Science.gov

Sample records for wet industrial wastes

  1. Solid waste management practices in wet coffee processing industries of Gidabo watershed, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ulsido, Mihret D; Li, Meng

    2016-07-01

    The financial and social contributions of coffee processing industries within most coffee export-based national economies like Ethiopia are generally high. The type and amount of waste produced and the waste management options adopted by these industries can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the solid waste management options adopted in wet coffee processing industries in the Gidabo watershed of Ethiopia. A field observation and assessment were made to identify whether the operational characteristics of the industries have any effect on the waste management options that were practiced. The investigation was conducted on 125 wet coffee processing industries about their solid waste handling techniques. Focus group discussion, structured questionnaires, key informant interview and transect walks are some of the tools employed during the investigation. Two major types of wastes, namely hull-bean-pulp blended solid waste and wastewater rich in dissolved and suspended solids were generated in the industries. Wet mills, on average, released 20.69% green coffee bean, 18.58% water and 60.74% pulp by weight. Even though these wastes are rich in organic matter and recyclables; the most favoured solid waste management options in the watershed were disposal (50.4%) and industrial or household composting (49.6%). Laxity and impulsive decision are the driving motives behind solid waste management in Gidabo watershed. Therefore, to reduce possible contamination of the environment, wastes generated during the processing of red coffee cherries, such as coffee wet mill solid wastes, should be handled properly and effectively through maximisation of their benefits with minimised losses.

  2. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D C; Neuenschwander, G G; Baker, E G; Sealock, Jr, L J; Butner, R S

    1991-04-01

    Bench-scale reactor tests are in progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for treating a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. This report describes a test program which used a continuous-feed tubular reactor. This test program is an intermediate stage in the process development. The reactor is a laboratory-scale version of the commercial concept as currently envisioned by the process developers. An energy benefit and economic analysis was also completed on the process. Four conceptual commercial installations of the TEES process were evaluated for three food processing applications and one organic chemical manufacturing application. Net energy production (medium-Btu gas) was achieved in all four cases. The organic chemical application was found to be economically attractive in the present situation. Based on sensitivity studies included in the analysis, the three food processing cases will likely become attractive in the near future as waste disposal regulations tighten and disposal costs increase. 21 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Wet air oxidation for the treatment of industrial wastes. Chemical aspects, reactor design and industrial applications in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Debellefontaine, H.; Foussard, J.N.

    2000-07-01

    Aqueous wastes containing organic pollutants can be efficiently treated by wet air oxidation (WAO), i.e., oxidation (or combustion) by molecular oxygen in the liquid phase, at high temperature (200--325 C) and pressure (up to 175 bar). This method is suited to the elimination of special aqueous wastes from the chemical industry as well as to the treatment of domestic sludge. It is an enclosed process, with a limited interaction with the environment, as opposed to incineration. Usually, the operating cost is lower than 95 Euro M{sup {minus}3} and the preferred COD load ranges from 10 to 80 kg m{sup {minus}3}. Only a handful of industrial reactors are in operation world-wide, mainly because of the high capital investment they require. This paper reviews the major results obtained with the WAO process and assess its field of possible application to industrial wastes. In addition, as only a very few studies have been devoted to the scientific design of such reactors (bubble columns), what needs to be known for this scientific design is discussed. At present, a computer program aimed at determining the performance of a wet air oxidation reactor depending on the various operating parameters has been implemented at the laboratory. Some typical results are presented, pointing out the most important parameters and the specific behavior of these units.

  4. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1991--1992 interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Hart, T.R.; Phelps, M.R.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1993-07-01

    A catalytic gasification system operating in a pressurized water environment has been developed and refined at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for over 12 years. Initial experiments were aimed at developing kinetics information for steam gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts. The combined use of alkali and metal catalysts was reported for gasification of biomass and its components at low temperatures (350{degrees}C to 450{degrees}C). From the fundamental research evolved the concept of a pressurized, catalytic gasification system for converting wet biomass feedstocks to fuel gas. Extensive batch reactor testing and limited continuous reactor system (CRS) testing were undertaken in the development of this system under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. A wide range of biomass feedstocks were tested, and the importance of the nickel metal catalyst was identified. Specific use of this process for treating food processing wastes was also studied. The concept application was further expanded to encompass cleanup of hazardous wastewater streams, and results were reported for batch reactor tests and continuous reactor tests. Ongoing work at PNL focuses on refining the catalyst and scaling the system to long-term industrial needs. The process is licensed as the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) to Onsite*Ofsite, Inc., of Duarte, California. This report is a follow-on to the 1989--90 interim report [Elliott et al. 1991], which reviewed the results of the studies conducted with a fixed-bed, continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The discussion here provides an overview of experiments on the wide range of potential feedstock materials conducted in a batch reactor; development of new catalyst materials; and tests performed in continuous-flow reactors at three scales. The appendices contain the history and background of the process development, as well as more detailed descriptions and results of the recent studies.

  5. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes. FY 1993--1994 interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Hart, T.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Deverman, G.S.; Werpy, T.A.; Phelps, M.R.; Baker, E.G.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

    1995-03-01

    Process development research is continuing on a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system that has been demonstrated to convert organics in water (dilute or concentrated) to useful and environmentally safe gases. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEESO), treats a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from hazardous organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of continuous-feed, tubular reactors systems for testing catalysts and feedstocks in the process. A range of catalysts have been tested, including nickel and other base metals, as well as ruthenium and other precious metals. Results of extensive testing show that feedstocks, ranging from 2% para-cresol in water to potato waste and spent grain, can be processed to > 99% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The product fuel gas contains from 40% up to 75% methane, depending on the feedstock. The balance of the gas is mostly carbon dioxide with < 5% hydrogen and usually < 1% ethane and higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics from 10 to 1,000 mg/l COD, depending on the feedstock. The level of development of TEES has progressed to the initial phases of industrial process demonstration. Testing of industrial waste streams is under way at both the bench scale and engineering scale of development.

  6. Electrochemical decomposition of fluorinated wetting agents in plating industry waste water.

    PubMed

    Fath, Andreas; Sacher, Frank; McCaskie, John E

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical decomposition of fluorinated surfactants (PFAS, perfluorinated alkyl substances) used in the plating industry was analyzed and the decomposition process parameters optimized at the laboratory scale and production scale of a 500-liter reactor using lead electrodes. The method and system was successfully demonstrated under production conditions to treat PFAS) with up to 99% efficiency in the concentration range of 1,000-20,000 μg/l (1 ppm-20 ppm). The treatment also reduced hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) ions to trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) ions in the wastewater. If the PFAS-containing wastewater is mixed with other wastewater streams, specifically from nickel plating drag out solution or when pH values >5, the treatment process is ineffective. For the short chain PFAS, (perfluorobutylsulfonate) the process was less efficient than C6-C8 PFAS. The process is automated and has safety procedures and controls to prevent hazards. The PFAS were decomposed to hydrogen fluoride (HF) under the strong acid electrochemical operating conditions. Analytical tests showed no evidence of organic waste products remaining from the process. Conventional alternative PFAS removal systems were tested on the waste streams and compared with each other and with the-E-destruct (electrochemical oxidation) process. For example, ion exchange resin (IX resin) treatment of wastewater to complex and remove PFAS was found to be seven times more efficient when compared to the conventional activated carbon absorption (C-treat) process. However, the E-destruct process is higher in capacity, exhibits longer service life and lower operating costs than either IX or C-treat methods for elimination of PFAS from these electroplating waste streams.

  7. The dissolution kinetics of industrial brine sludge wastes from a chlor-alkali industry as a sorbent for wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD).

    PubMed

    Masilela, N; Lerotholi, L; Seodigeng, T; Rutto, H

    2017-01-27

    The disposal of industrial brine sludge waste (IBSW) in chlor-alkali plants can be avoided by utilization of IBSW as a sorbent in wet flue gas desulphurization. The shrinking core model was used to determine the dissolution kinetics of IBSW which is a vital step in wet FGD. The effect of solid to liquid ratio (m/v), temperature, pH, particle size and stirring speed on the conversion and dissolution rate constant are determined. The conversion and dissolution rate constant decreases as the pH, particle size and solid to liquid ratio is increased and increases as the temperature, concentration of acid and stirring speed is increased. The sorbents before and after dissolution were characterized using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). An activation energy of 7.195 kJ/mol was obtained and the product layer diffusion model was found to be the rate controlling step.

  8. Assessment of TEES reg sign applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

  9. Bench-scale reactor tests of low-temperature, catalytic gasification of wet, industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Baker, E.G.; Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J.

    1990-04-01

    Bench-scale reactor tests are under way at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for to a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of a continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The catalyst is nickel metal on an inert support. Typical results show that feedstocks such as solutions of 2% para-cresol or 5% and 10% lactose in water or cheese whey can be processed to >99% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a rate of up to 2 L/hr. The estimated residence time is less than 5 min at 360{degree}C and 3000 psig, not including 1 to 2 min required in the preheating zone of the reactor. The liquid hourly space velocity has been varied from 1.8 to 2.9 L feedstock/L catalyst/hr depending on the feedstock. The product fuel gas contains 40% to 55% methane, 35% to 50% carbon dioxide, and 5% to 10% hydrogen with as much as 2% ethane, but less than 0.1% ethylene or carbon monoxide, and small amounts of higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics amounting to less than 500 mg/L COD. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  10. Industrial waste pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics and effects of industrial waste pollution in the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of inorganic and organic pollution entering the bay are described. The four types of pollutants are defined as: (1) inorganic chemical wastes, (2) naturally occurring organic wastes, (3) synthetic organic wastes (exotics) and (4) thermal effluents. The ecological behavior of industrial wastes in the surface waters is analyzed with respect to surface film phenomena, interfacial phenomena, and benthis phenomena

  11. Assessment of TEES{reg_sign} applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

  12. Wet oxidation of a spacecraft model waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wydeven, T.

    1985-01-01

    Wet oxidation was used to oxidize a spacecraft model waste under different oxidation conditions. The variables studied were pressure, temperature, duration of oxidation, and the use of one homogeneous and three heterogeneous catalysts. Emphasis is placed on the final oxidation state of carbon and nitrogen since these are the two major components of the spacecraft model waste and two important plant nutrients.

  13. Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Wang; Yung-Tse Hung; Howard Lo; Constantine Yapijakis

    2004-06-15

    This expanded Second Edition offers 32 chapters of industry- and waste-specific analyses and treatment methods for industrial and hazardous waste materials - from explosive wastes to landfill leachate to wastes produced by the pharmaceutical and food industries. Key additional chapters cover means of monitoring waste on site, pollution prevention, and site remediation. Including a timely evaluation of the role of biotechnology in contemporary industrial waste management, the Handbook reveals sound approaches and sophisticated technologies for treating: textile, rubber, and timber wastes; dairy, meat, and seafood industry wastes; bakery and soft drink wastes; palm and olive oil wastes; pesticide and livestock wastes; pulp and paper wastes; phosphate wastes; detergent wastes; photographic wastes; refinery and metal plating wastes; and power industry wastes. This final chapter, entitled 'Treatment of power industry wastes' by Lawrence K. Wang, analyses the stream electric power generation industry, where combustion of fossil fuels coal, oil, gas, supplies heat to produce stream, used then to generate mechanical energy in turbines, subsequently converted to electricity. Wastes include waste waters from cooling water systems, ash handling systems, wet-scrubber air pollution control systems, and boiler blowdown. Wastewaters are characterized and waste treatment by physical and chemical systems to remove pollutants is presented. Plant-specific examples are provided.

  14. Steel Industry Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)

  15. Catalytic Wet Gasification of Municipal and Animal Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Ro, Kyoung S.; Cantrell, Keri; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hunt, Patrick G.

    2007-02-21

    Applicability of wet gasification technology for various animal and municipal wastes was examined. Wet gasification of swine manure and raw sewage sludge generated high number of net energies. Furthermore, the moisture content of these wastes is ideal for current wet gasification technology. Significant quantities of water must be added to dry feedstock wastes such as poultry litter, feedlot manures and MSW to make the feedstock pumpable. Because of their high ash contents, MSW and unpaved feedlot manure would not generate positive energy return from wet gasification. The costs of a conceptual wet gasification manure management system for a model swine farm were significantly higher than that of the anaerobic lagoon system. However, many environmental advantages of the wet gasification system were identified, which might reduce the costs significantly. Due to high sulfur content of the wastes, pretreatment to prevent the poisoning of catalysts is critically needed.

  16. Assessment and development of an industrial wet oxidation system for burning waste and low upgrade fuels. Final report, Phase 2B: Pilot demonstration of the MODAR supercritical water oxidation process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation is Project Manager for the Development and Demonstration of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Wastes and Low Grade Fuel. This program has been ongoing through a Cooperative Agreement sponsored by the Department of Energy, initiated in June 1988. This report presents a comprehensive discussion of the results of the demonstration project conducted under this cooperative agreement with the overall goal of advancing the state-of-the-art in the practice of Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO). In recognition of the Government`s support of this project, we have endeavored to include all material and results that are not proprietary in as much detail as possible while still protecting MODAR`s proprietary technology. A specific example is in the discussion of materials of construction where results are presented while, in some cases, the specific materials are not identified. The report presents the results chronologically. Background material on the earlier phases (Section 2) provide an understanding of the evolution of the program, and bring all reviewers to a common starting point. Section 3 provides a discussion of activities from October 1991 through July 1992, during which the pilot plant was designed; and various studies including computational fluid dynamic modeling of the reactor vessel, and a process HAZOP analyses were conducted. Significant events during fabrication are presented in Section 4. The experimental results of the test program (December 1992--August 1993) are discussed in Section 5.

  17. Industrial waste reduction: The process problem

    SciTech Connect

    Valentino, F.W.; Walmet, G.E.

    1986-09-01

    Industrial waste problems, especially those involving hazardous waste, seem to be pervasive. The national media report newly discovered waste problems and sites with alarming regularity. Examples that immediately come to mind are Love Canal, New York; Times Beach, Missouri; and Seveso, Italy. Public perceptions of the industrial waste problem, reflecting the media's focus, appear to be that: large corporations are solely responsible for creating waste dumps, and the only role of government is to prevent illegal dumping and to regulate, fine, and require corporations to rectify the problem; all efforts should be directed toward preventing illegal dumping and treatment of the existing waste dumps; all industrial wastes can be classified as hazardous in nature. This general impression is both inaccurate and incomplete. All industrial waste is not hazardous (although most of it is not benign). All waste producers are not large corporations: nearly all industries produce some wastes. And, while existing waste sites must be effectively treated, additional efforts are needed at other points in the industrial waste cycle. Most people would agree both that waste dumping must be carefully regulated because of its negative impacts on the environment and that the less waste the better, even with carefully regulated disposal. Since nearly all industry now produces some waste and no one expects industry to shut down to resolve the waste problem, other strategies need to be available to deal with the problem at the front end. This paper discusses alternative strategies.

  18. Wet Oxidation as a Waste Treatment Method in Closed Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onisko, B. L.; Wydeven, T.

    1982-01-01

    The chemistry of the wet oxidation process was investigated in relation to production of plant nutrients from plant and human waste materials as required for a closed life support system. Hydroponically grown lettuce plants were used as a model plant waste, and oxygen gas was used as an oxidant. Organic nitrogen content was decreased 88-100%, depending on feed material. Production of ammonia and nitrogen gas accounted for all of the observed decrease in organic nitrogen content. No nitrous oxide (N2O) was detected. The implications of these results for closed life support systems are discussed.

  19. Wet oxidation as a waste treatment in closed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onisko, B. L.; Wydeven, T.

    1981-01-01

    The chemistry of the wet oxidation process has been investigated in relation to production of plant nutrients from plant and human waste materials as required for a closed life-support system. Hydroponically grown lettuce plants were used as a model plant waste and oxygen gas was used as oxidant. Organic nitrogen content was decreased 88-100% depending on feed material. Production of ammonia and nitrogen gas account for all of the observed decrease in organic nitrogen content. No nitrous oxide (N2O) was detected. The implications of these results for closed life-support systems are discussed.

  20. Electronic waste disassembly with industrial waste heat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengjun; Wang, Jianbo; Chen, Haiyian; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Zhang, Mingxin; Zang, Hongbin; Hu, Jiukun

    2013-01-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are resource-rich but hazardous, demanding innovative strategies for post-consumer collection, recycling, and mining for economically precious constituents. A novel technology for disassembling electronic components from WPCBs is proposed, using hot air to melt solders and to separate the components and base boards. An automatic heated-air disassembling equipment was designed to operate at a heating source temperature at a maximum of 260 °C and an inlet pressure of 0.5 MPa. A total of 13 individual WPCBs were subjected to disassembling tests at different preheat temperatures in increments of 20 °C between 80 and 160 °C, heating source temperatures ranging from 220 to 300 °C in increments of 20 °C, and incubation periods of 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. For each experimental treatment, the disassembly efficiency was calculated as the ratio of electronic components released from the board to the total number of its original components. The optimal preheat temperature, heating source temperature, and incubation period to disassemble intact components were 120 °C, 260 °C, and 2 min, respectively. The disassembly rate of small surface mount components (side length ≤ 3 mm) was 40-50% lower than that of other surface mount components and pin through hole components. On the basis of these results, a reproducible and sustainable industrial ecological protocol using steam produced by industrial exhaust heat coupled to electronic-waste recycling is proposed, providing an efficient, promising, and green method for both electronic component recovery and industrial exhaust heat reutilization.

  1. Is Industry Managing Its Wastes Properly?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Industry is faced with handling, disposing and recovering vast amounts of waste, much of it as a result of present pollution control technology. Industry has found the technology available, expensive and, without regulation, easy to ignore. Many industries are therefore improperly managing their wastes. (BT)

  2. Industrial waste and pollution in Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgormaa, L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper very briefly outlines hazardous waste management issues, including regulations, in Mongolia. Air, water, and soil pollutants are identified and placed in context with climatic, social, and economic circumstances. The primary need identified is technology for the collection and disposal of solid wastes. Municipal waste problems include rapid urbanization and lack of sanitary landfills. Industrial wastes of concern are identified from the mining and leather industries. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Development and testing of a wet oxidation waste processing system. [for waste treatment aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitzmann, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    The wet oxidation process is considered as a potential treatment method for wastes aboard manned spacecraft for these reasons: (1) Fecal and urine wastes are processed to sterile water and CO2 gas. However, the water requires post-treatment to remove salts and odor; (2) the residual ash is negligible in quantity, sterile and easily collected; and (3) the product CO2 gas can be processed through a reduction step to aid in material balance if needed. Reaction of waste materials with oxygen at elevated temperature and pressure also produces some nitrous oxide, as well as trace amounts of a few other gases.

  4. Bio-ethanol production from wet coffee processing waste in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Woldesenbet, Asrat Gebremariam; Woldeyes, Belay; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh

    2016-01-01

    Large amounts of coffee residues are generated from coffee processing plants in Ethiopia. These residues are toxic and possess serious environmental problems following the direct discharge into the nearby water bodies which cause serious environmental and health problems. This study was aimed to quantify wet coffee processing waste and estimate its bio-ethanol production. The study showed that the wastes are potential environmental problems and cause water pollution due to high organic component and acidic nature. The waste was hydrolyzed by dilute H2SO4 (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 M) and distilled water. Total sugar content of the sample was determined titrimetrically and refractometry. Maximum value (90%) was obtained from hydrolysis by 0.4 M H2SO4. Ethanol production was monitored by gas chromatography. The optimum yield of ethanol (78%) was obtained from the sample hydrolyzed by 0.4 M H2SO4 for 1 h at hydrolysis temperature of 100 °C and after fermentation for 24 h and initial pH of 4.5. Based on the data, it was concluded that reuse of the main coffee industry wastes is of significant importance from environmental and economical view points. In conclusion, this study has proposed to utilize the wet coffee processing waste to produce bio-ethanol which provides the alternative energy source from waste biomass and solves the environmental waste disposal as well as human health problem.

  5. Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Manahan, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

  6. Management of waste from stone processing industry.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, K; Joseph, Kurian

    2007-10-01

    Characteristics of waste generated in stone processing industries, impact of its current disposal practices and waste recycling potential were assessed by field studies. The physical and chemical characteristics of waste are comparable to construction materials like sand and cement. The environmental issues due to the disposal of waste including that on ambient air quality were identified at respective disposal sites. It was found that the waste can be used to replace about 60% of sand and 10% of cement in concrete. Similarly the waste can replace 40% of clay in clay bricks with affecting its compressive strength.

  7. Wet air oxidation of epoxy acrylate monomer industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaoxia; Liu, Zhengqian; Huang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Beiping

    2010-06-15

    Epoxy acrylate monomer industrial wastewater contained highly concentrated and toxic organic compounds. The wet air oxidation (WAO) and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) were used to eliminate pollutants in order to examine the feasibility of the WAO/CWAO as a pre-treatment method for the industrial wastewater. The results showed that in the WAO 63% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 41% total organic carbon (TOC) removals were achieved and biological oxygen demand (BOD(5))/COD ratio increased from 0.13 to 0.72 after 3h reaction at 250 degrees C, 3.5MPa and the initial concentration of 100g(COD)/L. Among homogenous catalysts (Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Mn(2+) salts), Cu(2+) salt exhibited better performance. CuO catalyst was used in the CWAO of the wastewater, COD and TOC conversion were 77 and 54%, and good biodegradability was achieved. The results proved that the CWAO was an effective pre-treatment method for the epoxy acrylate monomer industrial wastewater.

  8. Wet-oxidation waste management system for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Ohya, H.

    1986-01-01

    A wet oxidation system will be useful in the Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) as a facility to treat organic wastes and to redistribute inorganic compounds and elements. However at rather higher temperatures needed in this reaction, for instance, at 260 deg C, only 80% of organic in a raw material can be oxidized, and 20% of it will remain in the liquid mainly as acetic acid, which is virtually noncombustible. Furthermore, nitrogen is transformed to ammonium ions which normally cannot be absorbed by plants. To resolve these problems, it becomes necessary to use catalysts. Noble metals such as Ru, Rh and so on have proved to be partially effective as these catalysts. That is, oxidation does not occur completely, and the unexpected denitrification, instead of the expected nitrification, occurs. So, it is essential to develop the catalysts which are able to realize the complete oxidation and the nitrification.

  9. The Carver-Greenfield Process{reg_sign}: Resource recovery system for wet, oily wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, T.D.; Holcombe, T.C.

    1994-12-31

    A combination dehydration/solvent extraction treatment technology, the patented Carver-Greenfield (C-G) Process, can be used to separate wet, oily solid-liquid waste materials into three separate product streams convenient for resource recovery or other disposition: (1) clean, dry solids suitable for fixation or non-hazardous landfilling; (2) water virtually free of solids and oils which can be processed in an industrial or public wastewater treatment facility or which can be returned to the land with the solids; and (3) oil indigenous to the feed, a mixture of extracted hydrocarbon-soluble compounds suitable for resource recovery via recycle to an oil refinery or other processing facility. Hazardous contaminants, e.g. PCBs, in the indigenous oil may be isolated in a small, volume reduced stream for more economic disposal. This paper discusses the C-G Process application flexibilities for resource recovery from oil refinery wastes, sites contaminated with residual coal tars, spent drilling fluids (US EPA SITE Program), as well as to various wet and oily hazardous soil and sludge wastes containing PCB`s and similar ``trace component`` hazardous materials.

  10. Dewatering of industrial clay wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smelley, A.G.; Scheiner, B.J.; Zatko, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    As a part of research conducted to effect pollution a dewatering technique that allows for disposal of clay wastes, for reuse of water now lost with clays, and for reclamation of mined land was developed. The technique utilizes a high-molecular-weight nonionic polyethylene oxide polymer (PEO) that has the ability to flocculate and dewater materials containing clay wastes. In laboratory experiments, coal-clay waste, potash-clay brine slurry, phosphatic clay waste, uranium tailings, and talc tailings were successfully consolidated. Coal-clay waste was consolidated from 3.6 to 57%; potash-clay brine slurry was consolidated from 3.8 to 35%; phosphatic clay waste from 15.6 to 49%; uranium tailings from 15.4 to 67%; tailings from talc production from 9.7 to 53%; and an acidic TiO/sub 2/ slurr slurry from 1.68 to 30%.

  11. Identification and Waste Reduction on Rubber Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahputri, K.; Sari, R. M.; Rizkya, I.; Siregar, I.

    2017-03-01

    Lots of activities in production process can be lead to waste activities. The waste may cause a degree of efficiency of an industry to be low. This research was conducted in the rubber industry. In the rubber industry has been a decline in the level of efficiency. Decreased levels of efficiency occurs because many inefficient activities that take place during the production process. Activities that were not contributed to the value of the product lead to waste during the production process. Identification by the activity is a way to minimize the waste that occurs so that the efficiency of the production process can be improved. Process activity mapping in the rubber industry used to identify the activities that take place on the floor of production in order to reduce waste and propose improvements that can be done to improve efficiency. The total waste that occurs in crumb rubber industry amounted to 94 minutes or 1.56 hours. For the proposed improvements in order to reduce waste are based on two activities, such as transport and unnecessary motion. Transport activities proposed use of material handling in their daily activities and to unnecessary motion by doing a variety of work on the operator.

  12. Anaerobic protocol for assessing industrial waste treatability

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.C.; Khandaker, N.R.

    1996-11-01

    Recent promulgation of strict standards for industrial waste pretreatment has greatly increased the number of wastewaters that are candidates for anaerobic treatment. The challenge with industrial wastes is to determine the potential for anaerobic biodegradation prior to investing large amounts of time and expense in design and field investigation. Various methods have been used to assess the treatability of industrial wastewaters, but the methodology has varied significantly. In response to the need for a consistent procedure for determining the treatability of different industrial wastewaters by anaerobic processes, Young developed an anaerobic treatability screening protocol. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol and to report a number of case studies in which the test protocol was used to determine the feasibility of using anaerobic processes for treating specific industrial wastes. Specific examples include food processing wastes, chemical production wastes, petroleum wastes, and landfill leachate. Treatability was based on assessment of the rate and extent of biodegradation, identification of the presence of toxic substances, and dilution effects.

  13. Guide for Industrial Waste Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of the Guide is to provide facility managers, state and tribal regulators, and the interested public with recommendations and tools to better address the management of land-disposed, non-hazardousindustrial wastes.

  14. Renewable energy recovery through selected industrial wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengchong

    Typically, industrial waste treatment costs a large amount of capital, and creates environmental concerns as well. A sound alternative for treating these industrial wastes is anaerobic digestion. This technique reduces environmental pollution, and recovers renewable energy from the organic fraction of those selected industrial wastes, mostly in the form of biogas (methane). By applying anaerobic technique, selected industrial wastes could be converted from cash negative materials into economic energy feed stocks. In this study, three kinds of industrial wastes (paper mill wastes, brown grease, and corn-ethanol thin stillage) were selected, their performance in the anaerobic digestion system was studied and their applicability was investigated as well. A pilot-scale system, including anaerobic section (homogenization, pre-digestion, and anaerobic digestion) and aerobic section (activated sludge) was applied to the selected waste streams. The investigation of selected waste streams was in a gradually progressive order. For paper mill effluents, since those effluents contain a large amount of recalcitrant or toxic compounds, the anaerobic-aerobic system was used to check its treatability, including organic removal efficiency, substrate utilization rate, and methane yield. The results showed the selected effluents were anaerobically treatable. For brown grease, as it is already well known as a treatable substrate, a high rate anaerobic digester were applied to check the economic effect of this substrate, including methane yield and substrate utilization rate. These data from pilot-scale experiment have the potential to be applied to full-scale plant. For thin stillage, anaerobic digestion system has been incorporated to the traditional ethanol making process as a gate-to-gate process. The performance of anaerobic digester was applied to the gate-to-gate life-cycle analysis to estimate the energy saving and industrial cost saving in a typical ethanol plant.

  15. Wet oxidation of oil-bearing sulfide wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Hotz, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    Oil-bearing metal sulfide sludges produced in treatment of an industrial wastewater, which includes plating wastes, have yielded to treatment by electrooxidation and hydrogen peroxide processes. The oxidation can be controlled to be mild enough to avoid decomposition of the organic phase while oxidizing the sulfides to sulfates. The pH is controlled to near neutral conditions where iron, aluminum and chromium(III) precipitate as hydrous oxides. Other metals, such as lead and barium, may be present as sulfate precipitates with limited solubility, while metals such as nickel and cadmium would be present as complexed ions in a sulfate solution. The oxidations were found to proceed smoothly, without vigorous reaction; heat liberation was minimal. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  17. Recycling and reuse of industrial wastes in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wei, M S; Huang, K H

    2001-01-01

    Eighteen million metric tons of industrial wastes are produced every year in Taiwan. In order to properly handle the industrial wastes, the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (Taiwan EPA) has set up strategic programs that include establishment of storage, treatment, and final disposal systems, establishment of a management center for industrial wastes, and promotion of recycling and reuse of industrial wastes. The Taiwan EPA has been actively promoting the recycling and reuse of industrial wastes over the years. In July 1995 the Taiwan EPA amended and promulgated the Criteria for the Industrial Waste Storage, Collection and Processing Facility, July, 1995 that added articles related to general industrial waste recycling and reuse. In June 1996 the Taiwan EPA promulgated the Non-listed General Industrial Waste Reuse Application Procedures, June, 1996, followed by the Regulations Governing the Permitting of Hazardous Industrial Waste Reuse, June 1996, setting up a full regulatory framework for governing industrial waste reuse. To broaden the recycling and reuse of general industrial wastes, the Taiwan EPA has listed 14 industrial waste items for recycling and reuse, including waste paper, waste iron, coal ash, tempered high furnace bricks (cinder), high furnace bricks (cinder), furnace transfer bricks (cinder), sweetening dregs, wood (whole/part), glass (whole/part), bleaching earth, ceramics (pottery, brick, tile and cast sand), individual metal scraps (copper, zinc, aluminum and tin), distillery grain (dregs) and plastics. As of June 1999, 99 applications for reuse of industrial wastes had been approved with 1.97 million metric tons of industrial wastes being reused.

  18. Recovering waste industrial heat efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Hnat, J.G.; Bartone, L.M.; Cutting, J.C.; Patten, J.S.

    1983-03-01

    Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC's) are being used in the generation of electrical or mechanical power in situations where little demand exists for process steam. Using organic fluids in Rankine cycles improves the potential for economic recovery of waste heat. The right organic fluid can enhance the conversion efficiency by tailoring the ORC heat recovery cycle to the thermodynamic characteristics of the waste heat stream. The selection of the working fluid is affected by its flammability, toxicity, environmental impact, materials compatibility, and cost. Water, ethanol, 2-methyl Pyridine/H2O, Flourinol, Toluene, Freon R-11, and Freon R-113 are compared. An organic cycle using toluene as the working fluid is schematicized.

  19. A NEW, SMALL DRYING FACILITY FOR WET RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Oldiges, Olaf; Blenski, Hans-Juergen

    2003-02-27

    Due to the reason, that in Germany every Waste, that is foreseen to be stored in a final disposal facility or in a long time interim storage facility, it is necessary to treat a lot of waste using different drying technologies. In Germany two different drying facilities are in operation. The GNS Company prefers a vacuum-drying-technology and has built and designed PETRA-Drying-Facilities. In a lot of smaller locations, it is not possible to install such a facility because inside the working areas of that location, the available space to install the PETRA-Drying-Facility is too small. For that reason, GNS decided to design a new, small Drying-Facility using industrial standard components, applying the vacuum-drying-technology. The new, small Drying-Facility for wet radioactive waste and liquids is presented in this paper. The results of some tests with a prototype facility are shown in chapter 4. The main components of that new facility are described in chapter 3.

  20. Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This publication contains technical papers published as they were presented at a recent specialty conference sponsored by the Air & Waste Management Association, titled Waste Combustion in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces, held March 26-27, 1996, in Kansas City, Missouri. Papers touch on compilance concerns for air pollution, air monitoring methodologies, risk assessment, and problems related to public anxiety. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database from this proceedings.

  1. Waste Material Management: Energy and materials for industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This booklet describes DOE`s Waste Material Management (WMM) programs, which are designed to help tap the potential of waste materials. Four programs are described in general terms: Industrial Waste Reduction, Waste Utilization and Conversion, Energy from Municipal Waste, and Solar Industrial Applications.

  2. High rate composting of herbal pharmaceutical industry solid waste.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; Duba, K S; Kalamdhad, A S; Bhatia, A; Khursheed, A; Kazmi, A A; Ahmed, N

    2012-01-01

    High rate composting studies of hard to degrade herbal wastes were conducted in a 3.5 m(3) capacity rotary drum composter. Studies were spread out in four trials: In trial 1 and 2, one and two turns per day rotation was observed, respectively, by mixing of herbal industry waste with cattle (buffalo) manure at a ratio of 3:1 on wet weight basis. In trial 3 inocula was added in raw waste to enhance the degradation and in trial 4 composting of a mixture of vegetable market waste and herbal waste was conducted at one turn per day. Results demonstrated that the operation of the rotary drum at one turn a day (trial 1) could provide the most conducive composting conditions and co-composting (trial 4) gave better quality compost in terms of temperature, moisture, nitrogen, and Solvita maturity index. In addition a FT-IR study also revealed that trial 1 and trial 4 gave quality compost in terms of stability and maturity due to the presence of more intense peaks in the aromatic region and less intense peaks were found in the aliphatic region compared with trial 2 and trial 3.

  3. INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN RELATION TO WATER SUPPLIES

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Wellington

    1921-01-01

    Principal responsibility for preventing stream pollution by industrial wastes should be placed on the plants themselves. But municipalities should not depend upon out-of-date purification plants, but should utilize new methods. State health officers should have regulatory powers under standardized laws conforming to Federal practices. Imagesp198-a PMID:18010452

  4. Investigations regarding the wet decontamination of fluorescent lamp waste using iodine in potassium iodide solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Tunsu, Cristian Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Retegan, Teodora

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A wet-based decontamination process for fluorescent lamp waste is proposed. • Mercury can be leached using iodine in potassium iodide solution. • The efficiency of the process increases with an increase in leachant concentration. • Selective leaching of mercury from rare earth elements is achieved. • Mercury is furthered recovered using ion exchange, reduction or solvent extraction. - Abstract: With the rising popularity of fluorescent lighting, simple and efficient methods for the decontamination of discarded lamps are needed. Due to their mercury content end-of-life fluorescent lamps are classified as hazardous waste, requiring special treatment for disposal. A simple wet-based decontamination process is required, especially for streams where thermal desorption, a commonly used but energy demanding method, cannot be applied. In this study the potential of a wet-based process using iodine in potassium iodide solution was studied for the recovery of mercury from fluorescent lamp waste. The influence of the leaching agent’s concentration and solid/liquid ratio on the decontamination efficiency was investigated. The leaching behaviour of mercury was studied over time, as well as its recovery from the obtained leachates by means of anion exchange, reduction, and solvent extraction. Dissolution of more than 90% of the contained mercury was achieved using 0.025/0.05 M I{sub 2}/KI solution at 21 °C for two hours. The efficiency of the process increased with an increase in leachant concentration. 97.3 ± 0.6% of the mercury contained was dissolved at 21 °C, in two hours, using a 0.25/0.5 M I{sub 2}/KI solution and a solid to liquid ratio of 10% w/v. Iodine and mercury can be efficiently removed from the leachates using Dowex 1X8 anion exchange resin or reducing agents such as sodium hydrosulphite, allowing the disposal of the obtained solution as non-hazardous industrial wastewater. The extractant CyMe{sub 4}BTBP showed good removal of mercury

  5. Investigations regarding the wet decontamination of fluorescent lamp waste using iodine in potassium iodide solutions.

    PubMed

    Tunsu, Cristian; Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Retegan, Teodora

    2015-02-01

    With the rising popularity of fluorescent lighting, simple and efficient methods for the decontamination of discarded lamps are needed. Due to their mercury content end-of-life fluorescent lamps are classified as hazardous waste, requiring special treatment for disposal. A simple wet-based decontamination process is required, especially for streams where thermal desorption, a commonly used but energy demanding method, cannot be applied. In this study the potential of a wet-based process using iodine in potassium iodide solution was studied for the recovery of mercury from fluorescent lamp waste. The influence of the leaching agent's concentration and solid/liquid ratio on the decontamination efficiency was investigated. The leaching behaviour of mercury was studied over time, as well as its recovery from the obtained leachates by means of anion exchange, reduction, and solvent extraction. Dissolution of more than 90% of the contained mercury was achieved using 0.025/0.05 M I2/KI solution at 21 °C for two hours. The efficiency of the process increased with an increase in leachant concentration. 97.3 ± 0.6% of the mercury contained was dissolved at 21 °C, in two hours, using a 0.25/0.5M I2/KI solution and a solid to liquid ratio of 10% w/v. Iodine and mercury can be efficiently removed from the leachates using Dowex 1X8 anion exchange resin or reducing agents such as sodium hydrosulphite, allowing the disposal of the obtained solution as non-hazardous industrial wastewater. The extractant CyMe4BTBP showed good removal of mercury, with an extraction efficiency of 97.5 ± 0.7% being achieved in a single stage. Better removal of mercury was achieved in a single stage using the extractants Cyanex 302 and Cyanex 923 in kerosene, respectively.

  6. Does industrial waste taxation contribute to reduction of landfilled waste? Dynamic panel analysis considering industrial waste category in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasao, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Waste taxes, such as landfill and incineration taxes, have emerged as a popular option in developed countries to promote the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle). However, few studies have examined the effectiveness of waste taxes. In addition, quite a few studies have considered both dynamic relationships among dependent variables and unobserved individual heterogeneity among the jurisdictions. If dependent variables are persistent, omitted variables cause a bias, or common characteristics exist across the jurisdictions that have introduced waste taxes, the standard fixed effects model may lead to biased estimation results and misunderstood causal relationships. In addition, most existing studies have examined waste in terms of total amounts rather than by categories. Even if significant reductions in total waste amounts are not observed, some reduction within each category may, nevertheless, become evident. Therefore, this study analyzes the effects of industrial waste taxation on quantities of waste in landfill in Japan by applying the bias-corrected least-squares dummy variable (LSDVC) estimators; the general method of moments (difference GMM); and the system GMM. In addition, the study investigates effect differences attributable to industrial waste categories and taxation types. This paper shows that industrial waste taxes in Japan have minimal, significant effects on the reduction of final disposal amounts thus far, considering dynamic relationships and waste categories.

  7. Development of a Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation Method to Produce Feedstock Gases from Waste Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulis, Michael J.; Guerrero-Medina, Karen J.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2012-01-01

    Given the high cost of space launch, the repurposing of biological and plastic wastes to reduce the need for logistical support during long distance and long duration space missions has long been recognized as a high priority. Described in this paper are the preliminary efforts to develop a wet air oxidation system in order to produce fuels from waste polymers. Preliminary results of partial oxidation in near supercritical water conditions are presented. Inherent corrosion and salt precipitation are discussed as system design issues for a thorough assessment of a second generation wet air oxidation system. This work is currently being supported by the In-Situ Resource Utilization Project.

  8. Studies in treatment of disperse dye waste: Membrane-wet oxidation process

    SciTech Connect

    Dhale, A.D.; Mahajani, V.V.

    2000-07-01

    An integrated process, membrane-wet oxidation (MEMWO) has been demonstrated to treat the disperse dye bath waste. The dye bath waste stream containing azo class disperse dye CL 79, was studied to demonstrate the process. A nanofiltration membrane (MPT 30) showed > 99% color and 97% chemical oxygen demand (COD) rejection of dye compound. The concentrate was then treated by wet oxidation (WO) process. WO of dye was studied in the range of 160--225 C and oxygen partial pressure 0.69--1.38 MPa. A homogeneous copper sulfate was found to be a suitable catalyst to effectively destroy the dye as well as the real waste. While non catalytic WO of dye achieved 75% reduction in COD during 120 min with 99% color destruction, the catalytic WO showed about 90% reduction in COD. The performance of WO of actual waste stream was comparable with that of pure dye molecule.

  9. Vermicomposting as an advanced biological treatment for industrial waste from the leather industry.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Ramom R; Bontempi, Rhaissa M; Mendonça, Giovane; Galetti, Gustavo; Rezende, Maria Olímpia O

    2016-01-01

    The leather industry (tanneries) generates high amounts of toxic wastes, including solid and liquid effluents that are rich in organic matter and mineral content. Vermicomposting was studied as an alternative method of treating the wastes from tanneries. Vermicompost was produced from the following tannery residues: tanned chips of wet-blue leather, sludge from a liquid residue treatment station, and a mixture of both. Five hundred earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were added to each barrel. During the following 135 days the following parameters were evaluated: pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), C:N ratio, and chromium content as Cr (III) and Cr (VI). The results for pH, TOC and OM contents showed decreases in their values during the composting process, whereas values for CEC and total nitrogen rose, indicating that the vermicompost reached maturity. For chromium, at 135 days, all values of Cr (VI) were below the detectable level. Therefore, the Cr (VI) content had probably been biologically transformed into Cr (III), confirming the use of this technique as an advanced biological treatment. The study reinforces the idea that vermicomposting could be introduced as an effective technology for the treatment of industrial tannery waste and the production of agricultural inputs.

  10. 40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925... § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable project costs do not include (a) costs... pollutants introduced from nonindustrial sources. The project must be included in a complete waste...

  11. 40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925... § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable project costs do not include (a) costs... pollutants introduced from nonindustrial sources. The project must be included in a complete waste...

  12. Biorefinery for Glycerol Rich Biodiesel Industry Waste.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Prakash, Jyotsana; Koul, Shikha

    2016-06-01

    The biodiesel industry has the potential to meet the fuel requirements in the future. A few inherent lacunae of this bioprocess are the effluent, which is 10 % of the actual product, and the fact that it is 85 % glycerol along with a few impurities. Biological treatments of wastes have been known as a dependable and economical direction of overseeing them and bring some value added products as well. A novel eco-biotechnological strategy employs metabolically diverse bacteria, which ensures higher reproducibility and economics. In this article, we have opined, which organisms and what bioproducts should be the focus, while exploiting glycerol as feed.

  13. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mei-Chuan; Lin, Jim Juimin

    2008-11-01

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator.

  14. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, M.-C. Lin, Jim Juimin

    2008-11-15

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator.

  15. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  16. Wet landfill decomposition rate determination using methane yield results for excavated waste samples.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwidong; Townsend, Timothy G

    2012-07-01

    An increasing number of landfills are operated to accelerate waste decomposition through liquids addition (e.g., leachate recirculation) as a wet landfill. Landfill design and regulation often depend on utilizing landfill gas production models that require an estimate of a first-order gas generation rate constant, k. Consequently, several studies have estimated k using collected gas volumes from operating wet landfills. Research was conducted to examine an alternative approach in which k is estimated not from collected landfill gas but from solid waste samples collected over time and analyzed for remaining gas yield. To achieve this goal, waste samples were collected from 1990 through 2007 at two full-scale landfills in Florida that practiced liquids addition. Methane yields were measured from waste samples collected over time, including periods before and after leachate recirculation, and the results were applied to a first-order decay model to estimate rate constants for each of the sites. An initial, intensive processing step was conducted to exclude non-biodegradable components from the methane yield testing procedure. The resulting rate constants for the two landfills examined were 0.47 yr(-1) and 0.21 yr(-1). These results expectedly exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency's rate constants for dry and conventional landfills (0.02-0.05 yr(-1)), but they are comparable to wet landfill rate constants derived using landfill gas data (0.1-0.3 yr(-1)).

  17. Textile industry wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the generation and treatment of wastes from the textile processing industry. Articles discuss treatment options such as land application, activated sludge, aeration, decoloring, recovery, and recycling. Citations examine the biodegradation of dyes, destruction of organics, treatment of finishing wastes, sludges, and solid waste products. (Contains a minimum of 222 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Textile industry wastes. (Latest citations from Oollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the generation and treatment of wastes from the textile processing industry. Articles discuss treatment options such as land application, activated sludge, aeration, decoloring, recovery, and recycling. Citations examine the biodegradation of dyes, destruction of organics, treatment of finishing wastes, sludges, and solid waste products. (Contains a minimum of 211 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Bioremediation of Industrial Waste Through Enzyme Producing Marine Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Sivaperumal, P; Kamala, K; Rajaram, R

    2017-01-01

    Bioremediation process using microorganisms is a kind of nature-friendly and cost-effective clean green technology. Recently, biodegradation of industrial wastes using enzymes from marine microorganisms has been reported worldwide. The prospectus research activity in remediation area would contribute toward the development of advanced bioprocess technology. To minimize industrial wastes, marine enzymes could constitute a novel alternative in terms of waste treatment. Nowadays, the evidence on the mechanisms of bioremediation-related enzymes from marine microorganisms has been extensively studied. This review also will provide information about enzymes from various marine microorganisms and their complexity in the biodegradation of comprehensive range of industrial wastes.

  20. 40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable project costs do not include (a)...

  1. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems designed for energy conservation through the recovery, storage, and reuse of industrial process waste heat are reviewed. Consideration is given to systems developed for primary aluminum, cement, the food processing industry, paper and pulp, and primary iron and steel. Projected waste-heat recovery and energy savings are listed for each category.

  2. Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents. A review

    SciTech Connect

    Houk, V.S.

    1992-01-01

    A review of the literature published on the genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents using short-term genetic bioassays is presented in the document. The importance of this task arises from the ubiquity of genotoxic compounds in the environment and the need to identify the sources of contamination so that efforts aimed at control and minimization can be implemented. Of even greater significance is the immediate concern for the welfare of human health and the environment. Subheadings of the document include an introduction, a summary of the various genetic bioassays that have been used to test industrial wastes, a compendium of methods commonly used to prepare crude waste samples for bioassay, and a review of the genetic toxicity of wastes and effluents. Wastes have been grouped according to major industrial source. Within each industrial category, a synopsis of individual studies is presented, followed by an interpretation of results on an industry-wide basis.

  3. Combustion Technology for Incinerating Wastes from Air Force Industrial Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    Conservation and Recovery Act and are properly disposed at cost to the Air Force. Onsite incineration with heat recovery is being considered as a...the heat released during thermal processing could reduce the costs of waste incineration. 0 * Normally, relatively small amounts of individual wastes...wastes. Task 3: Combustion Analysis. Determine and quantify the essential combustion parameters of industrial process wastes with respect to heat

  4. SPONTANEOUS CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION DURING PRE-TREATMENT OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Herman, C.; Pareizs, J.; Bannochie, C.; Best, D.; Bibler, N.; Fellinger, T.

    2009-10-01

    Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) operates the Defense Waste Processing Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site. This facility immobilizes high-level radioactive waste through vitrification following chemical pretreatment. Catalytic destruction of formate and oxalate ions to carbon dioxide has been observed during qualification testing of non-radioactive analog systems. Carbon dioxide production greatly exceeded hydrogen production, indicating the occurrence of a process other than the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. Statistical modeling was used to relate the new reaction chemistry to partial catalytic wet air oxidation of both formate and oxalate ions driven by the low concentrations of palladium, rhodium, and/or ruthenium in the waste. Variations in process conditions led to increases or decreases in the total oxidative destruction, as well as partially shifting the preferred species undergoing destruction from oxalate ion to formate ion.

  5. Meat-, fish-, and poultry-processing wastes. [Industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.

    1982-06-01

    A review of the literature dealing with the effectiveness of various waste processing methods for meat-, fish,-, and poultry-processing wastes is presented. Activated sludge processes, anaerobic digestion, filtration, screening, oxidation ponds, and aerobic digestion are discussed.

  6. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-09-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E&P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E&P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E&P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E&P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  7. Waste minimization in the oil and gas industries

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Recent legislative actions place an emphasis on waste minimization as opposed to traditional end-of-pipe waste management. This new philosophy, coupled with increasing waste disposal costs and associated liabilities, sets the stage for investigating waste minimization opportunities in all industries wastes generated by oil and gas exploration and production (E P) and refuting activities are regulated as non-hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Potential reclassification of these wastes as hazardous would make minimization of these waste streams even more desirable. Oil and gas E P activities generate a wide variety of wastes, although the bulk of the wastes (98%) consists of a single waste stream: produced water. Opportunities to minimize E P wastes through point source reduction activities are limited by the extractive nature of the industry. Significant waste minimization is possible, however, through recycling. Recycling activities include underground injection of produced water, use of closed-loop drilling systems, reuse of produced water and drilling fluids in other oilfield activities, use of solid debris as construction fill, use of oily wastes as substitutes for road mix and asphalt, landspreading of produced sand for soil enhancement, and roadspreading of suitable aqueous wastes for dust suppression or deicing. Like the E P wastes, wastes generated by oil and gas treatment and refining activities cannot be reduced substantially at the point source but can be reduced through recycling. For the most part, extensive recycling and reprocessing of many waste streams already occurs at most petroleum refineries. A variety of innovative waste treatment activities have been developed to minimize the toxicity or volume of oily wastes generated by both E P and refining activities. These treatments include bioremediation, oxidation, biooxidation, incineration, and separation. Application of these treatment processes is still limited.

  8. Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  9. Development potential of e-waste recycling industry in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Yang, Jie; Liu, Lili

    2015-06-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE or e-waste) recycling industries in China have been through several phases from spontaneous informal family workshops to qualified enterprises with treatment fund. This study attempts to analyse the development potential of the e-waste recycling industry in China from the perspective of both time and scale potential. An estimation and forecast of e-waste quantities in China shows that, the total e-waste amount reached approximately 5.5 million tonnes in 2013, with 83% of air conditioners, refrigerators, washing machines, televisions sand computers. The total quantity is expected to reach ca. 11.7 million tonnes in 2020 and 20 million tonnes in 2040, which indicates a large increase potential. Moreover, the demand for recycling processing facilities, the optimal service radius of e-waste recycling enterprises and estimation of the profitability potential of the e-waste recycling industry were analysed. Results show that, based on the e-waste collection demand, e-waste recycling enterprises therefore have a huge development potential in terms of both quantity and processing capacity, with 144 and 167 e-waste recycling facilities needed, respectively, by 2020 and 2040. In the case that e-waste recycling enterprises set up their own collection points to reduce the collection cost, the optimal collection service radius is estimated to be in the range of 173 km to 239 km. With an e-waste treatment fund subsidy, the e-waste recycling industry has a small economic profit, for example ca. US$2.5/unit for television. The annual profit for the e-waste recycling industry overall was about 90 million dollars in 2013.

  10. Wear Behavior of Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite Prepared from Industrial Waste

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, L. Francis; Suresh, Paramasivam

    2016-01-01

    With an increase in the population and industrialization, a lot of valuable natural resources are depleted to prepare and manufacture products. However industrialization on the other hand has waste disposal issues, causing dust and environmental pollution. In this work, Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite is prepared by reinforcing 10 wt% and 20 wt% of wet grinder stone dust particles an industrial waste obtained during processing of quarry rocks which are available in nature. In the composite materials design wear is a very important criterion requiring consideration which ensures the materials reliability in applications where they come in contact with the environment and other surfaces. Dry sliding wear test was carried out using pin-on-disc apparatus on the prepared composites. The results reveal that increasing the reinforcement content from 10 wt% to 20 wt% increases the resistance to wear rate. PMID:26989764

  11. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions.

  12. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-21

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  13. Remediation of AMD using industrial waste adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Nuur Hani Bte; Yaacob, Wan Zuhairi Wan

    2016-11-01

    The study investigates the characteristic of industrial waste as adsorbents and its potential as heavy metals absorbents in AMD samples. The AMD sample was collected from active mine pond and the pH was measured in situ. The metal contents were analyzed by ICP-MS. The AMD water was very acidic (pH< 3.5), and the average heavy metals content in AMD were high especially in Fe (822.029 mg/l). Fly ash was found to be the most effective absorbent material containing high percentage of CaO (57.24%) and SiO2 (13.88%), followed by ladle furnace slag containing of high amount of CaO (51.52%) and Al2O3 (21.23%), while biomass ash consists of SiO2 (43.07%) and CaO (12.97%). Tank analysis display a huge changes due to pH value change from acidity to nearly neutral phases. After 50 days, fly ash remediation successfully increase the AMD pH values from pH 2.57-7.09, while slag change from acidity to nearly alkaline phase from pH 2.60-7.3 and biomass has change to pH 2.54-6.8. Fly ash has successfully remove Fe, Mn, Cu, and Ni. Meanwhile, slag sample displays as an effective adsorbent to adsorb more Pb and Cd in acid mine drainage.

  14. Industrial waste treatment process engineering. Volume 2: Biological processes

    SciTech Connect

    Celenza, G.J.

    1999-11-01

    Industrial Waste Treatment Process Engineering is a step-by-step implementation manual in three volumes, detailing the selection and design of industrial liquid and solid waste treatment systems. It consolidates all the process engineering principles required to evaluate a wide range of industrial facilities, starting with pollution prevention and source control and ending with end-of-pipe treatment technologies. This three-volume set is a practical guide for environmental engineers with process implementation responsibilities; a one-stop resource for process engineering requirements--from plant planning to implementing specific treatment technologies for unit operations; a comprehensive reference for industrial waste treatment technologies; and includes calculations and worked problems based on industry cases. The contents of Volume 2 include: aeration; aerobic biological oxidation; activated sludge system; biological oxidation: lagoons; biological oxidation: fixed film processes; aerobic digesters; anaerobic waste treatment, anaerobic sludge treatment; and sedimentation.

  15. Management of soil systems for the disposal of industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Corey, J C

    1981-01-01

    Research continues to provide improved information about the toxicity of materials, their transport in soil, and the kinetics of detoxification that is most useful in evaluating alternative approaches for safely managing industrial wastes. The placement of industrial wastes into soil systems is a satisfactory management approach if the material is nontoxic, if the soil has the capability of detoxifying the material, or if the soil prevents the material from entering the biosphere. Examples from the literature of successful applications of industrial wastes to soil are discussed.

