and in adjacent Italian regions and, (c) to evaluate possible reasons for regional differences in European ethnoveterinary medicine. 25 interviews were conducted in 2014 in all Italian speaking regions (ItR) of Switzerland, and 31 interviews were held in five north-western German speaking Cantons (GeC). Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect detailed information regarding plant species, mode of preparation, dosage, route of administration, category of use, origin of knowledge, frequency of use, and satisfaction with outcomes of the treatments. A total of 162 homemade remedies in ItR and 219 in GeC were reported, out of which 125 and 145, respectively, were reported to contain only one plant species (homemade single species herbal remedy report, HSHR). 44 ItR and 43 GeC plant species were reported to treat livestock, of which only a half were used in both regions. For each HSHR, we classified the treatment intention of all use reports (UR), leading to a total of 205 and 219 UR in ItR and GeC respectively. While cattle were the most often treated livestock species in both study regions, in ItR 40% of UR were administered to small ruminants. Main indications in both regions were gastrointestinal diseases and skin afflictions, but in ItR a high number of URs were reported as antiparasitics. URs were mainly handed down from the past generation, but in GeC the source of knowledge for 20% of URs were from courses. Regarding the used plant species, ItR showed a higher concordance with Swiss than Italian studies, but with some differences to all regions. A total of 22 (14 ItR; 8 GeC) plant species in this study

  6. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Modalities for the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Facts or Myths?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Due to unsatisfactory results from conventional treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities are increasingly popular treatment alternatives. Unfortunately, most CAM clinical trials have been of poor quality, and the efficacies of these therapies have not been adequately elucidated, even through systematic reviews or meta-analyses. There is also a general lack of understanding of their mechanisms of action. Currently, insufficient evidence exists to support the use of traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture, meditation, and reflexology for treatment of IBS. However, there is some evidence supporting the use of peppermint oil and gut-directed hypnotherapy for IBS treatment. Due to mounting evidence of the microbiologic and immunologic basis of IBS, probiotics and exclusion diets are also becoming promising treatment modalities. This paper will review the current literature on various CAM practices for IBS treatment and appraise their advantages and disadvantages in clinical practice. PMID:21437019

  7. Perspectives of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners in the support and treatment of infertility.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Erin; Sevigny, Marika; Sabarre, Kelley-Anne; Phillips, Karen P

    2014-10-14

    Infertility patients are increasingly using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to supplement or replace conventional fertility treatments. The objective of this study was to determine the roles of CAM practitioners in the support and treatment of infertility. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted in Ottawa, Canada in 2011 with CAM practitioners who specialized in naturopathy, acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, hypnotherapy and integrated medicine. CAM practitioners played an active role in both treatment and support of infertility, using a holistic, interdisciplinary and individualized approach. CAM practitioners recognized biological but also environmental and psychosomatic determinants of infertility. Participants were receptive to working with physicians, however little collaboration was described. Integrated infertility patient care through both collaboration with CAM practitioners and incorporation of CAM's holistic, individualized and interdisciplinary approaches would greatly benefit infertility patients.

  8. The use of TeleMedicine in the Treatment of Pediatric Obesity: Feasibility and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ann McGrath; James, Rochelle L.; Boles, Richard E.; Goetz, Jeannine R.; Belmont, John; Malone, Brett

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of conducting empirically supported family based pediatric obesity group treatment via telemedicine. Methods Seventeen families were randomly assigned to one of two conditions (physician visit, TeleMedicine). Measures included feasibility, satisfaction, and intervention outcome measures such as BMI percentile, and nutrition and activity behaviors. Measures were completed at baseline, post-treatment, and at one-year follow-up. Results Analyses indicate that both feasibility and satisfaction data regarding the TeleMedicine intervention were positive. Intervention outcome indicates no change in BMI percentile or nutrition and activity behaviors for either treatment group. Conclusions A behavioral family-based weight loss intervention delivered via TeleMedicine was well received by both parents and providers. Due to the small sample size, null findings regarding intervention outcome should be interpreted with caution. Future research should focus on methods to increase the impact of this intervention on key outcome variables. PMID:21108739

  9. Beneficial effects of traditional Chinese medicine on the treatment of osteoporosis on ovariectomised rat models.

    PubMed

    Rufus, Pamela; Mohamed, Norazlina; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disorder that affects both men and women worldwide. It causes low bone mass and therefore increases bone susceptibility to fracture when bone undergoes a minor trauma. Lack of estrogen is the principal cause of osteoporosis. Estrogen, calcium, calcitonin, vitamin D and several antioxidants help in the prevention of osteoporosis. In order to effectively treat osteoporosis, there has been an extended research on the biological activities of traditional medicines since synthetic medicines possess several side effects that reduce their efficacy. Therefore, there is a need to develop new treatment alternatives for osteoporosis. This review centres on the scientific researches carried out on the evaluation of Chinese traditional medicines in the treatment of osteoporosis. Various plants like Achyranthes bidentata, Davallia formosana, polygonatum sibiricum, Cibotium barometz, Er-Zhi-Wan, Curculigo orchioides and a combined treatment of Hachimi-jio-gan (Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan) with alendronate proved active in preventing post-menopausal osteoporosis.

  10. Regenerative medicine for the treatment of heart disease.

    PubMed

    Hansson, E M; Lendahl, U

    2013-03-01

    Heart failure is a major cause of mortality worldwide with a steady increase in prevalence. There is currently no available cure beyond orthotopic heart transplantation, which for a number of reasons is an option only for a small fraction of all patients. Considerable hope has therefore been placed on the possibility of treating a failing heart by replacing lost cardiomyocytes, either through transplantation of various types of stem cells or by boosting endogenous regenerative mechanisms in the heart. Here, we review the current status of stem and progenitor cell-based therapies for heart disease. We discuss the pros and cons of different stem and progenitor cell types that can be considered for transplantation and describe recent advances in the understanding of how cardiomyocytes normally differentiate and how these cells can be generated from more immature cells ex vivo. Finally, we consider the possibility of activation of endogenous stem and progenitor cells to treat heart failure. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  11. Herbal Medicine as Inducers of Apoptosis in Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Safarzadeh, Elham; Sandoghchian Shotorbani, Siamak; Baradaran, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Nowadays, cancer is considered as a human tragedy and one of the most prevalent diseases in the wide, and its mortality resulting from cancer is being increased. It seems necessary to identify new strategies to prevent and treat such a deadly disease. Control survival and death of cancerous cell are important strategies in the management and therapy of cancer. Anticancer agents should kill the cancerous cell with the minimal side effect on normal cells that is possible through the induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis is known as programmed cell death in both normal and damaged tissues. This process includes some morphologically changes in cells such as rapid condensation and budding of the cell, formation of membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies with well-preserved organelles. Induction of apoptosis is one of the most important markers of cytotoxic antitumor agents. Some natural compounds including plants induce apoptotic pathways that are blocked in cancer cells through various mechanisms in cancer cells. Multiple surveys reported that people with cancer commonly use herbs or herbal products. Vinca Alkaloids, Texans, podo phyllotoxin, Camptothecins have been clinically used as Plant derived anticancer agents. The present review summarizes the literature published so far regarding herbal medicine used as inducers of apoptosis in cancer. PMID:25364657

  12. Treatment for an Adult Patient With Psoriasis with Traditional Korean Medicine, Especially Sa-Am Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yong-Cheol

    2016-04-01

    In this clinical study, the author tried to prove that meridians, each having its own characteristics, exist in humans through which skin diseases can be treated. Three meridians, the hand tai-yin meridian, the hand tai-yang meridian, and the shao-yang meridian, were used to control lung dryness and heat and liver fire. By using the LU9 and SP3 acupoints to tonify the hand tai-yin meridian and the SI3 acupoint to tonify the hand tai-yang meridian, we could sedate lung dryness and heat, and by using the TW2 acupoint to sedate the hand shao-yang meridian, we could sedate liver fire. As psoriasis is known not to respond well to many clinical treatments, this report presents the case of an adult woman with psoriasis who was effectively treated using traditional Korean medicine (TKM). The patient was diagnosed with psoriasis based on lung dryness and heat and liver fire. Acupuncture and herbal medicine based on the theory of Sa-Am acupuncture were given to the patient. With this treatment, her symptoms completely disappeared in ∼14 months. This study gives a preliminary indication that TKM, especially Sa-Am acupuncture, can be effective for treating psoriasis. Thus, further study is warranted.

  13. [Diagnostics and treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer using nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Morsing, Anni; Bogsrud, Trond Velde

    2012-06-25

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is a rare cancer with excellent prognosis for most patients. Primary treatment is surgery. Adjuvant radioiodine is used after surgery and in case of residual radioiodine positive disease. Measurements of serum thyroglobulin levels and neck ultrasound (US) are the primary follow-up procedures. For suspected recurrence, US, computed tomography (CT), radioiodine single photon emission computed tomography/CT, and FDG positron emission tomography/CT will be appropriate choices for restaging and further treatment planning. Multidisciplinary collaboration is crucial for optimal management of patients with DTC.

  14. Prevention and Treatment of Flatulence From a Traditional Persian Medicine Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Larijani, Bagher; Esfahani, Mohammad Medhi; Moghimi, Maryam; Shams Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Nazem, Esmaiel; Hasani Ranjbar, Shirin; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Zargaran, Arman

    2016-01-01

    Context The feeling of abdominal fullness, bloating, and movement of gas in the abdomen is a very uncomfortable sensation termed flatulence. Since flatulence is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms that is bothersome to patients, it is important to identify effective methods to resolve this issue. In modern medicine, management of flatulence is often not satisfactory. On the other hand, traditional systems of medicine can be considered good potential sources to find new approaches for preventing and treating flatulence. The aim of this study is to review flatulence treatments from a traditional Persian medicine (TPM) viewpoint. Evidence Acquisition In this study, the reasons for flatulence and methods for its prevention and treatment are reviewed in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) texts and then related with evidence from modern medicine by searching in databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and IranMedex. Results From a traditional Persian scholar viewpoint, one of the most important causes of flatulence is an incorrect manner of eating; valuable advice to correct bad eating habits will be illustrated. In addition, traditional practitioners describe some herbs and vegetables as well as herbal compounds that are effective food additives to relieve flatulence. The anti-flatulent effect of most of these herbs has been experimentally verified using modern medicine. Conclusions Attention to TPM can lead to the identification of new preventive and curative approaches to avoid and treat flatulence. In addition, Persian viewpoints from the medieval era regarding flatulence are historically important. PMID:27275398

  15. Prevention and Treatment of Flatulence From a Traditional Persian Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Larijani, Bagher; Esfahani, Mohammad Medhi; Moghimi, Maryam; Shams Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Nazem, Esmaiel; Hasani Ranjbar, Shirin; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Zargaran, Arman

    2016-04-01

    The feeling of abdominal fullness, bloating, and movement of gas in the abdomen is a very uncomfortable sensation termed flatulence. Since flatulence is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms that is bothersome to patients, it is important to identify effective methods to resolve this issue. In modern medicine, management of flatulence is often not satisfactory. On the other hand, traditional systems of medicine can be considered good potential sources to find new approaches for preventing and treating flatulence. The aim of this study is to review flatulence treatments from a traditional Persian medicine (TPM) viewpoint. In this study, the reasons for flatulence and methods for its prevention and treatment are reviewed in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) texts and then related with evidence from modern medicine by searching in databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and IranMedex. From a traditional Persian scholar viewpoint, one of the most important causes of flatulence is an incorrect manner of eating; valuable advice to correct bad eating habits will be illustrated. In addition, traditional practitioners describe some herbs and vegetables as well as herbal compounds that are effective food additives to relieve flatulence. The anti-flatulent effect of most of these herbs has been experimentally verified using modern medicine. Attention to TPM can lead to the identification of new preventive and curative approaches to avoid and treat flatulence. In addition, Persian viewpoints from the medieval era regarding flatulence are historically important.

  16. History and Experience: A Survey of Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Kong, Mingwang; Yuan, Shihe; Liu, Junfeng; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is practiced in the Chinese health care system for more than 2,000 years. In recent years, herbal medicines, which are used to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) in China based on TCM or modern pharmacological theories have attracted considerable attention. In this paper, we discuss etiology and pathogenesis of AD, TCM therapy, and herbal extracts for the treatment of AD. There is evidence to suggest that TCM therapy may offer certain complementary cognitive benefits for the treatment of AD. Chinese herb may have advantages with multiple target regulation compared with the single-target antagonist in view of TCM. PMID:24624220

  17. Scientific Evaluation of Pharmacological Treatment of Osteoarthritis in the Canon of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Choopani, Rasool; Ghourchian, Anahita; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Osteoarthritis is the most common articular disease worldwide. Nonetheless, common osteoarthritis treatments are either not effective or associated with side effects. Now the materials derived from plants have found a relevant place in drug discovery. Until the mid-18th century, osteoarthritis in all medical schools worldwide had been managed as general arthritis. Avicenna, the famous scholar of Iranian traditional medicine has provided a long list of herbs that have been used traditionally to treat arthritis. To gain this worthy list, we searched his most famous medical masterpiece: Canon of Medicine Some of these materials are investigated and employed by modern medicine. However, it is difficult to ignore that still more of these naturally occurring materials could be of use in modern medicine not only to prevent osteoarthritis progression but also osteoarthritis management as natural anti-inflammatory drugs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Listeriosis Phytotherapy: A Review Study on the Effectiveness of Iranian Medicinal Plants in Treatment of Listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Saki, Kourosh; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Taherikalani, Morovat

    2015-12-17

    Listeria monocytogenes can be found in many processed foods, raw milk, dairy products, meat and meat products such as sausages, beef and fish products, seafoods, eggs, fruits, and vegetables such as radish and cabbage. This article is a review study on the Iranian medicinal plants applied for treatment of listeriosis. Information of this review article was obtained by searching various key words such as Listeria monocytogenes, medicinal plants, plant extracts and essential oils among scientific articles published in databases of Google scholar, ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, SID and Magiran. Thyme, German chamomile, great chamomile, yarrow, onion, oregano, nutmeg, sage, sagebrush, hyssop, rosemary, St John's wort, safflower, ajowan, cumin, peppermint, shallot, anise, and parsnip are known antilisteriosis medicinal plants. Bioactive phytochemicals, antioxidants and monoterpenes, sesquiterpene, coumarin, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and terpenoids are the main ingredients of antilisteriosis medicinal plants.

  19. The clinical study of the optimalization of surgical treatment and the traditional Chinese medicine intervention on palmar hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Yan, Zhikun; Fu, Xiaoqing; Dong, Liwen; Xu, Linhai; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Genmiao

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the efficacy of different surgical methods in treating palmar hyperhidrosis and the compensatory hyperhidrosis after surgery and to observe the efficacy of "Energy-boosting and Yin-nourishing anti-perspirant formula" on postsurgical hyperhidrosis patients. Two-hundred patients were randomly assigned to groups A (Chinese and Western medicine, T4 transection plus "Energy-boosting and Yin-nourishing anti-perspirant formula") and B (Western medicine, T4 transection). The surgical efficiency, recurrence rate, compensatory hyperhidrosis, and the long-term life quality were compared. Another 100 cases (group C, T2 transection) were analyzed as a control group. After surgery, the palmar hyperhidrosis and armpit sweating were relieved in all the three group patients and in 34 % of patients combined with plantar hyperhidrosis, the symptoms were relieved. Transient palmar hyperhidrosis was found in three cases at day 2 to day 5 postoperatively. One case of Horner's syndrome and one case recurrence were found in group C patients. The compensatory sweating of various degrees occurred in all the three groups. There were 25, 24, and 43 cases in groups A, B, and C, respectively. There is a significant difference between groups C, A, and B. The compensatory sweating in 13 cases of group A and four cases of group B had different degrees of improvement in the follow-up 6 months after surgery. There is a significant difference. Thoracoscopic bilateral T4 sympathetic chain and the Kuntz resection are the optimized surgical treatments for the palmar hyperhidrosis. "Energy-boosting and Yin-nourishing anti-perspirant formula" is effective in treating the postoperative compensatory sweating.

  20. Traditional/Alternative Medicine: An Investigation into Identification, Knowledge and Consumption Practices of Herbal Medicine among Students with Hearing Impairment in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeniyi, Samuel O.; Olufemi-Adeniyi, Olubukola A.; Erinoso, Sakiru M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of traditional medicine as alternative or complimentary therapy is gaining prominence in primary health care worldwide. This is because of the efficacy in the management of mild, chronic seemingly incurable ailments/diseases. Though the publicity is on the increase from country to country in the world, however, one cannot conclude that the…

  1. Dominant viral pathologies in the extensive and semi-intensive animal breeding and their treatment mode in ethno veterinary medicine in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Kpodékon, T. M.; Ogni, C. A.; Dassou, H.; Dougnon, T. J.; Boko, C.; Koutinhouin, G. B.; Goussanou, J. S. E.; Akoegninou, A.; Youssao, I.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to identify the dominant viral animal pathologies and to list the traditional recipes used by the breeders for their treatment. Materials and Methods: The method of data collection was based on a retrospective survey. Thus, 787 breeders and agro-breeders scattered in the eight agro-ecological areas of Benin were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Results: In total, 5 pathologies were reported by breeders. Among those pathologies, foot and mouth disease was reported by all of the breeders of the southern part of Borgou compared with the other areas (p<0.05) and treated by 25 species of medicinal plants. African swine fever was the main pathology reported (22.92%) (p<0.05) in the fishery areas which is controlled by 7 medicinal plants. Pseudorinderpest was more reported (33.78%) (p<0.05) in the cotton area of central Benin and treated by 8 medicinal plants. There is also Newcastle disease that was mostly reported in the Western Atacora and treated by 32 medicinal plants as well as fowl pox which was a more reported in the lands of the bar area and the low-pressure area about 34.48% and 36.17% proportions, respectively, and treated by eight medicinal plants. Conclusion: The breeders in Benin possess rich ethno veterinary knowledge on medicinal plants and their uses in the treatment of livestock. A total of 57 medicinal plants have been inventoried to fight against five major viral diseases as African swine fever, pseudorinderpest and foot and mouth disease. The common plants used to treat viral disease in general were Euphorbia unispina, Euphorbia poissonii, Lannea acida, and Mangifera indica. The most harvested organs on the plants reported in this survey were the barks, the leaves, and the whole plants. To better develop our indigenous resources, it would be important to expand this ethno-pharmacological investigation to other diseases category. PMID:27047056

  2. Traditional Chinese medicine valuably augments therapeutic options in the treatment of climacteric syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, Sarah; Fleckenstein, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    Climacteric syndrome refers to recurring symptoms such as hot flashes, chills, headache, irritability and depression. This is usually experienced by menopausal women and can be related to a hormonal reorganization in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, originating 1000s of years ago, above-mentioned symptoms can be interpreted on the basis of the philosophic diagnostic concepts, such as the imbalance of Yin and Yang, the Zang-Fu and Basic substances (e.g. Qi, Blood and Essence). These concepts postulate balance and harmonization as the principle aim of a treatment. In this context, it is not astounding that one of the most prominent ancient textbooks dating back to 500-200 BC, Huang di Neijing: The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine gives already first instructions for diagnosis and therapy of climacteric symptoms. For therapy, traditional Chinese medicine comprises five treatment principles: Chinese herbal medicine, TuiNa (a Chinese form of manual therapy), nutrition, activity (e.g. QiGong) and acupuncture (being the most widespread form of treatment used in Europe). This review provides an easy access to the concepts of traditional Chinese medicine particularly regarding to climacteric syndrome and also focuses on current scientific evidence.