  16. Microbial keratinases: industrial enzymes with waste management potential.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amit; Singh, Hukum; Anwar, Shahbaz; Chattopadhyay, Anirudha; Tiwari, Kapil K; Kaur, Surinder; Dhilon, Gurpreet Singh

    2017-06-01

    Proteases are ubiquitous enzymes that occur in various biological systems ranging from microorganisms to higher organisms. Microbial proteases are largely utilized in various established industrial processes. Despite their numerous industrial applications, they are not efficient in hydrolysis of recalcitrant, protein-rich keratinous wastes which result in environmental pollution and health hazards. This paved the way for the search of keratinolytic microorganisms having the ability to hydrolyze "hard to degrade" keratinous wastes. This new class of proteases is known as "keratinases". Due to their specificity, keratinases have an advantage over normal proteases and have replaced them in many industrial applications, such as nematicidal agents, nitrogenous fertilizer production from keratinous waste, animal feed and biofuel production. Keratinases have also replaced the normal proteases in the leather industry and detergent additive application due to their better performance. They have also been proved efficient in prion protein degradation. Above all, one of the major hurdles of enzyme industrial applications (cost effective production) can be achieved by using keratinous waste biomass, such as chicken feathers and hairs as fermentation substrate. Use of these low cost waste materials serves dual purposes: to reduce the fermentation cost for enzyme production as well as reducing the environmental waste load. The advent of keratinases has given new direction for waste management with industrial applications giving rise to green technology for sustainable development.

  17. Development of a novel wet oxidation process for hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dhooge, P.M.

    1994-12-31

    Many DOE waste streams and remediates contain complex and variable mixtures of organic compounds, toxic metals, and radionuclides. These materials are often dispersed in organic or inorganic matrices, such as personal protective equipment, various sludges, soils, and water. The over all objective of the effort described here is to develop a novel catalytic wet oxidation process for the treatment of these multi-component wastes, with the aim of providing a versatile, non-thermal method which will destroy hazardous organic compounds while simultaneously containing and concentrating toxic and radioactive metals for recovery or disposal in a readily stabilized matrix. The DETOX process uses a unique combination of metal catalysts to increase the rate of oxidation of organic materials. The metal catalysts are in the form of salts dissolved in a dilute acid solution. A typical catalyst composition is 60% ferric chloride, 3--4% hydrochloric acid, 0.13% platinum ions, and 0.13% ruthenium ions in a water solution. The catalyst solution is maintained at 423--473 K. Wastes are introduced into contact with the solution, where their organic portion is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. If the organic portion is chlorinated, hydrogen chloride will be produced as a product. The process is a viable alternative to incineration for the treatment of organic mixed wastes. Estimated costs for waste treatment using the process are from $2.50/kg to $25.00/kg, depending on the size of the unit and the amount of waste processed. Process units can be mobile for on-site treatment of wastes. Results from phase 1 and 2, design and engineering studies, are described.

  18. Industrial waste needs assessment. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Radel, R.J.; Willis, M.P.

    1993-10-01

    In January of 1992 a team was put together to begin the process of assessing the industrial waste needs of the Tennessee Valley. The team consisted of representatives from the various TVA Resource Group organizations. This initial team recommended as a starting point in the process a two-phase market research effort. A second team was then commissioned to conduct the first phase of this market research effort. The first phase of that marketing effort is now complete. This report contains an analysis of the data obtained through interviews of more than 168 individuals representing a similar number of organizations. A total of 37 TVA Resource Group employees were involved in the contact process from various organizations. In addition, the appendices provide summaries of the data used in designing the process and the reports of the Contact Coordinators (who were responsible for a series of visits). As a result of the data analysis, the Review Team makes the following recommendations: 1. Publish this report and distribute to the new management within TVA Resource Group as well as to all those participating as contacts, visitors, and contact coordinators. 2. The Resource Group management team, or management teams within each of the respective organizations within Resource Group, appoint Phase 2 assessement teams for as many of the problem areas listed in Table III as seem appropriate. We further recommend that, where possible, cross-organizational teams be used to examine individual problem areas. 3. Make this report available within Generating and Customer Groups, especially to the Customer Service Centers. 4. Establish a process to continue follow up with each of the contacts made in this assessment.

  19. Textile industry wastes. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the generation and treatment of wastes from the textile processing industry. Articles discuss treatment options such as land application, activated sludge, aeration, decoloring, recovery, and recycling. Citations examine the biodegradation of dyes, destruction of organics, treatment of finishing wastes, sludges, and solid waste products. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry

    SciTech Connect

    Crudu, Marian; Deselnicu, Viorica; Deselnicu, Dana Corina; Albu, Luminita

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Valorization of titanium wastes which cannot be recycled in metallurgical industry. • Transferring Ti waste into raw materials for obtaining Ti based tanning agent. • Characterization of new Ti based tanning agents and leather tanned with them. • Characterization of sewage waste water and sludge resulted from leather manufacture. • Analysis of the impact of main metal component of Ti waste. - Abstract: The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77 °C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning.

  1. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules.

  2. Industrial wastes: meat, fish and poultry processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.

    1980-06-01

    This article is a review of meat, fish and poultry processing wastes. Reviews on slaughterhouse and packinghouse wastewater treatment methods were mentioned together with processes for protein recovery from wastewater and wastewater treatment sludges.

  3. Industrial utilization of waste derived energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    A technical and economic feasibility study of a partial oxidation unit was conducted. Major objectives of the program were: (1) disposal of both urban (municipal refuse and sewage sludge) and agricultural (dairy) wastes; and (2) the production of a medium-Btu fuel gas. The investigated wasteshed includes those portions of Western San Bernardino County, Eastern Los Angeles County, and Northwestern Riverside County. The available waste supply, transportation of these waste materials, product quantities and energy products of fuel gas steam, and electricity, markets, ferrous metals, aluminum, nonferrous metals, and slag are studied.

  4. Vermicomposting of milk processing industry sludge spiked with plant wastes.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra; Mutiyar, Pravin K; Singh, Sushma

    2012-07-01

    This work illustrates the vermistabilization of wastewater sludge from a milk processing industry (MPIS) unit spiked with cow dung (CD), sugarcane trash (ST) and wheat straw (WS) employing earthworms Eisenia fetida. A total of nine experimental vermibeds were established and changes in chemical parameters of waste material have been observed for 90 days. Vermistabilization caused significant reduction in pH, organic carbon and C:N ratio and substantial increase in total N, available P and exchangeable K. The waste mixture containing MPIS (60%)+CD (10%)+ST (30%) and MPIS (60%)+CD (10%)+WS (30%) had better waste mineralization rate among waste mixtures studied. The earthworm showed better biomass and cocoon numbers in all vermibeds during vermicomposting operation. Results, thus suggest the suitability of E. fetida for conversion of noxious industrial waste into value-added product for land restoration programme.

  5. Waste heat utilization in industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weichsel, M.; Heitmann, W.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is given of new developments in heat exchangers and heat pumps. With respect to practical applications, internal criteria for plant operation are discussed. Possibilities of government support are pointed out. Waste heat steam generators and waste heat aggregates for hot water generation or in some cases for steam superheating are used. The possibilities of utilization can be classified according to the economic improvements and according to their process applications, for example, gascooling. Examples are presented for a large variety of applications.

  6. An industrial ecology approach to municipal solid waste ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) can be viewed as a feedstock for industrial ecology inspired conversions of wastes to valuable products and energy. The industrial ecology principle of symbiotic processes using waste streams for creating value-added products is applied to MSW, with examples suggested for various residual streams. A methodology is presented to consider individual waste-to-energy or waste-to-product system synergies, evaluating the economic and environmental issues associated with each system. Steps included in the methodology include identifying waste streams, specific waste components of interest, and conversion technologies, plus steps for determining the economic and environmental effects of using wastes and changes due to transport, administrative handling, and processing. In addition to presenting the methodology, technologies for various MSW input streams are categorized as commercialized or demonstrated to provide organizations that are considering processes for MSW with summarized information. The organization can also follow the methodology to analyze interesting processes. Presents information useful for analyzing the sustainability of alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste.

  7. Manufacturing waste disposal practices of the chemical propulsion industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Adams, Daniel E.; Schutzenhofer, Scott A.

    1995-01-01

    The waste production, mitigation and disposal practices of the United States chemical propulsion industry have been investigated, delineated, and comparatively assessed to the U.S. industrial base. Special emphasis has been placed on examination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's). The research examines present and anticipated future practices and problems encountered in the manufacture of solid and liquid propulsion systems. Information collected includes current environmental laws and regulations that guide the industry practices, processes in which ODC's are or have been used, quantities of waste produced, funding required to maintain environmentally compliant practices, and preventive efforts.

  8. Financial appraisal of wet mesophilic AD technology as a renewable energy and waste management technology.

    PubMed

    Dolan, T; Cook, M B; Angus, A J

    2011-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has the potential to support diversion of organic waste from landfill and increase renewable energy production. However, diffusion of this technology has been uneven, with countries such as Germany and Sweden taking the lead, but limited diffusion in other countries such as the UK. In this context, this study explores the financial viability of AD in the UK to offer reasons why it has not been more widely used. This paper presents a model that calculates the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) on a twenty year investment in a 30,000 tonnes per annum wet mesophilic AD plant in the UK for the treatment of source separated organic waste, which is judged to be a suitable technology for the UK climate. The model evaluates the financial significance of the different alternative energy outputs from this AD plant and the resulting economic subsidies paid for renewable energy. Results show that renewable electricity and renewable heat sales supported by renewable electricity and renewable heat tariffs generates the greatest IRR (31.26%). All other uses of biogas generate an IRR in excess of 15%, and are judged to be a financially viable investment. Sensitivity analysis highlights the financial significance of: economic incentive payments and a waste management gate fee; and demonstrates that the fate of the digestate by-product is a source of financial uncertainty for AD investors.

  9. Final Treatment Center Project for Liquid and Wet Radioactive Waste in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Kravarik, K.; Stubna, M.; Pekar, A.; Krajc, T.; Zatkulak, M.; Holicka, Z.; Slezak, M.

    2006-07-01

    The Final Treatment Center (FTC) for Mochovce nuclear power plant (NPP) is designed for treatment and final conditioning of radioactive liquid and wet waste produced from plant operation. Mochovce NNP uses a Russian VVER-440 type reactor. Treated wastes comprise radioactive concentrates, spent resin and sludge. VUJE Inc. as an experienced company in field of treatment of radioactive waste in Slovakia has been chosen as main contractor for technological part of FTC. This paper describes the capacity, flow chart, overall waste flow and parameters of the main components in the FTC. The initial project was submitted for approval to the Slovak Electric plc. in 2003. The design and manufacture of main components were performed in 2004 and 2005. FTC construction work started early in 2004. Initial non-radioactive testing of the system is planned for summer 2006 and then radioactive tests are to be followed. A one-year trial operation of facility is planned for completion in 2007. SE - VYZ will be operates the FTC during trial operation and after its completion. SE - VYZ is subsidiary company of Slovak Electric plc. and it is responsible for treatment with radioactive waste and spent fuel in the Slovak republic. SE - VYZ has, besides of other significant experience with operation of Jaslovske Bohunice Treatment Centre. The overall capacity of the FTC is 870 m{sup 3}/year of concentrates and 40 m{sup 3}/year of spent resin and sludge. Bituminization and cementation were provided as main technologies for treatment of these wastes. Treatment of concentrate is performed by bituminization. Concentrate and bitumen are metered into a thin film evaporator with rotating wiping blades. Surplus water is evaporated and concentrate salts are embedded in bitumen. Bitumen product is discharged into 200 l steel drums. Spent resin and sludge are decanted, dried and mixed with bitumen. These mixtures are also discharged into 200 l steel drums. Drums are moved along bituminization line on a

  10. Chemical changes during vermicomposting of sago industry solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Selvi; Sivarajan, M; Saravanapriya, S

    2010-07-15

    A laboratory study was undertaken to examine the temporal changes in physico-chemical properties during vermicomposting of sago industry waste. The sago industry waste was blended with cow dung, poultry manure at various proportions, kept for pre-treatment for 21 days and subsequently vermicomposted for a period of 45 days under shade. Earthworm species (Eisenia foetida) was introduced at the rate of 50 g/kg of waste. The substrate moisture content and temperature were monitored regularly. The vermicomposts were sampled at 0, 15, 30 and 45 days for the assessment of temporal changes in physico-chemical properties. The data revealed vermicomposting of sago wastes, cow dung and poultry manure mixed at equal proportion (1:1:1) produced a superior quality manure with desirable C:N ratio and higher nutritional status than composting. E. foetida is an earthworm suitable for composting organic wastes such as poultry manure with extreme pH and high temperature and sago waste with high organic carbon in a shorter period of time. This study suggests that the sago industry solid waste could be effectively converted into highly valuable manure that can be exploited to promote crop production.

  11. Food waste generation and industrial uses: A review.

    PubMed

    Girotto, Francesca; Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2015-11-01

    Food waste is made up of materials intended for human consumption that are subsequently discharged, lost, degraded or contaminated. The problem of food waste is currently on an increase, involving all sectors of waste management from collection to disposal; the identifying of sustainable solutions extends to all contributors to the food supply chains, agricultural and industrial sectors, as well as retailers and final consumers. A series of solutions may be implemented in the appropriate management of food waste, and prioritised in a similar way to waste management hierarchy. The most sought-after solutions are represented by avoidance and donation of edible fractions to social services. Food waste is also employed in industrial processes for the production of biofuels or biopolymers. Further steps foresee the recovery of nutrients and fixation of carbon by composting. Final and less desirable options are incineration and landfilling. A considerable amount of research has been carried out on food waste with a view to the recovery of energy or related products. The present review aims to provide an overview of current debate on food waste definitions, generation and reduction strategies, and conversion technologies emerging from the biorefinery concept.

  12. Animal and industrial waste anaerobic digestion: USA status report

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Pollutants from unmanaged animal and bio-based industrial wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing wastes may contribute to global climate change. One waste management system prevents pollution and converts a disposal problem into a new profit center. Case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel. Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities to properly dispose of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Beyond the farm, extension of the anaerobic digestion process to recover methane has considerable potential for certain classified industries - with a waste stream characterization similar to livestock manures. More than 35 example industries have been identified, and include processors of chemicals, fiber, food, meat, milk, and pharmaceuticals. Some of these industries already recover methane for energy. This status report examines some current opportunities for recovering methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes in the US. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned,{close_quotes} are included as a reality check. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some anaerobic digestion projects fail, are provided. The role of management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at facilities willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. Anaerobic digestion can provide monetary benefits and mitigate possible pollution problems, thereby sustaining development while maintaining environmental quality.

  13. Animal and industrial waste anaerobic digestion: USA status report

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1995-11-01

    Pollutants from unmanaged animal and bio-based industrial wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing wastes may contribute to global climate change. One waste management system prevents pollution and converts a disposal problem into a new profit center. Case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel. Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities to properly dispose of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Beyond the farm, extension of the anaerobic digestion process to recover methane has considerable potential for certain classified industries with a waste steam characterization similar to livestock manures. More than 35 example industries have been identified, and include processors of chemicals, fiber, food, meat, mil, and pharmaceuticals. Some of these industries already recover methane for energy. This status report examines some current opportunities for recovering methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes in the U.S. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned,{close_quotes} are included as a reality check. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some anaerobic digestion projects fail, are provided. The role of management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at facilities willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. Anaerobic digestion can provide monetary benefits and mitigate possible pollution problems, thereby sustaining development while maintaining environmental quality.

  14. [Control of industrial waste consumption residues: ecological and hygienic aspects].

    PubMed

    Rusakov, N V; Korotkova, G I; Orlov, A Iu; Solov'eva, A V; Shemiakina, Iu V

    2007-01-01

    The problem in the provision of safe handling of industrial waste and consumption residues is relatively current. According with the United Nations Organization's data, 25 to 33% of the world's notified diseases are directly associated with the low quality of the human environment. Up to now, a list of chemicals encountered in the waste and residues is unavailable in Russia and foreign countries. By keeping in mind the ubiquitous spread of industrial waste and consumption resides due to human vital activity, their huge formations and their very wide diversity in composition, type, and pattern of a possible dangerous effect, it is important to consider the problem associated with waste handling, by evaluating their environmental and hygienic hazard.

  15. Solid waste management in the hospitality industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Sanaa I; Arafat, Hassan A

    2014-12-15

    Solid waste management is a key aspect of the environmental management of establishments belonging to the hospitality sector. In this study, we reviewed literature in this area, examining the current status of waste management for the hospitality sector, in general, with a focus on food waste management in particular. We specifically examined the for-profit subdivision of the hospitality sector, comprising primarily of hotels and restaurants. An account is given of the causes of the different types of waste encountered in this sector and what strategies may be used to reduce them. These strategies are further highlighted in terms of initiatives and practices which are already being implemented around the world to facilitate sustainable waste management. We also recommended a general waste management procedure to be followed by properties of the hospitality sector and described how waste mapping, an innovative yet simple strategy, can significantly reduce the waste generation of a hotel. Generally, we found that not many scholarly publications are available in this area of research. More studies need to be carried out on the implementation of sustainable waste management for the hospitality industry in different parts of the world and the challenges and opportunities involved.

  16. Digital Automation and Real-Time Monitoring of an Original Installation for "Wet Combustion" of Organic Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Yegor; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Saltykov, Mikhail; Trifonov, Sergey V.; Kudenko, D.. Yurii A.

    2016-07-01

    An original method for "wet combustion" of organic wastes, which is being developed at the IBP SB RAS, is a very promising approach for regeneration of nutrient solutions for plants in future spacecraft closed Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS). The method is quick, ecofriendly, does not require special conditions such as high pressure and temperature, and the resulting nitrogen stays in forms easy for further preparation of the fertilizer. An experimental testbed of a new-generation closed ecosystem is being currently run at the IBP SB RAS to examine compatibility of the latest technologies for accelerating the cycling. Integration of "wet combustion" of organic wastes into the information system of closed ecosystem experimental testbed has been studied as part of preparatory work. Digital automation and real-time monitoring of original "wet combustion" installation operation parameters have been implemented. The new system enabled remotely controlled or automatic work of the installation. Data are stored in standard easily processed formats, allowing further mathematical processing where necessary. During ongoing experiments on improving "wet combustion" of organic wastes, automatic monitoring can notice slight changes in process parameters and record them in more detail. The ultimate goal of the study is to include the "wet combustion" installation into future full-scale experiment with humans, thus reducing the time spent by the crew on life support issues while living in the BLSS. The work was carried out with the financial support of the Russian Scientific Foundation (project 14-14-00599).

  17. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: electronics recycling industry communication.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Julia R; Boehm, Michael W; Drummond, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

  18. Nanofibrillated cellulose from tobacco industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Tuzzin, Glaiton; Godinho, Marcelo; Dettmer, Aline; Zattera, Ademir José

    2016-09-05

    Tobacco stems waste underwent steam explosion pulping for nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) production. In order to obtain NFC hydrogels, the pulp obtained by steam explosion was bleached and refined in a grinder employing specific energy of up to 5067kWh/t. Eucalyptus kraft pulp was processed under the same conditions to produce NFC hydrogels, later used in order to compare with NFC hydrogels from tobacco stems waste. According to statistical analysis, the optimum tobacco stems pulping condition was obtained with a severity index of log3.0 and active alkali of 16.25%. These conditions allowed obtaining a bleached pulp with Schopper Riegler degree of 46. Electronic microscopy with field emission showed a higher presence of nanofibers in the tobacco stems pulp than in commercial eucalyptus kraft pulp, both after refining. Thermal analysis indicated that tobacco stems pulp degrade at lower temperatures than eucalyptus kraft pulp. FTIR analysis did not indicate chemical bonding differences between the two pulps.

  19. Procedure to use phosphogypsum industrial waste for mineral CO2 sequestration.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Escudero, C; Morales-Flórez, V; Pérez-López, R; Santos, A; Esquivias, L

    2011-11-30

    Industrial wet phosphoric acid production in Huelva (SW Spain) has led to the controversial stockpiling of waste phosphogypsum by-products, resulting in the release of significant quantities of toxic impurities in salt marshes in the Tinto river estuary. In the framework of the fight against global climate change and the effort to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, a simple and efficient procedure for CO(2) mineral sequestration is presented in this work, using phosphogypsum waste as a calcium source. Our results demonstrate the high efficiency of portlandite precipitation by phosphogypsum dissolution using an alkaline soda solution. Carbonation experiments performed at ambient pressure and temperature resulted in total conversion of the portlandite into carbonate. The fate of trace elements present in the phosphogypsum waste was also investigated, and trace impurities were found to be completely transferred to the final calcite. We believe that the procedure proposed here should be considered not only as a solution for reducing old stockpiles of phosphogypsum wastes, but also for future phosphoric acid and other gypsum-producing industrial processes, resulting in more sustainable production.

  20. Resolution of an industry's oily waste problem

    SciTech Connect

    Cardile, R.P.; Fronczak, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Efforts of the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad to comply with pollution regulations and sewer ordinances are described. A new treatment facility was put on-line in August, 1979. Collection and treatment of runoff, storm water, sludge, and waste oil are discussed. Changes have been made to operate the plant more efficiently. Free oil has been recovered as a byproduct of the operation. (DMC)

  1. Industrial-Scale Processes For Stabilizing Radioactively Contaminated Mercury Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, T. E.; Grondin, R.

    2003-02-24

    This paper describes two industrial-scaled processes now being used to treat two problematic mercury waste categories: elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides and radioactive solid wastes containing greater than 260-ppm mercury. The stabilization processes were developed by ADA Technologies, Inc., an environmental control and process development company in Littleton, Colorado. Perma-Fix Environmental Services has licensed the liquid elemental mercury stabilization process to treat radioactive mercury from Los Alamos National Laboratory and other DOE sites. ADA and Perma-Fix also cooperated to apply the >260-ppm mercury treatment technology to a storm sewer sediment waste collected from the Y-12 complex in Oak Ridge, TN.

  2. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.

  3. Wet scrubber analysis of volatile organic compound removal in the rendering industry.

    PubMed

    Kastner, James R; Das, K C

    2002-04-01

    The promulgation of odor control rules, increasing public concerns, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) air regulations in nonattainment zones necessitates the remediation of a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated by the rendering industry. Currently, wet scrubbers with oxidizing chemicals are used to treat VOCs; however, little information is available on scrubber efficiency for many of the VOCs generated within the rendering process. Portable gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) units were used to rapidly identify key VOCs on-site in process streams at two poultry byproduct rendering plants. On-site analysis was found to be important, given the significant reduction in peak areas if samples were held for 24 hr before analysis. Major compounds consistently identified in the emissions from the plant included dimethyl disulfide, methanethiol, octane, hexanal, 2-methylbutanal, and 3-methylbutanal. The two branched aldehydes, 2-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanal, were by far the most consistent, appearing in every sample and typically the largest fraction of the VOC mixture. A chlorinated hydrocarbon, methanesulfonyl chloride, was identified in the outlet of a high-intensity wet scrubber, and several VOCs and chlorinated compounds were identified in the scrubbing solution, but not on a consistent basis. Total VOC concentrations in noncondensable gas streams ranged from 4 to 91 ppmv. At the two plants, the odor-causing compound methanethiol ranged from 25 to 33% and 9.6% of the total VOCs (v/v). In one plant, wet scrubber analysis using chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as the oxidizing agent indicated that close to 100% of the methanethiol was removed from the gas phase, but removal efficiencies ranged from 20 to 80% for the aldehydes and hydrocarbons and from 23 to 64% for total VOCs. In the second plant, conversion efficiencies were much lower in a packed-bed wet scrubber, with a measurable removal of only dimethyl sulfide (20-100%).

  4. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  5. Hazardous waste management in Chilean main industry: an overview.

    PubMed

    Navia, Rodrigo; Bezama, Alberto

    2008-10-01

    The new "Hazardous Waste Management Regulation" was published in the Official Newspaper of the Chilean Republic on 12 June 2003, being in force 365 days after its publication (i.e., 12 June 2004). During the next 180 days after its publication (i.e., until 12 December 2004), each industrial facility was obligated to present a "Hazardous Waste Management Plan" if the facility generates more than 12 ton/year hazardous wastes or more than 12 kg/year acute toxic wastes. Based on the Chilean industrial figures and this new regulation, hazardous waste management plans were carried out in three facilities of the most important sectors of Chilean industrial activity: a paper production plant, a Zn and Pb mine and a sawmill and wood remanufacturing facility. Hazardous wastes were identified, classified and quantified in all facilities. Used oil and oil-contaminated materials were determined to be the most important hazardous wastes generated. Minimization measures were implemented and re-use and recycling options were analyzed. The use of used oil as alternative fuel in high energy demanding facilities (i.e., cement facilities) and the re-refining of the used oil were found to be the most suitable options. In the Zn and Pb mine facility, the most important measure was the beginning of the study for using spent oils as raw material for the production of the explosives used for metals recovery from the rock. In Chile, there are three facilities producing alternative fuels from used oil, while two plants are nowadays re-refining oil to recycle it as hydraulic fluid in industry. In this sense, a proper and sustainable management of the used oil appears to be promissory.

  6. Microwave treatment of industrial waste water sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwill, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Steel mills in the US generate approximately 1 million tons of sludge annually. This is mainly a residue of cooling water, lubricating oils, and metallic fines from hot strip rolling mills and other operations. At present the separation of sludge from the liquid requires large settling tanks, takes several hours of time, and produces a residue that must be disposed of at high cost. The EPRI Center for Materials Production, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has supported development of a microwave based treatment system. This new process, developed by Carnegie Mellon Research Institute of Carnegie Mellon University, and patented by EPRI is 30 times faster, requires 90% less space, and eliminates land-filling by producing materials of value. Electricity usage is only 0.5 kWh per gallon. A review by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Waste Recycle Technology Task Force of this and various other approaches, concluded that further work on the microwave technology was justified. Subsequently additional work was undertaken toward optimizing the process for treating metallic waste sludges containing lime and polymers. This effort cofunded by EPRI and the AISI was successfully concluded in late 1994. Next a two phase program is being developed to commercialize the process. Phase 1 will demonstrate the technology in a large scale batch mode. Phase 2 will be a commercial scale continuous installation at a steel mill site projected for 1996.

  7. Catalytic wet-oxidation of a mixed liquid waste: COD and AOX abatement.

    PubMed

    Goi, D; de Leitenburg, C; Trovarelli, A; Dolcetti, G

    2004-12-01

    A series of catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) reactions, at temperatures of 430-500 K and in a batch bench-top pressure vessel were carried out utilizing a strong wastewater composed of landfill leachate and heavily organic halogen polluted industrial wastewater. A CeO2-SiO2 mixed oxide catalyst with large surface area to assure optimal oxidation performance was prepared. The catalytic process was examined during batch reactions controlling Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Adsorbable Organic Halogen (AOX) parameters, resulting AOX abatement to achieve better effect. Color and pH were also controlled during batch tests. A simple first order-two stage reaction behavior was supposed and verified with the considered parameters. Finally an OUR test was carried out to evaluate biodegradability changes of wastewater as a result of the catalytic reaction.

  8. 40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sources or (b) costs allocable to the treatment for control or removal of pollutants in wastewater... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable project costs do not include (a)...

  9. Industrial Waste Reduction Program annual report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s Industrial Waste Reduction Program (IWRP) sponsors the development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies that offer a significant opportunity to reduce waste generation, improve productivity, and enhance environmental performance in US industry. The program emphasizes technology-driven solutions that are economically beneficial and environmentally sound. Its goal is to improve the energy efficiency and competitiveness of private industry by cost-effectively reducing waste. Industry, universities, national laboratories and other government agencies are working cooperatively to meet this goal. The IWRP emphasizes the timely commercialization of new technologies that can produce measurable energy, environmental, and economic benefits. All projects are substantially cost-shared with private companies to foster the commercialization process. The program is proud to claim four successfully commercialized technologies that have begun generating benefits. The current IWRP portfolio boasts 32 projects in progress. Funding for the IWRP has grown from $1.7 million in 1990 to $13 million in 1994. New companies join the program each year, reaping the benefits of working cooperatively with government. New technologies are expected to reach commercial success in fiscal year (FY) 1994, further increasing the benefits already accrued. Future Annual Reports will also include projects from the Waste Utilization and Conversion Program. Descriptions of the program`s 32 active projects are organized in this report according these elements. Each project description provides a brief background and the major accomplishments during FY 1993.

  10. Hazardous solid waste from metallurgical industries.

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, R P

    1978-01-01

    Types of land disposed residuals from selected metal smelting and refining industries are described, as are the origin and disposition of land disposed residuals from the primary copper industry as an example. Quantities of land-disposed or stored residuals, including slags, sludges, and dusts, are given per unit of metal production for most primary and secondary metal smelting and refining industries. Assessments of the hazard potential of residuals are given. Present treatment and disposal of residuals are discussed and assessed for health and environmental protection. Possible technologies for protection of ground and surface water contamination are presented. These include lined lagoons, chemical fixation of sludge, and ground sealing. Possibilities of resource recovery from residuals are discussed. Data are presented showing attenuation of heavy metal ions and fluorides in selected soils. The leachability and mobility of smelting and refining residuals constituents, including heavy metals and fluorides, and other potential toxicants in specific soil, geologic, and hydrologic disposal environments must be carefully considered in setting disposal requirements. PMID:738242

  11. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Julia R.; Boehm, Michael W.; Drummond, Charles

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Given a large flow rate of CRT glass {approx}10% of the panel glass stream will be leaded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supply of CRT waste glass exceeded demand in 2009. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recyclers should use UV-light to detect lead oxide during the separation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling market analysis techniques and results are given for CRT glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Academic initiatives and the necessary expansion of novel product markets are discussed. - Abstract: Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source

  12. Recycled lightweight concrete made from footwear industry waste and CDW.

    PubMed

    Lima, Paulo Roberto Lopes; Leite, Mônica Batista; Santiago, Ediela Quinteiro Ribeiro

    2010-06-01

    In this paper two types of recycled aggregate, originated from construction and demolition waste (CDW) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) waste, were used in the production of concrete. The EVA waste results from cutting off the EVA expanded sheets used to produce insoles and innersoles of shoes in the footwear industry. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of the use of these recycled aggregates as replacements of the natural coarse aggregate, upon density, compressive strength, tensile splitting strength and flexural behavior of recycled concrete. The experimental program was developed with three w/c ratios: 0.49, 0.63 and 0.82. Fifteen mixtures were produced with different aggregate substitution rates (0%, 50% EVA, 50% CDW, 25% CDW-25% EVA and 50% CDW-50% EVA), by volume. The results showed that it is possible to use the EVA waste and CDW to produce lightweight concrete having semi-structural properties.

  13. Industrial Program of Waste Management - Cigeo Project - 13033

    SciTech Connect

    Butez, Marc; Bartagnon, Olivier; Gagner, Laurent; Advocat, Thierry; Sacristan, Pablo; Beguin, Stephane

    2013-07-01

    The French Planning Act of 28 June 2006 prescribed that a reversible repository in a deep geological formation be chosen as the reference solution for the long-term management of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. It also entrusted the responsibility of further studies and design of the repository (named Cigeo) upon the French Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), in order for the review of the creation-license application to start in 2015 and, subject to its approval, the commissioning of the repository to take place in 2025. Andra is responsible for siting, designing, implementing, operating the future geological repository, including operational and long term safety and waste acceptance. Nuclear operators (Electricite de France (EDF), AREVA NC, and the French Commission in charge of Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies (CEA) are technically and financially responsible for the waste they generate, with no limit in time. They provide Andra, on one hand, with waste packages related input data, and on the other hand with their long term industrial experiences of high and intermediate-level long-lived radwaste management and nuclear operation. Andra, EDF, AREVA and CEA established a cooperation agreement for strengthening their collaborations in these fields. Within this agreement Andra and the nuclear operators have defined an industrial program for waste management. This program includes the waste inventory to be taken into account for the design of the Cigeo project and the structural hypothesis underlying its phased development. It schedules the delivery of the different categories of waste and defines associated flows. (authors)

  14. Biodegradation of cyanide wastes from mining and jewellery industries.

    PubMed

    Luque-Almagro, Víctor M; Moreno-Vivián, Conrado; Roldán, María Dolores

    2016-04-01

    Cyanide, one of the known most toxic chemicals, is widely used in mining and jewellery industries for gold extraction and recovery from crushed ores or electroplating residues. Cyanide toxicity occurs because this compound strongly binds to metals, inactivating metalloenzymes such as cytochrome c oxidase. Despite the toxicity of cyanide, cyanotrophic microorganisms such as the alkaliphilic bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 may use cyanide and its derivatives as a nitrogen source for growth, making biodegradation of cyanurated industrial waste possible. Genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic techniques applied to cyanide biodegradation ('cyan-omics') provide a holistic view that increases the global insights into the genetic background of cyanotrophic microorganisms that could be used for biodegradation of industrial cyanurated wastes and other biotechnological applications.

  15. Electrostatic separation of brass from industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Iuga, A.; Morar, R.; Samuila, A.; Mihailescu, M.; Cuglesan, I.; Dascalescu, L.

    1999-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that electrostatic separation can be successfully employed for the recycling of nonferrous metals from chopped electric wire and cable scrap. The aim of this paper was to investigate the possibility of using the electric field forces for the selective sorting of other granular mixtures, such as brass dross. Laboratory tests of electrostatic separation were carried out on three samples: 0.08--1 mm, 0.08--0.2 mm, and 0.2--1 mm, containing more than 66% of brass. Sample 1 was separated in a corona-electrostatic field, generated by a standard electrode arrangement: a grounded rotating roll electrode (diameter 150 mm) and two high-voltage electrodes (wire-type dual corona electrode + tubular electrode). Processing of the other two samples was carried out in a custom-designed separator comprising an extended corona field generated between a matrix-type multineedle corona electrode and a roll electrode of large diameter (250 mm). Chemical analysis of the products showed that more than 90% of the brass can be recovered with a purity higher than 95%. The extended corona field electrode arrangement proposed in this paper seems to be a promising solution for the effective recycling of other granular wastes containing copper, aluminum, and their alloys.

  16. Heterogeneous catalytic wet air oxidation of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters: a review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Hun; Ihm, Son-Ki

    2011-02-15

    Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is one of the most economical and environmental-friendly advanced oxidation process. It makes a promising technology for the treatment of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters. Various heterogeneous catalysts including noble metals and metal oxides have been extensively studied to enhance the efficiency of CWAO. The present review is concerned about the literatures published in this regard. Phenolics, carboxylic acids, and nitrogen-containing compounds were taken as model pollutants in most cases, and noble metals such as Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, and Pt as well as oxides of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Ce were applied as heterogeneous catalysts. Reports on their characterization and catalytic performances for the CWAO of aqueous pollutants are reviewed. Discussions are also made on the reaction mechanisms and kinetics proposed for heterogeneous CWAO and also on the typical catalyst deactivations in heterogeneous CWAO, i.e. carbonaceous deposits and metal leaching.

  17. Metal accumulation in poplar plant grown with industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Giachetti, Giorgio; Sebastiani, Luca

    2006-06-01

    In this study the effects of different levels of industrial wastes on growth traits and metal accumulation in aerial portions were determined for Populusxeuramericana clone I-214. The experiment started in April 2003. Scions of Populusxeuramericana clone I-214, were grown outdoor near Pisa (Italy), in lisimeters filled with soil naturally present in the land around the experimental site, were daily drip irrigated, hand weeded, monthly fertilized, pruned for a unique shoot and cultivated with four increasing treatments: soil non-amended, soil amended with 4.8 kgm(-2), with 9.6 kgm(-2) and with 19.2 kgm(-2) of fresh tannery waste. The climatic parameters were daily recorded throughout the whole experiment. Growth relieves were performed during the growing season. After six months since the plantation of the scions, aerial portions of every plant were harvested for biomass and metal content analyses. Data demonstrated that the waste exerted beneficial effects on poplars mainly through a general increase of growth traits and that the nutrients relocation is the mechanisms involved in modulating growth rate. The concentration and the amount of the mineral elements analysed (N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr) changed determinately among treatments, organs and position. We concluded that phytoremediation strategies of tannery wastes might be possible and sustainable for polar plantations in soil amended with non-hazardous levels of industrial waste, which maintain total heavy metals concentration close to background values.

  18. Methods for recovering precious metals from industrial waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canda, L.; Heput, T.; Ardelean, E.

    2016-02-01

    The accelerated rate of industrialization increases the demand for precious metals, while high quality natural resources are diminished quantitatively, with significant operating costs. Precious metals recovery can be successfully made from waste, considered to be secondary sources of raw material. In recent years, concerns and interest of researchers for more increasing efficient methods to recover these metals, taking into account the more severe environmental protection legislation. Precious metals are used in a wide range of applications, both in electronic and communications equipment, spacecraft and jet aircraft engines and for mobile phones or catalytic converters. The most commonly recovered precious metals are: gold from jewellery and electronics, silver from X- ray films and photographic emulsions, industrial applications (catalysts, batteries, glass/mirrors), jewellery; platinum group metals from catalytic converters, catalysts for the refining of crude oil, industrial catalysts, nitric acid manufacturing plant, the carbon-based catalyst, e-waste. An important aspect is the economic viability of recycling processes related to complex waste flows. Hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical routes are the most important ways of processing electrical and electronic equipment waste. The necessity of recovering precious metals has opened new opportunities for future research.

  19. Maximum organic loading rate for the single-stage wet anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Norio; Tajima, Nobuyuki; Kawai, Minako; Niwa, Chiaki; Kurosawa, Norio; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Toda, Tatsuki

    2012-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion of food waste was conducted at high OLR from 3.7 to 12.9 kg-VS m(-3) day(-1) for 225 days. Periods without organic loading were arranged between the each loading period. Stable operation at an OLR of 9.2 kg-VS (15.0 kg-COD) m(-3) day(-1) was achieved with a high VS reduction (91.8%) and high methane yield (455 mL g-VS-1). The cell density increased in the periods without organic loading, and reached to 10.9×10(10) cells mL(-1) on day 187, which was around 15 times higher than that of the seed sludge. There was a significant correlation between OLR and saturated TSS in the sludge (y=17.3e(0.1679×), r(2)=0.996, P<0.05). A theoretical maximum OLR of 10.5 kg-VS (17.0 kg-COD) m(-3) day(-1) was obtained for mesophilic single-stage wet anaerobic digestion that is able to maintain a stable operation with high methane yield and VS reduction.

  20. Prospects for using a full-scale installation for wet combustion of organic wastes in closed life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, Sergey V.; Kudenko, Yurii A.; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.

    2015-11-01

    The issue of recycling organic wastes in closed life support systems (CLSS) includes both fundamental aspects of environmental safety of the recycled products and their effective involvement in material cycles and technical aspects related to the structure of the system and the crew's demands. This study estimates the effectiveness of wet combustion of different amounts of organic wastes in hydrogen peroxide under application of an alternating current electric field. The study also addresses the possibility of controlling the process automatically. The results show that processing of greater amounts of wastes reduces specific power consumption and shortens the duration of the process, without significantly affecting the level of oxidation of the products. An automatic control system for a semi-commercial installation has been constructed and tested experimentally. The solution of mineralized human wastes prepared in the automatically controlled process in this installation was successfully used to grow radish plants, with the main production parameters being similar to those of the control.

  1. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  2. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  3. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 reporting year, an estimated 11.84 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  4. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2013 through October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Groundwater monitoring data; Status of special compliance conditions; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2014 reporting year, an estimated 10.11 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  5. Co-combustion of coal and solid waste (municipal and industrial solid wastes)

    SciTech Connect

    Ketlogetswe, C.

    1996-12-31

    This work determines the thermal characteristics of various mixtures of carpet waste as an illustrative solid waste. Generally the results revealed that combustion of a mixture of coal with carpet waste yields high fuel bed temperature, in comparison with the combustion of pure solid waste. High fuel bed temperatures of 1,340 C to 1,520 C obtained during the combustion of a mixture of coal with PVC carpet waste would be ideal for energy recovery. The fuel bed temperature of 1,290 C obtained during the combustion of 100% PVC carpet waste suggests that the combustion of general industrial solid waste may be expected to yield a fuel bed temperature of about 1,400 C which would be suitable for energy recovery in the form of power generation or steam generation for general use. The results also revealed that combustion of a mixture of coal and municipal solid waste may require 30% to 35% coal to achieve a fuel bed temperature of about 1,300 C. From economical viewpoint, the % of coal must be kept to a minimum, at least 20% coal or less.

  6. Management of food industry waste employing vermicomposting technology.

    PubMed

    Garg, V K; Suthar, S; Yadav, Anoop

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports the vermicomposting of food industry sludges (FIS) mixed with different organic wastes employing Eisenia fetida. A total of 10 vermicomposting units containing different wastes combinations were established. After 15 weeks significant increase in total nitrogen (N(total)) (60-214%), total available phosphorous (P(avail)) (35.8-69.6%), total sodium (Na(total)) (39-95%), and total potassium (K(total)) (43.7-74.1%), while decrease in pH (8.45-19.7%), total organic carbon (OC(total)) (28.4-36.1%) and C:N ratio (61.2-77.8%) was recorded. The results indicated that FIS may be converted into good quality manure by vermicomposting if spiked with other organic wastes in appropriate quantities.

  7. Optimizing and developing a continuous separation system for the wet process separation of aluminum and polyethylene in aseptic composite packaging waste.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dahai; Peng, Zheng; Liu, Yuqiang; Li, Li; Huang, Qifei; Xie, Minghui; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of milk in China is increasing as living standards rapidly improve, and huge amounts of aseptic composite milk packaging waste are being generated. Aseptic composite packaging is composed of paper, polyethylene, and aluminum. It is difficult to separate the polyethylene and aluminum, so most of the waste is currently sent to landfill or incinerated with other municipal solid waste, meaning that enormous amounts of resources are wasted. A wet process technique for separating the aluminum and polyethylene from the composite materials after the paper had been removed from the original packaging waste was studied. The separation efficiency achieved using different separation reagents was compared, different separation mechanisms were explored, and the impacts of a range of parameters, such as the reagent concentration, temperature, and liquid-solid ratio, on the separation time and aluminum loss ratio were studied. Methanoic acid was found to be the optimal separation reagent, and the suitable conditions were a reagent concentration of 2-4 mol/L, a temperature of 60-80°C, and a liquid-solid ratio of 30 L/kg. These conditions allowed aluminum and polyethylene to be separated in less than 30 min, with an aluminum loss ratio of less than 3%. A mass balance was produced for the aluminum-polyethylene separation system, and control technique was developed to keep the ion concentrations in the reaction system stable. This allowed a continuous industrial-scale process for separating aluminum and polyethylene to be developed, and a demonstration facility with a capacity of 50t/d was built. The demonstration facility gave polyethylene and aluminum recovery rates of more than 98% and more than 72%, respectively. Separating 1t of aluminum-polyethylene composite packaging material gave a profit of 1769 Yuan, meaning that an effective method for recycling aseptic composite packaging waste was achieved.

  8. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential is examined for waste heat recovery and reuse through thermal energy storage in five specific industrial categories: (1) primary aluminum, (2) cement, (3) food processing, (4) paper and pulp, and (5) iron and steel. Preliminary results from Phase 1 feasibility studies suggest energy savings through fossil fuel displacement approaching 0.1 quad/yr in the 1985 period. Early implementation of recovery technologies with minimal development appears likely in the food processing and paper and pulp industries; development of the other three categories, though equally desirable, will probably require a greater investment in time and dollars.

  9. Compatibilized blends and value added products from leather industry waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartore, Luciana; Di Landro, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Blends based on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and hydrolyzed proteins (IP), derived from waste products of the leather industry, have been obtained by reactive blending and their chemical physical properties as well as mechanical and rheological behavior were evaluated. The effect of vinyl acetate content and of transesterification agent addition to increase interaction between polymer and bio-based components were considered. These blends represent a new type of biodegradable material and resulted promising for industrial application in several fields such as packaging and agriculture as transplanting or mulching films with additional fertilizing action of IP.

  10. Preparation of clinker from paper pulp industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Buruberri, Leire H; Seabra, M P; Labrincha, J A

    2015-04-09

    The production of paper pulp by the Kraft method generates considerable amounts of wastes. Namely, lime mud generated in the recovery circuit of chemical reagents, biological sludge from the wastewater treatment of wood digestion process and fly ash collected in the fluidized bed combustor used to generate electricity from biomass burning. The final destination of such wastes is an important concern, since environmental regulations are becoming stricter regarding their landfill. Driven by this fact, industries are looking for more sustainable solutions, such as the recycling in distinct products. This work tested these wastes as secondary raw materials to produce clinker/cement that was then experienced in mortar formulations. The first step involved the residues detailed characterization and a generated amounts survey. Then, specific but simple steps were suggested, aiming to facilitate transport and manipulation. Distinct blends were prepared and fired in order to get belitic and Portland clinkers. The Portland clinkers were processed at lower temperatures than the normally used in the industry due to the presence of mineralizing impurities in some wastes. Belite-based cements were used to produce mortars that developed satisfactory mechanical strength and did not reveal signs of deterioration or durability weaknesses.

  11. Industrial waste recycling at an automotive component manufacturing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffurs, J.A.; Hubler, R.L.; Behaylo, D.P.

    1995-09-01

    The AC Rochester Division of General Motors Corporation (GM) develops and manufacturers automotive components for engine management systems at nine facilities in the US. Its largest facility is located in flint, Michigan, and is known as the Flint East site. The Flint East site covers nearly two square miles and consists of several plants housing manufacturing operations for spark plugs, glow plugs, oil filters, air filters, air cleaner assemblies, fuel pumps, fuel level sensors, cruise control systems, and other components. The volume and diversity of the scrap and wastes generated from these operations require skillful waste management to provide environmentally safe and cost-effective disposal options. Over time, a full-scale recycling and waste disposal operation evolved at Flint East. The operation has grown over the past thirty years to handle over 68,000 tons of material annually. Flint East`s program is regarded as a model industrial waste reduction and recycling operation. Elements of the program are presented here as a guide to establishing a successful industrial recycling program.

  12. Microbial treatment of sulfur-contaminated industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ramírez, Marlenne; Zarco-Tovar, Karina; Aburto, Jorge; de León, Roberto García; Rojas-Avelizapa, Norma G

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the microbial removal of sulfur from a solid industrial waste in liquid culture under laboratory conditions. The study involved the use of two bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans AZCT-M125-5 isolated from a Mexican soil. Experimentation for industrial waste biotreatment was done in liquid culture using 125-mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 30 mL Starkey modified culture medium and incubated at 30°C during 7 days. The industrial waste was added at different pulp densities (8.25-100% w/v) corresponding to different sulfur contents from 0.7 to 8.63% (w/w). Sulfur-oxidizing activity of the strain AZCT-M125-5 produced 281 and 262 mg/g of sulfate and a sulfur removal of 60% and 45.7% when the pulp density was set at 8.25 and 16.5% (w/v), respectively. In comparison, the strain A. ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 showed a lower sulfur-oxidizing activity with a sulfate production of 25.6 and 12.7 mg/g and a sulfur removal of 6% and 2.5% at the same pulp densities, respectively. Microbial growth was limited by pulp densities higher than 25% (w/v) of industrial waste with minimal sulfur-oxidizing activity and sulfur removal. The rate of sulfur removal for Acidithiobacillus thioxidans AZCT-M125-5 and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 53987 was 0.185 and 0.0159 mg S g(-1) h(-1) with a pulp density of 16.5% (w/v), respectively. This study demonstrated that Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans AZCT-M125-5 possesses a high sulfur-oxidizing activity, even at high sulfur concentration, which allows the treatment of hazardous materials.

  13. Characterization of microbial and chemical composition of shuttle wet waste with permanent gas and volatile organic compound analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, B. V.; Hummerick, M.; Roberts, M. S.; Krumins, V.; Kish, A. L.; Garland, J. L.; Maxwell, S.; Mills, A.

    2004-01-01

    Solid-waste treatment in space for Advanced Life Support, ALS, applications requires that the material can be safely processed and stored in a confined environment. Many solid-wastes are not stable because they are wet (40-90% moisture) and contain levels of soluble organic compounds that can contribute to the growth of undesirable microorganisms with concomitant production of noxious odors. In the absence of integrated Advanced Life Support systems on orbit, permanent gas, trace volatile organic and microbiological analyses were performed on crew refuse returned from the volume F "wet" trash of three consecutive Shuttle missions (STS-105, 109, and 110). These analyses were designed to characterize the short-term biological stability of the material and assess potential crew risks resulting from microbial decay processes during storage. Waste samples were collected post-orbiter landing and sorted into packaging material, food waste, toilet waste, and bulk liquid fractions deposited during flight in the volume F container. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial loads were determined in each fraction by cultivation on R2A and by acridine orange direct count (AODC). Dry and ash weights were performed to determine both water and organic content of the materials. Experiments to determine the aerobic and anaerobic biostability of refuse stored for varying periods of time were performed by on-line monitoring of CO 2 and laboratory analysis for production of hydrogen sulfide and methane. Volatile organic compounds and permanent gases were analyzed using EPA Method TO15 by USEPA et al. [EPA Method TO15, The Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air using SUMMA, Passivated Canister Sampling and Gas Chromatographic Analysis, 1999] with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography with selective detectors. These baseline measures of waste stream content, labile organics, and microbial load in the volume F Shuttle trash provide data for waste

  14. Characterization of microbial and chemical composition of shuttle wet waste with permanent gas and volatile organic compound analyses.

    PubMed

    Peterson, B V; Hummerick, M; Roberts, M S; Krumins, V; Kish, A L; Garland, J L; Maxwell, S; Mills, A

    2004-01-01

    Solid-waste treatment in space for Advanced Life Support, ALS, applications requires that the material can be safely processed and stored in a confined environment. Many solid-wastes are not stable because they are wet (40-90% moisture) and contain levels of soluble organic compounds that can contribute to the growth of undesirable microorganisms with concomitant production of noxious odors. In the absence of integrated Advanced Life Support systems on orbit, permanent gas, trace volatile organic and microbiological analyses were performed on crew refuse returned from the volume F "wet" trash of three consecutive Shuttle missions (STS-105, 109, and 110). These analyses were designed to characterize the short-term biological stability of the material and assess potential crew risks resulting from microbial decay processes during storage. Waste samples were collected post-orbiter landing and sorted into packaging material, food waste, toilet waste, and bulk liquid fractions deposited during flight in the volume F container. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial loads were determined in each fraction by cultivation on R2A and by acridine orange direct count (AODC). Dry and ash weights were performed to determine both water and organic content of the materials. Experiments to determine the aerobic and anaerobic biostability of refuse stored for varying periods of time were performed by on-line monitoring of CO2 and laboratory analysis for production of hydrogen sulfide and methane. Volatile organic compounds and permanent gases were analyzed using EPA Method TO15 by USEPA et al. [EPA Method TO15, The Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air using SUMMA, Passivated Canister Sampling and Gas Chromatographic Analysis,1999] with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography with selective detectors. These baseline measures of waste stream content, labile organics, and microbial load in the volume F Shuttle trash provide data for waste

  15. Characterization of microbial and chemical composition of shuttle wet waste with permanent gas and volatile organic compound analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, B. V.; Hummerick, M.; Roberts, M. S.; Krumins, V.; Kish, A. L.; Garland, J. L.; Maxwell, S.; Mills, A.

    2004-01-01

    Solid-waste treatment in space for Advanced Life Support, ALS, applications requires that the material can be safely processed and stored in a confined environment. Many solid-wastes are not stable because they are wet (40-90% moisture) and contain levels of soluble organic compounds that can contribute to the growth of undesirable microorganisms with concomitant production of noxious odors. In the absence of integrated Advanced Life Support systems on orbit, permanent gas, trace volatile organic and microbiological analyses were performed on crew refuse returned from the volume F "wet" trash of three consecutive Shuttle missions (STS-105, 109, and 110). These analyses were designed to characterize the short-term biological stability of the material and assess potential crew risks resulting from microbial decay processes during storage. Waste samples were collected post-orbiter landing and sorted into packaging material, food waste, toilet waste, and bulk liquid fractions deposited during flight in the volume F container. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial loads were determined in each fraction by cultivation on R2A and by acridine orange direct count (AODC). Dry and ash weights were performed to determine both water and organic content of the materials. Experiments to determine the aerobic and anaerobic biostability of refuse stored for varying periods of time were performed by on-line monitoring of CO2 and laboratory analysis for production of hydrogen sulfide and methane. Volatile organic compounds and permanent gases were analyzed using EPA Method TO15 by USEPA et al. [EPA Method TO15, The Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air using SUMMA, Passivated Canister Sampling and Gas Chromatographic Analysis,1999] with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography with selective detectors. These baseline measures of waste stream content, labile organics, and microbial load in the volume F Shuttle trash provide data for waste

  16. Toxicity of industrial wastes and waste leaching test eluates containing organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Eija; Vaajasaari, Kati; Joutti, Anneli; Ahtiainen, Jukka

    2002-07-01

    Leaching tests, CEN prEN 12457-2, CEN PrEN 12457-3, and NEN 7349, were conducted for varnish residue and urea resin waste, two industrial wastes containing organic chemicals. The leaching test eluates were analyzed for solvent concentrations and total organic carbon. Aqueous leaching tests were found to be suitable for both chemical and biological testing. Ecotoxicity was assessed by luminescent bacteria, plant root growth, reverse electron transport, and ToxiChromopad. The eluates were highly toxic but the toxicity decreased in later stages of the multistep leaching test (NEN 7349). Urea resin eluates were significantly less toxic than varnish residue eluates. The solid wastes markedly inhibited plant seed germination before and after the leaching test (CEN prEN 12457-3). The solid wastes were not biologically degradable in the standard test (ISO 14593), whereas the eluates from the CEN prEN 12457-3 test degraded slowly.

  17. Ecotoxicity of waste water from industrial fires fighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobes, P.; Danihelka, P.; Janickova, S.; Marek, J.; Bernatikova, S.; Suchankova, J.; Baudisova, B.; Sikorova, L.; Soldan, P.

    2012-04-01

    As shown at several case studies, waste waters from extinguishing of industrial fires involving hazardous chemicals could be serious threat primary for surrounding environmental compartments (e.g. surface water, underground water, soil) and secondary for human beings, animals and plants. The negative impacts of the fire waters on the environment attracted public attention since the chemical accident in the Sandoz (Schweizerhalle) in November 1986 and this process continues. Last October, special Seminary on this topic has been organized by UNECE in Bonn. Mode of interaction of fire waters with the environment and potential transport mechanisms are still discussed. However, in many cases waste water polluted by extinguishing foam (always with high COD values), flammable or toxic dangerous substances as heavy metals, pesticides or POPs, are released to surface water or soil without proper decontamination, which can lead to environmental accident. For better understanding of this type of hazard and better coordination of firemen brigades and other responders, the ecotoxicity of such type of waste water should be evaluated in both laboratory tests and in water samples collected during real cases of industrial fires. Case studies, theoretical analysis of problem and toxicity tests on laboratory model samples (e.g. on bacteria, mustard seeds, daphnia and fishes) will provide additional necessary information. Preliminary analysis of waters from industrial fires (polymer material storage and galvanic plating facility) in the Czech Republic has already confirmed high toxicity. In first case the toxicity may be attributed to decomposition of burned material and extinguishing foams, in the latter case it can be related to cyanides in original electroplating baths. On the beginning of the year 2012, two years R&D project focused on reduction of extinguish waste water risk for the environment, was approved by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

  18. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. ); Sen, R.K. and Associates, Washington, DC )

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  19. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L.; Sen, R.K.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  20. Supported noble metal catalysts in the catalytic wet air oxidation of industrial wastewaters and sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Besson, M; Descorme, C; Bernardi, M; Gallezot, P; di Gregorio, F; Grosjean, N; Minh, D Pham; Pintar, A

    2010-12-01

    This paper reviews some catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) investigations of industrial wastewaters over platinum and ruthenium catalysts supported on TiO2 and ZrO2 formulated to be active and resistant to leaching, with particular focus on the stability of the catalyst. Catalyst recycling experiments were performed in batch reactors and long-term stability tests were conducted in trickle-bed reactors. The catalyst did not leach upon treatment of Kraft bleaching plant and olive oil mill effluents, and could be either recycled or used for long periods of time in continuous reactors. Conversely, these catalysts were rapidly leached when used to treat effluents from the production of polymeric membranes containing N,N-dimethylformamide. The intermediate formation of amines, such as dimethylamine and methylamine with a high complexing capacity for the metal, was shown to be responsible for the metal leaching. These heterogeneous catalysts also deactivated upon CWAO of sewage sludges due to the adsorption of the solid organic matter. Pre-sonication of the sludge to disintegrate the flocs and improve solubility was inefficient.

  1. Mutagenic potential of fine wastes from dimension stone industry.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Luara Louzada; Tonon, Camila Bruschi; Nunes, Erika Takagi; Braga, Adriane Cristina Araújo; Neves, Mirna Aparecida; de Oliveira David, José Augusto

    2016-03-01

    The industrial treatment of dimension stones, such as marbles and granites, includes a stage of plate polishing, in which resins and abrasives are used, producing a fine grained waste with high moisture content. These wastes pass through decantation tanks in order to separate the solid and liquid phases. Until now, there is no knowledge about the mutagenic effects that this effluent can cause to organisms exposed to it. Thus, this study evaluated the mutagenic potential of dimension stone polishing wastes in onion root cells and fish erythrocytes. The onion seeds were germinated in Petri dishes with filter paper moistened in the liquid phase of the effluent. After germination, the onion roots were prepared for analysis of chromosomal aberrations in meristematic cells. The fishes were exposed during 72h to the solid phase of the effluent diluted in pure groundwater. Blood samples were used for counting of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities. The onion seeds had similar germination and mitotic index in all treatments. However, it was observed in the seeds exposed to the polishing waste, numbers significantly higher of micronucleus, nuclear buds and other chromosomal aberrations when compared with the negative control. The fishes exposed to the waste showed numbers significantly higher of micronucleus when compared with the negative control. The fishes from all treatments showed significant increase in nuclear abnormalities when compared to the negative control. We concluded that the analysed wastes have mutagenic potential at the studied conditions; this effect can be related to the high content of phenolic compounds identified in the samples.

  2. Recycled water reuse permit renewal application for the materials and fuels complex industrial waste ditch and industrial waste pond

    SciTech Connect

    Name, No

    2014-10-01

    This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  3. Production of lightweight aggregate from industrial waste and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Peter J; Hills, Colin D; Carey, Paula J

    2009-10-01

    The concomitant recycling of waste and carbon dioxide emissions is the subject of developing technology designed to close the industrial process loop and facilitate the bulk-re-use of waste in, for example, construction. The present work discusses a treatment step that employs accelerated carbonation to convert gaseous carbon dioxide into solid calcium carbonate through a reaction with industrial thermal residues. Treatment by accelerated carbonation enabled a synthetic aggregate to be made from thermal residues and waste quarry fines. The aggregates produced had a bulk density below 1000 kg/m(3) and a high water absorption capacity. Aggregate crushing strengths were between 30% and 90% stronger than the proprietary lightweight expanded clay aggregate available in the UK. Cast concrete blocks containing the carbonated aggregate achieve compressive strengths of 24 MPa, making them suitable for use with concrete exposed to non-aggressive service environments. The energy intensive firing and sintering processes traditionally required to produce lightweight aggregates can now be augmented by a cold-bonding, low energy method that contributes to the reduction of green house gases to the atmosphere.

  4. Characterization of dolochar wastes generated by the sponge iron industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwari, Ranjan Kumar; Rao, Danda Srinivas; Swar, Akhila Kumar; Reddy, Palli Sita Ram; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2012-11-01

    Solid wastes generated by the metallurgical industry contribute significantly towards the enhancement of environmental pollution. The handling, utilization, and safe disposal of these solid wastes are major concerns for the world. Dolochar is such a solid waste generated by the sponge iron industry. Investigations were carried out on the physical, mineralogical, and chemical characteristics for the efficient utilization of dolochar. The detailed studies on physico-chemical properties and petrography were carried out by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Characterization studies revealed that the dolochar consists of quartz (free as well as locked), free lime, Fe particles, and Ca or Mg and/or Ca+Mg+Fe oxide phases. The washability data of -300 μm dolochar samples indicated that clean coal with 41wt% ash at 18% yield can be produced from dolochar with 78wt% ash. The studies further suggested that the liberation of the dolochar is hard to achieve for clear separation. The dolochar is observed to have high ash fusion temperature and the unburned carbon can be best utilized for power generation.

  5. An industrial ecology approach to municipal solid waste management: I. Methodology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) can be viewed as a feedstock for industrial ecology inspired conversions of wastes to valuable products and energy. The industrial ecology principle of symbiotic processes using waste streams for creating value-added products is applied to MSW, with e...

  6. Hybrid composites prepared from Industrial waste: Mechanical and swelling behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Khalil

    2013-01-01

    In this assessment, hybrid composites were prepared from the combination of industrial waste, as marble waste powder (MWP) with conventional fillers, carbon black (CB) as well as silica as reinforcing material, incorporated with natural rubber (NR). The properties studied were curing, mechanical and swelling behavior. Assimilation of CB as well as silica into MWP containing NR compound responded in decreasing the scorch time and cure time besides increasing in the torque. Additionally, increasing the CB and silica in their respective NR hybrid composite increases the tensile, tear, modulus, hardness, and cross-link density, but decreases the elongation and swelling coefficient. The degradation property e.g., thermal aging of the hybrid composite was also estimated. The overall behavior at 70 °C aging temperature signified that the replacement of MS by CB and silica improved the aging performance. PMID:25750756

  7. Glass phase in municipal and industrial waste incineration bottom ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafał Kowalski, Piotr; Michalik, Marek

    2015-04-01

    Waste incineration bottom ash is a material with rising significance in waste streams in numerous countries. Even if some part of them is now used as raw materials the great amount is still landfilled. High temperature of thermal processes (>1000°C) together with fast cooling results in high content of glass in bottom ash. Its chemical composition is influenced by various factors like composition of raw wastes and used incineration technique. Most of bottom ash grains are composed of glass with large amount of mineral phases and also metallic constituents embedded into it. Glass susceptibility for alteration processes together with the characteristics of glass-based grains can bring environmental risk in time of improper or long term storage on landfill site. In this study bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal and industrial (including hazardous and medical) wastes were studied to determine glass content, its chemical composition with emphasis on metal content (especially potentially hazardous) and its relations to metallic components of grains. Samples were collected from two thermal treatment plants in Poland. Qualitative and quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used for determination of mineral composition of studied samples. Rietveld method and addition of internal standard for determination of amorphous phase content were used. Scanning electron microscopy fitted with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) were used for detailed analysis of glass and glass associated phases. Waste incineration bottom ash is a multi-components material rich in amorphous phase. It dominant part is represented by Si-rich glass. It is a main component of bottom ash grains but it contains minerals present in large quantities and also various forms of metallic elements. Glass within grains is often porous and cracked. In bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal wastes ~ 45-55 wt % of amorphous phase were present, mostly in form of glass with high

  8. Catalytic ammonia decomposition over industrial-waste-supported Ru catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Pei Fang Ng; Li Li; Shaobin Wang; Zhonghua Zhu; Gaoqing Lu; Zifeng Yan

    2007-05-15

    Industrial solid wastes (fly ash and red mud, a by-product of the aluminium industry) have been employed as supports for preparation of Ru-based catalysts. Physical and chemical treatments on red mud were conducted and these modified supports were also used for preparation of Ru-based catalysts. Those Ru catalysts were characterized by various techniques such as N2 adsorption, H{sub 2} adsorption, XRD, XPS, and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), and were then tested for catalytic ammonia decomposition to hydrogen. It was found that red-mud-supported Ru catalyst exhibits higher ammonia conversion and hydrogen production than fly-ash-supported catalyst. Heat and chemical treatments of the red mud greatly improve the catalytic activity. Moreover, a combination of acid and heat treatments produces the highest catalytic conversion of ammonia. 35 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-03-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  10. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  11. Preparation and characterization of green bricks using pharmaceutical industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Yamuna Rani, M; Bhagawan, D; Himabindu, V; Venkateswara Reddy, V; Saritha, P

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports on recycling of industrial wastes (three pharmaceutical industrial sludges) into environmental friendly value-added materials. Stabilization/Solidification (S/S or bricks) process was applied to make a safer way for the utilization of pharmaceutical waste. The additives in this study include binders (cement, lime and bentonite) and strengthening material (pulverized fuel ash (PFA), silica fume and quarry dust) was used at different compositions. Bricks were cured for 28 days, and the following analysis-like compressive strength, leachability of heavy metals, mineralogical phase identity by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal behaviour by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) had done. All the bricks were observed to achieve the standard compressive strength as required for construction according to BIS standards. Metal concentration in the leachate has reached the dischargeable limits according to Brazilian standards. Results of this study demonstrate that production of bricks is a promising and achievable productive use of pharmaceutical sludge.

  12. An Industrial Ecology Approach to Municipal Solid Waste ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste provides abundant opportunities for industrial ecology-based symbiotic use. Energy production, economics, and environmental aspects are analyzed for four alternatives based on different technologies: incineration with energy recovery, gasification, anaerobic digestion, and fermentation. In these cases electricity and ethanol are the products considered, but other products and attempts at symbiosis can be made. The four technologies are in various states of commercial development. To highlight their relative complexities some adjustable parameters which are important for the operability of each process are discussed. While these technologies need to be considered for specific locations and circumstances, generalized economic and environmental information suggests relative comparisons for newly conceptualized processes. The results of industrial ecology-based analysis suggest that anaerobic digestion may improve seven emission categories, while fermentation, gasification, and incineration successively improve fewer emissions. A conceptual level analysis indicates that gasification, anaerobic digestion, and fermentation alternatives lead to positive economic results. In each case the alternatives and their assumptions need further analysis for any particular community. Presents information useful for analyzing the sustainability of alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste.

  13. Characterization of NORM solid waste produced from the petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Doubal, Wael; Al Abdullah, Jamal; Khalily, Hussam; Abdul Ghani, Basem; Safia, Bassam

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of scales in the production pipe lines is a common problem in the oil industry, reducing fluid flow and leading to costly remediation and disposal programmes. Thus, an accurate determination of the activity of the radionuclides in scale samples is essential for environmental protection. The present study focuses on the characterization of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in scales generated from the petroleum industry to develop a suitable NORM waste management plan. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in 32 representative samples, collected from a number of drums at the NORM Decontamination Facility storage, were determined using gamma spectrometry. It was found that the highest concentrations were 2922, 254 and 1794 Bq g(-1) for 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb, respectively. A comparison to the reported worldwide values was made. Statistical approaches, namely Box plot, ANOVA and principal components analysis were applied on the total results. Maximal correlation was demonstrated by 226Ra activity concentration and count per second (cps) to density ratio. To obtain an accurate characterization of the radionuclides studied in the scale samples, method validation of gamma measurement procedure was carried out, in which minimum detectable activity, repeatability, intermediate precision and assessment of uncertainty were the parameters investigated. The work is a forefront for the proper and safe disposal of such radioactive wastes.

  14. Methodology for industrial solid waste management: implementation to sludge management in Asturias (Spain).

    PubMed

    Mesa Fernández, José M; Palacios, Henar Morán; Alvarez Cabal, José V; Martínez Huerta, Gemma M

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays, the industry produces an enormous amount of solid waste that has very negative environmental effects. Owing to waste variety and its scattered sites of production, selecting the most proper solid waste treatment is difficult. Simultaneously, social concern about environmental sustainability rises every day and, as a consequence, improvement on waste treatment systems is being demanded. However, when a waste treatment system is being designed, not only environmental but also technical and economic issues should be considered. This article puts forward a methodology to provide industrial factories with an easy way to identify, evaluate and select the most suitable solid waste treatment.

  15. 2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2012 through October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2013 reporting year, an estimated 9.64 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  16. Evaluation of Practicing sustainable Industrial Solid Waste Minimization by Manufacturing Firms in Malaysia: Strengths and Weaknesses.

    PubMed

    Mallak, Shadi Kafi; Bakri Ishak, Mohd; Mohamed, Ahmad Fariz

    2016-09-13

    Malaysia is facing an increasing trend in industrial solid waste generation due to industrial development.Thus there is a paramount need in taking a serious action to move toward sustainable industrial waste management. The main aim of this study is to assess practicing solid waste minimization by manufacturing firms in Shah Alam industrial state, Malaysia. This paper presents a series of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis regarding the level and effects of practicing waste minimization methods, and seriousness of barriers preventing industries from practicing waste minimization methods. For this purpose the survey questions were designed such that both quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (semi-structures interview) data were collected concurrently. Analysis showed that, the majority of firms (92%) dispose their wastes rather than practice other sustainable waste management options. Also waste minimization methods such as segregation of wastes, on-site recycle and reuse, improve housekeeping and equipment modification were found to have significant contribution in waste reduction (p<0.05). Lack of expertise (M=3.50), lack of enough information (M= 3.54), lack of equipment modification (M= 3.16) and lack of specific waste minimization guidelines (M=3.49) have higher mean scores comparing with other barriers in different categories. These data were interpreted for elaborating of SWOT and TOWS matrix to highlight strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities. Accordingly, ten policies were recommended for improvement of practicing waste minimization by manufacturing firms as the main aim of this research. Implications This manuscript critically analysis waste minimization practices by manufacturing firms in Malaysia. Both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis were conducted to formulate SWOT and TOWS matrix in order to recommend policies and strategies for improvement of solid waste minimization by manufacturing industries

  17. Object-oriented industrial solid waste identification using HJ satellite imagery: a case study of phosphogypsum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhuo; Shen, Wenming; Xiao, Rulin; Xiong, Wencheng; Shi, Yuanli; Chen, Baisong

    2012-10-01

    The increasing volume of industrial solid wastes presents a critical problem for the global environment. In the detection and monitoring of these industrial solid wastes, the traditional field methods are generally expensive and time consuming. With the advantages of quick observations taken at a large area, remote sensing provides an effective means for detecting and monitoring the industrial solid wastes in a large scale. In this paper, we employ an object-oriented method for detecting the industrial solid waste from HJ satellite imagery. We select phosphogypsum which is a typical industrial solid waste as our target. Our study area is located in Fuquan in Guizhou province of China. The object oriented method we adopted consists of the following steps: 1) Multiresolution segmentation method is adopted to segment the remote sensing images for obtaining the object-based images. 2) Build the feature knowledge set of the object types. 3) Detect the industrial solid wastes based on the object-oriented decision tree rule set. We analyze the heterogeneity in features of different objects. According to the feature heterogeneity, an object-oriented decision tree rule set is then built for aiding the identification of industrial solid waste. Then, based on this decision tree rule set, the industrial solid waste can be identified automatically from remote sensing images. Finally, the identified results are validated using ground survey data. Experiments and results indicate that the object-oriented method provides an effective method for detecting industrial solid wastes.

  18. Industrial hazardous waste treatment featuring a rotary kiln and grate furnace incinerator: a case study in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Pan; Ma, Zengyi; Yan, Jianhua; Chi, Yong; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2011-10-01

    As one of the fastest developing countries, China is facing severe problems concerning hazardous waste treatment and disposal. This paper presents a new incineration technology and demonstration project in eastern China. The incineration system includes a rotary kiln, a grate furnace for burning out the kiln residue and a flue gas post-combustion chamber. Flue gas treatment and emission control is based on: a quench tower, followed by dry hydrated lime and activated carbon injection, a dual bag filter system, and a wet scrubber. It demonstrated that this incineration technology can effectively dispose of industrial hazardous waste with variable and complex characteristics. Gas emissions meet the demands of the Chinese Environmental Protection Association standard.

  19. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in Focus: Hazardous Waste Generator Guidance by Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Publications providing an overview of the RCRA regulations affecting specific industry sectors. These documents present the lifecycle of a typical waste for each industry and focuses on recycling and pollution prevention.

  20. Design, fabrication and testing of a wet oxidation waste processing system. [for manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The wet oxidation of sewage sludge during space flight was studied for water and gas recovery, and the elimination of overboard venting. The components of the system are described. Slurry and oxygen supply modules were fabricated and tested. Recommendations for redesign of the equipment are included.

  1. Alkaline subcritical water gasification of dairy industry waste (Whey).

    PubMed

    Muangrat, Rattana; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2011-05-01

    The near-critical water gasification of dairy industry waste in the form of Whey, a product composed of mixtures of carbohydrates (mainly lactose) and amino acids such as glycine and glutamic acid, has been studied. The gasification process involved partial oxidation with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of NaOH. The reactions were studied over the temperature range from 300°C to 390°C, corresponding pressures of 9.5-24.5 MPa and reaction times from 0 min to 120 min. Hydrogen production was affected by the presence of NaOH, the concentration of H(2)O(2), temperature, reaction time and feed concentration. Up to 40% of the theoretical hydrogen gas production was achieved at 390°C. Over 80% of the Whey nitrogen content was found as ammonia, mainly in the liquid effluent.

  2. Cementitious binder from fly ash and other industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.; Garg, M.

    1999-03-01

    In this paper, investigations were undertaken to formulate cementitious binder by judicious blending of fly ash with Portland cement as well as by admixing fly ash with calcined phosphogypsum, fluorogypsum, lime sludge, and chemical activators of different finenesses. The effect of addition of calcined clay in these types of binders was studied. Data showed that cementitious binders of high compressive strength and water retentivity can be produced. The strength of masonry mortars increased with the addition of chemical activators. The strength development of binders takes place through formation of ettringite. C-S-H, and C{sub 4}AH{sub 13}. The binders are eminently suitable for partial replacement (up to 25%) of the cement in concrete without any detrimental affect on the strength. The results showed that fly ash can be used in the range from 45% to 70% in formulating these binders along with other industrial wastes to help in mitigating environmental pollution.

  3. Wet Chemical Oxidation of Organic Waste Using Nitric-Phosphoric Acid Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    1998-10-06

    Experimental progress has been made in a wide range of areas which support the continued development of the nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation process for combustible, solid organic wastes. An improved understanding of the overall process operation has been obtained, acid recovery and recycle systems have been studied, safety issues have been addressed, two potential final waste forms have been tested, preliminary mass flow diagrams have been prepared, and process flowsheets have been developed. The flowsheet developed is essentially a closed-loop system which addresses all of the internally generated waste streams. The combined activities aim to provide the basis for building and testing a 250-400 liter pilot-scale unit. Variations of the process now must be evaluated in order to address the needs of the primary customer, SRS Solid Waste Management. The customer is interested in treating job control waste contaminated with Pu-238 for shipment to WIPP. As a result, variations for feed preparation, acid recycle, and final form manufacturing must be considered to provide for simpler processing to accommodate operations in high radiation and contamination environments. The purpose of this program is to demonstrate a nitric-phosphoric acid destruction technology which can treat a heterogeneous waste by oxidizing the solid and liquid organic compounds while decontaminating noncombustible items.

  4. Global marine pollution bibliography: Ocean dumping of municipal and industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Champ, M.A.; Park, K.P.

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography contains papers from the following categories: marine pollution/ocean dumping, municipal wastes, industrial wastes, legislation/regulations, international conventions, ocean dumping criteria/site selection studies, waste management strategies, biological processes, chemical processes, geological processes, physical processes, engineering studies, and dumping by countries and by regions.

  5. Waste Management, Treatment, and Disposal for the Food Processing Industry. Special Circular 113.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This publication contains information relating to waste prevention, treatment and disposal, and waste product utilization. Its primary purpose is to provide information that will help the food industry executive recognize waste problems and make wise management decisions. The discussion of the methods, techniques, and the state-of-the-art is…

  6. Engineering development and demonstration of DETOX{sup SM} wet oxidation for mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dhooge, P.M.; Goldblatt, S.D.; Moslander, J.E.; Robertson, D.T.; Rogers, T.W.; Zigmond, J.A.

    1997-12-01

    DETOX{sup SM}, a catalyzed chemical oxidation process, is under development for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes at Department of Energy sites. To support this effort, developmental engineering studies have been formed for aspects of the process to help ensure safe and effective operation. Subscale agitation studies have been preformed to identify a suitable mixing head and speed for the primary reaction vessel agitator. Mechanisms for feeding solid waste materials to the primary reaction vessel have been investigated. Filtration to remove solid field process residue, and the use of various filtration aids, has been studied. Extended compatibility studies on the materials of construction have been performed. Due to a change to Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) for the mixed waste portion of the demonstration, types of wastes suitable and appropriate for treatment at RFETS had to be chosen. A Prototype unit has been fabricated and will be demonstrated on hazardous and mixed wastes at Savannah River Site (SRS) and RFETS during 1997 and 1998. The unit is in shakedown testing at present. Data validation and an engineering evaluation will be performed during the demonstration.

  7. Removal of chromium from industrial waste by using eucalyptus bark.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Vikrant; Pant, K K

    2006-01-01

    Several low cost biomaterials such as baggase, charred rice husk, activated charcoal and eucalyptus bark (EB) were tested for removal of chromium. All the experiments were carried out in batch process with laboratory prepared samples and wastewater obtained from metal finishing section of auto ancillary unit. The adsorbent, which had highest chromium(VI) removal was EB. Influences of chromium concentration, pH, contact time on removal of chromium from effluent was investigated. The adsorption data were fitted well by Freundlich isotherm. The kinetic data were analyzed by using a first order Lagergren kinetic. The Gibbs free energy was obtained for each system and was found to be -1.879 kJ mol(-1) for Cr(VI) and -3.885 kJ mol(-1) for Cr(III) for removal from industrial effluent. The negative value of deltaG0 indicates the feasibility and spontaneous nature of adsorption. The maximum removal of Cr(VI) was observed at pH 2. Adsorption capacity was found to be 45 mg/g of adsorbent, at Cr(VI) concentration in the effluent being 250 mg/l. A waste water sample containing Cr(VI), Cr(III), Mg, and Ca obtained from industrial unit showed satisfactory removal of chromium. The results indicate that eucalyptus bark can be used for the removal of chromium.

  8. Low-temperature waste-heat recovery in the food and paper industries

    SciTech Connect

    Foell, W.K.; Lund, D.; Mitchell, J.W.; Ray, D.; Stevenson, R.; TenWolde, A.

    1980-11-01

    The potential of low-temperature waste-heat recovery technology is examined. An examination of barriers to impede waste-heat recovery is made and research programs are identified. Extensive information and data are presented in the following chapters: Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Food Industry; Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Pulp and Paper Industry; Industries' Economic Analysis of Energy Conservation Projects; Industrial Waste Heat Recovery (selection of heat-recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, simplified procedure for selection of heat recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, selection of heat pumps for industrial applications); Institutional Aspects of Industrial Energy Conservation (economic motivation for energy conservation and the industrial response, intrafirm idea channels and their sources, evaluation and approval of plant improvement projects, reported barriers to adopting waste heat recovery projects and recommendations for government involvement, and the final chapter is a summary with major conclusions given. Additional information is given in two appendices on the potential waste heat recovery in a cheese plant (calculation) and conditions for optimum exchanger size and break-even fuel cost. (MCW)

  9. Towards zero industrial waste: Utilisation of brick dust waste in sustainable construction.

    PubMed

    Kinuthia, J M; Nidzam, R M

    2011-08-01

    Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilisation of brick dust (BD) in construction. The dust is a waste material from the cutting of fired clay bricks. Currently, the disposal of the dust is a problem to the brick fabrication company, and hence an environmental pollution concern. The dust was stabilised either used on its own or in combination with Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), a by-product material from coal combustion. The traditional stabilisers of lime and/or Portland Cement (PC) were used as controls. The main aim was to use a sustainable stabiliser material, where these stabilisers were partially replaced with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS), a by-product material from steel manufacture. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabiliser contents and moist cured for up to 56 days prior to testing for compressive and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) strength tests, and to linear expansion during moist curing and subsequent soaking in water. The results obtained showed that partial substitution of the dust with PFA resulted in stronger material compared to using it on its own. The blended stabilisers achieved better performance. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using the brick dust and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste.

  10. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production.

    PubMed

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu, Xinmei; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas production is limited under Swedish conditions; therefore, adding crops to existing industrial waste digestion could be a viable alternative to ensure a constant/reliable supply of feedstock to the anaerobic digester.

  11. Thermal destruction of wastes containing polychlorinated naphthalenes in an industrial waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Noma, Yukio; Sakai, Shin-Ichi

    2016-07-02

    A series of verification tests were carried out in order to confirm that polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) contained in synthetic rubber products (Neoprene FB products) and aerosol adhesives, which were accidentally imported into Japan, could be thermally destroyed using an industrial waste incinerator. In the verification tests, Neoprene FB products containing PCNs at a concentration of 2800 mg/kg were added to industrial wastes at a ratio of 600 mg Neoprene FB product/kg-waste, and then incinerated at an average temperature of 985 °C. Total PCN concentrations were 14 ng/m(3)N in stack gas, 5.7 ng/g in bottom ash, 0.98 ng/g in boiler dust, and 1.2 ng/g in fly ash. Destruction efficiency (DE) and destruction removal efficiency (DRE) of congener No. 38/40, which is considered an input marker congener, were 99.9974 and 99.9995 %, respectively. The following dioxin concentrations were found: 0.11 ng-TEQ/m(3)N for the stack gas, 0.096 ng-TEQ/g for the bottom ash, 0.010 ng-TEQ/g for the boiler dust, and 0.072 ng-TEQ/g for the fly ash. Since the PCN levels in the PCN destruction test were even at slightly lower concentrations than in the baseline test without PCN addition, the detected PCNs are to a large degree unintentionally produced PCNs and does not mainly stem from input material. Also, the dioxin levels did not change. From these results, we confirmed that PCNs contained in Neoprene FB products and aerosol adhesives could be destroyed to a high degree by high-temperature incineration. Therefore, all recalled Neoprene FB products and aerosol adhesives containing PCNs were successfully treated under the same conditions as the verification tests.

  12. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

    2003-07-01

    Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry within the food and kindred products group (SIC 20), using 15 percent of the energy in the entire food industry. After corn, energy is the second largest operating cost for corn wet millers in the United States. A typical corn wet milling plant in the United States spends approximately $20 to $30 million per year on energy, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs and increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy-price volatility. This report shows energy efficiency opportunities available for wet corn millers. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure and production of the corn wet milling industry and the energy used in the milling and refining process. Specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The report draws upon the experiences of corn, wheat and other starch processing plants worldwide for energy efficiency measures. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the corn wet milling industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to different wet milling practices, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  13. Identifying industrial best practices for the waste minimization of low-level radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1996-04-01

    In US DOE, changing circumstances are affecting the management and disposal of solid, low-level radioactive waste (LLW). From 1977 to 1991, the nuclear power industry achieved major reductions in solid waste disposal, and DOE is interested in applying those practices to reduce solid waste at DOE facilities. Project focus was to identify and document commercial nuclear industry best practices for radiological control programs supporting routine operations, outages, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The project team (DOE facility and nuclear power industry representatives) defined a Work Control Process Model, collected nuclear power industry Best Practices, and made recommendations to minimize LLW at DOE facilities.

  14. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  15. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fiberous and other waste materials from textile production. The use of recyclable materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass fiber wastes, and waste dusts for use in textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials are considered. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Wet Chemical Oxidation and Stabilization of Mixed and Low Level Organic Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.; Livingston, R.R.; Burge, D.A.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1998-03-01

    Mixed acid oxidation is a non-incineration process capable of destroying organic compounds, including papers, plastics, resins, and oils, at moderate temperatures and pressures. The technology, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a holding medium which allows appreciable amounts of the oxidant to be retained in solution at atmospheric pressure and at the temperatures needed for oxidation. The phosphoric acid also provides the raw materials for making a final waste which contains the metal contaminants from the waste stream. Savannah River has designed, built, and started up a 40-liter pilot reaction vessel to demonstrate the process and its sub-systems on a larger scale than earlier testing. The unit has been demonstrated and has provided important data on the operation of the oxidation and acid recovery systems. Specific results will be presented on oxidation conditions, acid recovery efficiency, chloride removal, metal retention, and process monitoring. Additional studies have been conducted with a smaller vessel in a radioactive hood. Testing with plutonium-bearing waste simulants was performed to make preliminary predictions about the behavior of plutonium in the process. Samples of the remaining phosphoric acid from these tests has been converted to two separate final forms for analysis. Results will be presented on plutonium fractionation during the oxidation process and waste form stability.

  17. Four-year record of mercury wet deposition in one typical industrial city in southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Caiqing; Wang, Yongmin; Peng, Yulong; Wang, Dingyong

    2016-10-01

    During the period from December 2010 to November 2014, long-term monitoring of Hg wet deposition was conducted at three sites in Chongqing. The four-year volume-weighted mean concentrations (VWC) of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in precipitation were 34.25 ng L-1 and 0.48 ng L-1, respectively. The average annual wet deposition fluxes were 37.83 ± 11.53 μg m-2 yr-1 for THg and 0.61 ± 0.19 μg m-2 yr-1 for MeHg. Besides, the average proportion of MeHg in THg was 1.41%. These data were well ahead of values observed in most of other areas. The annual VWC of Hg rose remarkably in 2012 and then reached a plateau or climbed mildly in the following 2 years, while its annual wet deposition fluxes saw an upward trend throughout the whole period. In addition, the high figures of Hg concentration were generally found in the non-monsoon seasons, but its elevated wet deposition fluxes normally appeared in the rainy seasons. These characteristics of inter-annual and seasonal changes for VWC and fluxes were observed at every sampling site in this study as well. Besides, there were significantly spatial distributions for VWC and fluxes of THg in the descending order of the downtown (NA), the suburban (BB) and the controlled site (JY). While for MeHg, BB had the largest values, followed by NA and JY. So apart from THg load, the formation of MeHg was influenced by other factors in Chongqing, like the concentration of reactive mercury (RHg) in precipitation. Additionally, particulate bound mercury (PHg) is the dominant form among various Hg species, and atmospheric Hg is effectively eliminated during the initial period of the rain event and the below-cloud scavenging is the predominant mechanism contributing Hg to precipitation.

  18. Correlation of wood-based components and dewatering properties of waste activated sludge from pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Kyllönen, H; Lehto, J; Pirkonen, P; Grönroos, A; Pakkanen, H; Alén, R

    2010-01-01

    Large amounts of wet sludge are produced annually in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. Already in pulp and paper industry, more than ten million tons of primary sludge, waste activated sludge, and de-inking sludge is generated. Waste activated sludge contains large quantities of bound water, which is difficult to dewater. Low water content would be a matter of high calorific value in incineration but it also has effects on the volume and the quality of the matter to be handled in sludge disposal. In this research waste activated sludges from different pulp and paper mills were chemically characterised and dewatered. Correlations of chemical composition and dewatering properties were determined using multivariate analysis. Chemical characterisation included basic sludge analysis, elementary analysis and analysis of wood-based components, such as hemicelluloses and lignin-derived material. Dewatering properties were determined using measurements of dry solids content, flux and flocculant dosage. The effects of different variables varied according to the response concerned. The variables which were significant regarding cake DS increase in filtration or centrifugation and flocculant dosage needed in filtration were different from those which were significant regarding flux.

  19. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Oxidation of anthracene using waste Mn oxide minerals: the importance of wetting and drying sequences.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Catherine; Tourney, Janette; Johnson, Karen

    2012-02-29

    PAHs are a common problem in contaminated urban soils due to their recalcitrance. This study presents results on the oxidation of anthracene on synthetic and natural Mn oxide surfaces. Evaporation of anthracene spiked Mn oxide slurries in air results in the oxidation of 30% of the anthracene to anthraquinone. Control minerals, quartz and calcite, also oxidised a small but significant proportion of the anthracene (4.5% and 14% conversion, respectively) when spiked mineral slurries were evaporated in air. However, only Mn oxide minerals showed significant anthracene oxidation (5-10%) when evaporation took place in the absence of oxygen (N2 atmosphere). In the fully hydrated systems where no drying took place, natural Mn oxides showed an increase in anthracene oxidation with decreasing pH, with a conversion of 75% anthracene at pH 4. These results show both acidification and drying favor the oxidation of anthracene on Mn oxide mineral surfaces. It has also been demonstrated that non-redox active mineral surfaces, such as calcite, may play a role in contaminant breakdown during wetting and drying sequences. Given that climate changes suggest that wetting and drying sequences are likely to become more significant these results have important implications for contaminated land remediation technologies.

  1. Production of Enzymes From Agricultural Wastes and Their Potential Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Bharathiraja, S; Suriya, J; Krishnan, M; Manivasagan, P; Kim, S-K

    2017-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is the significant technique for the conversion of agricultural wastes into valuable products. Agroindustrial wastes such as rice bran, wheat bran, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, and corncob are cheapest and plentifully available natural carbon sources for the production of industrially important enzymes. Innumerable enzymes that have numerous applications in industrial processes for food, drug, textile, and dye use have been produced from different types of microorganisms from agricultural wastes. Utilization of agricultural wastes offers great potential for reducing the production cost and increasing the use of enzymes for industrial purposes. This chapter focuses on economic production of actinobacterial enzymes from agricultural wastes to make a better alternative for utilization of biomass generated in million tons as waste annually.

  2. Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste - Burning of Hazardous Waste in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces - Federal Register Notice, September 5, 1991

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is announcing an administrative stay of the permitting standards for boilers and industrial furnaces adopted pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (56 FR 7206, Feb. 21, 1991) as they apply to coke ovens burning certain hazardous wastes

  3. Optimisation of industrial wastes reuse as construction materials.

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, C; Sorlini, S

    2001-12-01

    This study concerns the reuse of two inorganic wastes, foundry residues and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration, as "recycled aggregate" in concrete production. This kind of reuse was optimised by waste treatment with the following steps: waste washing with water; waste stabilisation-solidification treatment with inorganic reagents; final grinding of the stabilised waste after curing for about 10-20 days. Both the treated wastes were reused in concrete production with different mix-designs. Concrete specimens were characterised by means of conventional physical-mechanical tests (compression, elasticity modulus, shrinkage) and different leaching tests. Experimental results showed that a good structural and environmental quality of "recycled concrete" is due both to a correct waste treatment and to a correct mix-design for concrete mixture.

  4. Solid waste management for climate change policy in industrial countries, newly industrialized countries, and developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Horng, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Although the First FCCC COP did not reach agreement on controlling greenhouse gases, the intention of international society on limiting climate change problems is obvious. Among the important greenhouse gases of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O, the control of CO{sub 2} emission is more important for industrial countries than for the others due to their large emission. The CO{sub 2} reduction for export-oriented NICs (Newly Industrialized Countries) is a growth-limited or -killing policy that will severely hurt the national economics and will be carefully evaluated before taking any action. On the other hand, the reduction of methane emission by proper managing solid wastes, especially landfills, stands for good short- and long-term investments for NICs and developing countries. A 50 to 90% CH{sub 4} recovery from landfill is feasible and profitable, but the methane recovery technology or capital cost needs to come from industrial countries. Taking the example in Taiwan, more than 60% of methane emission is from landfills. A medium 50% reduction can contribute to more than 5% reduction of CO{sub 2} equivalent basis on global warming potentials (GWPs). However, the landfill gas recovery program is still under demonstration without actual applications.

  5. Engineering Scoping Study of Thermoelectric Generator Systems for Industrial Waste Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Terry; Choate, William T.

    2006-11-01

    This report evaluates thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems with the intent to: 1) examine industrial processes in order to identify and quantify industrial waste heat sources that could potentially use TEGs; 2) describe the operating environment that a TEG would encounter in selected industrial processes and quantify the anticipated TEG system performance; 3) identify cost, design and/or engineering performance requirements that will be needed for TEGs to operate in the selected industrial processes; and 4) identify the research, development and deployment needed to overcome the limitations that discourage the development and use of TEGs for recovery of industrial waste heat.

  6. Supercritical extraction of lycopene from tomato industrial wastes with ethane.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Beatriz P; Gouveia, Luisa; Matos, Patricia G S; Cristino, Ana F; Palavra, António F; Mendes, Rui L

    2012-07-11

    Supercritical fluid extraction of all-E-lycopene from tomato industrial wastes (mixture of skins and seeds) was carried out in a semi-continuous flow apparatus using ethane as supercritical solvent. The effect of pressure, temperature, feed particle size, solvent superficial velocity and matrix initial composition was evaluated. Moreover, the yield of the extraction was compared with that obtained with other supercritical solvents (supercritical CO₂ and a near critical mixture of ethane and propane). The recovery of all-E-lycopene increased with pressure, decreased with the increase of the particle size in the initial stages of the extraction and was not practically affected by the solvent superficial velocity. The effect of the temperature was more complex. When the temperature increased from 40 to 60 °C the recovery of all-E-lycopene increased from 80 to 90%. However, for a further increase to 80 °C, the recovery remained almost the same, indicating that some E-Z isomerization could have occurred, as well as some degradation of lycopene. The recovery of all-E-lycopene was almost the same for feed samples with different all-E-lycopene content. Furthermore, when a batch with a higher all-E-lycopene content was used, supercritical ethane and a near critical mixture of ethane and propane showed to be better solvents than supercritical CO₂ leading to a faster extraction with a higher recovery of the carotenoid.

  7. Synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose from waste of cotton ginning industry.

    PubMed

    Haleem, Noor; Arshad, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Ashraf

    2014-11-26

    The aim of present work was to isolate cellulose from cotton gin waste (CGW) and synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) from it. Scoured and bleached CGW was used to investigate the effects of temperature, reaction time, acid-base concentration on the physiology of the resultant cellulose polymer. The isolated cellulose from CGW was converted to CMC by etherification using sodium monochloroacetic acid and different sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentrations (5-40 g/100mL) were tested to get high quality product. The optimum condition for carboxymethylation was found to be 20 g/100mL NaOH which provided the highest viscosity and degree of substitution (DS=0.874). Isolated cellulose and CMC were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FT-IR analysis revealed that the produced cellulose was of very good quality. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis spotlighted crystalline nature of cellulose. SEM images showed rough structure of cellulose while that of the CMC had a smooth surface. This optimized method will be tested at pilot scale in collaboration with local industry.

  8. Federal legislative and regulatory incentives and disincentives for industrial waste reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cordes, R.; Nixon, J.

    1991-10-01

    The Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) within the US DOE has recently initiated the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which is designed to reduce industrial energy use and pollution by reducing the amount of waste materials generated. The Program's primary focus is to develop and commercialize waste reduction technologies and practices in conjunction with industrial partners. OIT recognizes that adoption of these technologies is often inhibited by an assortment of institutional barriers that are unrelated to technical or economic performance. Therefore, OIT is examining selected barriers to industrial waste reduction to help identify and remove impediments to wider technology implementation. This report examines the incentives and disincentives to industrial waste reduction that are provided in an assortment of legislation and regulations. The intent is to shed light on how our environmental laws affect industry's implementation of waste reduction, what particular problems exist with current legislation/regulations, and what general options are available for correcting any deficiencies. Our study was confined strictly to federal legislation and regulations. During the course of the study, (March and May 1991), we examined 16 pieces of existing legislation and their attendant regulations plus 22 pieces of proposed legislation. In addition, the authors consulted representatives from industry and from the government agencies administering or sponsoring the legislation. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is by far the most comprehensive and dominant piece of legislation affecting solid waste disposal. This is because RCRA, which governs, the management of both nonhazardous and hazardous waste, places the most restrictive requirements on industry. Other important pieces of legislation that exert a direct influence on waste reduction per se include the Clean Air Act and the Pollution Prevention Act. 90 refs., 12 tabs.

  9. Industrial wastes and public health: some historical notes, Part I, 1876-1932.

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, J A

    1985-01-01

    This article has focused on the relatively low priority accorded industrial wastes compared to human wastes by the public health community in the period from 1876 through 1932. The critical reason for this prioritization was the potential for acute health effects from human wastes as compared with the belief that industrial wastes had only indirect effects. State departments of health normally only responded to industrial wastes when they endangered the potable nature of water supplies or interfered with water and sewage treatment processes. Within the public health community, however, a relatively small group of interdisciplinary professionals argued for attention to the indirect health effects of industrial wastes and their impacts on the total stream environment. In conjunction with other groups interested in clean streams--such as sportsmen and manufacturers who required high quality process water--they pushed for a broader state legislative mandate in regard to pollution control. Some states created new bureaus or boards with responsibility for industrial wastes and the larger stream environment but the attack on industrial pollution remained limited in this period. The final significant development regarding industrial pollution and public health concerned the formulation by Streeter-Phelps of the Public Health Service of a theory of stream purification with a set of general quantitative indicators. This application was of particular importance in regard to the high-oxygen consuming nature of organic industrial wastes and the wide variety of effluents that existed. Industrial wastes constituted what Harvey Brooks, in his essay "Science Indicators and Science Priorities" calls a very "messy" research problem--one that does "not lend itself to elegant and widely applicable generalizations."(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images p1061-a p1061-b p1063-a p1065-a PMID:3895993

  10. Economic analysis of ethanol production from citrus peel waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5 million tons of wet peel waste per year. In current industrial practice, waste peels are dried and sold as cattle feed to offset the waste disposal cost. Profitability would be greatly improved if peel could be used to produce higher value produ...

  11. Economic analysis of ethanol production from citrus peel waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3-4 million tons of wet peel waste per year. In current industrial practices, waste peels are dried and sold as cattle feed to offset the waste disposal cost. Profitability could be greatly improved if this amount of peel can be used to produce high...

  12. Economic analysis of ethanol production from citrus peel waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5 million tons of wet peel waste per year. In current industrial practice, waste peels are dried and sold as cattle feed to offset the waste disposal cost. Profitability would be greatly improved if peels could be used to produce higher value produ...

  13. Management of old landfills by utilizing forest and energy industry waste flows.

    PubMed

    Niutanen, Ville; Korhonen, Jouni

    2002-05-01

    The lack of landfill capacity, forthcoming EU waste disposal and landfill management legislation and the use of non-renewable and energy intensive natural resources for the end-treatment of old landfills increase pressures to develop new landfill management methods. This paper considers a method for the end-management of old landfills in Finland, which is based on the utilization of forest and paper industry waste flows, wastes from paper recycling (de-inking) and wastes from forest industry energy production. Fibre clay wastes from paper mills, de-inking sludges from de-inking of recovered waste paper and incineration ash from forest industry power plants serve to substitute the use of natural clay for the building of landfill structures for closed landfills. Arguably, this method is preferable to existing practices of natural clay use for landfill building, because it (1) substitutes non-renewable natural clay, (2) consumes less energy and generates less CO2 emissions than the use of natural clay, and (3) eliminates considerable amounts of wastes from paper production, paper consumption and from forest industry energy production. Some difficulties in the application of the method are considered and the waste flow utilization is incorporated into a local forest industry recycling network.

  14. ESEEM of industrial silica-bearing powders: reactivity of defects during wet processing in the ceramics production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, Maurizio; Di Benedetto, Francesco; Fornaciai, Gabriele; Innocenti, Massimo; Montegrossi, Giordano; Pardi, Luca A.; Zoleo, Alfonso; Capacci, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    A study is undertaken to ascertain whether changes in the speciation of inorganic radicals are occurring during the ceramic industrial production that involves abundant silica powders as raw material. Industrial dusts were sampled in two ceramic firms, immediately after the wet mixing stage, performed with the aid of a relevant pressure. The dusts were then characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, analysis of the trace elements through chemical methods, granulometry, continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and pulsed electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies. The results of the characterisation point to a relevant change in the speciation of the two samples; namely, a prevailing contribution due to an inorganic radical different from that pertaining to pure quartz is pointed out. The combined interpretation of EPR and ESEEM data suggests the attribution of the main paramagnetic contribution to the A-centre in kaolinite, a constituent that is added to pure quartz at the initial stage of the ceramic production. In one of the two samples, a second weak EPR signal is attributed to the quartz's hAl species. By taking into account the relative quantities of quartz and kaolinite mixed in the two samples, and the relative abundances of the two radical species, we propose that the partial or complete suppression of the hAl species in favour of the A-centre of kaolinite has occurred. Although this change is apparently fostered by the mixture between quartz and another radical-bearing raw material, kaolinite, the suppression of the hAl centre of quartz is ascribed to the role played by the pressure and the wet environment during the industrial mixing procedure. This suppression provides a net change of radical speciation associated with quartz, when this phase is in contact with workers' respiratory system.

  15. Industrial waste materials and by-products as thermal energy storage (TES) materials: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Andrea; Miró, Laia; Gil, Antoni; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; Barreneche, Camila; Calvet, Nicolas; Py, Xavier; Fernández, A. Inés; Grágeda, Mario; Ushak, Svetlana; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of potential materials for thermal energy storage (TES) have been identify depending on the implemented TES method, Sensible, latent or thermochemical. In order to improve the efficiency of TES systems more alternatives are continuously being sought. In this regard, this paper presents the review of low cost heat storage materials focused mainly in two objectives: on the one hand, the implementation of improved heat storage devices based on new appropriate materials and, on the other hand, the valorisation of waste industrial materials will have strong environmental, economic and societal benefits such as reducing the landfilled waste amounts, reducing the greenhouse emissions and others. Different industrial and municipal waste materials and by products have been considered as potential TES materials and have been characterized as such. Asbestos containing wastes, fly ashes, by-products from the salt industry and from the metal industry, wastes from recycling steel process and from copper refining process and dross from the aluminium industry, and municipal wastes (glass and nylon) have been considered. This work shows a great revalorization of wastes and by-product opportunity as TES materials, although more studies are needed to achieve industrial deployment of the idea.

  16. Direct and indirect generation of waste in the Spanish paper industry.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Peñalver, Soraya María; Rodríguez Molina, Mercedes; Camacho Ballesta, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The paper industry has a relatively high degree of reliance on suppliers when compared to other industries. Exploring the role of the paper industry in terms of consumption of intermediate inputs from other industries may help to understand how the production of paper does not only generate waste by itself but also affects the amount of waste generated by other industries. The product Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a useful analytical tool to examine and assess environmental impacts over the entire life cycle of a product "from cradle to grave" but it is costly and time intensive. In contrast, Economic Input Output Life Cycle Assessment Models (IO-LCA) that combine LCA with Input-Output analysis (IO) are more accurate and less expensive, as they employ publicly available data. This paper represents one of the first Spanish studies aimed at estimating the waste generated in the production of paper by applying IO-LCA. One of the major benefits is the derivation of the contribution of direct and indirect suppliers to the paper industry. The results obtained show that there was no direct relationship between the impact on output and the impact on waste generation exerted by the paper industry. The major contributors to waste generation were the mining industry and the forestry industry.

  17. Treatment of high-strength industrial wastewater by wet air oxidation--A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.H.; Ho, S.J.

    1997-12-31

    Treatment of high concentration chemical wastewater obtained from a petrochemical company by wet air oxidation (WAO) is studied. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of the mixer speed, operating pressure, initial pH of wastewater and temperature on the pollutant (chemical oxygen demand or COD) removal. Both air and oxygen were tested to determine their respective effect on the COD removal. Results showed that over 50% of COD removal can be easily realized in an hour of WAO treatment. Also considered in the present study was the catalytic WAO treatment of the high concentration wastewater. Copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}), cobalt oxide (Co{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and zinc oxide (ZnO) were employed as the catalysts. The COD removal efficiency of the catalytic WAO process was found to vary significantly with the catalyst utilized with CuSO{sub 4} being the most effective.

  18. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  19. Use of waste ash from palm oil industry in concrete.

    PubMed

    Tangchirapat, Weerachart; Saeting, Tirasit; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Kiattikomol, Kraiwood; Siripanichgorn, Anek

    2007-01-01

    Palm oil fuel ash (POFA), a by-product from the palm oil industry, is disposed of as waste in landfills. In this study, POFA was utilized as a pozzolan in concrete. The original size POFA (termed OP) was ground until the median particle sizes were 15.9 microm (termed MP) and 7.4 microm (termed SP). Portland cement Type I was replaced by OP, MP, and SP of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% by weight of binder. The properties of concrete, such as setting time, compressive strength, and expansion due to magnesium sulfate attack were investigated. The results revealed that the use of POFA in concretes caused delay in both initial and final setting times, depending on the fineness and degree of replacement of POFA. The compressive strength of concrete containing OP was much lower than that of Portland cement Type I concrete. Thus, OP is not suitable to be used as a pozzolanic material in concrete. However, the replacement of Portland cement Type I by 10% of MP and 20% of SP gave the compressive strengths of concrete at 90 days higher than that of concrete made from Portland cement Type I. After being immersed in 5% of magnesium sulfate solution for 364 days, the concrete bar mixed with 30% of SP had the same expansion level as that of the concrete bar made from Portland cement Type V. The above results suggest that ground POFA is an excellent pozzolanic material and can be used as a cement replacement in concrete. It is recommended that the optimum replacement levels of Portland cement Type I by MP and SP are 20% and 30%, respectively.

  20. Valorization of rendering industry wastes and co-products for industrial chemicals, materials and energy: review.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Tizazu; Mussone, Paolo; Bressler, David

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, strong global demand for industrial chemicals, raw materials and energy has been driven by rapid industrialization and population growth across the world. In this context, long-term environmental sustainability demands the development of sustainable strategies of resource utilization. The agricultural sector is a major source of underutilized or low-value streams that accompany the production of food and other biomass commodities. Animal agriculture in particular constitutes a substantial portion of the overall agricultural sector, with wastes being generated along the supply chain of slaughtering, handling, catering and rendering. The recent emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) resulted in the elimination of most of the traditional uses of rendered animal meals such as blood meal, meat and bone meal (MBM) as animal feed with significant economic losses for the entire sector. The focus of this review is on the valorization progress achieved on converting protein feedstock into bio-based plastics, flocculants, surfactants and adhesives. The utilization of other rendering streams such as fat and ash rich biomass for the production of renewable fuels, solvents, drop-in chemicals, minerals and fertilizers is also critically reviewed.

  1. Burning of Hazardous Waste in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces - Federal Register Notice, September 30, 1992

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On August 27, 1991 (56 FR 42504) and August 25, 1992 (57 FR 38558), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published technical amendments, clarifications, and corrections to the final rule for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.

  2. The Effects of Industrial Wastes of Memphis and Shelby County on Primary Planktonic Producers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, R.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Diversity and total numbers of plankton, particularly diatoms, were analyzed and correlated with physical factors of water. Diversity index values appear to provide an indication of pollution of water by industrial and domestic wastes. (AL)

  3. Waste minimization in the poultry processing industry. Process and water quality aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, S.R.; Scott, S.; Davis, H.

    1989-11-09

    The poultry processing industry is a large, water intensive industry. In a typical week in Alabama up to 15 million birds are processed, and Arkansas, Georgia, and North Carolina have similar processing volumes. This presentation will focus on issues surrounding waste minimization in the live processing industry as well as provide a brief look at the prepared foods segment, mainly cooked chicken products. The case study also reviews water quality issues that require us to examine waste treatment in a new light. This information will also apply to other industries facing more stringent treatment requirements as a result of stiffer water quality regulations.

  4. ISO 14001 adoption and industrial waste generation: the case of Swedish manufacturing firms.

    PubMed

    Zobel, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Adoption of environmental management systems (EMSs) based on ISO 14001 has constituted one of the most important developments in sustainable industry management in recent years. Previous research on the impact of EMSs has relied heavily on corporate representatives' subjective perception of benefits. Moreover, studies tend to focus on the systems' impact on firms' overall environmental performance, not distinguishing between the differences in different environmental aspects. This study aims to contribute knowledge about the influence of certified EMSs on industrial waste generation based on objective industrial waste data derived from mandatory annual environmental reports. The study focuses on changes in waste generation over a period of 12 years and includes both ISO 14001-certified firms (66 firms) and non-certified firms (50 firms). Consideration is given to the improvement efforts in the firms before EMS adoption. Analysis has been carried out using statistical methods for three different industrial waste parameters: hazardous waste, waste to landfill and the total amounts of waste. The results indicate that the certified EMSs have no statistically significant effect on any of the three waste parameters.

  5. Waste reduction possibilities for manufacturing systems in the industry 4.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamás, P.; Illés, B.; Dobos, P.

    2016-11-01

    The industry 4.0 creates some new possibilities for the manufacturing companies’ waste reduction for example by appearance of the cyber physical systems and the big data concept and spreading the „Internet of things (IoT)”. This paper presents in details the fourth industrial revolutions’ more important achievements and tools. In addition there will be also numerous new research directions in connection with the waste reduction possibilities of the manufacturing systems outlined.

  6. Development of the Monolith Froth Reactor for Catalytic Wet Oxidation of CELSS Model Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Martin; Fisher, John W.