  3. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: A Review of Recent Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Hamid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Moradi Nafchi, Atefeh; Saberianpour, Shirin; Rafieian Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Context: Acne vulgaris affects about 85% of teenagers and may continue to adulthood. There are about two million visits to physicians per year for teenagers and the direct cost of acne treatment in the US exceeds $1 billion per year. Evidence Acquisition: A wide variety of treatment regimens exist for acne vulgaris including benzoil peroxide, retinoids, isotretinoids, keratolytic soaps, alpha hydroxy acids, azelaic acid, salicilic acid as well as hormonal, anti-androgen or antiseborrheic treatments. However, none of these methods is free of side effects and their exact role in therapy is not clear. In this paper apart from presenting the possible causes of acne vulgaris and its available drugs, recently published papers about medicinal plants used in the treatment of acne vulgaris were reviewed. Results: Consumption of alternative and complementary medicine, including medicinal plants, is increasing and is common amongst patients affected by acne and infectious skin diseases. Medicinal plants have a long history of use and have been shown to possess low side effects. These plants are a reliable source for preparation of new drugs. Conclusions: Many plants seem to have inhibitory effects on the growth of bacteria, fungi and viruses in vitro. However, there are a few clinical evidences about the effectiveness and safety of these plants in the treatment of acne and other skin infections. PMID:26862380

  4. The role of regenerative medicine in the treatment of sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Gerard; Nakamura, Reina; Nakamurra, Reina

    2014-11-01

    Traditional treatment of sports injuries includes use of the PRICE principle (Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, physical therapy modalities, and corticosteroid injections. Recent evidence has raised concerns over this traditional treatment approach regarding the use of anti-inflammatories and injectable corticosteroids. More recent treatments, known as regenerative medicine, include platelet-rich plasma and stem cell therapies. Evidence for their efficacy in a variety of sports injuries has emerged, ranging from tendinopathy and muscle tears to ligament and chondral injuries. This article reviews the literature regarding established treatments for sports injuries and these more innovative treatments.

  5. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... use practices like acupuncture in medicine. But until recently, most Western hospitals didn't provide any alternative ... medicine is often used instead of conventional medical techniques. Complementary medicine is used in addition to conventional ...

  6. Prescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Pattern-Based Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Depression: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Ka-Yan; Yu, Yee-Man; Ng, Bacon Fung-Leung; Ziea, Eric Tat-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments are often prescribed based on individuals' pattern diagnoses. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials in Chinese and English literatures on TCM pattern-based treatment for depression has therefore been conducted. A total of 61 studies, 2504 subjects, and 27 TCM patterns were included. Due to the large variation of TCM pattern among participants, we only analyzed the top four commonly studied TCM patterns: liver qi depression, liver depression and spleen deficiency, dual deficiency of the heart, and spleen and liver depression and qi stagnation. We found that Xiaoyao decoction was the most frequently used herbal formula for the treatment of liver qi depression and liver depression with spleen deficiency, while Chaihu Shugan decoction was often used for liver depression and qi stagnation. Bai Shao (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) and Chai Hu (Bupleurum chinense DC.) were commonly used across different TCM patterns regardless of the prescribed Chinese herbal formulas. The rationale underlying herb selection was seldom provided. Due to the limited number of studies on TCM pattern-based treatment of depression and their low methodological quality, we are unable to draw any conclusion regarding which herbal formulas have higher efficacy and which TCM patterns respond better to CHM. PMID:26180532

  7. Mechanisms of action of phytochemicals from medicinal herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Hye; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Woong Mo

    2014-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia and deterioration of cognitive function. Although several drugs currently used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease delay its onset and slow its progression, still there is no drug with profound disease-modifying effects. Studies aiming the treatment of this neurodegenerative disorder explore various disease mechanisms. Since antiquity, medicinal herbs have been used in traditional medicine. Recent studies suggest that the neurobiological effects of phytochemicals from medicinal herbs may contribute to clinical benefits in in vitro and in vivo models of Alzheimer's disease. This review focuses on five phytochemicals, berberine, curcumin, ginsenoside Rg1, puerarin, and silibinin, which have been mostly investigated to treat the development and progression of this neurodegenerative disorder.

  8. The influence of personality traits and beliefs about medicines on adherence to asthma treatment.

    PubMed

    Emilsson, Maria; Berndtsson, Ina; Lötvall, Jan; Millqvist, Eva; Lundgren, Jesper; Johansson, Ake; Brink, Eva

    2011-06-01

    To explore the influence of personality traits and beliefs about medicines on adherence to treatment with asthma medication. Respondents were 35 asthmatic adults prescribed controller medication. They answered questionnaires about medication adherence, personality traits, and beliefs about medicines. In gender comparisons, the personality traits "Neuroticism" in men and "adherence to medication" were associated with lower adherent behaviour. Associations between personality traits and beliefs in the necessity of medication for controlling the illness were identified. Beliefs about the necessity of medication were positively associated with adherent behaviour in women. In the total sample, a positive "necessity-concern" differential predicted adherent behaviour. The results imply that personality and beliefs about medicines may influence how well adults with asthma adhere to treatment with asthma medication.

  9. Clinical presentation and treatment outcome of retinoblastoma in children of South Western China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingge; Zeng, Jihong; Guo, Bo; He, Weimin; Chen, Jun; Lu, Fang; Chen, Danian

    2016-10-01

    To study the clinical presentation and treatment outcome among children in South Western China with retinoblastoma (RB) and to determine factors predictive of poor outcome.A retrospective review of children diagnosed with RB from 2006 to 2015 at West China Hospital was undertaken. Demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were studied.A total of 253 patients (unilateral 80.2%, bilateral 19.8%) were studied. Twenty six patients (10.3%) were from minority ethnic groups of China. The median onset age was 21 months. Leukocoria was the most common presenting sign (71%). Tumors were intraocular in 91.3% cases, extraocular in 8.7% cases. Extraocular RB patients had a longer median lag period than intraocular patients (9 months vs 2 months, P < 0.0001). In the intraocular group, 89.5% were advanced group D or E diseases. Enucleation was the major treatment for intraocular RB. However, over 10 years, the enucleation rate decreased constantly while more patients received chemotherapy. The Kaplan-Meier survival probability was 87.8%, 81.4%, and 74.8% at 3 years, 5 years, and 10 years, respectively. On Cox regression analysis, extraocular RB (P = 0.0008) and treatment abandonment (P < 0.0001) were associated with poor outcome; bilateral RB (P = 0.0116) and advanced pathological grade pT4 (P = 0.0011) were associated with poor outcome of intraocular RB.Most RB patients from South Western China were diagnosed at advanced clinical stage. Delayed presentation is related to extraocular RB which is a risk factor for poor outcome. Chemotherapy increased the eye salvage but had no effects to overall survival. Education for parents and general physicians for the early signs of RB (such as leukocoria), therapeutic strategy and treatment outcomes of RB may promote early diagnosis, improve the compliance, and outcome.

  10. Clinical presentation and treatment outcome of retinoblastoma in children of South Western China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jingge; Zeng, Jihong; Guo, Bo; He, Weimin; Chen, Jun; Lu, Fang; Chen, Danian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To study the clinical presentation and treatment outcome among children in South Western China with retinoblastoma (RB) and to determine factors predictive of poor outcome. A retrospective review of children diagnosed with RB from 2006 to 2015 at West China Hospital was undertaken. Demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were studied. A total of 253 patients (unilateral 80.2%, bilateral 19.8%) were studied. Twenty six patients (10.3%) were from minority ethnic groups of China. The median onset age was 21 months. Leukocoria was the most common presenting sign (71%). Tumors were intraocular in 91.3% cases, extraocular in 8.7% cases. Extraocular RB patients had a longer median lag period than intraocular patients (9 months vs 2 months, P < 0.0001). In the intraocular group, 89.5% were advanced group D or E diseases. Enucleation was the major treatment for intraocular RB. However, over 10 years, the enucleation rate decreased constantly while more patients received chemotherapy. The Kaplan–Meier survival probability was 87.8%, 81.4%, and 74.8% at 3 years, 5 years, and 10 years, respectively. On Cox regression analysis, extraocular RB (P = 0.0008) and treatment abandonment (P < 0.0001) were associated with poor outcome; bilateral RB (P = 0.0116) and advanced pathological grade pT4 (P = 0.0011) were associated with poor outcome of intraocular RB. Most RB patients from South Western China were diagnosed at advanced clinical stage. Delayed presentation is related to extraocular RB which is a risk factor for poor outcome. Chemotherapy increased the eye salvage but had no effects to overall survival. Education for parents and general physicians for the early signs of RB (such as leukocoria), therapeutic strategy and treatment outcomes of RB may promote early diagnosis, improve the compliance, and outcome. PMID:27759657

  11. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used in the Traditional Treatment of Gastrointestinal Pain, Inflammation and Diarrhea in Africa: Future Perspectives for Integration into Modern Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Timo D.; Mtui, Dorah J.; Balemba, Onesmo B.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This review provides an inventory of numerous plant species used as traditional remedies for pain and diarrhea in Africa. Africa can emulate advances in traditional Chinese medicine through research, commercialization, teaching traditional medicine in medical schools, and incorporating botanical products in treating veterinary and human patients. Prioritized research of plant species with proven folklore in treating pain and diarrhea using high throughput screening to identify and test bioactive compounds to verify their effectiveness, mechanisms of action and safety and translational research are needed to facilitate these advances and the integration of traditional African botanical preparations for treating pain and gastrointestinal disorders into western medicine. Abstract There is a growing need to find the most appropriate and effective treatment options for a variety of painful syndromes, including conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract, for treating both veterinary and human patients. The most successful regimen may come through integrated therapies including combining current and novel western drugs with acupuncture and botanical therapies or their derivatives. There is an extensive history and use of plants in African traditional medicine. In this review, we have highlighted botanical remedies used for treatment of pain, diarrheas and inflammation in traditional veterinary and human health care in Africa. These preparations are promising sources of new compounds comprised of flavonoids, bioflavanones, xanthones, terpenoids, sterols and glycosides as well as compound formulas and supplements for future use in multimodal treatment approaches to chronic pain, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammation. The advancement of plant therapies and their derivative compounds will require the identification and validation of compounds having specific anti-nociceptive neuromodulatory and/or anti-inflammatory effects. In particular, there is

  12. New horizon in the treatment of sepsis: a systematic review of alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Sarah; Ghannadi, Alireza; Meidani, Mohsen

    2016-12-01

    BackgroundDespite great advancement in treatment of sepsis, mortality of sepsis remains unacceptably high, even with the modern antibiotic and intensive care technologies. Considering the key role of immune dysfunction in sepsis pathophysiology, different treatments were evaluated, but failed to improve survival of patients. Natural remedies have been tested in various studies to overcome sepsis. In this study, we aim to review some of the evidence from clinical, in vitro and in vivo studies about the effect of alternative medicine on sepsis management. MethodsThe following databases were searched up to March 2014: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Ovid and Google Scholar using combination of Mesh term. All in vitro and in vivo studies, also clinical trials, published in English, which evaluated alternative medicine in management of sepsis were included. Results Out of 95 relevant studies, the inclusion criteria were met for 79 cases. Among them, 18 studies were performed on humans. The most herbal medicine, including Xubijing (n=10) and then Rhubarb (n=3). Most of the reviewed botanical medicines modulate the immune system. Reduction of mortality was also reported in studies. ConclusionsModulation of immune system, anti-inflammatory activities and improvement of survival were the action of herbal medicine. A monovalent approach is not enough for treatment of sepsis, we recommend further studies to identify active component of herbal and use them in combination. Also an animal model of sepsis does not exactly mimic human sepsis, so more clinical studies should be performed. With no new drug on the horizon, herbal medicine will be promising for treatment of sepsis.

  13. Successful Integrative Medicine Assessment and Treatment of Chronic Pain Associated With Breast Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Myung Kyu

    2017-01-01

    Presented is the first reported case series of chronic neck and back pain associated with breast scars from breast surgery and successfully treated with an integrative medicine assessment and treatment approach, which included the assessment technique of autonomic response testing and the scar therapy technique of neural therapy. Implications for nursing practice are discussed. PMID:27782920

  14. [Recognizing prevention and treatment of burn sepsis with the concept of holistic integrative medicine].

    PubMed

    Huan, J N

    2017-04-20

    Sepsis remains a major cause of death in severe burns. The effect of sepsis management is influenced by its complicated pathophysiologic changes. In order to improve the outcome of burn sepsis, the predisposing factor of sepsis after burn analyzed by advanced technology, the early prevention, antibiotics therapy, and combined treatment in severe burns with sepsis are discussed using the concept of holistic integrative medicine.

  15. Use of traditional herbal medicine as an alternative in dental treatment in Mexican dentistry: a review.

    PubMed

    Cruz Martínez, Cindy; Diaz Gómez, Martha; Oh, Myung Sook

    2017-12-01

    Herbal therapies are used worldwide to treat health conditions. In Mexico, generations have used them to treat gingivitis, periodontitis, mouth infections, and discoloured teeth. However, few studies have collected scientific evidence on their effects. This study aimed at searching and compiling scientific evidence of alternative oral and dental treatments using medicinal herbs from Mexico. We collected various Mexican medicinal plants used in the dental treatment from the database of the Institute of Biology at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. To correlate with existing scientific evidence, we used the PubMed database with the key term '(scientific name) and (oral or dental)'. Mexico has various medical herbs with antibacterial and antimicrobial properties, according to ancestral medicinal books and healers. Despite a paucity of experimental research demonstrating the antibacterial, antimicrobial, and antiplaque effects of these Mexican plants, they could still be useful as an alternative treatment of several periodontal diseases or as anticariogenic agents. However, the number of studies supporting their uses and effects remains insufficient. It is important for the health of consumers to scientifically demonstrate the real effects of natural medicine, as well as clarify and establish their possible therapeutic applications. Through this bibliographical revision, we found papers that testify or refute their ancestral uses, and conclude that the use of plants to treat oral conditions or to add to the dental pharmacological arsenal should be based on experimental studies verifying their suitability for dental treatments.

  16. Outcome of tuberculosis patients under directly observed short course treatment in western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ejeta, Eyasu; Chala, Muda; Arega, Gebeyaw; Ayalsew, Kassahu; Tesfaye, Lensa; Birhanu, Tadesse; Disassa, Haimanot

    2015-07-30

    Treatment outcome is an important indicator of tuberculosis control programs, as suggested by the World Health Organization. However, this has not been well documented in the study area. This work contributes to a better understanding this issue. A five-year (2009-2013) retrospective cohort study was conducted between April and May 2014, in six randomly selected health institutions providing tuberculosis treatment in western Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between treatment outcomes and predictor variables. A total of 1,175 tuberculosis patients with a mean (standard deviation) age of 29.91 (13.99) were involved in the study. The majority of the study participants had smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (39.7%) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (39.7%). Of all the study participants, 14.5% were cured, 56.3% completed treatment, 0.2% had treatment failure, 8.1% died during follow-up, 7.1% were reported as defaulters, and 13.8% were transferred out to another health institution. The overall treatment success rate was 70.8% and show progressive increases over the course of the study. The associated predictors were enrollment years, HIV co-infection, and sputum smear follow-up in the second, fifth, and seven months. The treatment success rate was unsatisfactory in spite of improvement seen over the study period. Thus, continued follow-up of patients, with frequent supportive supervision during the course of treatment, and provision of early detection and follow-up for HIV infection need to be strengthened to achieve an effective treatment outcome.

  17. Toward the use of precision medicine for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wang; Xiao, Yandi; Wei, Zihao; Yuan, Yao; Qiu, Min; Sun, Chongkui; Zeng, Xin; Liang, Xinhua; Feng, Mingye; Chen, Qianming

    2017-01-10

    Precision medicine is a new strategy that aims at preventing and treating human diseases by focusing on individual variations in people's genes, environment and lifestyle. Precision medicine has been used for cancer diagnosis and treatment and shows evident clinical efficacy. Rapid developments in molecular biology, genetics and sequencing technologies, as well as computational technology, has enabled the establishment of "big data", such as the Human Genome Project, which provides a basis for precision medicine. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an aggressive cancer with a high incidence rate and low survival rate. Current therapies are often aggressive and carry considerable side effects. Much research now indicates that precision medicine can be used for HNSCC and may achieve improved results. From this perspective, we present an overview of the current status, potential strategies, and challenges of precision medicine in HNSCC. We focus on targeted therapy based on cell the surface signaling receptors epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), and on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR, JAK/STAT3 and RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK cellular signaling pathways. Gene therapy for the treatment of HNSCC is also discussed.

  18. Toward the use of precision medicine for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wang; Xiao, Yandi; Wei, Zihao; Yuan, Yao; Qiu, Min; Sun, Chongkui; Zeng, Xin; Liang, Xinhua; Feng, Mingye; Chen, Qianming

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine is a new strategy that aims at preventing and treating human diseases by focusing on individual variations in people's genes, environment and lifestyle. Precision medicine has been used for cancer diagnosis and treatment and shows evident clinical efficacy. Rapid developments in molecular biology, genetics and sequencing technologies, as well as computational technology, has enabled the establishment of “big data”, such as the Human Genome Project, which provides a basis for precision medicine. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an aggressive cancer with a high incidence rate and low survival rate. Current therapies are often aggressive and carry considerable side effects. Much research now indicates that precision medicine can be used for HNSCC and may achieve improved results. From this perspective, we present an overview of the current status, potential strategies, and challenges of precision medicine in HNSCC. We focus on targeted therapy based on cell the surface signaling receptors epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), and on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR, JAK/STAT3 and RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK cellular signaling pathways. Gene therapy for the treatment of HNSCC is also discussed. PMID:27924064

  19. Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of primary hypertension: a methodology overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Xinke, Zhao; Yingdong, Li; Mingxia, Feng; Kai, Liu; Kaibing, Chen; Yuqing, Lu; Shaobo, Sun; Peng, Song; Bin, Liu

    2016-10-20

    Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat hypertension in China and East Asia since centuries. In this study, we conduct an overview of systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of primary hypertension to 1) summarize the conclusions of these reviews, 2) evaluate the methodological quality of these reviews, and 3) rate the confidence in the effect on each outcome. We comprehensively searched six databases to retrieve systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicine for primary hypertension from inception to December 31, 2015. We used AMSTAR to evaluate the methodological quality of included reviews, and we classified the quality of evidence for each outcome in included reviews using the GRADE approach. A total of 12 systematic reviews with 31 outcomes were included, among which 11 systematic reviews focus on the therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicine combined with conventional medicine or simple Chinese herbal medicine versus simple conventional medicine. Among the 11 items of AMSTAR, the lowest quality was "providing a priori design" item, none review conformed to this item, the next was "stating the conflict of interest" item, only three reviews conformed to this item. Five reviews scored less than seven in AMSTAR, which means that the overall methodological quality was fairly poor. For GRADE, of the 31 outcomes, the quality of evidence was high in none (0 %), moderate in three (10 %), low in 19 (61 %), and very low in nine (29 %). Of the five downgrading factors, risk of bias (100 %) was the most common downgrading factor in the included reviews, followed by imprecision (42 %), inconsistency (39 %), publication bias (39 %), and indirectness (0 %). The methodological quality of systematic reviews about Chinese herbal medicine for primary hypertension is fairly poor, and the quality of evidence level is low. Physicians should be cautious when applying the interventions in these reviews for primary hypertension patients in

  20. [Research on our hospital inventory management status quo of traditional Chinese medicine drugs and treatment method].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Nan; Xu, Wen

    2014-03-01

    Under the background of the new medical reform, a large variety of traditional Chinese medicine from complicated sources, Chinese traditional medicine of actor of true and false of the quality directly affect the drug safety and clinical efficacy, but also relate to the social and economic benefits of hospital. Along with the development of the modern management of medical institutions and drug circulation circulation system reform in our country, the hospital drug inventory, supply and management work is an important topic for the pharmaceutical trading. However, there is always contradiction, dispensary need to supple pharmacy, in order to satisfy the demands of hospital patients with normal diagnosis and treatment work. However, if the drug inventory is too much, not only increases the drug monitoring problem, at the same time, but also causes storage costs rise. Therefore, completing scientific and reasonable storage and management becomes urgent problems at present. Wherefore, our country administration of traditional Chinese medicine in 2007 promulgated the "Chinese traditional medicine yinpian management norms in hospital", aims to standardize management of Chinese traditional medicine quality and improve the safety of drugs. The author through looking up information and visiting survey, to understand the currently existing problems, and summarizes the literature inland and abroad in recent years Chinese medicine drug inventory management work experience, in view of status quo of Chinese medicine inventory management in China, put forward the solution. To guarantee TCM pharmacy management more standardized, more standard, to adapt to the new reform of Chinese traditional medicine industry, improve the management level of hospital, defend the hospital's reputation and the patient's interests.