    1995-01-01

    The aqueous phase oxidation of acetic acid, used as a model compound for the treatment of CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System) waste, was carried out in the monolith froth reactor which utilizes two-phase flow in the monolith channels. The catalytic oxidation of acetic acid was carried out over a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst, prepared at The University of Tulsa, at temperatures and pressures below the critical point of water. The effect of externally controllable parameters (temperature, liquid flow rate, distributor plate orifice size, pitch, and catalyst distance from the distributor plate) on the rate of acetic acid oxidation was investigated. Results indicate reaction rate increased with increasing temperature and exhibited a maximum with respect to liquid flow rate. The apparent activation energy calculated from reaction rate data was 99.7 kJ/mol. This value is similar to values reported for the oxidation of acetic acid in other systems and is comparable to intrinsic values calculated for oxidation reactions. The kinetic data were modeled using simple power law kinetics. The effect of "froth" feed system characteristics was also investigated. Results indicate that the reaction rate exhibits a maximum with respect to distributor plate orifice size, pitch, and catalyst distance from the distributor plate. Fundamental results obtained were used to extrapolate where the complete removal of acetic acid would be obtained and for the design and operation of a full scale CELSS treatment system.

  7. Development of the Monolith Froth Reactor for Catalytic Wet Oxidation of CELSS Model Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Abraham, Martin

    1993-01-01

    The aqueous phase oxidation of acetic acid, used as a model compound for the treatment of CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System) waste, was carried out in the monolith froth reactor which utilizes two-phase flow in the monolith channels. The catalytic oxidation of acetic acid was carried out over a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst at temperatures and pressures below the critical point of water. The effect of externally controllable parameters (temperature, liquid flow rate, distributor plate orifice size, pitch, and catalyst distance from the distributor plate) on the rate of acetic acid oxidation was investigated. Results indicate reaction rate increased with increasing temperature and exhibited a maximum with respect to liquid flow rate. The apparent activation energy calculated from reaction rate data was 99.7 kJ/mol. This value is similar to values reported for the oxidation of acetic acid in other systems and is comparable to intrinsic values calculated for oxidation reactions. The kinetic data were modeled using simple power law kinetics. The effect of "froth" feed system characteristics was also investigated. Results indicate that the reaction rate exhibits a maximum with respect to distributor plate orifice size, pitch, and catalyst distance from the distributor plate. Fundamental results obtained were used to extrapolate where the complete removal of acetic acid would be obtained and for the design and operation of a full scale CELSS treatment system.

  8. Utilization and recycling of industrial magnesite refractory waste material for removal of certain radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Morcos, T.N.; Tadrous, N.A.; Borai, E.H.

    2007-07-01

    Increased industrialization over the last years in Egypt has resulted in an increased and uncontrolled generation of industrial hazardous waste. The current lack of management of the solid waste in Egypt has created a situation where large parts of the land (especially industrial areas) are covered by un-planned dumps of industrial wastes. Consequently, in the present work, industrial magnesite waste produced in large quantities after production process of magnesium sulfate in Zinc Misr factory, Egypt, was tried to be recycled. Firstly, this material has been characterized applying different analytical techniques such as infrared spectroscopy (IR), surface analyzer (BET), particle size distribution (PSD), elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The magnesite material has been used as a source of producing aluminum, chromium, and magnesium oxides that has better chemical stability than conventional metal oxides. Secondly, utilization of magnesite material for removal of certain radionuclides was applied. Different factors affecting the removal capability such as pH, contacting time, metal concentration, particle size were systematically investigated. The overall objective was aimed at determining feasible and economic solution to the environmental problems related to re-use of the industrial solid waste for radioactive waste management. (authors)

  9. Siting of a metals industry landfill on abandoned soda ash waste beds

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldo-Lee, M.B.; Diffendorf, A.F.; Hagarman, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    A recent application by a steel-manufacturing plant to obtain a permit for an industrial landfill on abandoned soda ash waste beds near the city of Syracuse, New York, resulted in an extensive hydrogeologic and geochemical investigation. This investigation was initiated because of (1) previous disposal of waste by the metal manufacturer at this site and (2) the unique location of the landfill on top of preexisting waste beds on the shores of Onondaga Lake. The results of groundwater monitoring over a one-year period indicate no detectable chromium from the metal-waste leachate escaping through the soda ash wastes. Retention ofhexavalent chromium within the underlying highly alkaline soda ash wastes by adsorption, reduction, and precipitation suggests a viable means for in situ treatment of several metals-manufacturing waste products.

  10. Sustainable waste management in the Indian mining industry.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, V P; Shekdar, A V

    2005-08-01

    One of the important sectors that contribute to the national economy is the mining sector. During the mining of minerals and ores, waste materials in the form of overburden are generated. As these are not useful to the mine owners, they may be inappropriately disposed of into the environment, posing serious threat to the environment in the form of land degradation, water and air pollution. The present paper discusses the existing status of waste generation, its characteristics and the disposal methods being adopted in India. Impacts associated with waste disposal practices together with preventive measures for waste disposal are also discussed. Finally, strategies for improvements in existing waste management and for incorporating the same in the overall development plan for the mines are suggested.

  11. 40 CFR 60.2680 - What if I do not use a wet scrubber to comply with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units that... not use a wet scrubber, fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction... reduction, fabric filter, or an electrostatic precipitator or limit emissions in some other...

  12. Identifying potential environmental impacts of waste handling strategies in textile industry.

    PubMed

    Yacout, Dalia M M; Hassouna, M S

    2016-08-01

    Waste management is a successful instrument to minimize generated waste and improve environmental conditions. In spite of the large share of developing countries in the textile industry, limited information is available concerning the waste management strategies implemented for textiles on those countries and their environmental impacts. In the current study, two waste management approaches for hazardous solid waste treatment of acrylic fibers (landfill and incineration) were investigated. The main research questions were: What are the different impacts of each waste management strategy? Which waste management strategy is more ecofriendly? Life cycle assessment was employed in order to model the environmental impacts of each waste streaming approach separately then compare them together. Results revealed that incineration was the more ecofriendly approach. Highest impacts of both approaches were on ecotoxicity and carcinogenic potentials due to release of metals from pigment wastes. Landfill had an impact of 46.8 % on human health as compared to 28 % by incineration. Incineration impact on ecosystem quality was higher than landfill impact (68.4 and 51.3 %, respectively). As for resources category, incineration had a higher impact than landfill (3.5 and 2.0 %, respectively). Those impacts could be mitigated if state-of-the-art landfill or incinerator were used and could be reduced by applying waste to energy approaches for both management systems In conclusion, shifting waste treatment from landfill to incineration would decrease the overall environmental impacts and allow energy recovery. The potential of waste to energy approach by incineration with heat recovery could be considered in further studies. Future research is needed in order to assess the implementation of waste management systems and the preferable waste management strategies in the textile industry on developing countries.

  13. Heterogeneous catalytic wet peroxide oxidation systems for the treatment of an industrial pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Melero, J A; Martínez, F; Botas, J A; Molina, R; Pariente, M I

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the treatment of wastewater coming from a pharmaceutical plant through a continuous heterogeneous catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) process using an Fe(2)O(3)/SBA-15 nanocomposite catalyst. This catalyst was preliminary tested in a batch stirred tank reactor (STR), to elucidate the influence of significant parameters on the oxidation system, such as temperature, initial oxidant concentration and initial pH of the reaction medium. In that case, a temperature of 80 degrees C using an initial oxidant concentration corresponding to twice the theoretical stoichiometric amount for complete carbon depletion and initial pH of ca. 3 allow TOC degradation of around 50% after 200 min of contact time. Thereafter, the powder catalyst was extruded with bentonite to prepare pellets that could be used in a fixed bed reactor (FBR). Results in the up-flow FBR indicate that the catalyst shows high activity in terms of TOC mineralization (ca. 60% under steady-state conditions), with an excellent use of the oxidant and high stability of the supported iron species. The activity of the catalyst is kept constant, at least, for 55h of reaction. Furthermore, the BOD(5)/COD ratio is increased from 0.20 to 0.30, whereas the average oxidation stage (AOS) changed from 0.70 to 2.35. These two parameters show a high oxidation degree of organic compounds in the outlet effluent, which enhances its biodegradability, and favours the possibility of a subsequent coupling with a conventional biological treatment.

  14. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery - Potential Applications, Available Technologies and Crosscutting R&D Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Thekdi, Arvind; Nimbalkar, Sachin U.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to explore key areas and characteristics of industrial waste heat and its generation, barriers to waste heat recovery and use, and potential research and development (R&D) opportunities. The report also provides an overview of technologies and systems currently available for waste heat recovery and discusses the issues or barriers for each. Also included is information on emerging technologies under development or at various stages of demonstrations, and R&D opportunities cross-walked by various temperature ranges, technology areas, and energy-intensive process industries.

  15. Construction waste management based on industrial management models: a Swedish case study.

    PubMed

    Stenis, Jan

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes a methodology for estimating the true internal costs of construction waste, aimed at promoting environmentally friendly waste management. The study employs cost-benefit analysis, contribution margin analysis, the polluter-pays principle and a mathematical model: the model for Efficient Use of Resources for Optimal Production Economy (EUROPE), which has been introduced previously by the author for assigning industrial costs to waste. The calculations are performed on construction waste created in a case study of a building project. Moreover, waste is regarded as, in a business sense, having the same basic status as any normal industrial product, namely the 'equality principle'. Application of the methodology is suggested to create incentives for environmental and profitability improvement in construction companies and other types of industrial sectors. The results of the case study show the generation of construction waste to substantially decrease the final operating income, due to the internal shadow price cost it creates. This paper is intended to reduce the gap between the choice of waste management procedures and their economic impact, the overall objective being to accomplish an improved industrial environmental situation.

  16. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Waste recycling in the textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile abstracts). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of fibrous and other waste materials from textile production. Citations discuss recycled materials such as cellulosic and polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, cottons, wools, and waste dusts for use in fabric products, building materials, thermal insulation, textile-reinforced materials, and geotextiles. Equipment for collecting, sorting, and processing textile wastes is also discussed. Citations concerning heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are covered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trebilcox, G. J.; Lundberg, W. L.

    1981-03-01

    The canning segment of the food processing industry is a major energy user within that industry. Most of its energy demand is met by hot water and steam and those fluids, in addition to product cooling water, eventually flow from the processes as warm waste water. To minimize the possibility of product contamination, a large percentage of that waste water is sent directly to factory drains and sewer systems without being recycled and in many cases the thermal energy contained by the waste streams also goes unreclaimed and is lost from further use. Waste heat recovery in canning facilities can be performed economically using systems that employ thermal energy storage (TES). A project was proposed in which a demonstration waste heat recovery system, including a TES feature, would be designed, installed and operated.

  3. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization.

    PubMed

    Izmirlioglu, Gulten; Demirci, Ali

    2015-10-15

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium components on ethanol production was evaluated. Yeast extract, malt extract, and MgSO₄·7H₂O showed significantly positive effects, whereas KH₂PO₄ and CaCl₂·2H₂O had a significantly negative effect (p-value<0.05). Using response surface methodology, a medium consisting of 40.4 g/L (dry basis) industrial waste potato, 50 g/L malt extract, and 4.84 g/L MgSO₄·7H₂O was found optimal and yielded 24.6 g/L ethanol at 30 °C, 150 rpm, and 48 h of fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that industrial potato waste can be used effectively to enhance bioethanol production.

  4. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Izmirlioglu, Gulten; Demirci, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium components on ethanol production was evaluated. Yeast extract, malt extract, and MgSO4·7H2O showed significantly positive effects, whereas KH2PO4 and CaCl2·2H2O had a significantly negative effect (p-value < 0.05). Using response surface methodology, a medium consisting of 40.4 g/L (dry basis) industrial waste potato, 50 g/L malt extract, and 4.84 g/L MgSO4·7H2O was found optimal and yielded 24.6 g/L ethanol at 30 °C, 150 rpm, and 48 h of fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that industrial potato waste can be used effectively to enhance bioethanol production. PMID:26501261

  5. Biopolymers production with carbon source from the wastes of a beer brewery industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Phoeby Ai Ling

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the potential and feasibility of malt wastes, and other food wastes, such as soy wastes, ice-cream wastes, confectionery wastes, vinegar wastes, milk waste and sesame oil, in the induction of biosynthesis of PHA, in the cellular assembly of novel PHA with improved physical and chemical properties, and in the reduction of the cost of PHA production. In the first part of the experiments, a specific culture of Alcaligenes latus DSM 1124 was selected to ferment several types of food wastes as carbon sources into biopolymers. In addition, the biopolymer production, by way of using malt waste, of microorganisms from municipal activated sludge was also investigated. In the second part, the experiments focused on the synthesis of biopolymer with a higher molecular mass via the bacterial strain, which was selected and isolated from sesame oil, identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis . Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of PHB were studied by GPC. Molecular weight of PHB produced from various types of food wastes by Alcaligenes latus was higher than using synthetic sucrose medium as nutrient, however, it resulted in the reverse by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Thermal properties of biopolymers were studied by DSC and TG. Using malt wastes as nutrients by Alcaligenes latus gave a higher melting temperature. Using sucrose, confectionery and sesame oil as nutrients by Staphylococcus epidermidis gave higher melting temperature. Optimization was carried out for the recovery of microbial PHB from Alcaligenes latus. Results showed that molecular weight can be controlled by changing the hypochlorite concentration, the ratio of chloroform to hypochlorite solution and the extraction time. In addition, the determination of PHB content by thermogravimetric analysis method with wet cell was the first report in our study. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Investigation on an innovative technology for wet separation of plastic wastes.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Emanuela; Moroni, Monica; La Marca, Floriana; Fulco, Simone; Pinzi, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an original device for the separation of plastic polymers from mixtures. Due to the combination of a characteristic flow pattern developing within the apparatus and density, shape and size differences among two or more polymers, this device allows their separation into two products, one collected within the instrument and the other one expelled through its outlet ducts. Experimental tests have been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the apparatus, using two geometric arrangements, nine hydraulic configurations and three selections of polymers at three stages of a material life cycle. Tests with samples composed of a single typology of polymer have been used to understand the interaction between the particles and the carrying fluid within the apparatus in different hydraulic configurations and geometric arrangements. Multi-material tests are essential to simulate the real conditions in an industrial recycling plant. The separation results have been evaluated in terms of grade and recovery of a useful material. Under the proper hydraulic configurations, the experimentation showed that it is possible to produce an almost pure concentrate of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) from a mixture of 85% PET and 15% Polycarbonate (PC) (concentrate grade and recovery equal to 99.5% and 95.1%) and a mixture of 85% PET and 15% Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) (concentrate grade and recovery equal to 97.9% and 100.0%). It is further demonstrated that almost pure concentrates of PVC and PC can be produced from a mixture of 85% PVC and 15% PC (PVC grade and recovery equal to 99.9% and 99.7%) and a mixture of 85% PC and 15% PVC (PC grade and recovery equal to 99.0% and 99.5%).

  7. Benefits of supplementing an industrial waste anaerobic digester with energy crops for increased biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Nges, Ivo Achu; Escobar, Federico; Fu Xinmei; Bjoernsson, Lovisa

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study demonstrates the feasibility of co-digestion food industrial waste with energy crops. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laboratory batch co-digestion led to improved methane yield and carbon to nitrogen ratio as compared to mono-digestion of industrial waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion was also seen as a means of degrading energy crops with nutrients addition as crops are poor in nutrients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was concluded that co-digestion led an over all economically viable process and ensured a constant supply of feedstock. - Abstract: Currently, there is increasing competition for waste as feedstock for the growing number of biogas plants. This has led to fluctuation in feedstock supply and biogas plants being operated below maximum capacity. The feasibility of supplementing a protein/lipid-rich industrial waste (pig manure, slaughterhouse waste, food processing and poultry waste) mesophilic anaerobic digester with carbohydrate-rich energy crops (hemp, maize and triticale) was therefore studied in laboratory scale batch and continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with a view to scale-up to a commercial biogas process. Co-digesting industrial waste and crops led to significant improvement in methane yield per ton of feedstock and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as compared to digestion of the industrial waste alone. Biogas production from crops in combination with industrial waste also avoids the need for micronutrients normally required in crop digestion. The batch co-digestion methane yields were used to predict co-digestion methane yield in full scale operation. This was done based on the ratio of methane yields observed for laboratory batch and CSTR experiments compared to full scale CSTR digestion of industrial waste. The economy of crop-based biogas

  8. Environmental justice implications of industrial hazardous waste generation in India: a national scale analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Pratyusha; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2016-12-01

    While rising air and water pollution have become issues of widespread public concern in India, the relationship between spatial distribution of environmental pollution and social disadvantage has received less attention. This lack of attention becomes particularly relevant in the context of industrial pollution, as India continues to pursue industrial development policies without sufficient regard to its adverse social impacts. This letter examines industrial pollution in India from an environmental justice (EJ) perspective by presenting a national scale study of social inequities in the distribution of industrial hazardous waste generation. Our analysis connects district-level data from the 2009 National Inventory of Hazardous Waste Generating Industries with variables representing urbanization, social disadvantage, and socioeconomic status from the 2011 Census of India. Our results indicate that more urbanized and densely populated districts with a higher proportion of socially and economically disadvantaged residents are significantly more likely to generate hazardous waste. The quantity of hazardous waste generated is significantly higher in more urbanized but sparsely populated districts with a higher proportion of economically disadvantaged households, after accounting for other relevant explanatory factors such as literacy and social disadvantage. These findings underscore the growing need to incorporate EJ considerations in future industrial development and waste management in India.

  9. Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry with special respect to hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Thomanetz, Erwin

    2012-04-01

    Cements with good technical properties have been produced in Europe since the nineteenth century and are now worldwide standardized high-quality mass products with enormous production numbers. The basic component for cement is the so-called clinker which is produced mainly from raw meal (limestone plus clay plus sands) in a rotary kiln with preheater and progressively with integrated calciner, at temperatures up to 1450 °C. This process requires large amounts of fossil fuels and is CO₂-intensive. But most CO₂ is released by lime decomposition during the burning process. In the 1980s the use of alternative fuels began--firstly in the form of used oil and waste tyres and then increasingly by pre-conditioned materials from commercial waste and from high calorific industrial waste (i.e. solid recovered fuel (SRF))--as well as organic hazardous waste materials such as solvents, pre-conditioned with sawdust. Therefore the cement industry is more and more a competitor in the waste-to-energy market--be it for municipal waste or for hazardous waste, especially concerning waste incineration, but also for other co-incineration plants. There are still no binding EU rules identifying which types of SRF or hazardous waste could be incinerated in cement kilns, but there are some well-made country-specific 'positive lists', for example in Switzerland and Austria. Thus, for proper planning in the cement industry as well as in the waste management field, waste disposal routes should be considered properly, in order to avoid surplus capacities on one side and shortage on the other.

  10. National economic models of industrial water use and waste treatment. [technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. G.; Calloway, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of air emission and solid waste restrictions on production costs and resource use by industry is investigated. A linear program is developed to analyze how resource use, production cost, and waste discharges in different types of production may be affected by resource limiting policies of the government. The method is applied to modeling ethylene and ammonia plants at the design stage. Results show that the effects of increasingly restrictive wastewater effluent standards on increased energy use were small in both plants. Plant models were developed for other industries and the program estimated effects of wastewater discharge policies on production costs of industry.

  11. Biorefinery approach for cassava-based industrial wastes: Current status and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Xie, Li; Yin, Zhixuan; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Zhou, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Cassava, an important food crop, has been extensively employed as raw materials for various agri-industries to produce starch, bioethanol and other biobased products/chemicals. These cassava-based industries also generate large quantities of wastes/residues, rich in organic matter and suspended solids, and pose significant environmental issues. Their complex biochemical composition with high organic content endows them with a great potential for bioconversion into value-added products via biorefinery thereby providing economic and environmental sustainability to cassava industries. This state-of-the-art review covers the source, composition and characteristics of cassava industrial wastes and residues, and their bioconversion into value-added products, mainly biofuels (ethanol and butanol), biogas, biosurfactant, organic acids and other valuable biochemicals among others. This paper also outlines future perspectives with respect to developing more effective and efficient bioconversion processes for converting the cassava wastes and residues into high-value products.

  12. Characterization and thermal behaviour of textile waste from the industrial city of Aleppo in Syria.

    PubMed

    Majanny, Abdulkader; Nassour, Abdallah; Gose, Sven; Scholz, Reinhard; Nelles, Michael

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the present waste management practices in the industrial city Alsheikh Najjar of Aleppo, mainly with regard to textile waste materials, and provides some insights into future prospects. As a first exploration for energy recovery from textile waste materials, the thermal behaviour of seven different types of textile waste were studied by thermogravimetry. There were assorted differential thermogravimetry peaks found over a particular range of temperatures. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out to identify the pyrolysis products such as gas, liquid, and solid residues known as char. In a subsequent analysis, the combustion behaviour of textile waste was determined and analysed. Typical parameters - reaction front velocity, ignition rate - were considered for the evaluation of the combustion behaviour and the results were compared with values observed for waste wood.

  13. Solid anaerobic digestion batch with liquid digestate recirculation and wet anaerobic digestion of organic waste: Comparison of system performances and identification of microbial guilds.

    PubMed

    Di Maria, Francesco; Barratta, Martino; Bianconi, Francesco; Placidi, Pisana; Passeri, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Solid anaerobic digestion batch (SADB) with liquid digestate recirculation and wet anaerobic digestion of organic waste were experimentally investigated. SADB was operated at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 4.55kgVS/m(3)day, generating about 252NL CH4/kgVS, whereas the wet digester was operated at an OLR of 0.9kgVS/m(3)day, generating about 320NL CH4/kgVS. The initial total volatile fatty acids concentrations for SADB and wet digestion were about 12,500mg/L and 4500mg/L, respectively. There were higher concentrations of ammonium and COD for the SADB compared to the wet one. The genomic analysis performed by high throughput sequencing returned a number of sequences for each sample ranging from 110,619 to 373,307. More than 93% were assigned to the Bacteria domain. Seven and nine major phyla were sequenced for the SADB and wet digestion, respectively, with Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria being the dominant phyla in both digesters. Taxonomic profiles suggested a methanogenic pathway characterized by a relevant syntrophic acetate-oxidizing metabolism mainly in the liquid digestate of the SADB. This result also confirms the benefits of liquid digestate recirculation for improving the efficiency of AD performed with high solids (>30%w/w) content.

  14. Management approaches to integrated solid waste in industrialized zones in Jordan: A case of Zarqa City

    SciTech Connect

    Mrayyan, Bassam; Hamdi, Moshrik R. . E-mail: moshrik@hu.edu.jo

    2006-07-01

    There is a need to recognize the difficulties experienced in managing waste and to understand the reasons for those difficulties, especially in developing countries such as Jordan. Zarqa is a Governorate located in central Jordan, which has 2874 registered industries, making up more than 52% of the total industries in the country. Zarqa Governorate suffers from serious solid waste problems. These problems arise from an absence of adequate policies, facilitating legislation, and an environmentally enthused public, which therefore have a negative impact on the environment and health. Solid waste generation in Zarqa Governorate has increased exponentially and has polluted natural resources and the environment. A significant change in municipal solid waste generation was evident between the years 1994 and 2000. The Zarqa Governorate generated 482 tons/day in 2002 with a per capita rate of 0.44 kg/cap-day [Consulting Engineers, 2002, Feasibility study for the treatment of industrial wastewater in Zarqa Governorate. A project funded by METAP and Zarqa Chamber of Industry. Unpublished report]. This manuscript assesses the current operational and management practices of solid waste in the Zarqa Governorate; and evaluates the associated issues of solid waste collection, storage, transport, disposal and recycling in developing countries. The lack of techniques, financial funds and awareness among public and private sectors form an obstacle for achieving a successful environmental program. Several options are proposed to address management goals. Although Jordan became the first country in the Middle East to adopt a national environmental strategy; waste disposal is still largely uncontrolled and large quantities of waste go uncollected. Ensuring proper management of solid wastes, enforcing regulations, and implementing proper environmental awareness programs that will enhance the public understanding and achieve greater efficiency, are the findings of this study.

  15. Development of sustainable waste management toward zero landfill waste for the petrochemical industry in Thailand using a comprehensive 3R methodology: A case study.

    PubMed

    Usapein, Parnuwat; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable waste management was introduced more than ten years ago, but it has not yet been applied to the Thai petrochemical industry. Therefore, under the philosophy of sustainable waste management, this research aims to apply the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R) concept at the petrochemical factory level to achieve a more sustainable industrial solid waste management system. Three olefin plants in Thailand were surveyed for the case study. The sources and types of waste and existing waste management options were identified. The results indicate that there are four sources of waste generation: (1) production, (2) maintenance, (3) waste treatment, and (4) waste packaging, which correspond to 45.18%, 36.71%, 9.73%, and 8.37% of the waste generated, respectively. From the survey, 59 different types of industrial wastes were generated from the different factory activities. The proposed 3R options could reduce the amount of landfill waste to 79.01% of the amount produced during the survey period; this reduction would occur over a period of 2 years and would result in reduced disposal costs and reduced consumption of natural resources. This study could be used as an example of an improved waste management system in the petrochemical industry.

  16. Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry.

    PubMed

    Crudu, Marian; Deselnicu, Viorica; Deselnicu, Dana Corina; Albu, Luminita

    2014-10-01

    The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77°C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning.

  17. Utilization of industrial dairy waste as microalgae cultivation medium : a potential study for sustainable energy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurmayani, S.; Sugiarti, Y.; Putra, R. H.

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae is one of biodiesel resources and call as third generation biofuel. Biodiesel is one alternative energy that being developed. So study about resource of biodiesel need a development, for the example is development the basic material such as microalgae. In this paper we explain the potential use of dairy waste from industry as a cultivation medium of microalgae for biodiesel production. Dairy waste from dairy industry contains 34.98% protein, 4.42% lactose, 9.77% fiber, 11.04% fat, 2.33% calcium, 1.05% phosfor, and 0.4 % magnesium, meaning that the dairy waste from dairy industry has a relatively high nutrient content and complete from a source of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus as macro nutrients. The method in this paper is literature review to resulting a new conclusion about the potency of waste water from dairy industry as microalgae cultivation medium. Based on the study, the dairy waste from dairy industry has potency to be used as cultivation medium of Botryococcus braunii in the production of biodiesel, replacing the conventional cultivation medium.

  18. Management of solid wastes in the iron and steel industry

    SciTech Connect

    El-Gohary, F.; El-khouly, M.S.

    1983-03-01

    Wastes from a local iron and steel factory operations are agglomeration of iron ore and sintering, pig iron manufacture, steel making, rolling mill operations, and pickling. Liquid slag, produced in the blast furnace, is granulated in water and used as a concrete additive. Other wastes are directed separately to sedimentation tanks. The settleable solids are reused, and the treated effluents are pumped to a cooling tower for recycling. As a result of the new manufacturing expansion, existing waste treatment facilities are not adequate, and it was found necessary to provide additional treatment techniques. Departmental, as well as composite wastes were treated using plain sedimentation, centrifugal sedimentation, or chemical coagulation, or a combination of these methods. The results obtained showed that the use of the hydrocyclone for solid-liquid separation is much more efficient than plain sedimentation. When this process was followed by coagulation, very promising results were obtained. The use of pickling liquor as a coagulant gave comparable results with alum and ferric chloride.

  19. Chemical durability of glasses obtained by vitrification of industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Pisciella, P; Crisucci, S; Karamanov, A; Pelino, M

    2001-01-01

    The vitrification of zinc-hydrometallurgy wastes, electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), drainage mud, and granite mud was shown to immobilize the hazardous components in these wastes. Batch compositions were prepared by mixing the wastes with glass-cullet and sand to force the final glass composition into the glass forming region of the SiO2-Fe2O3-(CaO, MgO) system. The vitrification was carried out in the 1400-1450 degrees C temperature range followed by quenching in water or on stainless steel mold. The United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) toxic characterization leaching procedure (TCLP) test was used as a standard method for evaluating the leachability of the elements in the glasses and glass-ceramics samples made with different percentages of wastes. The results for EAFD glasses highlighted that the chemical stability is influenced by the glass structure formed, which, in turn, depends on the Si/O ratio in the glass. The chemical durability of jarosite glasses and glass-ceramics was evaluated by 24 h contact in NaOH, HCl and Na2CO3, at 95 degrees C. Jarosite glass-ceramics containing pyroxene (J40) are more durable than the parent glass in HCl. Jarosite glass-ceramics containing magnetite type spinels (J50) have a durability similar to the parent glass and even lower in HCl because the magnetite is soluble in HCl.

  20. Toxicological Evaluation of Complex Industrial Wastes: Implications for Exposure Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    to hazardous waste (8- 10]. The liver was a primary target organ in mice exposed subchronically to Love Canal soil [11 ]. Thus, we have evaluated the...1984) Subchronic effects of mice to Love Canal soil contaminants. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 4, 231-239. 12 Kier. L.D.. Brunsick. D.J.. Auletta. A.E

  1. Modern technologies of waste utilization from industrial tire production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimov, Yusuf; Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    The innovative technology of waste tire production recovery from JSC "Nizhnekamskshina", which determines the possibility of obtaining a new type of composite material in the form fiber filled rubber compound (FFRC) as the raw material, production of rubber products with high technical and operational characteristics.

  2. Tobacco industry responsibility for butts: a Model Tobacco Waste Act

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Clifton; Novotny, Thomas E; Lee, Kelley; Freiberg, Mike; McLaughlin, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other postconsumer products from tobacco use are the most common waste elements picked up worldwide each year during environmental cleanups. Under the environmental principle of Extended Producer Responsibility, tobacco product manufacturers may be held responsible for collection, transport, processing and safe disposal of tobacco product waste (TPW). Legislation has been applied to other toxic and hazardous postconsumer waste products such as paints, pesticide containers and unused pharmaceuticals, to reduce, prevent and mitigate their environmental impacts. Additional product stewardship (PS) requirements may be necessary for other stakeholders and beneficiaries of tobacco product sales and use, especially suppliers, retailers and consumers, in order to ensure effective TPW reduction. This report describes how a Model Tobacco Waste Act may be adopted by national and subnational jurisdictions to address the environmental impacts of TPW. Such a law will also reduce tobacco use and its health consequences by raising attention to the environmental hazards of TPW, increasing the price of tobacco products, and reducing the number of tobacco product retailers. PMID:26931480

  3. Characterizing the genotoxicity of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents using short-term bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Houk, V.S.; DeMarini, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. Petrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile and dye effluents. However, there is little information on effluents from pesticide manufacturers. The most extensive evaluations have been conducted on effluents from pulp and paper mills. These studies have shown which pulping plants generate the most genotoxic effluents, which process wastes are most hazardous, have isolated and identified the compounds responsible for the genotoxic activity, have described the environmental fate of these compounds, have evaluated the types of genetic damage likely to occur upon exposure to the effluents, and have identified several treatment methods that effectively reduce the genotoxicity of the effluents. The coupling of bioassays for biological analysis with chemical evaluation provides the most powerful approach to assessing the overall health effects of complex industrial wastes and effluents.

  4. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Dougall, James

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  5. Analysis of the stability of high-solids anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, E; Esteban-Gutiérrez, M; Sancho, L

    2013-09-01

    The pilot-scale high-solids anaerobic digestion (HS-AD) of agro-industrial wastes and sewage sludge was analysed in terms of stability by monitoring the most common parameters used to check the performance of anaerobic digesters, i.e. Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA), ammonia nitrogen, pH, alkalinity and methane production. The results reflected similar evolution for the parameters analysed, except for an experiment that presented an unsuccessful start-up. The rest of the experiments ran successfully, although the threshold values proposed in the literature for the detection of an imbalance in wet processes were exceeded, proving the versatility of HS-AD to treat different wastes. The results evidence the need for understanding the dynamics of a high-solids system so as to detect periods of imbalance and to determine inhibitory levels for different compounds formed during anaerobic decomposition. Moreover, the findings presented here could be useful in developing an experimental basis to construct new control strategies for HS-AD.

  6. Application of advanced oxidation processes for cleaning of industrial water generated in wet dedusting of shaft furnace gases.

    PubMed

    Czaplicka, Marianna; Kurowski, Ryszard; Jaworek, Katarzyna; Bratek, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents results of studies into advanced oxidation processes in 03 and 03/UV systems. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) was conducted to reduce the load of impurities in circulating waters from wet de-dusting of shaft furnace gases. Besides inorganic impurities, i.e. mainly arsenic compounds (16 g As L(-1) on average), lead, zinc, chlorides and sulphates, the waters also contain some organic material. The organic material is composed of a complex mixture that contains, amongst others, aliphatic compounds, phenol and its derivatives, pyridine bases, including pyridine, and its derivatives. The test results show degradation of organic and inorganic compounds during ozonation and photo-oxidation processes. Analysis of the solutions from the processes demonstrated that the complex organic material in the industrial water was oxidized in ozonation and in photo-oxidation, which resulted in formation of aldehydes and carboxylic acids. Kinetic degradation of selected pollutants is presented. Obtained results indicated that the O3/UV process is more effective in degradation of organic matter than ozonation. Depending on the process type, precipitation of the solid phase was observed. The efficiency of solid-phase formation was higher in photo-oxidation with ozone. It was found that the precipitated solid phase is composed mainly of arsenic, iron and oxygen.

  7. Solid waste generation from oil and gas industries in United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Elshorbagy, Walid; Alkamali, Abdulqader

    2005-04-11

    Solid wastes generated from oil and gas industrial activities are very diverse in their characteristics, large in their amounts and many of which are hazardous in nature. Thus, quantifying and characterizing the generated amounts in association with their types, classes, sources, industrial activities, and their chemical and biological characteristics is an obvious mandate when evaluating the possible management practices. This paper discusses the types, amounts, generation units, and the factors related to solid waste generation from a major oil and gas field in the United Arab Emirates (Asab Field). The generated amounts are calculated based on a 1-year data collection survey and using a database software specially developed and customized for the current study. The average annual amount of total solid waste generated in the studied field is estimated at 4061 t. Such amount is found equivalent to 650 kg/capita, 0.37 kg/barrel oil, and 1.6 kg/m3 of extracted gas. The average annual amount of hazardous solid waste is estimated at 55 t and most of which (73%) is found to be generated from gas extraction-related activities. The majority of other industrial non-hazardous solid waste is generated from oil production-related activities (41%), The present analysis does also provide the estimated generation amounts per waste type and class, amounts of combustible, recyclable, and compostable wastes, and the amounts dumped in uncontrolled way as well as disposed into special hazardous landfill facilities. The results should help the decision makers in evaluating the best alternatives available to manage the solid wastes generated from the oil and gas industries.

  8. Waste heat recovery: Textile industry. (Latest citations from World Textile Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning descriptions and evaluations of waste heat recovery operations used in the textile industry. Heat recovery and utilization from wastewater streams, flue gas, finishing processes, dyeing operations, and air jet systems are presented. The use of waste heat for space heating and process preheating is considered. (Contains a minimum of 162 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  10. Industrial Waste Management Evaluation Model Version 3.1

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    IWEM is a screening level ground water model designed to simulate contaminant fate and transport. IWEM v3.1 is the latest version of the IWEM software, which includes additional tools to evaluate the beneficial use of industrial materials

  11. Application of reutilization technology to waste from liquid crystal display (LCD) industry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei T; Li, Kung C

    2010-01-01

    This investigation studies the recycling utility of two major waste products from the liquid crystal display (LCD) industry, panel glass and calcium fluoride sludge, which remain after the treatment of waste water. Waste panel glass was mixed with calcium fluoride sludge in various ratios and then subject to conditioning and melting treatment in order to yield glass-ceramics. Heavy metal leaching tests indicated that reductive conditions lowered the heavy metal concentrations in the leachate to an order of magnitude below that in the waste glass and sludge. A 5:5 (wt%) mixture of glass and sludge melted at 1200 degrees C for 60 min achieves a specific gravity, water absorption, unit mass, porosity ratio, and soundness that meet the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard for fine aggregates. Therefore, waste panel glass can indeed be efficiently recycled into a useful construction material.

  12. Binational management of hazardous waste: The maquiladora industry at the US-Mexico border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Diane M.; Sanchez, Roberto; Glaze, William H.; Mazari, Marisa

    1990-07-01

    Foreign-owned industry in the form of assembly plants, termed maquiladora, has become very important in Mexico to the extent that it represents the second largest source of foreign exchange and is a valuable source for employment and regional development. The economic prosperity gained from the rapid growth of the maquiladora industry has been accompanied by increased environmental and human health risks associated with generation of hazardous waste. Diversification of industry has resulted in the predomination of those sectors that likely use hazardous substances. The Mexicali-Calexico border region was selected to demonstrate the potential for environmental and health risks associated with the generation of hazardous waste. Estimates for the generation of hazardous waste were obtained from 34 maquiladora plants in Mexicali, represented by the electronic and electrical equipment and parts, mechanical and transportation equipment, and toys and sporting equipment sectors. Repeated detection of volatile organic compounds in the New River at the US-Mexico border suggests that hazardous waste from the printed circuit board industry in Mexicali is not being disposed of in a proper manner. Potential adverse health effects, such as carcinogenic and mutagenic responses associated with the detected volatiles, are discussed. US and Mexico national legislation and the Binational Environmental Agreement were examined for their adequacy to ensure proper management of hazardous waste generated by the maquiladora industry. Environmental policy options are presented that focus on: (1) increased environmental accountability of US parent companies for their maquiladora assembly plants in Mexico; and (2) more integration between US Customs and border states with the US Environmental Protection Agency to improve the binational management of hazardous waste generated by the maquiladora industry.

  13. Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in industrial zones, case study of Shahroud, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in Shahroud industrial zone, evaluates the results and determine possible performance problems. This cross - sectional study was carried out for 4 years in Shahroud industrial zone and the implementation process included:1- Qualitative and quantitative analysis of all solid waste generated in the city, 2- determine the current state of solid waste management in the zone and to identify programs conducted, 3- Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern including design and implementation of training programs, laws, penalties and incentives and explain and implement programs for all factories and 4- The monitoring of the implementation process and determine the results. Results Annually, 1,728 tons of solid wastes generated in the town including 1603 tons of industrial wastes and 125 tons of municipal wastes. By implementing this pattern, the two separated systems of collection and recycling of domestic and industrial wastes was launched in this zone. Also consistent with the goals, the amount of solid wastes generated and disposed in 2009 was 51.5 and 28.6 kg per 100 million Rials production, respectively. Conclusion Results showed that implementation of pattern of separated collection, training programs, capacity building, providing technical services, completing chain of industries and strengthening the cooperation between industrial estate management and industrial units could greatly reduce the waste management problems. PMID:24423020

  14. Bioconversion of herbal industry waste into vermicompost using an epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Mamta; Kumar, Sudhir; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh; Ravikanth, K

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of bioconversion of industrial herbal waste to vermicompost using Eudrilus eugeniae. Vermibeds were made using a mixture of herbal waste and cowdung (1 : 1) in comparison with the use of cowdung alone as substrate, resulting in vermicomposts 1 and 2, respectively. Different parameters were studied and it was observed that the nutrient profile of vermicompost 1 strongly influenced the growth of pea (Pisum sativum) and marigold plant (Tagetus erectus). The dry and fresh weight of shoots and roots, number of flowers, total yield in terms of fruit showed significant increase with vermicompost 1. Furthermore, vermicompost 1 (herbal waste and cow dung as substrate) resulted in a significant reduction in TOC by 58% in comparison with vermicompost 2 (cowdung as substrate). The C : N ratio was less than 20 in vermicompost 1 as well as in vermicompost 2, which indicated an advanced degree of stabilization and mineralization. The ability of earthworms to survive, grow and breed in the vermibed fed with the herbal waste indicates the sustainability and efficiency of a heterogeneous kind of organic waste. The results of the study suggested that bulk industrial herbal waste can be utilized as a substrate for vermicomposting and this can be proposed as an alternative for waste disposal in a clean green manner, promoting the concept of organic farming.

  15. Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

    1997-07-01

    This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

  16. Developments in ethanol production from citrus peel waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each year, the Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5~5.0 million tons of wet peel waste, which are currently dried and sold as cattle feed, often at a loss, to dispose of the waste residual. Profitability would be greatly improved if the peel waste could be used to produce higher value pr...

  17. Study of Material Used in Nanotechnology for the Recycling of Industrial Waste Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larbi, L.; Fertikh, N.; Toubal, A.

    The objective of our study is to recycle the industrial waste water of a industrial Complex after treatment by the bioprocess MBR (membrane bioreactor). In order to apply this bioprocess, the water quality in question was first of all studied. To characterize this industrial waste water, a series of physicochemical analysis was carried out according to standardized directives and methods. Following-up the water quality to meet the regulatory requirements with rejection of this industrial waste water, a study was done thanks to the permanently monitoring of the following relevant parameters(P): the flow, the potential of hydrogen (pH), the total suspended solids(TSS), the turbidity (Turb), the chemical oxygen demand (COD),the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), the Kjeldahl total nitrogen (KTN) and ammonia (NH4+), the total phosphorus (Ptot), the fluorine (F), the oils (O), the fats (F) and the phenols (Ph). According to collected information, it was established the sampling rates to which the quality control was done, the selected analytical methods were validated by the control charts and the analysis test number was determined by the Cochran test. The results of the quality control show that some rejected water contents are not in the Algerian standards, but, in our case, the objective is the preoccupation for a standard setting of these industrial water parameters so as to recycle it. The process adopted by MBR for waste water treatment is being studied, first in the development of the experimental characterizing of the reactor and the selected membrane.

  18. Application of poultry processing industry waste: a strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Pontes Filho, Roberto Albuquerque; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

    2015-02-01

    The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1 = control 0 kg ha(-1); D2 = 1020.41 kg ha(-1); D3 = 2040.82 kg ha(-1); D4 = 4081.63 kg ha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5 cm for the waste amount of 1625 kg ha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20 cm for the waste amount of 3814.3 kg ha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth

  19. Packaging waste recycling in Europe: is the industry paying for it?

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Nuno Ferreira; Ferreira, Sandra; Cabral, Marta; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes and examines the schemes established in five EU countries for the recycling of packaging waste. The changes in packaging waste management were mainly implemented since the Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste entered into force. The analysis of the five systems allowed the authors to identify very different approaches to cope with the same problem: meet the recovery and recycling targets imposed by EU law. Packaging waste is a responsibility of the industry. However, local governments are generally in charge of waste management, particularly in countries with Green Dot schemes or similar extended producer responsibility systems. This leads to the need of establishing a system of financial transfers between the industry and the local governments (particularly regarding the extra costs involved with selective collection and sorting). Using the same methodological approach, the authors also compare the costs and benefits of recycling from the perspective of local public authorities for France, Portugal and Romania. Since the purpose of the current paper is to take note of who is paying for the incremental costs of recycling and whether the industry (i.e. the consumer) is paying for the net financial costs of packaging waste management, environmental impacts are not included in the analysis. The work carried out in this paper highlights some aspects that are prone to be improved and raises several questions that will require further research. In the three countries analyzed more closely in this paper the industry is not paying the net financial cost of packaging waste management. In fact, if the savings attained by diverting packaging waste from other treatment (e.g. landfilling) and the public subsidies to the investment on the "recycling system" are not considered, it seems that the industry should increase the financial support to local authorities (by 125% in France, 50% in Portugal and 170% in Romania). However, in France and

  20. Packaging waste recycling in Europe: Is the industry paying for it?

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira da Cruz, Nuno Ferreira, Sandra; Cabral, Marta; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • We study the recycling schemes of France, Germany, Portugal, Romania and the UK. • The costs and benefits of recycling are compared for France, Portugal and Romania. • The balance of costs and benefits depend on the perspective (strictly financial/economic). • Financial supports to local authorities ought to promote cost-efficiency. - Abstract: This paper describes and examines the schemes established in five EU countries for the recycling of packaging waste. The changes in packaging waste management were mainly implemented since the Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste entered into force. The analysis of the five systems allowed the authors to identify very different approaches to cope with the same problem: meet the recovery and recycling targets imposed by EU law. Packaging waste is a responsibility of the industry. However, local governments are generally in charge of waste management, particularly in countries with Green Dot schemes or similar extended producer responsibility systems. This leads to the need of establishing a system of financial transfers between the industry and the local governments (particularly regarding the extra costs involved with selective collection and sorting). Using the same methodological approach, the authors also compare the costs and benefits of recycling from the perspective of local public authorities for France, Portugal and Romania. Since the purpose of the current paper is to take note of who is paying for the incremental costs of recycling and whether the industry (i.e. the consumer) is paying for the net financial costs of packaging waste management, environmental impacts are not included in the analysis. The work carried out in this paper highlights some aspects that are prone to be improved and raises several questions that will require further research. In the three countries analyzed more closely in this paper the industry is not paying the net financial cost of packaging waste

  1. Health care industries: potential generators of genotoxic waste.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pratibha; Kumar, Manish; Mathur, N; Singh, A; Bhatnagar, P; Sogani, M

    2013-08-01

    Health care waste includes all the waste generated by health care establishments, research facilities, and laboratories. This constitutes a variety of chemical substances, such as pharmaceuticals, radionuclides, solvents, and disinfectants. Recently, scientists and environmentalists have discovered that wastewater produced by hospitals possesses toxic properties due to various toxic chemicals and pharmaceuticals capable of causing environmental impacts and even lethal effects to organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Many of these compounds resist normal wastewater treatment and end up in surface waters. Besides aquatic organisms, humans can be exposed through drinking water produced from contaminated surface water. Indeed, some of the substances found in wastewaters are genotoxic and are suspected to be potential contributors to certain cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of wastewaters from two hospitals and three clinical diagnostic centers located in Jaipur (Rajasthan State), India using the prokaryotic Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames assay) and the eukaryotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae respiration inhibition assay. In the Ames assay, untreated wastewaters from both of the health care sectors resulted in significantly increased numbers of revertant colonies up to 1,000-4,050 as measured by the Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains (with and without metabolic activation) after exposure to undiluted samples, which indicated the highly genotoxic nature of these wastewaters. Furthermore, both hospital and diagnostic samples were found to be highly cytotoxic. Effective concentrations at which 20 % (EC20) and 50 % (EC50) inhibition of the respiration rate of the cells occurred ranged between ~0.00 and 0.52 % and between 0.005 and 41.30 % (calculated with the help of the MS excel software XLSTAT 2012.1.01; Addinsoft), respectively, as determined by the S. cerevisiae assay. The results indicated that hospital

  2. Heat-exchanger needs for recovering waste heat in the glass-making industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, R.L.; Kulkarni, A.K.

    1983-02-01

    The state of the art of waste heat recovery technology in the glass-making industry is assessed. Fouling and corrosion glass furnace regenerators are reviewed. Heat recovery from the exhaust gases leaving the brick checkers regenerator of a soda lime glass furnace is addressed. Research and development needs that will advance the use of secondary heat recovery in the glass industry are identified. (LEW)

  3. Industrial hazardous waste management in Turkey: current state of the field and primary challenges.

    PubMed

    Salihoglu, Güray

    2010-05-15

    A holistic evaluation of a country's hazardous waste management (HWM) practices is useful in identifying the necessary actions to focus on. Based on an analysis of industrial hazardous waste (HW) generation in Turkey, this paper attempts to critically evaluate and report current Turkish HWM practices and discuss the primary challenges to be addressed. The generation of industrial HW for Turkey reported in 2004 was 1.195 million tons, which accounted for 7% of the total industrial solid waste (ISW) generated by the manufacturing industry, and for nearly 4.9% of the total solid waste generated in the country. The HW generated by the top five manufacturing product categories--basic metals, chemicals and chemical products, food and beverages, coke and refined petroleum, motor vehicles and trailers--accounted for 89.0% of total industrial HW. 21% of the HW generated in 2004 was recycled or reused, and 6% was sold or donated, whereas 73% was sent to ultimate disposal. 67% of the HW sent to ultimate disposal was disposed of at municipal landfills. The total capacity of the existing regional HW facilities is 212,500 tons/year, which accounts for about 24% of the HW to be disposed. Turkey has identified the HW problem in the country and enacted legislation, designated a lead agency, and promulgated rules and regulations. Several new initiatives are planned for improving HW management nationally; however, some HWM problems will be persistent due to previous and existing industrial development plans. These development policies led to the concentration of industry in regions marked by precious agricultural fields and high population density. This occurred because the government previously exhibited a default prioritization towards industrial development, leading to insufficient implementation of regulations on HW generators. Some of the problems may also be rooted in other countries that allow illegal trans boundary HW movements despite international regulations.

  4. Heat pump concepts for industrial use of waste heat

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, H.P.

    1981-05-01

    Heat pump systems for recovering waste heat are considered. To compare different cycles on a consistent basis, a definition of performance based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics is presented. A high-grade heat-actuated cycle that uses a steam ejector is analyzed, but no substantial development effort is anticipated for implementing heat pumps of this type. Three residual-heat-actuated-heat pumps are analyzed. A turbine-compressor heat pump is presented that can attain relatively high delivery temperatures (approximately 120 to 130/sup 0/C from a source at 60/sup 0/C. The other two residual-heat-actuated concepts presented are absorption heat pumps. One operates on a closed cycle and the other on an open cycle. Delivery temperatures on the order of 115 10 130/sup 0/C with a 60/sup 0/C source are possible, provided that advanced heat/mass transfer configurations are developed. The open-cycle concept is an interesting possibility for heat recovery. It can, in principle, operate with lower waste heat temperatures than a closed cycle, and during the heating season it may provide both process and space heat.

  5. Utilization of biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste: Energy, economic and environmental effects.

    PubMed

    Hublin, Andrea; Schneider, Daniel Rolph; Džodan, Janko

    2014-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste is of significant interest in order to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Using of material and energy potentials of agro-industrial waste, in the framework of technical, economic, and ecological possibilities, contributes in increasing the share of energy generated from renewable energy sources. The paper deals with the benefits arising from the utilization of biogas produced by co-digestion of whey and cow manure. The advantages of this process are the profitability of the plant and the convenience in realizing an anaerobic digestion plant to produce biogas that is enabled by the benefits from the sale of electric energy at favorable prices. Economic aspects are related to the capital cost (€ 2,250,000) of anaerobic digestion treatment in a biogas plant with a 300 kW power and 510 kW heating unit in a medium size farm (450 livestock units). Considering the optimum biogas yield of 20.7 dm(3) kg(-1) of wet substrate and methane content in the biogas obtained of 79%, the anaerobic process results in a daily methane production of 2,500 kg, with the maximum power generation of 2,160,000 kWh y(-1) and heat generation of 2,400,000 kWh y(-1) The net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period for implementation of profitable anaerobic digestion process is evaluated. Ecological aspects related to carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission reduction are assessed.

  6. Isolation and Screening of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Producing Bacteria from Pulp, Paper, and Cardboard Industry Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Bhuwal, Anish Kumari; Singh, Gulab; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Goyal, Varsha; Yadav, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are storage materials that accumulate by various bacteria as energy and carbon reserve materials. They are biodegradable, environmentally friendly, and also biocompatible bioplastics. Unlike petrochemical-based plastics that take several decades to fully degrade, PHAs can be completely degraded within a year by variety of microorganisms into CO2 and water. In the present study, we aim to utilize pulp, paper, and cardboard industry sludge and waste water for the isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) accumulating bacteria and production of cost-effective PHB using cardboard industry waste water. Results. A total of 42 isolates showed black-blue coloration when stained with Sudan black B, a preliminary screening agent for lipophilic compounds, and a total of 15 isolates showed positive result with Nile blue A staining, a more specific dye for PHA granules. The isolates NAP11 and NAC1 showed maximum PHA production 79.27% and 77.63% with polymer concentration of 5.236 g/L and 4.042 g/L with cardboard industry waste water. Both of the selected isolates, NAP11 and NAC1, were classified up to genus level by studying their morphological and biochemical characteristics and were found to be Enterococcus sp., Brevundimonas sp. and, respectively. Conclusion. The isolates Enterococcus sp. NAP11 and Brevundimonas sp. NAC1 can be considered as good candidates for industrial production of PHB from cardboard industry waste water. We are reporting for the first time the use of cardboard industry waste water as a cultivation medium for the PHB production. PMID:24288534

  7. Isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates producing bacteria from pulp, paper, and cardboard industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Bhuwal, Anish Kumari; Singh, Gulab; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Goyal, Varsha; Yadav, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are storage materials that accumulate by various bacteria as energy and carbon reserve materials. They are biodegradable, environmentally friendly, and also biocompatible bioplastics. Unlike petrochemical-based plastics that take several decades to fully degrade, PHAs can be completely degraded within a year by variety of microorganisms into CO2 and water. In the present study, we aim to utilize pulp, paper, and cardboard industry sludge and waste water for the isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) accumulating bacteria and production of cost-effective PHB using cardboard industry waste water. Results. A total of 42 isolates showed black-blue coloration when stained with Sudan black B, a preliminary screening agent for lipophilic compounds, and a total of 15 isolates showed positive result with Nile blue A staining, a more specific dye for PHA granules. The isolates NAP11 and NAC1 showed maximum PHA production 79.27% and 77.63% with polymer concentration of 5.236 g/L and 4.042 g/L with cardboard industry waste water. Both of the selected isolates, NAP11 and NAC1, were classified up to genus level by studying their morphological and biochemical characteristics and were found to be Enterococcus sp., Brevundimonas sp. and, respectively. Conclusion. The isolates Enterococcus sp. NAP11 and Brevundimonas sp. NAC1 can be considered as good candidates for industrial production of PHB from cardboard industry waste water. We are reporting for the first time the use of cardboard industry waste water as a cultivation medium for the PHB production.