  1. Precision Medicine Clinical Trials: Defining New Treatment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Heckman-Stoddard, Brandy M.; Smith, Judith J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To discuss the role of clinical trials in the changing landscape of cancer care resulting in individualized cancer treatment plans including a discussion of several innovative randomized studies designed to evaluate multiple targeted therapies in molecularly defined subsets of individuals. Data Sources Medical and nursing literature, research articles, and clinicaltrials.gov. Conclusion Recent advancements in cancer biomarkers and biomedical technology have begun to transform fundamentals of cancer therapeutics and clinical trials through innovative adaptive trial designs. The goal of these studies is to learn not only if a drug is safe and effective but also how it is best delivered and who will derive the most benefit. Implications for Nursing Practice Implementation of clinical trials in the cancer biomarker era requires knowledge, skills, and expertise related to the use of biomarkers and molecularly defined processes underlying a malignancy, as well as an understanding of associated ethical, legal, and social issues to provide competent, safe, and effective health care and patient communication. PMID:24794084

  2. Evaluation of medicine retail outlets for sale of typhoid fever vaccine among adults in two urban and rural settings in western Kenya: a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Ho, Julius; Odhiambo, Gladys; Meng'anyi, Lucy W; Musuva, Rosemary M; Mule, Joseph M; Alaly, Zakayo S; Odiere, Maurice R; Mwinzi, Pauline N; Ganley-Leal, Lisa

    2016-09-29

    Private sector medicine outlets are an important provider of health services across the developing world, and are an untapped means of distributing and selling vaccines outside of childhood immunization programs. The present study assessed the viability of medicine outlets (chemists and pharmacies) as potential channels for sale of vaccines. To evaluate the viability of the medicine outlet model, we partnered with nine outlets across urban and rural communities in western Kenya to sell a nurse-administered typhoid vaccine. Purchasers were surveyed to reveal market demographic characteristics, reasons for vaccine purchase, and sources of information about the program. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions defined acceptability, demand, and additional suggestions for improving this mechanism of selling and distributing vaccines. There was a higher than expected demand for the vaccine that resulted in stock-outs. Previous instance of typhoid, desire to prevent disease, affordable price and convenience were cited by most participants as main reasons for purchase of vaccine at the local outlet. The most common source of information on the vaccine sale was word-of-mouth and referral from friends. Longer vaccine sale duration, adequate stocking of vaccines and extended hours of administration in the evening to allow working individuals to buy vaccines were cited by participants as ways for improved participation in the future. This study demonstrated a high demand for vaccines at community medicine outlets. Important insights on how to improve and sustain such a program included extension of distribution time, education of outlet keepers, and minimizing vaccine stockouts. With improved social marketing, infrastructure mapping, education and pricing schemes, medicine outlets could become a sustainable avenue for selling adult vaccines in emerging markets for both routine and pandemic vaccines.

  3. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Davids, Denver; Gibson, Diana; Johnson, Quinton

    2016-12-24

    The aim of this study was to identify and document medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa. One hundred and twelve (112) respondents were interviewed between August 2014 and September 2015 through semi-structured surveys to gather data on the percentage of people who had been diagnosed with High Blood Pressure and/or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and to determine the frequency of medicinal plant and allopathic medicine use. Twelve (12) key respondents were subsequently selected, using a non-probability snowball sampling method. They were interviewed in-depth concerning their plant practices and assisted with plant collection. Twenty-four plant (24) species belonging to 15 families were identified for the management of High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The most frequently reported families were Asteraceae (20.8%), Lamiaceae (16.67%), Crassulaceae (8.33%) and Aizoaceae (8.33%). The remaining (45.54%) were evenly split over eleven families- Fabaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Capparaceae, Geraniaceae, Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Apocynaceae, Rutaceae, Asphodelaceae and Thymelaeaceae. The most commonly used plant species overall was Lessertia frutescens (96.55%). The most frequently used plant parts included leaves (57.63%) roots/bulbs (15.25%) and stems (11.86%), mostly prepared as infusions or decoctions for oral administration. Medicinal plants are widely used by High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus sufferers. They employ diverse plant species to manage both conditions. In addition, some sufferers often use prescribed allopathic medication, as well as medicinal plants, but at different intervals. Despite high usage the plants identified are not currently threatened (Red Data list status: least concern). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential of Central, Eastern and Western Africa Medicinal Plants for Cancer Therapy: Spotlight on Resistant Cells and Molecular Targets

    PubMed Central

    Mbaveng, Armelle T.; Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Cancer remains a major health hurdle worldwide and has moved from the third leading cause of death in the year 1990 to second place after cardiovascular disease since 2013. Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used treatment modes; however, its efficiency is limited due to the resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. The present overview deals with the potential of the flora of Central, Eastern and Western African (CEWA) regions as resource for anticancer drug discovery. It also reviews the molecular targets of phytochemicals of these plants such as ABC transporters, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multi drug-resistance-related proteins (MRPs), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) as well as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB-1/HER1), human tumor suppressor protein p53, caspases, mitochondria, angiogenesis, and components of MAP kinase signaling pathways. Plants with the ability to preferentially kills resistant cancer cells were also reported. Data compiled in the present document were retrieved from scientific websites such as PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, Web-of-Science, and Scholar Google. In summary, plant extracts from CEWA and isolated compounds thereof exert cytotoxic effects by several modes of action including caspases activation, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells and inhibition of angiogenesis. Ten strongest cytotoxic plants from CEWA recorded following in vitro screening assays are: Beilschmiedia acuta Kosterm, Echinops giganteus var. lelyi (C. D. Adams) A. Rich., Erythrina sigmoidea Hua (Fabaceae), Imperata cylindrical Beauv. var. koenigii Durand et Schinz, Nauclea pobeguinii (Pobég. ex Pellegr.) Merr. ex E.M.A., Piper capense L.f., Polyscias fulva (Hiern) Harms., Uapaca togoensis Pax., Vepris soyauxii Engl. and Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. Prominent antiproliferative compounds include: isoquinoline alkaloid isotetrandrine (51), two

  5. Potential of Central, Eastern and Western Africa Medicinal Plants for Cancer Therapy: Spotlight on Resistant Cells and Molecular Targets.

    PubMed

    Mbaveng, Armelle T; Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Cancer remains a major health hurdle worldwide and has moved from the third leading cause of death in the year 1990 to second place after cardiovascular disease since 2013. Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used treatment modes; however, its efficiency is limited due to the resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. The present overview deals with the potential of the flora of Central, Eastern and Western African (CEWA) regions as resource for anticancer drug discovery. It also reviews the molecular targets of phytochemicals of these plants such as ABC transporters, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multi drug-resistance-related proteins (MRPs), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) as well as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB-1/HER1), human tumor suppressor protein p53, caspases, mitochondria, angiogenesis, and components of MAP kinase signaling pathways. Plants with the ability to preferentially kills resistant cancer cells were also reported. Data compiled in the present document were retrieved from scientific websites such as PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, Web-of-Science, and Scholar Google. In summary, plant extracts from CEWA and isolated compounds thereof exert cytotoxic effects by several modes of action including caspases activation, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells and inhibition of angiogenesis. Ten strongest cytotoxic plants from CEWA recorded following in vitro screening assays are: Beilschmiedia acuta Kosterm, Echinops giganteus var. lelyi (C. D. Adams) A. Rich., Erythrina sigmoidea Hua (Fabaceae), Imperata cylindrical Beauv. var. koenigii Durand et Schinz, Nauclea pobeguinii (Pobég. ex Pellegr.) Merr. ex E.M.A., Piper capense L.f., Polyscias fulva (Hiern) Harms., Uapaca togoensis Pax., Vepris soyauxii Engl. and Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. Prominent antiproliferative compounds include: isoquinoline alkaloid isotetrandrine (51), two

  6. Orthodontic treatment need in a 12-year-old population in the Western Sahara.

    PubMed

    Puertes-Fernández, Neus; Montiel-Company, José María; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Manzanera, David

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish orthodontic treatment need according to the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and Aesthetic Component (AC) and Dental Health Component (DHC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and to determine its association with gender among Saharan schoolchildren. The study was carried out in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for oral health surveys at 12 years of age. The sample comprised 248 Sahrawi children (135 girls and 113 boys) living in refugee camps in Tindouf, Algeria. None of the children had previously received any orthodontic treatment. A chi-square test was used to analyse the IOTN results by gender, and a Student's t-test was employed for the DAI results. The mean DAI was 23.32 with a standard deviation of 6.05, 4 percent with a very severe and 9.2 per cent with severe malocclusion. Orthodontic treatment need was 16.1 and 2.0 percent, respectively, according to grades 4 and 5 of the IOTN DHC, 13.7 percent according to the IOTN AC, and 28.6 percent according to the modified IOTN (IOTN DHC grades 4-5 and/or IOTN AC grades 8-10). There were no statistically significant differences by gender. The orthodontic treatment need of Western Saharan schoolchildren is similar to that reported by many recent studies in European and in Sub-Saharan countries.

  7. [Study on pathogenesis and treatment of pre-hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

    2013-07-01

    The forward-shift prevention and treatment strategy is the current trend of the development of clinical medicine. As hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, it is curtail to pay attention to the prevention and treatment of prehypertension. Pre-hypertension refers to the blood pressure value between the normal blood pressure and high blood pressure, which easily develops into hypertension with complications. In recent years, pre-hypertension has attracted attentions both at home and abroad. The traditional Chinese medicinal theory of "preventive treatment of disease" shows its unique advantages in preventing and treating pre-hypertension and high blood pressure. With the socio-economic development and the changes in lifestyle, traditional pathogenetic theories have no longer kept pace with the occurrence regularity of modern high blood pressure and pre-hypertension. Therefore, the in-depth study on the pathogenesis of pre-hypertension is of great significance in the guidance of clinical prevention and treatment. It is believed that the etiologies of pre-hypertension are related to improper diet, sedentariness and emotional instability. In other words, stasis in six forms such as qi stagnation, dyspepsia, damp obstruction, phlegm stasis, blood stasis and fire stagnation is an crucial pathogenesis of pre-hypertension. Consequently, on the basis of the traditional Chinese medicinal theory of "preventive treatment of disease", the combination of the treatment based on syndrome differentiation and the correspondence of prescriptions and the syndromes in treating pre-hypertension is worth clinically promoting and applying.

  8. Herbal medicines for urinary stone treatment. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Monti, Elena; Trinchieri, Alberto; Magri, Vittorio; Cleves, Anne; Perletti, Gianpaolo

    2016-03-31

    To analyze the clinical evidence on the efficacy of phytotherapy in the treatment of calculi in the urinary tract. To be eligible, full-length articles should include the results of randomized controlled trials enrolling patients affected by urolithiasis, reporting any comparison between an experimental herbal agent versus placebo or any active comparator, aimed at preventing the formation or facilitating the dissolution of calculi in any portion of the urinary tract. Fifteen databases were searched for relevant references. The primary outcomes investigated were (i) the reduction of stone size and/or number and (ii) the urinary excretion rates of calcium, urate, or oxalate. The secondary outcome of the review was the adverse effects (AE) of treatment. Risk of bias (ROB) and quality of the evidence were assessed according to Cochrane and GRADE guidelines. We performed a random-effect meta-analysis. 541 articles were retrieved and 16 studies were finally confirmed as eligible. Multiple Cochrane ROB tool items were rated as having high risk of bias in each analyzed trial report. Pooled analysis of continuous data could be performed for three different comparisons: (i) phytotherapy versus citrate as single agent (ii) phytotherapy versus placebo, (iii) preparation of Didymocarpus pedicellata (DP)--combined with other herbal agents--versus placebo. Results showed that citrate is superior to phytotherapy in significantly decreasing both the size of urinary stones (mean difference: phytotherapy, 0.42 mm higher; 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.6; Z = 4.42, P < 0.0001; I2 = 30%) and the urinary excretion rate of urate (mean difference: 42.32 mg/24h higher, 95% CI: 19.44 to 65.19; Z = 3.63, P = 0.0003; I2 = 96%), assessed after 3 months on-therapy. No significant differences in the excretion rates of urinary calcium or oxalate were found. The DP preparation was superior to placebo in inducing total clearance (risk ratio: 6.19, 95% CI: 2.60 to 14.74; Z = 4.12, P < 0.0001; I2 = 0%) and size

  9. Distinguishing phosphate from fertilizers and wastewater treatment plant effluents in Western Canada using oxygen isotope measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fau, Veronique; Nightingale, Michael; Tamburini, Frederica; Mayer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The successful application of oxygen isotope ratios as a tracer for phosphate in aquatic ecosystems requires that different sources of phosphate are isotopically distinct. The objective of this study was to determine whether the oxygen isotope ratios of phosphate from fertilizers and effluents from wastewater treatment plants in Western Canada are isotopically distinct. Therefore, we carried out oxygen isotope analyses on phosphate in effluent from five different wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in the Bow River watershed of Alberta, Canada. Samples were collected directly from the final effluent (post-UV) in Banff and Canmore upstream of Calgary, and from effluents of Calgary's WWTPs at Bonnybrook, Fish Creek and Pine Creek. We also carried out oxygen isotope analyses on a variety of phosphate-containing fertilizers that are widely used in Western Canada. Historically, most of the phosphate contained in manufactured fertilizers sold in Alberta came from two distinct deposits: 1) a weathered Pliocene igneous carbonatite located in eastern Canada, and 2) the Permian Phosphoria Formation in the western USA. Phosphate (PO43-) contained in the water or the fertilizer was concentrated and quantitatively converted to pure silver phosphate (Ag3PO4). The silver phosphate was then reduced with carbon in an oxygen free environment using a TC/EA pyrolysis reactor linked to a mass spectrometer where 18O/16O ratios of CO were measured in continuous flow mode. Preparation of samples for δ18OPO4 analyses was conducted using the Magnesium Induced Coprecipitation (MAGIC) method. Expected oxygen isotope ratios for phosphate in equilibrium with water (δ18Oeq) were calculated using the Longinelli and Nuti equation: T (° C) = 111.4 - 4.3 (δ18Oeq - δ18Owater). Measured δ18O values of phosphate for fertilizer samples varied from 8 to 25 oÈ®n average, fertilizer samples of sedimentary origin had higher δ18O values (15.8) than those of igneous origin (11.5). Phosphate isotopic

  10. [Personalized molecular medicine: new paradigms in the treatment of cochlear implant and cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Zenner, H P; Pfister, M; Friese, N; Zrenner, E; Röcken, M

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate present options for the indication of cochlear implants (CI) and new forms of treatment for head and neck cancer, melanomas and basal cell carcinomas, with emphasis on future perspectives. A literature search was performed in the PubMed database. Search parameters were "personalized medicine", "individualized medicine" and "molecular medicine". Personalized medicine based on molecular-genetic evaluation of functional proteins such as otoferlin, connexin 26 and KCNQ4 or the Usher gene is becoming increasingly important for the indication of CI in the context of infant deafness. Determination of HER2/EGFR mutations in the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene may be an important prognostic parameter for therapeutic decisions in head and neck cancer patients. In basal cell carcinoma therapy, mutations in the Hedgehog (PCTH1) and Smoothened (SMO) pathways strongly influence the indication of therapeutic Hedgehog inhibition, e.g. using small molecules. Analyses of c-Kit receptor, BRAF-600E and NRAS mutations are required for specific molecular therapy of metastasizing melanomas. The significant advances in the field of specific molecular therapy are best illustrated by the availability of the first gene therapeutic procedures for treatment of RPE65-induced infantile retinal degradation. The aim of personalized molecular medicine is to identify patients who will respond particularly positively or negatively (e.g. in terms of adverse side effects) to a therapy using the methods of molecular medicine. This should allow a specific therapy to be successfully applied or preclude its indication in order to avoid serious adverse side effects. This approach serves to stratify patients for adequate treatment.

  11. Traditional medicine practitioners’ knowledge and views on treatment of pregnant women in three regions of Mali

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread use of medicinal plants in Mali, knowledge about how traditional practitioners (TPs) treat pregnant and lactating women is lacking. Aim of the study The aim of this study was to investigate how traditional practitioners in Mali treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. Methods Data was collected through structured interviews of traditional practitioners in one urban (Bamako) and two rural areas (Siby and Dioila) in Mali. The TPs were interviewed about how they treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. They were also asked to name harmful plants in pregnancy and plants that could affect breast milk production. In addition, we asked about nine specific medicinal plants commonly used in Mali; Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia), Ximenia americana, Cola cordifolia, Combretum glutinosum, Parkia biglobosa, Trichilia emetica, Combretum micranthum, Lippia chevalieri and Vepris heterophylla. Results A total of 72 traditional practitioners (64% women, age: 34 to 90 years) were interviewed during an eight week period October 2011 to December 2011. They treated between 1 and 30 pregnant women with medicinal plants per months. We found a relatively high consensus for treatment of pregnant women with common diseases and ailments like nausea and dermatitis. The highest informer consensus was found for the treatment of malaria during pregnancy. TPs generally recommended pregnant women to avoid medicinal plants with bitter tastes like stem and root bark of Khaya senegalensis and Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). TPs distinguished between oral (potentially unsafe) and dermal use (safe) of Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). Cola cordifolia was used to facilitate labor. Conclusion Experience and knowledge about treatment of pregnant women with medicinal plants was broad among the traditional practitioners in the three investigated regions in Mali. Collaborating with traditional practitioners on the

  12. [Personalised medicine for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Vieths, S; Bieber, T

    2013-11-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated allergic diseases are characterised by heterogeneous clinical phenotypes and a large variety of different sensitisation patterns. Apart from genetic predisposition several environmental factors play a role in sensitisation and elicitation of symptoms. Since the majority of clinically relevant allergens are now available as purified recombinant allergens component-resolved in vitro diagnosis allows the sensitization profile of allergic patients to be determined at the molecular level. Such data may allow physicians to draw conclusions on the severity and persistence of a given allergic disease and to predict the outcome of allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) However, the potential of this approach needs to be demonstrated in controlled clinical trials. Moreover, in the context of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic bronchial asthma as well as the atopic march several screening-biomarkers, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, biomarkers of severity and predictive biomarkers are presented and discussed in this article. Traditionally a relevant proportion of allergen-specific immunotherapies is performed in a personalised manner using named patient products manufactured on the basis of an individual prescription. Such named patient products are often mixtures containing several allergen extracts from different sources. However, there is no proven evidence for the safety and efficacy of this approach. In Germany the Therapy Allergen Ordinance ("Therapieallergene-Verordnung", TAV) regulates that in the future allergen products for SIT of insect venom allergies, allergies to pollen of early flowering trees and grass pollen and house dust mite allergies cannot be marketed as named patient products, but always require a marketing authorisation. Thus personalised SIT with named patient products is restricted to the treatment of less prevalent allergies, for which the generation of state-of-the-art clinical data is more difficult

  13. Travel medicine physician adherence to guidelines for the emergency self treatment of malaria.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Gerard T; Walden, Lucas M; Townend, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have examined emergency self treatment (EST) antimalarial prescribing patterns. 110 physician-members of the Travel Medicine Society of Ireland and British Global and Travel Health Association participated in this study. There was a trend towards the prescription of EST for travel to remote low-risk malaria areas; for long-term residents living in low-risk areas; and for frequent travellers to low-risk areas. This study provides insights into the use of EST in travellers' malaria. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Free access to medicines for the treatment of chronic diseases in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the free access to medicines for the treatment of chronic diseases in the Brazilian population, according to demographic and socioeconomic factors. We also analyzed the most used pharmacological groups, according to funding source: free-of-charge or out-of-pocket paid. METHODS Analysis of data from the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM – National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines), a population-based household survey, of cross-sectional design, based on probabilistic sample of the Brazilian population. We analyzed as outcome the prevalence of free access (free-of-charge) to all medicines for treatment of the reported chronic diseases, in the last 30 days. We studied the following independent variables: sex, age group, education in complete years of school, economic class, health plan, and geographical region of residence. We estimated the prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) and applied the Pearson’s Chi-squared test to assess the differences between the groups, considering a 5% significance level. RESULTS About half of adults and older adults who have had full access to the treatment of chronic diseases in Brazil obtained all needed medicines for free (47.5%; 95%CI 45.1–50.0). The prevalences of free access were higher among men (51.4%; 95%CI 48.1–54.8), age group of 40-59 years (51.1%; 95%CI 48.1–54.2), and in the poorest social classes (53.9%; 95%CI 50.2–57.7). The majority of medicines that act on the cardiovascular system, such as diuretics (C03) (78.0%; 95%CI 75.2–80.5), beta-blockers (C07) (62.7%; 95%CI 59.4–65.8), and the agents that work in the renin-angiotensin system (C09) (73.4%; 95%CI 70.8–75.8), were obtained for free. Medicines that act on the respiratory system, such as agents against obstructive airway diseases (R03) (60.0%; 95%CI 52.7–66.9) were mostly paid with own resources. CONCLUSIONS Free

  15. Treatment of Diabetes and/or Hypertension Using Medicinal Plants in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Tsabang, N; Yedjou, C G; Tsambang, Lwd; Tchinda, A T; Donfagsiteli, N; Agbor, G A; Tchounwou, Pbb; Nkongmeneck, B A

    Medicinal plants have served as valuable starting materials for drug development in both developing and developed countries. Today, more than 80% of the people living in Africa were depended on medicinal plants based medicines to satisfy their healthcare needs. The main goal of the present study was to collect and document information on herbal remedies traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes and/or hypertension in Cameroon. To reach this objective, data were collected from 328 patients who have been diagnosed at least once by a physician as diabetics and/or hypertension patients. One hundred and eighty two (182) among them took for a period of 10 days different varieties of medicinal plants which were prepared in form of decoction, maceration and infusion and administered orally twice or three times daily. As result, 70% of patients who used plants were relieved at the end of the treatment. Thirty-three plants have been recorded and documented for the treatment of diabetes and/or hypertension. The results of this study can stimulate a sustainable development by providing the basis for drugs discovery and by documenting biodiversity for long time exploitation.