  8. Grand Rounds: An Outbreak of Toxic Hepatitis among Industrial Waste Disposal Workers

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Eun A; Choi, Jung-Keun; Choi, Sung-Bong; Suh, Jeong-Ill; Choi, Dae Seob; Kim, Jung Ran

    2007-01-01

    Context Industrial waste (which is composed of various toxic chemicals), changes to the disposal process, and addition of chemicals should all be monitored and controlled carefully in the industrial waste industry to reduce the health hazard to workers. Case presentation Five workers in an industrial waste plant developed acute toxic hepatitis, one of whom died after 3 months due to fulminant hepatitis. In the plant, we detected several chemicals with hepatotoxic potential, including pyridine, dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, and methylenedianiline. The workers had been working in the high-vapor-generating area of the plant, and the findings of pathologic examination showed typical features of acute toxic hepatitis. Discussion Infectious hepatitis and drug-induced hepatitis were excluded by laboratory findings, as well as the clinical course of hepatitis. All cases of toxic hepatitis in this plant developed after the change of the disposal process to thermochemical reaction–type treatment using unslaked lime reacted with industrial wastes. During this chemical reaction, vapor containing several toxic materials was generated. Although we could not confirm the definitive causative chemical, we suspect that these cases of hepatitis were caused by one of the hepatotoxic agents or by a synergistic interaction among several of them. Relevance to clinical or professional practice In the industrial waste treatment process, the danger of developing toxic hepatitis should be kept in mind, because any subtle change of the treatment process can generate various toxic materials and threaten the workers’ health. A mixture of hepatotoxic chemicals can induce clinical manifestations that are quite different from those predicted by the toxic property of a single agent. PMID:17366828

  9. Ternary liquid-liquid equilibria for the phenolic compounds extraction from artificial textile industrial waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fardhyanti, Dewi Selvia; Prasetiawan, Haniif; Hermawan, Sari, Lelita Sakina

    2017-03-01

    Liquid waste in textile industry contains large amounts of dyes and chemicals which are capable of harming the environment and human health. It is due to liquid waste characteristics which have high BOD, COD, temperature, dissolved and suspended solid. One of chemical compound which might be harmful for environment when disposed in high concentration is phenol. Currently, Phenol compound in textile industrial waste has reached 10 ppm meanwhile maximum allowable phenol concentration is not more than 0.2 ppm. Otherwise, Phenol also has economic value as feedstock of plastic, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Furthermore, suitable method to separate phenol from waste water is needed. In this research, liquid - liquid extraction method was used with extraction time for 70 minutes. Waste water sample was then separated into two layers which are extract and raffinate. Thereafter, extract and raffinate were then tested by using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer to obtained liquid - liquid equilibrium data. Aim of this research is to study the effect of temperature, stirring speed and type of solvent to obtain distribution coefficient (Kd), phenol yield and correlation of Three-Suffix Margules model for the liquid - liquid extraction data equilibrium. The highest extraction yield at 80.43 % was found by using 70% methanol as solvent at extraction temperature 50 °C with stirring speed 300 rpm, coefficient distribution was found 216.334. From this research it can be concluded that Three-Suffix Margules Model is suitable to predict liquid - liquid equilibrium data for phenol system.

  10. Simultaneous utilization of soju industrial waste for silica production and its residue ash as effective cationic dye adsorbent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soju industrial waste is an important biomass resource. The present study is aimed to utilize soju industrial waste for silica extraction, and residual ash as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution. High percentage of pure amorphous nanosilica was obtained ...

  11. 26 CFR 17.1 - Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste disposal facilities; temporary rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste disposal facilities; temporary rules. 17.1 Section 17.1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... UNDER 26 U.S.C. 103(c) § 17.1 Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste...

  12. 26 CFR 17.1 - Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste disposal facilities; temporary rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste disposal facilities; temporary rules. 17.1 Section 17.1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... UNDER 26 U.S.C. 103(c) § 17.1 Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste...

  13. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

    2006-04-01

    United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and

  14. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment. PMID:21711877

  15. Review of thermo-physical properties, wetting and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids and their applicability in industrial quench heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Gopalan; Prabhu, Narayan Kotekar

    2011-04-14

    The success of quenching process during industrial heat treatment mainly depends on the heat transfer characteristics of the quenching medium. In the case of quenching, the scope for redesigning the system or operational parameters for enhancing the heat transfer is very much limited and the emphasis should be on designing quench media with enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Recent studies on nanofluids have shown that these fluids offer improved wetting and heat transfer characteristics. Further water-based nanofluids are environment friendly as compared to mineral oil quench media. These potential advantages have led to the development of nanofluid-based quench media for heat treatment practices. In this article, thermo-physical properties, wetting and boiling heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids are reviewed and discussed. The unique thermal and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids would be extremely useful for exploiting them as quench media for industrial heat treatment.

  16. Waste water treatment: Chemical industry. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wastewater treatment of industrial pollutants. The use and effectiveness of biological treatments and carbon additives are examined. References also discuss problems and recommendations for the removal of mercury and its compounds, fertilizers, and pesticides from polluted waste water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. 40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.66 Section 270.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.66 Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous... fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements...

  18. 40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.66 Section 270.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.66 Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous... fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements...

  19. 40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.66 Section 270.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.66 Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous... fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements...

  20. 40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.66 Section 270.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.66 Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous... fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements...

  1. 40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.66 Section 270.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.66 Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous... fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements...

  2. Defusing the Toxics Threat: Controlling Pesticides and Industrial Waste. Worldwatch Paper 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postel, Sandra

    The use of pesticides in agriculture and the discarding of industrial chemical waste into the air, soil, and water constitute two major pathways of human exposure to toxic substances. It is argued that these practices release hundreds of millions of tons of potentially hazardous substances into the environment each year. Speculation continues into…

  3. Catalyst for Desulfurization of Industrial Waste Gases and Process for Preparing the Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Dupin, T.

    1983-12-27

    Industrial waste gases containing objectionable/polluting compounds of sulfur, e.g., H/sub 2/S, SO/sub 2/ and such organo-sulfur derivatives as COS, CS/sub 2/ and mercaptans, are catalytically desulfurized, e.g., by Claus process, employing an improved catalyst comprising titanium dioxide and calcium, barium, strontium or magnesium sulfate.

  4. Industrial Safety. MAS-123. Waste Isolation Division (WID). Management and Supervisor Training (MAST) Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.

    This learning module, which is part of a management and supervisor training program for managers and supervisors employed at the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Division, is designed to prepare trainees to promote and monitor the industrial safety program at their plant. The following topics are covered in the module's individual sections:…

  5. Co-digestion of mixed industrial sludge with municipal solid wastes in anaerobic simulated landfilling bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Ağdağ, Osman Nuri; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2007-02-09

    In this study, the feasibility of the anaerobic co-digestion of a mixed industrial sludge with municipal solid wastes (MSW) was investigated in three simulated anaerobic landfilling bioreactors during a 150-day period. All of the reactors were operated with leachate recirculation. One of them was loaded only with MSW (control reactor); the second reactor was loaded with mixed industrial sludge and MSW, the weight ratio of the MSW to mixed industrial sludge was 1:1 (based on dry solid) (Run 1); the third reactor was loaded with mixed industrial sludge and MSW, the weight ratio of the MSW to mixed industrial sludge was 1:2 (based on dry solid) (Run 2). The VFA concentrations decreased significantly in Run 1 and Run 2 reactors at the end of 150 days. The pH values were higher in Run 1 and Run 2 reactors compared to control reactor. The differences between leachate characteristics, the biodegradation and the bioefficiency of the reactors were compared. The NH(4)-N concentrations released to leachate from mixed sludge in Run 1 and Run 2 reactors were lower than that of control reactor. The BOD(5)/COD ratios in Run 1 and Run 2 reactors were lower than that of control reactor at the end of 150 days. Cumulative methane gas productions and methane percentages were higher in Run 1 and Run 2 reactors. Reductions in waste quantity, carbon percentage and settlement of the waste were better in Run 1 and Run 2 reactors compared to control reactor at the end of 150 days. Furthermore, TN and TP removals in waste were higher in reactors containing industrial sludge compared to control. The toxicity test results showed that toxicity was observed in reactors containing industrial mixed sludge.

  6. New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 5. Analysis of solid waste impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Boldt, K.; Davis, H.; Delaney, B.; Grundahl, N.; Hyde, R.; Malloch, R.; Tusa, W.

    1980-09-01

    This study provides an analysis of the impacts of emission controls on disposal of solid wastes from coal-fired industrial boilers. Examination is made of boiler systems, coal types, emission control alternatives, waste streams, waste disposal and utilization alternatives, and pertinent Federal regulations. Twenty-four representative model case scenarios are studied in detail. Expected disposal/utilization alternatives and disposal costs are developed. Comparison of the systems studied indicates that the most cost-effective SO/sub 2/ control technologies from the perspective of waste disposal cost per unit SO/sub 2/ control are, in decreasing order: physically cleaned coal/double alkali combination; double alkali; lime/limestone; spray drying; fluidized-bed combustion; and sodium throwaway.

  7. Prediction of unconfined compressive strength of cement paste containing industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Stegemann, J A; Buenfeld, N R

    2003-01-01

    Neural network analysis was used to construct models of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) as a function of mix composition using existing data from literature studies of Portland cement containing real industrial wastes. The models were able to represent the known non-linear dependency of UCS on curing time and water content, and generalised from the literature data to find relationships between UCS and quantities of five waste types. Substantial decreases in UCS were caused by all wastes; except for EAF dust, the effect was nonlinear with the greatest decrease caused initially by approx. 12% plating sludge, 40% foundry dust, 58% other ash, and 72% MSWI fly ash by mass of dry product. It appears that the maximum waste additions used in modelling may approximate the practical limits of waste additions used in modelling may approximate the practical limits of waste addition to Portland cement, i.e., 50% plating sludge or EAF dust, 64% foundry dust, 92% other ash, and 85% MSWI fly ash by mass of dry product. The laboratory was found to be a key predictive variable and acted as a surrogate for laboratory-specific variables related to cement composition, strength and hardening class, product mixing and preparation details, laboratory conditions, and testing details. While the neural network modelling approach has been shown to be feasible, development of better models would require larger data sets with more complete information regarding laboratory-specific variables and waste composition.

  8. Solid recovered fuel production from biodegradable waste in grain processing industry.

    PubMed

    Kliopova, Irina; Staniskis, Jurgis Kazimieras; Petraskiene, Violeta

    2013-04-01

    Management of biodegradable waste is one of the most important environmental problems in the grain-processing industry since this waste cannot be dumped anymore due to legal requirements. Biodegradable waste is generated in each stage of grain processing, including the waste-water and air emissions treatment processes. Their management causes some environmental and financial problems. The majority of Lithuanian grain-processing enterprises own and operate composting sites, but in Lithuania the demand for compost is not given. This study focused on the analysis of the possibility of using biodegradable waste for the production of solid recovered fuel, as a local renewable fuel with the purpose of increasing environmental performance and decreasing the direct costs of grain processing. Experimental research with regard to a pilot grain-processing plant has proven that alternative fuel production will lead to minimizing of the volume of biodegradable waste by 75% and the volume of natural gas for heat energy production by 62%. Environmental indicators of grain processing, laboratory analysis of the chemical and physical characteristics of biodegradable waste, mass and energy balances of the solid recovered fuel production, environmental and economical benefits of the project are presented and discussed herein.

  9. Greening Industrial Production through Waste Recovery: "Comprehensive Utilization of Resources" in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junming; Chertow, Marian R

    2016-03-01

    Using nonhazardous wastes as inputs to production creates environmental benefits by avoiding disposal impacts, mitigating manufacturing impacts, and conserving virgin resources. China has incentivized reuse since the 1980s through the "Comprehensive Utilization of Resources (CUR)" policy. To test whether and to what extent environmental benefits are generated, 862 instances in Jiangsu, China are analyzed, representing eight industrial sectors and 25 products that qualified for tax relief through CUR. Benefits are determined by comparing life cycle inventories for the same product from baseline and CUR-certified production, adjusted for any difference in the use phase. More than 50 million tonnes of solid wastes were reused, equivalent to 51% of the provincial industrial total. Benefits included reduction of 161 petajoules of energy, 23 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent, 75 000 tonnes of SO2 equivalent, 33 000 tonnes of NOX, and 28 000 tonnes of PM10 equivalent, which were 2.5%-7.3% of the provincial industrial consumption and emissions. The benefits vary substantially across industries, among products within the same industry, and when comparing alternative reuse processes for the same waste. This first assessment of CUR results shows that CUR has established a firm foundation for a circular economy, but also suggest additional opportunities to refine incentives under CUR to increase environmental gain.

  10. Isolation of a biodegradable sterol-rich fraction from industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Dias, A C P; Fernandes, P; Cabral, J M S; Pinheiro, H M

    2002-05-01

    Several industrial waste materials were screened for their sterol content. The possibility of using these industrial by-products as sterol sources for the microbiological production of 4-androsten-3,17-dione (AD) and 1,4-androsta-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) was investigated. Two methods of obtaining the sterol fraction from wastes were developed. Sterol-rich (96-98%) fractions were isolated in a yield above 70%, from a tall-oil effluent of a paper pulp industry and from edible-oil deodorizates. These fractions were subsequently used as a substrate for microbial degradation by a Mycobacterium sp. strain and proved to be easily converted to AD and ADD.

  11. Nitrogen Sources Screening for Ethanol Production Using Carob Industrial Wastes.

    PubMed

    Raposo, S; Constantino, A; Rodrigues, F; Rodrigues, B; Lima-Costa, M E

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, bioethanol production is one of the most important technologies by the necessity to identify alternative energy resources, principally when based on inexpensive renewable resources. However, the costs of 2nd-generation bioethanol production using current biotechnologies are still high compared to fossil fuels. The feasibility of bioethanol production, by obtaining high yields and concentrations of ethanol, using low-cost medium, is the primary goal, leading the research done today. Batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of high-density sugar from carob residues with different organic (yeast extract, peptone, urea) and inorganic nitrogen sources (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate) was performed for evaluating a cost-effective ethanol production, with high ethanol yield and productivity. In STR batch fermentation, urea has proved to be a very promising nitrogen source in large-scale production of bioethanol, reaching an ethanol yield of 44 % (w/w), close to theoretical maximum yield value and an ethanol production of 115 g/l. Urea at 3 g/l as nitrogen source could be an economical alternative with a great advantage in the sustainability of ethanol production from carbohydrates extracted from carob. Simulation studies, with experimental data using SuperPro Design software, have shown that the bioethanol production biorefinery from carob wastes could be a very promising way to the valorization of an endogenous resource, with a competitive cost.

  12. POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MINIMIZING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN THE VCM-PVC INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In many U.S. companies, pollution prevention strategies coincide with economic interests. Typically a company strives to be the lowest-cost producer, to be competitive, and to reduce wastes. In this paper, the author reviews pollution prevention strategies in the vinyl chloride m...

  13. Silicon carbide recovered from photovoltaic industry waste as photocatalysts for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Hu, Yu; Zeng, Hongmei; Zhong, Lin; Liu, Kewei; Cao, Hongmei; Li, Wei; Yan, Hongjian

    2017-01-18

    In recent years, the focus on creating a dependable and efficient means to recycle or recover the valuable parts from the waste material has drawn significantly attention as an environmentally friendly way to deal with the industrial wastes. The silicon carbide (SiC) crystalline is one of reusable material in the slurry wastes generated during wafer slicing. Here we report the use of recovered SiC from the slurry wastes as photocatalysts to produce hydrogen in the presence of Na2SO3-Na2S as electron donor. The recovered SiC were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra (XPS), UV-vis (UV-vis) spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The morphology of SiC loaded with 1wt% Pt as cocatalyst by thermal-reduction method was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental results reveal that the recovered SiC is mainly consist of 3C-SiC, 6H-SiC and some silicon oxycarbides on the surface of the SiC. The highest hydrogen production rate is 191.8μmolh(-1)g(-1). This study provides a way to recycle crystalline SiC from the discharged waste in the photovoltaic industry and reuse it as photocatalyst to yield hydrogen with the advantage of low energy consumption, low pollution and easy operation.

  14. Food waste in the Swiss food service industry - Magnitude and potential for reduction.

    PubMed

    Betz, Alexandra; Buchli, Jürg; Göbel, Christine; Müller, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Food losses occur across the whole food supply chain. They have negative effects on the economy and the environment, and they are not justifiable from an ethical point of view. The food service industry was identified by Beretta et al. (2013) as the third largest source of food waste based on food input at each stage of the value added chain. The total losses are estimated 18% of the food input, the avoidable losses 13.5%. However, these estimations are related with considerable uncertainty. To get more reliable and detailed data of food losses in this sector, the waste from two companies (in the education and business sectors) was classified into four categories (storage losses, preparation losses, serving losses, and plate waste) and seven food classes and measured for a period of five days. A questionnaire evaluated customer reaction, and a material flow analysis was used to describe the mass and monetary losses within the process chain. The study found that in company A (education sector) 10.73% and in company B (business sector) 7.69% of the mass of all food delivered was wasted during the process chain. From this, 91.98% of the waste in company A and 78.14% in company B were classified as avoidable. The highest proportion of waste occurred from serving losses with starch accompaniments and vegetables being the most frequently wasted items. The quantities of waste per meal were 91.23 g (value CHF 0.74) and 85.86 g (value CHF 0.44) for company A and company B, respectively. The annual loss averaged 10.47 tonnes (value CHF 85,047) in company A and 16.55 tonnes (value CHF 85,169) in company B. The customer survey showed that 15.79% (n=356) of the respondents in company A and 18.32% (n=382) in company B produced plate waste. The main causes of plate waste cited were 'portion served by staff too large' and 'lack of hunger'. Sustainable measures need to be implemented in the food service industry to reduce food waste and to improve efficiency.

  15. The use of commercial and industrial waste in energy recovery systems - A UK preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Lupa, Christopher J.; Ricketts, Lois J.; Sweetman, Andy; Herbert, Ben M.J.

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Commercial and industrial waste samples collected. > Samples analysed for calorific value, moisture, ash and elemental composition. > Values similar to those of municipal solid waste and refuse derived fuel. > Sampled waste could be used in current energy recovery systems with minimal retrofitting. > Sampled waste could account 6.5% towards the UK's 2020 renewable electricity target if all qualifying waste is used. - Abstract: With 2020 energy targets set out by the EU fast approaching, the UK is trying to source a higher proportion of its energy from renewable resources. Coupled with this, a growing population and increasing trends in consumer demand have resulted in national waste loads increasing. A possible solution to both issues is energy-from-waste (EfW) technologies. Many studies have focused on municipal solid waste (MSW) as a potential feedstock, but appear to overlook the potential benefits of commercial and industrial waste (C and IW). In this study, samples of C and IW were collected from three North West waste management companies and Lancaster University campus. The samples were tested for their gross and net calorific value, moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, and also elemental composition to determine their suitability in EfW systems. Intra-sample analysis showed there to be little variation between samples with the exception two samples, from waste management site 3, which showed extensive variation with regards to net calorific value, ash content, and elemental analysis. Comparisons with known fuel types revealed similarities between the sampled C and IW, MSW, and refuse derived fuel (RDF) thereby justifying its potential for use in EfW systems. Mean net calorific value (NCV) was calculated as 9.47 MJ/kg and concentrations of sulphur, nitrogen, and chlorine were found to be below 2%. Potential electrical output was calculated using the NCV of the sampled C and IW coupled with four differing energy generation

  16. Exploring the life cycle management of industrial solid waste in the case of copper slag.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaolong; Yang, Jianxin; Lu, Bin; Li, Bo

    2013-06-01

    Industrial solid waste has potential impacts on soil, water and air quality, as well as human health, during its whole life stages. A framework for the life cycle management of industrial solid waste, which integrates the source reduction process, is presented and applied to copper slag management. Three management scenarios of copper slag are developed: (i) production of cement after electric furnace treatment, (ii) production of cement after flotation, and (iii) source reduction before the recycling process. A life cycle assessment is carried out to estimate the environmental burdens of these three scenarios. Life cycle assessment results showed that the environmental burdens of the three scenarios are 2710.09, 2061.19 and 2145.02 Pt respectively. In consideration of the closed-loop recycling process, the environmental performance of the flotation approach excelled that of the electric furnace approach. Additionally, although flash smelting promotes the source reduction of copper slag compared with bath smelting, it did not reduce the overall environmental burdens resulting from the complete copper slag management process. Moreover, it led to the shifting of environmental burdens from ecosystem quality damage and resources depletion to human health damage. The case study shows that it is necessary to integrate the generation process into the whole life cycle of industrial solid waste, and to make an integrated assessment for quantifying the contribution of source reduction, rather than to simply follow the priority of source reduction and the hierarchy of waste management.

  17. Poly β-hydroxybutyrate production by Bacillus subtilis NG220 using sugar industry waste water.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gulab; Kumari, Anish; Mittal, Arpana; Yadav, Anita; Aggarwal, Neeraj K

    2013-01-01

    The production of poly β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Bacillus subtilis NG220 was observed utilizing the sugar industry waste water supplemented with various carbon and nitrogen sources. At a growth rate of 0.14 g h(-1) L(-1), using sugar industry waste water was supplemented with maltose (1% w/v) and ammonium sulphate (1% w/v); the isolate produced 5.297 g/L of poly β-hydroxybutyrate accumulating 51.8% (w/w) of biomass. The chemical nature of the polymer was confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and GC-MS spectroscopy whereas thermal properties were monitored with differential scanning calorimetry. In biodegradability study, when PHB film of the polymer (made by traditional solvent casting technique) was subjected to degradation in various natural habitats like soil, compost, and industrial sludge, it was completely degraded after 30 days in the compost having 25% (w/w) moisture. So, the present study gives insight into dual benefits of conversion of a waste material into value added product, PHB, and waste management.

  18. An alternative method for the treatment of waste produced at a dye and a metal-plating industry using natural and/or waste materials.

    PubMed

    Fatta, Despo; Papadopoulos, Achilleas; Stefanakis, Nikos; Loizidou, Maria; Savvides, Chrysanthos

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop cost-effective, appropriate solidification technologies for treating hazardous industrial wastes that are currently disposed of in ways that may threaten the quality of local groundwater. One major objective was to use materials other than cement, and preferably materials that are themselves wastes, as the solidification additives, namely using wastes to treat wastes or locally available natural material. This research examines the cement-based and lime-based stabilization/solidification (S/S) techniques applied for waste generated at a metal-plating industry and a dye industry. For the lime-based S/S process the following binder mixtures were used: cement kiln dust/ lime, bentonite/lime and gypsum/lime. For the cement-based S/S process three binder mixtures were used: cement kiln dust/cement, bentonite/cement and gypsum/cement. The leachability of the wastes was evaluated using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. The applicability and optimum weight ratio of the binder mixtures were estimated using the unconfined compressive strength test. The optimum ratio mixtures were mixed with waste samples in different ratios and cured for 28 days in order to find the S/S products with the highest strength and lowest leachability at the same time. The results of this work showed that the cement-and lime-based S/S process, using cement kiln dust and bentonite as additives can be effectively used in order to treat industrial waste.

  19. Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review.

    PubMed

    Jayathilakan, K; Sultana, Khudsia; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

    2012-06-01

    India is bestowed with vast livestock wealth and it is growing at the rate of 6% per annum. The contribution of livestock industry including poultry and fish is increasing substantially in GDP of country which accounts for >40% of total agricultural sector and >12% of GDP. This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems. Besides pollution and hazard aspects, in many cases meat, poultry and fish processing wastes have a potential for recycling raw materials or for conversion into useful products of higher value. Traditions, culture and religion are often important when a meat by-product is being utilized for food. Regulatory requirements are also important because many countries restrict the use of meat by-products for reasons of food safety and quality. By-products such as blood, liver, lung, kidney, brains, spleen and tripe has good nutritive value. Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of by-product are also highlighted in this review. Waste products from the poultry processing and egg production industries must be efficiently dealt with as the growth of these industries depends largely on waste management. Treated fish waste has found many applications among with which the most important are animal feed, biodiesel/biogas, dietectic products (chitosan), natural pigments (after extraction) and cosmetics (collagen). Available information pertaining to the utilization of by-products and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish and their processing industries has been reviewed here.

  20. Two Legionnaires' disease cases associated with industrial waste water treatment plants: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Finnish and Swedish waste water systems used by the forest industry were found to be exceptionally heavily contaminated with legionellae in 2005. Case presentation We report two cases of severe pneumonia in employees working at two separate mills in Finland in 2006. Legionella serological and urinary antigen tests were used to diagnose Legionnaires' disease in the symptomatic employees, who had worked at, or close to, waste water treatment plants. Since the findings indicated a Legionella infection, the waste water and home water systems were studied in more detail. The antibody response and Legionella urinary antigen finding of Case A indicated that the infection had been caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Case A had been exposed to legionellae while installing a pump into a post-clarification basin at the waste water treatment plant of mill A. Both the water and sludge in the basin contained high concentrations of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, in addition to serogroups 3 and 13. Case B was working 200 meters downwind from a waste water treatment plant, which had an active sludge basin and cooling towers. The antibody response indicated that his disease was due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2. The cooling tower was the only site at the waste water treatment plant yielding that serogroup, though water in the active sludge basin yielded abundant growth of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 and Legionella rubrilucens. Both workers recovered from the disease. Conclusion These are the first reported cases of Legionnaires' disease in Finland associated with industrial waste water systems. PMID:21126333

  1. Distribution of radium in oil and gas industry wastes from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Omar, M; Ali, H M; Abu, M P; Kontol, K M; Ahmad, Z; Ahmad, S H S S; Sulaiman, I; Hamzah, R

    2004-05-01

    Radium concentrations in 470 samples of the various types of waste from oil and gas industries were analysed using gamma spectrometers. The results showed that the radium concentration varied within a wide range. The highest mean 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations of 114,300 and 130,120 Bq/kg, respectively, were measured in scales. Overall, 75% of the waste, mostly sludge and extraction residue lies within the normal range of radium concentration in soils of Malaysia. However, some platform sludge can have radium concentration up to 560 Bq/kg.

  2. Development of value-added products from alumina industry mineral wastes using low-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, Seung-Young; Singh, D.

    1996-01-01

    A room-temperature process for stabilizing mineral waste streams has been developed, based on acid-base reaction between MgO and H3PO4 or acid phosphate solution. The resulting waste form sets into a hard ceramic in a few hours. In this way, various alumina industry wastes, such as red mud and treated potliner waste, can be solidified into ceramics which can be used as structural materials in waste management and construction industry. Red mud ceramics made by this process were low-porosity materials ({approx}2 vol%) with a compression strength equal to portland cement concrete (4944 psi). Bonding mechanism appears to be result of reactions of boehmite, goethite, and bayerite with the acid solution, and also encapsulation of red mud particles in Mg phosphate matrix. Possible applications include liners for ponds and thickned tailings disposal, dikes for waste ponds, and grouts. Compatability problems arising at the interface of the liner and the waste are avoided.

  3. Monitoring of toxic elements present in sludge of industrial waste using CF-LIBS.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Rai, Awadhesh K; Alamelu, Devanathan; Aggarwal, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    Industrial waste is one of the main causes of environmental pollution. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to detect the toxic metals in the sludge of industrial waste water. Sludge on filter paper was obtained after filtering the collected waste water samples from different sections of a water treatment plant situated in an industrial area of Kanpur City. The LIBS spectra of the sludge samples were recorded in the spectral range of 200 to 500 nm by focusing the laser light on sludge. Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) technique was used for the quantitative measurement of toxic elements such as Cr and Pb present in the sample. We also used the traditional calibration curve approach to quantify these elements. The results obtained from CF-LIBS are in good agreement with the results from the calibration curve approach. Thus, our results demonstrate that CF-LIBS is an appropriate technique for quantitative analysis where reference/standard samples are not available to make the calibration curve. The results of the present experiment are alarming to the people living nearby areas of industrial activities, as the concentrations of toxic elements are quite high compared to the admissible limits of these substances.

  4. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams.

    PubMed

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-07-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102-138 g · water/g · dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7-9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1-2672.8, stress at break of 72.3-139.5 MPa and Young's modulus of 0.97-1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  5. The role of bioremediation in the treatment of gas industry wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Paterek, J.R.

    1993-12-31

    Bioremediation is a technology that integrates microbiology, ecology, chemistry, geology, and engineering in order to solve a major problem in today`s society, restoration of our environment This is not a collection of abstract disciplines, but a new and functional technology based on processes with a long, successful history, that is, biological waste treatment. Sewage and wastewater treatment, composting, and landfills are mature sources and starting points of this technology, but the complexity of manmade or man-released hazardous wastes in the heterogeneous matrices of contaminated water, soil, and sediment requires diligent research and development for successful application of bioremediation. The technology is being applied to various sites contaminated by organic and inorganic toxic compounds or elements, and these processes, techniques, and data can be tested and applied to the gas industry`s contaminated environments. An immediate opportunity for the application of this technology is manufactured town gas sites. Ongoing research into the remediation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and cyanides - which are common gas industry associated wastes - is leading to an awareness of limitations of biodegradation of these compounds and to possible technical and engineering paradigms required to overcome or minimize them. Future research in microbiology, ecology, and engineering of bioremediation should lead to effective remediation technologies for present and future challenges facing this industry.

  6. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    PubMed Central

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients. PMID:26140376

  7. Environmental impact of incineration of calorific industrial waste: rotary kiln vs. cement kiln.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Isabel; Van Caneghem, Jo; Block, Chantal; Dewulf, Wim; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    Rotary kiln incinerators and cement kilns are two energy intensive processes, requiring high temperatures that can be obtained by the combustion of fossil fuel. In both processes, fossil fuel is often substituted by high or medium calorific waste to avoid resource depletion and to save costs. Two types of industrial calorific waste streams are considered: automotive shredder residue (ASR) and meat and bone meal (MBM). These waste streams are of current high interest: ASR must be diverted from landfill, while MBM can no longer be used for cattle feeding. The environmental impact of the incineration of these waste streams is assessed and compared for both a rotary kiln and a cement kiln. For this purpose, data from an extensive emission inventory is applied for assessing the environmental impact using two different modeling approaches: one focusing on the impact of the relevant flows to and from the process and its subsystems, the other describing the change of environmental impact in response to these physical flows. Both ways of assessing emphasize different aspects of the considered processes. Attention is paid to assumptions in the methodology that can influence the outcome and conclusions of the assessment. It is concluded that for the incineration of calorific wastes, rotary kilns are generally preferred. Nevertheless, cement kilns show opportunities in improving their environmental impact when substituting their currently used fuels by more clean calorific waste streams, if this improvement is not at the expense of the actual environmental impact.

  8. Recycling and reuse of chosen kinds of waste materials in a building industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferek, B.; Harasymiuk, J.; Tyburski, J.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the current state of knowledge and practice in Poland concerning recycling as a method of reuse of chosen groups of waste materials in building industry. The recycling of building scraps is imposed by environmental, economic and technological premises. The issue of usage of sewage residues is becoming a problem of ever -growing gravity as the presence of the increasing number of pernicious contaminants makes their utilization for agricultural purposes more and more limited. The strategies of using waste materials on Polish building sites were analyzed. The analysis of predispositions to salvage for a group of traditional materials, such as: timber, steel, building debris, insulation materials, plastics, and on the example of new materials, such as: artificial light aggregates made by appropriate mixing of siliceous aggregates, glass refuses and sewage residues in order to obtain a commodity which is apt for economic usage also was made in the article. The issue of recycling of waste materials originating from building operations will be presented in the context of the binding home and EU legal regulations. It was proved that the level of recycling of building wastes in Poland is considerably different from one which is achieved in the solid market economies, both in quantity and in assortment. The method of neutralization of building refuses in connection with special waste materials, which are sewage sludge that is presented in the article may be one of the alternative solutions to the problem of recycling of these wastes not only on the Polish scale.

  9. Use of industrial waste for the manufacturing of sustainable building materials.

    PubMed

    Sugrañez, Rafael; Cruz-Yusta, Manuel; Mármol, Isabel; Martín, Francisco; Morales, Julián; Sánchez, Luis

    2012-04-01

    Presently, appropriate waste management is one of the main requisites for sustainable development; this task is tackled by the material construction industry. The work described herein is focused on the valorization of granite waste through incorporation, as a filler-functional admixture, into cement-based mortar formulations. The main components of the waste are SiO(2) (62.1 %), Al(2)O(3) (13.2 %), Fe(2)O(3) (10.1 %), and CaO (4.6 %). The presence of iron oxides is used to develop the photocatalytic properties of the waste. Following heating at 700 °C, α-Fe(2)O(3) forms in the waste. The inclusion of the heated sample as a filler admixture in a cement-based mortar is possible. Moreover, this sample exhibits a moderate ability in the photodegradation of organic dye solutions. Also, the plastering mortars, in which the heated samples have been used, show self-cleaning properties. The preparation of sustainable building materials is demonstrated through the adequate reuse of the granite waste.

  10. Agro-industrial waste to solid biofuel through hydrothermal carbonization.

    PubMed

    Basso, Daniele; Patuzzi, Francesco; Castello, Daniele; Baratieri, Marco; Rada, Elena Cristina; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Fiori, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the use of grape marc for energy purposes was investigated. Grape marc is a residual lignocellulosic by-product from the winery industry, which is present in every world region where vine-making is addressed. Among the others, hydrothermal carbonization was chosen as a promising alternative thermochemical process, suitable for the treatment of this high moisture substrate. Through a 50 mL experimental apparatus, hydrothermal carbonization tests were performed at several temperatures (namely: 180, 220 and 250 °C) and residence times (1, 3, 8 h). Analyses on both the solid and the gaseous phases obtained downstream of the process were performed. In particular, solid and gas yields versus the process operational conditions were studied and the obtained hydrochar was evaluated in terms of calorific value, elemental analysis, and thermal stability. Data testify that hydrochar form grape marc presents interesting values of HHV (in the range 19.8-24.1 MJ/kg) and physical-chemical characteristics which make hydrochar exploitable as a solid biofuel. In the meanwhile, the amount of gases produced is very small, if compared to other thermochemical processes. This represents an interesting result when considering environmental issues. Statistical analysis of data allows to affirm that, in the chosen range of operational conditions, the process is influenced more by temperature than residence time. These preliminary results support the option of upgrading grape marc toward its energetic valorisation through hydrothermal carbonization.

  11. Recovery of polypropylene and polyethylene from packaging plastic wastes without contamination of chlorinated plastic films by the combination process of wet gravity separation and ozonation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nakai, Satoshi; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2011-08-01

    Wet gravity separation technique has been regularly practiced to separate the polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) (light plastic films) from chlorinated plastic films (CP films) (heavy plastic films). The CP films including poly vinyl chloride (PVC) and poly vinylidene chloride (PVDC) would float in water even though its density is more than 1.0g/cm(3). This is because films are twisted in which air is sometimes entrapped inside the twisted CP films in real existing recycling plant. The present research improves the current process in separating the PP and PE from plastic packaging waste (PPW), by reducing entrapped air and by increasing the hydrophilicity of the CP films surface with ozonation. The present research also measures the hydrophilicity of the CP films. In ozonation process mixing of artificial films up to 10min reduces the contact angle from 78° to 62°, and also increases the hydrophilicity of CP films. The previous studies also performed show that the artificial PVDC films easily settle down by the same. The effect of ozonation after the wet gravity separation on light PPW films obtained from an actual PPW recycling plant was also evaluated. Although actual light PPW films contained 1.3% of CP films however in present case all the CP films were removed from the PPW films as a settled fraction in the combination process of ozonation and wet gravity separation. The combination process of ozonation and wet gravity separation is the more beneficial process in recovering of high purity PP and PE films from the PPW films.

  12. Selection of melter systems for the DOE/Industrial Center for Waste Vitrification Research

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.

    1993-12-31

    The EPA has designated vitrification as the best developed available technology for immobilization of High-Level Nuclear Waste. In a recent federal facilities compliance agreement between the EPA, the State of Washington, and the DOE, the DOE agreed to vitrify all of the Low Level Radioactive Waste resulting from processing of High Level Radioactive Waste stored at the Hanford Site. This is expected to result in the requirement of 100 ton per day Low Level Radioactive Waste melters. Thus, there is increased need for the rapid adaptation of commercial melter equipment to DOE`s needs. DOE has needed a facility where commercial pilot scale equipment could be operated on surrogate (non-radioactive) simulations of typical DOE waste streams. The DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research (Center) was established in 1992 at the Clemson University Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Clemson, SC, to address that need. This report discusses some of the characteristics of the melter types selected for installation of the Center. An overall objective of the Center has been to provide the broadest possible treatment capability with the minimum number of melter units. Thus, units have been sought which have broad potential application, and which had construction characteristics which would allow their adaptation to various waste compositions, and various operating conditions, including extreme variations in throughput, and widely differing radiological control requirements. The report discusses waste types suitable for vitrification; technical requirements for the application of vitrification to low level mixed wastes; available melters and systems; and selection of melter systems. An annotated bibliography is included.

  13. Use prospect of a full-scale installation of ``wet`` oxidation of organic wastes for CLSS closure increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, Sergey V.; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, D.. Yurii A.

    Previously in the works carried out at the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS a fundamental use feasibility of organic wastes mineralization in H _{2}O _{2} aqueous solution under effect of alternating current was shown. It was proved that the reactor products (mineralized solution and gas) could be involved into an intrasystem mass exchange in the capacity of plants mineral nutrition without their productivity decrease. Here the working volume of the experimental installation was 1L that was not enough for one-time utilization of the crew wastes. At the next stage the research was aimed at the process scaling up to investigate the efficiency the wastes mineralization process in the installation with a working volume equal to 6L corresponding to a daily norm of the 2-members’ crew. Besides the mineralization parameters of human exometabolites and plant wastes were considered to develop an automatic control of the reactor. The process scale magnification was determined to increase its efficiency by temporal and energy characteristics at the same time maintaining a sufficient level of wastes mineralization. An experimental system of the reactor automatic control was created capable to independently operate wastes mineralization according to the regime set up to the reaction termination and completing the reactor work.

  14. Economic analysis of effluent limitation guidelines and standards for the centralized waste treatment industry

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, W.

    1998-12-01

    This report estimates the economic and financial effects and the benefits of compliance with the proposed effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the Centralized Waste Treatment (CWT) industry. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has measured these impacts in terms of changes in the profitability of waste treatment operations at CWT facilities, changes in market prices to CWT services, and changes in the quantities of waste management at CWT facilities in six geographic regions. EPA has also examined the impacts on companies owning CWT facilities (including impacts on small entities), on communities in which CWT facilities are located, and on environmental justice. EPA examined the benefits to society of the CWT effluent limitations guidelines and standards by examining cancer and non-cancer health effects of the regulation, recreational benefits, and cost savings to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) to which indirect-discharging CWT facilities send their wastewater.

  15. Detoxification of a highly toxic lead-loaded industrial solid waste by stabilization using apatites.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, T A; Zouboulis, A I

    2003-02-28

    Apatites are known for their properties to immobilize lead contained in aqueous solutions or contaminated soils. In this study, apatites were examined as stabilization additives for lead-loaded industrial solid toxic wastes. The specific waste was the residue, obtained after thermal treatment of sludges (incineration), which was derived from tetraethyl lead fuel storage tanks. It was found to contain around 30 wt.% lead and 33 wt.% iron. Standard leaching tests (according to DIN 38414 S-4) were applied for the determination of leachability of metals from the ash and, thus, of chemical toxicity; the proposed leaching tests examined both initial and stabilized products in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the applied additives. The results obtained demonstrate the fact that lead concentrations in leachates, after the application of the proposed leaching tests using apatites as additives and with a ratio of 50% solid waste-50 wt.% apatite, could be reduced to the range of 1mg/l.

  16. Industrial waste disposal in the United States as a historical problem.

    PubMed

    Tarr, Joel A

    2002-03-01

    This paper explores the manner in which historians have dealt with the issue of industrial pollution in the United States. It reviews the existing literature, suggesting reasons for the subject's neglect in the past. It also raises a series of questions for historians of pollution to focus upon. These questions include the need to understand societal values and knowledge that determined how society reacted to past pollution that threatened its health and the quality of its environment; the need to identify major turning points in the understanding and regulation of these wastes; the need to clarify how different professional groups have related to the issue of industrial pollution; the need to explore the development of indicators for measuring and regulating industrial pollution; and, the importance of clarifying what past responsible parties understood about the risks of industrial pollutants and how they had grained this knowledge. These issues are important not only to clarify the historical record but also to inform public policy.

  17. Public perceptions of industrial risks: the context of public attitudes toward radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, T.C.

    1981-06-01

    A survey was made to determine the public risk perception of several industrial hazards. A free response approach was used in order for respondents to generate their own alternatives. The general class of hazard investigated here included all hazardous industrial facilities. The free response survey was used to study public perception of: (a) the closeness of the nearest hazardous industrial facility (as estimated by the respondent); (b) the sort of facility it is; (c) the sorts of risk associated with it; and (d) the persons placed at risk by it. Respondents also identified the risks of, and the persons placed at risk by, both a toxic chemical disposal facility and a nuclear waste disposal facility. Results of this study thus can inform us of the unprompted concerns of the public regarding a wide variety of industrial facilities.

  18. Comparison of alkaline industrial wastes for aqueous mineral carbon sequestration through a parallel reactivity study.

    PubMed

    Noack, Clinton W; Dzombak, David A; Nakles, David V; Hawthorne, Steven B; Heebink, Loreal V; Dando, Neal; Gershenzon, Michael; Ghosh, Rajat S

    2014-10-01

    Thirty-one alkaline industrial wastes from a wide range of industrial processes were acquired and screened for application in an aqueous carbon sequestration process. The wastes were evaluated for their potential to leach polyvalent cations and base species. Following mixing with a simple sodium bicarbonate solution, chemistries of the aqueous and solid phases were analyzed. Experimental results indicated that the most reactive materials were capable of sequestering between 77% and 93% of the available carbon under experimental conditions in four hours. These materials - cement kiln dust, spray dryer absorber ash, and circulating dry scrubber ash - are thus good candidates for detailed, process-oriented studies. Chemical equilibrium modeling indicated that amorphous calcium carbonate is likely responsible for the observed sequestration. High variability and low reactive fractions render many other materials less attractive for further pursuit without considering preprocessing or activation techniques.

  19. Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Michael B; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A; Roberts, David A

    2014-01-01

    The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) and metalloids (As and Se) in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in "clean" water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn) more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se). Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions.

  20. Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Michael B.; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) and metalloids (As and Se) in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in “clean” water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn) more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se). Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions. PMID:24883258

  1. Waste disposal and treatment in the food processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. References discuss waste heat recovery and examine treatment of wastes resulting from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and fruit and vegetable processing. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer and for use in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste are also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Research on the property improvement of PVC using red mud in industrial waste residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Xiaopeng; Li, Xingang; Shuai, Songxian

    2015-07-01

    Red mud is a red solid power waste that is discharged in the aluminium refinery industry during production. It is a strong alkali and can be categorized as polluting industrial residue. How to make comprehensive use of red mud has become a worldwide issue. In this paper, we put red mud into PVC (polyvinyl chloride polymer), taking advantage of the complicated chemical properties of red mud derived from the Bayer process. The results are compared with silica fume, coal ash and calcium carbonate under the same experimental conditions, which shows that improvement of PVC plastication can be achieved by adding red mud.

  3. Industrial waste water in Bangkok, Thailand: Definitional mission report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Pfrang, W.

    1992-02-01

    A definitional mission visited Thailand between February 1 and 7, 1992 to study the market opportunities for US manufacturers in providing pollution control equipment. Thailand presently lacks industrial machinery required for pollution control equipment. Consequently, this equipment must be imported for both industrial and municipal waste treatment facilities. The US has both the applicable technology and manufactured goods to serve the market. There is, however, stiff competition from Europe and especially Japan, who offer financial assistance at preferential rates for these types of projects.

  4. [Mercury levels in humans under conditions of environmental pollution by mercury-containing industrial waste].

    PubMed

    Larionova, T K

    2000-01-01

    Hygienic monitoring of lead, cadmium, and mercury as environmental pollutants should include the analysis of adverse human and environmental effects. The hygienic investigations of environmental pollution with gold-mining waste involved measurements of Hg in the water, soil, foodstuffs and human biological materials. Hg was found in the biological substrata of both industrial workers and the general population since they eat the products of animals and plants from the polluted area.

  5. Industrial wastes as low-cost potential adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater laden with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2011-08-10

    Industrial wastes, such as, fly ash, blast furnace slag and sludge, black liquor lignin, red mud, and waste slurry, etc. are currently being investigated as potential adsorbents for the removal of the heavy metals from wastewater. It was found that modified industrial wastes showed higher adsorption capacity. The application of low-cost adsorbents obtained from the industrial wastes as a replacement for costly conventional methods of removing heavy metal ions from wastewater has been reviewed. The adsorption mechanism, influencing factors, favorable conditions, and competitive ions etc. on the adsorption of heavy metals have also been discussed in this article. From the review, it is evident that certain industrial waste materials have demonstrated high removal capacities for the heavy metals laden with wastewater. However, it is to be mentioned that adsorption capacities of the adsorbents vary depending on the characteristics of the adsorbents, the extent of chemical modification and the concentration of adsorbates. There are also few issues and drawbacks on the utilization of industrial wastes as low-cost adsorbents that have been addressed. In order to find out the practical utilization of industrial waste as low-cost adsorbents on the commercial scale, more research should be conducted in this direction.

  6. Utilization of food industry wastes for the production of zero-valent iron nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Machado, S; Grosso, J P; Nouws, H P A; Albergaria, J T; Delerue-Matos, C

    2014-10-15

    The proper disposal of the several types of wastes produced in industrial activities increases production costs. As a consequence, it is common to develop strategies to reuse these wastes in the same process and in different processes or to transform them for use in other processes. This work combines the needs for new synthesis methods of nanomaterials and the reduction of production cost using wastes from citrine juice (orange, lime, lemon and mandarin) to produce a new added value product, green zero-valent iron nanoparticles that can be used in several applications, including environmental remediation. The results indicate that extracts of the tested fruit wastes (peel, albedo and pulp fractions) can be used to produce zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs). This shows that these wastes can be an added value product. The resulting nZVIs had sizes ranging from 3 up to 300 nm and distinct reactivities (pulp>peel>albedo extracts). All the studied nanoparticles did not present a significant agglomeration/settling tendency when compared to similar nanoparticles, which indicates that they remain in suspension and retain their reactivity.

  7. Agricultural waste from the tequila industry as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes.

    PubMed

    Huitron, C; Perez, R; Sanchez, A E; Lappe, P; Rocha Zavaleta, L

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 1 million tons of Agave tequilana plants are processed annually by the Mexican Tequila industry generating vast amounts of agricultural waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Agave tequilana waste as substrate for the production of commercially important enzymes. Two strains of Aspergillus niger (CH-A-2010 and CH-A-2016), isolated from agave fields, were found to grow and propagate in submerged cultures using Agave tequilana waste as substrate. Isolates showed simultaneous extracellular inulinase, xylanase, pectinase, and cellulase activities. Aspergillus CH-A-2010 showed the highest production of inulinase activity (1.48 U/ml), whereas Aspergillus niger CH-A-2016 produced the highest xylanase (1.52 U/ml) and endo-pectinase (2.7U/ml) activities. In both cases production of enzyme activities was significantly higher on Agave tequilana waste than that observed on lemon peel and specific polymeric carbohydrates. Enzymatic hydrolysis of raw A. tequilana stems and leaves, by enzymes secreted by the isolates yielded maximum concentrations of reducing sugars of 28.2 g/l, and 9.9 g/l respectively. In conclusion, Agave tequilana waste can be utilized as substrate for the production of important biotechnological enzymes.

  8. A Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (CED), life cycle based, for industrial waste management decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Puig, Rita; Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere; Bala, Alba

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We developed a methodology useful to environmentally compare industrial waste management options. • The methodology uses a Net Energy Demand indicator which is life cycle based. • The method was simplified to be widely used, thus avoiding cost driven decisions. • This methodology is useful for governments to promote the best environmental options. • This methodology can be widely used by other countries or regions around the world. - Abstract: Life cycle thinking is a good approach to be used for environmental decision-support, although the complexity of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies sometimes prevents their wide use. The purpose of this paper is to show how LCA methodology can be simplified to be more useful for certain applications. In order to improve waste management in Catalonia (Spain), a Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (LCA-based) has been used to obtain four mathematical models to help the government in the decision of preventing or allowing a specific waste from going out of the borders. The conceptual equations and all the subsequent developments and assumptions made to obtain the simplified models are presented. One of the four models is discussed in detail, presenting the final simplified equation to be subsequently used by the government in decision making. The resulting model has been found to be scientifically robust, simple to implement and, above all, fulfilling its purpose: the limitation of waste transport out of Catalonia unless the waste recovery operations are significantly better and justify this transport.

  9. Preparation of sustainable photocatalytic materials through the valorization of industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Sugrañez, Rafael; Cruz-Yusta, Manuel; Mármol, Isabel; Morales, Julián; Sánchez, Luis

    2013-12-01

    A new value-added material was developed from wastes to aim for appropriate waste management and sustainable development. This paper reports the valorization of industrial sandblasting operation wastes (SOWs) as new photocatalytic materials. This waste is composed of Fe2 O3 (60.7 %), SiO2 (29.1 %), and Al2 O3 (3.9 %) as the main components. The high presence of iron oxides was used to develop photocatalytic properties through their thermal transformation into α-Fe2 O3 . The new product, SOW-T, exhibited a good behavior towards the photochemical degradation of organic dyes. The preparation of advanced photocatalytic materials that exhibit self-cleaning and depolluting properties was possible by the inclusion of SOW-T and TiO2 in a cement-based mortar. The synergy observed between both materials enhanced their photocatalytic action. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that describes the use of transformed wastes based on iron oxide for the photochemical oxidation of NOx gases.

  10. Composting and bioremediation process evaluation of wood waste materials generated from the construction and demolition industry.

    PubMed

    McMahon, V; Garg, A; Aldred, D; Hobbs, G; Smith, R; Tothill, I E

    2008-04-01

    The suitability of using bioremediation and composting techniques for diverting construction and demolition (C&D) waste from landfill has been validated in this study. Different timber products from C&D waste have been composted using various composting approaches. The present work demonstrates the quality of compost produced as a result of composting of mixed board product wood waste, which is frequently obtained from the construction and demolition industry. Three compost mixes were prepared by mixing shredded chip board, medium density fibre, hardboard and melamine. Poultry manure, Eco-Bio mixture and green waste were used as nutrient supplements. The results revealed that compost produced from mixtures of poultry manure and green waste used as nutrient supplements improved the performance in plant growth trials (phytotoxicity tests). Results obtained from the experimental study clearly indicate that the composts produced comply with the criterion suggested in BSI PAS 100 (A specification for compost materials) for use in different applications. Composting can also be demonstrated to be a very practical approach to material management including transport reduction to and from the site. The economic suitability of the process will be improved with the increase in landfill tax. In the current regulatory scenario, it is recommended that these materials should be composted at a centralised facility.

  11. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a

  12. Technical and economic assessments of ethanol production from citrus peel waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each year, the Florida citrus juice industry produces about 3.5-5.0 million tons of wet peel waste, which are currently dried and sold as cattle feed, often at a loss, to dispose of the waste residual. Profitability would be greatly improved if the peel waste could be used to produce higher value p...

  13. 40 CFR Table Tt-1 to Subpart Tt of... - Default DOC and Decay Rate Values for Industrial Waste Landfills

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Industrial Solid Waste (not otherwise listed) 0.20 0.02 0.04 0.06 a The applicable climate classification is... landfill containing waste . (1) Dry climate = precipitation plus recirculated leachate less than 20 inches/year (2) Moderate climate = precipitation plus recirculated leachate from 20 to 40...

  14. Pyrolysis of chromium rich tanning industrial wastes and utilization of carbonized wastes in metallurgical process.

    PubMed

    Tôrres Filho, Artur; Lange, Liséte Celina; de Melo, Gilberto Caldeira Bandeira; Praes, Gustavo Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of organic material in oxygen-free or very lean oxygen atmosphere. This study evaluates the use of pyrolysis for conversion of leather wastes from chromium tanning processes into Carbonized Leather Residues (CLR), and the utilization of CLR in metallurgical processes through the production of iron ore pellets. CLR was used to replace mineral coal in proportions of 10% and 25% on fixed carbon basis content in the mixtures for pellets preparation. Experimental conversions were performed on a pilot scale pyrolysis plant and a pelletizing reactor of the "pot grate" type. The results demonstrated the technical feasibility of using the charcoal product from animal origin as an energy source, with recovery of up to 76.47% of chromium contained in CLR in the final produced of iron ore pellets. Pellets with 25% replacement of fixed carbon in the coal showed an enhanced compressive strength, with an average value of 344kgfpellet(-1), compared to 300kgfpellet(-1) for standard produced pellets.

  15. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded. PMID:26393620

  16. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-09-18

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g(-1) VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH₄ recovery of 189 L kg(-1) VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH₄ and 38% CO₂ was recorded.

  17. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Soluble Fractions of Industrial Solid Wastes on Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri

    PubMed Central

    Flohr, Letícia; de Castilhos Júnior, Armando Borges; Matias, William Gerson

    2012-01-01

    Industrial wastes may produce leachates that can contaminate the aquatic ecosystem. Toxicity testing in acute and chronic levels is essential to assess environmental risks from the soluble fractions of these wastes, since only chemical analysis may not be adequate to classify the hazard of an industrial waste. In this study, ten samples of solid wastes from textile, metal-mechanic, and pulp and paper industries were analyzed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A metal-mechanic waste (sample MM3) induced the highest toxicity level to Daphnia magna(CE50,48 h = 2.21%). A textile waste induced the highest toxicity level to Vibrio fischeri (sample TX2, CE50,30 min = 12.08%). All samples of pulp and paper wastes, and a textile waste (sample TX2) induced chronic effects on reproduction, length, and longevity of Daphnia magna. These results could serve as an alert about the environmental risks of an inadequate waste classification method. PMID:22619632

  18. A summary of the report on prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and Department of Energy cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. In the past twenty years, advances in the engineering of pyrolysis systems and in sorting and feeding technologies for solid waste industries have ensured consistent feedstocks and system performance. Some vendors now offer complete pyrolysis systems with performance warranties. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates the four most promising pyrolytic systems for their readiness, applicability to regional waste management needs and conformity with DOE environmental restoration and waste management requirements. This summary characterizes the engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications and markets for these pyrolysis systems.