  16. Australian adults use complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of chronic illness: a national study.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Andrew R; Thiébaut, Sophie P; Brown, Laurie J; Nepal, Binod

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the prevalence of the use of vitamin/mineral supplements or natural/herbal remedies, concurrent use of pharmaceutical medication, and to profile those most likely to use these complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) in the treatment of five chronic conditions identified as national health priorities (asthma, diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis, heart or circulatory condition) within the Australian adult population. Analysis of the Australian National Health Survey database, 2004-05. Approximately 24% (1.3 million) of Australian adults with a chronic condition regularly applied CAM to treatment. CAM was most often used exclusively or in combination with pharmaceutical medicine in the treatment of arthritis and osteoporosis. Fewer than 10% of adults with asthma, diabetes or a heart or circulatory condition used CAM, most preferring pharmaceutical medicine. Regular CAM users were more likely to be aged ≥60, female, have a secondary school education and live in households with lower incomes than non-users. Non-users were more likely to be 30-59 years old and tertiary educated. Arthritis, osteoporosis and, to a lesser extent, heart or circulatory conditions are illnesses for which doctors should advise, and patients need to be most aware about the full effects of CAM and possible interactive effects with prescribed medicine. They are also conditions for which research into the interactive effects of CAM and pharmaceutical medication would seem of most immediate benefit. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Venous thromboembolism: the prevailing approach to diagnosis, prevention and treatment among Internal Medicine practitioners.

    PubMed

    Markel, Arie; Gavish, Israel; Kfir, Hila; Rimbrot, Sofia

    2017-02-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the third most common cause of death and the leading cause of sudden death in hospitalized medical patients. Despite the existence of guidelines for prevention and treatment of this disorder, their implementation in everyday life is not always accomplished. We performed a survey among directors of Internal Medicine departments in our country in order to evaluate their attitude and approach to this issue. A questionnaire with pertinent questions regarding prevention and treatment of VTE, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) was sent to each one of the directors of Internal Medicine Departments around the country. Sixty-nine out of 97 (71%) of the Internal Medicine departments directors responded the questionnaire. We found that several of the current guidelines were followed in a reasonable way. On the other hand, heterogeneity of responses was also present and the performance of current guidelines was imperfectly followed, and showed to be deficient in several aspects. An effort should be done in order to reemphasize and put in effect current guidelines for the prevention and treatment of VTE among hospitalists and Internal Medicine practitioners.

  18. Scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding by Avicenna.

    PubMed

    Mobli, Masumeh; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Amin, Gholamreza; Haririan, Ismaeil; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Rahimi, Roja

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is one of the prevalent gynecological disorders that cause considerable morbidity and management of that plays an important role in protecting women's health. This review focuses on medicinal plants mentioned by Avicenna, a great Iranian philosopher and physician (A.D. 980-1037), in his book Canon for treatment of AUB. Medicinal plants mentioned in Canon for treatment of AUB were elicited and searched in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Cochrane library to find studies that confirmed their efficacy. Data were collected for the years 1980-2014. The findings included 23 plants belonging to 18 families. Scientific findings have revealed that these plants control AUB through four mechanisms of action including inhibition of inflammatory process, inhibition of prostaglandins production, antiproliferative activity on human cervical cancer cells (HeLa), and estrogenic activity. All of the plants exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and/or in vivo. Cuscuta chinensis and Portulaca oleracea exhibited estrogenic activity. Boswellia carteri, Lens culinaris, Myrtus communis, Polygonum aviculare, Pistacia lentiscus, and Punica granatum have revealed inhibitory activity on biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Some of the mentioned plants including: Ceratonia siliqua, Cuscuta chinensis, Cuscuta epithymum, Cydonia oblonga, Paeonia sp., Portulaca oleracea, Solanum nigrum, Rumex acetosa and Onopordum acanthium have shown antiproliferative activity on HeLa cells. Investigation of traditional Iranian medicine literatures can lead to the identification of effective natural medicines for the management of AUB; however, conclusive confirmation of the efficacy and safety of these treatments needs more evaluations.

  19. Making Room for Tradition: Tribal Colleges Blend the Wisdom of Traditional Healers with the Science of Western Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Marjane

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the efforts of tribally controlled colleges to integrate traditional American Indian healing techniques with Western medical practices, indicating that the colleges often find themselves acting as liaisons between the two approaches. Describes approaches of the colleges' medical programs to promote understanding of Indian patients and…

  20. Review of Three Decades of Laboratory Exercises in the Preclinical Curriculum at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genuth, Saul; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Review of the use of preclinical curricular time for laboratory exercises at the Case Western Reserve University (Ohio) medical school 1955-89 found a 92 percent decrease in hours devoted to animal and human physiology. Advantages of inclusion of such exercises are seen to outweigh disadvantages, and efforts to revitalize them are recommended.…

  1. A Review of Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Earache and Tinnitus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudian-Sani, Mohammad Reza; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Luther, Tahra

    2017-06-01

    Despite numerous trials, there has not yet been any definite strategy to reduce replicable long-term tinnitus and earache. Complementary and alternative medical approaches have been used to decrease the symptoms of tinnitus and earache. This study was conducted to report medicinal plants that are used to treat ear disorders, especially earache and tinnitus in different regions of Iran. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, LISTA (EBSCO), Embase, and Web of Science were searched using relevant search terms to retrieve eligible publications. Twenty-three species from sixteen families were used for the treatment of earache and tinnitus in Iran. Plants from families Asteraceae and Lamiaceae were the most commonly used plants for the treatment of earache. Ginkgo biloba was frequently reported for the treatment of tinnitus. This study shows the important role of medicinal plants in the treatment of earache and tinnitus in some regions of Iran. The medicinal plants reported in this review can be considered in treatments for earache and tinnitus if examined more extensively in clinical trials.

  2. Natural compounds from traditional medicinal herbs in the treatment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Peng-fei; Zhang, Zui; Wang, Fang; Chen, Jian-guo

    2010-01-01

    More and more attention in the field of drug discovery has been focused on the neuroprotection of natural compounds from traditional medicinal herbs. Cerebral ischemia is a complex pathological process involving a series of mechanisms, and a framework for the development of neuroprotectants from traditional herb medicine is a promising treatment for cerebral ischemia. Natural compounds with the effects of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, calcium antagonization, anti-apoptosis, and neurofunctional regulation exhibit preventive or therapeutic effects on experimental ischemic brain injury. According to the pharmacological mechanisms underlying neuroprotection, we evaluated natural products from traditional medicinal herbs that exhibit protective effects on ischemic brain injury and characterized the promising targets. PMID:21127495

  3. Semi-commercial ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested iceberg lettuce.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pallet scale two day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment with 30 ppm oxygen at 10°C ambient temperature was conducted on seven cultivars of vacuum cooled iceberg lettuce which had been stored for 1, 3, 4, and 6 days to develop a safe and effective treatment for control of western flower thrips, Franklin...

  4. Using Landscape-Based Decision Rules to Prioritize Locations of Fuel Treatments in the Boreal Mixedwood of Western Canada

    Treesearch

    Marc-André Parisien; Dave R. Junor; Victor G. Kafka

    2006-01-01

    This study used a rule-based approach to prioritize locations of fuel treatments in the boreal mixedwood forest of western Canada. The burn probability (BP) in and around Prince Albert National Park in Saskatchewan was mapped using the Burn-P3 (Probability, Prediction, and Planning) model. Fuel treatment locations were determined according to three scenarios and five...

  5. Combined heat and controlled atmosphere quarantine treatments for control of western cherry fruit fly in sweet cherries.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Rehfield-Ray, Linda

    2006-06-01

    Nonchemical quarantine treatments, using a combination of short duration high temperatures under low oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide atmospheric environment were developed to control western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, in sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.). The two treatments developed use a chamber temperature of 45 degrees C for 45 min and a chamber temperature of 47 degreesd C for 25 min, both under a 1% oxygen, 15% carbon dioxide, -2 degrees C dew point environment. Both these treatments have been shown to provide control of all life stages of western cherry fruit fly while preserving commodity market quality. There was no definitive egg or larval stage, which was demonstrated to be the most tolerant to either controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system treatment. Efficacy tests for both treatments resulted in 100% mortality of >5000 western cherry fruit flies in each treatment. These treatments may provide, with further study, quarantine security in exported sweet cherries where western cherry fruit fly is a quarantine concern and fumigation with methyl bromide is not desired.

  6. Effects of insecticide treatments on subsequent defoliation by western spruce budworm in Oregon and Washington: 1982-92.

    Treesearch

    Katharine A. Sheehan

    1996-01-01

    Effects of insecticide treatments conducted in Oregon and Washington from 1982 through 1992 on subsequent defoliation by western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) were evaluated by using aerial sketchmaps and a geographic information system. For each treatment, the extent and severity of defoliation was calculated for the treated...

  7. Guide to fuel treatments in dry forests of the Western United States: assessing forest structure and fire hazard.

    Treesearch

    Morris C. Johnson; David L. Peterson; Crystal L. Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Guide to Fuel Treatments analyzes a range of fuel treatments for representative dry forest stands in the Western United States with overstories dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), and pinyon pine (Pinus edulis). Six silvicultural options (no thinning; thinning...

  8. Traditional Chinese medicine and new concepts of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine in diagnosis and treatment of suboptimal health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The premise of disease-related phenotypes is the definition of the counterpart normality in medical sciences. Contrary to clinical practices that can be carefully planned according to clinical needs, heterogeneity and uncontrollability is the essence of humans in carrying out health studies. Full characterization of consistent phenotypes that define the general population is the basis to individual difference normalization in personalized medicine. Self-claimed normal status may not represent health because asymptomatic subjects may carry chronic diseases at their early stage, such as cancer, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Currently, treatments for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) are implemented after disease onset, which is a very much delayed approach from the perspective of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM). A NCD pandemic will develop and be accompanied by increased global economic burden for healthcare systems throughout both developed and developing countries. This paper examples the characterization of the suboptimal health status (SHS) which represents a new PPPM challenge in a population with ambiguous health complaints such as general weakness, unexplained medical syndrome (UMS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS) and chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS). Methods We applied clinical informatic approaches and developed a questionnaire—suboptimal health status questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25) for measuring SHS. The validity and reliability of this approach were evaluated in a small pilot study and then in a cross-sectional study of 3,405 participants in China. Results We found a correlation between SHS and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol among men, and a correlation between SHS and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total

  9. Integrating traditional indigenous medicine and western biomedicine into health systems: a review of Nicaraguan health policies and miskitu health services.

    PubMed

    Carrie, Heather; Mackey, Tim K; Laird, Sloane N

    2015-11-30

    Throughout the world, indigenous peoples have advocated for the right to retain their cultural beliefs and traditional medicine practices. In 2007, the more than 370 million people representing 5000 distinct groups throughout the world received global recognition with the adoption of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP). UNDRIP Article 24 affirms the rights of indigenous peoples to their traditional medicines and health practices, and to all social and health services. Although not a legally binding agreement, UNDRIP encourages nation states to comply and implement measures to support and uphold its provisions. Within the context of indigenous health and human rights, Nicaragua serves as a unique case study for examining implementation of UNDRIP Article 24 provisions due to the changes in the Nicaraguan Constitution that strive for the overarching goal of affirming an equal right to health for all Nicaraguans and supporting the integration of traditional medicine and biomedicine at a national and regional level. To explore this subject further, we conducted a review of the policy impact of UNDRIP on health services accessible to the Miskitu indigenous peoples of the North Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAN). We found that although measures to create therapeutic cooperation are woven into Nicaraguan health plans at the national and regional level, in practice, the delivery of integrated health services has been implemented with varying results. Our review suggests that the method of policy implementation and efforts to foster intercultural collaborative approaches involving respectful community engagement are important factors when attempting to assess the effectiveness of UNDRIP implementation into national health policy and promoting traditional medicine access. In response, more study and close monitoring of legislation that acts to implement or align with UNDRIP Article 24 is necessary to ensure adequate promotion and access

  10. A survey on illegal and counterfeit medicines for the treatment of erectile dysfunctions in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gaudiano, Maria Cristina; Manna, Livia; Rodomonte, Andrea Luca; Bartolomei, Monica; Bertocchi, Paola; Gallinella, Bruno; Antoniella, Eleonora; Muleri, Nadia; Civitelli, Gabriele; Alimonti, Stefano; Romanini, Laura; Rufini, Leandro; Valvo, Luisa

    2012-08-01

    In developed countries the phenomenon of pharmaceutical counterfeiting is steadily increasing through the illegal and the Internet market. Medicines for the treatment of erectile dysfunctions containing phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5) are especially prone to falsification. To obtain evidence of the health risks for patients taking these products and to provide useful information to general practitioners and specialists in sexual medicine. First the samples were visually inspected and then analyzed to get information about their identity and quality. A survey on the PDE5 medicines analyzed by the Italian official medicines control laboratory between 2005 and 2011 was performed. All the analyzed medicines were gathered from the Italian illegal market (seizures by police forces) or were bought from illegal online pharmacies. Results.  The study revealed that 24% of the analyzed samples were counterfeit and 54% were illegal medicines. In 12% of the cases an intermediate classification (illegal/counterfeit) was assigned. Only 7% of the samples were original. Moreover, the examination of the packaging evidenced potential risks: outer and immediate packaging missing; inconsistency between the carton box and the blister as regards the expiry date and/or the batch number; expiry date or manufacturer's name or country missing. In 19% of the samples a potential health risk for patients was identified due to either the presence in the sample of more than one undeclared PDE5(s) or an amount of the active ingredient higher than that declared (up to 190% of the maximum dose) or to the presence of potentially dangerous excipients of non-pharmaceutical origin or quality (e.g., gypsum or non-purified talc). © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Case reports describing treatments in the emergency medicine literature: missing and misleading information

    PubMed Central

    Richason, Tiffany P; Paulson, Stephen M; Lowenstein, Steven R; Heard, Kennon J

    2009-01-01

    Background Although randomized trials and systematic reviews provide the "best evidence" for guiding medical practice, many emergency medicine journals still publish case reports (CRs). The quality of the reporting in these publications has not been assessed. Objectives In this study we sought to determine the proportion of treatment-related case reports that adequately reported information about the patient, disease, interventions, co-interventions, outcomes and other critical information. Methods We identified CRs published in 4 emergency medicine journals in 2000–2005 and categorized them according to their purpose (disease description, overdose or adverse drug reactioin, diagnostic test or treatment effect). Treatment-related CRs were reviewed for the presence or absence of 11 reporting elements. Results All told, 1,316 CRs were identified; of these, 85 (6.5%; 95CI = 66, 84) were about medical or surgical treatments. Most contained adequate descriptions of the patient (99%; 95CI = 95, 100), the stage and severity of the patient's disease (88%; 95CI = 79, 93), the intervention (80%; 95CI = 70, 87) and the outcomes of treatment (90%; 95CI = 82, 95). Fewer CRs reported the patient's co-morbidities (45%; 95CI = 35, 56), concurrent medications (30%; 95CI = 21, 40) or co-interventions (57%; 95CI = 46, 67) or mentioned any possible treatment side-effects (33%; 95CI = 24, 44). Only 37% (95CI = 19, 38) discussed alternative explanations for favorable outcomes. Generalizability of treatment effects to other patients was mentioned in only 29% (95CI = 20, 39). Just 2 CRs (2.3%; 95CI = 1, 8) reported a 'denominator" (number of patients subjected to the same intervention, whether or not successful. Conclusion Treatment-related CRs in emergency medicine journals often omit critical details about treatments, co-interventions, outcomes, generalizability, causality and denominators. As a result, the information may be misleading to providers, and the clinical applications may

  12. Personalized medicine in women's obesity prevention and treatment: implications for research, policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Yang, N; Ginsburg, G S; Simmons, L A

    2013-02-01

    The prevalence of obesity in America has reached epidemic proportions, and obesity among women is particularly concerning. Severe obesity (body mass index ≥35 kg m(-2) ) is more prevalent in women than men. Further, women have sex-specific risk factors that must be considered when developing preventive and therapeutic interventions. This review presents personalized medicine as a dynamic approach to obesity prevention, management and treatment for women. First, we review obesity as a complex health issue, with contributing sex-specific, demographic, psychosocial, behavioural, environmental, epigenetic and genetic/genomic risk factors. Second, we present personalized medicine as a rapidly advancing field of health care that seeks to quantify these complex risk factors to develop more targeted and effective strategies that can improve disease management and/or better minimize an individual's likelihood of developing obesity. Third, we discuss how personalized medicine can be applied in a clinical setting with current and emerging tools, including health risk assessments, personalized health plans, and strategies for increasing patient engagement. Finally, we discuss the need for additional research, training and policy that can enhance the practice of personalized medicine in women's obesity, including further advancements in the '-omics' sciences, physician training in personalized medicine, and additional development and standardization of innovative targeted therapies and clinical tools. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  13. A cross-sectional study of the availability and price of anti-malarial medicines and malaria rapid diagnostic tests in private sector retail drug outlets in rural Western Kenya, 2013.