  19. Use of sepiolite as an adsorbent for the removal of copper (II) from industrial waste leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamze Turan, N.; Ardali, Yüksel

    2013-04-01

    Land filling is the most common method of disposal of solid waste all over the world. As well as municipal solid waste, industrial wastes, which may contain hazardous substances, are also received by landfills in many countries. Leachate is one of the problems arising from landfills. When water percolates through solid wastes, contaminants are leached into solution. The major concern with the movement of leachate into the subsurface aquifer is the fate of the constituents found in leachate. The fate of heavy metals is the greatest interest in leachate. Several treatment technologies have been developed for eliminating heavy metals recently. Adsorption is one of the most interesting methods that it has been successfully applied for the heavy metal removal. Activated carbons were widely used as adsorbent materials because of their extended surface area, microporous structure, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. However, it is restricted due to its relatively high price, high operation costs, and problems with generation for the industrial scale applications. Recently, more research efforts have been focused on effective sorbents material in order to minimize the processing cost and solve their disposal problems in an environmentally sustainable way. Adsorption of metal ions onto clay minerals has been studied extensively because both metal ions and clays are common components in nature. The cost of clays is relatively low as compared to other alternative adsorbents. Furthermore, the high specific surface area, chemical and mechanical stability, variety of structural and surface properties and higher values of cation exchange capacities make the clays an excellent group of adsorbents. Sepiolite (Si12O30Mg8(OH)4(H2O)4•8H2O) is a natural, fibrous clay mineral with fine microporous channels running parallel to the length of the fibers. The structure of sepiolite, in some aspects, is similar to those of other 2:1 trioctahedral silicates, such

  20. Recent developments and perspectives on the treatment of industrial wastes by mineral carbonation — a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodor, Marius; Santos, Rafael M.; Van Gerven, Tom; Vlad, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Besides producing a substantial portion of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the industrial sector also generates significant quantities of solid residues. Mineral carbonation of alkaline wastes enables the combination of these two by-products, increasing the sustainability of industrial activities. On top of sequestering CO2 in geochemically stable form, mineral carbonation of waste materials also brings benefits such as stabilization of leaching, basicity and structural integrity, enabling further valorization of the residues, either via reduced waste treatment or landfilling costs, or via the production of marketable products. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art of this technology and the latest developments in this field. Focus is given to the beneficial effects of mineral carbonation when applied to metallurgical slags, incineration ashes, mining tailings, asbestos containing materials, red mud, and oil shale processing residues. Efforts to intensify the carbonation reaction rate and improve the mineral conversion via process intensification routes, such as the application of ultrasound, hot-stage processing and integrated reactor technologies, are described. Valorization opportunities closest to making the transition from laboratory research to commercial reality, particularly in the form of shaped construction materials and precipitated calcium carbonate, are highlighted. Lastly, the context of mineral carbonation among the range of CCS options is discussed.

  1. Towards industrially feasible treatment of potato starch processing waste by mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingnan; Song, Jinzhu; Li, Ying; Niu, Jia; Wang, Zhenyu; Yang, Qian

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed at reducing the pollution of the waste generated by the potato starch industry to the environment and transform the potato pulp and wastewater into single-cell protein (SCP) to be used as animal feed. The chemical oxygen demand of the wastewater was reduced from 26,700 to 9,100 mg/L by batch fermentation with mixed cultures in an aerated 10-L fermenter. The SCP products, with a crude protein content of 46.09 % (higher than soybean meal), were found palatable and safe for mice. During the treatment process, the microbial community was analyzed using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism for bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The results of the analysis suggested that Curacaobacter/Pseudoalteromonas and Paenibacillus/Bacillus were the main microorganisms in treating potato starch processing wastes. The 150-m(3)-scale fermentation demonstrated a potential for treatment in industrial applications. Fermentation of potato pulp and wastewater without adding an extra nitrogen source was a novel approach in treating the potato starch processing waste.

  2. Minimizing Waste from the Oil Industry: Scale Treatment and Scrap Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, M.

    2002-02-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive material is technologically concentrated in the piping in systems in the oil and gas industry, especially in the offshore facilities. The activity, mainly Ra-226, in the scales in the systems are often at levels classified as low level radioactive waste (LSA) in the industry. When the components and pipes are descaled for maintenance or recycling purposes, usually by high-pressure water jetting, the LSA scales arising constitute a significant quantity of radioactive waste for disposal. A new process is under development for the treatment of scales, where the radioactive solids are separated from the inactive. This would result in a much smaller fraction to be deposited as radioactive waste. The radioactive part recovered from the scales will be reduced to a stable non-metallic salt and because the volume is significantly smaller then the original material, will minimize the cost for disposal. The pipes, that have been cleaned by high pressure water jetting can either be reused or free released by scrapping and melting for recycling.

  3. The use of sugar and alcohol industry waste in the adsorption of potentially toxic metals.

    PubMed

    Santos, Oseas Silva; Mendonça, André Gustavo Ribeiro; Santos, Josué Carinhanha Caldas; Silva, Amanda Paulina Bezerra; Costa, Silvanio Silverio Lopes; Oliveira, Luciana Camargo; Carmo, Janaina Braga; Botero, Wander Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    One of the waste products of the industrial process of the sugar and alcohol agribusiness is filter cake (FC). This waste product has high levels of organic matter, mainly proteins and lipids, and is rich in calcium, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous. In this work we characterized samples of FC from sugar and alcohol industries located in sugarcane-producing regions in Brazil and assessed the adsorption of potentially toxic metals (Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Ni(II) and Cr(III)) by this waste in mono- and multi-elemental systems, seeking to use FC as an adsorbent in contaminated environments. The characterization of FCs showed significant differences between the samples and the adsorption studies showed retention of over 90% of potentially toxic metals. In a competitive environment (multi-metallic solution), the FC was effective in adsorbing all metals except lead, but less effective compared to the mono-metallic solution. These results show the potential for use of this residue as an adsorbent in contaminated environments.

  4. Characterization of industrial onion wastes (Allium cepa L.): dietary fibre and bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Vanesa; Mollá, Esperanza; Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Aguilera, Yolanda; López-Andréu, Francisco J; Cools, Katherine; Terry, Leon A; Esteban, Rosa M

    2011-03-01

    The food industry produces a large amount of onion wastes, making it necessary to search for possible ways for their utilization. One way could be to use these onion wastes as a natural source of high-value functional ingredients, since onion are rich in several groups of compounds, which have perceived benefits to human health. The objective of this work is to gain knowledge of any differences between the different onion wastes obtained from industry and non-commercial bulbs to use them as food ingredients rich in specific compounds. The results showed that brown skin and top-bottom could be potentially used as functional ingredient rich in dietary fibre, mainly in insoluble fraction, and in total phenolics and flavonoids, with high antioxidant activity. Moreover, brown skin showed a high concentration of quercetin aglycone and calcium, and top-bottom showed high concentration of minerals. Outer scales could be used as source of flavonols, with good antioxidant activity and content of dietary fibre. However, inner scales could be an interesting source of fructans and alk(en)yl cystein sulphoxides. In addition, discarded onions (cvs Recas and Figueres) could be used as a good source of dietary fibre, and cv Recas also as a source of phenolics compounds.

  5. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Factors of NaOH treatment were studied by orthogonal and single factor experiments. • Mechanism of alkaline treatment for facilitating flotation was manifested. • Flotation separation of PET was achieved with high purity and efficiency. • A flow sheet of purification PET from MWP was designed. - Abstract: Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L{sub 9} (3{sup 4}) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70 °C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics.

  6. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate from municipal waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic wastes and receives considerable attention. Since plastic mixtures are difficult to recycle because of their intrinsic characteristics, separation of mixed plastics is the key problem for recycling. Separation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from municipal waste plastics (MWP) by froth flotation combined with alkaline pretreatment was investigated for recycling industry. The effect of process variables was estimated by L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array of experiments and single factor experiments. The optimum conditions of alkaline pretreatment are 10 wt% sodium hydroxide, 20 min and 70°C. After alkaline pretreatment under optimum conditions, flotation separation PET from acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polystyrene, polycarbonate or polyvinyl chloride was achieved with high purity and efficiency. The purity of PET is up to 98.46% and the recovery is above 92.47%. A flow sheet of separation PET from MWP by a combination of froth flotation and sink float separation was designed. This study facilitates industrial application of plastics flotation and provides technical insights into recycling of waste plastics.

  7. Aerobic treatability of waste effluent from the leather finishing industry. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Vinger, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    The Seton Company supplies finished leather products exclusively for the automotive industry. In the process of finishing leather, two types of wastewaters are generated. The majority of the wastewater is composed of water-based paint residuals while the remainder is composed of solvent-based coating residuals. Aerobic treatability studies were conducted using water-based and solvent-based waste recirculatory waters from the Seton Company's Saxton, Pennsylvania processing plant. The specific objective was to determine the potential for using aerobic biological processes to biodegrade the industry's wastes and determine the potential for joint treatment at the local publicly owned treatment works (POTW). This study was accomplished in two phases. Phase I was conducted during the Spring Semester 1993 and consisted of aerobic respirometer tests of the raw wastes and mass balance analysis. The results of Phase I were published in a report to the Seton Company as Environmental Resources Research Institute project number 92C.II40R-1. Phase II was conducted during the Summer Semester 1993 and consisted of bench-scale reactor tests and additional aerobic respirometer tests. The aerobic respirometer batch tests and bench-scale reactor tests were used to assess the treatability of solvent-based and water-based wastewaters and determine the degree of biodegradability of the wastewaters. Mass balance calculations were made using measured characteristics.

  8. Anaerobic-aerobic sequencing bioreactors improve energy efficiency for treatment of personal care product industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, S Z; Bereslawski, J L; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

    2013-07-01

    Personal care product (PCP) industry liquid wastes contain shampoo residues, which are usually treated by aerobic activated sludge (AS). Unfortunately, AS is expensive for PCP wastes because of high aeration and energy demands, whereas potentially energy-positive anaerobic designs cannot meet effluent targets. Therefore, combined anaerobic-aerobic systems may be the best solution. Seven treatment systems were assessed in terms of energy and treatment performance for shampoo wastes, including one aerobic, three anaerobic (HUASB, AHR and AnCSTR) and three anaerobic-aerobic reactor designs. COD removals were highest in the HUASB-aerobic (87.9 ± 0.4%) and AHR-aerobic (86.8±0.5%) systems, which used 69.2% and 62.5% less energy than aerobic AS. However, actual methane production rates were low relative to theoretical in the UASB and AHR units (∼10% methane/COD removed) compared with the AnCSTR unit (∼70%). Anaerobic-aerobic sequence reactors show promise for treating shampoo wastes, but optimal designs depend upon whether methane production or COD removal is most important to operations.

  9. Bioleaching of zinc and aluminium from industrial waste sludges by means of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Solisio, C; Lodi, A; Veglio, F

    2002-01-01

    Biological solubilisation of heavy metals contained in two different kinds of industrial wastes was performed in batches employing a strain of Thiobacillus ferroxidans. The wastes tested were: a dust coming from the iron-manganese alloy production in an electric furnace (sludge 1) and a sludge coming from a process treatment plant of aluminium anodic oxidation (sludge 2). The experimental results pointed out the ability of the used strain to maintain the environment, that initially has a pH about 8, at strongly acid conditions (pH 2.5-3.5), producing sulphuric acid that is the chemical agent responsible for the metals solubilisation. At wastes initial concentration of 1%, the percentage of solubilised metals was 76 and 78% for the wastes 1 and 2, respectively, but the lag phase was considerably longer for sludge 2 than for sludge 1, indicating a different affinity of microorganisms for the solid phase. Increasing the initial slurry concentration, the percentage of removed metal reached 72-73% for the sludge 1, while in case of sludge 2, the total amount of solubilized metal progressively decreased. Two kinetic models are proposed to describe the trends of metals solubilization curves.

  10. Case study: apparel industry waste management: a focus on recycling in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Larney, M; van Aardt, A M

    2010-01-01

    The need for effective apparel waste management is motivated by the increasing cost and decreasing availability of landfill space and the dwindling of natural resources. The aim of this study was to identify the current solid waste disposal and recycling practices of the apparel industry in South Africa and to determine their attitude and willingness towards recycling, their perception of the feasibility thereof, barriers to recycling and marketing strategies that would be appropriate for products made from recycled materials. A structured questionnaire was mailed to apparel manufacturers in South Africa. The results indicated that most apparel manufacturers use landfills to dispose of their waste, while approximately half recycle some of the waste. They are fairly positive towards recycling, with consideration of economical feasibility. Phi-coefficients show no practically significant relationship between company size and the use of recycled materials. The most important barriers to recycling are lack of equipment and technology, lack of material to recycle and lack of consumer awareness. Marketing strategies for recycled products are recommended. It is concluded that consumer awareness and knowledge regarding recycled apparel products should be developed in order to ensure a market and that apparel manufacturers should be encouraged to recycle more extensively, in order to ensure that resources will not be exhausted unnecessarily and the environment will be preserved optimally.

  11. High-solids anaerobic digestion of mixed municipal and industrial waste

    SciTech Connect

    Oleszkiewicz, J.A.; Poggi-Varaldo, H.M.

    1997-11-01

    Laboratory studies on dry anaerobic digestion of mixture of paper, kitchen food waste, and sewage sludge have demonstrated the optimum performance at total solids (TS) at the range of 30--35% TS. The thermophilic process (at 55 C) was found to be superior to a mesophilic (35 C) one, both in terms of volatile solid (VS) reduction and specific gas production, but was somewhat less stable at short mass retention times (MRT). The efficiency of total volatile solids destruction and the decrease in the oxygen demand were found to be proportional to the product of the mass retention time and temperature (d {center_dot} C). Pilot studies, conducted on a mixture of sewage sludge, mixed paper, food waste, and solids from a potato processing conducted on site in Portage la Prairie, Manitoba, Canada, have demonstrated the feasibility of running the process at loads exceeding 9 kg TS/m{sup 3} {center_dot} d and producing biogas at 140 m{sup 3} of wet solids fed to the composter. The residual oxygen demand per unit mass of the dry compost was 20 mg O{sub 2}/g {center_dot} h, which indicated a need for aerobic postcuring of the anaerobically produced compost.

  12. A biological process effective for the conversion of CO-containing industrial waste gas to acetate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Wan; Bae, Seung Seob; Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Sung-Mok; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Sook; Kang, Sung Gyun

    2016-07-01

    Acetogens have often been observed to be inhibited by CO above an inhibition threshold concentration. In this study, a two-stage culture consisting of carboxydotrophic archaea and homoacetogenic bacteria is found to be effective in converting industrial waste gas derived from a steel mill process. In the first stage, Thermococcus onnurineus could grow on the Linz-Donawitz converter gas (LDG) containing ca. 56% CO as a sole energy source, converting the CO into H2 and CO2. Then, in the second stage, Thermoanaerobacter kivui could grow on the off-gas from the first stage culture, consuming the H2 and CO in the off-gas completely and producing acetate as a main product. T. kivui alone could not grow on the LDG gas. This work represents the first demonstration of acetate production using steel mill waste gas by a two-stage culture of carboxydotrophic hydrogenogenic microbes and homoacetogenic bacteria.

  13. Potential of thermal treatment for decontamination of mercury containing wastes from chlor-alkali industry.

    PubMed

    Busto, Y; Cabrera, X; Tack, F M G; Verloo, M G

    2011-02-15

    Old dumps of mercury waste sludges from chlor-alkaline industry are an environmental threat if not properly secured. Thermal retortion can be used to remove mercury from such wastes. This treatment reduces the total mercury content, and also may reduce the leachability of the residual mercury. The effects of treatment temperature and treatment time on both residual mercury levels and mercury leachability according to the US EPA TCLP leaching procedure, were investigated. Treatment for 1h at 800°C allowed to quantitatively remove the mercury. Treatment at 400°C and above allowed to decrease the leachable Hg contents to below the US EPA regulations. The ultimate choice of treatment conditions will depend on requirements of further handling options and cost considerations.

  14. Bioconversion of industrial solid waste--cassava bagasse for pullulan production in solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sugumaran, K R; Jothi, P; Ponnusami, V

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to produce commercially important pullulan using industrial solid waste namely cassava bagasse in solid state fermentation and minimize the solid waste disposal problem. First, influence of initial pH on cell morphology and pullulan yield was studied. Effect of various factors like fermentation time, moisture ratio, nitrogen sources and particle size on pullulan yield was investigated. Various supplementary carbon sources (3%, w/w) namely glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, mannose and xylose with cassava bagasse was also studied to improve the pullulan yield. After screening the suitable supplement, effect of supplement concentration on pullulan production was investigated. The pullulan from cassava bagasse was characterized by FTIR, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan from cassava bagasse was determined by gel permeation chromatography. Thus, cassava bagasse emerged to be a cheap and novel substrate for pullulan production.

  15. Approaches for the treatment of waste streams of the aluminium anodising industry.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E

    2009-05-30

    The aluminium anodising industry is an important industrial sector that invariably generates great amounts of different waste streams. Classical and especially new-developing technologies dealing with them are reviewed. Innovative methods are mainly based on engineering geochemical processes, looking for the recovery of resource materials and the reduction of emissions to the environment. These represent a promising alternative to the classical method (neutralisation process and anodising mud disposal) which is an end-of-pipe solution. Among the treatments recently proposed, there are the use of anodising mud in the manufacture of refractory bodies, and the synthesis of useful minerals from the wastewaters arising from the etching, anodising and brightening processes. The viability of the application of such methods in the treatment of waste streams of the aluminium anodising industry is discussed, pointing out the main shortcomings and benefits of each of them. For those methods appearing environmentally friendly the process cost and the actual marketability of the final products should be determinant on their near future applicability.

  16. Characterization of the carbonaceous materials obtained from different agro-industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Ensuncho-Muñoz, A E; Carriazo, J G

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation and characterization of carbonaceous materials obtained from three types of vegetable wastes provided by agricultural industries. Soft carbonization (280°C) and H3PO4-activation procedures were used to convert the agricultural wastes to carbon powders with high adsorbent capacities. This process is excellent for eliminating and exploiting the huge masses (many tons) of vegetable residues remaining after each harvest every year in several Colombian agro-industries. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2-adsorption isotherms. XRD and IR verified the formation of carbons, and SEM showed small particles (20-500 µm) with characteristic morphology for each type of residue used and abundant cavities of different sizes. The N2-adsorption analyses showed that the carbons had high adsorption capacities with important surface area values and large pore volumes. The use of the activated carbonaceous materials as adsorbent of azo dyes (allura red and sunset yellow) from aqueous solutions was evaluated. The results showed a good adsorption capacity indicating the potentiality of these materials as pollutant adsorbents in food industry wastewaters. These results indicate that these powders can be used as potential adsorbents for different gaseous or liquid pollutants.

  17. Fundamentals of gas flow in shale; What the unconventional reservoir industry can learn from the radioactive waste industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuss, Robert; Harrington, Jon; Graham, Caroline

    2013-04-01

    Tight formations, such as shale, have a wide range of potential usage; this includes shale gas exploitation, hydrocarbon sealing, carbon capture & storage and radioactive waste disposal. Considerable research effort has been conducted over the last 20 years on the fundamental controls on gas flow in a range of clay-rich materials at the British Geological Survey (BGS) mainly focused on radioactive waste disposal; including French Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, Belgian Boom Clay, Swiss Opalinus Clay, British Oxford Clay, as well as engineered barrier material such as bentonite and concrete. Recent work has concentrated on the underlying physics governing fluid flow, with evidence of dilatancy controlled advective flow demonstrated in Callovo-Oxfordian claystone. This has resulted in a review of how advective gas flow is dealt with in Performance Assessment and the applicability of numerical codes. Dilatancy flow has been shown in Boom clay using nano-particles and is seen in bentonite by the strong hydro-mechanical coupling displayed at the onset of gas flow. As well as observations made at BGS, dilatancy flow has been shown by other workers on shale (Cuss et al., 2012; Angeli et al. 2009). As well as experimental studies using cores of intact material, fractured material has been investigated in bespoke shear apparatus. Experimental results have shown that the transmission of gas by fractures is highly localised, dependent on normal stress, varies with shear, is strongly linked with stress history, is highly temporal in nature, and shows a clear correlation with fracture angle. Several orders of magnitude variation in fracture transmissivity is seen during individual tests. Flow experiments have been conducted using gas and water, showing remarkably different behaviour. The radioactive waste industry has also noted a number of important features related to sample preservation. Differences in gas entry pressure have been shown across many laboratories and these may be

  18. The physicochemical characteristics and anaerobic degradability of desiccated coconut industry waste water.

    PubMed

    Chanakya, H N; Khuntia, Himanshu Kumar; Mukherjee, Niranjan; Aniruddha, R; Mudakavi, J R; Thimmaraju, Preeti

    2015-12-01

    Desiccated coconut industries (DCI) create various intermediates from fresh coconut kernel for cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The mechanized and non-mechanized DCI process between 10,000 and 100,000 nuts/day to discharge 6-150 m(3) of malodorous waste water leading to a discharge of 264-6642 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) daily. In these units, three main types of waste water streams are coconut kernel water, kernel wash water and virgin oil waste water. The effluent streams contain lipids (1-55 g/l), suspended solids (6-80 g/l) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) at concentrations that are inhibitory to anaerobic bacteria. Coconut water contributes to 20-50% of the total volume and 50-60% of the total organic loads and causes higher inhibition of anaerobic bacteria with an initial lag phase of 30 days. The lagooning method of treatment widely adopted failed to appreciably treat the waste water and often led to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (propionic acid) along with long-chain unsaturated free fatty acids. Biogas generation during biological methane potential (BMP) assay required a 15-day adaptation time, and gas production occurred at low concentrations of coconut water while the other two streams did not appear to be inhibitory. The anaerobic bacteria can mineralize coconut lipids at concentrations of 175 mg/l; however; they are severely inhibited at a lipid level of ≥350 mg/g bacterial inoculum. The modified Gompertz model showed a good fit with the BMP data with a simple sigmoid pattern. However, it failed to fit experimental BMP data either possessing a longer lag phase and/or diauxic biogas production suggesting inhibition of anaerobic bacteria.

  19. Substituting energy crops with organic wastes and agro-industrial residues for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Schievano, Andrea; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Adani, Fabrizio

    2009-06-01

    In this study, industrial and agro-industrial by-products and residues (BRs), animal manures (AMs), and various types of organic wastes (OWs) were analyzed to evaluate their suitability as substitutes for energy crops (ECs) in biogas production. A comparison between the costs of the volume of biogas that can be produced from each substrate was presented with respect to the prices of the substrates in the Italian market. Furthermore, four different feeding mixtures were compared with a mixture of EC and swine manure (Mixture A) used in a full-scale plant in Italy. Swine manure is always included as a basic substrate in the feeding mixtures, because many of the Italian biogas plants are connected to farms. When EC were partially substituted with BR (Mixture B), the cost (0.28 euro Nm(-3)) of the volume of biogas of Mixture A dropped to 0.18 euro Nm(-3). Furthermore, when the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and olive oil sludge (OS) were used as possible solutions (Mixtures C and D), the costs of the volume of biogas were -0.20 and 0.11euroNm(-3), respectively. The negative price signifies that operators earn money for treating the waste. For the fifth mix (Mixture E) of the OFMSW with a high solid substrate, such as glycerin from biodiesel production, the resulting cost of the volume of biogas produced was -0.09 euro Nm(-3). By comparing these figures, it is evident that the biogas plants at farm level are good candidates for treating organic residues of both municipalities and the agro-industrial sector in a cost-effective way, and in providing territorially diffused electric and thermal power. This may represent a potential development for agrarian economy.

  20. Innovative approach to facilitate reuse of nonhazardous industrial solid waste as building material

    SciTech Connect

    St-Laurent, S.G.; Boutin, A.

    1997-12-31

    The steel industry generates large volumes of inorganic nonhazardous solid waste. During the last five years, Quebec`s steel industry has developed new technologies to recover metal from slags and tailings. Since these processes recover 10 to 30 percent of the metal, large volumes of nonhazardous residues still need to be recycled or disposed of. In order to encourage recycling initiatives, le Ministere de l`Environnement et de la Faune du Quebec (MEF) (Quebec`s Ministry of Environment and Wildlife) established guidelines for the management of nonhazardous industrial solid waste. The aim of these guidelines is to propose a test procedure to evaluate the quality of the material and to define material classes based on their potential for reuse. The evaluation procedure is based on standard tests, generally used for the evaluation of stabilized and solidified hazardous waste. The protocol includes an analysis of the total content of metals in the residue, the determination of the acid neutralization capacity and the prediction of the acid generation potential when the residue contains significant levels of sulfides. The protocol includes three different leachate tests in order to evaluate the mobility of contaminants present in the residue. The leaching procedures are: (1) an equilibrium extraction with water, (2) a modified TCLP extraction, and (3) an acid rain simulation effect extraction. A method is actually under development to collect leachate from a material pile subject to 18 months of rainfall. Materials are categorized into different classes according to their test results. Various potential reuse options are associated with material classes. Evaluation criteria were defined by using water quality standards and results obtained by testing reference construction material supplied by the Quebec`s Ministere des Transports (Ministry of Transportation).

  1. Recycling of hazardous waste from tertiary aluminium industry in a value-added material.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo-Delgado, Laura; López-Delgado, Aurora; López, Félix Antonio; Alguacil, Francisco José; López-Andrés, Sol

    2011-02-01

    The recent European Directive on waste, 2008/98/EC seeks to reduce the exploitation of natural resources through the use of secondary resource management. Thus the main objective of this study was to explore how a waste could cease to be considered as waste and could be utilized for a specific purpose. In this way, a hazardous waste from the tertiary aluminium industry was studied for its use as a raw material in the synthesis of an added-value product, boehmite. This waste is classified as a hazardous residue, principally because in the presence of water or humidity, it releases toxic gases such as hydrogen, ammonia, methane and hydrogen sulfide. The low temperature hydrothermal method developed permits the recovery of 90% of the aluminium content in the residue in the form of a high purity (96%) AlOOH (boehmite). The method of synthesis consists of an initial HCl digestion followed by a gel precipitation. In the first stage a 10% HCl solution is used to yield a 12.63 g L(-1) Al( 3+) solution. In the second stage boehmite is precipitated in the form of a gel by increasing the pH of the acid Al(3+) solution by adding 1 mol L(-1) NaOH solution. Several pH values were tested and boehmite was obtained as the only crystalline phase at pH 8. Boehmite was completely characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and scanning electron microscopy. A study of its thermal behaviour was also carried out by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis.

  2. Very, Very Fast Wetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacqmin, David; Lee, Chi-Ming (Technical Monitor); Salzman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Just after formation, optical fibers are wetted stably with acrylate at capillary numbers routinely exceeding 1000. It is hypothesized that this is possible because of dissolution of air into the liquid coating. A lubrication/boundary integral analysis that includes gas diffusion and solubility is developed. It is applied using conservatively estimated solubility and diffusivity coefficients and solutions are found that are consistent with industry practice and with the hypothesis. The results also agree with the claim of Deneka, Kar & Mensah (1988) that the use of high solubility gases to bathe a wetting line allows significantly greater wetting speeds. The solutions indicate a maximum speed of wetting which increases with gas solubility and with reduction in wetting-channel diameter.

  3. Synthesis of hydroxy sodalite from coal fly ash using waste industrial brine solution.

    PubMed

    Musyoka, Nicholas M; Petrik, Leslie F; Balfour, Gillian; Gitari, Wilson M; Hums, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The effect of using industrial waste brine solution instead of ultra pure water was investigated during the synthesis of zeolites using three South African coal fly ashes as Si feedstock. The high halide brine was obtained from the retentate effluent of a reverse osmosis mine water treatment plant. Synthesis conditions applied were; ageing of fly ash was at 47 ° C for 48 hours, and while the hydrothermal treatment temperature was set at 140 ° C for 48 hours. The use of brine as a solvent resulted in the formation of hydroxy sodalite zeolite although unconverted mullite and hematite from the fly ash feedstock was also found in the synthesis product.

  4. Industrial halide wastes cause acute mortality of snow geese in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andreasen, J.K.; Stroud, Richard K.

    1987-01-01

    An examination of 97 dead migratory waterfowl collected at an industrial facility showed that the birds had had severe gastric and intestinal hemorrhaging. Water samples taken at on-site waste lagoons contained 6,750 mg/L fluoride, 4,500 mg/L bromine and 1,500 mg/L boron. Brain and liver tissues contained high levels of fluoride, as compared with tissues of birds collected at a control site. From the necropsy results, the high concentration of fluoride in the water samples and the elevated tissue residues, we conclude that the birds died from acute fluoride poisoning.

  5. Lipase production by Penicillium restrictum using solid waste of industrial babassu oil production as substrate.

    PubMed

    Palma, M B; Pinto, A L; Gombert, A K; Seitz, K H; Kivatinitz, S C; Castilho, L R; Freire, D M

    2000-01-01

    Lipase, protease, and amylase production by Penicillium restrictum in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The basal medium was an industrial waste of babassu oil (Orbignya oleifera) production. It was enriched with peptone, olive oil, and Tween-80. The supplementation positively influenced both enzyme production and fungal growth. Media enriched with Tween-80 provided the highest protease activity (8.6 U/g), whereas those enriched with peptone and olive oil led to the highest lipase (27.8 U/g) and amylase (31.8 U/g) activities, respectively.

  6. Radiological Monitoring Results for Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2012-October 31, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1 (formerly LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  7. Radiological Monitoring Results for Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2011-October 31, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Mike lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1 (formerly LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  8. Radiological Monitoring Results For Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: May 1, 2010-October 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond (#LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  9. Radiological Monitoring Results For Groundwater Samples Associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond: November 1, 2010-October 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report summarizes radiological monitoring performed on samples from specific groundwater monitoring wells associated with the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond (No.LA-000160-01). The radiological monitoring was performed to fulfill Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act.

  10. In-situ evaluation of the degradable carbon influence for industrial waste water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayomi, O. S. I.; Olukanni, D. O.; Fayomi, G. U.; Joseph, O. O.; Popoola, A. P. I.

    2016-07-01

    A photochemical investigation and synergetic blend for wastewater purification was carried out. Blends of different peels: Potato-, Apple and Pineapples-peals (PAP-peals) were impregnated with aqueous solutions of ZnCl2 following the variant of the incipient wetness method for activation of activated carbon (AC). Different concentrations were used to produce impregnation ratios. Activation was carried out in a tube furnace by heating to 700°C with 1 hour soaking time. Scanning Electron Microscopic with attached energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS), Atomic Adsorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIS) equipments were used for the characterization of the AC produced. The result shows that PAP-peals derived activated carbons had micro porous characteristics. The study revealed that these new combined adsorbents materials are inexpensive, easily available and they have applications for the removal of Cu, Pb and Cr contained in industrial effluents.

  11. Quantitative analysis of ammonium salts in coking industrial liquid waste treatment process based on Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ya-Nan; Wang, Gui-Shi; Tan, Tu; Cai, Ting-Dong; Liu, Kun; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Gong-Dong; Mei, Jiao-Xu

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative analysis of ammonium salts in the process of coking industrial liquid waste treatment is successfully performed based on a compact Raman spectrometer combined with partial least square (PLS) method. Two main components (NH4SCN and (NH4)2S2O3) of the industrial mixture are investigated. During the data preprocessing, wavelet denoising and an internal standard normalization method are employed to improve the predicting ability of PLS models. Moreover, the PLS models with different characteristic bands for each component are studied to choose a best resolution. The internal and external calibration results of the validated model show a mass percentage error below 1% for both components. Finally, the repeatabilities and reproducibilities of Raman and reference titration measurements are also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41405022 and 61475068).

  12. Recovery of waste heat from industrial slags via modified float glass process

    SciTech Connect

    Serth, R.W.; Ctvrtnicek, T.E.; McCormick, R.J.; Zanders, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A novel process for recovering waste heat from molten slags produced as by-products in the steel, copper, and elemental phosphorus industries is investigated. The process is based on technology developed in the glass industry for the commercial production of flat glass. In this process, energy is recovered from molten slag as it cools and solidifies on the surface of a pool of molten tin. In order to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the process, an energy recovery facility designed to handle the slag from a large elemental phosphorus plant is studied. Results indicate that the process is marginally economical at current energy price levels. A number of technical uncertainties in the process design are also identified. 9 refs.

  13. Intensifying of the processes of mechanical separation of oil products from industrial waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Kostova, I.

    1995-11-01

    The raised requirements for discharge of industrial effluents in the Black Sea and in the rivers lead to the development of more efficient technologies for additional treatment and improving the existing facilities. Pollutants with concentrations which are several times higher than the admissible rates according to the Bulgarian Standards, are found at many places along the Black Sea Coast. This is due to the imperfect construction of the water treatment facilities and their improper maintenance. Oil products are one of the main pollutants in water basins. The negative influence which they have on the ecological balance comes from the fact that they are among the most difficulty and slowly dissociating organic substances. They have negative impact on the physical and chemical qualities of water and obstruct the self-purification process disrupting its biological life. In this paper the opportunity to intensify the processes of mechanical separation of oil products from industrial waste water is discussed.

  14. Subcritical and supercritical water oxidation of organic, wet wastes for carbon cycling in regenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Lasseur, Christophe; Rebeyre, Pierre; Clauwaert, Peter; Luther, Amanda; Rabaey, Korneel; Zhang, Dong Dong; López Barreiro, Diego; Prins, Wolter; Brilman, Wim

    2016-07-01

    For long-term human spaceflight missions, one of the major requirements is the regenerative life support system which has to be capable of recycling carbon, nutrients and water from both solid and liquid wastes generated by the crew and by the local production of food through living organisms (higher plants, fungi, algae, bacteria, …). The European Space Agency's Life Support System, envisioned by the MELiSSA project, consists of a 5 compartment artificial ecosystem, in which the waste receiving compartment (so-called compartment I or briefly 'CI') is based on thermophilic fermentation. However, as the waste generated by the crew compartment and food production compartment contain typical plant fibres (lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose), these recalcitrant fibres end up largely unaffected in the digestate (sludge) generated in the C-I compartment. Therefore, the C-I compartment has to be supplemented with a so-called fibre degradation unit (in short, FDU) for further oxidation or degradation of said plant fibres. A potential solution to degrading these plant fibres and other recalcitrant organics is their oxidation, by means of subcritical or supercritical water, into reusable CO2 while retaining the nutrients in an organic-free liquid effluent. By taking advantage of the altered physicochemical properties of water above or near its critical point (647 K, 22.1 MPa) - including increased solubility of non-polar compounds and oxygen, ion product and diffusivity - process conditions can be created for rapid oxidation of C into CO2. In this research, the oxidizer is provided as a hydrogen peroxide solution which, at elevated temperature, will dissociated into O2. The purpose of this study is to identify ideal process conditions which (a) ensure complete oxidation of carbon, (b) retaining the nutrients other than C in the liquid effluent and (c) require as little oxidizer as possible. Experiments were conducted on a continuous, tubular heated reactor and on batch

  15. Comparison of soil heavy metal pollution caused by e-waste recycling activities and traditional industrial operations.

    PubMed

    He, Kailing; Sun, Zehang; Hu, Yuanan; Zeng, Xiangying; Yu, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-02-23

    The traditional industrial operations are well recognized as an important source of heavy metal pollution, while that caused by the e-waste recycling activities, which have sprouted in some developing countries, is often overlooked. This study was carried out to compare the status of soil heavy metal pollution caused by the traditional industrial operations and the e-waste recycling activities in the Pearl River Delta, and assess whether greater attention should be paid to control the pollution arising from e-waste recycling activities. Both the total contents and the chemical fractionation of major heavy metals (As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) in 50 surface soil samples collected from the e-waste recycling areas and 20 soil samples from the traditional industrial zones were determined. The results show that the soils in the e-waste recycling areas were mainly polluted by Cu, Zn, As, and Cd, while Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were the major heavy metals in the soils from the traditional industrial zones. Statistical analyses consistently show that Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in the surface soils from both types of sites were contributed mostly by human activities, while As, Cr, and Ni in the soils were dominated by natural background. No clear distinction was found on the pollution characteristic of heavy metals in the surface soils between the e-waste recycling areas and traditional industrial zones. The potential ecological risk posed by heavy metals in the surface soils from both types of sites, which was dominated by that from Cd, ranged from low to moderate. Given the much shorter development history of e-waste recycling and its largely unregulated nature, significant efforts should be made to crack down on illegal e-waste recycling and strengthen pollution control for related activities.

  16. Evaluation of Wet Chemical ICP-AES Elemental Analysis Methods usingSimulated Hanford Waste Samples-Phase I Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Charles J.; Edwards, Thomas B.

    2005-04-30

    The wet chemistry digestion method development for providing process control elemental analyses of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Melter Feed Preparation Vessel (MFPV) samples is divided into two phases: Phase I consists of: (1) optimizing digestion methods as a precursor to elemental analyses by ICP-AES techniques; (2) selecting methods with the desired analytical reliability and speed to support the nine-hour or less turnaround time requirement of the WTP; and (3) providing baseline comparison to the laser ablation (LA) sample introduction technique for ICP-AES elemental analyses that is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Phase II consists of: (1) Time-and-Motion study of the selected methods from Phase I with actual Hanford waste or waste simulants in shielded cell facilities to ensure that the methods can be performed remotely and maintain the desired characteristics; and (2) digestion of glass samples prepared from actual Hanford Waste tank sludge for providing comparative results to the LA Phase II study. Based on the Phase I testing discussed in this report, a tandem digestion approach consisting of sodium peroxide fusion digestions carried out in nickel crucibles and warm mixed-acid digestions carried out in plastic bottles has been selected for Time-and-Motion study in Phase II. SRNL experience with performing this analytical approach in laboratory hoods indicates that well-trained cell operator teams will be able to perform the tandem digestions in five hours or less. The selected approach will produce two sets of solutions for analysis by ICP-AES techniques. Four hours would then be allocated for performing the ICP-AES analyses and reporting results to meet the nine-hour or less turnaround time requirement. The tandem digestion approach will need to be performed in two separate shielded analytical cells by two separate cell operator teams in order to achieve the nine-hour or less turnaround

  17. Synthesis of dawsonite: a method to treat the etching waste streams of the aluminium anodising industry.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Nugteren, H W

    2005-05-01

    Synthesis of dawsonite was studied as a way to deal with the etching waste streams of the aluminium anodising industry in order to reduce the emissions to the environment and also to recover useful and marketable mineral resource materials. The process of synthesis was carried out using two different waste streams arising from the etching section of an anodising process when a cascade rinsing system is employed, the spent etching bath solution (132 g/l of Al and 151 g/l of Na), and the first stage effluent from the cascade rinsing system (67 g/l of Al and 71 g/l of Na). The synthesis of dawsonite was studied as a function of NaHCO3/Al molar ratio (1-10), crystallization temperature (30-150 degrees C), and reaction time (2-48 h) using supersaturated NaHCO3 solutions. A NaHCO3/Al molar ratio of 3 was optimal to obtain dawsonite as a single phase, and a reaction time of 24 h and high crystallization temperature (150 degrees C) to improve its crystallinity. The mineral characterisation was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA), all of which indicated characteristics typical of the desired compound. Almost 100% of the aluminium initially present in the etching waste streams was recovered in the form of dawsonite when the appropriate conditions for its synthesis were used.

  18. Heavy equipment maintenance wastes and environmental management in the mining industry.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2002-10-01

    Maintenance wastes, if not managed properly, represent significant environmental issues for mining operations. Petroleum hydrocarbon liquid wastes were studied at an Australian site and a review of the literature and technology vendors was carried out to identify oil/water separation technologies. Treatment technologies and practices for managing oily wastewater, used across the broader mining industry in the Asia-Pacific region, were also identified. Key findings from the study were: (1) primary treatment is required to remove grease oil contamination and to protect secondary oily wastewater treatment systems from being overloaded; (2) selection of an effective secondary treatment system is dependent on influent oil droplet size and concentration, suspended solids concentration, flow rates (and their variability), environmental conditions, maintenance schedules and effectiveness, treatment targets and costs; and (3) oily wastewater treatment systems, based on mechanical separation, are favoured over those that are chemically based, as they simplify operational requirements. Source reduction, through housekeeping, equipment and reagent modifications, and segregation and/or consolidation of hydrocarbon waste streams, minimizes treatment costs, safety and environmental impact.

  19. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology.

    PubMed

    Cubas, A L V; Machado, M M; Pinto, C R S C; Moecke, E H S; Dutra, A R A

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 °C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin).

  20. Usability of food industry waste oils as fuel for diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Winfried, Russ; Roland, Meyer-Pittroff; Alexander, Dobiasch; Jürgen, Lachenmaier-Kölch

    2008-02-01

    Two cogeneration units were each fitted with a prechamber (IDI) diesel engine in order to test the feasibility of using waste oils from the food industry as a fuel source, and additionally to test emissions generated by the combustion of these fuels. Esterified waste oils and animal fats as well as mustard oil were tested and compared to the more or less "common" fuels: diesel, rapeseed oil and rapeseed methyl ester. The results show that, in principle, each of these fuels is suitable for use in a prechamber diesel engine. Engine performance can be maintained at a constant level. Without catalytic conversion, the nitrogen oxides emissions were comparable. A significant reduction in NO(x) was achieved through the injection of urea. Combining a urea injection with the SCR catalytic converter reduced NO(x) emissions between 53% and 67%. The carbon monoxide emissions from waste oils are not significantly different from those of "common" fuels and can be reduced the same way as of hydrocarbon emissions, through utilization of a catalytic converter. The rate of carbon monoxide reduction by catalytic conversion was 84-86%. A lower hydrocarbon concentration was associated with fuels of agricultural origin. With the catalytic converter a reduction of 29-42% achieved. Each prechamber diesel engine exhibited its own characteristic exhaust, which was independent of fuel type. The selective catalytic reduction of the exhaust emissions can be realized without restriction using fuels of agricultural origin.

  1. Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of a dilute biosolid industrial waste product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental measurements were made of upwelled spectral signatures of various concentrations of industrial waste products mixed with water in a large water tank. Radiance and reflectance spectra for a biosolid waste product (sludge) mixed with conditioned tap water and natural river water are reported. Results of these experiments indicate that reflectance increases with increasing concentration of the sludge at practically all wavelengths for concentration of total suspended solids up to 117 ppm in conditioned tap water and 171 ppm in natural river water. Significant variations in the spectra were observed and may be useful in defining spectral characteristics for this waste product. No significant spectral differences were apparent in the reflectance spectra of the two experiments, especially for wavelengths greater than 540 nm. Reflectance values, however, were generally greater in natural river water for wavelengths greater than 540 nm. Reflectance may be considered to increase linearly with concentration of total suspended solids from 5 to 171 ppm at all wavelengths without introducing errors larger than 10 percent.

  2. Valorization of Palm Oil Industrial Waste as Feedstock for Lipase Production.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Erick A; Tardioli, Paulo W; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2016-06-01

    The use of residues from the industrial processing of palm oil as carbon source and inducer for microbial lipase production can be a way to add value to such residues and to contribute to reduced enzyme costs. The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of using palm oil industrial waste as feedstock for lipase production in different cultivation systems. Evaluation was made of lipase production by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger cultivated under solid-state (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF). Lipase activity levels up to 15.41 IU/mL were achieved under SSF. The effects of pH and temperature on the lipase activity of the SSF extract were evaluated using statistical design methodology, and maximum activities were obtained between pH 4.0 and 6.5 and at temperatures between 37 and 55 °C. This lipase presented good thermal stability up to 60 °C and higher specificity towards long carbon chain substrates. The results demonstrate the potential application of palm oil industrial residues for lipase production and contribute to the technological advances needed to develop processes for industrial enzymes production.

  3. Properties of bacterial laccases and their application in bioremediation of industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ram; Chowdhary, Pankaj

    2015-02-01

    The bioremediation process of industrial waste can be made more efficient using ligninolytic laccase enzymes, which are obtained from fungi, bacteria, higher plants, insects, and also in lichen. Laccase are catalyzed in the mono-electronic oxidation of a substrate from the expenditure of molecular oxygen. This enzyme belongs to the multicopper oxidases and participates in the cross linking of monomers, involved in the degradation of wide range industrial pollutants. In recent years, these enzymes have gained application in pulp and paper, textile and food industries. There are numerous reviews on laccases; however, a lot of information is still unknown due to their broad range of functions and applications. In this review, the bacterial laccases are focused for the bioremediation of various industrial pollutants. A brief description on structural molecular and physicochemical properties has been made. Moreover, the mechanism by which the reaction is catalyzed, the physical basis of thermostability and enantioselectivity, which requires more attention from researchers, and applications of laccase in various fields of biotechnology are pointed out.

  4. An investigation of carbon release rate via leachate from an industrial solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jong; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Tojo, Yasumasa

    2011-06-01

    Long-term behaviour of leachate pollutants is a key factor to estimate time and cost required for the leachate treatment in landfills. Estimating carbon release via leachate can be a good way by which to understand the long-term behaviour, however, most studies have had a timeline of only several months or years. In this study, a release rate of carbon via leachate for 20 years was estimated at an industrial solid waste landfill. The total carbon content in dumped waste was estimated based on combustible contents determined by collecting samples from other industrial landfills and pretreatment facilities, and carbon contents in literature values. Leachate quantity data, which were not recorded for the first ten years, were estimated using a macro-moisture balance model including the effect of snow melt. Because leachate quantity and quality at each site were only measured after leachates were mixed, the quantity at each site was calculated by assuming infiltration rates with and without final cover. Results indicated that less than 2% of total input carbon was released from each site via leachate regardless of landfill age.

  5. Risk of boron and heavy metal pollution from agro-industrial wastes applied for plant nutrition.

    PubMed

    Seçer, Müzeyyen; Ceylan, Safak; Elmaci, Omer Lütfü; Akdemir, Hüseyin

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the effects of various agro-industrial wastes were investigated when applied to soil alone or in combination with chemical fertilizers, regarding the risks of boron and heavy metal pollution of soils and plants. Nine combinations of production residues from various agro-industries, urban wastes, and mineral fertilizers were applied to potatoes in a field experiment. The content of available boron in the soil differed significantly (p < 0.05) among the applications. Generally, B values were found to be slightly higher when soapstock, prina, and blood were used alone or in combination. Although total Co, Cd, and Pb contents of soils showed no significant differences between the applications, Cr content differed significantly (p < 0.05). No pollution risk was observed in soil in respect to total Co, Cd, Pb, and Cr contents. The amount of boron and heavy metals in leaves showed no significant differences among the applications. Cobalt, Cd, and Pb in leaves were at normal levels whereas Cr was slightly above normal but well under the critical level. Boron was low in tubers and varied significantly between applications such as Co and Cd. The Co content of tubers was high, Cd and Cr contents were below average, and Pb content was between the given values. Some significant correlations were found between soil characteristics and the boron and heavy metal content of soil, leaves, and tubers.

  6. Hydraulic behavior of calcium sulfoaluminate-based cements derived from industrial process wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Beretka, J.; Sherman, N. . Div. of Building); Vito, B. de . Dipt. di Ingegneria dei Materiali e della Produzione); Santoro, L. . Dipt. di Chimica); Valenti, G.L. . Dipt. di Ingegneria e Fisica dell'Ambiente)

    1993-09-01

    The manufacture of cements based on calcium sulfoaluminate (C[sub 4]A[sub 3][bar S]) [In this paper, the notation adopted in cement chemistry, vis. C=CO, A=Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], [bar S]=SO[sub 3], S=SiO[sub 2], and H=H[sub 2]O, has been used.] requires lower firing temperatures and lower grinding energy, as compared to ordinary Portland cements (OPC). Some of these low-energy cements can be formulated in order to develop high early strength and other performances similar to OPC. Further interest towards these types of cements relies on the possibility of using industrial process wastes as raw materials for their manufacture. It has been found that a number of industrial wastes and by-products such as phosphogypsum, bauxite fines, fly ash and blast furnace slag, can be employed without negatively affecting the hydraulic behavior of cements of planned C[sub 4]A[sub 3][bar S]:[beta]-C[sub 2]S:C[bar S] weight ratio 1.5:1:1. Blast furnace slag and fly ash can also be advantageously used as blending components of the fired products.

  7. Exploring high-strength glass-ceramic materials for upcycling of industrial wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Gu-Seul; Park, Hyun Seo; Seo, Sung Mo; Jung, Woo-Gwang

    2015-11-01

    To promote the recycling of industrial waste and to develop value-added products using these resources, the possibility of manufacturing glass-ceramic materials of SiO2-CaO-Al2O3 system has been investigated by various heat treatment processes. Glass-ceramic materials with six different chemical compositions were prepared using steel industry slags and power plant waste by melting, casting and heat treatment. The X-ray diffraction results indicated that diopside and anorthite were the primary phases in the samples. The anorthite phase was formed in SiO2-rich material (at least 43 wt%). In CaO-rich material, the gehlenite phase was formed. By the differential scanning calorimetry analyses, it was found that the glass transition point was in the range of 973-1023 K, and the crystallization temperature was in the range of 1123-1223 K. The crystallization temperature increased as the content of Fe2O3 decreased. By the multi-step heat treatment process, the formation of the anorthite phase was enhanced. Using FactSage, the ratio of various phases was calculated as a function of temperature. The viscosities and the latent heats for the samples with various compositions were also calculated by FactSage. The optimal compositions for glass-ceramics materials were discussed in terms of their compressive strength, and micro-hardness.

  8. Mechanical and wear characteristics of epoxy composites filled with industrial wastes: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, A.; Satapathy, A.

    2017-02-01

    Use of industrial wastes, such as slag and sludge particles, as filler in polymers is not very common in the field of composite research. Therefore in this paper, a comparison of mechanical characteristics of epoxy based composites filled with LD sludge, BF slag and LD slag (wastes generated in iron and steel industries) were presented. A comparative study among these composites in regard to their dry sliding wear characteristics under similar test conditions was also included. Composites with different weight proportions (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.%) of LD sludge were fabricated by solution casting technique. Mechanical properties were evaluated as per ASTM test standards and sliding wear test was performed following a design of experiment approach based on Taguchi’s orthogonal array. The test results for epoxy-LD sludge composites were compared with those of epoxy-BF slag and epoxy-LD slag composites reported by previous investigators. The comparison reveals that epoxy filled with LD sludge exhibits superior mechanical and wear characteristics among the three types of composites considered in this study.

  9. Application of food industry waste to agricultural soils mitigates green house gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M T; Voroney, R P; Khalid, M

    2010-01-01

    Application of organic waste materials such as food processing and serving industry cooking oil waste (OFW) can recycle soil nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N), which is otherwise prone to leaching after the harvest of crop. Nitrogen (N) recycling will not only reduce the amount of N fertilizer application for corn crop production but is also expected to mitigate green house gas (GHG) emissions by saving energy to be used for the production of the same amount of industrial fertilizer N required for the growth of corn crop. Application of OFW at 10Mg solid ha(-1)y(-1) conserved 68 kg N ha(-1)y(-1) which ultimately saved 134 L diesel ha(-1)y(-1), which would otherwise be used for the production of fertilizer N as urea. Average fossil energy substitution value (FESV) of N conserved/recycled was calculated to be 93 US$ ha(-1)y(-1), which is about 13 million US$y(-1). Potential amount of GHG mitigation through the application of OFW to agricultural soils in Canada is estimated to be 57 Gg CO(2)Eq y(-1).

  10. Waste disposal and treatment in the food-processing industry. March 1985-October 1989 (Citations from the Biobusiness data base). Report for March 1985-October 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food-processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. Specific areas include waste-heat recovery, meat processing, seafood processing, dairy wastes, beverage industry, fruits and vegetables, and other food-industry wastes. Waste utilization includes animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, conversion to fertilizer, composting, and recovery and recycling of usable chemicals. Food-packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 169 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  11. The use of commercial and industrial waste in energy recovery systems - A UK preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lupa, Christopher J; Ricketts, Lois J; Sweetman, Andy; Herbert, Ben M J

    2011-08-01

    With 2020 energy targets set out by the EU fast approaching, the UK is trying to source a higher proportion of its energy from renewable resources. Coupled with this, a growing population and increasing trends in consumer demand have resulted in national waste loads increasing. A possible solution to both issues is energy-from-waste (EfW) technologies. Many studies have focused on municipal solid waste (MSW) as a potential feedstock, but appear to overlook the potential benefits of commercial and industrial waste (C&IW). In this study, samples of C&IW were collected from three North West waste management companies and Lancaster University campus. The samples were tested for their gross and net calorific value, moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, and also elemental composition to determine their suitability in EfW systems. Intra-sample analysis showed there to be little variation between samples with the exception two samples, from waste management site 3, which showed extensive variation with regards to net calorific value, ash content, and elemental analysis. Comparisons with known fuel types revealed similarities between the sampled C&IW, MSW, and refuse derived fuel (RDF) thereby justifying its potential for use in EfW systems. Mean net calorific value (NCV) was calculated as 9.47MJ/kg and concentrations of sulphur, nitrogen, and chlorine were found to be below 2%. Potential electrical output was calculated using the NCV of the sampled C&IW coupled with four differing energy generation technologies. Using a conventional incinerator with steam cycle, total electrical output was calculated as 24.9GWh, based on a plant operating at 100,000tpa. This value rose to 27.0GWh when using an integrated gasification combined cycle. A final aspect of this study was to deduce the potential total national electrical output if all suitable C&IW were to be used in EfW systems. Using incineration coupled with a steam turbine, this was determined to be 6TWh, 1.9% of

  12. Consideration of Thermoelectric Power Generation by Using Hot Spring Thermal Energy or Industrial Waste Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Keiichi; Horikawa, Daisuke; Goto, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Today, we face some significant environmental and energy problems such as global warming, urban heat island, and the precarious balance of world oil supply and demand. However, we have not yet found a satisfactory solution to these problems. Waste heat recovery is considered to be one of the best solutions because it can improve energy efficiency by converting heat exhausted from plants and machinery to electric power. This technology would also prevent atmospheric temperature increases caused by waste heat, and decrease fossil fuel consumption by recovering heat energy, thus also reducing CO2 emissions. The system proposed in this research generates electric power by providing waste heat or unharnessed thermal energy to built-in thermoelectric modules that can convert heat into electric power. Waste heat can be recovered from many places, including machinery in industrial plants, piping in electric power plants, waste incineration plants, and so on. Some natural heat sources such as hot springs and solar heat can also be used for this thermoelectric generation system. The generated power is expected to be supplied to auxiliary machinery around the heat source, stored as an emergency power supply, and so on. The attributes of this system are (1) direct power generation using hot springs or waste heat; (2) 24-h stable power generation; (3) stand-alone power system with no noise and no vibration; and (4) easy maintenance attributed to its simple structure with no moving parts. In order to maximize energy use efficiency, the temperature difference between both sides of the thermoelectric (TE) modules built into the system need to be kept as large as possible. This means it is important to reduce thermal resistance between TE modules and heat source. Moreover, the system's efficiency greatly depends on the base temperature of the heat sources and the material of the system's TE modules. Therefore, in order to make this system practical and efficient, it is necessary to

  13. Low-pressure catalytic wet-air oxidation of a high-strength industrial wastewater using Fenton's reagent.

    PubMed

    Biçaksiz, Zeliha; Aytimur, Gülin; Atalay, Süheyda

    2008-06-01

    Wastewater from the Afyon Alkaloids Factory (Afyon, Turkey) was subjected to low-pressure catalytic wet-air oxidation (CWAO) using Fenton's reagent, and the optimal reaction conditions were investigated. The CWAO using Fenton's reagent was applied to the factory effluent, diluted factory effluent, and aerobically pretreated wastewater. To find the optimum quantities of reagents, ferrous iron (Fe(+2))-to-substrate ratios of 1:10, 1:25, and 1:50 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-to-Fe(+2) ratios of 1, 5, and 10 were investigated, and the treatment was carried out at different temperatures. High chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals were obtained at 50 degrees C, with the Fe(+2)-to-substrate ratio range between 1:10 and 1:25. The change in H2O2-to-Fe(+2) ratios did not cause any considerable effect. Also, the percentages of COD removals were nearly the same, so the ratio H2O2:Fe(+2):1 is recommended. Aerobic pretreatment seems to be effective. On the other hand, no enhancement was observed in the case of the diluted wastewater.