    PubMed

    Kioko, Urbanus; Riley, Christina; Dellicour, Stephanie; Were, Vincent; Ouma, Peter; Gutman, Julie; Kariuki, Simon; Omar, Ahmeddin; Desai, Meghna; Buff, Ann M

    2016-07-12

    Although anti-malarial medicines are free in Kenyan public health facilities, patients often seek treatment from private sector retail drug outlets. In mid-2010, the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) was introduced to make quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) accessible and affordable in private and public sectors. Private sector retail drug outlets stocking anti-malarial medications within a surveillance area of approximately 220,000 people in a malaria perennial high-transmission area in rural western Kenya were identified via a census in September 2013. A cross-sectional study was conducted in September-October 2013 to determine availability and price of anti-malarial medicines and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in drug outlets. A standardized questionnaire was administered to collect drug outlet and personnel characteristics and availability and price of anti-malarials and RDTs. Of 181 drug outlets identified, 179 (99 %) participated in the survey. Thirteen percent were registered pharmacies, 25 % informal drug shops, 46 % general shops, 13 % homesteads and 2 % other. One hundred sixty-five (92 %) had at least one ACT type: 162 (91 %) had recommended first-line artemether-lumefantrine (AL), 22 (12 %) had recommended second-line dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), 85 (48 %) had sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), 60 (34 %) had any quinine (QN) formulation, and 14 (8 %) had amodiaquine (AQ) monotherapy. The mean price (range) of an adult treatment course for AL was $1.01 ($0.35-4.71); DHA-PPQ was $4.39 ($0.71-7.06); QN tablets were $2.24 ($0.12-4.71); SP was $0.62 ($0.24-2.35); AQ monotherapy was $0.42 ($0.24-1.06). The mean AL price with or without the AMFm logo did not differ significantly ($1.01 and 1.07, respectively; p = 0.45). Only 17 (10 %) drug outlets had RDTs; 149 (84 %) never stocked RDTs. The mean RDT price was $0.92 ($0.24-2.35). Most outlets never stocked RDTs; therefore, testing prior to

  14. Preclinical and Potential Applications of Common Western Herbal Supplements as Complementary Treatment in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Luke A; Grundmann, Oliver

    2017-07-04

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder with a complex pathological etiology, which is not fully understood. Progression of PD may be the result of a buildup of iron in the substantia nigra, microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, dysfunctional mitochondria, or abnormal protein handling. Dopamine is the main neurotransmitter affected, but as the disease progresses, a decrease in all the brain's biogenic amines occurs. Current medication used in the treatment of PD aims to prevent the breakdown of dopamine or increase dopaminergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The complementary use of green tea (Camellia sinensis), red wine (Vitis vinifera), arctic root (Rhodiola rosea), and dwarf periwinkle (Vinca minor) may have a greater therapeutic effect than current pharmaceutical drugs, such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors or dopamine agonists alone. The bioactive components of these plants have been shown to have neuroprotective, antioxidant, anti-proteinopathies, neural-vasodilation, anti-inflammatory, and iron chelating potential. They may treat the disease at the cellular level by decreasing microglia activation, attenuating damage from radical oxygen species, supporting correct protein folding, chelating iron, increasing the substantia nigra blood flow, and promoting dopaminergic cell growth. Although these alternative medicines appear to have potential, further human clinical trials need to be conducted to determine whether they could have a greater therapeutic effect than conventional medicines alone.

  15. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy inWestern Utility Resource Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-09-01

    Markets for renewable electricity have grown significantly in recent years, motivated in part by federal tax incentives and in part by state renewables portfolio standards and renewable energy funds. State renewables portfolio standards, for example, motivated approximately 45% of the 4,300 MW of wind power installed in the U.S. from 2001 through 2004, while renewable energy funds supported an additional 15% of these installations. Despite the importance of these state policies, a less widely recognized driver for renewable energy market growth is poised to also play an important role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Formal resource planning processes have re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions - primarily coming from wind power - are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. The treatment of renewable energy in utility resource plans is not uniform, however. Assumptions about the direct and indirect costs of renewable resources, as well as resource availability, differ, as do approaches to incorporating such resources into the candidate portfolios that are analyzed in utility IRPs. The treatment of natural gas price risk, as well as the risk of future environmental regulations, also varies substantially. How utilities balance expected portfolio cost versus risk in selecting a preferred portfolio also differs. Each of these variables may have a substantial effect on the degree to which renewable energy contributes to the preferred portfolio of each utility IRP. This article

  16. Efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xin; Jiang, Manjun; Zhao, Xiaofang; Liang, Jian

    2014-02-01

    To systematically review the efficacy and safety of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) interventions, compared with control interventions (placebo or conventional Western medical therapy), in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Electronic databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Data were searched to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published as of May 2012. Studies were selected according to the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria and then subjected to methodological quality assessment, data extraction, and meta-analysis according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Twelve RCTs involving 881 patients with AIDS were included. Methodological quality assessment showed that two were high-quality, two were moderate-quality, and eight were low-quality. Meta-analysis showed that TCM interventions were associated with significantly reduced plasma viral load compared with placebo [odds ratio OR = 2.46, 95% confidence interval CI (1.02, 5.94); P = 0.04]. However, the reductions in plasma viral load significantly favored conventional Western medical therapy alone over integrated traditional Chinese and Western medical therapy [OR = 0.16, 95% CI (0.05, 0.55); P = 0.004]. Patients receiving TCM interventions had significantly higher CD4+ T lymphocyte counts compared with those on placebo [OR = 2.54, 95% CI (1.40, 4.60); P = 0.002]. In addition, TCM interventions were significantly more likely to have improved clinical symptoms [OR = 2.82, 95% CI (1.85, 4.31); P < 0.00001]. TCM interventions conferred a similar risk of adverse events (AEs) compared with control interventions [OR = 1.87, 95% CI (0.58, 6.01); P = 0.29]. Current evidence suggests that TCM interventions are significantly more effective than placebo in reducing plasma viral load and increasing CD4+ T lymphocyte count in patients with AIDS. When compared with

  17. A Survey of Sleep Medicine Physician Perceptions on the Surgical Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Swope, Jonathan J; Couey, Marcus A; Wilson, James W; Jundt, Jonathon S

    2017-05-01

    Surgical treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) varies by specialty. Our survey sought to answer 3 principal questions: 1) To which surgical specialists are sleep physicians referring patients for upper airway surgery? 2) Which surgical treatment do sleep specialists find to be most effective in treating OSA? 3) Do sleep medicine physicians believe that maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) is worthwhile to patients who are surgical candidates? We formulated a cross-sectional survey. The study sample was obtained by identifying all practices that advertised as sleep medicine specialists in Houston, Texas, by using Internet searches. Physicians who treated children were excluded. Seventy-nine surveys were hand delivered to offices in the greater Houston area; the survey included 6 questions to determine referral and surgical preferences for OSA. Variable responses included years in practice, specialty, and a comments section. A 10-point Likert scale was used to assess sleep medicine physicians' referral patterns and perceptions regarding surgical treatment of OSA. Numerical data were analyzed by calculating mean values and by dividing responses into "disagree" (<5), "neutral" (5), and "agree" (>5). Twenty-six surveys were returned. More sleep medicine physicians referred patients to ear, nose, and throat surgeons (52%) than to oral and maxillofacial surgeons (20%). MMA was viewed as the most effective surgery (72%), followed by "none" (16%), "other" (8%), and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (4%). More respondents viewed the benefits versus risks as favorable for MMA (44%) than for uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (29%). The results of this survey show that sleep medicine physicians in the greater Houston area view MMA as the most favorable and effective surgical option for treating OSA. Although MMA was most often referred for, more respondents refer patients to ear, nose, and throat surgeons than to oral and maxillofacial surgeons for surgical management of OSA. Years in

  18. The role of medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kooti, Wesam; Farokhipour, Maryam; Asadzadeh, Zahra; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Asadi-Samani, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder and plenty of medical plants are used in traditional medicines to treat diabetes. These plants have no side effects and many existing medicines are derived from the plants. The purpose of this systematic review is to study diabetes and to summarize the available treatments for this disease, focusing especially on herbal medicine. Methods Required papers about diabetes and effective plants were searched from the databases, including Science direct, PubMed, Wiley, Scopus, and Springer. Keywords in this study are ”medicinal plants”, “diabetes”, “symptom”, “herbal”, and “treatment”. Out of the 490 collected articles (published in the period between 1995 and 2015), 450 were excluded due to non-relevance or lack of access to the original article. Results Diabetes is mainly due to oxidative stress and an increase in reactive oxygen species that can have major effects. Many plants contain different natural antioxidants, in particular tannins, flavonoids, C and E vitamins that have the ability to maintain β-cells performance and decrease glucose levels in the blood. Conclusion According to published results, it can be said that medical plants are more affordable and have less side effects compared synthetic drugs, and are more effective in treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26955456

  19. The Medicinal Cannabis Treatment Agreement: Providing Information to Chronic Pain Patients Through a Written Document.

    PubMed

    Wilsey, Barth; Atkinson, J Hampton; Marcotte, Thomas D; Grant, Igor

    2015-12-01

    Pain practitioners would seem to have an obligation to understand and inform their patients on key issues of the evidence base on cannabinoid therapeutics. One way to fulfill this obligation might be to borrow from concepts developed in the prescription of opioids: the use of a written agreement to describe and minimize risks. Regrettably, the widespread adoption of opioids was undertaken while harmful effects were minimized; obviously, no one wants to repeat this misstep. This article describes a method of educating patients in a manner analogous to other treatment agreements. Surveys have demonstrated that pain is the most common indication for medical use of cannabis. As more individuals gain access to this botanical product through state ballot initiatives and legislative mandate, the pain specialist is likely to be confronted by patients either seeking such treatment where permitted, or otherwise inquiring about its potential benefits and harms, and alternative pharmaceuticals containing cannabinoids. PubMed searches were conducted using the following keywords: cannabis guidelines, harmful effects of cannabis, medical marijuana, medicinal cannabis, opioid cannabis interaction, cannabis dependence and cannabis abuse : The authors selected individual tenets a medicinal cannabis patient would be asked to review and acknowledge via signature. Undoubtedly, the knowledge base concerning risks will be an iterative process as we learn more about the long-term use of medicinal cannabis. But we should start the process now so that patients may be instructed about our current conception of what the use of medicinal cannabis entails.

  20. Efficacy and safety of topical herbal medicine treatment on recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a systemic review.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Lei; Huang, He-Long; Wang, Wan-Chun; Hua, Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical treatment with natural herbal medicines on recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). Nine electronic databases were searched to identify the randomized controlled trials and clinical controlled trials that reported the potential effect of natural herbal medicines on RAS published in Chinese or English. Ulcer size and duration, and remission of pain were assessed as main outcome measures. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Handbook for Systemic Review of Interventions and Rev Man software. Thirteen trials with a total of 1,515 patients were included in the present analysis, which showed that topical treatment with natural herbal medicines seemed to benefit RAS patients by reducing ulcer size, shortening ulcer duration, and relieving pain without severe side effects. In conclusion, there is some evidence of the efficacy of topically applied natural herbal medicines with regards to improved RAS outcome measures and fewer side effects. However, given the limitations of this study, the evidence remains insufficient. Well-designed and high-quality randomized controlled trials are required for further exploration.

  1. Trends in the Treatment of Hypertension from the Perspective of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Wei; Chu, Fuyong; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is a major public-health issue. Much consensus has been reached in the treatment, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. However, the standard-reaching rate of blood pressure is far from satisfaction. Considering these data and the seriousness of the effects of hypertension on the individual and society as a whole, both economically and socially, physicians must look for more effective and alternative ways to achieve the target blood pressure. Could treatment of hypertension be improved by insights from traditional Chinese medicine? As one of the most important parts in complementary and alternative therapies, TCM is regularly advocated for lowering elevated blood pressure. Due to the different understanding of the pathogenesis of hypertension between ancient and modern times, new understanding and treatment of hypertension need to be reexplored. Aiming to improve the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine in treating hypertension, the basis of treatment is explored through systematically analyzing the literature available in both English and Chinese search engines. This paper systematically reviews the trends in emerging therapeutic strategies for hypertension from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23878594

  2. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Sanwal, Chandra Shekher; Bhardwaj, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine) plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm), medium (up to 10 cm), and deep (up to 15 cm) tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ. PMID:27563482

  3. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain

  4. Treatment of Recurrent Ovarian Cysts and Primary Infertility by Iranian Traditional Medicine: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Mehdi; Setayesh, Mohammad; Mokaberinejad, Roshanak

    2016-12-08

    Infertility is a medical and psychosocial problem with a high prevalence. There are different treatments for this problem in Iranian traditional medicine. A 28-year-old woman presented with the complaints of 4 emergency operations of the left ovarian cyst during 4 years and infertility. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed an ovarian cyst, adhesion, and endometriosis. Hysteroscopy was unremarkable. After 2 months of letrozole administration, the ovarian cyst ruptured again. Considering the failure of conventional treatments, Iranian traditional medicine products were administered to the patient. After 3 months, the patient conceived and delivered a healthy boy through normal vaginal delivery. These compounds may help with pregnancy as a uterine tonic, vitalizer, and aphrodisiac with brain and cardiac tonic properties.

  5. The Chinese approach to complementary and alternative medicine treatment for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Management of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) remains a challenge due to poor understanding on its etiology. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), as an optional treatment, has been widely used, because no definitive conventional therapy is available. The different domain of CAM provides miscellaneous treatments for IC/BPS, which mainly include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, biofeedback, yoga, massage, physical therapy, Qigong, traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Clinical evidence has shown that each therapy can certainly benefit a portion of IC/BPS patients. However, the target patient group of each therapy has not been well studied and randomized, controlled trials are needed to further confirm the efficacy and reliability of CAM on managing IC/BPS. Despite these limitations, CAM therapeutic characteristics including non-invasive and effectiveness for specific patients allow clinicians and patients to realize multimodal and individualized therapy for IC/BPS. PMID:26816867

  6. [Establishment of diagnosis and treatment patterns of holistic integrated medicine for neuro-ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanling

    2014-12-01

    Neuro-ophthalmology, as an interdisciplinary, covers at least three disciplines- ophthalmology, neurology and neurosurgery. With limited knowledge in each discipline, doctors often make misdiagnoses for neuro-ophthalmology diseases. Therefore, it is imperative to abandon the distinction between disciplines and combine all the knowledge to diagnose and treat patients in patterns of holistic integrated medicine in order to effectively improve the diagnosis and treatment of neuro-ophthalmology.

  7. Medicinal Plants Used by Various Tribes of Bangladesh for Treatment of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Hossan, Shahadat; Khatun, Afsana; Seraj, Syeda; Jahan, Rownak

    2012-01-01

    It has been estimated that 300–500 million malaria infections occur on an annual basis and causes fatality to millions of human beings. Most of the drugs used for treatment of malaria have developed drug-resistant parasites or have serious side effects. Plant kingdom has throughout the centuries proved to be efficient source of efficacious malarial drugs like quinine and artemisinin. Since these drugs have already developed or in the process of developing drug resistance, it is important to continuously search the plant kingdom for more effective antimalarial drugs. In this aspect, the medicinal practices of indigenous communities can play a major role in identification of antimalarial plants. Bangladesh has a number of indigenous communities or tribes, who because of their living within or in close proximity to mosquito-infested forest regions, have high incidences of malaria. Over the centuries, the tribal medicinal practitioners have treated malaria with various plant-based formulations. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among various tribes of Bangladesh to identify the plants that they use for treatment of the disease. Surveys were conducted among seven tribes, namely, Bawm, Chak, Chakma, Garo, Marma, Murong, and Tripura, who inhabit the southeastern or northcentral forested regions of Bangladesh. Interviews conducted with the various tribal medicinal practitioners indicated that a total of eleven plants distributed into 10 families were used for treatment of malaria and accompanying symptoms like fever, anemia, ache, vomiting, and chills. Leaves constituted 35.7% of total uses followed by roots at 21.4%. Other plant parts used for treatment included barks, seeds, fruits, and flowers. A review of the published scientific literature showed that a number of plants used by the tribal medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses. Taken together, the plants merit further scientific research

  8. Knowledge of, Attitudes Toward, and Experience of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Western Medicine– and Oriental Medicine–Trained Physicians in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Il; Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Moo-Song; Kang, Weechang

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. We compared knowledge of, attitudes toward, and experience with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among Western medicine–trained doctors (WMDs) and Oriental medicine–trained doctors (OMDs). Methods. In Korea, 502 WMDs and 500 OMDs were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Results. OMDs held more favorable attitudes toward CAM than did WMDs. OMDs possessed a deeper understanding of and greater experience with CAM. OMDs more readily endorsed health beliefs congruent with CAM. Conclusions. In the future, CAM can be more readily used by OMDs than by WMDs. Because evidence for the effectiveness of CAM remains sparse, more research is needed for the prudent use of CAM in Korea. An education and training system for potential CAM providers remains to be developed. PMID:12453822

  9. [Case-control study on spinal leveraging manipulation and medicine for the treatment of degenerative scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Tian, Gang; Shen, Mao-rong; Jiang, Wei-guo; Xie, Fu-rong; Wei, Wen-wu

    2015-06-01

    To compare clinical effects of spinal leveraging manipulation and medicine for the treatment of degenerative scoliosis in pain and function. From July 2010 to June 2013, 38 patients with degenerative scoliosis were randomly divided into spinal leveraging manipulation group and medicine group by coin tossing. In manipulation group, there were 9 males and 11 females aged from 58 to 74 years old with an average of (66.63±7.73), the courses of diseases ranged from 3 to 8 months with an average of (5.65±2.58), spinal leveraging manipulation(following meridian to straighten tendon,relieving spasm, osteopathy and massage, clearing and activating the channels and collaterals) were performed for 30 min, once a day, 4 days for a period treatment, totally 9 courses. In medicine group, there were 8 males and 10 females aged from 57 to 70 years old with an average of (63.51±6.61) the courses of diseases ranged from 3 to 5 months with an average of (4.82±1.43), celecoxib with eperisone hydrochloride were orally taken, 4 days for a period treatment, totally 9 courses. VAS score, Cobb angle and ODI score were measured. After treatment, VAS score in manipulation group was (5.38±0.99), (6.36±1.31) in medicine group,and had significant meaning (t=2.618, P<0.05); there was significant differences in Cobb angle between manipulation group (16.51±4.89)° and medicine group (19.85±5.03) °(t=2.074,P<0.05); and had obviously meaning in ODI score between manipulation group (20.20±2.93) and medicine group (26.01±3.11) (t=5.592, P<0.05). Spinal leveraging manipulation for degenerative scoliosis could regulate muscle balance on both side of spine, correct coronal imbalances in spine, recover normal sequence of spine, reduce and remove opperssion and stimulation of nerve root, relieve pain in leg and waist and further improve quality of life.

  10. What does addiction medicine expect from neuroscience? From genes and neurons to treatment responses.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The field of neuroscience is rapidly growing as evidenced by the mapping of the human genome, the progress in brain imaging technologies, and the refinement of sophisticated molecular tools that can be combined with innovative preclinical models. With these advances, it seems that our understanding of processes underlying addiction has never been so great. In comparison, the clinical domain has evolved at a much slower pace. Nonetheless, the addiction medical field has seen some gradual improvements in clinical care with the availability of a larger range of pharmacological options. Notably, several therapeutic alternatives are now offered for the treatment of nicotine, alcohol, and opioid use disorders. Some of these developments in treatment regimens have directly emerged from basic neuroscience research and represent a success story for the bench to beside translational approach. However, the clinical and research needs in addiction medicine are huge. There are still no pharmacological interventions available for psychostimulant and cannabis use disorders. Further, major questions remain unanswered: Would a better understanding of the neurocircuitry of addiction lead to therapeutic intervention? Would a better understanding of the neurochemical signature of addiction lead to the validation of a therapeutic target? Will pharmacogenetics hold its promise as a personalized medicine treatment approach? Using recent research developments, we will illustrate the potential of neuroscience to address some of the pressing questions in Addiction Medicine.