  14. Wet air oxidation of resorcinol as a model treatment for refractory organics in wastewaters from the wood processing industry.

    PubMed

    Weber, Bernd; Chavez, Alma; Morales-Mejia, Julio; Eichenauer, Sabrina; Stadlbauer, Ernst A; Almanza, Rafael

    2015-09-15

    Wastewater treatment systems are important tools to enhance sustainability in terms of reducing environmental impact and complying with sanitary requirements. This work addresses the wet air oxidation (WAO) process for pre-treatment of phenolic wastewater effluents. The aim was to increase biodegradability prior to a subsequent anaerobic stage. In WAO laboratory experiments using a micro-autoclave, the model compound resorcinol was degraded under different oxygen availability regims within the temperature range 150 °C-270 °C. The activation energy was determined to be 51.5 kJ/mol. Analysis of the products revealed that after 3 h of reaction at 230 °C, 97.5% degradation of resorcinol was achieved. At 250 °C and the same reaction time complete removal of resorcinol was observed. In this case the total organic carbon content was reduced down to 29%, from 118.0 mg/L down to 34.4 mg/L. Under these process conditions, the pollutant was only partially mineralized and the ratio of the biological oxygen demand relative to the chemical oxygen demand, which is 0.07 for resorcinol, was increased to a value exceeding 0.5. The main by-product acetic acid, which is a preferred compound for methanogenic bacteria, was found to account for 33% of the total organic carbon.

  15. The Importance of Building and Enhancing Worldwide Industry Cooperation in the Areas of Radiological Protection, Waste Management and Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Saint-Pierre, S.

    2006-07-01

    The slow or stagnant rate of nuclear power generation development in many developed countries over the last two decades has resulted in a significant shortage in the population of mid-career nuclear industry professionals. This shortage is even more pronounced in some specific areas of expertise such as radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning. This situation has occurred at a time when the renaissance of nuclear power and the globalization of the nuclear industry are steadily gaining momentum and when the industry's involvement in international and national debates in these three fields of expertise (and the industry's impact on these debates) is of vital importance. This paper presents the World Nuclear Association (WNA) approach to building and enhancing worldwide industry cooperation in radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning, which is manifested through the activities of the two WNA working groups on radiological protection (RPWG) and on waste management and decommissioning (WM and DWG). This paper also briefly describes the WNA's participatory role, as of summer 2005, in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard development committees on radiation safety (RASSC), waste safety (WASSC) and nuclear safety (NUSSC). This participation provides the worldwide nuclear industry with an opportunity to be part of IAEA's discussions on shaping changes to the control regime of IAEA safety standards. The review (and the prospect of a revision) of IAEA safety standards, which began in October 2005, makes this WNA participation and the industry ' s involvement at the national level timely and important. All of this excellent industry cooperation and team effort is done through 'collegial' exchanges between key industry experts, which help tackle important issues more effectively. The WNA is continuously looking to enhance its worldwide industry representation in these fields of expertise through the RPWG and WM and DWG

  16. Waste/soil treatability studies for four complex industrial wastes: methodologies and results. Volume 2. Waste loading impacts on soil degradation, transformation, and immobilization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, R.C.; Sorensen, D.L.; Doucette, W.J.; Hastings, L.L.; Sims, J.L.

    1986-10-01

    The two-volume report presents information pertaining to quantitative evaluation of the soil-treatment potential resulting from waste-soil interaction studies for four specific wastes listed under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Volume 2 contains results from bench-scale waste-soil interaction studies; degradation, transformation, and immobilization data are presented for four specific wastes: API separator sludge, slop oil emulsion solids, pentachlorophenol wood preserving waste, and creosote wood-preserving waste. The scope of the study involved assessment of the potential for treatment of these hazardous wastes using soil as the treatment medium.

  17. Improving the mechanical characteristics and restraining heavy metal evaporation from sintered municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash by wet milling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chang-Jung; Li, Ming-Guo; Gau, Sue-Huai; Wang, Ya-Hui; Jan, Yi-Lin

    2011-11-15

    The milling process has a verified stabilizing effect on the leaching of heavy metals into the environment from municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash. The aim of this current study is to further improve and confirm the effectiveness of the process by exploring its effects on the evaporation of heavy metals and on the mechanical characteristics of the sintered MSWI fly ash. The chemical composition of the MSWI fly ash is first altered by the addition of water treatment plant sludge (WTS) and cullet, and then processed to produce sintered specimens suitable for reuse as an aggregate. In the experiments, fly ash, WTS and cullet (40%: 30%: 30%, respectively) were mixed and milled for 1h. Samples were sintered for 60 min at temperatures of 850, 900, 950 and 1000°C. Test results confirm that milling increased the compressive strength of the sintered specimens. The compressive strength of unmilled specimens sintered at 900°C was only 90 kg/cm(2), but that of milled specimens was 298 kg/cm(2) when sintered at only 850°C. There was also an improvement in the soundness ranging from 11.04% to 0.02% and a reduction in the evaporation rates of Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr and Zn from 54-64%, 43-49%, 38-43%, 30-40% and 14-35% (900-1000°C) to 19-21%, 19-21%, 14-19%, 12-19% and 14-17% (850-1000°C), respectively. The improvement in compressive strength was attained by the combination in the liquid sintering stage of powdered ash with the amorphous material. The amorphousness of the material also helped to seal the surface of the fly ash, thereby reducing the evaporation of heavy metals during the heating process.

  18. Phosphorus recovery as struvite from farm, municipal and industrial waste: Feedstock suitability, methods and pre-treatments.

    PubMed

    Kataki, Sampriti; West, Helen; Clarke, Michèle; Baruah, D C

    2016-03-01

    Global population growth requires intensification of agriculture, for which a sustainable supply of phosphorus (P) is essential. Since natural P reserves are diminishing, recovering P from wastes and residues is an increasingly attractive prospect, particularly as technical and economic potential in the area is growing. In addition to providing phosphorus for agricultural use, precipitation of P from waste residues and effluents lessens their nutrient loading prior to disposal. This paper critically reviews published methods for P recovery from waste streams (municipal, farm and industrial) with emphasis on struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) crystallisation, including pre-treatments to maximise recovery. Based on compositional parameters of a range of wastes, a Feedstock Suitability Index (FSI) was developed as a guide to inform researchers and operators of the relative potential for struvite production from each waste.

  19. Combined incineration of industrial wastes with in-plant residues in fluidized-bed utility boilers--decision relevant factors.

    PubMed

    Ragossnig, Arne M; Lorber, Karl E

    2005-10-01

    In Austria more than 50% of the high-calorific industrial residues and wastes generated are utilized for energy recovery in industrial utility boilers. This study investigated full-scale trials of combined incineration of in-plant residues with various industrial wastes. These trials were carried out in order to learn how the alternatively used fuel influences the incineration process itself as well as the quantity and quality of the various incineration products. The currently used fuel, which consisted of in-plant residues as well as externally acquired waste wood and the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) mixtures used during the full-scale trials are characterized in terms of material composition as well as chemical and physical parameters. An input-output mass balance for the incineration plant (two fluidized bed combustion units, 20 and 30 MW, respectively) has been established, based on the data collected during the full-scale incineration trials. Furthermore, pollutant concentrations in the off-gas as well as the solid incineration residue are reported. It is not only the pollutant content but also a variety of other internal as well as external factors that have to be considered if a company is to decide whether or not to thermally utilize specific waste types. Therefore a strengths and weaknesses profile for several types of waste and the specific industrial boiler is also presented.

  20. Effect of acid hydrolysis and fungal biotreatment on agro-industrial wastes for obtainment of free sugars for bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    El-Tayeb, T.S.; Abdelhafez, A.A.; Ali, S.H.; Ramadan, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate selected chemical and microbiological treatments for the conversion of certain local agro-industrial wastes (rice straw, corn stalks, sawdust, sugar beet waste and sugarcane bagasse) to ethanol. The chemical composition of these feedstocks was determined. Conversion of wastes to free sugars by acid hydrolysis varied from one treatment to another. In single-stage dilute acid hydrolysis, increasing acid concentration from 1 % (v/v) to 5 % (v/v) decreased the conversion percentage of almost all treated agro-industrial wastes. Lower conversion percentages for some treatments were obtained when increasing the residence time from 90 to 120 min. The two-stage dilute acid hydrolysis by phosphoric acid (1.0 % v/v) followed by sulphuric acid (1.0 % v/v) resulted in the highest conversion percentage (41.3 % w/w) on treated sugar beet waste. This treatment when neutralized, amended with some nutrients and inoculated with baker’s yeast, achieved the highest ethanol concentration (1.0 % v/v). Formation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were functions of type of acid hydrolysis, acid concentration, residence time and feedstock type. The highest bioconversion of 5 % wastes (37.8 % w/w) was recorded on sugar beet waste by Trichoderma viride EMCC 107. This treatment when followed by baker’s yeast fermentation, 0.41 % (v/v) ethanol and 8.2 % (v/w) conversion coefficient were obtained. PMID:24031984

  1. Anaerobic digestion of municipal, industrial, and livestock wastes for energy recovery and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Sax, R.I.; Lusk, P.D.

    1995-11-01

    The degradation of carbonaceous organic material by anaerobic bacteria leads to the production of methane gas (biogas) at the theoretical stoichiometric conversion rate of 0.35-cubic meters of methane per kilogram of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reasonably close proximity to the site of this digestion process. The untreated biogas generated from anaerobic digestion typically contains from 55% to 75% methane content, with the balance consisting mainly of carbon dioxide and a small, but important, amount of hydrogen sulfide. The untreated biogas is normally saturated with water vapor at the temperature of the digestion process which typically is in the mesophilic range 25 to 38 degrees Celsius. This overview paper describes the types of anaerobic technologies which are presently used for the digestion of various type of municipal, industrial and livestock manure wastes, summarizes the principal developments which have taken place in the field during the past several years, and discusses the energy recovery economics for each of the three usage applications. The paper stratifies the use of anaerobic digestion technology for the treatment of wastewaters from industry (an application which has increased dramatically during the past decade) by geographical region, by industry type, very various categories of food processing, and by technology type, in all cases taking account of system size to emphasize the economics of energy production.

  2. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  3. Iron Cycling in Low pH Environments - Potential Application for the Recovery of Precious Metals from Industrial Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehe, E. M.; Helle, T.; Kappler, A.

    2014-12-01

    The use of many different precious metals (gold, platinum…) and Rare Earth Elements (lanthanum, neodymium…) in the production of electronic products is drastically increasing. To meet this demand, not only mining activities but recently also the recovery of these elements from industrial waste is in the focus of research. It has been shown that the application of extracting solutions with pH values lower than 4 lead to an economically feasible recovery of industrially precious metals. This abiotic extraction efficiency can potentially be increased by using microorganisms capable of dissolving more stable minerals at low pH. In collaboration with industry, a waste incineration plant, and governmental authorities, we investigate the extraction and recovery of strategically important metals and Rare Earth Elements from industrial waste. We optimize the (bio)-geochemical conditions for the extraction of these elements. To this end, a variety of microorganisms are evaluated for efficient metal extraction. We focus on known laboratory cultures capable of oxidizing and reducing Fe minerals and S compounds. Additionally, unknown microbial communities able to increase the efficiency of precious metal extraction from the industrial waste are enriched from environments with comparable geochemical conditions found in the extraction solutions.

  4. Comprehensive Planning for Classification and Disposal of Solid Waste at the Industrial Parks regarding Health and Environmental Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani Samani, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the comprehensive planning for integrated management of solid waste at the industrial parks. The share of each industrial group including food, metal, chemical, non-metallic minerals, textile, electrical and electronical, and cellulose industries were 48.2, 14.9, 6.7, 22, 0.9, 0.6, and 6.5 percent, respectively. The results showed that nearly half of total industrial waste produced from the range of biological materials are biodegradable and discharging them without observing environmental regulations leads to short-term pollution and nuisance in the acceptor environment. Also some parts of case study waste were recyclable which is considerable from viewpoint of economical and environmental pollution. Long-term impacts will appear due to improper site selection of disposal from the spatial standpoint. In this way, an approach for site selection using several socioeconomic, physical, and environmental criteria based on multicriteria decision making model (MCDM) is introduced. Health risks and environment pollution such as soil and surface water may be done. It is essential to revise the studied industries layout, particularly those units which produce special waste which should be more cautious. Also stricter enforcement is required as an effective step in reducing the harmful impacts of it. PMID:24688552

  5. Comprehensive planning for classification and disposal of solid waste at the industrial parks regarding health and environmental impacts.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Hassan; Pourzamani, Hamidreza; Rahmani Samani, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the comprehensive planning for integrated management of solid waste at the industrial parks. The share of each industrial group including food, metal, chemical, non-metallic minerals, textile, electrical and electronical, and cellulose industries were 48.2, 14.9, 6.7, 22, 0.9, 0.6, and 6.5 percent, respectively. The results showed that nearly half of total industrial waste produced from the range of biological materials are biodegradable and discharging them without observing environmental regulations leads to short-term pollution and nuisance in the acceptor environment. Also some parts of case study waste were recyclable which is considerable from viewpoint of economical and environmental pollution. Long-term impacts will appear due to improper site selection of disposal from the spatial standpoint. In this way, an approach for site selection using several socioeconomic, physical, and environmental criteria based on multicriteria decision making model (MCDM) is introduced. Health risks and environment pollution such as soil and surface water may be done. It is essential to revise the studied industries layout, particularly those units which produce special waste which should be more cautious. Also stricter enforcement is required as an effective step in reducing the harmful impacts of it.

  6. Hydrogen production from sugar industry wastes using single-stage photofermentation.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Tugba; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2012-05-01

    Beet molasses and black strap are two major waste streams of the sugar industry. They both contain high amounts of sucrose, making them suitable substrates for biological hydrogen production. Photofermentation, usually used to convert organic acids to hydrogen, has the potential capacity to effectively use a variety of feed stocks, including sugars. A comparative study on photofermentative biohydrogen production from beet molasses, black strap, and sucrose was conducted. With yields of 10.5 mol H(2)/mol sucrose for beet molasses (1g/l sugar); 8 mol H(2)/mol sucrose for black strap (1g/l sugar) and 14 mol H(2)/mol sucrose for pure sucrose, a one stage photofermentation system appears promising as an alternative to two-stage systems given the potential savings in energy input and operational costs.

  7. Burning of hazardous waste in boilers and industrial furnaces--EPA. Final rule: corrections; technical amendments.

    PubMed

    1991-07-17

    On February 21, 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a final rule to regulate air emissions from the burning of hazardous waste in boilers and industrial furnaces (56 FR 7134). Today's notice corrects typographical and editorial errors that appeared in the regulatory text, including corrections to appendices II and III, and adds two appendices, appendix IX and appendix X, to part 266. Appendices IX and X were not ready at the time of publication; therefore, a note was placed in the appropriate location in the rule to inform readers that these appendices were to be published at a later date. Copies of these appendices were, however, made available to the public through the RCRA Docket maintained at EPA and through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

  8. Column leaching test to evaluate the use of alkaline industrial wastes to neutralize acid mine tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Doye, I.; Duchesne, J.

    2005-08-01

    Acid mine drainage is a serious environmental problem caused by the oxidation of sulfide minerals that releases highly acidic, sulfate, and metals-rich drainage. In this study, alkaline industrial wastes were mixed with acid mine tailings in order to obtain neutral conditions. A series of column leaching tests were performed to evaluate the behavior of reactive mine tailings amended with alkaline-additions under dynamic conditions. Column tests were conducted of oxidized mine tailings combined with cement kiln dust, red mud bauxite, and mixtures of cement kiln dust with red mud bauxite. The pH results show the addition of 10% of alkaline materials permits the maintenance of near neutral conditions. In the presence of 10% alkaline material, the concentration of toxic metals such as Al, Cu, Fe, Zn are significantly reduced as well as the number of viable cells (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) compared to control samples.

  9. Manufacture and prebiotic potential of oligosaccharides derived from industrial solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Patricia; González-Muñoz, María Jesús; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2011-05-01

    The solid waste obtained in malting industries when dehulling barley grains, which was mainly made up of barley husks, spent grains and grain fragments, was subjected to a double hydrothermal processing under selected conditions. The liquor from the second stage (containing xylooligosaccharides, XOS) was refined by membrane and ion exchange processing (with or without a previous endoxylanase treatment to reduce the XOS molecular weight). Three XOS concentrates with different purity and/or molecular weight distribution were fermented in vitro with faecal inocula to assess their prebiotic potential. Succinate, lactate, formiate, acetate, propionate and butyrate were generated in fermentations, confirming the prebiotic potential of the various products assayed. The purity of XOS concentrates did not play a significant role in fermentation, whereas the sample with shorter average degree of polymerization presented a faster fermentation kinetics and led to the highest concentration of lactic acid.

  10. Amylase production by solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial wastes using Bacillus sp.

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Rajshree; Singh, Rajni

    2011-01-01

    Solid state fermentation was carried out using various agro- industrial wastes with the best amylase producing strain isolated from soil. Different physicochemical conditions were varied for maximum enzyme production. The strain produced about 5400 units/g of amylase at 1:3 moisture content, 20% inoculum, after 72 h of incubation with Mustard Oil seed cake as the substrate. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme activity were found to be 50°C and 6 respectively. The enzyme was found to be thermostable at 70°C for about 2 h without any salt. It showed stability at pH range 5–7. The metal ions as Na+, Ca++, Mg++ and Co++ enhanced the enzyme activity. PMID:24031761

  11. Amylase production by solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial wastes using Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Rajshree; Singh, Rajni

    2011-10-01

    Solid state fermentation was carried out using various agro- industrial wastes with the best amylase producing strain isolated from soil. Different physicochemical conditions were varied for maximum enzyme production. The strain produced about 5400 units/g of amylase at 1:3 moisture content, 20% inoculum, after 72 h of incubation with Mustard Oil seed cake as the substrate. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme activity were found to be 50°C and 6 respectively. The enzyme was found to be thermostable at 70°C for about 2 h without any salt. It showed stability at pH range 5-7. The metal ions as Na(+), Ca(++), Mg(++) and Co(++) enhanced the enzyme activity.

  12. Estimation of the atmospheric corrosion on metal containers in industrial waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Baklouti, M; Midoux, N; Mazaudier, F; Feron, D

    2001-08-17

    Solid industrial waste are often stored in metal containers filled with concrete, and placed in well-aerated warehouses. Depending on meteorological conditions, atmospheric corrosion can induce severe material damages to the metal casing, and this damage has to be predicted to achieve safe storage. This work provides a first estimation of the corrosivity of the local atmosphere adjacent to the walls of the container through a realistic modeling of heat transfer phenomena which was developed for this purpose. Subsequent simulations of condensation/evaporation of the water vapor in the atmosphere were carried out. Atmospheric corrosion rates and material losses are easily deduced. For handling realistic data and comparison, two different meteorological contexts were chosen: (1) an oceanic and damp atmosphere and (2) a drier storage location. Some conclusions were also made for the storage configuration in order to reduce the extent of corrosion phenomena.

  13. Chloride extraction for quality improvement of municipal solid waste incinerator ash for the concrete industry.

    PubMed

    Boghetich, Giancarlo; Liberti, Lorenzo; Notarnicola, Michele; Palma, Maria; Petruzzelli, Domenico

    2005-02-01

    Coal ash from power stations has long been used successfully in the cement industry as binders in several Portland formulations. This is not the case for municipal solid waste (MSW) ash as chloride concentrations, ranging from 10 to 200 g kg(-1) dry weight in the bottom and fly ash, respectively, exceed the maximum allowable concentration in most cement mixtures. To reduce chloride content in MSW bottom ash, a laboratory investigation was carried out based on the exhaustive washing in tap water. The influence of operative parameters such as temperature, granulometric properties and solid/liquid ratio of extraction was evaluated. In addition to optimization of the mentioned operative parameters for full-scale application, the paper gives preliminary indications on mechanistic aspects of the washing operation.

  14. A comprehensive review on pre-treatment strategy for lignocellulosic food industry waste: Challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose is a generic term used to describe plant biomass. It is the most abundant renewable carbon resource in the world and is mainly composed of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. Most of the food and food processing industry waste are lignocellulosic in nature with a global estimate of up to 1.3 billion tons/year. Lignocellulose, on hydrolysis, releases reducing sugars which is used for the production of bioethanol, biogas, organic acids, enzymes and biosorbents. However, structural conformation, high lignin content and crystalline cellulose hinder its use for value addition. Pre-treatment strategies facilitate the exposure of more cellulose and hemicelluloses for enzymatic hydrolysis. The present article confers about the structure of lignocellulose and how it influences enzymatic degradation emphasising the need for pre-treatments along with a comprehensive analysis and categorisation of the same. Finally, this article concludes with a detailed discussion on microbial/enzymatic inhibitors that arise post pre-treatment and strategies to eliminate them.

  15. Removal of DDD and DDE from wastewater using bagasse fly ash, a sugar industry waste.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V K; Ali, I

    2001-01-01

    Bagasse fly ash, a waste from the sugar industry, was converted into an effective adsorbent and was used for the removal of DDD [2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane] and DDE [2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene] pesticides from wastewater. The DDD and DDE are removed by the developed adsorbent up to 93% at pH 7.0, with the adsorbent dose of 5 g/l of particle size 200-250 microns at 30 degrees C. The removal of these two pesticides was achieved up to 97-98% in column experiments at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. The adsorption was found to be exothermic in nature. The bagasse fly ash system has been used for the removal of DDD and DDE from the wastewater. The developed system is very useful, economic, and reproducible.

  16. Response Surface Methodology for Optimizing the Production of Biosurfactant by Candida tropicalis on Industrial Waste Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Darne G.; Soares da Silva, Rita de Cássia F.; Luna, Juliana M.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2017-01-01

    Biosurfactant production optimization by Candida tropicalis UCP0996 was studied combining central composite rotational design (CCRD) and response surface methodology (RSM). The factors selected for optimization of the culture conditions were sugarcane molasses, corn steep liquor, waste frying oil concentrations and inoculum size. The response variables were surface tension and biosurfactant yield. All factors studied were important within the ranges investigated. The two empirical forecast models developed through RSM were found to be adequate for describing biosurfactant production with regard to surface tension (R2 = 0.99833) and biosurfactant yield (R2 = 0.98927) and a very strong, negative, linear correlation was found between the two response variables studied (r = −0.95). The maximum reduction in surface tension and the highest biosurfactant yield were 29.98 mNm−1 and 4.19 gL−1, respectively, which were simultaneously obtained under the optimum conditions of 2.5% waste frying oil, 2.5%, corn steep liquor, 2.5% molasses, and 2% inoculum size. To validate the efficiency of the statistically optimized variables, biosurfactant production was also carried out in 2 and 50 L bioreactors, with yields of 5.87 and 7.36 gL−1, respectively. Finally, the biosurfactant was applied in motor oil dispersion, reaching up to 75% dispersion. Results demonstrated that the CCRD was suitable for identifying the optimum production conditions and that the new biosurfactant is a promising dispersant for application in the oil industry. PMID:28223971

  17. Assessment of Food Processing and Pharmaceutical Industrial Wastes as Potential Biosorbents: A Review

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Hanan E. M.; El-Sayed, Mayyada M. H.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for the use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents in water/wastewater treatment applications. Conventional adsorbents as well as biosorbents from different natural and agricultural sources have been extensively studied and reviewed. However, there is a lack of reviews on biosorption utilizing industrial wastes, particularly those of food processing and pharmaceuticals. The current review evaluates the potential of these wastes as biosorbents for the removal of some hazardous contaminants. Sources and applications of these biosorbents are presented, while factors affecting biosorption are discussed. Equilibrium, kinetics, and mechanisms of biosorption are also reviewed. In spite of the wide spread application of these biosorbents in the treatment of heavy metals and dyes, more research is required on other classes of pollutants. In addition, further work should be dedicated to studying scaling up of the process and its economic feasibility. More attention should also be given to enhancing mechanical strength, stability, life time, and reproducibility of the biosorbent. Environmental concerns regarding disposal of consumed biosorbents should be addressed by offering feasible biosorbent regeneration or pollutant immobilization options. PMID:25110656

  18. Preparation and characterization of masonry units, lightweight concrete based and agro-industrial wastes: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Fuentes, C. X.

    2013-11-01

    Discussion about the new composite materials that integrate agro industrial residues for the masonry unit's production, which are directed towards its implementation in projects of affordable housing, is a subject of interest to the public and productive sector of the country. For this reason, it presents a descriptive review of primary and secondary sources, which support the project under study. The methodology consisted in finding research articles in databases supported by the scientific community, which are ordered, integrated and prioritized, creating a matrix synthesis, which condensed the objectives, type of material, studied properties and main results found. It was found that the composite materials for masonry use mainly clay or cement as matrix and as reinforcement, agro waste like paper fibers, bamboo, rice husks, among others are used. Moreover, the properties that determine its potential use are low density, stress resistance and low thermal conductivity. Comparing the results with traditional specimens as the block of clay, concrete, adobe vs. experimental models made of the compounds analyzed, favorable results were obtained in the case of integrating waste materials into its composition, optimized their properties. Thus, science and architecture converge through recognition of the properties of materials that expand the alternatives of building spaces, economic and environmentally sustainable.

  19. Response Surface Methodology for Optimizing the Production of Biosurfactant by Candida tropicalis on Industrial Waste Substrates.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Darne G; Soares da Silva, Rita de Cássia F; Luna, Juliana M; Rufino, Raquel D; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2017-01-01

    Biosurfactant production optimization by Candida tropicalis UCP0996 was studied combining central composite rotational design (CCRD) and response surface methodology (RSM). The factors selected for optimization of the culture conditions were sugarcane molasses, corn steep liquor, waste frying oil concentrations and inoculum size. The response variables were surface tension and biosurfactant yield. All factors studied were important within the ranges investigated. The two empirical forecast models developed through RSM were found to be adequate for describing biosurfactant production with regard to surface tension (R(2) = 0.99833) and biosurfactant yield (R(2) = 0.98927) and a very strong, negative, linear correlation was found between the two response variables studied (r = -0.95). The maximum reduction in surface tension and the highest biosurfactant yield were 29.98 mNm(-1) and 4.19 gL(-1), respectively, which were simultaneously obtained under the optimum conditions of 2.5% waste frying oil, 2.5%, corn steep liquor, 2.5% molasses, and 2% inoculum size. To validate the efficiency of the statistically optimized variables, biosurfactant production was also carried out in 2 and 50 L bioreactors, with yields of 5.87 and 7.36 gL(-1), respectively. Finally, the biosurfactant was applied in motor oil dispersion, reaching up to 75% dispersion. Results demonstrated that the CCRD was suitable for identifying the optimum production conditions and that the new biosurfactant is a promising dispersant for application in the oil industry.

  20. Assessment of food processing and pharmaceutical industrial wastes as potential biosorbents: a review.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Hanan E M; El-Sayed, Mayyada M H

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for the use of low-cost and ecofriendly adsorbents in water/wastewater treatment applications. Conventional adsorbents as well as biosorbents from different natural and agricultural sources have been extensively studied and reviewed. However, there is a lack of reviews on biosorption utilizing industrial wastes, particularly those of food processing and pharmaceuticals. The current review evaluates the potential of these wastes as biosorbents for the removal of some hazardous contaminants. Sources and applications of these biosorbents are presented, while factors affecting biosorption are discussed. Equilibrium, kinetics, and mechanisms of biosorption are also reviewed. In spite of the wide spread application of these biosorbents in the treatment of heavy metals and dyes, more research is required on other classes of pollutants. In addition, further work should be dedicated to studying scaling up of the process and its economic feasibility. More attention should also be given to enhancing mechanical strength, stability, life time, and reproducibility of the biosorbent. Environmental concerns regarding disposal of consumed biosorbents should be addressed by offering feasible biosorbent regeneration or pollutant immobilization options.

  1. On the thermal stability of vitrified industrial wastes using microscale synchrotron radiation based techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Pinakidou, F.; Katsikini, M.; Paloura, E. C.

    2007-12-01

    The effect of annealing on the local coordination of Fe in a series of vitrified industrial wastes is studied by means of x-ray fluorescence mapping, and micro- and conventional x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopies. It is demonstrated that annealing causes the formation of Fe- and Pb-rich microcrystallites which are embedded in the glass matrix. The local coordination of the Fe ion depends on the local variations of its concentration, i.e., Fe occupies octahedral sites in the Fe-rich crystalline regions and tetrahedral sites into the vitreous network. The percentage of the Fe atoms that belong to the crystalline inclusions depends on the waste content and the annealing temperature, and the stability of the vitrified product is discussed in relation to the nature of the formed microcrystallites. More specifically, when the microcrystallites are mixed Pb and Fe oxides, the material is safe since Pb is trapped both in the crystalline and vitreous regions. Finally, the effect of the different types of crystalline phases and crystalline ratio on the characteristics of the preedge peak in the near edge XAFS spectra is also discussed.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanostructure Transition Metal Oxides Extracted from Industrial Waste (EOFD) by Hydrothermal Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girisun, T. C. Sabari; Babeela, C.; Vidhya, V.

    2011-10-01

    Electric oil furnace dust (EOFD) is a solid waste generated in the collection of particulate material during steelmaking process in electric and oil furnaces. Over 7 million metric tons dust produced per annum in worldwide creates deep impacts like soil, ground water and ecology pollutions. This article reports the simple one step process for the extraction of nanostructured metal oxides from the industrial waste (EOFD) for the realization of low cost solar applications. By hydrothermal technique valuable metals were obtained in the form of metal oxides. Initially the presence of metals was identified by ICP analysis. XRD analysis confirms the formation of nano structured titanium oxide (TiO) along with traces of iron oxide (Fe2O3). The surface morphology and the particle size were analyzed by SEM analysis. Thus the metal oxides derived could be helpful to reduce the burden on the environment, increase the development of the source nano material and reduce the cost of raw materials for solar cell applications.

  3. Use of grape stalk, a waste of the viticulture industry, to obtain activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Deiana, A C; Sardella, M F; Silva, H; Amaya, A; Tancredi, N

    2009-12-15

    Grape stalk is an organic waste produced in great amounts in the industrialization processes of grape. This work presents the results of studies carried out to use this waste as raw material to prepare activated carbon through the physical and chemical route. The physicochemical characterization of this material suggests the presence of unusually high levels of ashes. Metal content was determined and high levels of potassium, sodium, iron, calcium and magnesium in carbonized and raw grape stalk were exhibited. This characteristic made difficult physical activation at high temperatures. A leaching step was included before the activation with steam, and adsorbents with surface areas between 700 and 900 m(2)/g were obtained. Physical activation was also performed at lower temperatures using carbonized grape stalk without leaching, leading to the development of some grade of porosity, with an area of 412 m(2)/g. These results would indicate the catalytic effect of the minerals present in this raw material. Chemical activation using phosphoric acid as activating agent seemed to be a very efficient method as final products with BET areas between 1000 and 1500 m(2)/g were obtained.

  4. Separation of heavy metals from industrial waste streams by membrane separation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yichu Huang; Koseoglu, S.S. . Engineering Biosciences Research Center)

    1993-01-01

    Industrial membrane technology is becoming increasingly attractive as a low-cost generic separation technique for volume reduction, recovery, and/or purification of the liquid phase and concentration and/or recovery of the contaminant or solute. It offers outstanding future potential in the reduction and/or recycling of hazardous pollutants from waste streams. Membrane separation technology may include: (1) commercial processes such as electrodialysis, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and ultrafiltration and (2) the development of hybrid processes such as liquid membranes, Donnan dialysis, and membrane bioreactor technology. Membrane separation technology as applied to waste treatment/reduction and environmental engineering problems has several advantages over conventional treatment processes. In contrast to distillation and solvent extraction membrane separation is achieved without a phase change and use of expensive solvents. The advantages of this technology are (1) low energy requirements; (2) small volumes of retentate that need to be handled; (3) selective removal of pollutants with the use of complexing agents and biocatalysts or by membrane surface modification; (4) the possibility for achieving zero discharge'' with reuse of product water, binding media and target, compounds; (5) continuous operation; (6) modular design without significant size limitations; (7) discrete membrane barrier to ensure physical separation of contaminants; and (8) minimal labor requirement.

  5. Physicochemical characterizations and desulfurization properties in coal combustion of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jun Cheng; Junhu Zhou; Jianzhong Liu; Xinyu Cao; Kefa Cen

    2009-05-15

    To recycle industrial wastes and reduce SO{sub 2} pollutant emission in coal combustion, the mineralogical compositions, porosity structures, surface morphologies, and desulfurization properties of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes were investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), porosimeter, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a fixed-bed reactor. (1) White lime mud (WLM) mainly composed of CaCO{sub 3} with Na{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O impurities has smaller CaCO{sub 3} particles and a higher surface area than limestone. But calcined WLM has larger CaO particles and a lower surface area than limestone calcined at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s. (2) Calcium carbide residue (CCR) mainly composed of Ca(OH)2, has the highest surface area and smaller Ca(OH){sub 2} particles than the CaCO{sub 3} particles in WLM. Its surface area monotonously and dramatically decreases at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, but the sintered CaO particles are still smaller than those in the limestone. (3) When brine sludge (BS), mainly composed of NaCl and CaCO{sub 3}, is heated at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, the NaCl/CaO eutectic solvent facilitates the aggregation of some complex composites to form many larger particles. (4) WLM gives the highest desulfurization efficiency of 80.4% at 1000{sup o}C and 65.0% at 1100{sup o}C in coal combustion. Combined CCR and limestone give a synergistic desulfurization efficiency of 45.8% at 1200{sup o}C. BS with a molar ratio of Na/Ca at 1:15 effectively promotes the synergistic desulfurization efficiency of combined CCR and limestone to a peak of 54.9% at 1200{sup o}C. 23 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Integration of a nonmetallic electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber for improved removal of particles and corrosive gas cleaning in semiconductor manufacturing industries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Joon; Han, Bangwoo; Kim, Yong-Jin; Yoa, Seok-Jun; Oda, Tetsuji

    2012-08-01

    To remove particles in corrosive gases generated by semiconductor industries, we have developed a novel non-metallic, two-stage electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Carbon brush electrodes and grounded carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) form the ionization stage, and polyvinyl chloride collection plates are used in the collection stage of the ESP The collection performance of the ESP downstream of a wet scrubber was evaluated with KC1, silica, and mist particles (0.01-10 pm), changing design and operation parameters such as the ESP length, voltage, and flow rate. A long-term and regeneration performance (12-hr) test was conducted at the maximum operation conditions of the scrubber and ESP and the performance was then demonstrated for 1 month with exhaust gases from wet scrubbers at the rooftop of a semiconductor manufacturing plant in Korea. The results showed that the electrical and collection performance of the ESP (16 channels, 400x400 mm2) was maintained with different grounded plate materials (stainless steel and CFRP) and different lengths of the ionization stage. The collection efficiency of the ESP at high air velocity was enhanced with increases in applied voltages and collection plate lengths. The ESP (16 channels with 100 mm length, 400x400 mm2x540 mm with a 10-mm gap) removed more than 90% of silica and mistparticles with 10 and 12 kV applied to the ESPat the air velocity of 2 m/s and liquid-to-gas ratio of 3.6 L/m3. Decreased performance after 13 hours ofcontinuous operation was recovered to the initial performance level by 5 min of water washing. Moreover during the 1-month operation at the demonstration site, the ESP showed average collection efficiencies of 97% based on particle number and 92% based on total particle mass, which were achieved with a much smaller specific corona power of 0.28 W/m3/hr compared with conventional ESPs.

  7. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  8. Waste recycling in the textile industry. July 1983-September 1989 (Citations from World Textile abstracts). Report for July 1983-September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations on the recycling of waste-fibrous materials for textile production, and the recycling of textile-waste materials. Topics include use of wastes as raw materials for textile and fabric manufacturing; reuse of waste cloth, scraps, fibers, and polymeric materials from textile manufacturing; and the equipment used to collect, sort, and process textile wastes. Materials considered include cellulosic wastes, polymeric wastes, cloth scraps, fiber waste, glass-fiber wastes, and waste dusts. Applications discussed include textile products, insulation, paneling and other building supplies, yarns, roping, and pavement materials. Heat recovery and effluent treatment in the textile industry are referenced in related published bibliographies. (Contains 242 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  9. An assessment of the disposal of radioactive petroleum industry waste in nonhazardous landfills using risk-based modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K. P.; Arnish, J. J.; Williams, G. P.; Blunt, D. L.; Environmental Assessment

    2003-05-15

    Certain petroleum production activities cause naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to accumulate in concentrations above natural background levels, making safe and cost-effective management of such technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) a key issue for the petroleum industry. As a result, both industry and regulators are interested in identifying cost-effective disposal alternatives that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. One such alternative, currently allowed in Michigan with restrictions, is the disposal of TENORM wastes in nonhazardous waste landfills. The disposal of petroleum industry wastes containing radium-226 (Ra-226) in nonhazardous landfills was modeled to evaluate the potential radiological doses and health risks to workers and the public. Multiple scenarios were considered in evaluating the potential risks associated with landfill operations and the future use of the property. The scenarios were defined, in part, to evaluate the Michigan policy; sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of key parameters on potential risks. The results indicate that the disposal of petroleum industry TENORM wastes in nonhazardous landfills in accordance with the Michigan policy and existing landfill regulations presents a negligible risk to most of the potential receptors considered in this study.

  10. Assessment of the disposal of radioactive petroleum industry waste in nonhazardous landfills using risk-based modeling.

    PubMed

    Smith, Karen P; Arnish, John J; Williams, Gustavious P; Blunt, Deborah L

    2003-05-15

    Certain petroleum production activities cause naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to accumulate in concentrations above natural background levels, making safe and cost-effective management of such technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) a key issue for the petroleum industry. As a result, both industry and regulators are interested in identifying cost-effective disposal alternatives that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment One such alternative, currently allowed in Michigan with restrictions, is the disposal of TENORM wastes in nonhazardous waste landfills. The disposal of petroleum industry wastes containing radium-226 (Ra-226) in nonhazardous landfills was modeled to evaluate the potential radiological doses and health risks to workers and the public. Multiple scenarios were considered in evaluating the potential risks associated with landfill operations and the future use of the property. The scenarios were defined, in part, to evaluate the Michigan policy; sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of key parameters on potential risks. The results indicate that the disposal of petroleum industry TENORM wastes in nonhazardous landfills in accordance with the Michigan policy and existing landfill regulations presents a negligible risk to most of the potential receptors considered in this study.

  11. Vugraph presentations of the fourth DOE Industry/University/Lab Forum on Robotics for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of various presentations from the Fourth DOE Industry/University/Lab Forum on Robotics for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management held in Albuquerque, New Mexico July 19--21, 1993. Separate abstracts were prepared for each presentation of this report.

  12. System evaluation and microbial analysis of a sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment process for Co-treatment of simple wet flue gas desulfurization wastes with freshwater sewage.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jin; Liu, Rulong; Wei, Li; Lu, Hui; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-09-01

    A sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment process, namely the Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated process (SANI(®) process) has been recently developed for organics and nitrogen removal with 90% sludge minimization and 35% energy reduction in the biological treatment of saline sewage from seawater toilet flushing practice in Hong Kong. In this study, sulfate- and sulfite-rich wastes from simple wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) were considered as a potential low-cost sulfur source to achieve beneficial co-treatment with non-saline (freshwater) sewage in continental areas, through a Mixed Denitrification (MD)-SANI process trialed with synthetic mixture of simple WFGD wastes and freshwater sewage. The system showed 80% COD removal efficiency (specific COD removal rate of 0.26 kg COD/kg VSS/d) at an optimal pH of 7.5 and complete denitrification through MD (specific nitrogen removal rate of 0.33 kg N/kg VSS/d). Among the electron donors in MD, organics and thiosulfate could induce a much higher denitrifying activity than sulfide in terms of both NO3(-) reduction and NO2(-) reduction, suggesting a much higher nitrogen removal rate in organics-, thiosulfate- and sulfide-based MD in MD-SANI compared to sulfide alone-based autotrophic denitrification in conventional SANI(®). Diverse sulfate/sulfite-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera dominated in the bacterial community of sulfate/sulfite-reducing up-flow sludge bed (SRUSB) sludge without methane producing bacteria detected. Desulfomicrobium-like species possibly for sulfite reduction and Desulfobulbus-like species possibly for sulfate reduction are the two dominant groups with respective abundance of 24.03 and 14.91% in the SRB genera. Diverse denitrifying genera were identified in the bacterial community of anoxic up-flow sludge bed (AnUSB) sludge and the Thauera- and Thiobacillus-like species were the major taxa. These results well explained the successful operation of the lab

  13. Physical and mechanical properties of composites based on polypropylene and timber industry waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajaks, Janis; Kalnins, Karlis; Uzulis, Sandris; Matvejs, Juris

    2014-12-01

    Wood polymer composites (WPC) are widely used materials in different industries because of many application, processing and recycling advantages compared to traditional thermoplastic polymer composites containing mineral fillers [1]. However, the commercial success of these materials primarily depends on improvements in moisture performance, and ability to use recycled and waste material as a wood filler. The research regarding WPC is focused on the chemical interaction between dissimilar material components with an aim to provide strong adhesion to the surface of wood filler-polymer matrix [2]. The goal of this paper was to present results of investigations of exploitation properties of composites containing different plywood production industry byproducts and polypropylene. It was shown that modification of all composites with coupling agent maleated polypropylene (MAPP) considerably improve physical mechanical properties (tensile, flexural, impact strength) of WPC. MAPP (5 wt.%) additions also significantly improve water resistance of WPC. SEM investigations confirmed positive action of interfacial modifiers on strengthening of adhesion interaction between components wood and PP matrix that give considerable increase of exploitation properties of the WPC.

  14. Utilization of agricultural and forest industry waste and residues in natural fiber-polymer composites: A review.

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Taneli; Haapala, Antti; Lappalainen, Reijo; Tomppo, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Natural fiber-polymer composites (NFPCs) are becoming increasingly utilized in a wide variety of applications because they represent an ecological and inexpensive alternative to conventional petroleum-derived materials. On the other hand, considerable amounts of organic waste and residues from the industrial and agricultural processes are still underutilized as low-value energy sources. Organic materials are commonly disposed of or subjected to the traditional waste management methods, such as landfilling, composting or anaerobic digestion. The use of organic waste and residue materials in NFPCs represents an ecologically friendly and a substantially higher value alternative. This is a comprehensive review examining how organic waste and residues could be utilized in the future as reinforcements or additives for NFPCs from the perspective of the recently reported work in this field.

  15. Residues from the thermal conversion of waste from the meat industry as a source of valuable macro- and micronutrients.

    PubMed

    Staroń, Paweł; Kowalski, Zygmunt; Staroń, Anita; Seidlerová, Jana; Banach, Marcin

    2016-03-01

    The increased consumption of meat (including poultry) observed over the last decade has led to the intensification of its production. With the production increase, the amount of generated waste also increases. Appropriate disposal of waste from the meat industry will significantly reduce the amount of such waste and its negative impact on the environment. The paper presents a method for the thermal neutralisation of feathers, poultry litter and meat and bone meal (MBM). Waste incineration was carried out in a stationary electric furnace, at a temperature varying in the range of 600-900°C. The resulting ashes were characterised by a high percentage of phosphorus (30-170 g/kg ash), calcium (20-360 g/kg ash) and other valuable macro- and micronutrients like copper, iron, manganese and zinc. The ashes produced during the thermal treatment are safe in terms of sanitary and can be used as additives enriching the fertilisers and soil improvers.

  16. Development of pervaporation to recover and reuse volatile organic compounds from industrial waste streams. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.W.; Athayde, A.L.; Daniels, R.; Le, M.; Pinnau, I.; Ly, J.H.; Wijmans, J.G.; Kaschemekat, J.H.; Helm, V.D.

    1997-03-01

    Objective was to demonstrate use of pervaporation, a new membrane technology, as an efficient, low-cost method of recovering dissolved volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from water and to commercialize this technology. MTR`s industrial commercialization partner, Hoechst Celanese, allowed the project to move rapidly with both demonstration work and precommercial business planning. However, in Dec. 1996 the technology was returned to MT. To date, two systems were sold: one for a wastewater application, the other for removing off flavors from soup stock. Two other customers did extensive field tests and are expected to purchase systems in 1997. This report describes the development of pervaporation membranes and modules at MT. A study was performed with these membrane modules to determine the parameters governing membrane performance. Laboratory data were integrated into the design of several pervaporation demonstration systems, which were operated in the laboratory and at field sites. Results of two of these field trials (benzene/toluene/ethylbenzene/xylenes removal from evaporator condensate water produced by a natural gas glycol dehydration unit at a PG&E gas processing plant, and chlorinated solvent removal from contaminated groundwater at Pinellas) are reported. Economic analysis shows that pervaporation is cheaper than steam stripping for treating water containing highly VOCs such as toluene or TCE up to flow rates of 100-200 gpm. For moderately VOCs such as acetone or methylene chloride, pervaporation is cheaper for streams < 10-20 gpm. Market studies suggest that by 2010 pervaporation will realize energy savings of 81x10{sup 12} Btu and waste reduction of 0.54x10{sup 6} tons VOCs; benefits include lower CO{sub 2} emissions because of less destruction of VOCs by incineration. Also, raw material costs for the chemical industry will be reduced with the recovered VOCs. Industries will be less likely to move overseas due to increased wastewater regulation in US.

  17. Rapid screening procedure to optimise the anaerobic codigestion of industrial biowastes and agricultural livestock wastes in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Monou, M; Kythreotou, N; Fatta, D; Smith, S R

    2009-02-01

    Small-scale experimental investigations were undertaken on the anaerobic digestion (AD) and codigestion of livestock waste and industrial biowastes. A simple procedure was developed to rapidly determine the suitability of wastes for digestion. The experiment was split into two phases; initially, the seed (digested brewery waste) was replaced by the test waste over a period of 5 days. During the second phase, the test waste was incubated and monitored for methanogenesis. Dairy cattle slurry was the most efficient co-substrate which, when codigested with pig slurry in an equal ratio achieved volatile solids destruction of 32%, CH(4) production rate of 97.4 ml d(-1), maximum CH(4) content of 61.6% and total gas yield of 2229 ml after 529 h. High fat content wastes were unsuitable for AD due to low pH value and because the dominant microbial reaction was fermentation. Codigestion was investigated to overcome any inhibitions; however, dairy cattle slurry, abattoir wastewater and NaOH additions did not lead to methanogenesis. Treating these wastes by AD is feasible but without CH(4) production.

  18. 40 CFR 60.2680 - What if I do not use a wet scrubber to comply with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units that... air pollution control device other than a wet scrubber, or limit emissions in some other manner, to... comply with the emission limitations? 60.2680 Section 60.2680 Protection of Environment...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2115 - What if I do not use a wet scrubber, fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, or an electrostatic... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Emission Limitations and Operating Limits § 60.2115 What if I do not use a wet scrubber, fabric filter,...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2115 - What if I do not use a wet scrubber, fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., fabric filter, activated carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, an electrostatic... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Emission Limitations and Operating Limits § 60.2115 What if I do not use a wet scrubber,...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2115 - What if I do not use a wet scrubber to comply with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction..., the revised text is set forth as follows: § 60.2115 What if I do not use a wet scrubber, fabric filter..., activated carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, fabric filter, or an...

  2. 40 CFR 60.2680 - What if I do not use a wet scrubber to comply with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emissions Guidelines and Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units Model... revised text is set forth as follows: § 60.2680 What if I do not use a wet scrubber, fabric filter..., activated carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, fabric filter, or an...

  3. 40 CFR 60.2115 - What if I do not use a wet scrubber to comply with the emission limitations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units for Which Construction..., the revised text is set forth as follows: § 60.2115 What if I do not use a wet scrubber, fabric filter..., activated carbon injection, selective noncatalytic reduction, fabric filter, or an...

  4. A high efficiency industrial polysilicon solar cell with a honeycomb-like surface fabricated by wet etching using a photoresist mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong; Ding, Bin; Chen, Tianhang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, an effective and low cost method of texturization was introduced into the fabrication process for industrial multicrystalline silicon solar cell production. The purpose of the method was to reduce reflectance by creating a honeycomb-like textured surface using a masked wet etching process. A negative photoresist film was selected as an etching mask. Although large surface roughness of wafer was considered to affect the adhesion and acid resistance of etching mask, a honeycomb-like textured surface with a pitch of 18 μm was fabricated successfully. The etched pits had a nearly smooth spherical segment surface, an average aperture of 15.1 μm, and a depth of 6.5 μm. This regular textured surface had a low light reflectivity of approximately 20.5% and greatly increased the carrier lifetime. Compared with multicrystalline silicon solar cells textured by conventional acid etching, the average short circuit current increased by 2.2% and the average efficiency increased from 17.41% to 17.75%, a net gain of 0.34%. And a high throughput above 2400 pieces per hour was obtained. This texturing technique is expected to promote the application of diamond-wire cut multicrystalline silicon wafers with the low saw-damage in the future.

  5. Determining the biomass fraction of mixed waste fuels: A comparison of existing industry and {sup 14}C-based methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, G.K.P.; Hayward, S.; Tripney, B.G.; Cook, G.T.; Naysmith, P.; Herbert, B.M.J.; Garnett, M.H; Wilkinson, M.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Compares industry standard and {sup 14}C methods for determining bioenergy content of MSW. • Differences quantified through study at an operational energy from waste plant. • Manual sort and selective dissolution are unreliable measures of feedstock bioenergy. • {sup 14}C methods (esp. AMS) improve precision and reliability of bioenergy determination. • Implications for electricity generators and regulators for award of bio-incentives. - Abstract: {sup 14}C analysis of flue gas by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) were used to determine the biomass fraction of mixed waste at an operational energy-from-waste (EfW) plant. Results were converted to bioenergy (% total) using mathematical algorithms and assessed against existing industry methodologies which involve manual sorting and selective dissolution (SD) of feedstock. Simultaneous determinations using flue gas showed excellent agreement: 44.8 ± 2.7% for AMS and 44.6 ± 12.3% for LSC. Comparable bioenergy results were obtained using a feedstock manual sort procedure (41.4%), whilst a procedure based on selective dissolution of representative waste material is reported as 75.5% (no errors quoted). {sup 14}C techniques present significant advantages in data acquisition, precision and reliability for both electricity generator and industry regulator.

  6. Modification of chitosan by swelling and crosslinking using epichlorohydrin as heavy metal Cr (VI) adsorbent in batik industry wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastuti, B.; Masykur, A.; Hadi, S.

    2016-02-01

    Study on chitosan modification by swelling and crosslinking and its application as a selective adsorbent for heavy metals Cr (VI) in batik industry wastes was done. Swelling is intended to improve chitosan porosity, whereas crosslinking is to increase the resistance of chitosan against acid. Natural samples are generally acidic, thus limiting chitosan application as an adsorbent. Modification of chitosan by combining swelling and crosslinking is expected to increase its adsorption capacity in binding heavy metal ions in water. The modified chitosan was later contacted with Cr (VI) to test its adsorption capacity with a variation of pH and contact time. Finally, application of modified chitosan was done in batik industry waste containing Cr (IV). Based on the results, chitosan-ECH 25% (v/v) was the optimum concentration of crosslinker to adsorb Cr (VI) ions. Modified chitosan has a solubility resistance to acids, even though a strong acid. Modification of chitosan also improved its adsorption capacity to Cr (VI) from 74% (pure chitosan) to 89% with contact time 30 min at pH 3. On the application to the batik wastes, the modified chitosan were able to adsorb Cr (IV) up to the level of 5 ppm. Thus, the modified chitosan has a potential to be applied to as an adsorbent of Cr (VI) in batik industry wastes.

  7. Validated electrochemical and chromatographic quantifications of some antibiotic residues in pharmaceutical industrial waste water.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Heba K; Abdel-Moety, Mona M; Abdel-Gawad, Sherif A; Al-Ghobashy, Medhat A; Kawy, Mohamed Abdel

    2017-01-14

    Realistic implementation of ion selective electrodes (ISEs) into environmental monitoring programs has always been a challenging task. This could be largely attributed to difficulties in validation of ISE assay results. In this study, the electrochemical response of amoxicillin trihydrate (AMX), ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CPLX), trimethoprim (TMP), and norfloxacin (NFLX) was studied by the fabrication of sensitive membrane electrodes belonging to two types of ISEs, which are polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane electrodes and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Linear response for the membrane electrodes was in the concentration range of 10(-5)-10(-2) mol/L. For the PVC membrane electrodes, Nernstian slopes of 55.1, 56.5, 56.5, and 54.0 mV/decade were achieved over a pH 4-8 for AMX, CPLX, and NFLX, respectively, and pH 3-6 for TMP. On the other hand, for GC electrodes, Nernstian slopes of 59.1, 58.2, 57.0, and 58.2 mV/decade were achieved over pH 4-8 for AMX, CPLX, and NFLX, respectively, and pH 3-6 for TMP. In addition to assay validation to international industry standards, the fabricated electrodes were also cross-validated relative to conventional separation techniques; high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and thin layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry. The HPLC assay was applied in concentration range of 0.5-10.0 μg/mL, for all target analytes. The TLC-densitometry was adopted over a concentration range of 0.3-1.0 μg/band, for AMX, and 0.1-0.9 μg/band, for CPLX, NFLX, and TMP. The proposed techniques were successfully applied for quantification of the selected drugs either in pure form or waste water samples obtained from pharmaceutical plants. The actual waste water samples were subjected to solid phase extraction (SPE) for pretreatment prior to the application of chromatographic techniques (HPLC and TLC-densitometry). On the other hand, the fabricated electrodes were successfully applied for quantification of the antibiotic residues in actual

  8. A study on the dewatering of industrial waste sludge by fry-drying technology.

    PubMed

    Ohm, Tae-In; Chae, Jong-Seong; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Hee-Kyum; Moon, Seung-Hyun

    2009-08-30

    In sludge treatment, drying sludge using typical technology with high water content to a water content of approximately 10% is always difficult because of adhesive characteristics of sludge. Many methods have been applied, including direct and indirect heat drying, but these approaches of reducing water content to below 40% after drying is very inefficient in energy utilization of drying sludge. In this study, fry-drying technology with a high heat transfer coefficient of approximately 500 W/m(2) degrees C was used to dry industrial wastewater sludge. Also waste oil was used in the fry-drying process, and because the oil's boiling point is between 240 and 340 degrees C and the specific heat is approximately 60% of that of water. In the fry-drying system, the sludge is input by molding it into a designated form after heating the waste oil at temperatures between 120 and 170 degrees C. At these temperatures, the heated oil rapidly evaporates the water contained in the sludge, leaving the oil itself. After approximately 10 min, the water content of the sludge was less than 10%, and its heating value surpassed 5300 kcal/kg. Indeed, this makes the organic sludge appropriate for use as a solid fuel. The wastewater sludge used in this study was the designated waste discharged from chemical, leather and plating plants. These samples varied in characteristics, especially with regard to heavy metal concentration. After drying the three kinds of wastewater sludge at oil temperatures 160 degrees C for 10 min, it was found that the water content in the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants reduced from 80.0 to 5.5%, 81.6 to 1.0%, and 65.4 to 0.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the heat values of the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants prior to fry-drying were 217, 264, and 428 kcal/kg, respectively. After drying, these values of sludge increased to 5317, 5983 and 6031 kcal/kg, respectively. The heavy metals detected in the sludge after drying were

  9. View graph presentations of the sixth DOE industry/university/lab forum on robotics for environmental restoration and waste management

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The mission of the Robotics Technology Development Program involves the following: develop robotic systems where justified by safety, cost, and/or efficiency arguments; integrate the best talent from National Labs, industry, and universities in focused teams addressing complex-wide problems; and involve customers in the identification and development of needs driven technologies. This presentation focuses on five areas. They are: radioactive tank waste remediation (Richland); mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal (Idaho Falls); decontamination and decommissioning (Morgantown); landfill stabilization (Savannah River); and contaminant plumes containment and remediation (Savannah River).

  10. A Review and Analysis of European Industrial Experience in Handling LWR Spent Fuel and Vitrified High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Blomeke, J.O.

    2001-07-10

    The industrial facilities that have been built or are under construction in France, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and West Germany to handle light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and canisters of vitrified high-level waste before ultimate disposal are described and illustrated with drawings and photographs. Published information on the operating performance of these facilities is also given. This information was assembled for consideration in planning and design of similar equipment and facilities needed for the Federal Waste Management System in the United States.

  11. Definitional-mission report: Domestic and industrial waste-sludge management project, Istanbul, Turkey. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    The Istanbul Water and Sewerage Administration (ISKI) was formed in 1982, and since that time a phased program of sewage collection and treatment has been implemented. Fifteen waste treatment plants, ranging from full scale biological treatment to pre-treatment, are in the design or planning stage, and over 2,000 km of collection lines have been installed. Concurrent with the program is an increasing emphasis on industrial waste treatment, which results in the production of both non-hazardous and hazardous sludges.

  12. Waste Heat Recovery. Technology and Opportunities in U.S. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Ilona; Choate, William T.; Davidson, Amber

    2008-03-01

    This study was initiated in order to evaluate RD&D needs for improving waste heat recovery technologies. A bottomup approach is used to evaluate waste heat quantity, quality, recovery practices, and technology barriers in some of the largest energyconsuming units in U.S. manufacturing. The results from this investigation serve as a basis for understanding the state of waste heat recovery and providing recommendations for RD&D to advance waste heat recovery technologies.

  13. Hepatitis A virus infection and the waste handling industry: a seroprevalence study.

    PubMed

    Rachiotis, George; Papagiannis, Dimitrios; Thanasias, Efthimios; Dounias, George; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2012-12-07

    Waste collectors have a theoretical risk of Hepatitis A virus infection. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis A virus infection (HAV) among municipal solid waste workers (MSWWs) in a municipality of central Greece. A seroprevalence study of HAV was conducted among 208 employees (100 waste collectors and 108 municipal gardeners) of a municipality in central Greece. Total antibodies against HAV were measured and information regarding potential risk factors was collected through a face to face interview. The prevalence of HAV infection among the municipal waste collectors was 61% vs. 27% among municipal gardeners. Logistic regression analysis showed that exposure to waste (OR = 2.87; 95% CI = 1.24-6.62) and age (OR = 22.57; 95% CI = 7.29-69.88) were independently associated with the anti-HAV positivity. Moreover, waste collectors who reported smoking/drinking/eating during waste collection were at higher risk of HAV infection (RR = 2.84; 95% CI = 1.73-4.63). Stratified analysis among municipal waste collectors indicated an independent association between eating/smoking/ drinking during waste collection and anti-HAV (+) (OR = 3.85; 95% CI = 1.34-11.06). Occupational exposure to waste is a potential risk factor for HAV infection. Smoking/eating/drinking during waste collection could be the mode of hepatitis A virus transmission among municipal waste collectors.

  14. Influence of commercial and residual sorbents and silicates as additives on the stabilisation/solidification of organic and inorganic industrial waste.

    PubMed

    Coz, A; Andrés, A; Soriano, S; Viguri, J R; Ruiz, M C; Irabien, J A

    2009-05-30

    An environmental problem of the foundry activities is the management of industrial waste generated in different processes. The foundry sludge from gas wet cleaning treatment that contains organic and inorganic compounds and a high content of water is an interesting example. Due to their characteristics, they can be managed using different stabilisation/solidification (S/S) technologies prior to land disposal. The purpose of this work is to study S/S formulations in order to improve the control of the mobility of the pollutants and the ecotoxicity of the samples. Different mixtures of cement or lime as binders and additives (foundry sand, silica fume, sodium silicate, silicic acid, activated carbon and black carbon) have been used in order to reduce the mobility of the chemical and ecotoxicological regulated parameters and to compare the results for commercial and residual additives. The best results have been obtained with sorbents (activated carbon and black carbon) or sodium silicate. The results of the foundry sand ash as additive can conclude that it can be used as replacement in the cement products. However, silica fume in the samples with lime and siliceous resin sand as additives gives products that do not fulfil the regulated limits. Finally, some linear expressions between the chemical parameters and the quantity of material used in the samples have been obtained.

  15. An integrated mathematical model for co-composting of agricultural solid wastes with industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Vlyssides, A; Mai, S; Barampouti, E M

    2009-10-01

    An integrated model for the composting process was developed. The structure of the model is such that it can be implemented in any mixture of different substrates, even in the case of co-composting of a solid waste with industrial wastewater. This paper presents a mathematical formulation of the physicochemical and biological principles that govern the composting process. The model of the co-composting ecosystem included mass transfer, heat transfer and biological processes. The biological processes included in the model were hydrolysis of particulate substrates, microbial growth and death. Two microbial populations (bacteria and fungi) were selected using Monod kinetics. Growth limiting functions of inhibitory factors, moisture and dissolved oxygen were added in the Monod kinetics. The bacteria were considered to utilise the easy biodegradable carbon hydrolysis product, fungi the difficult one, while both could degrade the carbon of wastewater. The mass balances of the most important nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorous, were also included in this approach. Model computer simulations provided results that fitted satisfactory the experimental data. Conclusively, the model could be a useful tool for the prediction of the co-composting process performance in the future and could be used to assist in the operation of co-composting plants.

  16. Assessment of the toxicity of waste water from a textile industry to Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Roopadevi, H; Somashekar, R K

    2012-03-01

    Static, short-term, acute toxicity tests were performed over a period of 96 hrs using different concentrations of influent and effluent of textile industry waste water with the objective of evaluating their acute toxicity on fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio (common carp). The LC50 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr of influent and effluent were 25.9, 21.10, 15.66, 11.11% (v/v) and 63.18, 54.89, 48.62, 36.04% (v/v), respectively. The acute toxic unit TUa values for 24, 48, 72, 96 hr for influent and effluent are 3.85, 4.73, 6.38, 8.99 and 1.58, 1.82, 2.05, 2.77, respectively. Correspondingly, the TF was found to be 1, 1.22, 1.65 and 2.33 for influent, and for effluent 1, 1.15, 1.29 and 1.75. Total efficiency of the treatment was 69.16% and the safe concentration of effluent is set to be 3.60%. These data are highly useful in establishing limits of acceptability by the aquatic animals. The need to introduce toxicity evaluation assay for confirming the quality of effluent from the point view of effective environmental safe limits and to ensure integrity of aquatic environment, is stressed.

  17. Investigation of the effect of culture type on biological hydrogen production from sugar industry wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Ozkan, Leyla; Erguder, Tuba H.; Demirer, Goksel N.

    2010-05-15

    The bio-hydrogen generation potential of sugar industry wastes was investigated. In the first part of the study, acidogenic anaerobic culture was enriched from the mixed anaerobic culture (MAC) through acidification of glucose. In the second part of the study, glucose acclimated acidogenic seed was used, along with the indigenous microorganisms, MAC, 2-bromoethanesulfonate treated MAC and heat treated MAC. Two different COD levels (4.5 and 30 g/L COD) were investigated for each culture type. Reactors with initial COD concentration of 4.5 g/L had higher H{sub 2} yields (20.3-87.7 mL H{sub 2}/g COD) than the reactors with initial COD concentration of 30 g/L (0.9-16.6 mL H{sub 2}/g COD). The 2-bromoethanesulfonate and heat treatment of MAC inhibited the methanogenic activity, but did not increase the H{sub 2} production yield. The maximum H{sub 2} production (87.7 mL H{sub 2}/g COD) and minimum methanogenic activity were observed in the unseeded reactor with 4.5 g/L of initial COD.

  18. Use of limestone obtained from waste of the mussel cannery industry for the production of mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Ballester, Paloma; Marmol, Isabel; Morales, Julian; Sanchez, Luis . E-mail: luis-sanchez@uco.es

    2007-04-15

    Various types of cement-SiO{sub 2}-CaCO{sub 3} mortar were prepared by replacing quarry limestone aggregate with limestone obtained as a by-product from waste of the mussel cannery industry. The CaCO{sub 3} aggregate consists mainly of elongated prismatic particles less than 4 {mu}m long rather than of the rounded particles of smaller size (2-6 {mu}m) obtained with quarry limestone. The mechanical and structural properties of the mortars were found to be influenced by aggregate morphology. Setting of the different types of mortar after variable curing times was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) techniques. Mortars with a high content in mussel shell limestone exhibited a more packed microstructure, which facilitates setting of cement and results in improved mortar strength. The enhanced mechanical properties of the new mortars allow the cement content in the final mortar composition to be decreased and production costs to be reduced as a result.

  19. Waste biomass adsorbents for copper removal from industrial wastewater--a review.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Muhammad; Shah, Jehanzeb Ali; Ashfaq, Tayyab; Gardazi, Syed Mubashar Hussain; Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Pervez, Arshid; Haroon, Hajira; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2013-12-15

    Copper (Cu(2+)) containing wastewaters are extensively released from different industries and its excessive entry into food chains results in serious health impairments, carcinogenicity and mutagenesis in various living systems. An array of technologies is in use to remediate Cu(2+) from wastewaters. Adsorption is the most attractive option due to the availability of cost effective, sustainable and eco-friendly bioadsorbents. The current review is dedicated to presenting state of the art knowledge on various bioadsorbents and physico-chemical conditions used to remediate Cu(2+) from waste streams. The advantages and constraints of various adsorbents were also discussed. The literature revealed the maximum Cu adsorption capacities of various bioadsorbents in the order of algae>agricultural and forest>fungal>bacterial>activated carbon>yeast. However, based on the average Cu adsorption capacity, the arrangement can be: activated carbon>algal>bacterial>agriculture and forest-derived>fungal>yeast biomass. The data of Cu removal using these bioadsorbents were found best fit both Freundlich and Langmuir models. Agriculture and forest derived bioadsorbents have greater potential for Cu removal because of higher uptake, cheaper nature, bulk availability and mono to multilayer adsorption behavior. Higher costs at the biomass transformation stage and decreasing efficiency with desorption cycles are the major constraints to implement this technology.

  20. Investigation of the effect of culture type on biological hydrogen production from sugar industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Leyla; Erguder, Tuba H; Demirer, Goksel N

    2010-05-01

    The bio-hydrogen generation potential of sugar industry wastes was investigated. In the first part of the study, acidogenic anaerobic culture was enriched from the mixed anaerobic culture (MAC) through acidification of glucose. In the second part of the study, glucose acclimated acidogenic seed was used, along with the indigenous microorganisms, MAC, 2-bromoethanesulfonate treated MAC and heat treated MAC. Two different COD levels (4.5 and 30g/L COD) were investigated for each culture type. Reactors with initial COD concentration of 4.5g/L had higher H(2) yields (20.3-87.7mL H(2)/g COD) than the reactors with initial COD concentration of 30g/L (0.9-16.6mL H(2)/g COD). The 2-bromoethanesulfonate and heat treatment of MAC inhibited the methanogenic activity, but did not increase the H(2) production yield. The maximum H(2) production (87.7mL H(2)/g COD) and minimum methanogenic activity were observed in the unseeded reactor with 4.5g/L of initial COD.

  1. Chemical and microbiological stability of waste sludge from paper industry intended for brick production.

    PubMed

    Cernec, Franc; Zule, Janja; Moze, Adolf; Ivanus, Alenka

    2005-04-01

    Due to its chemical composition, waste sludge generated in the paper industry may be used as a raw material for brick production. Brick manufacture is limited to the warmer months of the year whereas sludge is produced continuously by different effluent treatment devices. Therefore, it has to be stored until further processing. For this reason, it is essential that it is not subject to significant chemical and microbiological decomposition during storage. In the experiment, sludge from a tissue paper mill was tested for its stability. It was stored for several weeks during winter and summer periods in a pile, 2 m in height, in an open but covered store. Different leachable organic and inorganic compounds indicating possible ongoing deterioration processes, as well as pH value, redox potential, temperature, humidity and dry matter content were evaluated weekly in water extracts of homogenized sludge samples. According to the test results, the material may be considered to be chemically and microbiologically stable as there was practically no emission of odorous and toxic compounds such as H2S, NH3 and butyric acid despite prolonged storage times and elevated environmental temperatures. All the microbial species identified in the sludge during storage belong to the typical microflora of the environment.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose and Nanocellulose from Agro-industrial Waste - Cassava Peel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiarto, S.; Yuwono, S. D.; Rochliadi, A.; Arcana, I. M.

    2017-02-01

    Cassava peel is an agro-industrial waste which is available in huge quantities in Lampung Province of Indonesia. This work was conducted to evaluate the potential of cassava peel as a source of cellulose and nanocellulose. Cellulose was extracted from cassava peel by using different chemical treatment, and the nanocellulose was prepared by hydrolysis with the use of sulfuric acid. The best methods of cellulose extraction from cassava peels are using alkali treatment followed by a bleaching process. The cellulose yield from this methods was 17.8% of dry base cassava peel, while the yield from nitric and sulfuric methods were about 10.78% and 10.32% of dry base cassava peel respectively. The hydrolysis was performed at the temperature of 50 °C for 2 hours. The intermediate reaction product obtained after each stage of the treatments was characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the removal of non-cellulosic constituent. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the crystallinity of cellulose increased after hydrolysis. Morphological investigation was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The size of particle was confirmed by Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

  3. Pharmaceutical contamination in residential, industrial, and agricultural waste streams: risk to aqueous environments in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2008-12-01

    This is a comprehensive study of the occurrence of antibiotics, hormones and other pharmaceuticals in water sites that have major potential for downstream environmental contamination. These include residential (hospitals, sewage treatment plants, and regional discharges), industrial (pharmaceutical production facilities), and agricultural (animal husbandries and aquacultures) waste streams. We assayed 23 Taiwanese water sites for 97 targeted compounds, of which a significant number were detected and quantified. The most frequently detected compounds were sulfamethoxazole, caffeine, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen, followed closely by cephalexin, ofloxacin, and diclofenac, which were detected in >91% of samples and found to have median (maximum) concentrations of 0.2 (5.8), 0.39 (24.0), 0.02 (100.4), 0.41 (14.5), 0.15 (31.4), 0.14 (13.6) and 0.083 (29.8) microg/L, respectively. Lincomycin and acetaminophen had high measured concentrations (>100 microg/L), and 35 other pharmaceuticals occurred at the microg/L level. These incidence and concentration results correlate well with published data for other worldwide locations, as well as with Taiwanese medication usage data, suggesting a human contamination source. Many pharmaceuticals also occurred at levels exceeding predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC), warranting further investigation of their occurrence and fate in receiving waters, as well as the overall risks they pose for local ecosystems and human residents. The information provided here will also be useful for development of strategies for regulation and remediation.

  4. Co-digestion of manure and industrial waste--The effects of trace element addition.

    PubMed

    Nordell, Erik; Nilsson, Britt; Nilsson Påledal, Sören; Karisalmi, Kaisa; Moestedt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Manure is one of the most common substrates for biogas production. Manure from dairy- and swine animals are often considered to stabilize the biogas process by contributing nutrients and trace elements needed for the biogas process. In this study two lab-scale reactors were used to evaluate the effects of trace element addition during co-digestion of manure from swine- and dairy animals with industrial waste. The substrate used contained high background concentrations of both cobalt and nickel, which are considered to be the most important trace elements. In the reactor receiving additional trace elements, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was 89% lower than in the control reactor. The lower VFA concentration contributed to a more digested digestate, and thus lower methane emissions in the subsequent storage. Also, the biogas production rate increased with 24% and the biogas production yield with 10%, both as a result of the additional trace elements at high organic loading rates. All in all, even though 50% of the feedstock consisted of manure, trace element addition resulted in multiple positive effects and a more reliable process with stable and high yield.

  5. Concretes and mortars with waste paper industry: Biomass ash and dregs.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lage, Isabel; Velay-Lizancos, Miriam; Vázquez-Burgo, Pablo; Rivas-Fernández, Marcos; Vázquez-Herrero, Cristina; Ramírez-Rodríguez, Antonio; Martín-Cano, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    This article describes a study on the viability of using waste from the paper industry: biomass boiler ash and green liquor dregs to fabricate mortars and concretes. Both types of ash were characterized by obtaining their chemical and mineralogical composition, their organic matter content, granulometry, adsorption and other common tests for construction materials. Seven different mortars were fabricated, one for reference made up of cement, sand, and water, three in which 10, 20, or 30% of the cement was replaced by biomass ash, and three others in which 10, 20, or 30% of the cement was replaced with dregs. Test specimens were fabricated with these mortars to conduct flexural and compression tests. Flexural strength is reduced for all the mortars studied. Compressive strength increases for the mortars fabricated with biomass ash and decreases for the mortar with dregs. Finally, 5 concretes were made, one of them as a reference (neither biomass ash nor dregs added), two of them with replacements of 10 and 20% of biomass ash instead of cement and another two with replacements of 10 and 20% of dregs instead of cement. The compressive and tensile splitting strength increase when a 10% of ash is replaced and decrease in all the other cases. The modulus of elasticity always decreases.

  6. Timber industry waste-teak ( Tectona grandis Linn.) leaf extract mediated synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadiga, Aishwarya; Shetty, K. Vidya; Saidutta, M. B.

    2015-08-01

    The current research article emphasizes efficacious use of teak leaves, an agro -biowaste from world's premier hardwood timber industry, for "green" synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Bioactive compounds of the leaves act as prolific reducing and stabilizing agents in AgNP synthesis. The characterization of the AgNPs synthesized using teak leaves revealed that the particles are spherical with an average size of 28 nm and the presence of bioactive compounds present in teak leaf extract as capping agents on the nanoparticles. A prominent decrease in the content of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, antioxidants and flavonoids after the biosynthesis of AgNPs signifies that these class of compounds act as reductants and stabilizers during biosynthesis. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were also successfully evaluated for their antibacterial characteristics against waterborne pathogens, E. coli and S. aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentration of 25.6 μg/mL. Exploitation of agrowaste resources for synthesis of AgNPs curtails indiscriminate usage of food and commercial plant materials, rather contributing a sustainable way for effective plant waste biomass utilization and management. The biosynthesized AgNps have potential application in water purifiers, antibacterial fabrics, sports wear and in cosmetics as antibacterial agent and the process used for its synthesis being greener is highly beneficial from environmental, energy consumption and economic perspectives.

  7. Pilot-scale study of efficient vermicomposting of agro-industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vaidyanathan Vinoth; Shanmugaprakash, M; Aravind, J; Namasivayam, S Karthick Raja

    2012-01-01

    Pilot-scale vermicomposting was explored using Eudrilus eugeniae for 90 days with 45 days preliminary decomposition using different agro-industrial wastes as substrates. Spent wash and pressmud were mixed together (referred to as PS) and then combined with cow dung (CD) at five different ratios of PS:CD, namely, 25:75 (T1), 50:50 (T2), 75:25 (T3), 85:15 (T4) and 100 (T5), with two replicates for each treatment. All vermibeds expressed a significant decrease in pH (11.4-14.8%), organic carbon (4.2-30.5%) and an increase in total nitrogen (6-29%), AP (5-29%), exchangeable potash (6-21%) and turnover rate (52-66%). Maximum mortality (18.10%) of worms was recorded in T5 treatment. A high manurial value and a matured product was achieved in T3 treatment. The data reveal that pressmud mixed with spent wash can be decomposed through vermicomposting and can help to enhance the quality of vermicompost.

  8. l-(+)-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B103 from dairy industry waste.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Marcela Piassi; Coelho, Luciana Fontes; Sass, Daiane Cristina; Contiero, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid, which can be obtained through fermentation, is an interesting compound because it can be utilized in different fields, such as in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as a bio-based molecule for bio-refinery. In addition, lactic acid has recently gained more interest due to the possibility of manufacturing poly(lactic acid), a green polymer that can replace petroleum-derived plastics and be applied in medicine for the regeneration of tissues and in sutures, repairs and implants. One of the great advantages of fermentation is the possibility of using agribusiness wastes to obtain optically pure lactic acid. The conventional batch process of fermentation has some disadvantages such as inhibition by the substrate or the final product. To avoid these problems, this study was focused on improving the production of lactic acid through different feeding strategies using whey, a residue of agribusiness. The downstream process is a significant bottleneck because cost-effective methods of producing high-purity lactic acid are lacking. Thus, the investigation of different methods for the purification of lactic acid was one of the aims of this work. The pH-stat strategy showed the maximum production of lactic acid of 143.7g/L. Following purification of the lactic acid sample, recovery of reducing sugars and protein and color removal were 0.28%, 100% and 100%, respectively.

  9. Biorecovered precious metals from industrial wastes: single-step conversion of a mixed metal liquid waste to a bioinorganic catalyst with environmental application.

    PubMed

    Mabbett, Amanda N; Sanyahumbi, Douglas; Yong, Ping; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2006-02-01

    The complete and continuous reduction of 1 mM Cr(VI) to Cr(III) was achieved in a flow-through reactor using a novel bioinorganic catalyst ("MM-bio-Pd(0)"), which was produced by single-step reduction of platinum group metals (PGM) from industrial waste solution onto biomass of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 29577. Two flow-through reactor systems were compared using both "MM-bioPd(0)" and chemically reduced Pd(0). Reactors containing the latter removed Cr(VI) for 1 week only at the expense of formate as the electron donor, whereas the former gave complete Cr(VI) removal for 3 months of continuous operation. Mass balance analysis showed 100% reduction of Cr(VI) to soluble Cr(III) in the bioreactor exit solution. With the use of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) no intermediate Cr(V) species could be detected. Pd(0) was biodeposited similarly using Escherichia coliMC4100 and "bio-Pd(0)". The latter was used to recover Pd(II) from two acidic industrial waste leachates to generate two types of "MM-bio-Pd(0)": "SI-bio-Pd(0)" and "SII-bio-Pd(0)", respectively. The biomaterial composition was comparable in both cases, and the catalytic activity was related inversely to the amount of chloride in the waste leachate from which it was derived.

  10. Genotoxicity studies in semiconductor industry. 1. In vitro mutagenicity and genotoxicity studies of waste samples resulting from plasma etching

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, R.; Huettner, E.M.; Merten, H.; Raabe, F. )

    1993-07-01

    Solid waste samples taken from the etching reactor, the turbo pump, and the waste air system of a plasma etching technology line in semiconductor production were studied as to their genotoxic properties in a bacterial repair test, in the Ames/Salmonella microsome assay, in the SOS chromotest, in primary mouse hepatocytes, and in Chinese hamster V79 cell cultures. All three waste samples were found to be active by inducing of unscheduled DNA-synthesis in mouse hepatocytes in vitro. In the bacterial rec-type repair test with Proteus mirabilis, waste samples taken from the turbo pump and the vacuum pipe system were not genotoxic. The waste sample taken from the chlorine-mediated plasma reactor was clearly positive in the bacterial repair assay and in the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli. Mutagenic activity was demonstrated for all samples in the presence and absence of S9 mix made from mouse liver homogenate. Again, highest mutagenic activity was recorded for the waste sample taken from the plasma reactor, while samples collected from the turbo pump and from the waste air system before dilution and liberation of the air were less mutagenic. For all samples chromosomal damage in V79 cells was not detected, indicating absence of clastogenic activity in vitro. Altogether, these results indicate generation of genotoxic and mutagenic products as a consequence of chlorine-mediated plasma etching in the microelectronics industry and the presence of genotoxins even in places distant from the plasma reactor. Occupational exposure can be expected both from the precipitated wastes and from chemicals reaching the environment with the air stream.

  11. Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

    1990-01-01

    In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

  12. The upcycling of post-industrial PP/PET waste streams through in-situ microfibrillar preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Delva, Laurens Ragaert, Kim Cardon, Ludwig

    2015-12-17

    Post-industrial plastic waste streams can be re-used as secondary material streams for polymer processing by extrusion or injection moulding. One of the major commercially available waste stream contains polypropylene (PP) contaminated with polyesters (mostly polyethylene tereftalate - PET). An important practical hurdle for the direct implementation of this waste stream is the immiscibility of PP and PET in the melt, which leads to segregation within the polymer structure and adversely affects the reproducibility and mechanical properties of the manufactured parts. It has been indicated in literature that the creation of PET microfibrils in the PP matrix could undo these drawbacks and upcycle the PP/PET combination. Within the current research, a commercially available virgin PP/PET was evaluated for the microfibrillar preparation. The mechanical (tensile and impact) properties, thermal properties and morphology of the composites were characterized at different stages of the microfibrillar preparation.

  13. Production of nano bacterial cellulose from waste water of candied jujube-processing industry using Acetobacter xylinum.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Lifen; Hua, Jiachuan; Jia, Shiru; Zhang, Jianfei; Liu, Hao

    2015-04-20

    The work is aimed to investigate the suitability of waste water of candied jujube-processing industry for the production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Gluconacetobacter xylinum CGMCC No.2955 and to study the structure properties of bacterial cellulose membranes. After acid pretreatment, the glucose of hydrolysate was higher than that of waste water of candied jujube. The volumetric yield of bacterial cellulose in hydrolysate was 2.25 g/L, which was 1.5-folds of that in waste water of candied jujube. The structures indicated that the fiber size distribution was 3-14 nm in those media with an average diameter being around 5.9 nm. The crystallinity index of BC from pretreatment medium was lower than that of without pretreatment medium and BCs from various media had similar chemical binding. Ammonium citrate was a key factor for improving production yield and the crystallinity index of BC.

  14. Synthesis of PHB nanoparticles from optimized medium utilizing dairy industrial waste using Brevibacterium casei SRKP2: a green chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Ram Kumar Pandian, Sureshbabu; Deepak, Venkatraman; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Muniyandi, Jeyaraj; Rameshkumar, Neelamegam; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2009-11-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural, biodegradable polymers accumulated by bacteria under nutritional exhausted condition where carbon source is in excess. A gram positive bacterium (designated strain SRKP2) that potentially accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was isolated from dairy industrial waste. From its morphological and physiological properties and nucleotide sequence of its 16S rRNA, it was suggested that strain SRKP2 was similar to Brevibacterium casei. PHAs were synthesized from a medium containing dairy waste, yeast extract and sea water. The synthesized PHAs were characterized by FT-IR as Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the production of PHB. From the optimized medium the yield of PHB was found to be 2.940 g/L. Here we report the direct use of dairy waste and sea water as potential sources for the production of PHB. Produced PHB was used to synthesize nanoparticles using solvent displacement technique.

  15. The upcycling of post-industrial PP/PET waste streams through in-situ microfibrillar preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delva, Laurens; Ragaert, Kim; Cardon, Ludwig

    2015-12-01

    Post-industrial plastic waste streams can be re-used as secondary material streams for polymer processing by extrusion or injection moulding. One of the major commercially available waste stream contains polypropylene (PP) contaminated with polyesters (mostly polyethylene tereftalate - PET). An important practical hurdle for the direct implementation of this waste stream is the immiscibility of PP and PET in the melt, which leads to segregation within the polymer structure and adversely affects the reproducibility and mechanical properties of the manufactured parts. It has been indicated in literature that the creation of PET microfibrils in the PP matrix could undo these drawbacks and upcycle the PP/PET combination. Within the current research, a commercially available virgin PP/PET was evaluated for the microfibrillar preparation. The mechanical (tensile and impact) properties, thermal properties and morphology of the composites were characterized at different stages of the microfibrillar preparation.

  16. Systematic Evaluation of Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Food Waste Management Strategies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Keith L; Levis, James W; DeCarolis, Joseph F; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-08-16

    New regulations and targets limiting the disposal of food waste have been recently enacted in numerous jurisdictions. This analysis evaluated selected environmental implications of food waste management policies using life-cycle assessment. Scenarios were developed to evaluate management alternatives applicable to the waste discarded at facilities where food waste is a large component of the waste (e.g., restaurants, grocery stores, and food processors). Options considered include anaerobic digestion (AD), aerobic composting, waste-to-energy combustion (WTE), and landfilling, and multiple performance levels were considered for each option. The global warming impact ranged from approximately -350 to -45 kg CO2e Mg(-1) of waste for scenarios using AD, -190 to 62 kg CO2e Mg(-1) for those using composting, -350 to -28 kg CO2e Mg(-1) when all waste was managed by WTE, and -260 to 260 kg CO2e Mg(-1) when all waste was landfilled. Landfill diversion was found to reduce emissions, and diverting food waste from WTE generally increased emissions. The analysis further found that when a 20 year GWP was used instead of a 100 year GWP, every scenario including WTE was preferable to every scenario including landfill. Jurisdictions seeking to enact food waste disposal regulations should consider regional factors and material properties before duplicating existing statutes.

  17. Utilization of industrial waste products as pozzolanic material in cemented paste backfill of high sulphide mill tailings.

    PubMed

    Ercikdi, Bayram; Cihangir, Ferdi; Kesimal, Ayhan; Deveci, Haci; Alp, Ibrahim

    2009-09-15

    In this study, the potential use of the industrial waste products including waste glass (WG), fly ash (FA), granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) and silica fume (SF) as pozzolanic additive for the partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in cemented paste backfill (CPB) of sulphide-rich mill tailings was investigated. The influence of these industrial waste products on the short- and long-term mechanical performance of CPB was demonstrated. The rate of development of strength of CPB samples tended to slow down when the pozzolanic wastes were incorporated or increased in dosage in the binder phase. Severe losses (by 26%) in the strength of CPB samples produced from exclusively OPC occurred after an initial curing period of 56 days. The addition of WG (10-30 wt%) as a partial replacement of OPC was observed to aggravate further the strength losses of CPB samples. GBFS, FA and SF appeared to improve the long-term performance of CPB samples; albeit, only GBFS and SF could be incorporated into the binder phase only at certain levels i.e. up to 20 wt% GBFS and 15wt% SF in order to maintain a threshold strength level of 0.7MPa over 360 days. SEM studies have provided further insight into the microstucture of CPB and confirmed the formation of deleterious gypsum as the expansive phase. These findings have demonstrated that the industrial waste products including GBFS and SF can be suitably used as mineral additives to improve the long-term mechanical performance of CPB produced from sulphide-rich tailings as well as to reduce the binder costs in a CPB plant.

  18. Recycling process for recovery of gallium from GaN an e-waste of LED industry through ball milling, annealing and leaching.

    PubMed

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Kang, Leeseung; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Chan Gi; Hong, Hyun Seon

    2015-04-01

    Waste dust generated during manufacturing of LED contains significant amounts of gallium and indium, needs suitable treatment and can be an important resource for recovery. The LED industry waste dust contains primarily gallium as GaN. Leaching followed by purification technology is the green and clean technology. To develop treatment and recycling technology of these GaN bearing e-waste, leaching is the primary stage. In our current investigation possible process for treatment and quantitative leaching of gallium and indium from the GaN bearing e-waste or waste of LED industry dust has been developed. To recycle the waste and quantitative leaching of gallium, two different process flow sheets have been proposed. In one, process first the GaN of the waste the LED industry dust was leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue was mixed with Na2CO3, ball milled followed by annealing, again leached to recover gallium. In the second process, the waste LED industry dust was mixed with Na2CO3, after ball milling and annealing, followed acidic leaching. Without pretreatment, the gallium leaching was only 4.91 w/w % using 4M HCl, 100°C and pulp density of 20g/L. After mechano-chemical processing, both these processes achieved 73.68 w/w % of gallium leaching at their optimum condition. The developed process can treat and recycle any e-waste containing GaN through ball milling, annealing and leaching.

  19. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. In-line measurements of chlorine containing polymers in an industrial waste sorting plant by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, N.; Eschlböck-Fuchs, S.; Scherndl, H.; Freimund, A.; Heitz, J.; Pedarnig, J. D.

    2014-05-01

    We report on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of chlorine containing waste polymers in-line of an industrial materials sorting plant. Material from municipal waste plastic collection containing different types of plastic pieces and impurities is measured without pre-treatment directly on the conveyor belt (conveyor speed 2 m/s). The encapsulated LIBS system mounted to the conveyor comprises a fast Nd:YAG laser and spectrometer with charge-coupled device (CCD) detector, a distance sensor, and a software for quasi real-time evaluation of measured LIBS spectra. Approximately 800,000 spectra are collected during the in-line measurement series using one laser pulse per spectrum. The optical plasma emission of Cl I at 837.6 nm is detected to identify waste polymers with high Cl content such as polyvinylchloride (PVC). The LIBS spectra are evaluated employing a fast linear correlation algorithm. The correlation histogram for more than 20,000 spectra shows three distinct peaks that are associated to different materials containing high amount of Chlorine (>20 wt %), Titanium, and low amount of Cl (<20 wt%). Signals of the LIBS sensor and a commercial near-infrared (NIR) optical reflection sensor were found to deviate for some samples. Such deviations might be caused by dark PVC samples that are detected by LIBS but missed by NIR reflection. Our results show that fast in-line identification of Cl containing waste polymer by LIBS is feasible under industrial conditions.

  2. Effect of kaolin addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material using industrial waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2010-09-01

    Incineration of industrial waste produces large quantities of bottom ash which are normally sent to secured landfill, but is not a sustainable solution. Use of bottom ash in engineering applications will contribute to sustainability and generate revenue. One way of using the industrial waste incineration bottom ash is in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Use of bottom ash in CLSM has problems related to bleeding and excessive strength development and so an additive has to be used to control bleeding and strength development. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of kaolin addition on the performance of CLSM made using industrial waste incineration bottom ash. CLSM mixes were made with bottom ash, cement, and refined kaolin. Various tests were performed on the CLSM in fresh and hardened states including compressive strength, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR) and the tests for concentration of leachable substances on the bleed and leachate. The compressive strength of CLSM tested ranged from 0.11 to 9.86 MPa. CBR values ranged from 6 to 46, and water absorption values from 12 to 36%. It was shown that the addition of kaolin delayed the initial setting time of CLSM mixtures, reduced bleeding, lowered the compressive strength, and increased the values of water absorption, sorption, and initial surface absorption. The CLSM tested did not have corrosivity. It was shown that the hardened CLSM was non hazardous, and the addition of kaolin increased the concentration of heavy metals and salts in the bleed and leachate.

  3. First Industrial Tests of a Matrix Monitor Correction for the Differential Die-away Technique of Historical Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Antoni, Rodolphe; Passard, Christian; Perot, Bertrand; Grassi, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    The fissile mass in radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant is measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT). In the next years, old hulls and nozzles mixed with Ion-Exchange Resins will be measured. The ion-exchange resins increase neutron moderation in the matrix, compared to the waste measured in the current process. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (LMN) of CEA Cadarache has studied a matrix effect correction method, based on a drum monitor, namely a 3He proportional counter located inside the measurement cavity. After feasibility studies performed with LMN's PROMETHEE 6 laboratory measurement cell and with MCNPX simulations, this paper presents first experimental tests performed on the industrial ACC (hulls and nozzles compaction facility) measurement system. A calculation vs. experiment benchmark has been carried out by performing dedicated calibration measurements with a representative drum and {sup 235}U samples. The comparison between calculation and experiment shows a satisfactory agreement for the drum monitor. The final objective of this work is to confirm the reliability of the modeling approach and the industrial feasibility of the method, which will be implemented on the industrial station for the measurement of historical wastes. (authors)

  4. Functional and environmental assessment of the urboecosystems designed in the biologically reclamated landfill with industrial wastes (in Ryazan city)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyakin, Alexey; Vasenev, Ivan; Karyakina, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    Regional environmental bodies' ability to understand, model and predict their soil cover environmental functions are especially important in case of landfill reclamation. The special attention has to be done to landfills with industrial wastes created earlier in frame of big city - comparatively closed to their residential areas. Dominated in Ryazan region sandy loam gray forest soils with not so high soil organic matter content and soil exchange capacity determine additional problems with landfill biological reclamation and continuous sustainable vegetation cover development. The modern environmental monitoring system has been developed in the big landfill with tanning industrial wastes from the biggest in Europe tannery to develop recommendation on the environmentally friendly reclamation technologies adapted to concrete landscape conditions and functional features of 2 m fresh soil-ground coating the landfill surface. More detailed monitoring system has to be developed to assess the regulatory environmental functions of the regenerated soil cover to minimize the reclamated landfill' negative impacts on the urban ecosystem air, surface and ground water quality. Obtained result will be useful for similar landfills with tanning industrial wastes environmental impact assessment and smart design.

  5. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance and other issues Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts During the 2011 permit year, approximately 166 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  6. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000161 01, Modification B), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Advanced Test Reactor Complex Cold Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: Facility and system description Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates Groundwater monitoring data Status of compliance activities Noncompliance issues Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 permit year, approximately 183 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Cold Waste Pond. This is well below the maximum annual permit limit of 375 million gallons. As shown by the groundwater sampling data, sulfate and total dissolved solids concentrations are highest near the Cold Waste Pond and decrease rapidly as the distance from the Cold Waste Pond increases. Although concentrations of sulfate and total dissolved solids are elevated near the Cold Waste Pond, both parameters were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Secondary Constituent Standards in the down gradient monitoring wells.

  7. Management strategies on the industrialization road of state-of-the-art technologies for e-waste recycling: the case study of electrostatic separation--a review.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mianqiang; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-02-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) management is pressing as global production has increased significantly in the past few years and is rising continuously at a fast rate. Many countries are facing hazardous e-waste mountains, most of which are disposed of by backyard recyclers, creating serious threats to public health and ecosystems. Industrialization of state-of-the-art recycling technologies is imperative to enhance the comprehensive utilization of resources and to protect the environment. This article aims to provide an overview of management strategies solving the crucial problems during the process of industrialization. A typical case study of electrostatic separation for recycling waste printed circuit boards was discussed in terms of parameters optimization, materials flow control, noise assessment, risk assessment, economic evaluation and social benefits analysis. The comprehensive view provided by the review could be helpful to the progress of the e-waste recycling industry.

  8. Degradation of industrial waste waters on Fe/C-fabrics. Optimization of the solution parameters during reactor operation.

    PubMed

    Bozzi, A; Yuranova, T; Lais, P; Kiwi, J

    2005-04-01

    This study addresses the pre-treatment of toxic and recalcitrant compounds found in the waste waters arriving at a treating station for industrial effluents containing chlorinated aromatics and non-aromatic compounds, anilines, phenols, methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE). By reducing the total organic carbon (TOC) of these waste waters the hydraulic load for the further bacterial processing in the secondary biological treatment is decreased. The TOC decrease and discoloration of the waste waters was observed only under light irradiation in the reactor by immobilized Fenton processes on Fe/C-fabrics but not in the dark. The energy of activation for the degradation of the waste waters was of 4.2 kcal/mol. The degradation of the waste waters was studied in the reactor as a function of (a) the amount of oxidant used (H2O2), (b) the recirculation rate, (c) the solution pH and (d) the applied temperature. With these parameters taken as input factors, statistical modeling allows one to estimate the most economic use of the oxidant and electrical energy to degrade these waste waters. The concentration of the most abundant organic pollutants during waste waters degradation was followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The ratio of the biological oxygen demand to the total organic carbon BOD5/TOC increased significantly due to the Fe/C-fabric catalyzed treatment from an initial value of 2.03 to 2.71 (2 h). The reactor results show that the recirculation rate has no influence on the TOC decrease of the treated waters but affects the BOD increase of these solutions.

  9. Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites.

  10. Phytoremediation potential of Arabidopsis thaliana, expressing ectopically a vacuolar proton pump, for the industrial waste phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Khoudi, Habib; Maatar, Yafa; Brini, Faïçal; Fourati, Amine; Ammar, Najoua; Masmoudi, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    transgenic A. thaliana lines were more Cd-tolerant than the WT plants. These results suggested that ectopic expression of a vacuolar proton pump in A. thaliana plants can lead to various biotechnological applications including the phytoremediation of industrial wastes.

  11. Microbacterium amylolyticum sp. nov., isolated from soil from an industrial waste site.

    PubMed

    Anand, Shailly; Bala, Kiran; Saxena, Anjali; Schumann, Peter; Lal, Rup

    2012-09-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, heterotrophic, aerobic, non-motile, non-endospore-forming, yellow-coloured rod, designated strain N5(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected at an industrial waste site in Noida, on the outskirts of Delhi, India. In phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain N5(T) was most closely related to members of established species in the genus Microbacterium (with sequence similarities of approximately 94.0-97.6 %), particularly Microbacterium indicum LMG 23459(T) (97.59 %) and Microbacterium gubbeenense LMG 19263(T) (97.18 %). In DNA-DNA hybridization studies, however, none of the DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain N5(T) and members of the genus Microbacterium exceeded 11.3 %. The genomic DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 68 mol%. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain N5(T), which had MK-11 and MK-10 as its major menaquinones and anteiso-C(15 : 0) (45 %), anteiso-C(17 : 0) (37 %), iso-C(16 : 0) (8.5 %) and C(16 : 0) (4.5 %) as its predominant fatty acids, were consistent with classification in the genus Microbacterium. Peptidoglycan in the novel strain, which contained ornithine, alanine, glycine, homoserine, glutamic acid, 3-hydroxyglutamic acid, muramic acid and traces of N-glycolyl residues, was of type B2β. The polar lipid profile of strain N5(T) comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown glycolipid. The novel strain's major cell-wall sugars were glucose and galactose. Based on the phylogenetic, DNA-DNA hybridization, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, strain N5(T) represents a novel species within the genus Microbacterium for which the name Microbacterium amylolyticum sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is N5(T) (= DSM 24221(T) = CCM 7881(T)).

  12. Diversified forest ecosystems can grow on industrial waste residues: evidence from a multiproxy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortet, Jerome; Schwartz, Christophe; Echevarria, Guillaume; Nahmani, Johanne; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Sirguey, Catherine; Watteau, Francoise; Morel, Jean Louis

    2010-05-01

    Smelter activities in the Lorraine region (North-East France) have lead to the creation of flotation ponds that were used to eliminate wastes, mainly slag. After industrial decline, some of these flotation ponds were colonized by vegetation and evolved to forest ecosystems. One of these old flotation ponds, situated in Pompey, close to Nancy (North-East France), was studied by collecting information on several physico-chemical and biological indicators. The main objective was to understand the biological functioning of this system, whose soil can be classified as a pure Technosol, characterised by a very complex stratified profile created by successive slag deposits. Soil is characterized by its apparent heterogeneity, but also its high agronomic fertility and particularly high metal contents. Holorganic horizons can vary from one to several centimetres. Macrofauna is characterized by a very low abundance of earthworms and a dominance of millipedes. Furthermore, whereas earthworms do accumulate metals, this is not the case for millipedes. Mesofauna is typical of a temperate forest system, dominated by Collembola. Soil organo-mineral associations showed a high proportion of faecal pellets from Oribatid mites, Isopods and Diplopods. Furthermore, Mn, which is highly associated to metals (especially Zn and Pb) seems to play an important role in organo-mineral associations, including bacteria. An organic fraction is also directly associated to Calcium, Pb and Cu. Vegetation presents a high diversity, with more than 70 species, with very low metal transfer to plants. Results from soil respirometry are typical from temperate forest ecosystems. All this information has been combined to propose a model for the biochemical functioning of a such Technosol.

  13. Utilization of shrimp industry waste in the formulation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus) feed.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Cavalheiro, José Marcelino; Oliveira de Souza, Erivelto; Bora, Pushkar Singh

    2007-02-01

    A rapid expansion of fisheries is demanding an adequate supply of efficient, nutritious and inexpensive fish feed, because feed contributes highly to the cost of fish production. Shrimp head, a waste product from the shrimp export industry qualifies as an economical, abundant and good quality protein source for fish feeds. In the present work, shrimp head silage powder, which contained approximately 40% protein, was used as a substitute for fish flour. Four feeds, in the form of pellets, were prepared by substituting shrimp head silage for fish flour at 0%, 33.3%, 66.6% and 100% dietary levels. Other ingredients such as corn, soy, bovine blood, cassava and corn cob flours, soy oil, vitamin premix, salt, and other components also were used in the formulation. A commercial fish feed was used as the control. The proximate composition of these feeds did not differ significantly at p>0.05, except for the protein content of the control feed, which was about 30.6% versus 35.4-36.9% protein in the other diets. No significant differences (p>0.05 level) in weight and length of juveniles fed with the different feeds during a period of 60 days were observed. In all cases, an excellent correlation (0.9950-0.9996) between weight and length of juveniles was observed. No significant difference in growth of juveniles fed on R1, R2, R3, or R4, or the control feed, was observed. Similarly, the proximate analyses of the flesh of juveniles did not present significant differences (p>0.05). The result of the study indicates that the shrimp head silage could replace fish flour as an ingredient in tilapia feed with economic advantages and without sacrificing the quality of the feed.

  14. Organoclay nanocomposites of post-industrial waste poly(butylene terephthalate) from automotive parts.

    PubMed

    Quispe, Noe B; Fernandes, Elizabeth G; Zanata, Fernanda; Bartoli, Julio R; Souza, Diego H S; Ito, Edson N

    2015-10-01

    Polymeric nanocomposites are novel materials of huge interest owing to their favourable cost/performance ratio with low amount of nanofillers, improved thermal resistance, flame retardancy and mechanical properties in relation to their matrices. In this work, composites based on post-industrial waste or primary recycled poly(butylene terephthalate) and 5 wt.% of organic modified montmorillonite clays were melt compounded using a twin-screw extruder. A 2(2) factorial experimental design was used to study the compounding and processing variables: Organic modified montmorillonite with one or two hydrogenated tallow (initial basal spacing) and screw speed of the extruder. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy suggest that a partial exfoliation of the organoclay in the recycled poly(butylene terephthalate) matrix was achieved for organic modified montmorillonite with lower initial basal spacing. On the other hand, formulations containing organic modified montmorillonite with higher initial basal spacing showed only intercalated structure. The recycled poly(butylene terephthalate)-organic modified montmorillonite nanocomposites did not drip flaming material during burning tests. Storage of dynamic-mechanical, tensile and flexural moduli of the recycled poly(butylene terephthalate)-organic modified montmorillonite were improved when compared with both virgin and recycled poly(butylene terephthalate)s, mainly for nanocomposites formulated at a lower initial basal spacing organoclay. This could be related to a better diffusion of polymer into organic modified montmorillonite layers compared with the higher initial basal spacing organoclay. The improvements on the physical properties of recycled poly(butylene terephthalate) showed the feasibility to add value to primary recycled engineering thermoplastics with a very small amount of organic modified montmorillonite.

  15. Study on the strategies of waste solvent minimization in automobile production industry

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.T.; Lin, K.L.; Wu, Y.P.; Lan, W.L.; Jeng, F.T.

    1998-12-31

    There are six automobile manufacturers who produce several kinds of vehicles in Taiwan. To meet the consumer`s needs, the automobile coating processes are necessary for the basic functions of anti-rust protection, weatherproofing and appearance. Some kinds of solvents are added as thinners and additives to avoid excessive viscosity of the coating materials and to increase facility productivity. The total consumption of volatile organic solvents is about 407,000 ton/year of which about 100,700 ton/year is used in surface coating. It is worthy of attention that solvents used in automobile industries account for 7,200 ton/year in major coating processes, including electrodeposition coating, primer coating, top coating, and bar coating, according to statistics of VOCs emission rate calculated from the data of consumption provided by each automobile plant. The amount of solvents used for washing spray gun and base coating are about 3,350 ton/year; and about 1,700 ton/year for primer coat and clear coat. The species of organic solvents include toluene, xylene, ethylacetate, n-butyl acetate, ketone, etc. VOCs emission factor from each plant lies between 500 to 650 g-VOCs/L coating. To reduce the amount of coating and waste liquor, the suggested methods include increasing gun spray efficiency, lengthening same colors painting period, reducing the solvent content in paint, and adding treatment equipment. The high solid content painting, waterborne coat, and powder coat should be used for traditional painting. Additionally, a carbon adsorption bed and zeolite rotator recovery system can replace scrubbers since they can be used as solvent recovery equipment.

  16. Effect of combustion variables on PAHs emission from incineration of cellulose waste filters from acrylic industry.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Vinit; Singh, Satnam

    2010-04-01

    Incineration of cellulose waste filter from acrylic industry showed the presence of 13-16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the list of 16 priority pollutants with an airflow rate of 1, 2, 3, and 4 L min(-1) in laboratory scale quartz tube vertical incinerator at 700-1,000 degrees C at an interval of 100 degrees C. The amount of total 16 PAHs increases with the increase in temperature with airflow rate of 1 L min(-1) and was found to be 9.4 times at 1,000 degrees C than at 700 degrees C. Studies at 800-1,000 degrees C showed the decrease in total 16 PAHs with increase in airflow rate from 1 to 2 L min(-1). The amount of total 16 PAHs increases at 700, 800, and 1,000 degrees C with increase in airflow rate from 2-4 L min(-1). At 900 degrees C, amount of 16 PAHs decreases with increase in flow rate from 1 to 3 and increases at 4 L min(-1). The lesser amount of 2A PAHs was found at 700-900 degrees C with airflow rates of 1-3 L min(-1), while less amount of 2B PAHs was found at 700 degrees C and 800 degrees C (with airflow rate of 1-2 L min(-1)), at 900 degrees C (with airflow rate of 1-3 L min(-1)) and at 1,000 degrees C (with airflow rate of 3 L min(-1)). However, the sum total of 2A and 2B PAHs were found to be less at 700-900 degrees C with airflow rate of 1-2 L min(-1).

  17. Infrared analysis of clay bricks incorporated with spent shea waste from the shea butter industry.

    PubMed

    Adazabra, A N; Viruthagiri, G; Shanmugam, N

    2017-04-15

    The peculiar challenge of effective disposing abundant spent shea waste and the excellent compositional variation tolerance of clay material offered an impetus to examine the incorporation of spent shea waste into clay material as an eco-friendly disposal route in making clay bricks. For this purpose, the chemical constituent, mineralogical compositions and thermal behavior of both clay material and spent shea waste were initially characterized from which modelled brick specimens incorporating 5-20 wt% of the waste into the clay material were prepared. The clay material showed high proportions of SiO2 (52.97 wt%) and Al2O3 (27.10 wt%) indicating their rich kaolinitic content: whereas, the inert nature of spent shea waste was exhibited by their low oxide content. The striking similarities in infrared absorption bands of pristine clay material and clay materials incorporated with 15 wt% of spent shea waste showed that the waste incorporation had no impact on bond formation of the clay bricks. Potential performance benefits of developing bricks from clay material incorporated with spent shea waste included improved fluxing agents, economic sintering and making of sustainable bricks. Consequently, the analytical results authenticate the incorporation of spent shea waste into clay materials for various desired benefits aside being an environmental correct route of its disposal.

  18. An Industrial Ecology Approach to Municipal Solid Waste Management: II. Case Studies for Recovering Energy from the Organic Fraction of MSW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste provides abundant opportunities for industrial ecology-based symbiotic use. Energy production, economics, and environmental aspects are analyzed for four alternatives based on different technologies: incineration with energy recovery...

  19. Sewage and industrial waste treatment: Wetlands. January 1977-December 1989 (Citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts data base). Report for January 1977-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning developments, operations, and evaluations of natural and artificial wetlands treatment of waste water and sludge. Aquaculture treatments of industrial, municipal, and domestic waste water are examined. Topics include nutrient removal, heavy-metal recovery, and case studies of wetlands being used for waste water treatment. (This updated bibliography contains 135 citations, 23 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. November 1976-October 1989 (Citations from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for November 1976-October 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes to treat industrial waste water. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, flourides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Waste-water treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (This updated bibliography contains 294 citations, 13 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)