  11. [Regularity analysis on clinical treatment in primary liver cancer by traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoni; Li, Ning

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate clinical treatment regularity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on primary liver cancer and provide inspiration for the clinical use. Traditional Chinese medicine database on primary liver cancer was established to analysis the classification, frequency, dosage of TCM in clinical treatment. Tonic medicine is the most common medication, herbs for heat-clearing, promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis, eliminating dampness and diuresis and regulating flow of Qi are more common medication, herbs for relieving exterior disorder and digesting are common medication; the first frequency of single herb is Atractglodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Poria, Codonopsis Radix. Popular classical prescriptions are Sijunzi Tang, Xiaochaihu Tang, YiguanJian, Xiangsha Liujunzi Tang, Xiaoyao Wan and Gexia Zhuyu Tang, Liuwei Dihuang Tang and Yinchenhao Tang et al. Gallic Gigerii Endothelium Corneum and Ophiopogonis Radix are most commonly drug for poor appetite. Astragali Radix is most commonly drug for fatigue. Corydalis Rhizoma, Toosendan Fructus are most common for liver pain; Pericarpium Arecae, Polyporus, Poria are most common herbs for ascites; Artemisiae Scopariae Herba is common drug for jaundice. Replenishing qi to invigorate the spleen, sparsing liver to regulate the flow of vital energy, clearing heat and promoting diuresis, promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis, nourishing yin and detoxification are the main principles for treating primary liver cancer. Improving clinical symptoms, signs and quality of life of patients with TCM is the key to clinical treatment.

  12. From traditional medicine to witchcraft: why medical treatments are not always efficacious.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mark M; Kendal, Jeremy R; Laland, Kevin N

    2009-01-01

    Complementary medicines, traditional remedies and home cures for medical ailments are used extensively world-wide, representing more than US$60 billion sales in the global market. With serious doubts about the efficacy and safety of many treatments, the industry remains steeped in controversy. Little is known about factors affecting the prevalence of efficacious and non-efficacious self-medicative treatments. Here we develop mathematical models which reveal that the most efficacious treatments are not necessarily those most likely to spread. Indeed, purely superstitious remedies, or even maladaptive practices, spread more readily than efficacious treatments under specified circumstances. Low-efficacy practices sometimes spread because their very ineffectiveness results in longer, more salient demonstration and a larger number of converts, which more than compensates for greater rates of abandonment. These models also illuminate a broader range of phenomena, including the spread of innovations, medical treatment of animals, foraging behaviour, and self-medication in non-human primates.

  13. From Traditional Medicine to Witchcraft: Why Medical Treatments Are Not Always Efficacious

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Mark M.; Kendal, Jeremy R.; Laland, Kevin N.

    2009-01-01

    Complementary medicines, traditional remedies and home cures for medical ailments are used extensively world-wide, representing more than US$60 billion sales in the global market. With serious doubts about the efficacy and safety of many treatments, the industry remains steeped in controversy. Little is known about factors affecting the prevalence of efficacious and non-efficacious self-medicative treatments. Here we develop mathematical models which reveal that the most efficacious treatments are not necessarily those most likely to spread. Indeed, purely superstitious remedies, or even maladaptive practices, spread more readily than efficacious treatments under specified circumstances. Low-efficacy practices sometimes spread because their very ineffectiveness results in longer, more salient demonstration and a larger number of converts, which more than compensates for greater rates of abandonment. These models also illuminate a broader range of phenomena, including the spread of innovations, medical treatment of animals, foraging behaviour, and self-medication in non-human primates. PMID:19367333

  14. [Antoine Barthélémy Clot-Bey, a physician from Marseille founder of Western medicine in Egypt].

    PubMed

    Ruf, Henri

    2011-01-01

    Born in Grenoble in 1793 Clot was first a doctor in Marseilles with great success and honour. But for unclear reasons he had to resign, and then decided to be recruited in Egypt, where he was soon called "Clot-Bey" (Bey = officer)": he contributed greatly to modernizing Egyptian medical system: he founded the School of medicine, that of pharmacy, and that of obstetrics, and promoted hygiens and variolisation. After Mehmet Ali abdicated he lost most of his influence, and left Egypt for ever in 1858.

  15. Risk Factors for Lymph Node Metastasis in Western Early Gastric Cancer After Optimal Surgical Treatment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Alessandra; Ramos, Marcus Fernando Kodama Pertille; Dias, André Roncon; Faraj, Sheila Friedrich; Yagi, Osmar Kenji; Safatle-Ribeiro, Adriana Vaz; Maluf-Filho, Fauze; Zilberstein, Bruno; Cecconello, Ivan; de Mello, Evandro Sobroza; Ribeiro, Ulysses

    2017-07-28

    Lymph node metastasis (LNM) has a strong influence on the prognosis of patients with early gastric cancer (EGC). As minimally invasive treatments are considered appropriate for EGC, and lymphadenectomy may be restricted or even eliminated in some cases; it is imperative to identify the main risk factors for LNM to individualize the therapeutic approach. This study aims to evaluate the risk factors for LNM in EGC and to determine the adequacy of the endoscopic resection criteria in a western population. EGC patients who underwent gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy were retrospectively analyzed utilizing a prospective database. The clinicopathological variables were assessed to determine which factors were associated to LNM. Among 474 enrolled patients, 105 had EGC (22.1%). LNM occurred in 13.3% of all EGC (10% T1a; 15.4% T1b). Tumor size, venous, lymphatic, and perineural invasions were confirmed as independent predictors of LNM by multivariate analysis. Expanded criteria were safely adopted only in selected cases, and 13.6% of patients who matched expanded indication had LNM. Tumor size, venous, lymphatic, and perineural invasions were associated with LNM and should be considered as surrogate markers for surgical treatment of EGC. Expanded criteria for endoscopic resection can be safely adopted only in selected cases.

  16. Genetically Determined Response to Artemisinin Treatment in Western Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum Parasites.

    PubMed

    Chebon, Lorna J; Ngalah, Bidii S; Ingasia, Luicer A; Juma, Dennis W; Muiruri, Peninah; Cheruiyot, Jelagat; Opot, Benjamin; Mbuba, Emmanuel; Imbuga, Mabel; Akala, Hoseah M; Bulimo, Wallace; Andagalu, Ben; Kamau, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Genetically determined artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has been described in Southeast Asia. The relevance of recently described Kelch 13-propeller mutations for artemisinin resistance in Sub-Saharan Africa parasites is still unknown. Southeast Asia parasites have low genetic diversity compared to Sub-Saharan Africa, where parasites are highly genetically diverse. This study attempted to elucidate whether genetics provides a basis for discovering molecular markers in response to artemisinin drug treatment in P. falciparum in Kenya. The genetic diversity of parasites collected pre- and post- introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) in western Kenya was determined. A panel of 12 microsatellites and 91 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the P. falciparum genome were genotyped. Parasite clearance rates were obtained for the post-ACT parasites. The 12 microsatellites were highly polymorphic with post-ACT parasites being significantly more diverse compared to pre-ACT (p < 0.0001). The median clearance half-life was 2.55 hours for the post-ACT parasites. Based on SNP analysis, 15 of 90 post-ACT parasites were single-clone infections. Analysis revealed 3 SNPs that might have some causal association with parasite clearance rates. Further, genetic analysis using Bayesian tree revealed parasites with similar clearance phenotypes were more closely genetically related. With further studies, SNPs described here and genetically determined response to artemisinin treatment might be useful in tracking artemisinin resistance in Kenya.

  17. Effect of treatment on strength and stiffness of Western Red Cedar utility poles

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuyan, G.S.; Chetwynd, D.S.

    1995-12-31

    Based on a survey of North American utilities, research organizations and manufacturers, the effect of preservative methods on strength and stiffness of new wood utility poles was found to be inconclusive. This is primarily due to the fact that no direct comparisons were made between the mechanical properties of the same poles before and after the treatment. Hence a systematic research program was carried out on thirty, forty-five foot long Western Red Cedar poles having different sizes. Two newly developed Nondestructive Evaluation instruments, based on ultrasonic principles, were used to grade and assure the quality of these poles, individually, at the green stage. Penetration resistances were quantified using an instrumented drill. The stiffness of the untreated poles were measured from full scale deflection tests. After these measurements, the poles were treated with chromate copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservatives. Change in strength, stiffness and penetration resistance due to the treatment was quantified for each pole using the above methods. This paper will summarize the results obtained from this research program.

  18. Genetically Determined Response to Artemisinin Treatment in Western Kenyan Plasmodium falciparum Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Chebon, Lorna J.; Ngalah, Bidii S.; Ingasia, Luicer A.; Juma, Dennis W.; Muiruri, Peninah; Cheruiyot, Jelagat; Opot, Benjamin; Mbuba, Emmanuel; Imbuga, Mabel; Akala, Hoseah M.; Bulimo, Wallace; Andagalu, Ben; Kamau, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Genetically determined artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has been described in Southeast Asia. The relevance of recently described Kelch 13-propeller mutations for artemisinin resistance in Sub-Saharan Africa parasites is still unknown. Southeast Asia parasites have low genetic diversity compared to Sub-Saharan Africa, where parasites are highly genetically diverse. This study attempted to elucidate whether genetics provides a basis for discovering molecular markers in response to artemisinin drug treatment in P. falciparum in Kenya. The genetic diversity of parasites collected pre- and post- introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) in western Kenya was determined. A panel of 12 microsatellites and 91 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed across the P. falciparum genome were genotyped. Parasite clearance rates were obtained for the post-ACT parasites. The 12 microsatellites were highly polymorphic with post-ACT parasites being significantly more diverse compared to pre-ACT (p < 0.0001). The median clearance half-life was 2.55 hours for the post-ACT parasites. Based on SNP analysis, 15 of 90 post-ACT parasites were single-clone infections. Analysis revealed 3 SNPs that might have some causal association with parasite clearance rates. Further, genetic analysis using Bayesian tree revealed parasites with similar clearance phenotypes were more closely genetically related. With further studies, SNPs described here and genetically determined response to artemisinin treatment might be useful in tracking artemisinin resistance in Kenya. PMID:27611315

  19. PRECISION MEDICINE - The Golden Gate for Detection, Treatment and Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hampel, H; O'Bryant, S E; Castrillo, J I; Ritchie, C; Rojkova, K; Broich, K; Benda, N; Nisticò, R; Frank, R A; Dubois, B; Escott-Price, V; Lista, S

    2016-12-01

    societal consequences of early detection at asymptomatic stages. In this scenario, the integrated roles of genome sequencing, investigations of comprehensive fluid-based biomarkers and multimodal neuroimaging will be of key importance for the identification of distinct molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways in subsets of asymptomatic people at greatest risk for progression to clinical milestones due to those specific pathways. The precision medicine strategy facilitates a paradigm shift in Neuroscience and AD research and development away from the classical "one-size-fits-all" approach in drug discovery towards biomarker guided "molecularly" tailored therapy for truly effective treatment and prevention options. After the long and winding decade of failed therapy trials progress towards the holistic systems-based strategy of precision medicine may finally turn into the new age of scientific and medical success curbing the global AD epidemic.

  20. PRECISION MEDICINE - The Golden Gate for Detection, Treatment and Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hampel, H.; O’Bryant, S.E.; Castrillo, J.I.; Ritchie, C.; Rojkova, K.; Broich, K.; Benda, N.; Nisticò, R.; Frank, R.A.; Dubois, B.; Escott-Price, V.; Lista, S.

    2016-01-01

    societal consequences of early detection at asymptomatic stages. In this scenario, the integrated roles of genome sequencing, investigations of comprehensive fluid-based biomarkers and multimodal neuroimaging will be of key importance for the identification of distinct molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways in subsets of asymptomatic people at greatest risk for progression to clinical milestones due to those specific pathways. The precision medicine strategy facilitates a paradigm shift in Neuroscience and AD research and development away from the classical “one-size-fits-all” approach in drug discovery towards biomarker guided “molecularly” tailored therapy for truly effective treatment and prevention options. After the long and winding decade of failed therapy trials progress towards the holistic systems-based strategy of precision medicine may finally turn into the new age of scientific and medical success curbing the global AD epidemic. PMID:28344933

  1. Identification of medicinal plants for the treatment of kidney and urinary stones

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Baharvand-Ahmadi, Babak; Tajeddini, Pegah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Naghdi, Nasrollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Kidney stones are the third most common urinary tract problems after urinary tract infections and prostate pathology. Kidney stones may cause extreme pain and blockage of urine flow. They are usually treated with medications that may cause a number of side-effects. Medicinal herbs are used in different cultures as a reliable source of natural remedies. Objectives: This study aimed to determine native medicinal plants used by traditional healers of Shiraz for the treatment of kidney stones. Materials and Methods: The ethno-medicinal data were collected between July and September 2012 through face-to-face interview with local herbalist. Results: A total of 18 species belonging to 19 botanical families were recorded in study area. Species with the highest frequency of mentions were Alhagi maurorum (51.58%), Tribulus terrestris (51.58%), and Nigella sativa (48.14). The most frequently used plant parts were aerial parts (38%), leaf (33%) and fruits (17%). Decoction (68%) was the most frequently prescribed method of preparation. Most of the medicinal plants recommended by Shirazian herbalists have not been investigated in animal and humane models of renal stone which provides a new area of research. Conclusion: In the case of safety and effectiveness, they can be refined and processed to produce natural drugs. PMID:27689108

  2. Identification of medicinal plants for the treatment of kidney and urinary stones.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Baharvand-Ahmadi, Babak; Tajeddini, Pegah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Naghdi, Nasrollah

    2016-01-01

    Kidney stones are the third most common urinary tract problems after urinary tract infections and prostate pathology. Kidney stones may cause extreme pain and blockage of urine flow. They are usually treated with medications that may cause a number of side-effects. Medicinal herbs are used in different cultures as a reliable source of natural remedies. This study aimed to determine native medicinal plants used by traditional healers of Shiraz for the treatment of kidney stones. The ethno-medicinal data were collected between July and September 2012 through face-to-face interview with local herbalist. A total of 18 species belonging to 19 botanical families were recorded in study area. Species with the highest frequency of mentions were Alhagi maurorum (51.58%), Tribulus terrestris (51.58%), and Nigella sativa (48.14). The most frequently used plant parts were aerial parts (38%), leaf (33%) and fruits (17%). Decoction (68%) was the most frequently prescribed method of preparation. Most of the medicinal plants recommended by Shirazian herbalists have not been investigated in animal and humane models of renal stone which provides a new area of research. In the case of safety and effectiveness, they can be refined and processed to produce natural drugs.

  3. Evaluation of performance characteristics of the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) for the treatment of venous congestion.

    PubMed

    Conforti, Michael L; Connor, Nadine P; Heisey, Dennis M; Hartig, Gregory K

    2002-01-01

    Medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) are a standard treatment for venous congestion, a complication that can occur after reconstructive surgery. If the cause of venous congestion cannot be surgically corrected, then medicinal leeches are used to temporarily increase perfusion levels and maintain physiologic requirements within the congested tissue. Leeches increase perfusion within congested tissue by actively drawing off blood as a bloodmeal. Furthermore, the leech bite continues to bleed and relieve congestion after detachment because of the anticoagulation effects of leech saliva left behind in the bite. In a porcine model, a 10 x 10 cm cutaneous flank flap was congested by clamping the venae comitantes. Four medicinal leeches were allowed to attach to the congested flap, and parameters of active feeding and passive bleeding after detachment were recorded. The average bloodmeal volume for the medicinal leeches was 2.45 ml. Average passive bleeding for the first 2 and 4 hours after leech detachment totaled 2.21 and 2.50 ml, respectively, with 90 percent of passive bleeding occurring within 5 hours after detachment. Laser Doppler imaging indicated that the spatial arrangement of surface perfusion increases were localized to a 1.6-cm-diameter circle around the leech head (bite) and corresponded well with the visual return of normal skin tones to the same area. This study provides a realistic and quantitative estimate of the spatial and volumetric characteristics of leech feeding and passive bleeding using a clinically relevant model of acute, severe congestion.

  4. Roles of Natural Compounds from Medicinal Plants in Cancer Treatment: Structure and Mode of Action at Molecular Level.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Mahmood; Malik, Arif; Manan, Abdul; Arooj, Mahwish; Qazi, Mahmood Husain; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Sheikh, Ishfaq Ahmed; Gan, Siew Hua; Asif, Muhammad; Naseer, Muhammad Imran

    2015-01-01

    Every year, cancer takes the life of millions of people. Conventional treatments have produced unsatisfactory results for some types of cancer, and the side effects are extensive, leading to a shift in the focus of treatment towards alternative medicines. Indeed, medicinal plants have long been investigated by scientists for their anti-cancer properties. Some phytochemicals that are important active constituents of plants, including catechins, ursolic acid, silymarin, glycyrrhizin, ellagic acid, gallic acid and various types of flavonoids, have shown promise in future cancer management. The current review covers various aspects of cancer treatment based on medicinal plants at molecular level and sheds light on their structures and modes of action.

  5. In-vitro evaluation of selected Egyptian traditional herbal medicines for treatment of alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Egyptians recognized the healing power of herbs and used them in their medicinal formulations. Nowadays, “Attarin” drug shops and the public use mainly the Unani medicinal system for treatment of their health problems including improvement of memory and old age related diseases. Numerous medicinal plants have been described in old literature of Arabic traditional medicine for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (or to strengthen memory). Methods In this study, some of these plants were evaluated against three different preliminary bioassays related to AD to explore the possible way of their bio-interaction. Twenty three selected plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cycloxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzymes. In addition, anti-oxidant activity using DPPH was determined. Results Of the tested plant extracts; Adhatoda vasica and Peganum harmala showed inhibitory effect on AChE at IC50 294 μg/ml and 68 μg/ml respectively. Moreover, A. vasica interacted reversibly with the enzyme while P. harmala showed irreversible inhibition. Ferula assafoetida (IC50 3.2 μg/ml), Syzygium aromaticum (34.9 μg/ml) and Zingiber officinalis (33.6 μg/ml) showed activity against COX-1 enzyme. Potent radical scavenging activity was demonstrated by three plant extracts Terminalia chebula (EC50 2.2 μg/ml), T. arjuna (3.1 μg/ml) and Emblica officinalis (6.3 μg/ml). Conclusion Interestingly, differential results have been obtained which indicate the variability of the mode of actions for the selected plants. Additionally, the reversible interaction of A. vasica against AChE and the potent activity of F. assafoetida against COX-1 make them effective, new and promising agents for treatment of AD in the future, either as total extracts or their single bioactive constituents. PMID:23721591

  6. The Role of Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jazani, Arezoo Moini; Azgomi, Ramin Nasimi Doost; Mohammadi, Ghadir

    2016-05-01

    Cancer is the most important non-communicable disease and the chief cause of death in the world, which imposes a major burden on communities. It is expected that the number of new cancer cases will increase 70 percent worldwide in the next two decades. The exact cause of the disease is unclear in modern medicine. More than a third of all cancer cases are preventable and the other two third are treatable if detected early. Cancer is a type of swelling in traditional Persian medicine (TPM). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of nutrition in the prevention and treatment of cancer in TPM. This study is a review-descriptive that was conducted based on traditional medicine books, including Al Canon fil tibb, Al-Hawi, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi and Exir-e-Aazam. From the viewpoint of TPM, swelling is any abnormal accumulation of material in organs that will make bulging and dysfunction. If the substance of the disease can be fully matured and eliminated in the early stages of swelling and the patients become stronger, the possibility of swelling creation with poor prognosis such as cancer will decrease. Cancer is a cold and melancholic (soda) swelling that can be created by burning of humors. Treatment of cancer is based on specific nutrition management and medicinal herbs. According to the study, eating moderate to moisture temperament foods that can decrease acuity of melancholy humor (soda), produce appropriate blood (e.g. lamb, goat, egg yolks) and avoiding foods producing melancholy humor are recommended. Swelling is a compound disease and cancer is a melancholic swelling. According to TPM, treating swelling in the early stages is possible and by observing the principles of nutrition, eating and drinking rules, and proper and early treatment of hot swelling and turning hot swelling into cold, cancer can be prevented.

  7. Stratified medicine in psychiatry: a worrying example or new opportunity in the treatment of anxiety?

    PubMed

    Owen, David R; Rupprecht, Rainer; Nutt, David J

    2013-02-01

    Stratified medicine is a new term that figures highly in current MRC and NHS strategy. It has developed from the earlier terms individualised or personalised medicine and refers to the use of genetic and/or endophenotypic measures to allow better targeting of treatments. The best exemplar is HER2 positivity in breast cancer to determine the efficacy of Herceptin. Clinical trials of this anti-cancer drug were initially unpromising, but once the HER2 positive subgroup was identified it was found, in this subgroup only, to be highly effective. It is presumed that similar subgroups will be found for many common disorders not just cancers, and that these will lead to much better targeted treatments. Such an advance may be necessary to develop new treatments in certain fields where the development of broad-spectrum/blockbuster treatments appears to have reached the end of the road; a particular example of this is in psychiatry. In this paper we discuss this issue in relation to psychiatry using a new and interesting example of how genotyping might help rescue an apparently failed novel treatment in anxiety disorders.

  8. Application of Multimodality Imaging Fusion Technology in Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignant Tumors under the Precision Medicine Plan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shun-Yi; Chen, Xian-Xia; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yu-Ying

    2016-12-20

    The arrival of precision medicine plan brings new opportunities and challenges for patients undergoing precision diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors. With the development of medical imaging, information on different modality imaging can be integrated and comprehensively analyzed by imaging fusion system. This review aimed to update the application of multimodality imaging fusion technology in the precise diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors under the precision medicine plan. We introduced several multimodality imaging fusion technologies and their application to the diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors in clinical practice. The data cited in this review were obtained mainly from the PubMed database from 1996 to 2016, using the keywords of "precision medicine", "fusion imaging", "multimodality", and "tumor diagnosis and treatment". Original articles, clinical practice, reviews, and other relevant literatures published in English were reviewed. Papers focusing on precision medicine, fusion imaging, multimodality, and tumor diagnosis and treatment were selected. Duplicated papers were excluded. Multimodality imaging fusion technology plays an important role in tumor diagnosis and treatment under the precision medicine plan, such as accurate location, qualitative diagnosis, tumor staging, treatment plan design, and real-time intraoperative monitoring. Multimodality imaging fusion systems could provide more imaging information of tumors from different dimensions and angles, thereby offing strong technical support for the implementation of precision oncology. Under the precision medicine plan, personalized treatment of tumors is a distinct possibility. We believe that multimodality imaging fusion technology will find an increasingly wide application in clinical practice.

  9. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal preparations in restless legs syndrome (RLS) treatment: a review and probable first description of RLS in 1529.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xue; Wang, Wei-Dong; Walters, Arthur S; Wang, Qi; Liu, Yan-Jiao; Chu, Fu-Yong

    2012-12-01

    Occidental medicine has a given definition for restless legs syndrome (RLS) and knowledge of RLS pathophysiology has led to the development of its therapeutic management. RLS has no cure. Many methods have been used for its treatment, among which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been considered as a new approach. However, description and management of the disease symptoms can be found in Chinese ancient medical systems. The first mention of RLS may have been as early as the third century BC described as "leg uncomfortable". Nonetheless, the lack of a complete description encompassing all four modern cardinal features of RLS makes this uncertain. On the other hand, the first description of RLS encompassing three of the four major modern criteria occurs in the ancient book of Neike Zhaiyao (Internal summary), 1529 AD just about a century and a half prior to the description of RLS by Sir Thomas Willis in England. Here, we introduce the philosophical concepts of traditional Chinese medicine and the description, classification and understanding of RLS symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine. We have conducted an in-depth review of the literature reporting one part of TCM, Chinese herbal treatment efficacy for RLS, through both English and Chinese search engines. Eighty-five studies were included in the review and more than 40 formulas (including 176 different ingredients) were found in the literature. According to the literature, Chinese herbs have been demonstrated to be safe and hold great potential to be an effective treatment modality for RLS, but the evidence is limited by the quality of these studies. Of the eighty-five studies, only nine were clinical trials with a control group and only three of them were randomized. In cases where herbal preparations were compared to Western medications for RLS, the herbal preparations appear to be superior. However, uncertainty as to whether the diagnosis of RLS was made in accord with Western norms and the use of

  10. Differential effects of RNAi treatments on field populations of the western corn rootworm.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chia-Ching; Sun, Weilin; Spencer, Joseph L; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Seufferheld, Manfredo J

    2014-03-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) mediated crop protection against insect pests is a technology that is greatly anticipated by the academic and industrial pest control communities. Prior to commercialization, factors influencing the potential for evolution of insect resistance to RNAi should be evaluated. While mutations in genes encoding the RNAi machinery or the sequences targeted for interference may serve as a prominent mechanism of resistance evolution, differential effects of RNAi on target pests may also facilitate such evolution. However, to date, little is known about how variation of field insect populations could influence the effectiveness of RNAi treatments. To approach this question, we evaluated the effects of RNAi treatments on adults of three western corn rootworm (WCR; Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) populations exhibiting different levels of gut cysteine protease activity, tolerance of soybean herbivory, and immune gene expression; two populations were collected from crop rotation-resistant (RR) problem areas and one from a location where RR was not observed (wild type; WT). Our results demonstrated that RNAi targeting DvRS5 (a highly expressed cysteine protease gene) reduced gut cysteine protease activity in all three WCR populations. However, the proportion of the cysteine protease activity that was inhibited varied across populations. When WCR adults were treated with double-stranded RNA of an immune gene att1, different changes in survival among WT and RR populations on soybean diets occurred. Notably, for both genes, the sequences targeted for RNAi were the same across all populations examined. These findings indicate that the effectiveness of RNAi treatments could vary among field populations depending on their physiological and genetic backgrounds and that the consistency of an RNAi trait's effectiveness on phenotypically different populations should be considered or tested prior to wide deployment. Also, genes that are potentially subjected

  11. Evaluation of florfenicol for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in feedlot calves in western Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Booker, C W; Jim, G K; Guichon, P T; Schunicht, O C; Thorlakson, B E; Lockwood, P W

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in western Canada to evaluate the efficacy of florfenicol for the treatment of undifferentiated fever (UF) in feedlot calves. One hundred and twenty-five recently weaned, auction market derived, crossbred, beef steer calves suffering from UF were allocated to 1 of 2 experimental groups as follows: florfenicol, which was intramuscular florfenicol administered at the rate of 20 mg/kg body weight at the time of allocation (day 0) and again 48 h later; or control, which was intramuscular saline administered at the same volume as florfenicol at the time of allocation and again 48 h later. Eighty-four calves were allocated to the florfenicol group and 41 calves were allocated to the control group. Outcome measures describing animal health, body weight, and rectal temperature parameters were used to determine the efficacy of florfenicol for the treatment of UF. The 1st relapse of UF, 2nd relapse of UF, overall mortality, bovine respiratory disease mortality, and haemophilosis mortality rates were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the florfenicol group than in the control group. Animals in the florfenicol group were significantly (P < 0.05) heavier at day 15 and day 45 than animals in the control group. The rectal temperature on days 1, 2, 3, and 4 of animals in the florfenicol group was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than in the control group. In addition, the change in rectal temperature from day 0 to day 4 was significantly (P < 0.05) different between the experimental groups. The results of this study demonstrate that florfenicol is an efficacious antimicrobial for the treatment of UF. PMID:9285135

  12. Palliative in-patient cancer treatment in an anthroposophic hospital: I. Treatment patterns and compliance with anthroposophic medicine.

    PubMed

    Heusser, Peter; Braun, Sarah Berger; Ziegler, Renatus; Bertschy, Manuel; Helwig, Silke; van Wegberg, Brigitte; Cerny, Thomas

    2006-04-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and most of all anthroposophic medicine (AM) are important features of cancer treatment in Switzerland. While the number of epidemiological investigations into the use of such therapies is increasing, there is a distinct lack of reports regarding the combination of conventional and CAM methods. 144 in-patients with advanced epithelial cancers were enrolled in a prospective quality-of-life (QoL) study at the Lukas Klinik (LK), Arlesheim, Switzerland. Tumor-related treatment was assessed 4 months prior to admission, during hospitalization and 4 months after baseline. We aimed at giving a detailed account of conventional, AM and CAM treatment patterns in palliative care, before, during and after hospitalization, with emphasis on compliance with AM after discharge. Certain conventional treatments featured less during hospitalization than before but were resumed after discharge (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, sleeping pills, psychoactive drugs). Hormone therapy, corticosteroids, analgesics WHO III and antidepressants remained constant. AM treatment consisted of Iscador? (mistletoe), other plant- or mineral-derived medication, baths, massage, eurythmy, art therapy, counseling and lactovegetarian diet. Compliance after discharge was highest with Iscador (90%) and lowest with art therapy (14%). Many patients remained in the care of AM physicians. Other CAM and psychological methods were initially used by 39.9% of patients. After 4 months, the use had decreased with few exceptions. During holistic palliative treatment in an anthroposophic hospital, certain conventional treatments featured less whereas others remained constant. After discharge, chemotherapy returned to previous levels, AM compliance remained high, the use of other CAM therapies low.

  13. Treatment Algorithms Based on Tumor Molecular Profiling: The Essence of Precision Medicine Trials.

    PubMed

    Le Tourneau, Christophe; Kamal, Maud; Tsimberidou, Apostolia-Maria; Bedard, Philippe; Pierron, Gaëlle; Callens, Céline; Rouleau, Etienne; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Servant, Nicolas; Alt, Marie; Rouzier, Roman; Paoletti, Xavier; Delattre, Olivier; Bièche, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    With the advent of high-throughput molecular technologies, several precision medicine (PM) studies are currently ongoing that include molecular screening programs and PM clinical trials. Molecular profiling programs establish the molecular profile of patients' tumors with the aim to guide therapy based on identified molecular alterations. The aim of prospective PM clinical trials is to assess the clinical utility of tumor molecular profiling and to determine whether treatment selection based on molecular alterations produces superior outcomes compared with unselected treatment. These trials use treatment algorithms to assign patients to specific targeted therapies based on tumor molecular alterations. These algorithms should be governed by fixed rules to ensure standardization and reproducibility. Here, we summarize key molecular, biological, and technical criteria that, in our view, should be addressed when establishing treatment algorithms based on tumor molecular profiling for PM trials. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Treatment Algorithms Based on Tumor Molecular Profiling: The Essence of Precision Medicine Trials

    PubMed Central

    Le Tourneau, Christophe; Kamal, Maud; Tsimberidou, Apostolia-Maria; Bedard, Philippe; Pierron, Gaëlle; Callens, Céline; Rouleau, Etienne; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Servant, Nicolas; Alt, Marie; Rouzier, Roman; Paoletti, Xavier; Delattre, Olivier; Bièche, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of high-throughput molecular technologies, several precision medicine (PM) studies are currently ongoing that include molecular screening programs and PM clinical trials. Molecular profiling programs establish the molecular profile of patients’ tumors with the aim to guide therapy based on identified molecular alterations. The aim of prospective PM clinical trials is to assess the clinical utility of tumor molecular profiling and to determine whether treatment selection based on molecular alterations produces superior outcomes compared with unselected treatment. These trials use treatment algorithms to assign patients to specific targeted therapies based on tumor molecular alterations. These algorithms should be governed by fixed rules to ensure standardization and reproducibility. Here, we summarize key molecular, biological, and technical criteria that, in our view, should be addressed when establishing treatment algorithms based on tumor molecular profiling for PM trials. PMID:26598514

  15. Evidence-Based Medicine, Heterogeneity of Treatment Effects, and the Trouble with Averages

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, Richard L; Duan, Naihua; Braslow, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is the application of scientific evidence to clinical practice. This article discusses the difficulties of applying global evidence (“average effects” measured as population means) to local problems (individual patients or groups who might depart from the population average). It argues that the benefit or harm of most treatments in clinical trials can be misleading and fail to reveal the potentially complex mixture of substantial benefits for some, little benefit for many, and harm for a few. Heterogeneity of treatment effects reflects patient diversity in risk of disease, responsiveness to treatment, vulnerability to adverse effects, and utility for different outcomes. Recognizing these factors, researchers can design studies that better characterize who will benefit from medical treatments, and clinicians and policymakers can make better use of the results. PMID:15595946

  16. Complementary Therapies for Significant Dysfunction from Tinnitus: Treatment Review and Potential for Integrative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Wolever, Ruth Q.; Price, Rebecca; Hazelton, A. Garrett; Dmitrieva, Natalia O.; Bechard, Elizabeth M.; Shaffer, Janet K.; Tucci, Debara L.

    2015-01-01

    Tinnitus is a prevalent and costly chronic condition; no universally effective treatment exists. Only 20% of patients who report tinnitus actually seek treatment, and when treated, most patients commonly receive sound-based and educational (SBE) therapy. Additional treatment options are necessary, however, for nonauditory aspects of tinnitus (e.g., anxiety, depression, and significant interference with daily life) and when SBE therapy is inefficacious or inappropriate. This paper provides a comprehensive review of (1) conventional tinnitus treatments and (2) promising complementary therapies that have demonstrated some benefit for severe dysfunction from tinnitus. While there has been no systematic study of the benefits of an Integrative Medicine approach for severe tinnitus, the current paper reviews emerging evidence suggesting that synergistic combinations of complementary therapies provided within a whole-person framework may augment SBE therapy and empower patients to exert control over their tinnitus symptoms without the use of medications, expensive devices, or extended programs. PMID:26457113

  17. Traditional Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of cancer and cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    YE, LIN; JIA, YONGNING; JI, KE; SANDERS, ANDREW J.; XUE, KAN; JI, JIAFU; MASON, MALCOLM D.; JIANG, WEN G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been a major part of healthcare in China, and has extensively affected medicine and healthcare in surrounding countries over a long period of time. In the fight against cancer, certain anticancer remedies using herbs or herbal formulas derived from TCM have been developed for the management of malignancies. Furthermore, there are clinical trials registered for the use of herbal remedies in cancer management. Herbal medicine has been used as part of combined therapies to reduce the side-effects of chemotherapy, including bone marrow suppression, nausea and vomiting. Herbal remedies have also been used as chemopreventive therapies to treat precancerous conditions in order to reduce the incidence of cancer in high-risk populations. Emerging evidence has revealed that herbal remedies can regulate the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration of cancer cells. In addition to this direct effect upon cancer cells, a number of herbal remedies have been identified to suppress angiogenesis and therefore reduce tumour growth. The inhibition of tumour growth may also be due to modifications of the host immune system by the herbal treatment. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of herbal remedies remain poorly understood and are yet to be fully elucidated. The present study aims to summarize the current literature and clinical trial results of herbal remedies for cancer treatment, with a particular focus on the recent findings and development of the Yangzheng Xiaoji capsule. PMID:26622657

  18. The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Nayebi, Neda; Moradi, Leila; Mehri, Avin; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of effective herbal medicines in the management of hyperlipidemia in human. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases were searched up to 11th May 2010. The search terms were "hyperlipidemia" and ("herbal medicine" or "medicine traditional", "extract plant") without narrowing or limiting search elements. All of the human studies on the effects of herbs with the key outcome of change in lipid profiles were included. Fifty three relevant clinical trials were reviewed for efficacy of plants. This study showed significant decrease in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol after treatment with Daming capsule (DMC), chunghyul-dan, Glycyrrhiza glabra, garlic powder (Allicor), black tea, green tea, soy drink enriched with plant sterols, licorice, Satureja khuzestanica, Monascus purpureus Went rice, Fenugreek, Commiphora mukul (guggul), Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch, Ningzhi capsule (NZC), cherry, compositie salviae dropping pill (CSDP), shanzha xiaozhi capsule, Ba-wei-wan (hachimijiogan), rhubarb stalk, Silybum marianum, Rheum Ribes and Jingmingdan granule (primrose oil). Conflicting data exist for red yeast rice, garlic and guggul. No significant adverse effect or mortality were observed except in studies with DMC, guggul, and Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Emblica officinalis, ginger, and garlic powder (Allium sativum). Amongst reviewed studies, 22 natural products were found effective in the treatment of hyperlipidemia that deserve further works to isolate and characterization of their constituents to reach novel therapeutic and more effective agents.

  19. Comprehensive treatment program for pregnant substance users in a family medicine clinic.

    PubMed

    Ordean, Alice; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-11-01

    Substance use during pregnancy is a substantial public health problem and a risk factor for poor neonatal outcomes. Prenatal care is often provided in high-risk pregnancy units, separate from addiction treatment. To provide comprehensive prenatal care and addiction treatment in a family medicine setting. The Toronto Centre for Substance Use in Pregnancy (T-CUP) is a family medicine-based program in a large urban city in Ontario. The T-CUP program comprises an interdisciplinary team using a one-stop access model to provide comprehensive services for pregnant women with a history of alcohol or drug abuse, including prenatal and postnatal medical care, addiction counseling, and assistance with complex psychosocial needs. A retrospective chart review was performed, including charts for 121 women who received care at T-CUP from August 2000 to January 2006. Women demonstrated a high compliance rate with prenatal care attendance. Most women reported reduction in a variety of drug use categories. Significant differences were found especially among women who presented earlier in their pregnancies (P < .05). As a result, neonatal outcomes were satisfactory and approximately 75% of newborns were discharged home in the care of their mothers. Pregnant substance-using women have positive maternal and infant health outcomes when they receive comprehensive care in a family medicine setting.

  20. Traditional Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of cancer and cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lin; Jia, Yongning; Ji, K E; Sanders, Andrew J; Xue, Kan; Ji, Jiafu; Mason, Malcolm D; Jiang, Wen G

    2015-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been a major part of healthcare in China, and has extensively affected medicine and healthcare in surrounding countries over a long period of time. In the fight against cancer, certain anticancer remedies using herbs or herbal formulas derived from TCM have been developed for the management of malignancies. Furthermore, there are clinical trials registered for the use of herbal remedies in cancer management. Herbal medicine has been used as part of combined therapies to reduce the side-effects of chemotherapy, including bone marrow suppression, nausea and vomiting. Herbal remedies have also been used as chemopreventive therapies to treat precancerous conditions in order to reduce the incidence of cancer in high-risk populations. Emerging evidence has revealed that herbal remedies can regulate the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration of cancer cells. In addition to this direct effect upon cancer cells, a number of herbal remedies have been identified to suppress angiogenesis and therefore reduce tumour growth. The inhibition of tumour growth may also be due to modifications of the host immune system by the herbal treatment. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of herbal remedies remain poorly understood and are yet to be fully elucidated. The present study aims to summarize the current literature and clinical trial results of herbal remedies for cancer treatment, with a particular focus on the recent findings and development of the Yangzheng Xiaoji capsule.

  1. Clinical Experiences of Korean Medicine Treatment against Urinary Bladder Cancer in General Practice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Taeyeol; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is one of the most common cancers, with 1 out of every 26 men and 1 out of every 80 women worldwide developing the disease during their lifetime. Moreover, it is a disease that predominantly affects the elderly and is becoming a major health problem as the elderly population continues to rapidly increase. In spite of the rapid development of medical science, the 5-year survival rate has remained around 75% since the 1990s, and the FDA has approved no new drugs for UBC over the last 10 years. In addition, most patients experience frequent recurrence and poor quality of life after diagnosis. Therefore, in order to solve unmet needs by alternative methods, we present our clinical cases of UBC where we observed outstanding results including regression and recurrence prevention exclusively through Traditional Korean Medicine such as (1) herbal therapy, (2) acupuncture, (3) pharmacopuncture and needle-embedding therapy, (4) moxibustion, and (5) cupping therapy. From our experience, it appears that multimodal strategies for synergistic efficiency are more effective than single Korean Medicine treatment. We hope this will encourage investigation of the efficacy of Korean Medicine treatment in clinical trials for UBC patients. PMID:27190532

  2. Network pharmacology-based study on the mechanism of action for herbal medicines in Alzheimer treatment.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jiansong; Wang, Ling; Wu, Tian; Yang, Cong; Gao, Li; Cai, Haobin; Liu, Junhui; Fang, Shuhuan; Chen, Yunbo; Tan, Wen; Wang, Qi

    2017-01-20

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), as the most common type of dementia, has brought a heavy economic burden to healthcare system around the world. However, currently there is still lack of effective treatment for AD patients. Herbal medicines, featured as multiple herbs, ingredients and targets, have accumulated a great deal of valuable experience in treating AD although the exact molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In this investigation, we proposed a network pharmacology-based method, which combined large-scale text-mining, drug-likeness filtering, target prediction and network analysis to decipher the mechanisms of action for the most widely studied medicinal herbs in AD treatment. The text mining of PubMed resulted in 10 herbs exhibiting significant correlations with AD. Subsequently, after drug-likeness filtering, 1016 compounds were remaining for 10 herbs, followed by structure clustering to sum up chemical scaffolds of herb ingredients. Based on target prediction results performed by our in-house protocol named AlzhCPI, compound-target (C-T) and target-pathway (T-P) networks were constructed to decipher the mechanism of action for anti-AD herbs. Overall, this approach provided a novel strategy to explore the mechanisms of herbal medicine from a holistic perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of Sleep Disturbance in Alcohol Recovery: A National Survey of Addiction Medicine Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Herman, Debra S.; Freedman, Shelby; Lemon, Stephenie C.; Ramsey, Susan; Stein, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common among patients in recovery from alcoholism and can precipitate relapse. Though sleep complaints are commonly managed with medication, little is known about their management among recovering alcoholic patients. We performed a postal survey of a self-weighted, random systematic sample of 503 members of the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) to examine addiction medicine physicians’ medical management of sleep disturbance among patients in early recovery from alcoholism. After 3 mailings, 311 (62%) responded. Of responents, 64% have offered pharmacological treatment to an insomniac, alcoholic patient in the first 3 months after detoxification, but only 22% offered medication to more than half of such patients. Trazodone was the preferred therapy, chosen first by 38% of respondents, followed by other sedating antidepressants (12%), and antihistamines (12%). The mean duration of therapy for trazodone and other sedating antidepressants exceeded one month. Experts in addiction medicine appear reluctant to prescribe medication to sleep-disturbed patients in early recovery from alcoholism. When they do prescribe, trazodone, other sedating antidepressants and antihistamines are favored, despite limited evidence for or against this indication. Although the treatment of disordered sleep among alcoholic patients in early recovery may have merit to prevent relapse, controlled studies of these sleep agents are needed. PMID:12703672

  4. Medicinal plants as alternative treatments for female sexual dysfunction: utopian vision or possible treatment in climacteric women?

    PubMed

    Mazaro-Costa, Renata; Andersen, Monica L; Hachul, Helena; Tufik, Sergio

    2010-11-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a complex and multifactorial condition. An increased incidence of FSD is especially associated with the decline of estrogen. Thus, menopause is a critical phase for FSD complaints. In this context, medicinal plants may be a therapeutic option. To identify and describe the popular and clinical uses of medicinal plants for FSD treatment in climacteric women. We highlighted the majority of the plants commonly involved with the female reproductive system including: Angelica sinensis, Cimicifuga racemosa, Ferula hermonis, Ginkgo biloba, Humulus lupulus, Lepidium meyenii, Tribulus terrestris, Trifolium pratense, and Vitex agnus-castus. This study is a narrative review of studies of plants that are possible alternative treatments for FSD. The species described have clinical and popular uses in different cultures as well as medical indications for female reproductive disturbances, mainly in climacteric women. We have also analyzed the evidence level of clinical studies. The main outcome assessed is the efficacy of plants in improving the symptoms of FSD. There is little evidence from the literature to recommend the use of medicinal plants when treating FSD. The majority of studies with a strong level of evidence are associated with the treatment of the vasomotor symptoms of menopause. Ferula hermonis, Angelica sinensis, and Gingko biloba may be suggested for arousal disorder studies. Cimicifuga racemosa, Trifolium pratense, and Vitex agnus-castus may be recommended for several FSD. Humulus lupulus and Tribulus terrestris may help with desire disorder studies. Lepidium meyenii should be studied further. Studies of these plants indicate that they may be useful as a possible alternative and/or complementary approach for studies aimed at the treatment of FSD. At this time, however, this review cannot recommend a plant that has a strong enough level of evidence for treatment of FSD. Thus, there is a need for clinical (double-blinded and

  5. The quality of antimalarial medicines in western Cambodia: a case study along the Thai-Cambodian border.

    PubMed

    Phanouvong, Souly; Raymond, Christopher; Krech, Laura; Dijiba, Yanga; Mam, Boravann; Lukulay, Patrick; Socheat, Duong; Sovannarith, Tey; Sokhan, Chroeng

    2013-05-01

    The prevalence, availability, and use of antimalarial medicines (AMLs) were studied in six Cambodian provinces along the Thai-Cambodian border. The study was divided into two parts: the first looked at the quality of AMLs available in Pursat, Pailin, Battambang, Bantey Meanchey, Oddar Meanchey, and Preah Vihear and the second obtained information about the availability and use of AMLs. A randomized sampling methodology was used to select locations and collect samples, which were screened using Global Pharma Health Fund (GPHF) Minilabs. A subset of samples was sent to quality control laboratories for confirmatory testing. For the second part of the study, face-to-face interviews were conducted using standardized surveys with members of randomly selected households and staff of health facilities in the villages with highest malaria incidence to find out where they acquired their AMLs and which were most frequently used. The results showed an overall failure rate of 12.3% (n = 46 of 374 total AML samples). The causes of medication sample failure were low active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content, failed dissolution properties, and unacceptably high levels of impurities. A total of 86.2% of survey respondents (n = 1,648 of 1,912) reported a member of their household having malaria in the previous year. The most commonly used medicines were paracetamol (67.1% of respondents), Malarine (A+M co-blistered, 28.6%), artesunate + mefloquine co-blistered (public sector product, 17.3%), quinine (16.7%), and artesunate monotherapy (11.9%). Health staff typically prescribed co-blistered artesunate plus mefloquine in the public sector (67.8%), the artesunate plus mefloquine "social marketing" product from Population Services International (PSI), Malarine (50.3%) in the private sector, artemether (49.7%), chloroquine (39%) and paracetamol (72.9%) to reduce fever.

  6. Pure phosphine fumigation treatment at low temperature for postharvest control of western flower thrips on lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    U.S. exported lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries often harbor western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), a quarantined pest in Taiwan, and therefore require quarantine treatment. Pure phosphine fumigation at a low temperature of 2°C was studied as an alternative fumigant to meth...

  7. [Hyperbaric oxygen treatment of musculoskeletal disorders on the sports medicine. State of the art].

    PubMed

    Drobnic, Franchek; Turmo, Antonio

    2010-03-13

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (OHB) is a therapeutic modality based on the properties of partial pressure of oxygen, when breathing pure oxygen under hyperbaric conditions in a chamber designed for that purpose. Its indications in medicine are considered as primary, complementary or experimental depending on the evidence based effects. From different sectors of medicine, OHB has been recently proposed as a new tool for other pathologies, primarily in musculoskeletal disorders. In this paper, the state of the art of the influence from experimental studies is reviewed. Some considerations based on these studies are hypothesized as the minimum required to obtain good results when this therapy is decided to be used as co adjuvant to standard treatment.

  8. Peripheral nerve disorders and treatment strategies according to Avicenna in his medical treatise, Canon of medicine.

    PubMed

    Aciduman, Ahmet; Er, Uygur; Belen, Deniz

    2009-01-01

    The written transmission of knowledge has played a great part in the advancement of medicine, and historical documents hold the key to a full exploration of the history of medicine. Some fields, including disciplines that deal with peripheral nerve disorders, have received little benefit from such valuable material. In particular, peripheral nerve surgery lacks perspectives from historical data. For many years, physicians have obtained positive results in the surgical treatment of peripheral nerve diseases. Relevant documents reveal that the first author who described the surgical repair of damaged peripheral nerves was Avicenna, a leading figure of the medieval era who lived in the Middle East. In his primary medical work, the Canon, he provides a description, albeit sketchy, of a suture procedure for peripheral nerve transection. This treatise influenced physicians for several centuries. In this presentation, we analyze excerpts from the Canon that concern peripheral nerve disorders and strategies for their management.

  9. Treatment of uncomplicated malaria at public health facilities and medicine retailers in south-eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background At primary care facilities in Nigeria, national treatment guidelines state that malaria should be symptomatically diagnosed and treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Evidence from households and health care providers indicates that many patients do not receive the recommended treatment. This study sought to determine the extent of the problem by collecting data as patients and caregivers leave health facilities, and determine what influences the treatment received. Methods A cross-sectional cluster survey of 2,039 respondents exiting public health centres, pharmacies and patent medicine dealers was undertaken in urban and rural settings in Enugu State, south-eastern Nigeria. Results Although 79% of febrile patients received an anti-malarial, only 23% received an ACT. Many patients (38%) received sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). A further 13% of patients received an artemisinin-derivative as a monotherapy. An estimated 66% of ACT dispensed was in the correct dose. The odds of a patient receiving an ACT was highly associated with consumer demand (OR: 55.5, p < 0.001). Conclusion Few febrile patients attending public health facilities, pharmacies and patent medicine dealers received an ACT, and the use of artemisinin-monotherapy and less effective anti-malarials is concerning. The results emphasize the importance of addressing both demand and supply-side influences on malaria treatment and the need for interventions that target consumer preferences as well as seek to improve health service provision. PMID:21651787

  10. Medicinal Plants Used in Mali for the Treatment of Malaria and Liver Diseases.

    PubMed

    Haidara, Mahamane; Bourdy, Geneviève; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Braca, Alessandra; Traore, Korotoumou; Giani, Sergio; Sanogo, Rokia

    2016-03-01

    Today, ethno-pharmacology is a very important resource in order to discover new therapies for the current diseases. Moreover, another good justification for the ethno-pharmacological approach is to obtain new, effective, less expensive and simple therapies, limiting at the same time the cost of pharmaceutical research. Two major anti-malarial drugs widely used today, i.e. quinine and artemisinin, came respectively from Peruvian and Chinese ancestral treatments reported in the traditional medicines. In this contest, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new drugs, due to the critical epidemiological situation of this disease and to the growth of resistances. In Mali, malaria and liver diseases remain one of the leading public health problems. Many medicinal plants are often used, in local traditional medicine, for the treatment at the same time of malaria and liver diseases, including hepatic syndromes, jaundice, hepatitis and other hepatic disorders. Moreover, in the local language Bamanan, the word "Sumaya" is used both for malaria and some liver diseases. In addition, we noted that some of the improved traditional phytomedicines produced by the Department of Traditional Medicine are prescribed by modern doctors both for malaria and liver diseases. In this review, pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical data on Argemone mexicana L. (Papaveraceae), Cochlospermum tinctorium Perr. ex A. Rich (Cochlospermaceae), Combretum micranthum G.Don (Combretaceae), Entada africana Guillet Perr. (Mimosaceae), Erythrina senegalensis A. DC (Fabaceae), Mitragyna inermis (Willd) Kuntze (Rubiaceae), Nauclea latifolia Smith syn. Sarcocephalus latifolius (Smith) Bruce (Rubiaceae), Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen (Polygalaceae), Trichilia emetica Vahl. (Meliaceae), and Vernonia colorata (Willd) Drake (Asteraceae) are reported. Some of the collected data could be used to improve the actual herbal drugs and to propose new phytomedicines for the management of malaria and

  11. Selected Topical Agents Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Minor Injuries- A Review

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ping-chung; Ko, Erik Chun-hay; Siu, Wing-sum; Pang, Ellie Suet-yee; Lau, Clara Bik-san

    2016-01-01

    Topical medicinal patches have been popular for the treatment of minor injuries like sprains and avulsions. Other inflammatory conditions like chronic musculo-tendinous pain and or fasciitis are also taken care of by local ointments or rubs. In the oriental communities, medicinal herbs frequently form the major components of the patches. In spite of the lack of scientific evidence of efficacy, the popularity of such traditional application persists for centuries. In this era of evidence-based clinical treatment, there is an urgent need to look into this traditional practice. The purpose should include a scientific verification of the efficacy of the practice, and once proven, further explorations would be indicated to bring the practice to a higher level. A system of comprehensive exploration was proposed and practiced in the past years to fulfill the aspiration. The research consisted of four areas: (1) Identification of the suitable medicinal herbs for the topical study; (2) Study of the biological activities of the selected herbs, concentrating on the areas of anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, angiogenesis and cellular proliferation; (3) Study on the transcutaneous transport of the chemicals of the selected herbs to deeper tissues; and (4) Pilot clinical studies on common superficial inflammatory musculo-skeletal conditions to give objective clinical evidences to the topical applications. Five herbs were identified as suitable candidates of study. They were put into relevant laboratory platforms and were proven to be anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic. Three of the herbs were prepared as topical patches with an enhancer and used to treat three common ailments in pilot clinical trials, viz., plantar fasciitis, undisplaced metatarsal fracture and tendonitis of the wrist (de-Quervain’s disease) and the elbow (Tennis elbow). The clinical results of the pilot studies were very positive. It is therefore concluded that further explorations are

  12. An evidence-based approach to medicinal plants for the treatment of sperm abnormalities in traditional Persian medicine.

    PubMed

    Tahvilzadeh, M; Hajimahmoodi, M; Toliyat, T; Karimi, M; Rahimi, R

    2016-10-01

    Infertility is defined as inability of a sexually active couple to conceive after 1 year of regular intercourse without contraception. Male factors account for 20%-50% of cases of infertility. The aim of this study was to review medicinal plants that proposed to improve sperm abnormalities in traditional Persian medicine. For this purpose, PubMed, Scopus, GoogleScholar and Cochrane library were explored for medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine for sperm abnormalities to obtain studies giving any evidence for their efficacy and pharmacological mechanisms related to male infertility. Data were collected for the years 1966 to March 2015. For some of them, including Chlorophytum borivilianum, Crocus sativus, Nigella sativa, Sesamum indicum, Tribulus terrestris, Mucuna pruriens and Withania somnifera, more reliable evidence was found. The mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of medicinal plants in sperm abnormalities are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-oedematous and venotonic activity as well as containing precursors for sperm production and increasing blood testosterone level. Various phytochemical categories including saponins, phytosterols, carotenoids, oxygenated volatile compounds, phenolic compounds and alkaloids seem to be responsible for these beneficial effects. Further studies are recommended for obtaining more conclusive results about the efficacy and safety of the mentioned medicinal plants.

  13. Intra-articular Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: from Anti-inflammatories to Products of Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Masters M.; Maxwell, Joshua Shane; Weng, Lihui; Angelos, Mathew G.; Golzarian, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Knee osteoarthritis (OA)1 is a debilitating condition that may ultimately require total knee arthroplasty (TKA)2. Non-operative treatments are bracing, oral analgesics, physical therapy, and intra-articular knee injection (IAKI)3. The objective of this paper is to provide a systematic literature review regarding intra-articular treatment of knee OA and insight into promising new products of regenerative medicine that may eventually have a substantial effect on treatment. Methods A literature search was executed using Medline, Cochrane, and Embase with keywords ”knee osteoarthritis” and “injection.” Specifically, articles discussing intra-articular knee injection using corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid, analgesics, local anesthetics, and newer products of regenerative medicine, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP)4 and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)5, were analyzed. Results Forty-five publications were scrutinized. Of these, eleven were level 1, three were level 2, twelve were level 3, two were level 4, and seventeen were level 5. Papers included animal models. Local anesthetics have potential side effects and may only be effective for four hours. Morphine and ketorolac may provide significant pain relief for 24 hours. Corticosteroids may give patients weeks to one months of effective analgesia, but complications may occur, such as systemic hyperglycemia, septic arthritis, and joint degradation. Hyaluronic acid is a natural component of synovial fluid, but efficacy with respect to analgesia is controversial. Platelet-rich plasma formulations, autologous conditioned serum, autologous protein solution, and mesenchymal stem cell injections contain anti-inflammatory molecules and have been proposed to attenuate joint destruction or potentially remodel the joint. Conclusions Currently, knee OA treatment does not address the progressively inflammatory environment of the joint. More investigation is needed regarding products of regenerative medicine, but they

  14. Prospects of Developing Medicinal Therapeutic Strategies and Pharmaceutical Design for Effective Gluten Intolerance Treatment.

    PubMed

    Savvateeva, Lyudmila V; Zamyatnin, Andrey A

    2016-01-01

    Gluten intolerance is an umbrella term for gluten-related disorders manifested in health decline as a result of the gluten ingestion. The spectrum of gluten-related disorders includes three major groups: autoimmune (mainly, Celiac Disease, CD, also known as Celiac Sprue, dermatitis herpetiformis, or gluten-sensitive ataxia), allergic (wheat allergy, WA), and non-autoimmune non-allergic (non-celiac gluten sensitivity, NCGS, or gluten sensitivity, GS). Pathogenesis and diagnostics of CD and WA are well established in contrast to NCGS, pathogenicity of which is still poorly understood and its symptoms are frequently misdiagnosed since most of the NCGS cases are currently identified via the process of CD and WA exclusion. By now, the only one proven effective way for CD treatment is gluten-free diet (GFD). However, such an increasingly gaining popularity diet is apparently unsuitable for NCGS treatment because in this case gluten does not always arise as the major or exclusive culprit of gastrointestinal disorder. Furthermore, it is some physicians' opinion that GFD can be deficient in fiber and in other vitamins and minerals. In many cases, GFD is commercially inaccessible for the most needy, whereas strict adherence to the diet is complicated by the presence of small amounts of the gluten components in some foods and even medicines. In this regard, a number of research groups and pharmaceutical companies are extensively developing alternative medicinal approaches to GFD for effective gluten intolerance treatment. This review summarizes our understanding of gluten-related disorders, possible mechanisms of gluten intolerance activation and advantages of gluten intolerance medicinal treatment using novel drug candidates obtained with a proper pharmaceutical design.

  15. Effect of Weekend Admissions on the Treatment Process and Outcomes of Internal Medicine Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Che; Huang, Yu-Tung; Hsu, Nin-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Shing; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many studies address the effect of weekend admission on patient outcomes. This population-based study aimed to evaluate the relationship between weekend admission and the treatment process and outcomes of general internal medicine patients in Taiwan. A total of 82,340 patients (16,657 weekend and 65,683 weekday admissions) aged ≥20 years and admitted to the internal medicine departments of 17 medical centers between 2007 and 2009 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis was used to compare patients admitted on weekends and those admitted on weekdays. Patients who were admitted on weekends were more likely to undergo intubation (odds ratio [OR]: 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16–1.39; P < 0.001) and/or mechanical ventilation (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.15–1.35; P < 0.001), cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.05–2.01; P = 0.026), and be transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) (OR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.03–1.30; P = 0.015) compared with those admitted on weekdays. Weekend-admitted patients also had higher odds of in-hospital mortality (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.09–1.30; P < 0.001) and hospital treatment cost (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01–1.06; P = 0.008) than weekday-admitted patients. General internal medicine patients who were admitted on weekends experienced more intensive care procedures and higher ICU admission, in-hospital mortality, and treatment cost. Intensive care utilization may serve as early indicator of poorer outcomes and a potential entry point to offer preventive intervention before proceeding to intensive treatment. PMID:26871788

  16. [Comparative observation on acupuncture-moxibustion and western medication for treatment of sudden deafness].

    PubMed

    Fan, Xin-hua; Ding, Ya-nan; Chang, Xiang-hui; Ouyang, Yu-lu; Xie, Qiang

    2010-08-01

    To compare the therapeutic effect on sudden deafness between acupuncture and moxibustion therapy of excitation-focus transfer and routine medication. Eighty ca